WorldWideScience

Sample records for basic concepts evolution

  1. Thermodynamics - basic conception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wee, Eul Bok

    1979-08-15

    This book tells of basic conception of thermodynamics, condition and property of matter, work and power, thermal efficiency, the principle of the conservation of energy, relationship between work and heat, enthalpy, Jouel's law, complete gasification, the second low of thermodynamics such as thermal efficiency and quality factor, carnot cycle, and entropy, condensation of gas like press of internal combustion engine, vapor, steam power plant and structure, internal combustion cycle, freeze cycle, flow of fluid, combustion and heat transfer.

  2. Anisotropic hydrodynamics -- basic concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Florkowski, Wojciech; Ryblewski, Radoslaw; Strickland, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Due to the rapid longitudinal expansion of the quark-gluon plasma created in relativistic heavy ion collisions, potentially large local rest frame momentum-space anisotropies are generated. The magnitude of these momentum-space anisotropies can be so large as to violate the central assumption of canonical viscous hydrodynamical treatments which linearize around an isotropic background. In order to better describe the early-time dynamics of the quark gluon plasma, one can consider instead expanding around a locally anisotropic background which results in a dynamical framework called anisotropic hydrodynamics. In this proceedings contribution we review the basic concepts of the anisotropic hydrodynamics framework presenting viewpoints from both the phenomenological and microscopic points of view.

  3. Nuclear multifragmentation: Basic concepts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Chaudhuri; S Mallik; S Das Gupta

    2014-05-01

    We present a brief overview of nuclear multifragmentation reaction. Basic formalism of canonical thermodynamical model based on equilibrium statistical mechanics is described. This model is used to calculate basic observables of nuclear multifragmentation like mass distribution, fragment multiplicity, isotopic distribution and isoscaling. Extension of canonical thermodynamical model to a projectile fragmentation model is outlined. Application of the projectile fragmentation model for calculating average number of intermediate mass fragments and the average size of the largest cluster at different bound, differential charge distribution and cross-section of neutron-rich nuclei of different projectile fragmentation reactions at different energies are described. Application of nuclear multifragmentation reaction in basic research as well as in other domains is outlined.

  4. Using Fossil Shark Teeth to Illustrate Evolution and Introduce Basic Geologic Concepts in a High School Biology Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, J. G.; Nunn, J. A.

    2007-12-01

    Shell Foundation sponsors a program at Louisiana State University called Shell Undergraduate Recruitment and Geoscience Education (SURGE). The purpose of SURGE is to help local high school science teachers incorporate geology into their classrooms by providing resources and training. As part of this program, a workshop for high school biology teachers was held at Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge on June 3-5, 2007. We had the teachers do a series of activities on fossil shark teeth to illustrate evolution and introduce basic earth science concepts such as geologic time, superposition, and faunal succession and provided the teachers with lesson plans and materials. As an example, one of our exercises explores the evolution of the megatoothed shark lineage leading to Carcharocles megalodon, the largest predatory shark in history with teeth up to 17 cm long. Megatoothed shark teeth make excellent evolutionary subjects because they have a good fossil record and show continuous transitions in morphology from the Eocene to Pliocene. Our activity follows the learning cycle model. We take advantage of the curiosity of sharks shared by most people, and allow students to explore the variations among different shark teeth and explain the causes of those variations. The objectives of this exercise are to have the students: 1) sort fossil shark teeth into biologically reasonable species; 2) form hypotheses about evolutionary relationships among fossil shark teeth; and 3) describe and interpret evolutionary trends in the fossil Megatoothed lineage. To do the activity, students are divided into groups of 2-3 and given a shuffled set of 72 shark tooth cards with different images of megatoothed shark teeth. They are instructed to group the shark tooth cards into separate species of sharks. After sorting the cards, students are asked to consider the evolutionary relationships among their species and arrange their species chronologically according to the species first

  5. Stereochemistry basic concepts and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Nógrádi, M

    2013-01-01

    Stereochemistry: Basic Concepts and Applications is a three-chapter text that introduces the basic principles and concepts of stereochemistry, as well as its application to organic chemistry application.Chapter 1 describes first the stereochemistry of the ground state, specifically the configuration and conformation of organic compounds, as well as the most important methods for its investigation. This chapter also deals with the kinetics of conformational changes and provides an overview of the so-called ""applied stereochemistry"". Chapter 2 focuses on the analysis of the internal motions of

  6. The chemisorptive bond basic concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Alfred

    1974-01-01

    The Chemisorptive Bond: Basic Concepts describes the basic concepts of the chemisorptive bond on solid surfaces from the simple analogies with ordinary chemical bonds to the quantum-mechanical approaches.This book is composed of 10 chapters and begins with discussions of simple formulas for correlating measurable quantities in chemisorptions and catalysis. The succeeding chapters deal with theories based on quantum-mechanical principles that describe the mutual interactions of atoms of the solid and foreign atoms on the surface. The remaining chapters consider the possible arrangements

  7. Basic concepts in social sciences III

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoede, C.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the set of concepts considered to be basic to the fields of Economics, Organization Theory, Political Science, Psychology and Sociology is completed. The set of 55 basic concepts in the first two papers on basic concepts was mainly determined by considering concepts in relation to soci

  8. Basic Concepts of Positional Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    This article describes and defines a number of basic concepts that are commonly used in archaeoastronomy and ethnoastronomy, sometimes in particular ways, and attempts to clarify some of the issues of confusion that frequently arise. It is aimed primarily at archaeologists and ethnographers entering or exploring the field and emphasizes the broad principles that are generally of importance to them, while trying to avoid unnecessary complications as well as technical details. It is not aimed at those studying historical sources from antiquity onward, who need a more sophisticated knowledge of positional astronomy, mathematically formulated. Further detail can be found in a variety of sources, including a number aimed specifically at archaeoastronomers.

  9. Basic concepts in social sciences III

    OpenAIRE

    Hoede, C.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the set of concepts considered to be basic to the fields of Economics, Organization Theory, Political Science, Psychology and Sociology is completed. The set of 55 basic concepts in the first two papers on basic concepts was mainly determined by considering concepts in relation to social atoms. The concepts that play a role in n-networks form the majority of the concepts added in this paper.

  10. Basic concepts in social sciences II

    OpenAIRE

    Hoede, C.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper an extension is given of the set of concepts considered to be basic to the fields of Economics, Organization Theory, Political Science, Psychology and Sociology. The modeling is in terms of automata and automata networks. In the first paper on basic concepts the simplest unit, the social atom, stood central. In this second paper social structures and processes are focused upon.

  11. Basic concepts in social sciences II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoede, C.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper an extension is given of the set of concepts considered to be basic to the fields of Economics, Organization Theory, Political Science, Psychology and Sociology. The modeling is in terms of automata and automata networks. In the first paper on basic concepts the simplest unit, the soci

  12. Basic Concepts of CNS Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowski, R. S.

    1987-01-01

    The goals of this review are to: (1) provide a set of concepts to aid in the understanding of complex processes which occur during central nervous system (CNS) development; (2) illustrate how they contribute to our knowlege of adult brain anatomy; and (3) delineate how modifications of normal developmental processes may affect the structure and…

  13. Basic concepts in computational physics

    CERN Document Server

    Stickler, Benjamin A

    2016-01-01

    This new edition is a concise introduction to the basic methods of computational physics. Readers will discover the benefits of numerical methods for solving complex mathematical problems and for the direct simulation of physical processes. The book is divided into two main parts: Deterministic methods and stochastic methods in computational physics. Based on concrete problems, the first part discusses numerical differentiation and integration, as well as the treatment of ordinary differential equations. This is extended by a brief introduction to the numerics of partial differential equations. The second part deals with the generation of random numbers, summarizes the basics of stochastics, and subsequently introduces Monte-Carlo (MC) methods. Specific emphasis is on MARKOV chain MC algorithms. The final two chapters discuss data analysis and stochastic optimization. All this is again motivated and augmented by applications from physics. In addition, the book offers a number of appendices to provide the read...

  14. Basic Concepts of String Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Blumenhagen, Ralph; Theisen, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to thoroughly prepare the reader for research in string theory. It is intended as a textbook in the sense that, starting from the basics, the material is presented in a pedagogical and self-contained fashion. The emphasis is on the world-sheet perspective of closed strings and of open strings ending on D-branes, where two-dimensional conformal field theory is the main tool. Compactifications of string theory, with and without fluxes, and string dualities are also discussed from the space-time point of view, i.e. in geometric language. End-of-chapter references have been added to guide the reader intending to pursue further studies or to start research in the topics covered by this book.

  15. Basic concepts of string theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumenhagen, Ralph [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany). Werner-Heisenberg-Institut; Luest, Dieter [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Arnold-Sommerfeld Zentrum fuer Theoretische Physik; Theisen, Stefan [Albert-Einstein-Institut (Max-Planck Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik), Golm (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this book is to thoroughly prepare the reader for research in string theory. It is intended as a textbook in the sense that, starting from the basics, the material is presented in a pedagogical and self-contained fashion. The emphasis is on the world-sheet perspective of closed strings and of open strings ending on D-branes, where two-dimensional conformal field theory is the main tool. Compactifications of string theory, with and without fluxes, and string dualities are also discussed from the space-time point of view, i.e. in geometric language. End-of-chapter references have been added to guide the reader intending to pursue further studies or to start research in the topics covered by this book.

  16. [Basic concepts about paternity testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagos, Marcela; Poggi, Helena; Mellado, Cecilia

    2011-04-01

    Nowadays, the analysis of genetic markers is a very important and validated tool for the identification of individuals, and for paternity testing. To do so, highly variable regions of the human genome are analyzed, making it possible to obtain the genetic profile of an individual, and to distinguish between different individuals. The methodology used is basically the same all over the world, consisting in the analysis of 13 to 15 markers. To assign biological paternity the child must have inherited the characteristics from the alleged father in each of the genetic markers analyzed. This analysis achieves a certainty higher than with any other test, which is expressed as the probability of paternity. This probability has to be at least 99.9%, but greater probabilities are usually obtained, especially if the mother is included in the analysis. If the characteristics of two or more genetic markers from the alleged father are absent in the child, biological paternity is excluded.

  17. Basic concepts in social sciences I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoede, C.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper the results are given of an investigation into concepts from Economics, Organization Theory, Political Science, Psychology and Sociology. The goal of this investigation was to find out whether there is a set of concepts that may be considered to be basic to all these five social scienc

  18. Basic concepts in social sciences I

    OpenAIRE

    Hoede, C.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper the results are given of an investigation into concepts from Economics, Organization Theory, Political Science, Psychology and Sociology. The goal of this investigation was to find out whether there is a set of concepts that may be considered to be basic to all these five social sciences. The set of concepts found will be modeled in terms of automata, thus providing a way of unifying the five fields in a general mathematical setting.

  19. Basic Statistical Concepts for Sample Size Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vithal K Dhulkhed

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available For grant proposals the investigator has to include an estimation of sample size .The size of the sample should be adequate enough so that there is sufficient data to reliably answer the research question being addressed by the study. At the very planning stage of the study the investigator has to involve the statistician. To have meaningful dialogue with the statistician every research worker should be familiar with the basic concepts of statistics. This paper is concerned with simple principles of sample size calculation. Concepts are explained based on logic rather than rigorous mathematical calculations to help him assimilate the fundamentals.

  20. Genetic Algorithms: Basic Concept and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Amninder Kaur

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Genetic algorithms are a part of evolutionary computing, which is a rapidly growing area of artificial intelligence. Genetic algorithms have been applied to a wide range of practical problems often with valuable results. Genetic algorithms are often viewed as function optimizer, although the range of problems to which genetic algorithms have been applied are quite broad. This paper covers the basic concepts of genetic algorithms and their applications to a variety of fields. It also tries to give a solution to the problem of economic load dispatch using Genetic Algorithms. An attempt has been made to explain when and why GA should be used as an optimization tool. Finally, the paper points to future directions

  1. Critical Review of Basic Afterglow Concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Granot, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    The long lived afterglow emission that follows gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) was predicted prior to its detection in 1997, in the X-rays, optical and radio. It is thought to arise from the shock that is driven into the external medium as the latter decelerates the relativistic outflow that drives the GRB, and persists well after most of the energy in the outflow is transferred to the shocked external medium. As the blast wave decelerates, the typical emission frequency shifts to longer wavelength. Recent observations following the launch of the Swift satellite challenge the traditional afterglow modeling and call into questions some of the basic underlying concepts. This brief review outlines some of the major strengths and weaknesses of the standard afterglow model, as well as some of the challenges that it faces in explaining recent data, and potential directions for future study that may eventually help overcome some of the current difficulties.

  2. INNOVATIVE SECURITY: THE BASIC CONCEPTS, ESSENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Sakovich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Some theoretical and methodological aspects of a role and value of innovative security in system of national security of the state are considered. The basic concepts of innovative security, essence of innovative security in formation of innovative economy, economy of knowledge are analyzed. Questions of innovative security get the special importance because now innovative technologies and processes of their introduction have crucial value for improvement of quality of life, expansion of possibilities of development and maintenance of national security of all without an exception of the states. In the majority of economically developed states already long time researches devoted to problems of national and economic security are conducted. And, the innovative component in these researches is considered as a component economic or scientific and technical (technological security. The methodology of studying national and economic is in this time developed, security, there was a conceptual device and structure of categories «national security». Recognising importance of the spent workings out on a security problematics, it is necessary to notice that the system research devoted to studying of problems of maintenance of national security in the conditions of innovative development till now it was not spent. Especially it concerns processes of maintenance of interrelation of national security and innovative activity, formation of the concept of innovative security, its realisation in practice. Till now there is no unequivocal interpretation of essence of innovations, their influences on national and economic security. The analysis shows that at transition to an innovative way of development there are changes not only in economy and its making parts, but, and in world outlook, psychological, political, social and economic, scientifically-technological, educational and cultural spheres, institutional structures of the state and a society, in development

  3. Nonsymmetric entropy I: basic concepts and results

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Chengshi

    2006-01-01

    A new concept named nonsymmetric entropy which generalizes the concepts of Boltzman's entropy and shannon's entropy, was introduced. Maximal nonsymmetric entropy principle was proven. Some important distribution laws were derived naturally from maximal nonsymmetric entropy principle.

  4. De-internationalization: Evolution of the Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.

    In this paper I discuss the evolution of the concept of de-internationalization. I look at the evolution of de-internationalization via empirical and theoretical lenses. I draw on recent empirical evidence to exemplify the evolution of what, how, why, who, where, when of de-internationalization. I...... then discuss the evolution of theoretical developments of the concept employing a number theory building strategies. I conclude the paper by mapping theoretical landscape of de-internationalization phenomenon suggesting future research directions....

  5. Basic Concepts and Principles of Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beder, Hal

    1986-01-01

    Presents an overview of marketing concepts and principles. These include (1) organizational objectives, (2) exchange, (3) value, (4) market segmentation, (5) market position, (6) consumer analysis, (7) product, (8) promotion, (9) place, and (10) price. (CH)

  6. Alfred-Adler's Basic Concepts and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, Robert W.

    This book presents the basic principles of Adler's psychology. The first chapter looks at Adlerian psychology as it exists today, and examines earlier influences. The second chapter examines feelings of inferiority and compensation for these feelings. The third chapter considers the nature of goals and how they are formulated. The fourth chapter…

  7. RF engineering basic concepts: S-parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Caspers, F

    2011-01-01

    The concept of describing RF circuits in terms of waves is discussed and the S-matrix and related matrices are defined. The signal flow graph (SFG) is introduced as a graphical means to visualize how waves propagate in an RF network. The properties of the most relevant passive RF devices (hybrids, couplers, non-reciprocal elements, etc.) are delineated and the corresponding S-parameters are given. For microwave integrated circuits (MICs) planar transmission lines such as the microstrip line have become very important.

  8. Basic Concepts, Identities and Inequalities - the Toolkit of Information Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Topsøe

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Basic concepts and results of that part of Information Theory which is often referred to as "Shannon Theory" are discussed with focus mainly on the discrete case. The paper is expository with some new proofs and extensions of results and concepts.

  9. Modeling Concept Evolution: A Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzolo, Flavio; Velegrakis, Yannis; Mylopoulos, John; Bykau, Siarhei

    The world is changing, and so must the data that describes its history. Not surprisingly, considerable research effort has been spent in Databases along this direction, covering topics such as temporal models and schema evolution. A topic that has not received much attention, however, is that of concept evolution. For example, Germany (instance-level concept) has evolved several times in the last century as it went through different governance structures, then split into two national entities that eventually joined again. Likewise, a caterpillar is transformed into a butterfly, while a mother becomes two (maternally-related) entities. As well, the concept of Whale (a class-level concept) changed over the past two centuries thanks to scientific discoveries that led to a better understanding of what the concept entails. In this work, we present a formal framework for modeling, querying and managing such evolution. In particular, we describe how to model the evolution of a concept, and how this modeling can be used to answer historical queries of the form "How has concept X evolved over period Y". Our proposal extends an RDF-like model with temporal features and evolution operators. Then we provide a query language that exploits these extensions and supports historical queries.

  10. Evolution of the tandem mirror reactor concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, G.A.; Logan, B.G.

    1982-03-09

    We discuss the evolution of the tandem mirror reactor concept from the original conceptual reactor design (1977) through the first application of the thermal barrier concept to a reactor design (1979) to the beginning of the Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (1982).

  11. Comparing Understanding of Programming Design Concepts Using Visual Basic and Traditional Basic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop-Clark, Cathy

    1998-01-01

    A study of 89 computer programming students in two instructional groups found that those using Visual Basic (VB) mastered programming design concepts as well as those using traditional BASIC. Concludes that VB is an excellent choice for a first programming course (high school or university) emphasizing sequence, selection, iteration, variables,…

  12. Nuclear data uncertainties: I, Basic concepts of probability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.L.

    1988-12-01

    Some basic concepts of probability theory are presented from a nuclear-data perspective, in order to provide a foundation for thorough understanding of the role of uncertainties in nuclear data research. Topics included in this report are: events, event spaces, calculus of events, randomness, random variables, random-variable distributions, intuitive and axiomatic probability, calculus of probability, conditional probability and independence, probability distributions, binomial and multinomial probability, Poisson and interval probability, normal probability, the relationships existing between these probability laws, and Bayes' theorem. This treatment emphasizes the practical application of basic mathematical concepts to nuclear data research, and it includes numerous simple examples. 34 refs.

  13. 29 CFR 779.202 - Basic concepts of definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... leasing arrangements. On the other hand, the definition excludes from the “enterprise” activities only... RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Employment to Which the Act May Apply; Enterprise Coverage Enterprise; the Business Unit § 779.202 Basic concepts of definition. Under the definition, the “enterprise” consists...

  14. Pre-Service Teachers' Mental Models of Basic Astronomy Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, A. Saglam; Durikan, U.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to determine pre-service teachers' mental models related to basic astronomy concepts. The study was conducted using a survey method with 293 pre-service teachers from 4 different departments; physics education, science education, primary teacher education and early childhood education. An achievement test with…

  15. The concept of basic symptoms in schizophrenic and schizoaffective psychoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, G; Gross, G

    1989-12-01

    This paper presents the psychiatric aspects of the concept of basic symptoms (BS), especially history, actual position and tendencies of development of the doctrine of BS, phenomenology and clinical picture of basic stages, the Bonn Scale for the assessment of dynamic and cognitive basic deficiencies (BSABS) and the importance of this concept for early diagnosis, therapy, prevention and rehabilitation. The patients experience and communicate the BS as deficiencies and are able to cope with, adapt and compensate for them. The BS were termed as basic symptoms because they represent the basis of the productive-psychotic symptomatology. Follow-up studies of cases with the suspicion diagnosis "prodrome of schizophrenia" based on BSABS rating, revealed that the subgroup passing over in schizophrenic psychoses after an average of 6.3 years showed significantly higher scores of cognitive BS at the time of index investigation. It now seems possible to impede increase of cognitive BS already present in prepsychotic prodromal states before reaching the threshold of transition into productive-psychotic symptomatology. Long-term development is more favorable if therapy commences as early as possible including the prepsychotic basic stages and also taking into consideration BS which were, until now, disregarded in DSM-III. Summarizing our findings of the last 30 years we suggest that the BS-concept may be an approach to overcome the dichotomy of negative and positive psychopathology in schizophrenia.

  16. Evolution of the total logistics costs concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the evolution stages of the total logistics cost concept; an interrelations of TLC and EOQ models has been analyzed. The author presented analytical approaches to determine a value of total cost, as well as an integral criterion for logistics systems' functioning, based upon package treatment of the total costs value and service level.

  17. Teaching Basic Science Environmentally, The Concept: The cell is basic unit of structure of most organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Phyllis S.

    1985-01-01

    Suggests simple ways to introduce students to the concept that the cell is the basic unit of structure of most organisms. Mentions materials for microscope study that are readily available and easy to handle, e.g., membranes from between the scales of the onion bulb, thin-leaved plants, pond water, and pollen. (JHZ)

  18. Basic didactic principles in the study of mathematical concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Testоv Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of understanding in the study of basic mathematical concepts in mathematics education has exacerbated during recent years. This is largely due to the fact that the style of thinking of pupils and students thanks to the intensive use of the Web becomes figurative and emotional, less inclined to abstract constructions. Fragments-clip thinking has become more common for most of students. The article deals with the didactic principles to be used in the study of mathematical concepts, which will contribute to achieving understanding.

  19. Particulate Systems for Targeting of Macrophages: Basic and Therapeutic Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghimi, Seyed Moien; Parhamifar, Ladan; Ahmadvand, Davoud;

    2012-01-01

    and intracellular drug release processes can be optimized through modifications of the drug carrier physicochemical properties, which include hydrodynamic size, shape, composition and surface characteristics. Through such modifications together with understanding of macrophage cell biology, targeting may be aimed...... at a particular subset of macrophages. Advances in basic and therapeutic concepts of particulate targeting of macrophages and related nanotechnology approaches for immune cell modifications are discussed.Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel...

  20. Electroweak symmetry breaking and Higgs physics. Basic concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Bock, G.; Noriega-Papaqui, R.; Pedraza, I. [Benemerita Univ. Auton. de Puebla, Pue (Mexico). Inst. de Fisica ' ' LRT' ' ; Mondragon, M. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico). Inst. de Fisica; Muehlleitner, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)]|[Laboratoire d' Annecy-le-Vieux Physique Theorique, LAPTH, Annecy-le-Vieux (France); Spira, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Zerwas, P.M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2005-09-01

    We present an introduction to the basic concepts of electroweak symmetry breaking and Higgs physics within the Standard Model and its supersymmetric extensions. A brief overview will also be given on alternative mechanisms of symmetry breaking. In addition to the theoretical basis, the present experimental status of Higgs physics and implications for future experiments at the LHC and e{sup +}e{sup -} linear colliders are discussed. (orig.)

  1. Teacher knowledge of basic language concepts and dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Erin K; Joshi, R Malatesha; Binks-Cantrell, Emily S

    2011-05-01

    Roughly one-fifth of the US population displays one or more symptoms of dyslexia: a specific learning disability that affects an individual's ability to process written language. Consequently, elementary school teachers are teaching students who struggle with inaccurate or slow reading, poor spelling, poor writing, and other language processing difficulties. Findings from studies have indicated that teachers lack essential knowledge needed to teach struggling readers, particularly children with dyslexia. However, few studies have sought to assess teachers' knowledge and perceptions about dyslexia in conjunction with knowledge of basic language concepts related to reading instruction. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to examine elementary school teachers' knowledge of basic language concepts and their knowledge and perceptions about dyslexia. Findings from the present study indicated that teachers, on average, were able to display implicit skills related to certain basic language concepts (i.e. syllable counting), but failed to demonstrate explicit knowledge of others (i.e. phonics principles). Also, teachers seemed to hold the common misconception that dyslexia is a visual processing deficit rather than phonological processing deficit.

  2. Evolution of Digital Literacy: New Concepts and New Literacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raidell Avello Martínez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The concept of digital literacy has been basically limited to the technical aspects and the use of information and communication technologies. Consequently, a holistic view regarding the role played by digital literacy in both teaching-learning processes and society has not been achieved. The present paper aims at conducting a bibliographical and theoretical review for understanding the evolution and modifications of the concept of digital literacy, as well as the elements and criteria for its definition. Development of Internet towards the social web or the web 2.0 was found to be the major change leading to the reformulation of the concept of digital literacy. The literature review allowed analyzing the theoretical foundations of digital literacy in Cuba and abroad in depth.

  3. A new concept for creating the basic map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parzyński, Zenon

    2014-12-01

    A lot of changes have been made to the legislative regulations associated with geodesy during the implementation of the INSPIRE Directive in Poland (amongst others, the structure of databases). There have also been great changes concerning the basic map and the method of its creation and updating. A new concept for creating the basic map is presented in this article Dokonaliśmy wielu zmian w prawnych regulacjach dotyczących geodezji w trakcie implementacji Dyrektywy INSPIRE w Polsce (m.in. struktury baz danych). Bardzo duże zmiany objęły mapę zasadniczą i procedury jej tworzenia i uaktualniania. W artykule jest zaprezentowana nowa koncepcja tworzenia mapy zasadniczej.

  4. Basic concepts in physics from the cosmos to quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Chaichian, Masud; Tureanu, Anca

    2014-01-01

    "Basic Concepts in Physics: From the Cosmos to Quarks" is the outcome of the authors' long and varied teaching experience in different countries and for different audiences, and gives an accessible and eminently readable introduction to all the main ideas of modern physics. The book’s fresh approach, using a novel combination of historical and conceptual viewpoints, makes it ideal complementary reading to more standard textbooks. The first five chapters are devoted to classical physics, from planetary motion to special relativity, always keeping in mind its relevance to questions of contemporary interest. The next six chapters deal mainly with newer developments in physics, from quantum theory and general relativity to grand unified theories, and the book concludes by discussing the role of physics in living systems. A basic grounding in mathematics is required of the reader, but technicalities are avoided as far as possible; thus complex calculations are omitted so long as the essential ideas remain clear....

  5. Fuzzy logic and neural networks basic concepts & application

    CERN Document Server

    Alavala, Chennakesava R

    2008-01-01

    About the Book: The primary purpose of this book is to provide the student with a comprehensive knowledge of basic concepts of fuzzy logic and neural networks. The hybridization of fuzzy logic and neural networks is also included. No previous knowledge of fuzzy logic and neural networks is required. Fuzzy logic and neural networks have been discussed in detail through illustrative examples, methods and generic applications. Extensive and carefully selected references is an invaluable resource for further study of fuzzy logic and neural networks. Each chapter is followed by a question bank

  6. Structural Equation Modeling with Mplus Basic Concepts, Applications, and Programming

    CERN Document Server

    Byrne, Barbara M

    2011-01-01

    Modeled after Barbara Byrne's other best-selling structural equation modeling (SEM) books, this practical guide reviews the basic concepts and applications of SEM using Mplus Versions 5 & 6. The author reviews SEM applications based on actual data taken from her own research. Using non-mathematical language, it is written for the novice SEM user. With each application chapter, the author "walks" the reader through all steps involved in testing the SEM model including: an explanation of the issues addressed illustrated and annotated testing of the hypothesized and post hoc models expl

  7. Basic Concepts in Early Childhood Educational Standards: A 50-State Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, Bruce A.; Crawford, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    The incidence of basic concepts in early childhood educational standards is explored across all 50 US states. Concept inclusion in state standards is described in terms of the representation of the universe of basic concepts, representation of concept categories, the depth and breadth of individual concept inclusion, and unique examples.…

  8. [Seed geography: its concept and basic scientific issues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shun-Li; Wang, Zong-Shuai; Zeren, Wangmu

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a new concept 'seed geography' was provided, and its definition, research contents, and scientific issues were put forward. Seed geography is a newly developed interdisciplinary science from plant geography, seed ecology, and phytosociology, which studies the geographic variation patterns of seed biological traits as well as their relationships with environmental factors from macroscopic to microscopic, and the seed formation, development, and change trends. The main research contents would include geography of seed mass, geography of seed chemical components, geography of seed morphology, geography of seed cell biological characteristics, geography of seed physiological characteristics, geography of seed genetic characteristics, and geography of flower and fruit. To explore the scientific issues in seed geography would help us to better understand the long-term adaptation and evolution of seed characteristics to natural environments.

  9. ADAPTIVE SYSTEMS THEORY: SOME BASIC CONCEPTS, METHODS AND RESULTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Lei

    2003-01-01

    The adaptive systems theory to be presented in this paper consists of two closely related parts: adaptive estimation (or filtering, prediction) and adaptive control of dynamical systems. Both adaptive estimation and control are nonlinear mappings of the on-line observed signals of dynamical systems, where the main features are the uncertainties in both the system's structure and external disturbances, and the non-stationarity and dependency of the system signals. Thus, a key difficulty in establishing a mathematical theory of adaptive systems lies in how to deal with complicated nonlinear stochastic dynamical systems which describe the adaptation processes. In this paper, we will illustrate some of the basic concepts, methods and results through some simple examples. The following fundamental questions will be discussed: How much information is needed for estimation? How to deal with uncertainty by adaptation? How to analyze an adaptive system? What are the convergence or tracking performances of adaptation? How to find the proper rate of adaptation in some sense? We will also explore the following more fundamental questions: How much uncertainty can be dealt with by adaptation ? What are the limitations of adaptation ? How does the performance of adaptation depend on the prior information ? We will partially answer these questions by finding some "critical values" and establishing some "Impossibility Theorems" for the capability of adaptation, for several basic classes of nonlinear dynamical control systems with either parametric or nonparametric uncertainties.

  10. APPLICATION OF THE BASIC INCOME CONCEPT IN UKRAINIAN ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stavytskyy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Finance for the social sphere remains a great challenge in modern economy. The necessity of adequate living standards under limited resources raises a complicated problem for governments to provide appropriate distributing mechanism among the most vulnerable sections of the population. The paper analysed the concept of absolute basic income, which in some EU countries is considered as a substitution for a modern system of social security. Inequality of incomes creates not only a social problem but it is also an obstacle in the way of economic growth. It leads to the conclusion that government should provide some strategy to avoid high inequality. The model of rational individual with certain basic income is under investigation. The analysis of the model suggests that the presence of additional income not only facilitates more effective involvement of individuals to work, but it is a sort of indisputable factor for guaranteeing freedom of individuals and increasing their mutual respect. Thus, the idea of basic income, which spreads among European countries, has not only economic, but also political and psychological components that may affect the mentality of people in future. It is demonstrated that the transition to a new social security schemes in Ukraine can accumulate from 856 to 1020 bln. UAH in 2015 prices. It can provide guaranteed monthly payments from 1928 to 2297 UAH per capita and from 482 to 574 USD per child without changing the structure of the budget in case of replacement minimum pensions, minimum wages and full monetization of privileges. Obviously, such strategy not only would improve the efficiency of budget spending, but also produce a multiplier effect on the economy by changing and optimizing the consumption patterns of the population, increasing the competition in all markets for a real consumer. It has a chance of reducing the struggle to obtain state funds through tenders. However, the transition to the new system can be

  11. Initiating Young Children into Basic Astronomical Concepts and Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallery, M.

    2010-07-01

    In the present study we developed and implemented three units of activities aiming at acquainting very young children with basic astronomical concepts and phenomena such as the sphericity of the earth, the earth’s movements and the day/night cycle. The activities were developed by a group composed of a researcher/facilitator and six early-years teachers. In the activities children were presented with appropriate for their age scientific information along with conceptual tools such as a globe and an instructional video. Action research processes were used to optimize classroom practices and to gather useful information for the final shaping of the activities and the instruction materials. In these activities the adopted approach to learning can be characterized as socially constructed. The results indicated awareness of concepts and phenomena that the activities dealt with in high percentages of children, storage of the new knowledge in the long term memory and easy retrieval of it, and children’s enthusiasm for the subject.

  12. [Causality in cardiology: concepts in evolution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Gustavo F

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes several concepts about causality from Empedocles, Aristoteles and Galeno, to Koch and Hill and the evolution of these concepts related to cardiovascular diseases. Also defines cause and risk, and the philosophical theories about scientific knowledge: inductive versus refutation analysis. On these basis, the study of cardiovascular disease's causality, especially coronary heart disease, allows us the identification of several risk factors involved in its development. However, even with the presently coronary heart disease risk charts (from Framingham and European studies) the higher probability for the development of a cardiovascular ischemic event is around 40%, establishing an important degree of uncertainty. With the improvement in molecular biology techniques, genetics have attempted to analyse several genetic polymorphisms in search of the origin of coronary heart disease. Unfortunately, less than 10% of these polymorphisms have had a positive correlation with coronary heart disease being of minor risk that those obtained for having the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus or hypercholesterolemia. On these basis, the requirement of new population research projects in which clinical and genetic risk factors are to be studied for the appropriate understanding of the causality process of cardiovascular diseases must be a worldwide priority.

  13. Protection of structures and buildings against the effect of electrical storms: basic concepts, evolution and application in Mexico; Proteccion contra el efecto de las tormentas electricas de estructuras y edificios: conceptos basicos, evolucion y aplicacion en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvan Diego, Arturo; Velazquez Sanchez, Raul [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    The applied technology, supported by the analysis, the experimentation and the scientific observation, has demonstrated its effectiveness in the modernization of hundreds of industrial and commercial processes, of communication and services, as well as of the materials and methodologies used for the protection of diverse equipment and processes; from the protection in systems and equipment in high tension to systems that handle very low energy, among them are included electronic and digital devices. Nevertheless, fundamental laws like the Ohm's Law, the gravity law or the universal gas law exist that, although they were discovered many years ago, still are effective and their validity provides invaluable elements for the development of new methods, technological processes and developments. One of the most relevant cases than amalgamates the application of fundamental criteria and the development of new technologies and its application in the so-called no conventional protective devices, constitute the protection against the effect of electrical storms in buildings and structures. The worldwide application of these devices has generated skepticism of a great part of the scientific community, diverse reactions among the users and a firm position on the part of the manufacturers so that these technologies are included in international standards. The objective of this article is to offer the reader the basic information on the beginnings of the protection, the evolution that the protection methods against electrical storms have had since the XVIII century, the application of the fundamental criteria of protection in structures or modern buildings and their content, as well as the situation that prevails at the moment in the committees of the diverse national and international normative organizations with respect to the inclusion of the new technologies in the design guides. [Spanish] La tecnologia aplicada, apoyada en el analisis, la experimentacion y la

  14. Basic concepts in physics. From the cosmos to quarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaichian, M.; Tureanu, A. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics; Perez Rojas, H. [ICIMAF, La Habana (Cuba). Dept. of Theoretical Physics

    2014-08-01

    A clear, concise and beautifully written presentation of modern physics. Readers will not only learn physics, they will learn to enjoy it. Self-contained and comprehensive History, concepts and formal treatment go hand-in-hand. Suppresses mathematical technicalities in favor of a wide scope of topics. Suited for class use, e.g. as a textbook for the course ''Modern Physics'', but also ideal for ''lone explorers'' and other newcomers to physics. ''Basic Concepts in Physics: From the Cosmos to Quarks'' is the outcome of the authors' long and varied teaching experience in different countries and for different audiences, and gives an accessible and eminently readable introduction to all the main ideas of modern physics. The book's fresh approach, using a novel combination of historical and conceptual viewpoints, makes it ideal complementary reading to more standard textbooks. The first five chapters are devoted to classical physics, from planetary motion to special relativity, always keeping in mind its relevance to questions of contemporary interest. The next six chapters deal mainly with newer developments in physics, from quantum theory and general relativity to grand unified theories, and the book concludes by discussing the role of physics in living systems. A basic grounding in mathematics is required of the reader, but technicalities are avoided as far as possible; thus complex calculations are omitted so long as the essential ideas remain clear. The book is addressed to undergraduate and graduate students in physics and will also be appreciated by many professional physicists. It will likewise be of interest to students, researchers and teachers of other natural sciences, as well as to engineers, high-school teachers and the curious general reader, who will come to understand what physics is about and how it describes the different phenomena of Nature. Not only will readers of this book learn

  15. Conducting polymer actuators: From basic concepts to proprioceptive systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez Gil, Jose Gabriel

    Designers and engineers have been dreaming for decades of motors sensing, by themselves, working and surrounding conditions, as biological muscles do originating proprioception. Here bilayer full polymeric artificial muscles were checked up to very high cathodic potential limits (-2.5 V) in aqueous solution by cyclic voltammetry. The electrochemical driven exchange of ions from the conducting polymer film, and the concomitant Faradaic bending movement of the muscle, takes place in the full studied potential range. The presence of trapped counterion after deep reduction was corroborated by EDX determinations giving quite high electronic conductivity to the device. The large bending movement was used as a tool to quantify the amount of water exchanged per reaction unit (exchanged electron or ion). The potential evolutions of self-supported films of conducting polymers or conducting polymers (polypyrrole, polyaniline) coating different microfibers, during its oxidation/reduction senses working mechanical, thermal, chemical or electrical variables. The evolution of the muscle potential from electrochemical artificial muscles based on electroactive materials such as intrinsically conducting polymers and driven by constant currents senses, while working, any variation of the mechanical (trailed mass, obstacles, pressure, strain or stress), thermal or chemical conditions of work. One physically uniform artificial muscle includes one electrochemical motor and several sensors working simultaneously under the same driving reaction. Actuating (current and charge) and sensing (potential and energy) magnitudes are present, simultaneously, in the only two connecting wires and can be read by the computer at any time. From basic polymeric, mechanical and electrochemical principles a physicochemical equation describing artificial proprioception has been developed. It includes and describes, simultaneously, the evolution of the muscle potential during actuation as a function of the

  16. Health Recommender Systems: Concepts, Requirements, Technical Basics and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Wiesner

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades huge amounts of data have been collected in clinical databases representing patients’ health states (e.g., as laboratory results, treatment plans, medical reports. Hence, digital information available for patient-oriented decision making has increased drastically but is often scattered across different sites. As as solution, personal health record systems (PHRS are meant to centralize an individual’s health data and to allow access for the owner as well as for authorized health professionals. Yet, expert-oriented language, complex interrelations of medical facts and information overload in general pose major obstacles for patients to understand their own record and to draw adequate conclusions. In this context, recommender systems may supply patients with additional laymen-friendly information helping to better comprehend their health status as represented by their record. However, such systems must be adapted to cope with the specific requirements in the health domain in order to deliver highly relevant information for patients. They are referred to as health recommender systems (HRS. In this article we give an introduction to health recommender systems and explain why they are a useful enhancement to PHR solutions. Basic concepts and scenarios are discussed and a first implementation is presented. In addition, we outline an evaluation approach for such a system, which is supported by medical experts. The construction of a test collection for case-related recommendations is described. Finally, challenges and open issues are discussed.

  17. Health recommender systems: concepts, requirements, technical basics and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesner, Martin; Pfeifer, Daniel

    2014-03-03

    During the last decades huge amounts of data have been collected in clinical databases representing patients' health states (e.g., as laboratory results, treatment plans, medical reports). Hence, digital information available for patient-oriented decision making has increased drastically but is often scattered across different sites. As as solution, personal health record systems (PHRS) are meant to centralize an individual's health data and to allow access for the owner as well as for authorized health professionals. Yet, expert-oriented language, complex interrelations of medical facts and information overload in general pose major obstacles for patients to understand their own record and to draw adequate conclusions. In this context, recommender systems may supply patients with additional laymen-friendly information helping to better comprehend their health status as represented by their record. However, such systems must be adapted to cope with the specific requirements in the health domain in order to deliver highly relevant information for patients. They are referred to as health recommender systems (HRS). In this article we give an introduction to health recommender systems and explain why they are a useful enhancement to PHR solutions. Basic concepts and scenarios are discussed and a first implementation is presented. In addition, we outline an evaluation approach for such a system, which is supported by medical experts. The construction of a test collection for case-related recommendations is described. Finally, challenges and open issues are discussed.

  18. THE GROWTH OF BASIC MATHEMATICAL AND SCIENTIFIC CONCEPTS IN CHILDREN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LOVELL, K.

    THE RESEARCH OF LOVELL AND PIAGET IS CITED IN A DISCUSSION OF CONCEPT LEARNING IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL STUDENTS. FOLLOWING AN INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER ON CONCEPT FORMATION, THREE CHAPTERS ARE DEVOTED TO NUMBER CONCEPTS AND TO THE APPROACHES OF TEACHING THE NUMBER CONCEPTS OF STERN, CUISENAIRE AND GATTEGNO, PIAGET, AND DIENES. THE NEXT FOUR CHAPTERS DEAL…

  19. Unders and Overs: Using a Dice Game to Illustrate Basic Probability Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Sandra Hanson

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the dice game "Unders and Overs" is described and presented as an active learning exercise to introduce basic probability concepts. The implementation of the exercise is outlined and the resulting presentation of various probability concepts are described.

  20. Analyzing the Relationship between Learning Styles and Basic Concept Knowledge Level of Kindergarten Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balat, Gülden Uyanik

    2014-01-01

    Most basic concepts are acquired during preschool period. There are studies indicating that the basic concept knowledge of children is related to language development, cognitive development, academic achievement and intelligence. The relationship between learning behaviors (sometime called learning or cognitive styles) and a child academic success…

  1. Exploring Relations among Preservice Elementary Teachers' Ideas about Evolution, Understanding of Relevant Science Concepts, and College Science Coursework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Diana C.; Kaya, Sibel

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relations among preservice elementary teachers' ideas about evolution, their understanding of basic science concepts and college science coursework. Forty-two percent of 240 participants did not accept the theory of human evolution, but held inconsistent ideas about related topics, such as co-existence of humans and…

  2. The Java Series: Basic Concepts in Object Oriented Programming

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2000-01-01

    The talk will be general enough not to require any previous knowledge of any programming language but some insight in software development would be convenient. In the same way, the talk will give you the basics to learn any OO based methodology or language.

  3. [Significance of basic concepts in depth psychology for psychosomatics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barz, H

    1984-12-08

    The concept of "the unconscious" is considered the central concept of depth psychology. While the unconscious in Freud's conception consists essentially of repressed material and through conversion can result in psychosomatic illnesses, C. G. Jung saw in the "collective unconscious", which he discovered, the source of all psychic and spiritual development. Mediation between the collective unconscious and the conscious is effected by means of the "archetypes", whose function can be compared with the instincts. Archetypes are manifested through symbols, whose assimilation by consciousness is a prerequisite for psychic and physical health. Consideration of the archetype of the physician suggests that the grounding of medical science in depth psychology would modify not only our understanding of illnesses, but also the physician's understanding of himself.

  4. Muslim Egyptian and Lebanese Students' Conceptions of Biological Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    BouJaoude, Saouma; Wiles, Jason R.; Asghar, Anila; Alters, Brian

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigated distinctions among the diversity of religious traditions represented by Lebanese and Egyptian Muslim high school students regarding their understanding and acceptance of biological evolution and how they relate the science to their religious beliefs. We explored secondary students' conceptions of evolution among…

  5. Semi-quantitative diagram about temporal evolution in basic physics learning: a study with engineering students

    CERN Document Server

    Talero, Paco; Organista, Orlando; Barbosa, Luis

    2012-01-01

    We show a new semi-quantitative technique of analysis about of temporal evolution of learning of basic physics concepts. In this technique we arrange a geometric diagram with the score and the homogeneity (H-S), in this diagram we have a quantitative and qualitative information about the learning of students and the effectiveness instruction. We applied this technique to study the temporal evolution of the graphical interpretation of motion in one dimension through tutorials in a introductory course physics with 20 students of engineering at the Universidad Central de Bogot\\'a Colombia for a period of 6 weeks. We found in the general diagram that (Smax,Hmax)=(0.75,0.75).

  6. Pseudo-populations a basic concept in statistical surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Quatember, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This book emphasizes that artificial or pseudo-populations play an important role in statistical surveys from finite universes in two manners: firstly, the concept of pseudo-populations may substantially improve users’ understanding of various aspects in the sampling theory and survey methodology; an example of this scenario is the Horvitz-Thompson estimator. Secondly, statistical procedures exist in which pseudo-populations actually have to be generated. An example of such a scenario can be found in simulation studies in the field of survey sampling, where close-to-reality pseudo-populations are generated from known sample and population data to form the basis for the simulation process. The chapters focus on estimation methods, sampling techniques, nonresponse, questioning designs and statistical disclosure control.This book is a valuable reference in understanding the importance of the pseudo-population concept and applying it in teaching and research.

  7. Fundamentals of natural computing basic concepts, algorithms, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    de Castro, Leandro Nunes

    2006-01-01

    Introduction A Small Sample of Ideas The Philosophy of Natural Computing The Three Branches: A Brief Overview When to Use Natural Computing Approaches Conceptualization General Concepts PART I - COMPUTING INSPIRED BY NATURE Evolutionary Computing Problem Solving as a Search Task Hill Climbing and Simulated Annealing Evolutionary Biology Evolutionary Computing The Other Main Evolutionary Algorithms From Evolutionary Biology to Computing Scope of Evolutionary Computing Neurocomputing The Nervous System Artif

  8. PRONET: Basic concepts of a system of Artificial Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lasai

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available In the work are expounded the principles and basic elements of a system of artificial intelligence. Knowledge representation develops according to the method settled for processing. A thing, a phenomenon can be determined or established by more modules subject to their state as well as the links and relations between them. The system creates a set of blocks (modules for which the concurrent work is pre- established. The volume of knowledge can be also increased without increasing the number of blocks.

  9. Sets, sequences and mappings the basic concepts of analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Students progressing to advanced calculus are frequently confounded by the dramatic shift from mechanical to theoretical and from concrete to abstract. This text bridges the gap, offering a systematic development of the real number system and careful treatment of mappings, sequences, limits, continuity, and metric spaces.The first five chapters consist of a systematic development of many of the important properties of the real number system, plus detailed treatment of such concepts as mappings, sequences, limits, and continuity. The sixth and final chapter discusses metric spaces and generaliz

  10. Basic concepts of philosophy of management and corporations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl

    2013-01-01

    This chapter presents some fundamental concepts of the philosophy of management and corporations by addressing the problem of corporate legitimacy and Immanuel Kant’s distinction between theoretical, practical, and aesthetic reason and judgment. This chapter begins with a general definition...... of philosophy of management and corporations and continues by presenting its ontological and epistemological underpinnings. This approach is used to address the relation between economics, business ethics, and philosophy of management. Finally, ethical and aesthetic judgment is presented as the mediator between...... theoretical, aesthetic, and practical reason in philosophy of management....

  11. Path to AWAKE: Evolution of the concept

    OpenAIRE

    Caldwell, Allen; Adli, E.; Bernardini, M.; Soby, L.; Sosedkin, A. P.; Spitsyn, R. I.; Tajima, T.; Tarkeshian, R.; Timko, H.; Trines, R; Tückmantel, T.; Tuev, P. V.; Turner, M.; Bingham, R.; Velotti, F.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the conceptual steps in reaching the design of the AWAKE experiment currently under construction at CERN. We start with an introduction to plasma wakefield acceleration and the motivation for using proton drivers. We then describe the self-modulation instability – a key to an early realization of the concept. This is then followed by the historical development of the experimental design, where the critical issues that arose and their solutions are described. We conclude w...

  12. Using Soils to Teach Basic Concepts in Science and Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindbo, David L.; Kozlowski, Deborah; Robinson, Clay; Chapman, Susan

    2014-05-01

    Teaching primary and secondary school students (K-12) about science and art, although absolutely critical, can be difficult. Teachers have specific standards or subject matters that they are required to cover and often soils and soil science is not included in that list. We have struggled with ways to bring soil science information to the larger audience as the direct approach meets with resistance due to the time commitments to other standards. Our approach now is to use soils as a media or vehicle to teach key concepts in broad subject areas. We have developed several lesson plans in science, geography, math and art that focus on a concept but use soils to convey it. For example students make "mini" monoliths of a state soil. During this exercise students need to use skills in geography to find where their state soil occurs in their state and in the country. They need to understand colors in order to choose the correct colors to use to make their monolith. Finally, they must understand how scales work in order to make the monolith accurate in terms of horizon depths. Throughout the exercise discussion on my certain colors occur in the soil can be discussed. This discussion can lead to a qualitative understanding of chemistry and biology. This presentation will demonstrate this lesson and several others that have been developed and available through the Soil Science Society of America's K12 Education Committee.

  13. Mobile agents basic concepts, mobility models, and the tracy toolkit

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Mobile agents are software nomads that act as your personal representative, working autonomously through networks. They are able to visit network nodes directly using available computing power and are not limited by platform. This emerging field is now poised to become a cornerstone for new Web-based ubiquitous computing environments. Mobile Agents provides a practical introduction to mobile agent technology and surveys the state of the art in mobile agent research. Students and researchers can use the book as an introduction to the concepts and possibilities of this field and as an overview of ongoing research. Developers can use it to identify the capabilities of the technology to decide if mobile agents are the right solution for them. Practioners can also gain hands-on experience in programming mobile agents through exploration of the source code for a complete mobile agent environment available through the companion website.*Summarizes the state of the art in mobile agent research*Identifies the benefits...

  14. Relationship of the Gesell Developmental Exam and the Bracken Basic Concept Scale to Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterner, Anne G.; McCallum, R. Steve

    1988-01-01

    Administered the Gesell Development Exam and the Bracken Basic Concept Scale (BBCS) to kindergarten graduates (N=80). Found the BBCS may be a better predictor of achievement from a current state of readiness. (Author/ABL)

  15. Forensic analysis of MTBE contamination using basic hydrogeologic concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boving, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    Contamination of groundwater with petroleum hydrocarbons and additives, such as methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), is often linked to the leaking product distribution system of gas stations. In very few cases is it know if and when a leak occurred and how much product was released to the environment. In the absence of direct evidence, a careful analysis of the available data, such as contaminant breakthrough at receptor wells or discrepancies in the product inventory data, may provide evidence about the nature of the release, its timing and magnitude. Using a MTBE contamination site in the formerly glaciated New England region as an example, two possible release scenarios (slow, long-term release vs. spill) were examined. Of the two scenarios, the slow release could be ruled out as the sole source even though there was no direct evidence for a spill. The analysis of hydraulic test results together with chemical data further permitted to estimate when such an undocumented spill might have occurred. Analyses of the data also allowed these results to be compared to that of a prior transport and fate modeling study. Good agreement and consistency for contaminant travel times was confirmed. This forensic analysis demonstrates that applying basic hydrogeologic principles can aide in the reconstruction of contamination events while providing more readily understandable and defendable evidence relative to complex models. Conceptually, the approach described herein is transferable to other sites with similar hydrogeologies.

  16. Coprecipitation of radionuclides: basic concepts, literature review and first applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curti, E. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-11-01

    Coprecipitation of radionuclides with solid products is currently not analysed quantitatively in safety assessments for nuclear waste repositories, although this process is thought to be an important mechanism for limiting nuclide concentrations in solution. This is due to the fact that neither the solid phases controlling coprecipitation nor the parameter values necessary to describe this process are known sufficiently. This introductory report provides basic knowledge on this subject and a review of experimental data from the literature. Emphasis is placed on experiments of trace metal coprecipitation with calcite, because this mineral is a dominating alteration product of cement in the Swiss L/ILW repository. This resulted in a database of partition coefficients, which allow to describe empirically the distribution of trace elements between calcite and solution and thus to quantify coprecipitation processes. Since laboratory data on coprecipitation with calcite are lacking for many safety-relevant radioelements, their partition coefficients were inferred with the help of estimation techniques. Such techniques rely on empirical correlations, which relate the uptake of trace metals in calcite (measured in laboratory tests) with selected chemical properties of the coprecipitated metals (e.g. ionic radius, sorption properties, solubility products of the pure trace metal carbonates). The combination of these correlations with independent geochemical evidence allows the extrapolation of radioelement-specific partition coefficients, which are then used for the quantitative modelling. In a first step the potential role of radionuclide coprecipitation during cement degradation in the L/ILW repository planned at Wellenberg is assessed. (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  17. History and evolution of concepts in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Varvoglis, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of nature, and in particular of physics and the laws governing it, has changed radically since the days of the ancient Greek natural philosophers. This book explains how and why these changes occurred, through landmark experiments as well as theories that - for their time - were revolutionary. The presentation covers Mechanics, Optics, Electromagnetism, Thermodynamics, Relativity Theory, Atomic Physics and Quantum Physics. The book places emphasis on ideas and on a qualitative presentation, rather than on mathematics and equations. Thus, although primarily addressed to those who are studying or have studied science, it can also be read by non-specialists. The author concludes with a discussion of the evolution and organization of universities, from ancient times until today, and of the organization and dissemination of knowledge through scientific publications and conferences.

  18. Prudence. The Basic Concept of the Practical in Aristotle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berthold Wald

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is written in German. The article begins by recalling the most important understandings associated with the term prudence in the history of philosophy. Then it introduces the Aristotelian concept of prudence linked to practical truth—prudence seen in contrast to wisdom and knowledge of manufacturing. The article discusses various forms of rational knowledge associated with the right will, and proves the need of linking prudence to all the other ethical virtues based on moral principles. It emphasizes the problem of how to relate general principles to specific actions which involve particular goods. For resolving this problem, the article refers to Aristotle who sees the solution in political ethics which has a significant impact on individual behavior; consequently, good law and proper education are considered to be necessary conditions which allow to form the moral judgment skills for providing a morally good life. The article concludes with the claim that the proper field to capture the specificity of prudence includes the theory of human action and that of human morality.

  19. [Basic concept for the inspection of imported foods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Hisashi

    2011-01-01

    According to Article 4 of the Food Safety Basic Law (Law No. 48 of 2003), food safety must be ensured by taking necessary measures appropriately at each step of the food supply process both in Japan and overseas. From this viewpoint, for ensuring safety of imported foods further, the quarantine stations have obligations such as confirmation of the import-notification documents submitted under Article 27 of the Law, issue of inspection orders in accordance with Article 26 of the Law for imported foods suspected with high probability of violating the Act (in order to prevent harm to public health from the perspective of food sanitation), and implement of monitoring inspection under Article 28 of the Law to enforce checking of the food-sanitation conditions of various imported foods. If a quarantine station or local organization (including prefectures, cities and specially designated wards that operate public health centers) identify any violation of the Law, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (hereinafter referred to as "the MHLW"), the quarantine station and the related prefecture shall cooperate to take appropriate measures to help the corresponded importer recall the food as soon as possible. In addition, taking measures to prevent recurrence of such violations by demonstration of examples of violations and guidance to importers. Under the recent situation of accidents such as addition of toxic substances to the food, it is important to make continuous efforts for achieving food safety in exporting countries. With recognition that assurance of the safety of the consumer from foodborn illness, it is necessary for the MHLW, the Agency of Consumer Affaires, local governments and related offices to make active efforts together through risk evaluation, risk management and the risk communication for 1 while measuring the communication.

  20. Mapping for meaning. Using concept maps to integrate clinical and basic sciences in medical education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, Cijlvia Christina (Sylvia)

    2014-01-01

    Medical curricula are intended to help students to relate clinical and basic science knowledge. Localizing underlying basic science mechanisms allows teacher and students to focus on relevant relations with clinical phenomena. Concept maps are promising for medical education because of the potential

  1. Path to AWAKE: Evolution of the concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, A.; Adli, E.; Amorim, L.; Apsimon, R.; Argyropoulos, T.; Assmann, R.; Bachmann, A.-M.; Batsch, F.; Bauche, J.; Berglyd Olsen, V. K.; Bernardini, M.; Bingham, R.; Biskup, B.; Bohl, T.; Bracco, C.; Burrows, P. N.; Burt, G.; Buttenschön, B.; Butterworth, A.; Cascella, M.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chevallay, E.; Cipiccia, S.; Damerau, H.; Deacon, L.; Dirksen, P.; Doebert, S.; Dorda, U.; Elsen, E.; Farmer, J.; Fartoukh, S.; Fedosseev, V.; Feldbaumer, E.; Fiorito, R.; Fonseca, R.; Friebel, F.; Geschonke, G.; Goddard, B.; Gorn, A. A.; Grulke, O.; Gschwendtner, E.; Hansen, J.; Hessler, C.; Hillenbrand, S.; Hofle, W.; Holloway, J.; Huang, C.; Hüther, M.; Jaroszynski, D.; Jensen, L.; Jolly, S.; Joulaei, A.; Kasim, M.; Keeble, F.; Kersevan, R.; Kumar, N.; Li, Y.; Liu, S.; Lopes, N.; Lotov, K. V.; Lu, W.; Machacek, J.; Mandry, S.; Martin, I.; Martorelli, R.; Martyanov, M.; Mazzoni, S.; Meddahi, M.; Merminga, L.; Mete, O.; Minakov, V. A.; Mitchell, J.; Moody, J.; Müller, A.-S.; Najmudin, Z.; Noakes, T. C. Q.; Norreys, P.; Osterhoff, J.; Öz, E.; Pardons, A.; Pepitone, K.; Petrenko, A.; Plyushchev, G.; Pozimski, J.; Pukhov, A.; Reimann, O.; Rieger, K.; Roesler, S.; Ruhl, H.; Rusnak, T.; Salveter, F.; Savard, N.; Schmidt, J.; von der Schmitt, H.; Seryi, A.; Shaposhnikova, E.; Sheng, Z. M.; Sherwood, P.; Silva, L.; Simon, F.; Soby, L.; Sosedkin, A. P.; Spitsyn, R. I.; Tajima, T.; Tarkeshian, R.; Timko, H.; Trines, R.; Tückmantel, T.; Tuev, P. V.; Turner, M.; Velotti, F.; Verzilov, V.; Vieira, J.; Vincke, H.; Wei, Y.; Welsch, C. P.; Wing, M.; Xia, G.; Yakimenko, V.; Zhang, H.; Zimmermann, F.

    2016-09-01

    This paper describes the conceptual steps in reaching the design of the AWAKE experiment currently under construction at CERN. We start with an introduction to plasma wakefield acceleration and the motivation for using proton drivers. We then describe the self-modulation instability - a key to an early realization of the concept. This is then followed by the historical development of the experimental design, where the critical issues that arose and their solutions are described. We conclude with the design of the experiment as it is being realized at CERN and some words on the future outlook. A summary of the AWAKE design and construction status as presented in this conference is given in Gschwendtner et al. [1].

  2. Path to AWAKE: Evolution of the concept

    CERN Document Server

    Caldwell, A; Amorim, L.; Apsimon, R.; Argyropoulos, T.; Assmann, R.; Bachmann, A.-M.; Batsch, F.; Bauche, J.; Berglyd Olsen, V.K.; Bernardini, M.; Bingham, R.; Biskup, B.; Bohl, T.; Bracco, C.; Burrows, P.N.; Burt, G.; Buttenschön, B.; Butterworth, A.; Cascella, M.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chevallay, E.; Cipiccia, S.; Damerau, H.; Deacon, L.; Dirksen, P.; Doebert, S.; Dorda, U.; Elsen, E.; Farmer, J.; Fartoukh, S.; Fedosseev, V.; Feldbaumer, E.; Fiorito, R.; Fonseca, R.; Friebel, F.; Geschonke, G.; Goddard, B.; Gorn, A.A.; Grulke, O.; Gschwendtner, E.; Hansen, J.; Hessler, C.; Hillenbrand, S.; Hofle, W.; Holloway, J.; Huang, C.; Hüther, M.; Jaroszynski, D.; Jensen, L.; Jolly, S.; Joulaei, A.; Kasim, M.; Keeble, F.; Kersevan, R.; Kumar, N.; Li, Y.; Liu, S.; Lopes, N.; Lotov, K.V.; Lu, W.; Machacek, J.; Mandry, S.; Martin, I.; Martorelli, R.; Martyanov, M.; Mazzoni, S.; Meddahi, M.; Merminga, L.; Mete, O.; Minakov, V.A.; Mitchell, J.; Moody, J.; Müller, A.-S.; Najmudin, Z.; Noakes, T.C.Q.; Norreys, P.; Osterhoff, J.; Öz, E.; Pardons, A.; Pepitone, K.; Petrenko, A.; Plyushchev, G.; Pozimski, J.; Pukhov, A.; Reimann, O.; Rieger, K.; Roesler, S.; Ruhl, H.; Rusnak, T.; Salveter, F.; Savard, N.; Schmidt, J.; von der Schmitt, H.; Seryi, A.; Shaposhnikova, E.; Sheng, Z.M.; Sherwood, P.; Silva, L.; Simon, F.; Soby, L.; Sosedkin, A.P.; Spitsyn, R.I.; Tajima, T.; Tarkeshian, R.; Timko, H.; Trines, R.; Tückmantel, T.; Tuev, P.V.; Turner, M.; Velotti, F.; Verzilov, V.; Vieira, J.; Vincke, H.; Wei, Y.; Welsch, C.P.; Wing, M.; Xia, G.; Yakimenko, V.; Zhang, H.; Zimmermann, F.

    2016-01-01

    This report describes the conceptual steps in reaching the design of the AWAKE experiment currently under construction at CERN. We start with an introduction to plasma wakefield acceleration and the motivation for using proton drivers. We then describe the self-modulation instability --- a key to an early realization of the concept. This is then followed by the historical development of the experimental design, where the critical issues that arose and their solutions are described. We conclude with the design of the experiment as it is being realized at CERN and some words on the future outlook. A summary of the AWAKE design and construction status as presented in this conference is given in [1].

  3. Large light X-ray optics: basic ideas and concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citterio, O.; Ghigo, M.; Mazzoleni, F.; Pareschi, G.; Aschenbach, B.; Braeuninger, H.; Friedrich, P.; Hasinger, G.; Parodi, G.

    2004-01-01

    One of the main guidelines for future X-ray astronomy projects like, e.g., XEUS (ESA) and Generation-X (NASA) is to utilize grazing-incidence focusing optics with extremely large telescopes (several tens of m 2 at 1 keV), with a dramatic increase in collecting area of about two order of magnitude compared to the current X-ray telescopes. In order to avoid the problem of the source's confusion limit at low fluxes, the angular resolution required for these optics should be superb (a few arcsec at most). The enormous mirror dimensions together with the high imaging performances give rise to a number of manufacturing problems. It is basically impossible to realize so large mirrors from closed Wolter I shells which benefit from high mechanical stiffness. Instead the mirrors need to be formed as rectangular segments and a series of them will be assembled in a petal. Taking into account the realistic load capabilities of space launchers, to be able to put in orbit so large mirror modules the mass/geometric-area ratio of the optics should be very small. Finally, with a so large optics mass it would be very difficult to provide the electric power for an optics thermal active control, able to maintain the mirrors at the usual temperature of 20 °C. Therefore, very likely, the optics will instead operate in extreme thermal conditions, with the mirror temperature oscillating between -30 and -40 °C, that tends to exclude the epoxy replication approach (the mismatch between the CTE of the substrate and that of the resin would cause prohibitively large deformations of the mirror surface profiles). From these considerations light weight materials with high thermal-mechanical properties such as glass or ceramics become attractive to realize the mirrors of future Xray telescopes. In this paper, we will discuss a segments manufacturing method based on Borofloat TM glass. A series of finite element analysis concerning different aspects of the production, testing and integration of

  4. The evolution of concepts of color vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Barry B

    2008-07-01

    The evolution of ideas about the way we see color was closely linked to physical theories of light. Proponents of both corpuscular and wave theories viewed light as a continuous spectrum. This was not easily reconciled with the fact that, for the human eye, all colors can be matched by mixture of three primaries. Physicists such as Mayer who described trichromatic color matching often assumed that there were just three types of rays in the spectrum. This argument was finally resolved by Thomas Young, who noted that trichromatic color matching was consistent with a continuous spectrum if there were just three receptors in the eye. This kind of conceptual mistake, in this case the confusion of the properties of the visual system with physical properties of light, has been common in the history of color science. As another example, the idea of trichromacy was disputed by those who viewed color sensations as opponent processes, red-green, blue-yellow and black-white. The discovery of color-opponent neurons in the visual pathway has partly resolved this dilemma. Much of the physiological substrate of the way we detect and distinguish colors is now established, but the link between the signals leaving the retina and the way we name and order colors is still poorly defined.

  5. Evolution of the marketing theory: genesis, conception, periodization

    OpenAIRE

    M.A. Oklander; T.O. Oklander

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article. The article deals with evolution of the marketing theory in it genesis context, modern conception, periodization. Mercantilism, classical and neoclassical political economy, marginalism, institutionalism are distinguished as scientific sources of marketing. One defines that modern marketing conception is a socially responsible marketing form, based on mass individualization, the highest customer value supply, consumer’s problems effective solving. The marketing theory...

  6. Path to AWAKE: Evolution of the concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, A. [Max Planck Institute for Physics, Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Adli, E. [University of Oslo, 0316 Oslo (Norway); Amorim, L. [GoLP/Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon (Portugal); Apsimon, R. [Cockcroft Institute, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YR (United Kingdom); Argyropoulos, T. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Assmann, R. [DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Bachmann, A.-M.; Batsch, F. [Max Planck Institute for Physics, Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Bauche, J. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Berglyd Olsen, V.K. [University of Oslo, 0316 Oslo (Norway); Bernardini, M. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Bingham, R. [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Biskup, B. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Czech Technical University, Zikova 1903/4, 166 36 Praha 6 (Czech Republic); Bohl, T.; Bracco, C. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Burrows, P.N. [John Adams Institute for Accelerator Science, Oxford (United Kingdom); University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 2JD (United Kingdom); Burt, G. [Cockcroft Institute, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YR (United Kingdom); Buttenschön, B. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Wendelsteinstr. 1, 17491 Greifswald (Germany); Butterworth, A. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Cascella, M. [UCL, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); and others

    2016-09-01

    This paper describes the conceptual steps in reaching the design of the AWAKE experiment currently under construction at CERN. We start with an introduction to plasma wakefield acceleration and the motivation for using proton drivers. We then describe the self-modulation instability – a key to an early realization of the concept. This is then followed by the historical development of the experimental design, where the critical issues that arose and their solutions are described. We conclude with the design of the experiment as it is being realized at CERN and some words on the future outlook. A summary of the AWAKE design and construction status as presented in this conference is given in Gschwendtner et al. [1]. - Highlights: • Proton-driven plasma wakefield acceleration is proposed to bring electron bunches to high energies. • The self-modulation instability allows the use of existing proton bunches. • Schemes for overcoming the varying wake phase velocity were developed. • AWAKE will demonstrate proton-driven plasma wakefield acceleration for the first time.

  7. Microbes Drive Evolution of Animals and Plants: the Hologenome Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Rosenberg

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The hologenome concept of evolution postulates that the holobiont (host plus symbionts with its hologenome (host genome plus microbiome is a level of selection in evolution. Multicellular organisms can no longer be considered individuals by the classical definitions of the term. Every natural animal and plant is a holobiont consisting of the host and diverse symbiotic microbes and viruses. Microbial symbionts can be transmitted from parent to offspring by a variety of methods, including via cytoplasmic inheritance, coprophagy, direct contact during and after birth, and the environment. A large number of studies have demonstrated that these symbionts contribute to the anatomy, physiology, development, innate and adaptive immunity, and behavior and finally also to genetic variation and to the origin and evolution of species. Acquisition of microbes and microbial genes is a powerful mechanism for driving the evolution of complexity. Evolution proceeds both via cooperation and competition, working in parallel.

  8. A "Bulletin" Special--Part I: Basic Concepts of leadership--Leadership Concepts for the Principal: A Practical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehouse, Oliver L.

    1988-01-01

    Explores basic leadership concepts, demolishes three leadership myths, and advises principals concerning ways to vary their management styles using either directive or interactive behavior. Choice of style depends on the situation and a particular subordinate's degree of readiness or compliance. (MLH)

  9. The Concept of Basic Income: Global Experience and Implementation Possibilities in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algimantas Laurinavičius

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article gives an overview of universal basic income as one of the instruments of the asset-based policy, analyses its theoretical concept and practical examples. Latest trends in Europe, especially in Finland and Switzerland, are overviewed and possibilities to implement such an instrument in Lithuania are evaluated. Research methods of scientific literature analysis, comparative and logical analysis of statistical data, data grouping and presentation were used. Article finds out that the concept of basic income is being implemented on a small scale in the US state of Alaska and in a small autonomous territory of China – Macao. Finland and Switzerland are determined to fully implement the concept of basic income by providing monthly benefits to all their citizens. Although Lithuania is categorized as a country with high income inequality and high level of poverty risk, currently it is not possible to implement the concept of basic income in Lithuania: the state social insurance fund budget would not be able to fund sufficient benefits, and the benefits that could be provided by the budget would not comply with the objectives of the concept of basic income.

  10. EVOLUTION OF THE CONCEPT OF GUILT IN HISTORICAL CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Екатерина Валерьевна Юрчак

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available As in philosophy and in legal science is no single concept of guilt. This is partly explained by the fact that the philosophy of the concept of guilt tried to give the followers of different schools of thought and jurisprudence in the concept of guilt is different in each area of law. That is why it is important to identify common features of the legal and philosophical category of "guilt".The purpose of this study to trace the evolution of the concept of guilt in the philosophy and theory of law.Scientific and practical significance of the work lies in the fact that comprehensive studies of this nature brings us closer to the development of a unified concept of guilt.The author uses an analytical, philosophical and comparative - historical methods.The article analyzes the evolution of the concept of guilt in a historical context. The author analyzes the legal significance of the concept of guilt in theology and philosophy, focusing on Russian philosophy and Marxism, and comes to the conclusion that the issue of guilt is recognized by all philosophies, the most consistent explanation of the fault is given in the idealist doctrine. In the understanding of guilt there is dualism, which leads to the need for the external and internal sides of human actions.The results of this study provide scientific and practical value, since they can be used in teaching students of legal and philosophical disciplines, as well as - a legislator, in the formulation of the concept of a single fault in the law.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-10-19

  11. The concept of “network” in the system of basic concepts of regional economic geography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolychev O.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of “network” is traditionally used in sociological and economic sciences and serves as an in important object of research on the organisational forms of different phenomena and processes. This article examines the use of the “network” concept in socioeconomic geography through identifying the place of this concept in the system of traditional concepts of this branch of geography: spatial system, territorial production complex, and cluster. The interaction between networks on a certain territory at a certain stage of its development comprises the framework of a region as a complex socioeconomic territorial system. The author examines economic networks as organic systems characterised by resistance to external effects and comprised of interconnected economic agents from one or several related industries. A concentration of strong connections within such network constitutes its core or a cluster. Based on a retrospective analysis of studies into the spatial organisation of economy, it is concluded that there is a need to examine network forms from the perspective of regional socioeconomic geography in the context of managerial decision-making. The regional economic geographical approach to studying network forms of spatial organisation makes it possible to take into account not only the organisational features of the network itself, but also their connections to the related contextual conditions. It is an integrated approach, thus, it makes it possible to forecast the development of a certain network form in case of a change in the conditions or factors affecting it.

  12. An Investigation into the Use of Computer-Assisted Instruction to Present Basic English Grammar Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    CAI tutorial that will help students to better understand English gramar concepts. This objective consisted of two distinct facets: development of the... English gramar in terms of functions and building elements as presented in the tutorial; four users were unsure; and only five indicated that they had...AFIT/GIR/LSR/91D-10 DTIC PI-ECTE JAN 0 7 1992 AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE USE OF CCMPUT-ASSISTED INSTRUCTION TO PRESENT BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR CONCEPTS

  13. The Nature and Variability of Children's Alternative Conceptions of Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Uyen Adelyn

    In recent years a large amount of research has focused on the alternative conceptions about evolution found among secondary and university students, but few studies have investigated younger students' ideas on this subject. The present study examines the alternative conceptions of evolution harbored by second and third-grade students who participated in a summer instructional course that scaffolded the mechanisms of natural selection through cases of microevolution. In order to identify the categories of alternative conceptions that students expressed, 60 sets of pre- and posttest structured interviews were analyzed, and these showed that participants in this study expressed alternative conceptions closely related to those identified in studies conducted using high school and college-age participants. The results demonstrated a variability of alternative conceptions across a range of interview items, and also revealed how contextual features in the assessment tasks may account for the patterns that emerged in students' responses. Students' evocations of alternative conceptions declined after their participation in the instructional course. The analyses of the four case study students, whose pre-and posttest patterns were representative of their cohorts, provided a detailed within-subject look at how these alternative conceptions occurred in the context of the interview items and how they changed from pre- to posttest. These findings have broad relevance to understanding conceptual development in young children and important implications both for considering at how early an age instruction about evolutionary biology should begin and for evaluating the potential long-term impact of a curriculum that targets sources of student difficulty at earlier grade levels.

  14. Evolution of the Concept of Profit: Theoretical Aspect

    OpenAIRE

    Inna Dynko

    2013-01-01

    Profit is the general index summing up the outcomes of company industrial and economic activity and evaluating its efficiency. To reveal the point of profit one should consider its formation and evolution as well as contemporary scientists' insight into the concept. The article covers the formation of profit in the context of economic historical development. Approaches to the interpretation of its essence by major political economy schools and current understanding of the category of profit h...

  15. A New Take on John Maynard Smith's Concept of Protein Space for Understanding Molecular Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbunugafor, C Brandon; Hartl, Daniel L

    2016-10-01

    Much of the public lacks a proper understanding of Darwinian evolution, a problem that can be addressed with new learning and teaching approaches to be implemented both inside the classroom and in less formal settings. Few analogies have been as successful in communicating the basics of molecular evolution as John Maynard Smith's protein space analogy (1970), in which he compared protein evolution to the transition between the terms WORD and GENE, changing one letter at a time to yield a different, meaningful word (in his example, the preferred path was WORD → WORE → GORE → GONE → GENE). Using freely available computer science tools (Google Books Ngram Viewer), we offer an update to Maynard Smith's analogy and explain how it might be developed into an exploratory and pedagogical device for understanding the basics of molecular evolution and, more specifically, the adaptive landscape concept. We explain how the device works through several examples and provide resources that might facilitate its use in multiple settings, ranging from public engagement activities to formal instruction in evolution, population genetics, and computational biology.

  16. The Etymology of Basic Concepts in the Experimental Analysis of Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinsmoor, James A.

    2004-01-01

    The origins of many of the basic concepts used in the experimental analysis of behavior can be traced to Pavlov's (1927/1960) discussion of unconditional and conditional reflexes in the dog, but often with substantial changes in meaning (e.g., stimulus, response, and reinforcement). Other terms were added by Skinner (1938/1991) to describe his…

  17. Introduction to Probability, Part 1 - Basic Concepts. Student Text. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeslee, David W.; And Others

    This book is designed to introduce the reader to some fundamental ideas about probability. The mathematical theory of probability plays an increasingly important role in science, government, industry, business, and economics. An understanding of the basic concepts of probability is essential for the study of statistical methods that are widely…

  18. Effects of Concept Mapping Instruction Approach on Students' Achievement in Basic Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogonnaya, Ukpai Patricia; Okafor, Gabriel; Abonyi, Okechukwu S.; Ugama, J. O.

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of concept mapping on students' achievement in basic science. The study was carried out in Ebonyi State of Nigeria. The study employed a quasi-experimental design. Specifically the pretest posttest non-equivalent control group research design was used. The sample was 122 students selected from two secondary…

  19. SPREADSHEET MODELING AS A TOOL FOR INTERACTIVE LEARNING OF BASIC CONCEPTS OF ECONOMETRICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina B. Gribanova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes how to develop interactive graphical tools to illustrate the basic concepts of econometrics: linear regression, index of determination, autocorrelation, heteroscedasticity, etc. the Implementation is made in the spreadsheet program Excel using the simulation method and can be useful in teaching discipline

  20. Teaching Two Basic Nanotechnology Concepts in Secondary School by Using a Variety of Teaching Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonder, Ron; Sakhnini, Sohair

    2012-01-01

    A nanotechnology module was developed for ninth grade students in the context of teaching chemistry. Two basic concepts in nanotechnology were chosen: (1) size and scale and (2) surface-area-to-volume ratio (SA/V). A wide spectrum of instructional methods (e.g., game-based learning, learning with multimedia, learning with models, project based…

  1. Using a Self-Administered Visual Basic Software Tool To Teach Psychological Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Harold R.; Sullivan, Amie K.; Schoeny, Zahrl G.

    2002-01-01

    Introduces LearningLinks, a Visual Basic software tool that allows teachers to create individualized learning modules that use constructivist and behavioral learning principles. Describes field testing of undergraduates at the University of Virginia that tested a module designed to improve understanding of the psychological concepts of…

  2. Teaching Young Children Basic Concepts of Geography: A Literature-Based Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannibal, Mary Anne Zeitler; Vasiliev, Ren; Lin, Qiuyun

    2002-01-01

    This article advocates a literature-based instructional approach as a way of promoting geographic awareness in early childhood classrooms. Instruction focuses on basic geography concepts of location, place, human- environment interaction, movement, and region. Examples of children's picture books are included to show what early childhood teachers…

  3. [Historical evolution of the concept of posttraumatic stress disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schestatsky, Sidnei; Shansis, Flávio; Ceitlin, Lúcia Helena; Abreu, Paulo B S; Hauck, Simone

    2003-06-01

    The authors elaborate on the historical evolution of the concept of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). The authors quote the French scholars, mainly Charcot and Janet, as the first to connect traumatic events and symptoms of hysteria. The contributions of Freud are described with enphasis on his effort into integrating the intra-psychic and environmental dimensions. Kardiner is referred as the author who coined the concept of 'war neurosis', which was deemed as an important one during the Second World War and Vietnam War. In conclusion, the authors highlight that the concept of PTSD used in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) by the American Psychiatric Association assess, at the same time, how treatening was the traumatic event and the list of symptoms presented by the patients.

  4. Evolution of the marketing theory: genesis, conception, periodization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Oklander

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article. The article deals with evolution of the marketing theory in it genesis context, modern conception, periodization. Mercantilism, classical and neoclassical political economy, marginalism, institutionalism are distinguished as scientific sources of marketing. One defines that modern marketing conception is a socially responsible marketing form, based on mass individualization, the highest customer value supply, consumer’s problems effective solving. The marketing theory periodization is suggested, which includes three stages: classical marketing conception forming stage, based on consumer orientation; social and ethic marketing conception forming stage; the social and ethic marketing conception forming stage, based on mass individualization, the highest customer value supply, consumer’s problems effective solving. The results of the analysis. Marketing theory, appeared at the industrial human’s development stage during buyer’s market formation and sales problem aggravation, is a regular result of the mercantilism development, classical and neoclassical political economy, marginalism, institutionalism. The modern marketing conception is social and responsible marketing conception, based on mass individualization, maximal consumer value supplies, consumer’s problems optimal solving. Periodization of the marketing theory has to be built on the following principle: “state of the marketing theory development – new marketing conception, which correspond the proper economy development”. Each marketing conception defines essence of the period, preconditions the scientific value of the derived methodological investigations and marketing activity efficiency from the viewpoint of the problem solving, which caused marketing appearing, – sales optimization. There are three stages in the marketing theory development: а stage of the classical marketing conception formation, based on consumer orientation (1900-1970

  5. The articulation of integration of clinical and basic sciences in concept maps : differences between experienced and resident groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, Sylvia; van Tartwijk, Jan; Verloop, Nico; Gosselink, Manon; Driessen, Erik; Bolk, Jan

    2016-01-01

    To determine the content of integrated curricula, clinical concepts and the underlying basic science concepts need to be made explicit. Preconstructed concept maps are recommended for this purpose. They are mainly constructed by experts. However, concept maps constructed by residents are hypothesize

  6. Dynamical evolution of star forming regions - II. Basic kinematics

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    We follow the dynamical evolution of young star-forming regions with a wide range of initial conditions and examine how the radial velocity dispersion, $\\sigma$, evolves over time. We compare this velocity dispersion to the theoretically expected value for the velocity dispersion if a region were in virial equilibrium, $\\sigma_{\\rm vir}$ and thus assess the virial state ($\\sigma / \\sigma_{\\rm vir}$) of these systems. We find that in regions that are initially subvirial, or in global virial equilibrium but subvirial on local scales, the system relaxes to virial equilibrium within several million years, or roughly 25 - 50 crossing times, according to the measured virial ratio. However, the measured velocity dispersion, $\\sigma$, appears to be a bad diagnostic of the current virial state of these systems as it suggests that they become supervirial when compared to the velocity dispersion estimated from the virial mass, $\\sigma_{\\rm vir}$. We suggest that this discrepancy is caused by the fact that the regions ar...

  7. ECOLOGICAL LIFESTYLE, THE BASIC PRINCIPLES OF THE OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF THE CONCEPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesya Nikolaevna Tarasova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the analysis of approaches to the empirical study of the environmental aspects of lifestyle are presented the basic principles that distinguish ecological way of life off the set of environmental practices that need to be taken into account in empirical measurement, namely: systematicity, conceptuality, contextual conformity and processuality. The article provides a theoretical basis and operational definition as an ecological way of life in general and the principles that distinguish it from other concepts of environmental sociology.

  8. 玄武岩浆起源和演化的一些基本概念以及对中国东部中-新生代基性火山岩成因的新思路%Generation and Evolution of Basaltic Magmas: Some Basic Concepts and a New View on the Origin of Mesozoic- Cenozoic Basaltic Volcanism in Eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛耀龄

    2005-01-01

    减压分熔可合理解释具有软流圈地球化学特征(εNd>0)的新生代中国东部基性火山活动及玄武岩的成因.这些对中国东部中-新生代地质过程的解释,将为更加细致的,以岩石学和地球化学为主的讨论所验证.%Some basic concepts of basaltic magma generation and evolution are discussed in the context of global tectonics. These concepts need better understanding before invoking elusive possibihlities in igneous petrogenesis on all scales and in all tectonic environments. A hypothesis for the Mesozoic lithosphere thinning and Mesozoic-Cenozoic basaltic volcanism in eastern China is presented. This hypothesis is consistent with observations and complies with basic physics. While the eastern China volcanism can bedefined as "intra-plate" volcanism, it is in fact a special consequence of plate tectonics. The Mesozoic lithosphere thinning in eastern China is best explained by a process that “transformed” the deep portion of the lithosphere into convective asthenosphere by hydration. The water that did so may come from dehydration of subducted Pacific (or predecessor) oceanic lithosphere that is presently lying horizontally in the transition zone beneath eastern Chinese continent as detected by seismic tomographic models. The Mesozoic volcanism may be genetically associated with the lithospheric thinning because the basaltic source is ancient isotopically enriched (εNd < 0 ) lithosphere--being converted to the asthenosphere. The NNE-SSW Great Gradient Line (GGL) marked by the sharp altitude, gravity anonaly, crustal thickness, and mantle seismic velocity changes from the plateau west to the hilly plains of eastern China is an expression of variation in lithospheric thickness from probably > 150 ~ 200 km beneath the plateaus in the west to the thin, probably < 80 km, beneath eastern China. The “remote” western Pacific subduction systems induce asthenospheric flow from beneath eastern China towards the

  9. A Management Concept of the Technosphere’s Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Krichevsky

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the philosophical and methodological management aspects of the technosphere’s evolution. The foundations of the management concept of the technosphere’s evolution, consisting of two blocks were developed: 1 a conceptual model of the technosphere structure and the process of the technosphere’s evolution; 2 a conceptual model of the management system of the technosphere’s evolution. In the article the characteristics of the boundaries of the technosphere beyond the Earth are considered. The technosphere as a global system was formed during the 20th century, its development continues in the unstable mode of the accelerating non-linear development and spatial expansion. In the technosphere there is no internal and external communication, including feedback, that is necessary for the balanced development. These are the main causes of the “uncontrollability” of the technosphere. The management system structure of the technosphere’s evolution and the strategy that is aimed to achieve three main goals were proposed: 1 saving the Earth’s biosphere; 2 security, survival and sustainable development of humankind in the balance (co-evolution with the biosphere and the environment on the Earth and in the Solar system; 3 the creation of the conditions for disclosure and the use of the potential of technologies, equipment, technical development to manage the future, the implementation of the transition to the noosphere, the attainment of human immortality in the Universe. The three management scenarios, main features, and limitations were considered. A common approach to the management of the technosphere’s evolution: the system approach in the framework of the socio-techno-natural system, the paradigm of the balanced and sustainable development and managing the future. In order to manage the infrastructure, technologies and technological mode by the effects of the technosphere on the environment, new approaches, methods

  10. Multidimensional Generalized Functions in Aeroacoustics and Fluid Mechanics. Part 1; Basic Concepts and Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farassat, Fereidoun; Myers, Michael K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is the first part of a three part tutorial on multidimensional generalized functions (GFs) and their applications in aeroacoustics and fluid mechanics. The subject is highly fascinating and essential in many areas of science and, in particular, wave propagation problems. In this tutorial, we strive to present rigorously and clearly the basic concepts and the tools that are needed to use GFs in applications effectively and with ease. We give many examples to help the readers in understanding the mathematical ideas presented here. The first part of the tutorial is on the basic concepts of GFs. Here we define GFs, their properties and some common operations on them. We define the important concept of generalized differentiation and then give some interesting elementary and advanced examples on Green's functions and wave propagation problems. Here, the analytic power of GFs in applications is demonstrated with ease and elegance. Part 2 of this tutorial is on the diverse applications of generalized derivatives (GDs). Part 3 is on generalized Fourier transformations and some more advanced topics. One goal of writing this tutorial is to convince readers that, because of their powerful operational properties, GFs are absolutely essential and useful in engineering and physics, particularly in aeroacoustics and fluid mechanics.

  11. Computing as Empirical Science – Evolution of a Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polak Paweł

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the evolution of philosophical and methodological considerations concerning empiricism in computer/computing science. In this study, we trace the most important current events in the history of reflection on computing. The forerunners of Artificial Intelligence H.A. Simon and A. Newell in their paper Computer Science As Empirical Inquiry (1975 started these considerations. Later the concept of empirical computer science was developed by S.S. Shapiro, P. Wegner, A.H. Eden and P.J. Denning. They showed various empirical aspects of computing. This led to a view of the science of computing (or science of information processing - the science of general scope. Some interesting contemporary ways towards a generalized perspective on computations were also shown (e.g. natural computing.

  12. How is a trumpet known? The "basic object level" concept and perception of musical instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, C F; Jones, R K; Hennessy, B L; Unze, M G; Pick, A D

    1989-01-01

    What are the object properties that serve as a basis for the musical instrument classification system, and how do general and specific experience affect knowledge of these properties? In the first study, the multimodal quality of properties underlying children's and adults' perception was investigated. Subjects listened to solos and identified instruments producing the sounds. Even children who did not have experience with all the instruments correctly identified the family of instruments they were listening to. The hypothesis of the second study, that musical instrument families function as a "basic level" in the instrument taxonomy, was confirmed. Variation in the basic level with varying expertise was documented in the third study with musicians. In the fourth study, children and adults identified the source of sounds from unfamiliar objects, Chinese musical instruments. It is suggested that the concept of affordances may be relevant for understanding the importance for behavior of different levels of abstraction of category systems.

  13. [August Weismann's concept of germ plasma as the basic reason for the inadequacy of neo-Darwinism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grodnitskiĭ, D L

    2000-01-01

    Neo-Darwinism is a result of synthesis of Darwinian concept of natural selection with Weismannian concept of germ plasma. The concept of germ plasma is based on a hypothesis that phenotypic traits are completely determined by genes. Hence, neo-Darwinism describes evolution as a process of alternation of gene frequencies under the effect of natural selection. This is an inadequate approach to the study of evolution. In the course of evolution, genes change their functions, whereas phenotypic characters change their corresponding genes. As a result, every step of evolutionary transformation changes the structure of phenotype-to-genotype correspondence. Therefore, phenotypic evolution cannot be described in genetic terms, the same as to human languages cannot be translated one into another whenever the meaning of words is constantly changing. Consequently, Weismannian germ-plasma concept adequately describes the relation of characters to genes only during stasis, but is inapplicable to evolution.

  14. Evolution of Wenger's concept of community of practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coyte Peter C

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the experience of health professionals, it appears that interacting with peers in the workplace fosters learning and information sharing. Informal groups and networks present good opportunities for information exchange. Communities of practice (CoPs, which have been described by Wenger and others as a type of informal learning organization, have received increasing attention in the health care sector; however, the lack of uniform operating definitions of CoPs has resulted in considerable variation in the structure and function of these groups, making it difficult to evaluate their effectiveness. Objective To critique the evolution of the CoP concept as based on the germinal work by Wenger and colleagues published between 1991 and 2002. Discussion CoP was originally developed to provide a template for examining the learning that happens among practitioners in a social environment, but over the years there have been important divergences in the focus of the concept. Lave and Wenger's earliest publication (1991 centred on the interactions between novices and experts, and the process by which newcomers create a professional identity. In the 1998 book, the focus had shifted to personal growth and the trajectory of individuals' participation within a group (i.e., peripheral versus core participation. The focus then changed again in 2002 when CoP was applied as a managerial tool for improving an organization's competitiveness. Summary The different interpretations of CoP make it challenging to apply the concept or to take full advantage of the benefits that CoP groups may offer. The tension between satisfying individuals' needs for personal growth and empowerment versus an organization's bottom line is perhaps the most contentious of the issues that make CoPs difficult to cultivate. Since CoP is still an evolving concept, we recommend focusing on optimizing specific characteristics of the concept, such as support for members

  15. Illustrative presentation of some basic concepts of network internal reliability with comments as regards engineering surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prószyński, Witold

    2016-06-01

    The paper integrates some earlier and the recent findings of the author in the area of network internal reliability and presents a consistent system of concepts in this respect. The concepts of outlier detection and outlier identification linked directly with the global model test and the outlier tests respectively, are shown as a basis for the concepts such as outlier detectability and outlier identifiability. Also, a four level classification of gross errors expressed in a form of a tree-diagram is presented including perceptible and imperceptible errors, detectable and undetectable errors and identifiable and unidentifiable errors. Their properties are given mainly in a descriptive way, deliberately limiting rigorous mathematical formulas to a necessary minimum. Understanding of different types of gross errors is useful in analyzing the results of the outlier detection and identification procedures as well as in designing the networks to make them duly robust to observation gross errors. It is of special importance for engineering surveys where quite often low-redundancy networks are used. Main objective of the paper is to demonstrate a clear and consistent system of basic concepts related to network internal reliability.

  16. CONCEPTS OF DICHOTOMY FOR SKEW-EVOLUTION SEMIFLOWS IN BANACH SPACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihail Megan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate some dichotomy concepts for skew-evolution semiflows in Banachspaces.Our main objective is to estab-lish relations between these concepts.We motivate our approach byillustrative examples.

  17. Basic Concepts in the Taxonomy of Health-Related Behaviors, Habits and Lifestyle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    eVITAL group

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health-related Habits (HrH are a major priority in healthcare. However there is little agreement on whether exercise, diet, smoking or dental hygiene are better described as lifestyles, habits or behaviors, and on what is their hierarchical relationship. This research is aimed at representing the basic concepts which are assumed to constitute the conceptual framework enabling us to interpret and organize the field of HrH. Methods: A group of 29 experts with different backgrounds agreed on the definition and hierarchy of HrH following an iterative process which involved framing analysis and nominal group techniques. Results: Formal definitions of health-related behavior, habit, life-style and life-style profile were produced. In addition a series of basic descriptors were identified: health reserve, capital, risk and load. Six main categories of HrH were chosen based on relevance to longevity: diet/exercise, vitality/stress, sleep, cognition, substance use and other risk. Attributes of HrH are clinical meaningfulness, quantifiability, temporal stability, associated morbidity, and unitarity (non-redundancy. Two qualifiers (polarity and stages of change have also been described. Conclusions: The concepts represented here lay the groundwork for the development of clinical and policy tools related to HrH and lifestyle. An adaptation of this system to define targets of health interventions and to develop the classification of person factors in ICF may be needed in the future.

  18. Evolution in health and medicine Sackler colloquium: Making evolutionary biology a basic science for medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesse, Randolph M; Bergstrom, Carl T; Ellison, Peter T; Flier, Jeffrey S; Gluckman, Peter; Govindaraju, Diddahally R; Niethammer, Dietrich; Omenn, Gilbert S; Perlman, Robert L; Schwartz, Mark D; Thomas, Mark G; Stearns, Stephen C; Valle, David

    2010-01-26

    New applications of evolutionary biology in medicine are being discovered at an accelerating rate, but few physicians have sufficient educational background to use them fully. This article summarizes suggestions from several groups that have considered how evolutionary biology can be useful in medicine, what physicians should learn about it, and when and how they should learn it. Our general conclusion is that evolutionary biology is a crucial basic science for medicine. In addition to looking at established evolutionary methods and topics, such as population genetics and pathogen evolution, we highlight questions about why natural selection leaves bodies vulnerable to disease. Knowledge about evolution provides physicians with an integrative framework that links otherwise disparate bits of knowledge. It replaces the prevalent view of bodies as machines with a biological view of bodies shaped by evolutionary processes. Like other basic sciences, evolutionary biology needs to be taught both before and during medical school. Most introductory biology courses are insufficient to establish competency in evolutionary biology. Premedical students need evolution courses, possibly ones that emphasize medically relevant aspects. In medical school, evolutionary biology should be taught as one of the basic medical sciences. This will require a course that reviews basic principles and specific medical applications, followed by an integrated presentation of evolutionary aspects that apply to each disease and organ system. Evolutionary biology is not just another topic vying for inclusion in the curriculum; it is an essential foundation for a biological understanding of health and disease.

  19. Moment-independent importance measure of basic random variable and its probability density evolution solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    To analyze the effect of basic variable on failure probability in reliability analysis,a moment-independent importance measure of the basic random variable is proposed,and its properties are analyzed and verified.Based on this work,the importance measure of the basic variable on the failure probability is compared with that on the distribution density of the response.By use of the probability density evolution method,a solution is established to solve two importance measures,which can efficiently avoid the difficulty in solving the importance measures.Some numerical examples and engineering examples are used to demonstrate the proposed importance measure on the failure probability and that on the distribution density of the response.The results show that the proposed importance measure can effectively describe the effect of the basic variable on the failure probability from the distribution density of the basic variable.Additionally,the results show that the established solution on the probability density evolution is efficient for the importance measures.

  20. Amphiphiles Self-Assembly: Basic Concepts and Future Perspectives of Supramolecular Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Lombardo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Amphiphiles are synthetic or natural molecules with the ability to self-assemble into a wide variety of structures including micelles, vesicles, nanotubes, nanofibers, and lamellae. Self-assembly processes of amphiphiles have been widely used to mimic biological systems, such as assembly of lipids and proteins, while their integrated actions allow the performance of highly specific cellular functions which has paved a way for bottom-up bionanotechnology. While amphiphiles self-assembly has attracted considerable attention for decades due to their extensive applications in material science, drug and gene delivery, recent developments in nanoscience stimulated the combination of the simple approaches of amphiphile assembly with the advanced concept of supramolecular self-assembly for the development of more complex, hierarchical nanostructures. Introduction of stimulus responsive supramolecular amphiphile assembly-disassembly processes provides particularly novel approaches for impacting bionanotechnology applications. Leading examples of these novel self-assembly processes can be found, in fact, in biosystems where assemblies of different amphiphilic macrocomponents and their integrated actions allow the performance of highly specific biological functions. In this perspective, we summarize in this tutorial review the basic concept and recent research on self-assembly of traditional amphiphilic molecules (such as surfactants, amphiphile-like polymers, or lipids and more recent concepts of supramolecular amphiphiles assembly which have become increasingly important in emerging nanotechnology.

  1. History of evolution of the concept of medical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Sisir K

    2003-01-01

    "Time present and time past are both perhaps present in time future and time future contained in time past".--Thomas Steams Eliot (1888-1965), Noble Literature Laureate, 1948. History and evolution of the concept of Medical Ethics is the classical example of this poetic expression. Virtually, every human society has some forces of myth to explain the origin of morality. Indian ethics was philosophical from its very birth. In the Vedas (1500 B.C.), ethics was an integral aspect of philosophical and religious speculation about the nature of reality. The Vedas says how people ought to live and is the oldest philosophical literature in the world. It was the first account of philosophical ethics in human history. The old Testament of (c. 200 B.C.) the Hebrew Bible (Greek--ta biblia--"the books") gives account of God giving the Ten Commandments--the oral and written Law engraved on tablets of Stone to Moses around 13th century B.C. on Mount Sinai (Arabic--Gebel Musa) the Mountain near the tip of the Sinai Peninsula in West Asia.

  2. LINEAR ACTIVE STRUCTURES AND MODES (Ⅰ)--BASIC CONCEPTS AND PROPERTIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张景绘; 龚靖; 王永刚

    2004-01-01

    Some basic concepts about the active structures were firstly explained, and the main subjects to study in the field of active structure dynamics were synthesized. For the linear active structures, the annotations on the modes were done in detail. The physical meanings of the right and left eigenvectors were explained. The right eigenvectors are the modal shapes and the modal responses of an active structure depend on the left ones. The adjoint structure of an active structure was defined and the reciprocity theorem was interpreted. For two active structures, which are adjoint to each other and with the reciprocal gain-matrices, the right and left eigenvector are reciprocal. The relationship between an active structure and the corresponding passive structure is expressed with the transfer functions, which is employed to resolve the estimation problems.

  3. Transfer printing methods for flexible thin film solar cells: basic concepts and working principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chi Hwan; Kim, Dong Rip; Zheng, Xiaolin

    2014-09-23

    Fabricating thin film solar cells (TFSCs) on flexible substrates will not only broaden the applications of solar cells, but also potentially reduce the installation cost. However, a critical challenge for fabricating flexible TFSCs on flexible substrates is the incompatibility issues between the thermal, mechanical, and chemical properties of these substrates and the fabrication conditions. Transfer printing methods, which use conventional substrates for the fabrication and then deliver the TFSCs onto flexible substrates, play a key role to overcome these challenges. In this review, we discuss the basic concepts and working principles of four major transfer printing methods associated with (1) transfer by sacrificial layers, (2) transfer by porous Si layer, (3) transfer by controlled crack, and (4) transfer by water-assisted thin film delamination. We also discuss the challenges and opportunities for implementing these methods for practical solar cell manufacture.

  4. Transfer of polarized light in planetary atmospheres basic concepts and practical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Hovenier, Joop W; Domke, Helmut

    2004-01-01

    The principal elements of the theory of polarized light transfer in planetary atmospheres are expounded in a systematic but concise way. Basic concepts and practical methods are emphasized, both for single and multiple scattering of electromagnetic radiation by molecules and particles in the atmospheres of planets in the Solar System, including the Earth, and beyond. A large part of the book is also useful for studies of light scattering by particles in comets, the interplanetary and interstellar medium, circumstellar disks, reflection nebulae, water bodies like oceans and suspensions of particles in a gas or liquid in the laboratory. Throughout the book symmetry principles, such as the reciprocity principle and the mirror symmetry principle, are employed. In this way the theory is made more transparent and easier to understand than in most papers on the subject. In addition, significant computational reductions, resulting from symmetry principles, are presented. Hundreds of references to relevant literature ...

  5. Diffusion-weighted imaging: basic concepts and application in cerebral stroke and head trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huisman, Thierry A.G.M. [Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology Section and MGH-NMR Center, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, MA 02129, Boston (United States); Department of Radiology, University Children' s Hospital Zurich, Steinwiesstrasse 75, 8032, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2003-10-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) of the brain represents a new imaging technique that extends imaging from depiction of neuroanatomy to the level of function and physiology. DWI measures a fundamentally different physiological parameter compared with conventional MRI. Image contrast is related to differences in the diffusion rate of water molecules rather than to changes in total tissue water. DWI can reveal pathology in cases where conventional MRI remains unremarkable. DWI has proven to be highly sensitive in the early detection of acute cerebral ischemia and seems promising in the evaluation of traumatic brain injury. DWI can differentiate between lesions with decreased and increased diffusion. In addition, full-tensor DWI can evaluate the microscopic architecture of the brain, in particular white matter tracts, by measuring the degree and spatial distribution of anisotropic diffusion within the brain. This article reviews the basic concepts of DWI and its application in cerebral ischemia and traumatic brain injury. (orig.)

  6. Chemie im Kontext: Situating Learning in Relevant Contexts while Systematically Developing Basic Chemical Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nentwig, Peter M.; Demuth, Reinhard; Parchmann, Ilka; Gräsel, Cornelia; Ralle, Bernd

    2007-09-01

    Inspired by the Salters Approach (UK) and ChemCom (USA), units for a new curriculum for chemistry teaching are being developed in Germany based on theories of scientific literacy, motivation, and situated learning. The curriculum follows a context-based approach. Rather than using the structure of the discipline, it generates basic chemical concepts from issues relevant to the learners, starting with the learners' ideas and questions. The teaching methodology of the course builds strongly on self-directed and cooperative forms of learning activities in the classroom. Currently, a large implementation program is under way with working groups of teachers in 14 of the 16 federal states (Bundesländer) in Germany. This program combines the development of teaching units, their implementation in schools, and the professional development of teachers. Now in its third year, the project has yielded positive results and funds for continuation have been granted.

  7. A new look at some basic concepts in arbitrage pricing theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA; Jianming(夏建明); YAN; Jia'an(严加安)

    2003-01-01

    The notion of No Free Lunch with Vanishing Risk (or NFLVR in short) w.r.t. admissible strategies depends on the choice of numeraire. Yan introduced the notion of allowable strategy and showed that condition of NFLVR w.r.t. allowable strategies is independent of the choice of numeraire and is equivalent to the existence of an equivalent martingale measure for the deflated price process. In this paper we establish a version of the Kramkov's optional decomposition theorem in the setting of equivalent martingale measures. Based on this theorem, we have a new look at some basic concepts in arbitrage pricing theory: superhedging, fair price,attainable contingent claims, complete markets and etc.

  8. Use of modulated excitation signals in ultrasound. Part I: Basic concepts and expected benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misaridis, Thanassis; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2005-01-01

    This paper, the first from a series of three papers on the application of coded excitation signals in medical ultrasound, discusses the basic principles and ultrasound-related problems of pulse compression. The concepts of signal modulation and matched filtering are given, and a simple model...... of attenuation relates the matched filter response with the ambiguity function, known from radar. Based on this analysis and the properties of the ambiguity function, the selection of coded waveforms suitable for ultrasound imaging is discussed. It is shown that linear frequency modulation (FM) signals have...... the best and most robust features for ultrasound imaging. Other coded signals such as nonlinear FM and binary complementary Golay codes also have been considered and characterized in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and sensitivity to frequency shifts. Using the simulation program Field II, it is found...

  9. Nonparametric statistical tests for the continuous data: the basic concept and the practical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahm, Francis Sahngun

    2016-02-01

    Conventional statistical tests are usually called parametric tests. Parametric tests are used more frequently than nonparametric tests in many medical articles, because most of the medical researchers are familiar with and the statistical software packages strongly support parametric tests. Parametric tests require important assumption; assumption of normality which means that distribution of sample means is normally distributed. However, parametric test can be misleading when this assumption is not satisfied. In this circumstance, nonparametric tests are the alternative methods available, because they do not required the normality assumption. Nonparametric tests are the statistical methods based on signs and ranks. In this article, we will discuss about the basic concepts and practical use of nonparametric tests for the guide to the proper use.

  10. Diagnostic questionnaire of astronomy's basic concepts per integrated high school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima Barbosa, J. I.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2016-05-01

    Related themes to the study of astronomy permeates almost for all levels of education adopted in Brazil, however, this subject is not a specific discipline part of basic education curriculum, in other words, its contents are distributed in the subjects of Natural Sciences, Geography and Physics. This work presents a questionnaire diagnosis comprises a total of thirteen questions, which was applied to integrated high school students from four campuses of the Federal Institute of Alagoas - IFAL, and its purpose is to investigate the knowledge of these students astronomical basic concepts. The method used was survey and a total of 653 questionnaires were answered, 267 in the 1st year, 219 in 2nd year, and 167 in the 3rd year. This research is ongoing, however it can be initially noted that in ten questions the students of 1st year were below average (ie 50%), students of 2nd year fall short of this note in eight questions, and the students of the 3rd year, have not reached this note in five questions.

  11. Basic education teachers’ concept of effective teaching: Inputs to teacher education curriculum in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Luz Raymundo Abulon

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Conceptual understanding about effective teaching was explored among basic education teachers from public schools situated in the City of Manila. Teacher-respondents from kindergarten, elementary and high school levels (N=355 were asked to respond to a questionnaire with open-ended items from which qualitative research data were gathered. Thematic analysis served as the springboard for the identification of underlying themes and core related ideas as guided by four ‘a priori’ major categories embodied in the study’s conceptual framework. Five major themes ultimately emerged to characterize the conglomeration of conceptions of effective teaching from personality-based dispositions, teaching competence traits, content mastery and expertise, pedagogical knowledge and extension of the self. The study concluded that there was no single, predominant factor or heuristic that was identified upon which effective teaching is largely and/or solely contingent. Instead, effective teaching was viewed as a confluence of various dispositions, traits, knowledge, and skill sets. A new framework was crystallized to depict the five critical factors of effective teaching in the basic education. The resulting typical and variant core ideas of what effective teaching is, served as useful benchmarks in curriculum planning and re-designing of pre-service teacher education programs administered in teacher education institutions in the Philippines. Some implications of the findings to in-service teacher education were also established in the study.

  12. Evolution of the Astronomy Concepts Along Basic Education Cycle. (Breton Title: Evolução dos Conceitos de Astronomia no Decorrer da Educação Básica.) La Evolución de los Conceptos de Astronomía Durante la Educación Básica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darroz, Luiz Marcelo; da Rosa, Cleci Werner; Becker da Rosa, Álvaro; Samudio Pèrez, Carlos Ariel

    2014-07-01

    Although astronomy is considered one of the older sciences of humanity and that the understanding of its concepts has brought tremendous advances to Science and therefore, to society, it is observed that a significant portion of people live outside of this kind of knowledge. According to the Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais for basic education, it is the school responsibility the dissemination of scientifically correct concepts, including those related to astronomy. Concerning this issue, we present a survey of 140 students of ninth grade of elementary school and 120 third-grade high-school students from four schools in the region of Passo Fundo/RS. We sought to determine, through a questionnaire consisting of open and multiple choice questions, the knowledge of this group of students about the basic terms and astronomical phenomena, and also verify that the hit rate increases as they advance through the different and progressive grades of primary and secondary education. Overall, the results show that the teaching of astronomy in basic education is facing problems. Of the 20 issues investigated, in 17 the indicators are similar in the correct answers given by students for elementary and middle school, revealing that many misconceptions still remain along basic education. This demonstrates that such issues are not - or are rarely - covered during these two school levels. Thus, we conclude that the discussion of concepts related to astronomy should receive greater emphasis on approaching different subjects, requiring a national action in support of their teaching. It is believed that a national action should be supported by a triple pillar of collective actors: the scientific community, semi-professional astronomy community and the school community. Finally, this pillar would be the basis for future discussions related to the performance of these protagonists as a means to promote active changes in the curricular structure, providing, in more effective ways, the

  13. An Innovative Passive Tip-Leakage Control Method for Axial Turbines: Basic Concept and Performance Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Markus Hamik; Reinhard Willinger

    2007-01-01

    The present paper introduces a new concept for passive turbine tip-leakage control. The basic idea of the method is the connection of the blade leading edge and the blade tip by an internal channel. Due to the difference between the stagnation pressure at the leading edge and the low pressure at the blade tip, a small amount of the working fluid is extracted from the blade passage. At the blade tip, a jet is injected roughly perpendicular to the tip gap flow driven by the blade pressure difference. It is proposed that the jet blocks at least a part of the tip gap flow.Since the tip-leakage losses are proportional to the tip gap mass flow rate, the tip injection results in a reduction of the associated losses. After the introduction of the concept, an analytical model is presented which describes the reduction of the tip gap discharge coefficient due to the tip injection. Furthermore, the analytical model is supported by the results of a preliminary CFD analysis. Finally, the potential of the efficiency improvement by the passive blade tip injection method is reported.

  14. Designing and Implementing Basic Sciences Ontology Based on Concepts and Relationships of Relevant Thesauri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molouk Sadat Hosseini Beheshti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the main portion of knowledge is stored in electronic texts and documents and for transferring that knowledge effectively, we must use proper methods to gather and retrieve relevant information. Ontologies provide means to produce structured documents and use intelligent search instead of keyword search. Ontology defines the common words and concepts used to describe and represent an area of knowledge. However, developing ontologies is a time consuming and labor work, so many ontology developers try to facilitate and speed up this process by reusing other resources. In fact, thesaurus contains semantic information and hierarchical structure that make it an appropriate resource for ontology construction. Therefore, we determined to use the thesauri previously developed at Iranian Research Institute for Information Science and Technology (IRANDOC to construct ontology in basic sciences domain. At first, we synchronized common concepts in thesauri before integrating them as a macro thesaurus and removed inconsistencies. To reduce the amount of time and human resources which were needed for synchronizing process, Thesaurus Synchronizer was developed to illustrate differences between matched cases of two thesauri. It provides powerful tools for demonstrating differences and suggestions for each of the existing matters. Thus, domain experts synchronized each two thesaurus semi-automatically. Then we merged thesauri and transform the data format into ISO 25964 standard. The conceptual model have been designed based on the terms and their relationships in the integrated thesaurus and the concept maps that were designed by domain experts for each of basic sciences (Chemistry, Physics, Biology, Geology and Mathematics. We used the methodology called METHONTOLOGY in this stage. The main activity in this methodology is conceptualization and it enables the construction of ontologies at the knowledge level. Ultimately, the ontology was generated by

  15. The evolution of the female sexual response concept: Treatment implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damjanović Aleksandar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexual dysfunctions have been the most prevalent group of sexual disorders and include a large number of populations of both sexes. The research of sexual behavior and treatment of women with sexual distress arises many questions related to differences in sexual response of men and women. The conceptualization of this response in modern sexology has changed over time. The objective of our paper was to present the changes and evolution of the female’s sexual response concept in a summarized and integrated way, to analyze the expanded and revised definitions of the female sexual response as well as implications and recommendations of new approaches to diagnostics and treatment according to the established changes. The lack of adequate empirical basis of the female sexual response model is a critical question in the literature dealing with this issue. Some articles report that linear models demonstrate more correctly and precisely the sexual response of women with normal sexual functions in relation to women with sexual dysfunction. Modification of this model later resulted in a circular model which more adequately presented the sexual response of women with sexual function disorder than of women with normal sexual function. The nonlinear model of female sexual response constructed by Basson incorporates the value of emotional intimacy, sexual stimulus and satisfaction with the relationship. Female functioning is significantly affected by multiple psychosocial factors such as satisfaction with the relationship, self-image, earlier negative sexual experience, etc. Newly revised, expanded definitions of female sexual dysfunction try to contribute to new knowledge about a highly contextual nature of woman’s sexuality so as to enhance clinical treatment of dysfunctions. The definitions emphasize the evaluation of the context of women’s problematic sexual experiences.

  16. The evolution of the female sexual response concept: treatment implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damjanović, Aleksandar; Duisin, Dragana; Barisić, Jasmina

    2013-01-01

    Sexual dysfunctions have been the most prevalent group of sexual disorders and include a large number of populations of both sexes.The research of sexual behavior and treatment of women with sexual distress arises many questions related to differences in sexual response of men and women. The conceptualization of this response in modern sexology has changed over time.The objective of our paper was to present the changes and evolution of the female's sexual response concept in a summarized and integrated way, to analyze the expanded and revised definitions of the female sexual response as well as implications and recommendations of new approaches to diagnostics and treatment according to the established changes.The lack of adequate empirical basis of the female sexual response model is a critical question in the literature dealing with this issue. Some articles report that linear models demonstrate more correctly and precisely the sexual response of women with normal sexual functions in relation to women with sexual dysfunction. Modification of this model later resulted in a circular model which more adequately presented the sexual response of women with sexual function disorder than of women with normal sexual function.The nonlinear model of female sexual response constructed by Basson incorporates the value of emotional intimacy, sexual stimulus and satisfaction with the relationship. Female functioning is significantly affected by multiple psychosocial factors such as satisfaction with the relationship, self-image, earlier negative sexual experience, etc. Newly revised, expanded definitions of female sexual dysfunction try to contribute to new knowledge about a highly contextual nature of woman's sexuality so as to enhance clinical treatment of dysfunctions.The definitions emphasize the evaluation of the context of women's problematic sexual experiences.

  17. The reaction space and different P-T evolution of Xuanhua and Miyun basic granulites in North China Craton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马军; 王仁民

    1997-01-01

    The basic granulites from Xuanhua and Miyun have similar mineral assemblages but very different reactionary textures. Through comparison of the metamorphic reaction space between the basic granulites of the two areas, it is further confirmed that the P-T evolution of Xuanhua basic granulites and that of Miyun basic granulites are different. The former is of type CW-ITD. The latter is of ACW-IBC.

  18. Loess studies in central United States: Evolution of concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follmer, L.R.

    1996-01-01

    Few words in the realm of earth science have caused more debate than "loess". It is a common term that was first used as a name of a silt deposit before it was defined in a scientific sense. Because this "loose" deposit is easily distinguished from other more coherent deposits, it was recognized as a matter of practical concern and later became the object of much scientific scrutiny. Loess was first recognized along the Rhine Valley in Germany in the 1830s and was first noted in the United States in 1846 along the lower Mississippi River where it later became the center of attention. The use of the name eventually spread around the world, but its use has not been consistently applied. Over the years some interpretations and stratigraphic correlations have been validated, but others have been hotly contested on conceptual grounds and semantic issues. The concept of loess evolved into a complex issue as loess and loess-like deposits were discovered in different parts of the US. The evolution of concepts in the central US developed in four indefinite stages: the eras of (1) discovery and development of hypotheses, (2) conditional acceptance of the eolian origin of loess, (3) "bandwagon" popularity of loess research, and (4) analytical inquiry on the nature of loess. Toward the end of the first era around 1900, the popular opinion on the meaning of the term loess shifted from a lithological sense of loose silt to a lithogenetic sense of eolian silt. However, the dual use of the term fostered a lingering skepticism during the second era that ended in 1944 with an explosion of interest that lasted for more than a decade. In 1944, R.J. Russell proposed and H.N. Fisk defended a new non-eolian, property-based, concept of loess. The eolian advocates reacted with surprise and enthusiasm. Each side used constrained arguments to show their view of the problem, but did not examine the fundamental problem, which was not in the proofs of their hypothesis, but in the definition of

  19. SPECIALIZED MAPPING OF CRUSTAL FAULT ZONES. PART 1: BASIC THEORETICAL CONCEPTS AND PRINCIPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Zh. Seminsky

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Long-term studies of shear zones have included collection of data on fractures showing no indication of displacement which are termed as 'blank' fractures. A method aimed at mapping fault structures and stress fields has been developed on the basis of results of paragenetic analysis of measurements of abundant fractures. The method is termed as 'specialized mapping', firstly, due to its specific structural goal so that to distinguish it from the conventional geological mapping of regions in nature, and, secondly, because of the specific procedure applied to refer to fractures as references to decipher fault-block patterns of natural regions. In Part 1, basic theoretical concepts and principles of specialized mapping are described. Part 2 is being prepared for publication in one of the next issues of the journal; it will cover stages of the proposed method and describe some of the cases of its application.In terms of general organizational principles, specialized mapping is similar to other methods based on structural paragenetic analysis and differs from such methods in types of paragenesises viewed as references to reveal crustal fault zones. Such paragenesises result from stage-by-stage faulting (Fig 2 and Fig. 7 during which stress fields of the 2nd order are regularly changeable within the shear zone. According to combined experimental and natural data, a complete paragenesis of fractures in the shear zone includes a major (1st order fault plane and fractures of other seven types, R, R’, n, n’, t, t’ and T (2nd order (Fig. 4 and Fig 8. At the fracture level, each of them corresponds to a paragenesis including three nearly perpendicular systems of early ruptures (Fig. 1, which are based on two classical patterns of conjugated fractures, one of which is consistent with the position of the fault plane (Fig. 3. Taking into account that strike-slip, reverse and normal faults are similar in terms of mechanics (i.e. they are formed due to

  20. Basic concepts of epigenetics: impact of environmental signals on gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzio, Elizabeth A; Soliman, Karam F A

    2012-02-01

    Through epigenetic modifications, specific long-term phenotypic consequences can arise from environmental influence on slowly evolving genomic DNA. Heritable epigenetic information regulates nucleosomal arrangement around DNA and determines patterns of gene silencing or active transcription. One of the greatest challenges in the study of epigenetics as it relates to disease is the enormous diversity of proteins, histone modifications and DNA methylation patterns associated with each unique maladaptive phenotype. This is further complicated by a limitless combination of environmental cues that could alter the epigenome of specific cell types, tissues, organs and systems. In addition, complexities arise from the interpretation of studies describing analogous but not identical processes in flies, plants, worms, yeast, ciliated protozoans, tumor cells and mammals. This review integrates fundamental basic concepts of epigenetics with specific focus on how the epigenetic machinery interacts and operates in continuity to silence or activate gene expression. Topics covered include the connection between DNA methylation, methyl-CpG-binding proteins, transcriptional repression complexes, histone residues, histone modifications that mediate gene repression or relaxation, histone core variant stability, H1 histone linker flexibility, FACT complex, nucleosomal remodeling complexes, HP1 and nuclear lamins.

  1. Historical evolution of the concept of fibromyalgia: the main stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Pasero

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The concept of fibromyalgia is fairly recent, by evolving from previous notions such as muscular rheumatism and fibrositis. In this concise report the main stages leading to the development of the concept of fibromyalgia are sketched out, beginning from the notions of fibrositis nodules, trigger points and myofascial pain, up to the most recent knowledge including this clinical condition in the cluster of central sensitivity syndromes.

  2. The Development of a Diagnostic Test for Determining Secondary Students' Knowledge and Understanding of Certain Basic Language Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Coleen Rawson

    Problems encountered in evaluating the effectiveness of an English elective program indicated the need for the development of a criterion-referenced diagnostic test for determining students' knowledge and understanding of certain basic language concepts in the field of English. A survey of 76 English elective programs throughout the United States…

  3. High-School Students' Conceptual Difficulties and Attempts at Conceptual Change: The Case of Basic Quantum Chemical Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaparlis, Georgios; Papaphotis, Georgios

    2009-01-01

    This study tested for deep understanding and critical thinking about basic quantum chemical concepts taught at 12th grade (age 17-18). Our aim was to achieve conceptual change in students. A quantitative study was conducted first (n = 125), and following this 23 selected students took part in semi-structured interviews either individually or in…

  4. Integration of clinical and basic sciences in concept maps : A mixed-method study on teacher learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, Sylvia C.; Van Tartwijk, Jan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/112629385; Bolk, Jan; Verloop, Nico

    2015-01-01

    Background: The explication of relations between clinical and basic sciences can help vertical integration in medical curricula. Concept mapping might be a useful technique for this explication. Little is known about teachers' ability regarding the articulation of integration. We examined therefore

  5. keV sterile neutrino dark matter from singlet scalar decays: basic concepts and subtle features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merle, Alexander; Totzauer, Maximilian [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany)

    2015-06-08

    We perform a detailed and illustrative study of the production of keV sterile neutrino Dark Matter (DM) by decays of singlet scalars in the early Universe. In the current study we focus on providing a clear and general overview of this production mechanism. For the first time we study all regimes possible on the level of momentum distribution functions, which we obtain by solving a system of Boltzmann equations. These quantities contain the full information about the production process, which allows us to not only track the evolution of the DM generation but to also take into account all bounds related to the spectrum, such as constraints from structure formation or from avoiding too much dark radiation. In particular we show that this simple production mechanism can, depending on the regime, lead to strongly non-thermal DM spectra which may even feature more than one peak in the momentum distribution. These cases could have particularly interesting consequences for cosmological structure formation, as their analysis requires more refined tools than the simplistic estimate using the free-streaming horizon. Here we present the mechanism including all concepts and subtleties involved, for now using the assumption that the effective number of relativistic degrees of freedom is constant during DM production, which is applicable in a significant fraction of the parameter space. This allows us to derive analytical results to back up our detailed numerical computations, thus leading to the most comprehensive picture of keV sterile neutrino DM production by singlet scalar decays that exists up to now.

  6. Comparing Two Forms of Concept Map Critique Activities to Facilitate Knowledge Integration Processes in Evolution Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendimann, Beat A.; Linn, Marcia C.

    2016-01-01

    Concept map activities often lack a subsequent revision step that facilitates knowledge integration. This study compares two collaborative critique activities using a Knowledge Integration Map (KIM), a form of concept map. Four classes of high school biology students (n?=?81) using an online inquiry-based learning unit on evolution were assigned…

  7. The evolution of ageing : concepts, causation and calculus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wensink, Maarten Jan

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of ageing is a field flush with misconceptions, misunderstandings, and hiatuses. In this thesis I address the most important misunderstanding and misconceptions, and develop new theory to fill the gaps. This work directly leads to the restatement of the central question in the evolutio

  8. Evolution & Phylogenetic Analysis: Classroom Activities for Investigating Molecular & Morphological Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Wilfred A.

    2010-01-01

    In a flexible multisession laboratory, students investigate concepts of phylogenetic analysis at both the molecular and the morphological level. Students finish by conducting their own analysis on a collection of skeletons representing the major phyla of vertebrates, a collection of primate skulls, or a collection of hominid skulls.

  9. From identity to organisation identity: The evolution of a concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Van Tonder

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The view that corporate and/or organisation identity is a contributing factor to organisational success, is increasingly observed in the media. At the same time research interest in the concept appears to be on the increase. While identity is not a novel concept and has presented in different forms, it remains shrouded in ambiguity and is in need of more precise articulation. The present study revisited the origins of the identity concept and reviewed various perspectives on identity. A specific meaning structure and theoretical framework for the organization identity concept is proposed and it is concluded that contemporary views of identity are increasingly embracing earlier psychological perspectives. Opsomming Die siening dat korporatiewe en/of organisasie-identiteit ’n bydraende faktor tot organisasiesukses is, word toenemend in die media waargeneem. Navorsingsbelangstelling in die konsep skyn terselfdertyd toe te neem. Terwyl identiteit geensins ’n nuwe konsep is nie en in verskillende vorme voorkom, bly dit in vaagheid gehul en word ’n meer duidelike omskrywing daarvan benodig. Die huidige studie het die oorsprong van die indentiteitskonsep nagespeur en verskeie perspektiewe op identiteit in oënskou geneem. ’n Bepaalde betekenisstruktuur en teoretiese raamwerk word vir die identiteitskonsep voorgestel en die gevolgtrekking word gemaak dat kontemporêre sienings van identiteit toenemend besig is om vroeëre psigologiese perspektiewe te omsluit.

  10. The Max Launch Abort System - Concept, Flight Test, and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) is an independent engineering analysis and test organization providing support across the range of NASA programs. In 2007 NASA was developing the launch escape system for the Orion spacecraft that was evolved from the traditional tower-configuration escape systems used for the historic Mercury and Apollo spacecraft. The NESC was tasked, as a programmatic risk-reduction effort to develop and flight test an alternative to the Orion baseline escape system concept. This project became known as the Max Launch Abort System (MLAS), named in honor of Maxime Faget, the developer of the original Mercury escape system. Over the course of approximately two years the NESC performed conceptual and tradeoff analyses, designed and built full-scale flight test hardware, and conducted a flight test demonstration in July 2009. Since the flight test, the NESC has continued to further develop and refine the MLAS concept.

  11. Semi-Analytic Galaxy Evolution (SAGE): Model Calibration and Basic Results

    CERN Document Server

    Croton, Darren J; Tonini, Chiara; Garel, Thibault; Bernyk, Maksym; Bibiano, Antonio; Hodkinson, Luke; Mutch, Simon J; Poole, Gregory B; Shattow, Genevieve M

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a new publicly available codebase for modelling galaxy formation in a cosmological context, the "Semi-Analytic Galaxy Evolution" model, or SAGE for short. SAGE is a significant update to that used in Croton et al. (2006) and has been rebuilt to be modular and customisable. The model will run on any N-body simulation whose trees are organised in a supported format and contain a minimum set of basic halo properties. In this work we present the baryonic prescriptions implemented in SAGE to describe the formation and evolution of galaxies, and their calibration for three N-body simulations: Millennium, Bolshoi, and GiggleZ. Updated physics include: gas accretion, ejection due to feedback, and reincorporation via the galactic fountain; a new gas cooling--radio mode active galactic nucleus (AGN) heating cycle; AGN feedback in the quasar mode; a new treatment of gas in satellite galaxies; and galaxy mergers, disruption, and the build-up of intra-cluster stars. Throughout, we show the results of ...

  12. Factors which influence Texas biology teachers' decisions to emphasize fundamental concepts of evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilica, Kimberly Lynn

    The teaching of biological evolution in public science classrooms has been mitigated by a lingering and historic climate of controversy (Skoog, 1984; Skoog, 1979). This controversy has successfully stalled attempts to bring authentic science literacy to the American public (Bybee, 1997). The first encouraging signs of the abatement of this controversy occurred during the early 1990s when several prominent science organizations promoted evolution to its appropriate status as a central and unifying concept in biology (National Science Teachers Association, 1992; National Research Council, 1996; American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1990, 1993). The organizations acknowledged that not only should biological evolution be taught, evolution should stand as one of a select group of essential concepts upon which biology curricula should be built. Bandura's Social Learning theory (Bandura, 1997; Lumpe, Haney, & Czerniak, 2000) and Helms' Model of Identity (Helms, 1998) provide the theoretical basis for this study. Both Bandura and Helms explain the actions of teachers by examining the beliefs and values that influence their decisions. The models distinguish between two types of belief systems: capacity beliefs and context beliefs (Lumpe, et al, 2000; Helms, 1998). Both belief types influence and are influenced by individual actions. In this study, the action to be described is the decision that teachers make about the degree of emphasis on evolution in the classroom. The capacity beliefs that will be examined are teachers' beliefs about their capability to teach evolution. The contextual beliefs in this study are perceptions about students' capabilities to learn evolution, the status of evolution in science, the place of evolution in the biology classroom, the influence of textbooks, time, and community/school values. This study contributes to and extends the knowledge base established by studies of evolution education by exploring the relative amount of

  13. Establishing the Basic Concepts of a Healthy Physical Education through an Expert Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Javier López Gutiérrez

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the basic knowledge needed by the sports practitioner who wishes to have a healthy physical education. To determine the necessary basic knowledge, we used a methodology of standard expertise, delving further into the subject by means of a semistructured interview. The interview was taped, transcribed and analyzed through the program Nudist NVivo. We have grouped the common responses emerging from the analysis into different categories, thus obtaining a total of 9 basic considerations which should be habitually transmitted to Physical Education students, so that they may achieve adequate self-management in the practice of physical activity.

  14. The Efficacy of Multimedia Modules for Teaching Basic Literacy-Related Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayeski, Kristin L.; Kennedy, Michael J.; de Irala, Sandra; Clinton, Elias; Hamel, Melissa; Thomas, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have found that teacher preparation programs are not universally preparing teacher candidates in concepts associated with the alphabetic principle. Yet, the majority of students with reading disabilities or who struggle with beginning reading have difficulty with phonology and concepts associated with the alphabetic principle. The…

  15. Ideas, Concepts, Doctrine: Basic Thinking in the United States Air Force, 1907-1960. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    533 IDEAS, CONCEPTS, DOCTRINE capabilities of the AirDefense Command, General Partridge returned to amore limited concept of air defense. "Asa matter...World War 11, 158-59, 165, 169, 223 MacArthur-Pratt agreement : 66, 76 MacDill, Leslie : 31, 46 Maclntyre, Malcolm A . : 554, 591-92 Magna Carta of the

  16. Concepts and practices of teachers of argumentation skills at the 5th grade of basic education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrezza da Costa França

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article seeks to discuss the concepts of two teachers regarding the teaching of argumentation skills and how they refl ect on their teaching practices with 5th grade students. The analysis of fi ve classes of each teacher has revealed that one of them adopted a concept of argumentation detached from day-to-day situations, expressed in the teaching of concepts and in a standard compositional form. The other teacher has shown a clearer understanding of the diversity of textual genres and of the situations in which one has to use argumentation skills, therefore generating more reading and writing activities based on the context, focusing on the analyzed genres’ characteristics. It is possible to conclude that the concept of argumentation as a discursive practice requires a greater knowledge of the diversity of situations and genres found in the society. This knowledge is essential for a more refl exive pedagogical practice centered on the social uses of writing.

  17. EVOLUTION DES CONCEPTIONS SUR LA FERMENTATION ALCOOLIQUE DANS UNE SITUATION DE CONCEPTION DE PROTOCOLE EXPERIMENTAL

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    National audience; This article is about knowledge modeling to generate error diagnosis in an experimental situation in biology (alcoholic fermentation). ATD is the framework we use. A protocol structure is proposed on a computing platform, which support difficultiesa priori. We present the evolution of student current thinking about alcoholic fermentation.; Cet article s'inscrit dans un travail de modélisation des connaissances pour effectuer un diagnostic des erreurs dans une situation expé...

  18. ”FEMININE WRITING” - THE EVOLUTION OF A CONCEPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela BACALI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of “feminine writing” has caused much controversy in time. It appeared in France after the feminist movements in 1970, as a reaction to the lack of visibility of women writers, and it had three important stages. The first, temporally placed right after the events, whose spokeswoman was Hélène Cixous and was marked by her disputatious spirit. In the second stage, between the 80s and the 90s, a less troubled period, as the revolutionary enthusiasm decreased, the works of reference are those signed by Béatrice Didier and Christine Planté. A third stage is the one we are in at the moment – the stage from the beginning of the millennium – characterized by the fact that gender studies are more and more frequent and the efforts to reinstate a literature that has been ignored for a long time, as well as the concern to bring to the fore the literary femininity multiply. If in the period before the postmodernist era feminine literature had certain peculiarities due also to the social situation of women in a masculine society, nowadays the process of un-differentiation – a reflex of an equality that women gained with so much difficulty – is also manifested in the writing field.

  19. Consecutive Course Modules Developed with Simple Materials to Facilitate the Learning of Basic Concepts in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okulu, Hasan Zuhtu; Oguz-Unver, Ayse

    2015-01-01

    From the perspective of teaching, the huge natural laboratory that astronomy provides constitutes the most prominent connection between astronomy and other branches of science. The purpose of this research was to provide educators with activities of observation using simple materials that were developed to facilitate the teaching of basic concepts…

  20. Utilization of old vibro-acoustic measuring equipment to grasp basic concepts of vibration measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darula, Radoslav

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to show that even old vibro-acoustic (analog) equipment can be used as a very suitable teaching equipment to grasp basic principles of measurements in an era, when measurement equipments are more-or-less treated as ‘black-boxes’, i.e. the user cannot see directly how...

  1. Using Feature Films to Integrate Themes and Concepts in the Basic Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitter, Roger

    The typical textbook for the basic course fails to integrate the broad range of topics it introduces to the new student of communication. One way of addressing this problem would be to use feature films in the course, such as "Wall Street,""True Colors,""Other People's Money,""Milagro Beanfield War," and…

  2. Embedded Information Literacy in the Basic Oral Communication Course: From Conception through Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Kari D.; Pier, Penni M.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the process of embedding information literacy into a basic oral communication course. Discussion includes student performance as an impetus for change, collaborative course design between the oral communication teaching team and instructional librarians, and assessment initiatives. Suggestions for future collaborative work…

  3. Teaching Basic Quantum Mechanics in Secondary School Using Concepts of Feynman Path Integrals Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanaro, Maria de los Angeles; Otero, Maria Rita; Arlego, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the teaching of basic quantum mechanics in high school. Rather than following the usual formalism, our approach is based on Feynman's path integral method. Our presentation makes use of simulation software and avoids sophisticated mathematical formalism. (Contains 3 figures.)

  4. Training Concept, Evolution Time, and the Maximum Entropy Production Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Bezryadin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The maximum entropy production principle (MEPP is a type of entropy optimization which demands that complex non-equilibrium systems should organize such that the rate of the entropy production is maximized. Our take on this principle is that to prove or disprove the validity of the MEPP and to test the scope of its applicability, it is necessary to conduct experiments in which the entropy produced per unit time is measured with a high precision. Thus we study electric-field-induced self-assembly in suspensions of carbon nanotubes and realize precise measurements of the entropy production rate (EPR. As a strong voltage is applied the suspended nanotubes merge together into a conducting cloud which produces Joule heat and, correspondingly, produces entropy. We introduce two types of EPR, which have qualitatively different significance: global EPR (g-EPR and the entropy production rate of the dissipative cloud itself (DC-EPR. The following results are obtained: (1 As the system reaches the maximum of the DC-EPR, it becomes stable because the applied voltage acts as a stabilizing thermodynamic potential; (2 We discover metastable states characterized by high, near-maximum values of the DC-EPR. Under certain conditions, such efficient entropy-producing regimes can only be achieved if the system is allowed to initially evolve under mildly non-equilibrium conditions, namely at a reduced voltage; (3 Without such a “training” period the system typically is not able to reach the allowed maximum of the DC-EPR if the bias is high; (4 We observe that the DC-EPR maximum is achieved within a time, Te, the evolution time, which scales as a power-law function of the applied voltage; (5 Finally, we present a clear example in which the g-EPR theoretical maximum can never be achieved. Yet, under a wide range of conditions, the system can self-organize and achieve a dissipative regime in which the DC-EPR equals its theoretical maximum.

  5. Semi-Analytic Galaxy Evolution (SAGE): Model Calibration and Basic Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croton, Darren J.; Stevens, Adam R. H.; Tonini, Chiara; Garel, Thibault; Bernyk, Maksym; Bibiano, Antonio; Hodkinson, Luke; Mutch, Simon J.; Poole, Gregory B.; Shattow, Genevieve M.

    2016-02-01

    This paper describes a new publicly available codebase for modeling galaxy formation in a cosmological context, the “Semi-Analytic Galaxy Evolution” model, or sage for short.5 sage is a significant update to the 2006 model of Croton et al. and has been rebuilt to be modular and customizable. The model will run on any N-body simulation whose trees are organized in a supported format and contain a minimum set of basic halo properties. In this work, we present the baryonic prescriptions implemented in sage to describe the formation and evolution of galaxies, and their calibration for three N-body simulations: Millennium, Bolshoi, and GiggleZ. Updated physics include the following: gas accretion, ejection due to feedback, and reincorporation via the galactic fountain; a new gas cooling-radio mode active galactic nucleus (AGN) heating cycle; AGN feedback in the quasar mode; a new treatment of gas in satellite galaxies; and galaxy mergers, disruption, and the build-up of intra-cluster stars. Throughout, we show the results of a common default parameterization on each simulation, with a focus on the local galaxy population.

  6. SEMI-ANALYTIC GALAXY EVOLUTION (SAGE): MODEL CALIBRATION AND BASIC RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croton, Darren J.; Stevens, Adam R. H.; Tonini, Chiara; Garel, Thibault; Bernyk, Maksym; Bibiano, Antonio; Hodkinson, Luke; Mutch, Simon J.; Poole, Gregory B.; Shattow, Genevieve M. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, P.O. Box 218, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia)

    2016-02-15

    This paper describes a new publicly available codebase for modeling galaxy formation in a cosmological context, the “Semi-Analytic Galaxy Evolution” model, or sage for short.{sup 5} sage is a significant update to the 2006 model of Croton et al. and has been rebuilt to be modular and customizable. The model will run on any N-body simulation whose trees are organized in a supported format and contain a minimum set of basic halo properties. In this work, we present the baryonic prescriptions implemented in sage to describe the formation and evolution of galaxies, and their calibration for three N-body simulations: Millennium, Bolshoi, and GiggleZ. Updated physics include the following: gas accretion, ejection due to feedback, and reincorporation via the galactic fountain; a new gas cooling–radio mode active galactic nucleus (AGN) heating cycle; AGN feedback in the quasar mode; a new treatment of gas in satellite galaxies; and galaxy mergers, disruption, and the build-up of intra-cluster stars. Throughout, we show the results of a common default parameterization on each simulation, with a focus on the local galaxy population.

  7. The Mediational Role of Psychological Basic Needs in the Relation Between Conception of God and Psychological Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Sebastiano; Gugliandolo, Maria C; Barberis, Nadia; Larcan, Rosalba

    2016-02-01

    Relatively few studies have examined the relationship between conception of God and psychological outcomes in a self-determination theory (SDT) framework. The aim of this study was to examine the role of basic psychological needs as a mediator of the association between conception of God and psychological outcomes. In a sample of 210 religious young adults, we found that the concept of a controlling God was positively associated with feelings of need frustration and depression, whilst the concept of an autonomy-supporting God was positively associated with feelings of need satisfaction and vitality. In turn, need satisfaction promoted feelings of vitality, whereas need frustration led to feelings of depression. The satisfaction of needs was a full mediator of the relationship between autonomy-supporting God and vitality, whilst the frustration of needs was a full mediator of the relationship between controlling God and depression. These findings are discussed in terms of SDT. We also discuss how future research may further increase our understanding of the dynamics involved in concepts of God and psychological outcomes.

  8. Representational competence in chemistry: A comparison between students with different levels of understanding of basic chemical concepts and chemical representations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joong Hiong Sim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Representational competence is defined as “skills in interpreting and using representations”. This study attempted to compare students’ of high, medium, and low levels of understanding of (1 basic chemical concepts, and (2 chemical representations, in their representational competence. A total of 411 Form 4 science students (mean age = 16 years from seven urban secondary schools in Malaysia participated in this study. Data were collected from three instruments namely the test of chemical concepts, the test of chemical representations, and the test of representational competence. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences was used to analyze the data. Findings showed students with a high level of understanding of (1 chemical concepts and (2 chemical representations had significantly higher overall level of representational competence compared to both the medium and the low groups, at p < 0.001. However, students with medium and low levels of understanding of (1 chemical concepts and (2 chemical representations showed no significant difference in their overall levels of representational competence. Findings also showed that students’ overall level of representational competence had a higher dependence on their level of understanding of chemical concepts than their level of understanding of chemical representations.

  9. Early Science Education: Exploring Familiar Contexts To Improve the Understanding of Some Basic Scientific Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Isabel P.; Veiga, Luisa

    2001-01-01

    Argues that science education is a fundamental tool for global education and that it must be introduced in early years as a first step to a scientific culture for all. Describes testing validity of a didactic strategy for developing the learning of concepts, which was based upon an experimental work approach using everyday life contexts. (Author)

  10. Some Aspects of Rubberlike Elasticity Useful in Teaching Basic Concepts in Physical Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, J. E.

    2002-01-01

    Explains the benefits of including polymer topics in both graduate and undergraduate physical chemistry courses. Provides examples of how to use rubberlike elasticity to demonstrate some of the general and thermodynamic concepts including equations of state, Carnot cycles and mechanochemistry, gel collapse, energy storage and hysteresis, and…

  11. The Nature of Living Systems: An Exposition of the Basic Concepts in General Systems Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, James G.

    General systems theory is a set of related definitions, assumptions, and propositions which deal with reality as an integrated hierarchy of organizations of matter and energy. In this paper, the author defines the concepts of space, time, matter, energy, and information in terms of their meaning in general systems theory. He defines a system as a…

  12. High School Students' Proficiency and Confidence Levels in Displaying Their Understanding of Basic Electrolysis Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sia, Ding Teng; Treagust, David F.; Chandrasegaran, A. L.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted with 330 Form 4 (grade 10) students (aged 15-16 years) who were involved in a course of instruction on electrolysis concepts. The main purposes of this study were (1) to assess high school chemistry students' understanding of 19 major principles of electrolysis using a recently developed 2-tier multiple-choice diagnostic…

  13. A broadband dc SQUID based rf amplifier: experimental basics and development concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prokopenko, G.V.; Shitov, S.V.; Mygind, Jesper

    2002-01-01

    We present a concept of a broadband IF amplifier based on experimental results obtained with a dc SQUID rf amplifier (SQA). The frequency range is broadened by using several SQAs, each one tuned to its own central frequency at both input and output; the numerical simulations are presented...

  14. Strain, clone and species : comments on three basic concepts of bacteriology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ursing, BM; Ursing, JB

    2000-01-01

    Different aspects of the terms strain, clone and species are discussed. The term strain is commonly used to denote a pure culture - here called 'the strain in the taxonomic sense' - but does also refer to a natural concept closely related to the clone. The term clone on the other hand is used both i

  15. Introduction to the basics of evidence-based dentistry: concepts and skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Jane L

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this section of the ADA Champions Pre-Conference is to review the basics of Evidence-based dentistry (EBD), research designs and levels of evidence, and identify the skills necessary for clinicians to efficiently use an evidence-based approach in practice. This session of the pre-conference preceded the session on the skills needed to define a clinical question and search for the evidence to answer that question.

  16. Berimbau: A simple instrument for teaching basic concepts in the physics and psychoacoustics of music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilão, Rui C.; Melo, Santino L. S.

    2014-12-01

    We address the production of musical tones by a simple musical instrument of the Brazilian tradition: the berimbau-de-barriga. The vibration physics of the string and of the air mass inside the gourd are reviewed. Straightforward measurements of an actual berimbau, which illustrate the basic physical phenomena, are performed using a PC-based "soundcard oscilloscope." The inharmonicity of the string and the role of the gourd are discussed in the context of known results in the psychoacoustics of pitch definition.

  17. An exploration of computer-simulated evolution and small group discussion on pre-service science teachers' perceptions of evolutionary concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Ronald Douglas

    The primary goal of this study was to explore how the use of a computer simulation of basic evolutionary processes, in combination with small-group discussions, affected Intermediate/Senior pre-service science teachers' perspectives of basic evolutionary concepts. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used in a case study approach with 19 pre-service Intermediate/Senior science teachers at an Ontario university. Several sub-goals were explored. The first sub-goal was to assess Intermediate/Senior pre-service science teachers' current conceptions of evolution. The results indicated that approximately two-thirds of the participants had a poor understanding of basic evolutionary concepts, with only 2 of the 19 participants demonstrating a strong comprehension. These results were found to be very similar to comparable samples of subjects from other research. The second sub-goal was to explore the relationships among Intermediate/Senior pre-service science teachers' understanding of contemporary evolutionary concepts, their perspectives of the nature of science, and their intentions to teach evolutionary concepts in the classroom. Participants' knowledge of evolutionary concepts was found to be associated strongly with their intentions to teach evolution by natural selection (r = .42). However, knowledge of evolutionary concepts was not found to be associated with any particular science epistemology perspective. The third sub-goal was to analyze and to interpret the small-group discussions as members interacted with the simulation. The simulation was found to be highly engaging and a very effective method of encouraging participants to speculate, question, discuss and learn about important evolutionary concepts. Analyses of the discussions revealed that the simulation evoked a wide array of correct conceptions as well as misconceptions. The fourth sub-goal was to assess the extent to which creating a lesson plan on the topic of natural selection could affect

  18. Basic Concepts for Convection Parameterization in Weather Forecast and Climate Models: COST Action ES0905 Final Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun–Ichi Yano

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The research network “Basic Concepts for Convection Parameterization in Weather Forecast and Climate Models” was organized with European funding (COST Action ES0905 for the period of 2010–2014. Its extensive brainstorming suggests how the subgrid-scale parameterization problem in atmospheric modeling, especially for convection, can be examined and developed from the point of view of a robust theoretical basis. Our main cautions are current emphasis on massive observational data analyses and process studies. The closure and the entrainment–detrainment problems are identified as the two highest priorities for convection parameterization under the mass–flux formulation. The need for a drastic change of the current European research culture as concerns policies and funding in order not to further deplete the visions of the European researchers focusing on those basic issues is emphasized.

  19. The potential of speech act theory for New Testament exegesis: Some basic concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Botha

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Exegetes and biblical scholars are increasingly utilising the precepts of modern literary and linguistic theories in dealing with the text of the Bible. Speech act theory as well offers New Testament exegesis some additional ways and means of approaching the text of the New Testament. This first in a series of two articles making a plea for the continued utilisation and application of this theory to the text of the New Testament, offers a brief discussion of the basic principles of the theory.

  20. The basic concepts of re-modifying the criminal procedure law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Weidong

    2006-01-01

    Re-modifying China's Criminal Procedure Law has become an important topic within theoretical circles.Many scholars discuss the question of how to modify Criminal Procedure Law.The author considers re-modifying Criminal Procedure Law based on basic scientific ideas;if these ideas contain paying equal attention to fighting crime and protecting human fights,initially setting up a procedural idea and a view of legal truthfulness,giving priority to justice with due consideration to efficiency,and obeying and consulting the international criminal judiciary justness guidelines that will be followed in re-modifying Criminal Procedure Law,then this re-modifying will be successful.

  1. Motivating medical students to learn basic science concepts using chronic myeloid leukemia as an integration theme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Teresinha Olalla Saad

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report on the use of chronic myeloid leukemia as a theme of basic clinical integration for first year medical students to motivate and enable in-depth understanding of the basic sciences of the future physician. Methods: During the past thirteen years we have reviewed and updated the curriculum of the medical school of the Universidade Estadual de Campinas. The main objective of the new curriculum is to teach the students how to learn to learn. Since then, a case of chronic myeloid leukemia has been introduced to first year medical students and discussed in horizontal integration with all themes taught during a molecular and cell biology course. Cell structure and components, protein, chromosomes, gene organization, proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, signaling and so on are all themes approached during this course. At the end of every topic approached, the students prepare in advance the corresponding topic of clinical cases chosen randomly during the class, which are then presented by them. During the final class, a paper regarding mutations in the abl gene that cause resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors is discussed. After each class, three tests are solved in an interactive evaluation. Results: The course has been successful since its beginning, 13 years ago. Great motivation of those who participated in the course was observed. There were less than 20% absences in the classes. At least three (and as many as nine students every year were interested in starting research training in the field of hematology. At the end of each class, an interactive evaluation was performed and more than 70% of the answers were correct in each evaluation. Moreover, for the final evaluation, the students summarized, in a written report, the molecular and therapeutic basis of chronic myeloid leukemia, with scores ranging from 0 to 10. Considering all 13 years, a median of 78% of the class scored above 5 (min 74%-max 85%, and a median of 67

  2. Concept for a Predeployment Assessment of Basic Military Fitness in the German Armed Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Ulrich; Sievert, Alexander; Rüther, Thomas; Witzki, Alexander; Leyk, Dieter

    2015-11-01

    Military fitness is defined as a hierarchical 4-level construct in the German armed forces: (a) "Fundamental/Baseline Fitness," (b) "Basic Military Fitness," (c) "Task Fitness," and (d) "Mission Fitness." "Fundamental/Baseline Fitness" is assessed with the "Basic Fitness Test." However, this test alone is not sufficient to assess readiness for the physical demands of deployments. The first part of the article describes the development of a tool mirroring the specific physiological requirements of military operations on a joint forces level. The "Basic Military Fitness Tool" (BMFT) combines 4 crucial military demands into one single timed test run performed with field uniform (5 kg), body armor (13.4 kg), and helmet (1.6 kg): (a) maneuver under fire: 130 m run with changes in direction, velocity, and body position, (b) casualty rescue: 40 m of dragging a 50 kg load, (c) load carrying: 100 m carrying of two 18 kg loads, and (d) load lifting: lifting a 24 kg load on to a 1.25 m high rack 5 times. The second part covers the first assessment of BMFT selectivity between high- and low-performing groups. Muscle mass and strength are important factors for working with loads. Thus, female soldiers are expected to need more time to complete BMFT because of their on average lower muscle mass. Eighteen female (age = 28.5 ± 6.6 years, lean body mass [LBM] = 45.0 ± 4.5 kg; mean ± SD) and 104 male soldiers (age = 30.0 ± 8.4, LBM = 64.3 ± 7.1) completed isometric strength testing (hand grip = 344.3 ± 51.4 N and 547.3 ± 79.1 N, elbow flexors = 118.9 ± 16.9 and 235.1 ± 42.0, knee extensors = 433.2 ± 87.4 and 631.4 ± 111.4) and BMFT (259.2 ± 44.0 and 150.0 ± 21.1 s). Except age, all variables differed significantly (p < 0.01) between groups.

  3. Reconsideration of basic concepts for the low-pressure discharge maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivarova, Antonia

    2016-09-01

    The Schottky condition and the concept for the ambipolar field known as bases of the low-pressure discharge maintenance are reconsidered. Whereas the Schottky condition results in a value of the electron temperature independent of the plasma density, the discussed generalized form of the Schottky condition relates - due to the nonlinear processes in the charged particle balance - the electron temperature to the plasma density, thus, ensuring self-consistency of the plasma description. The concept for equality of the electron and ion fluxes resulting into the ambipolar field is the second issue discussed. Localization of the power input outside the high plasma-density region, a common case in many rf plasma sources, breaks it down by transforming the ambipolar field into a vortex, non-conservative, field. Since the dc field in the discharge should be a potential (conservative) field, it appears to be composed by two vortex field: the ambipolar field and a field related to a vortex dc current, the latter driven by a deviation from the Boltzmann distribution of the electron density. In addition, due to the steady-state magnetic field self-induced by the vortex current in the discharge, the plasma appears magnetized without having an external magnetic field applied.

  4. An introduction to Computer Guided Implantology; literature review، historical background and basic concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikzad S

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available "nSurgical and prosthodontic implant complications are often the case of inadvertent improper diagnosis, planning, and placement. These complications always pose a significant challenge in implant dentistry. In this article, it is attempted to depict a new technique in which advanced software program along with newly developed CAD/CAM technology called rapid prototyping will be used. This technology permits graphic and complex 3D implant simulation and then fabrication of computer-generated surgical templates. The best position of implants planned at first by taking into consideration of encased bone density of each implants and then existing occlusion. In this paper, the evolution of Computer Guided Implantology and the many benefits achieved from this very sophisticated technology described as a literature review.

  5. A spiral wave front beacon for underwater navigation: basic concept and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefner, Brian T; Dzikowicz, Benjamin R

    2011-06-01

    A spiral wave front source produces an acoustic field that has a phase that is proportional to the azimuthal angle about the source. The concept of a spiral wave front beacon is developed by combining this source with a reference source that has a phase that is constant with the angle. The phase difference between these sources contains information about the receiver's azimuthal angle relative to the beacon and can be used for underwater navigation. To produce the spiral wave front, two sources are considered: a "physical-spiral" source, which produces the appropriate phase by physically deforming the active element of the source into a spiral, and a "phased-spiral" source, which uses an array of active elements, each driven with the appropriate phase, to produce the spiral wave front. Using finite element techniques, the fields produced by these sources are examined in the context of the spiral wave front beacon, and the advantages of each source are discussed.

  6. The type I interferons: Basic concepts and clinical relevance in immune-mediated inflammatory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López de Padilla, Consuelo M; Niewold, Timothy B

    2016-01-15

    There is increasing scientific and clinical interest in elucidating the biology of type I Interferons, which began approximately 60 years ago with the concept of "viral interference", a property that reduces the ability of a virus to infect cells. Although our understanding of the multiple cellular and molecular functions of interferons has advanced significantly, much remains to be learned and type I Interferons remain an active and fascinating area of inquiry. In this review, we cover some general aspects of type I interferon genes, with emphasis on interferon-alpha, and various aspects of molecular mechanisms triggered by type I interferons and toll-like receptor signaling by the Janus activated kinase/signal transducer activation of transcription (JAK-STAT) pathway and interferon regulatory factor pathway. We will also describe the role of type I interferons in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, and its potential use as therapeutic agent.

  7. Basic sculpturing methods as innovatory incentives in the development of aesthetic form concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bente Dahl

    2009-01-01

      Many project teams grapple for a long time with developing ideas to the form concept because of a lack of methods to solve the many form problems they face in sketching. They also have difficulty in translating the project requirements for product proportions or volumes to an aesthetic form....... It is therefore interesting to clarify the methods that could boost sketching and generate incentives to create new forms. Achieving a transformation of the leading feature to three-dimensional form early in the process promotes the form development considerably. The six methods we have identified from practice...... or developed have proved to be ideal for attacking many of the early form problems and they also generate incentives for new forms in the development process itself. The methods require only simple tools such as wood blocks, wire, paper and graphite leads. The article identifies the substance of the methods...

  8. Using Hollywood Movies to Teach Basic Geological Concepts: A Comparison of Student Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowder, M. E.

    2008-12-01

    Throughout the history of cinema, events based in Earth Science have been the focus of many an action- disaster plot. From the most recent 2008 remake of Journey to the Center of the Earth, to 1965's Crack in the World, and all the way back to the 1925 silent film rendition of The Lost World, Hollywood's obsession with the geological sciences has been clear. These particular sub-genres of disaster films and science fiction present science that, from a Hollywood viewpoint, looks exciting and seems realistic. However, from a scientific viewpoint, the presentations of science are often shockingly incorrect and unfortunately serve to perpetuate common misconceptions. In 2003, Western Kentucky University began offering an elective non-majors science course, Geology and Cinema, to combat these misconceptions while using the framework of Hollywood films as a tool to appeal and connect to a broad student population. To see if this method is truly working, this study performs a student outcome comparison for basic geologic knowledge and general course perception between several sections of standard, lecture-based Introductory Geology courses and concurrent semester sections of Geology and Cinema. Preliminary results indicate that while performance data is similar between the courses, students have a more positive perception of the Cinema sections.

  9. Mapping biological ideas: Concept maps as knowledge integration tools for evolution education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendimann, Beat Adrian

    Many students leave school with a fragmented understanding of biology that does not allow them to connect their ideas to their everyday lives (Wandersee, 1989; Mintzes, Wandersee, & Novak, 1998; Mintzes, Wandersee, & Novak, 2000a). Understanding evolution ideas is seen as central to building an integrated knowledge of biology (Blackwell, Powell, & Dukes, 2003; Thagard & Findlay, 2010). However, the theory of evolution has been found difficult to understand as it incorporates a wide range of ideas from different areas (Bahar et al., 1999; Tsui & Treagust, 2003) and multiple interacting levels (Wilensky & Resnick, 1999; Duncan & Reiser, 2007; Hmelo-Silver et al., 2007). Research suggests that learners can hold a rich repertoire of co-existing alternative ideas of evolution (for example, Bishop & Anderson, 1990; Demastes, Good, & Peebles, 1996; Evans, 2008), especially of human evolution (for example, Nelson, 1986; Sinatra et al., 2003; Poling & Evans, 2004). Evolution ideas are difficult to understand because they often contradict existing alternative ideas (Mayr, 1982; Wolpert, 1994; Evans, 2008). Research suggests that understanding human evolution is a key to evolution education (for example, Blackwell et al., 2003; Besterman & Baggott la Velle, 2007). This dissertation research investigates how different concept mapping forms embedded in a collaborative technology-enhanced learning environment can support students' integration of evolution ideas using case studies of human evolution. Knowledge Integration (KI) (Linn et al., 2000; Linn et al., 2004) is used as the operational framework to explore concept maps as knowledge integration tools to elicit, add, critically distinguish, group, connect, and sort out alternative evolution ideas. Concept maps are a form of node-link diagram for organizing and representing connections between ideas as a semantic network (Novak & Gowin, 1984). This dissertation research describes the iterative development of a novel biology

  10. The historical origins of the basic concepts of health promotion and education: the role of ancient Greek philosophy and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tountas, Yannis

    2009-06-01

    Although it is commonly accepted that the basic concepts of 'Health Promotion' have been developed in the last two decades, they have their roots in ancient civilizations and in particular in Greek antiquity. As evident from medical and philosophical documents of the sixth to fourth centuries B.C., the ancient Greeks were the first to break with the supernatural conceptions of health and disease that had so far dominated human societies. The ancient Greeks developed the physiocratic school of thought, realizing that maintaining good health and fighting illness depend on natural causes and that health and disease cannot be dissociated from particular physical and social environments nor from human behavior. In this context, they defined health as a state of dynamic equilibrium between the internal and the external environment, they took under consideration the physical and social determinants of health, they empowered individuals and communities through new democratic and participatory institutions, they gave emphasis in health education and skill development, they recognized the importance of supportive environments and of healthy public policy and they re-oriented medicine toward a more naturalistic and humanistic perspective. The aim of the present study is to highlight such core concepts from these early times that helped establishing the foundations for health promotion and education in the modern era according to the Ottawa Charter.

  11. Basic concepts, status, opportunities, and challenges of electrical machines utilizing high-temperature superconducting (HTS) windings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frauenhofer, J [Siemens AG, Automation and Drives, Large Drives (Germany); Grundmann, J; Klaus, G; Nick, W [Siemens AG, Corporate Technology, PO Box 3220, 91050 Erlangen (Germany)], E-mail: wolfgang.nick@siemens.com

    2008-02-15

    An overview of the different approaches towards achieving a marketable application of a superconducting electrical machine, either as synchronous motor or generator, will be given. This field ranges from relatively small industrial drives to utility generators with large power ratings, from the low speed and high torque of wind power generators and ship propulsion motors, to high speed generators attached to turbines. Essentially HTS machine technology offers several advantages such as compactness (weight and volume reduction), increased efficiency, and other operational benefits. The machine features have to be optimized with regard to the specific application, and different concepts were developed by internationally competing teams, with Siemens being one of them. The achieved status in these fields will be summarized, pointing to the specific technical challenges to overcome. For this purpose we have not only to consider the technology of manufacturing the HTS rotor winding itself, but also to check requirements and availability of supporting technologies. This ranges from new challenges posed to the non-superconducting ('conventional') components of such innovative HTS machines, manufacturing superconducting material in the coming transition from 1st to 2nd generation HTS tape, cryogenic technology including material behavior, to new and challenging tasks in simulating and predicting the performance of such machines by computational tools. The question of market opportunities for this technology obviously is a function of all these aspects; however, a strong tendency for the near future is seen in the area of high-torque ship propulsion.

  12. Basic concepts, status, opportunities, and challenges of electrical machines utilizing high-temperature superconducting (HTS) windings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frauenhofer, J.; Grundmann, J.; Klaus, G.; Nick, W.

    2008-02-01

    An overview of the different approaches towards achieving a marketable application of a superconducting electrical machine, either as synchronous motor or generator, will be given. This field ranges from relatively small industrial drives to utility generators with large power ratings, from the low speed and high torque of wind power generators and ship propulsion motors, to high speed generators attached to turbines. Essentially HTS machine technology offers several advantages such as compactness (weight and volume reduction), increased efficiency, and other operational benefits. The machine features have to be optimized with regard to the specific application, and different concepts were developed by internationally competing teams, with Siemens being one of them. The achieved status in these fields will be summarized, pointing to the specific technical challenges to overcome. For this purpose we have not only to consider the technology of manufacturing the HTS rotor winding itself, but also to check requirements and availability of supporting technologies. This ranges from new challenges posed to the non-superconducting ("conventional") components of such innovative HTS machines, manufacturing superconducting material in the coming transition from 1st to 2nd generation HTS tape, cryogenic technology including material behavior, to new and challenging tasks in simulating and predicting the performance of such machines by computational tools. The question of market opportunities for this technology obviously is a function of all these aspects; however, a strong tendency for the near future is seen in the area of high-torque ship propulsion.

  13. Current and emerging basic science concepts in bone biology: implications in craniofacial surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Adam J; Mesa, John; Buchman, Steven R

    2012-01-01

    Ongoing research in bone biology has brought cutting-edge technologies into everyday use in craniofacial surgery. Nonetheless, when osseous defects of the craniomaxillofacial skeleton are encountered, autogenous bone grafting remains the criterion standard for reconstruction. Accordingly, the core principles of bone graft physiology continue to be of paramount importance. Bone grafts, however, are not a panacea; donor site morbidity and operative risk are among the limitations of autologous bone graft harvest. Bone graft survival is impaired when irradiation, contamination, and impaired vascularity are encountered. Although the dura can induce calvarial ossification in children younger than 2 years, the repair of critical-size defects in the pediatric population may be hindered by inadequate bone graft donor volume. The novel and emerging field of bone tissue engineering holds great promise as a limitless source of autogenous bone. Three core constituents of bone tissue engineering have been established: scaffolds, signals, and cells. Blood supply is the sine qua non of these components, which are used both individually and concertedly in regenerative craniofacial surgery. The discerning craniofacial surgeon must determine the proper use for these bone graft alternatives, while understanding their concomitant risks. This article presents a review of contemporary and emerging concepts in bone biology and their implications in craniofacial surgery. Current practices, areas of controversy, and near-term future applications are emphasized.

  14. Multiplexed microbead immunoassays by flow cytometry for molecular profiling: Basic concepts and proteomics applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishhan, V V; Khan, Imran H; Luciw, Paul A

    2009-01-01

    Flow cytometry was originally established as an automated method for measuring optical or fluorescence characteristics of cells or particles in suspension. With the enormous increase in development of reliable electronics, lasers, micro-fluidics, as well as many advances in immunology and other fields, flow cytometers have become user-friendlier, less-expensive instruments with an increasing importance for both basic research and clinical applications. Conventional uses of flow cytometry include immunophenotyping of blood cells and the analysis of the cell cycle. Importantly, methods for labeling microbeads with unique combinations of fluorescent spectral signatures have made multiplex analysis of soluble analytes (i.e. the ability to detect multiple targets in a single test sample) feasible by flow cytometry. The result is a rapid, high-throughput, sensitive, and reproducible detection technology for a wide range of biomedical applications requiring detection of proteins (in cells and biofluids) and nucleic acids. Thus, novel methods of flow cytometry are becoming important for diagnostic purposes (e.g. identifying multiple clinical biomarkers for a wide range of diseases) as well as for developing novel therapies (e.g. elucidating drug mechanisms and potential toxicities). In addition, flow cytometry for multiplex analysis, coupled with automated sample handling devices, has the potential to significantly enhance proteomics research, particularly analysis of post-translational modifications of proteins, on a large scale. Inherently, flow cytometry methods are strongly rooted in the laws of the physics of optics, fluidics, and electromagnetism. This review article describes principles and early sources of flow cytometry, provides an introduction to the multiplex microbead technology, and discusses its applications and advantages in comparison to other methods. Anticipated future directions, particularly for translational research in medicine, are also discussed.

  15. The concept of music evolution in Herbert Spencer’s and Charles Darwin’s theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrov Ana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the discourses on music in Herbert Spencer’s and Charles Darwin’s theories of evolution. Even though both Spencer and Darwin construed music as a carrier of the expression of affects and a part of a ubiquitous evolutional process towards ever increasing progress of culture, these authors’ discourses differed from each other in the understanding of the origin and function of music. Darwin considered music as being one of the (natural means of making a selection during the process of evolution of the humans as a biological species. Notwithstanding certain similarities to Darwin, Spencer (as well as his followers discussed music as a part of a socio-cultural evolution, which entailed an approach to music as a historical and cultural phenomenon. I will here elaborate the position of the discourses on music in Spencer’s and Darwin’s general theories of evolution, point out to the relevant aspects of the concept of music evolution and mention the influence that these theories had on the 19th-century official discourses on music.

  16. The evolution of the concepts of growth, development and other related, during the last decades

    OpenAIRE

    Leszek S. Jankiewicz

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of such terms as growth, differentiation, development, morphogenesis etc. is discussed. It is proposed that the term (notion) development should be understood to comprise "growth", "differentiation" and even "abscission, abortion and necrosis". The term "development" is already used in such a way by some authors. The relations among the phenomena denoted by the above terms are presented in a graphic form to show that they partly overlap. The concept that growth and development r...

  17. From introjection to intropression: evolution of a theoretical concept and its consequences for psychoanalytic technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Cabré, Luis Jorge

    2011-12-01

    Here we try to offer a panoramic view on the evolution of the concept of introjection in Ferenczi's thinking, until its culmination in the last annotation of Notes and Fragments on December 26, 1932. In this final note, Ferenczi invented the neologism intropression in which he tried to articulate the notion of introjections with the devastating effects of violence and parental repression, and a definite way to conceive the analytical practice.

  18. A Stratified Study of Students' Understanding of Basic Optics Concepts in Different Contexts Using Two-Tier Multiple-Choice Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hye-Eun; Treagust, David F.; Chandrasegaran, A. L.

    2009-01-01

    A large scale study involving 1786 year 7-10 Korean students from three school districts in Seoul was undertaken to evaluate their understanding of basic optics concepts using a two-tier multiple-choice diagnostic instrument consisting of four pairs of items, each of which evaluated the same concept in two different contexts. The instrument, which…

  19. Some basic concepts and problems on the petrogenesis of intra-plate ocean island basalts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIU Yaoling

    2009-01-01

    the fertile source material from depth may be (or contain) recycled ancient metasomatized deep portions of oceanic lithosphere.In any attempt to explain the origin of mantle isotopic end-members as revealed from global OIB data,we must (1) remember our original assumptions that the primitive mantle (PM) soon after the core separation was compositionally uniform/homogeneous with the core playing a limited or no role in causing mantle isotopic heterogeneity; (2) not use OIB isotopes to conclude about the nature and compositions of ultimate source materials without understanding geochemical consequences of subduction zone metamorphism; and (3) ensure that models and hypotheses are consistent with the basic petrology and major/trace element geochemistry.

  20. AAPM/RSNA physics tutorial for residents. Topics in US: B-mode US: basic concepts and new technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hangiandreou, Nicholas J

    2003-01-01

    Ultrasonography (US) has been used in medical imaging for over half a century. Current US scanners are based largely on the same basic principles used in the initial devices for human imaging. Modern equipment uses a pulse-echo approach with a brightness-mode (B-mode) display. Fundamental aspects of the B-mode imaging process include basic ultrasound physics, interactions of ultrasound with tissue, ultrasound pulse formation, scanning the ultrasound beam, and echo detection and signal processing. Recent technical innovations that have been developed to improve the performance of modern US equipment include the following: tissue harmonic imaging, spatial compound imaging, extended field of view imaging, coded pulse excitation, electronic section focusing, three-dimensional and four-dimensional imaging, and the general trend toward equipment miniaturization. US is a relatively inexpensive, portable, safe, and real-time modality, all of which make it one of the most widely used imaging modalities in medicine. Although B-mode US is sometimes referred to as a mature technology, this modality continues to experience a significant evolution in capability with even more exciting developments on the horizon.

  1. Complex image method for RF antenna-plasma inductive coupling calculation in planar geometry. Part I: basic concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howling, A. A.; Guittienne, Ph; Jacquier, R.; Furno, I.

    2015-12-01

    The coupling between an inductive source and the plasma determines the power transfer efficiency and the reflected impedance in the primary circuit. Usually, the plasma coupling is analysed by means of a transformer equivalent circuit, where the plasma inductance and resistance are estimated using a global plasma model. This paper shows that, for planar RF antennas, the mutual inductance between the plasma and the primary circuit can be calculated using partial inductances and the complex image method, where the plasma coupling is determined in terms of the plasma skin depth and the distance to the plasma. To introduce the basic concepts, the mutual inductance is calculated here for a linear conductor parallel to the plasma surface. In the accompanying paper part II Guittienne et al (2015 Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 24 065015), impedance measurements on a RF resonant planar plasma source are modeled using an impedance matrix where the plasma-antenna mutual impedances are calculated using the complex image method presented here.

  2. Designing health care environments: Part I. Basic concepts, principles, and issues related to evidence-based design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesario, Sandra K

    2009-06-01

    A 2001 Institute of Medicine report captured the nation's attention regarding the dangers that can result from the health care environment. This report, fueled by the need for new facilities to be constructed, led to an explosion of research that now links the physical structure and design of health care facilities to the health and well-being of patients, nurses, other health care workers, and visitors. Continuing nursing education that highlights the importance of evidence-based design has been associated with measurable improvement in health care facilities' clinical outcomes, economic performance, employee productivity, customer satisfaction, and cultural congruency. Three major categories of outcomes can be impacted by evidence-based design: stress reduction, safety, and overall health care quality and ecology. In this article, Part I of a two-part series, the basic concepts, principles, and issues related to evidence-based design are introduced. Part II will describe continuing education programs available for nurses.

  3. Implementing a “choose your own adventure” method in teaching basic concepts of sound to primary-school teacher candidate students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichteria Panjaitan, Regina

    2016-08-01

    The grasps of basic physics of sound of primary-school teacher candidates were examined. Ninety students of primary-school teacher candidate program participated in this study. The experimental group was introduced to the basic concept of sound teaching with “Choose Your Own Adventure” method using a daily-life story related to sound; and the control group received the same material with traditional lecture method. The result shows that the students taught with “Choose Your Own Adventure” method got better understanding on basic concepts of sound than students taught with traditional lecture method. The finding suggests that “Choose Your Own Adventure” method may be able to enhance students’ mastery on science especially on basic concepts of sound.

  4. Triatominae biochemistry goes to school: evaluation of a novel tool for teaching basic biochemical concepts of Chagas disease vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Leonardo Rodrigues; Cudischevitch, Cecília de Oliveira; Carneiro, Alan Brito; Macedo, Gustavo Bartholomeu; Lannes, Denise; Silva-Neto, Mário Alberto Cardoso da

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate a new approach to teaching the basic biochemistry mechanisms that regulate the biology of Triatominae, major vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. We have designed and used a comic book, "Carlos Chagas: 100 years after a hero's discovery" containing scientific information obtained by seven distinguished contemporary Brazilian researchers working with Triatominaes. Students (22) in the seventh grade of a public elementary school received the comic book. The study was then followed up by the use of Concept Maps elaborated by the students. Six Concept Maps elaborated by the students before the introduction of the comic book received an average score of 7. Scores rose to an average of 45 after the introduction of the comic book. This result suggests that a more attractive content can greatly improve the knowledge and conceptual understanding among students not previously exposed to insect biochemistry. In conclusion, this study illustrates an alternative to current strategies of teaching about the transmission of neglected diseases. It also promotes the diffusion of the scientific knowledge produced by Brazilian researchers that may stimulate students to choose a scientific career.

  5. 排序论基本概念综述%Review of Basic Concepts of Scheduling Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐国春

    2012-01-01

    Operations research rose in World War II,firstly people regarded operation as a research object.The study of operation's time arrangements contributed to the establishment of the scheduling' concept and research development.After about 50 years' development,the terms of scheduling are gradually moving toward reunification in China.It is a sign which indicates that discipline scheduling is maturing,and also is the needs of academic exchange.Mathematics Dictionary,which was edited and published by academician Wang Yuan in August 2010,is a comprehensive mathematical dictionary.And its second version is currently being revised.This Scheduling Society of Operations Research Society of China organized 34 experts to write and review the 39 most basic entries of scheduling theory.This article reviewed the basic concepts of scheduling theory and tried to lay a solid foundation for the complete Dictionary of Basic Scheduling Theory.%第二次世界大战期间运筹学(Operations research)兴起,首次把运作(Operation)作为研究对象.研究运作的时间安排又促成排序(Scheduling)概念的建立和研究的开展.经过50多年的发展,国内排序术语正在逐步走向统一,这是学科正在成熟的标志,也是学术交流的需要.王元院士等于2010年8月编辑出版的《数学大辞典》是一部综合性的数学大辞典,目前正在修订出版第2版.中国运筹学会排序专业委员会(排序分会)组织34位专家执笔和审阅了39条排序论最基本的概念,供入选《数学大辞典》第2版用.本文综述了这39条排序论最基本的概念,旨在征求意见,为以后编辑出版完整的《排序论辞典》奠定基础.

  6. The evolution of the break preclusion concept for nuclear power plants in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, H. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, Koeln (Germany)

    1997-04-01

    In the updating of the Guidelines for PWR`s of the {open_quotes}Reaktor-Sicherheitskommission{close_quotes} (RSK) in 1981 the requirements on the design have been changed with respect to the postulated leaks and breaks in the primary pressure boundary. The major change was a revision in the requirements for pipe whip protection. As a logical consequence of the {open_quotes}concept of basic safety{close_quotes} a guillotine type break or any other break type resulting in a large opening is not postulated any longer for the calculation of reaction and jet forces. As an upper limit for a leak an area of 0, 1 A (A = open cross section of the pipe) is postulated. This decision was based on a general assessment of the present PWR system design in Germany. Since then a number of piping systems have been requalified in the older nuclear power plants to comply with the break preclusion concept. Also a number of extensions of the concept have been developed to cover also leak-assumptions for branch pipes. Furthermore due considerations have been given to other aspects which could contribute to a leak development in the primary circuit, like vessel penetrations, manhole covers, flanges, etc. Now the break preclusion concept originally applied to the main piping has been developed into an integrated concept for the whole pressure boundary within the containment and will be applied also in the periodic safety review of present nuclear power plants.

  7. Short-period evolution in EU legal texts: old and new terms, old and new concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Peruzzo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the ever-changing legal landscape of the European Union, the terminology used in EU documents is subject to constant formal and conceptual evolution. In this paper, a bilingual (Italian and English corpus of equally authentic EU legal texts covering a time span of fifteen years (1998-2012 and concerning the legal area of victims of crime is analysed from a diachronic perspective. The aim is to discuss the terminological changes observed in the corpus in the light of the classification of evolution phenomena proposed by Tartier (2003 and Picton (2011. In order to examine both formal and conceptual terminological evolution, the distinction between genotypes and phenotypes introduced by Sacco (1991 is applied to the terms identified in the corpus and the underlying concepts. The analysis of the EU corpus shows that the three categories proposed by Tartier (appearance, disappearance and stability and the first three (novelty and obsolescence, implantation of terms and concepts, and centrality of the four categories proposed by Picton for the terminology of space technologies also apply to the terms of the examined legal area.

  8. Psychodermatology: Basics Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafferany, Mohammad; Franca, Katlein

    2016-08-23

    Psychodermatology is a relatively new field of medicine. It encompasses the interaction of mind and skin. The role of psychoneuroimmunology in the causation of psychocutaneous disorders and psychosocial aspects of skin disease have gained momentum lately. The treatment of psychodermatological disorders focus on improving function, reducing physical distress, diagnosing and treating depression and anxiety associated with skin disease, managing social isolation and improving self esteem of the patient. Both pharmacological and psychological interventions are used in treating psychocutaneous disorders. The interest in Psychodermatology around the world is increasing and there are several organizations holding their regular meetings.

  9. Consistency and Change: The (R)Evolution of the Basic Communication Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzano, Joseph M., III; Wallace, Samuel P.; Morreale, Sherwyn P.

    2014-01-01

    The basic communication course, with its roots in classical Greece and Rome, is frequently a required course in general education. The course often serves as our "front porch," welcoming new students to the Communication discipline. This essay first outlines early traditions in oral communication instruction and their influence on future…

  10. Why human evolution should be a basic science for medicine and psychology students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanza, Paola; Parmigiani, Stefano

    2016-06-20

    Based on our teaching experience in medicine and psychology degree programs, we examine different aspects of human evolution that can help students to understand how the human body and mind work and why they are vulnerable to certain diseases. Three main issues are discussed: 1) the necessity to consider not only the mechanisms, i.e. the "proximate causations", implicated in biological processes but also why these mechanisms have evolved, i.e. the "ultimate causations" or "adaptive significance", to understand the functioning and malfunctioning of human body and mind; 2) examples of how human vulnerabilities to disease are caused by phylogenetic constraints, evolutionary tradeoffs reflecting the combined actions of natural and sexual selection, and/or mismatch between past and present environment (i.e., evolution of the eye, teeth and diets, erect posture and their consequences); 3) human pair-bonding and parent-offspring relationships as the result of socio-sexual selection and evolutionary compromises between cooperation and conflict. These psychobiological mechanisms are interwoven with our brain developmental plasticity and the effects of culture in shaping our behavior and mind, and allow a better understanding of functional (normal) and dysfunctional (pathological) behaviors. Thus, because the study of human evolution offers a powerful framework for clinical practice and research, the curriculum studiorum of medical and psychology students should include evolutionary biology and human phylogeny.

  11. Beyond Passive Learning: Problem-Based Learning and Concept Maps to Promote Basic and Higher-Order Thinking in Basic Skills Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Regina O.

    2014-01-01

    Research into the best practices for basic skills education, national bridge programs, the new GED® assessment, and accelerated developmental education indicated that contextualized instruction was most effective when preparing adult literacy students for college and work. Nevertheless, "remedial pedagogy" with a sole focus on the…

  12. Cultural Diversity as a Concept of Global Law: Origins, Evolution and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Burri

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available “Cultural diversity” has become one of the latest buzzwords on the international policymaking scene. It is employed in various contexts—sometimes as a term close to “biological diversity”, at other times as correlated to the “exception culturelle” and most often, as a generic concept that is mobilised to counter the perceived negative effects of economic globalisation. While no one has yet provided a precise definition of what cultural diversity is, what we can observe is the emergence of the notion of cultural diversity as incorporating a distinct set of policy objectives and choices at the global level. These decisions are not confined, as one might have expected, to cultural policymaking, but rather spill over to multiple governance domains because of the complex linkages inherent to the simultaneous pursuit of economic and other societal goals that cultural diversity encompasses and has effects on. Accounting for these intricate interdependencies, the present article clarifies the origins of the concept of cultural diversity as understood in global law and traces its evolution over time. Observing the dynamics of the concept and the surrounding political and legal developments in particular in the context of trade and culture, the article explores its justification and overall impact on the global legal regime, as well as its discrete effects on different domains of policymaking, such as media and intellectual property. While the analysis is legal in essence, the article is also meant to speak to a broader transdisciplinary public.

  13. Conceptual versus Algorithmic Learning in High School Chemistry: The Case of Basic Quantum Chemical Concepts--Part 2. Students' Common Errors, Misconceptions and Difficulties in Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaphotis, Georgios; Tsaparlis, Georgios

    2008-01-01

    Part 2 of the findings are presented of a quantitative study (n = 125) on basic quantum chemical concepts taught at twelfth grade (age 17-18 years) in Greece. A paper-and-pencil test of fourteen questions was used that were of two kinds: five questions that tested recall of knowledge or application of algorithmic procedures (type-A questions);…

  14. Opportunities to Learn in School and at Home: How can they predict students' understanding of basic science concepts and principles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Su; Liu, Xiufeng; Zhao, Yandong

    2012-09-01

    As the breadth and depth of economic reforms increase in China, growing attention is being paid to equalities in opportunities to learn science by students of various backgrounds. In early 2009, the Chinese Ministry of Education and Ministry of Science and Technology jointly sponsored a national survey of urban eighth-grade students' science literacy along with their family and school backgrounds. The present study focused on students' understanding of basic science concepts and principles (BSCP), a subset of science literacy. The sample analyzed included 3,031 students from 109 randomly selected classes/schools. Correlation analysis, one-way analysis of variance, and two-level linear regression were conducted. The results showed that having a refrigerator, internet, more books, parents purchasing books and magazines related to school work, higher father's education level, and parents' higher expectation of the education level of their child significantly predicted higher BSCP scores; having siblings at home, owning an apartment, and frequently contacting teachers about the child significantly predicted lower BSCP scores. At the school level, the results showed that being in the first-tier or key schools, having school libraries, science popularization galleries, computer labs, adequate equipment for teaching, special budget for teacher training, special budget for science equipment, and mutual trust between teachers and students significantly predicated higher BSCP scores; and having science and technology rooms, offering science and technology interest clubs, special budget for science curriculum development, and special budget for science social practice activities significantly predicted lower BSCP scores. The implications of the above findings are discussed.

  15. Molecular evolution of myelin basic protein, an abundant structural myelin component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Schanila; Schweitzer, Jörn; Jahn, Olaf; Werner, Hauke B

    2013-08-01

    Rapid nerve conduction in jawed vertebrates is facilitated by the myelination of axons, which evolved in ancient cartilaginous fish. We aim to understand the coevolution of myelin and the major myelin proteins. We found that myelin basic protein (MBP) derived from living cartilaginous fish (sharks and rays) associated with the plasma membrane of glial cells similar to the phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate (PIP₂)-binding marker PH-PLCδ1, and that ionomycin-induced PIP₂-hydrolysis led to its cellular redistribution. We identified two paralogous mbp genes in multiple teleost species, consistent with a genome duplication at the root of the teleost clade. Zebrafish mbpb is organized in a complex transcription unit together with the unrelated gene-of-the-oligodendrocyte-lineage (golli) while mbpa does not encode GOLLI. Moreover, the embryonic expression of mbpa and mbpb differed, indicating functional specialization after duplication. However, both mbpa and mbpb-mRNAs were detected in mature oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells, MBPa and MBPb were mass spectrometrically identified in zebrafish myelin, both associated with the plasma membrane via PIP₂, and the ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous nucleotide-substitution rates (Ka/Ks) was low. Together, this indicates selective pressure to conserve many aspects of the cellular expression and function of MBP across vertebrate species. We propose that the PIP₂-binding function of MBP is evolutionarily old and that its emergence in ancient gnathostomata provided glial cells with the competence to myelinate.

  16. Case management: evolution of the concept in the 80's and 90's

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casarin Santina Nunes Alves

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Case Management is a term that is present in almost every American health care situation. It is mostly used to coordinate community services with satisfactory results for the patient within a certain period of time, with limited resources. Through time, it has been used for different purposes. The goal of this study was to show the historical evolution of case management as expressed by the American nursing literature, in the 80's and 90's, according to its use, meaning, and application, and following a theoretical framework for concept analysis. The data was extracted from two journals: "Nursing Management" and "Journal of Nursing Administration". The publications showed case management portrayed as a process that serves a common goal; where quality and cost of care were the prevalent and influential elements along time, and its practice focusing in a given population defined as of high risk and high cost for health care.

  17. Evolution and Implementation of the NASA Robotic Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis Concept of Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Lauri K.; Frigm, Ryan C.; Duncan, Matthew G.; Hejduk, Matthew D.

    2014-01-01

    Reacting to potential on-orbit collision risk in an operational environment requires timely and accurate communication and exchange of data, information, and analysis to ensure informed decision-making for safety of flight and responsible use of the shared space environment. To accomplish this mission, it is imperative that all stakeholders effectively manage resources: devoting necessary and potentially intensive resource commitment to responding to high-risk conjunction events and preventing unnecessary expenditure of resources on events of low collision risk. After 10 years of operational experience, the NASA Robotic Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis (CARA) is modifying its Concept of Operations (CONOPS) to ensure this alignment of collision risk and resource management. This evolution manifests itself in the approach to characterizing, reporting, and refining of collision risk. Implementation of this updated CONOPS is expected to have a demonstrated improvement on the efficacy of JSpOC, CARA, and owner/operator resources.

  18. The machine conception of the organism in development and evolution: a critical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Daniel J

    2014-12-01

    This article critically examines one of the most prevalent metaphors in contemporary biology, namely the machine conception of the organism (MCO). Although the fundamental differences between organisms and machines make the MCO an inadequate metaphor for conceptualizing living systems, many biologists and philosophers continue to draw upon the MCO or tacitly accept it as the standard model of the organism. The analysis presented here focuses on the specific difficulties that arise when the MCO is invoked in the contexts of development and evolution. In developmental biology the MCO underlies a logically incoherent model of ontogeny, the genetic program, which serves to legitimate three problematic theses about development: genetic animism, neo-preformationism, and developmental computability. In evolutionary biology the MCO is responsible for grounding unwarranted theoretical appeals to the concept of design as well as to the interpretation of natural selection as an engineer, which promote a distorted understanding of the process and products of evolutionary change. Overall, it is argued that, despite its heuristic value, the MCO today is impeding rather than enabling further progress in our comprehension of living systems.

  19. Teaching Basic Science Environmentally, Concept: Water that Comes Down as Rain Is Used Over and Over Again.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Phyllis S.

    1985-01-01

    Provides directions for basic science experiments which demonstrate the rain cycle, fundamentals of cloud formation, and testing for the presence of acidity in local rainwater. Describes materials required, step-by-step instructions, and discussion topics. (NEC)

  20. Evolution of Unit Fraction Conceptions in Two Fifth-Graders with a Learning Disability: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Jessica Heather; Tzur, Ron; Westenskow, Arla

    2016-01-01

    The literature seems limited in what is known about conceptual processes that underlie evolution of students with learning disabilities (SLD) conceptions of fractions. This exploratory study examines how a foundational scheme of unit fractions (1/n) may evolve through the mathematical activity of two fifth grade girls. We analyze data segments…

  1. 离散数学课程基本概念教学方法研究%Discrete Mathematics Course Teaching Method to Study the Basic Concept

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周永权; 罗淇方; 黄留佳

    2012-01-01

    针对离散数学课程中基本概念,结合离散数学课程的特点及多年来的教学实践经验,从课程性质及其特点,基本概念性重要性入手,对离散数学课程中的基本概念教学方法总结和探讨,这些方法有助于提高离散数学课程的教学效果。%According to the basic concept of discrete mathematics course,combining the characteristics of the discrete mathematics course and the practical teaching experience for many years,from the curriculum properties and characteristics,basic conceptual importance,discrete mathematics course to the basic concepts of the teaching method was summarized and discussed,the method is helpful to improve the discrete mathematics course teaching effect.The method in this paper to other course concepts teaching is of high reference value.

  2. Environmental Epigenetics and a Unified Theory of the Molecular Aspects of Evolution: A Neo-Lamarckian Concept that Facilitates Neo-Darwinian Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Michael K

    2015-04-26

    Environment has a critical role in the natural selection process for Darwinian evolution. The primary molecular component currently considered for neo-Darwinian evolution involves genetic alterations and random mutations that generate the phenotypic variation required for natural selection to act. The vast majority of environmental factors cannot directly alter DNA sequence. Epigenetic mechanisms directly regulate genetic processes and can be dramatically altered by environmental factors. Therefore, environmental epigenetics provides a molecular mechanism to directly alter phenotypic variation generationally. Lamarck proposed in 1802 the concept that environment can directly alter phenotype in a heritable manner. Environmental epigenetics and epigenetic transgenerational inheritance provide molecular mechanisms for this process. Therefore, environment can on a molecular level influence the phenotypic variation directly. The ability of environmental epigenetics to alter phenotypic and genotypic variation directly can significantly impact natural selection. Neo-Lamarckian concept can facilitate neo-Darwinian evolution. A unified theory of evolution is presented to describe the integration of environmental epigenetic and genetic aspects of evolution.

  3. Research on Some Basic Concepts in the Theory of Football Technique%足球技术理论中若干基本概念研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小敏

    2012-01-01

    Some basic concepts in the theory skill of football were reconsidered and redefined in this paper with methods of proof dialectical logic. The result shows that there exist logical error and fuzzy concept in football tech, nique theory concepts. Therefore, this paper makes definition on concept in the theory of football technique and the football techniquecan be divided into the single skill and combined skill, the basic skill and specific skill, and the essential skill and oractical skill.%运用辩证逻辑方法审视足球技术理论中的基本概念。发现足球技术理论中的概念存在逻辑错误及概念模糊。因此本文对足球运动技术理论中的概念进行重新定义及梳理,认为足球技术可分为基础技术、基本技术和比赛技术,并描述了足球技术的基本框架。

  4. Skeletal muscle mass and quality: evolution of modern measurement concepts in the context of sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymsfield, Steven B; Gonzalez, M Cristina; Lu, Jianhua; Jia, Guang; Zheng, Jolene

    2015-11-01

    The first reports of accurate skeletal muscle mass measurement in human subjects appeared at about the same time as introduction of the sarcopenia concept in the late 1980s. Since then these methods, computed tomography and MRI, have been used to gain insights into older (i.e. anthropometry and urinary markers) and more recently developed and refined methods (ultrasound, bioimpedance analysis and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) of quantifying regional and total body skeletal muscle mass. The objective of this review is to describe the evolution of these methods and their continued development in the context of sarcopenia evaluation and treatment. Advances in these technologies are described with a focus on additional quantifiable measures that relate to muscle composition and 'quality'. The integration of these collective evaluations with strength and physical performance indices is highlighted with linkages to evaluation of sarcopenia and the spectrum of related disorders such as sarcopenic obesity, cachexia and frailty. Our findings show that currently available methods and those in development are capable of non-invasively extending measures from solely 'mass' to quality evaluations that promise to close the gaps now recognised between skeletal muscle mass and muscle function, morbidity and mortality. As the largest tissue compartment in most adults, skeletal muscle mass and aspects of muscle composition can now be evaluated by a wide array of technologies that provide important new research and clinical opportunities aligned with the growing interest in the spectrum of conditions associated with sarcopenia.

  5. The evolution of the concepts of growth, development and other related, during the last decades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek S. Jankiewicz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of such terms as growth, differentiation, development, morphogenesis etc. is discussed. It is proposed that the term (notion development should be understood to comprise "growth", "differentiation" and even "abscission, abortion and necrosis". The term "development" is already used in such a way by some authors. The relations among the phenomena denoted by the above terms are presented in a graphic form to show that they partly overlap. The concept that growth and development represent quantitative and qualitative aspects (respectively of plant augmentation is criticized. The newly introduced terms "development hormone" or "development regulator" seem more suitable than "growth hormone" and "growth regulator", however, these later ones are correct and may be used. The traditional term "phytohormone" and the newly introduced one "phytoregulator" seem convenient, but it must be kept in mind that such substances may transmit information both on a chemical basis as well as on a biophysical one. An example here can be auxin; a change in the wavy character of its transport may serve as information. In some cases a complex of two or more substances may play the role of a hormone, for instance ACC and ethylene, of which one is easily transportable but little active and the other is very active but exerts its action rather locally. Other combinations of activities may exist in other such pairs.

  6. Triatominae Biochemistry Goes to School: Evaluation of a Novel Tool for Teaching Basic Biochemical Concepts of Chagas Disease Vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Leonardo Rodrigues; de Oliveria Cudischevitch, Cecília; Carneiro, Alan Brito; Macedo, Gustavo Bartholomeu; Lannes, Denise; da Silva-Neto, Mário Alberto Cardoso

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate a new approach to teaching the basic biochemistry mechanisms that regulate the biology of Triatominae, major vectors of "Trypanosoma cruzi," the causative agent of Chagas disease. We have designed and used a comic book, "Carlos Chagas: 100 years after a hero's discovery" containing scientific information obtained by…

  7. Triatominae Biochemistry Goes to School: Evaluation of a Novel Tool for Teaching Basic Biochemical Concepts of Chagas Disease Vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Leonardo Rodrigues; de Oliveria Cudischevitch, Cecília; Carneiro, Alan Brito; Macedo, Gustavo Bartholomeu; Lannes, Denise; da Silva-Neto, Mário Alberto Cardoso

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate a new approach to teaching the basic biochemistry mechanisms that regulate the biology of Triatominae, major vectors of "Trypanosoma cruzi," the causative agent of Chagas disease. We have designed and used a comic book, "Carlos Chagas: 100 years after a hero's discovery" containing scientific information…

  8. Basic hydraulics

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, P D

    1982-01-01

    BASIC Hydraulics aims to help students both to become proficient in the BASIC programming language by actually using the language in an important field of engineering and to use computing as a means of mastering the subject of hydraulics. The book begins with a summary of the technique of computing in BASIC together with comments and listing of the main commands and statements. Subsequent chapters introduce the fundamental concepts and appropriate governing equations. Topics covered include principles of fluid mechanics; flow in pipes, pipe networks and open channels; hydraulic machinery;

  9. A Study on Identifying the Misconceptions of Pre-Service and In-Service Teachers about Basic Astronomy Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanli, Uygar

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, the importance given to astronomy teaching in science and physics education has been gradually increasing. At the same time, teachers play an important role in remediating the misconceptions about astronomy concepts held by students. The present study aims to determine the misconceptions of pre-service physics teachers (n = 117),…

  10. What Works Clearinghouse Quick Review: "Academic Music: Music Instruction to Engage Third-Grade Students in Learning Basic Fraction Concepts"

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the effectiveness of an intervention designed to teach mathematical concepts through music. Specifically, it investigated the effect of the intervention on third-grade students' understanding of fractions. Sixty-seven students from one northern California elementary school participated in the study over a period of six weeks; of…

  11. Exploring the Relationship between Secondary Science Teachers' Subject Matter Knowledge and Knowledge of Student Conceptions While Teaching Evolution by Natural Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, Margaret M.; Petrosino, Anthony J.; Delgado, Cesar

    2017-01-01

    The fundamental scientific concept of evolution occurring by natural selection is home to many deeply held alternative conceptions and considered difficult to teach. Science teachers' subject matter knowledge (SMK) and the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) component of knowledge of students' conceptions (KOSC) can be valuable resources for…

  12. Teaching the basic concepts of the Special Relativity in the secondary school in the framework of the Theory of Conceptual Fields of Vergnaud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rita Otero, Marıa; Arlego, Marcelo; Prodanoff, Fabiana

    2016-05-01

    In this work, we investigate the conceptualization of the basic aspects of Special Relativity (SR) at secondary school level. We have conducted our research along the lines of the Theory of Conceptual Fields (TCF) proposed by Vergnaud (Vergnaud G., Infancia y Aprendizaje, 36 (2013) 131). The investigation consisted in the design, implementation and evaluation of a didactic sequence specially elaborated to conceptualize the basic aspects of SR. The proposal is composed by eight situations, complemented with a set of exercises. It was carried out in two classrooms with students of the last year of secondary level (17years old, N = 43 . The conceptualization was analyzed in a classroom context, where the selected situations are essential to promote the emergence of the relevant concepts.

  13. Double-echo perfusion-weighted MR imaging: basic concepts and application in brain tumors for the assessment of tumor blood volume and vascular permeability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uematsu, Hidemasa [University of Fukui, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Fukui (Japan); Maeda, Masayuki [Mie University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Mie (Japan)

    2006-01-01

    Perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging using contrast agents plays a key role in characterizing tumors of the brain. We have shown that double-echo perfusion-weighted MR imaging (DEPWI) is potentially useful in assessing brain tumors. Quantitative indices, such as tumor blood volume, are obtained using DEPWI, which allows correction of underestimation of tumor blood volume due to leakage of contrast agents from tumor vessels, in addition to simultaneous acquisition of tumor vessel permeability. This article describes basic concepts of DEPWI and demonstrates clinical applications in brain tumors. (orig.)

  14. 图论中若干基本概念的历史注记%Historical Notes on Some Basic Concepts in Graph Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程钊

    2011-01-01

    考察了图与子图,树,匹配,欧拉图与哈密尔顿图,可平面图,以及与图的连通性和图的着色有关的若干图论基本概念的历史背景.%In this paper, the author investigated the historical backgrounds of some basic concepts in graph theory, including graph and subgraph, tree, matching, Eulerian graph and Hamiltonian graph, planar graph, and those are concerned with connectedness and coloring of graphs.

  15. Astrophysical Concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Harwit, Martin

    2006-01-01

    This classic text, aimed at senior undergraduates and beginning graduate students in physics and astronomy, presents a wide range of astrophysical concepts in sufficient depth to give the reader a quantitative understanding of the subject. Emphasizing physical concepts, the book outlines cosmic events but does not portray them in detail: it provides a series of astrophysical sketches. For this fourth edition, nearly every part of the text has been reconsidered and rewritten, new sections have been added to cover recent developments, and others have been extensively revised and brought up to date. The book begins with an outline of the scope of modern astrophysics and enumerates some of the outstanding problems faced in the field today. The basic physics needed to tackle these questions are developed in the next few chapters using specific astronomical processes as examples. The second half of the book enlarges on these topics and shows how we can obtain quantitative insight into the structure and evolution of...

  16. Wavelet basics

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, Y T

    1995-01-01

    Since the study of wavelets is a relatively new area, much of the research coming from mathematicians, most of the literature uses terminology, concepts and proofs that may, at times, be difficult and intimidating for the engineer. Wavelet Basics has therefore been written as an introductory book for scientists and engineers. The mathematical presentation has been kept simple, the concepts being presented in elaborate detail in a terminology that engineers will find familiar. Difficult ideas are illustrated with examples which will also aid in the development of an intuitive insight. Chapter 1 reviews the basics of signal transformation and discusses the concepts of duals and frames. Chapter 2 introduces the wavelet transform, contrasts it with the short-time Fourier transform and clarifies the names of the different types of wavelet transforms. Chapter 3 links multiresolution analysis, orthonormal wavelets and the design of digital filters. Chapter 4 gives a tour d'horizon of topics of current interest: wave...

  17. Evolution/Creationism Controversy: Analysis of Past and Current Policies in Public Schools and the Practice of Allowing Students to Opt Out of Learning Evolution Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speake, Jacquelyn Hoffmann

    2011-07-01

    Recent anti-evolution legislation, in the form of Academic Freedom bills, has been introduced in many state legislatures over the last three years. The language in the proposed Academic Freedom bills may allow different interpretations of what can be taught in the science classrooms, and possibly spur parents to take advantage of their perceived parental rights to request their child be opted-out of class when the scientific theory of evolution is taught. Five research questions guided the analysis of participant responses to questions and perception statements focusing on secondary school administrators' actions, perceptions, and awareness as they relate to their decision to allow or not allow a student to opt out of academics, specifically evolution, through the collection of data using a web-based survey. Opt out policies are typically invoked to excuse students from activities to which they or their parents may have religious objections (Scott & Branch, 2008). Florida statutes allow parents to opt out their child from human sexuality and animal dissection. The population consisted of 281 Florida public secondary school administrators, who were divided into two subgroups based on whether they have allowed or would allow a student to opt out of evolution, or have not allowed or would not allow a student to opt out of class when the scientific theory of evolution is taught. Results found that over 70% of the administrators who completed the survey have allowed or would allow parents to opt out their child from learning about the scientific theory of evolution. There was a significant relationship between the decision to allow opt out and the following variables: (a) Free and Reduced Lunch population, (b) grade level served, (c) support for teaching evolution and alternative theories, and (d) the perception that parent rights supersede state statute requiring students to learn evolution. In Florida, any scientific concept that is based on empirical evidence is

  18. Evolution and Implementation of the NASA Robotic Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis Concept of Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, L.; Hejduk, M.; Frigm, R.; Duncan, M.

    2014-09-01

    On-orbit collisions pose a significant mission risk to satellites operating in the space environment. Recognizing the likelihood and consequence of on-orbit collisions, NASA has taken several proactive measures to mitigate the risk of both a catastrophic loss of mission and the increase in the space debris population. In fall 2004, NASA GSFC established an Agency-wide, institutionalized process and service for identifying and reacting to predicted close approaches. The team responsible for executing this mission is the NASA Robotic Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis (CARA) team. By fall 2005, this process had resulted in the execution of the first collision avoidance maneuver by a NASA unmanned satellite. In February 2008, NASA adopted a policy, documented in NASA Procedural Requirement 8715.6a Process for Limiting Orbital Debris that directed maneuverable satellites to have such an on-orbit collision mitigation process. In 2009, NASA decided to require support for all operational satellites. By January 2014, the CARA team has processed nearly 500,000 close approach messages from the Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) and has assisted our mission customers with planning and executing over 75 collision avoidance maneuvers for unmanned satellites in LEO, GEO, and HEO orbital regimes. With the increase in number of operational missions supported; growth in the orbital debris environment due to events such as the intentional destruction of the Fengyun 1-C satellite in 2007 and collision between Iridium-33 and Cosmos-2251; and improvements to the United States Space Surveillance Network (SSN) and its ability to track, catalog, and screen against small debris objects, the demands on the CARA process have consequently required the CARA Concept of Operations (CONOPS) to evolve to manage those demands. This evolution is centered on the ability to effectively and efficiently manage JSpOC, CARA, and Mission Operations resources, applying operational and analytical

  19. Students conceptions of Basic General Education (14 – 15 years old about the nature and perception of color

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina M. Bravo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The ideas of a group of ninth grade Basic General Education students are analized. (14 – 15 years old. The mentioned ideas are related to nature and perception of colour. This was possible after having – the students – participated in didactic proposals that approached the referred theme, once they achieved the entrance to Second Cycle. These ideas are characterized according to underlying ontological, conceptual and epistemological principles, as well as in relation to reasoning schemes associated with them. The consistence and coherence of the responses given by these students to a multiple choice test, and a questionnaire containing open problems, are evaluated. Most of the students present ideas about colour coherent with science, being able to develop explanations that relate an important number of variables, properly.

  20. Medical Students’ View about the Effects of Practical Courses on Learning the General Theoretical Concepts of Basic Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Roshangar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The basic medical sciences section requires 2.5 years in the medical education curriculum. Practical courses complement theoretical knowledge in this period to improve their appreciation. Despite spending lots of disbursement and time, this period’s efficacy is not clearly known. Methods: One hundred thirty-three General Practitioner (GP students have been included in this descriptive cross-sectional study and were asked by questionnaire about the positive impact of practical courses on learning theoretical knowledge. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics. Result: The agreement in “Practical Head and Neck Anatomy” was 40.91% ± 29.45, in “Practical Trunk Anatomy” was 63.62% ± 2.32 and in “Practical Anatomy of Extremities” was 56.16% ± 2.57. In “Practical Histology”, agreement was 69.50%±2.19; “Practical Biophysics” was 45.97%±2.25, “Practical Physiology” 61.75%±2.17; “Practical Biochemistry” 36.28%±2.42; “Practical Pathology” 59.80%±2.53; “Practical Immunology” 56.25%±26.40; “Practical Microbiology and Virology” 60.39%±2.27 and “Practical Mycology and Parasitology” 68.2%± 2.16.Conclusion: GP students in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences are not optimistic about the applicability of practical courses of basic medical sciences lessons.

  1. Learning support of the basic concepts of mathematical logic by using e-learning materials in the teaching of expert systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Bakó

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decades, the importance of e-learning constantly increased. We believe that the most important property of the e-learning is: it is a user-centered system, which means that the student may proceed at its own place in the curriculum. It allows students to try things out, participate in courses, tests and simulations like never before, and get more out of learning than before.Teaching expert systems I realized that I can’t teach Prolog and Clips programming language because our students have no adequate knowledge of mathematical logic. In expert systems to describe it, even thousands statement-parameters should be used, therefore, the knowledge of basic concepts of mathematical logic is essential. In this article, an e-learning environment is presented, which enables agro-informatics students to learn or recall the basic concepts of mathematical logic necessary for the course Expert systems. According to the questionnaire the students like the e-learning materials, and would like to use it at other subjects, too. They don’t want to replace the standard lectures with e-learning materials; they would use them as additional material to lectures and practices.

  2. Tentativa de integração entre algumas concepções básicas da psicanálise e da neurociência Essay on integration of some basic psychoanalytic concepts with basic concepts of neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusaku Soussumi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O autor aborda a falta de uma visão integrativa do ser humano que existe no estudo da neurociência e da psicanálise, em face da educação e da cultura fundamentadas sobre o paradigma da fragmentação. Essa visão fragmentada leva os estudiosos a desconsiderar a unidade sobre a qual se desdobraram os fatos e os fenômenos subseqüentes no processo de desenvolvimento e evolução dos seres vivos. O autor toma o instinto de sobrevivência, que é inerente à própria vida e a todo ser vivo, como a unidade que está na base de todos os fenômenos orgânicos e mentais e tenta estudar suas expressões, integrando fenômenos neurobiológicos e psicológicos, que são indissociáveis, de acordo com a visão de auto-regulação concebida por Freud.The author has reported his own apprehensions about the lack of integrative vision in the study of neurosciences and psychoanalysis, related to the fact that our education and culture are based on the paradigm of fragmentation. The consequence of this fragmented vision is that the specialist can not capture the unity of the facts and the subsequent phenomena within the process of development and evolution. The author has taken the survival instinct that is inherent to life itself and to all live beings as a basis that is common to all organic and mental phenomena and tries to study their expressions, integrating neurobiological and psychological phenomena, which are inseparable, within the vision of self-regulation conceived by Freud.

  3. Evolution of Policy Thoughts on Basic Medical Insurance:Analysis on the Practice of Zhejiang Province%基本医疗保险的政策思维演进--结合浙江实践的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅鸿翔

    2014-01-01

    与中国经济体制改革和社会建设发展相适应,基本医保在二十年间经历了巨大变化。依据中国共产党第十四次全会以来历次全会报告,基本医保从经济制度属性转而强化社会制度属性。回顾分析其间政策思维的演进脉络,有助于更好把握十八届三中全会提出的治理理念对未来基本医保的政策思维的要求。%Accompanying with the reform of economic system and the development of social construction, basic medical insurance has experienced great change during the past twenty years in China. It has been transformed from economic system to social system according to the series reports of the 14th-18th session of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China. The author reviewed the evolution of policy thoughts on basic medical insurance and tried to grasp the demand of the concept of governance proposed in the third plenary session of the eighteenth Central Committee of the Communist Party of China on basic medical policy making in the future.

  4. Control of multiscale systems with constraints. 1. Basic principles of the concept of evolution of systems with varying constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Adamenko, S; Novikov, V

    2013-01-01

    Physical fundamentals of the self-organizing theory for the system with varying constraints are considered. A variation principle, specifically the principle of dynamic harmonization as a generalization of the Gauss-Hertz principle for the systems with varying internal structure is formulated. In compliance with this principle the system evolves through dynamics of the processes leading to harmonization of the internal multiscale structure of the system and its connections with external actions as a result of minimizing the dynamic harmonization function. Main principles of the shell model of self-organization under the action of the dominating entropic disturbance are formulated.

  5. Ethics of Plant Breeding: The IFOAM Basic Principles as a Guide for the Evolution of Organic Plant Breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammerts Van Bueren, E.

    2010-01-01

    The basic values of organic agriculture is laid down in the IFOAM four basic principles: the principle of health, the principle of ecology, the principle of fairness and the principle of care. These principles and the consequences and challenges for the further development of organic plant breeding

  6. Aquecimento em forno de microondas / desenvolvimento de alguns conceitos fundamentais Heating in microwave ovens/ developing of basic concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia R. N. Barboza

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The microwave oven became a common domestic equipment, due mainly to the short time spent to heat foods. One of the most interesting characteristics of the microwave oven is the selective heating. Different from the conventional oven, where the heating is not selective, the heating by microwave depends on the chemical nature of the matter. Many Students of Chemistry have no knowledge of the principles involved in this selective heating, in spite of the daily microwave oven use. The heating by microwave is feasible for chemistry courses. In discussions about the microwave absorption by the matter it is possible to explore chemical properties like: heat capacity, chemical bound, molecular structure, dipole moments, polarization and dielectric constant. This paper presents the basic principles involved in the microwave heating. It is proposed a simple and inexpensive experiment that could be developed in general chemistry courses, to illustrate the relationship between heating and the chemical properties of some solvents. Experiments to check the power of the microwave oven are also proposed.

  7. 对柔力球运动基本概念的探讨%Discussion on Basic Concept of Rouli Ball Sport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李恩荆

    2012-01-01

    By using the method of literature, logic analysis and concept definition method, this paper probed into the basic concept and sport features of the Rouli ball so as to provide theoretic references of the development and connotation exploration of Rouli ball. And it further proposes the innovative concept of the main feature of this ex ercise, that is, concessional buffering curving or circular exercise of the ball controlled by the handheld racket. The research provides important theoretical reference for promoting the Rouli ball sport.%采用文献资料和专家访谈、通过逻辑分析和概念定义法探讨柔力球运动的基本概念和运动特征,旨在为今后柔力球运动的发展和内涵挖掘研究提供一定理论依据。并提出了“柔力球运动是指练习者手持柔力球拍,以球在球拍上做缓冲退让性的弧线或圆的运动为主要技术特征的一项民族体育项目”这一全新的概念。

  8. Dynamical Behavior of a Rigid Body with One Fixed Point (Gyroscope. Basic Concepts and Results. Open Problems: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetoslav Ganchev Nikolov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study of the dynamic behavior of a rigid body with one fixed point (gyroscope has a long history. A number of famous mathematicians and mechanical engineers have devoted enormous time and effort to clarify the role of dynamic effects on its movement (behavior – stable, periodic, quasi-periodic or chaotic. The main objectives of this review are: 1 to outline the characteristic features of the theory of dynamical systems and 2 to reveal the specific properties of the motion of a rigid body with one fixed point (gyroscope.This article consists of six sections. The first section addresses the main concepts of the theory of dynamical systems. Section two presents the main theoretical results (obtained so far concerning the dynamic behavior of a solid with one fixed point (gyroscope. Section three examines the problem of gyroscopic stabilization. Section four deals with the non-linear (chaotic dynamics of the gyroscope. Section five is a brief analysis of the gyroscope applications in engineering. The final section provides conclusions and generalizations on why the theory of dynamical systems should be used in the study of the movement of gyroscopic systems.

  9. Mapping biological ideas: Concept maps as knowledge integration tools for evolution education

    OpenAIRE

    Schwendimann, Beat Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Many students leave school with a fragmented understanding of biology that does not allow them to connect their ideas to their everyday lives (Wandersee, 1989; Mintzes, Wandersee, & Novak, 1998; Mintzes, Wandersee, & Novak, 2000a). Understanding evolution ideas is seen as central to building an integrated knowledge of biology (Blackwell, Powell, & Dukes, 2003; Thagard & Findlay, 2010). However, the theory of evolution has been found difficult to understand as it incorporates a wide range of i...

  10. Basic needs: a survey of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afxentiou, P C

    1990-01-01

    Poverty is widespread and significant in developing countries. As world poverty expands and the gap between rich and poor widens, advocates increasingly support development policies designed to help the poor meet basic needs. Policies generally followed since the second World War have contributed to GNP growth but fail to reduce income inequalities and noticeably improve life for the poor. This paper discusses the evolution of basic needs as a concept and policy goal, the conflict between basic needs and growth, the impact of basic needs on population and popular participation, and results of empirical studies. Basic needs policies may be humanitarian, but evidence supports neither their ability to promote growth, control population, nor encourage popular participation. Basic needs policies are nonetheless noble and challenge us to face poverty as a universal problem.

  11. "Basic Medical Skills" - Evaluation of a primary care oriented course concept within the new medical curriculum in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer, Thomas

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: To increase the practical orientation of medical student education in Germany, we have introduced a new mandatory course into the 3rd study year. This course combines doctor-patient communication training sessions with practical skills such as taking blood, changing dressings, etc. The primary care point of view to these topics was emphasized. The study describes the course and an evaluation of its effects on basic medical skills.Methods: Learning progress was measured using an anonymous self-evaluation questionnaire. Students graded their own competence in each individual course element using a 1-6 point scale (1='excellent' to 6='insufficient'. To objectify the learning process with regards to both practical skills and communicative competence we performed an "Objective Structured Clinical Examination" (OSCE.Results: Complete data are available from 154 of the 193 students participating in the course (average age 23.7 ±2.7 years. With regards to their competence in taking a case history, participants rated themselves with an average score of 3.99 before the course and an improved average score of 2.42 afterwards (P<0.0001. Students gave themselves credit for definite improvement in practical skills as well. Neither gender, age nor earlier medical training had any effect of the self-evaluation. Results of self-reported questionnaires corresponded well with the test results of the OSCE (N=193. Female students had significantly better results in the global rating in the communicative sections of the OSCE test than their male counterparts. Overall, the general evaluation of the course (grade 1.93 and its value for later medical competence (1.97 were very high in comparison to the average values for medical seminars at this university.Conclusion: We found high effects on clinical competence both in self-reported evaluations of the course and in the OSCE. A longitudinal study is under way in order to investigate to what

  12. Relationship of beliefs, epistemology, and alternate conceptions to college student understanding of evolution and common descent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joyce Catherine

    Quantitative and qualitative methodologies were combined to explore the relationships between an understanding of evolution and 4 epistemology factors: (a) control of learning, (b) speed of learning , (c) stability of knowledge, and (d) belief in evolution/creationism. A 17-item instrument was developed that reliably measured a belief in creationism and subtle differences between this belief and an acceptance of evolution. The subjects were 45 students enrolled in a biology course at a 2-year community college. Evolution was taught in a traditional format, and common descent was taught in an inquiry-based laboratory session consisting of: (a) a comparison of hemoglobin DNA sequences of the human, chimpanzee, and gorilla; and (b) a comparison of 8 primate skull casts, including the modern human, chimpanzee, gorilla, and five prehistoric fossils. Prior to instruction the students completed an epistemology questionnaire and a knowledge test about evolution. Five weeks after instruction, the students completed a posttest. A t-test revealed no differences between the pretest and the posttest. However, the group of students that scored higher on the posttest than on the pretest was found to have a stronger belief in the uncertainty of knowledge. Pearson r was computed to check for relationships between the 4 epistemological factors and the understanding of evolution. There was a significant relationship between a belief in creationism and a lessor understanding of evolution as measured on both the pretest and the posttest (ps whales. These organizers included: (a) similarity of traits, (b) environment, (c) relative size, (d) function, and (e) complexity.

  13. Evolution of Asthma Concept and Effect of Current Asthma Management Guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Concept of asthma has changed from symptom-complex or airway hypersensitivity to airway inflammation and airway remodeling. Based on this concept asthma management guidelines (JGL) has been developed in Japan. Death from asthma has decreased drastically since the publication of the guidelines, although it is still high in elderly population. Further works are expected for "zero-death" from asthma and for tighter control of airway inflammation and resultant airway remodeling.

  14. Nursing expertise: a course of ambiguity and evolution in a concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Marie; Higson, Mary; Cleary, Michelle; Jackson, Debra

    2016-12-01

    In this article, we clarify and describe the nature of nursing expertise and provide a framework to guide its identification and further development. To have utility and rigour, concept-driven research and theories of practice require underlying concepts that are robust, valid and reliable. Advancing understanding of a concept requires careful attention to explicating its knowledge, metaphors and conceptual meaning. Examining the concepts and metaphors of nursing expertise, and how they have been interpreted into the nursing discourse, we aimed to synthesise definitions and similarities between concepts and elicit the defining characteristics and properties of nursing expertise. In clarifying the concept, we sought to move beyond the ambiguity that currently surrounds expertise in nursing and unravel it to make explicit the characteristics of nursing expertise from published peer-reviewed studies and structured literature synthesis. Findings indicate a lack of clarity surrounding the use of the term expertise. Traditional reliance upon intuition as a way of explaining expert performance is slowly evolving. Emerging from the analysis is a picture of expertise as the relationship between networks of contextual reasoning, understanding and practice. Striking absences in the discourse include limited explication of ethical reasoning and theorising a broader interpretation of expertise reflective of contemporary forms of nursing.

  15. Managing Student Conceptions about Evolution Using the Integration of Multiliteracies in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jenni-Lea

    2009-01-01

    Educators are increasingly looking to Information and Communications Technology (ICT) as a means of enhancing student learning. The New Life Sciences (NLS) is a domain where complex and often abstract concepts must be communicated from a scientific perspective and understood by the student in terms of their underlying implications. This…

  16. Evolution of Competence Concept in Lithuania: From VET Reform to Development of National Qualifications System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauzackas, Rimantas; Tutlys, Vidmantas; Spudyte, Irma

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the development of the concept of competence in Lithuania beginning from the period of transition from the Soviet planned economy and post-totalitarian regime to the market economy and democratic society and ending with the designing and implementation of the National Qualifications System and Qualifications…

  17. The Mode Evolution of Basic Human Rights Principle at Chinese Constitution%基本人权原则在中国宪法中的模式嬗变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施秀艳

    2011-01-01

    Basic human rights principle is one of the constitution principles. Though each nation's constitution manifestation pattern is different, the basic human rights principle is confirmed in the constitution, so as China's constitution. China's four constitution confirmed the basic human rights principle with the silent and obvious ways. The silent way esperienced the post-roll mode and the pre-roll mode which showed the evolution process of basic human fights at Chinese constitution and revealed the historical process of people's more and more attention in China.%基本人权原则是宪法基本原则之一,虽然各国宪法表现形式不同,但都在宪法中确认了基本人权原则,我国宪法也同样如此.中国四部宪法确认基本人权原则,分别采取了默示型和明示型确认模式,其中默示型确认模式又经历了后置式和前置式两个发展阶段,体现了基本人权原则在中国宪法中的演变过程,也揭示了人权在我国日益受到关注和重视的历史脉络.

  18. The historical evolution of the concept of apoptosis in rheumatic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.F. Gensini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The concept of “apoptosis” can be found in chapter 35 of Hippocrates’ Mochlicon (V-IV century B.C., a treatise concerning the reduction of dislocations, in which the gangrene resulting from the treatment of fractures by means of bandages is reported and described (1,2. The idea of apoptosis was consequently already implied by Hippocrates to indicate what today is considered the physiological destruction of cells and tissues. Areteus of Cappadocia in the I century A.D. and Galen of Pergamus in the II gave ulterior and better elaboration to the concept of “necrosis”, and the term was fully defined by Rudolph Virchow, the great German pathologist, in the XIX century (3....

  19. From larval journalist to cyber-journalist: evolution of the journalism concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Andrés Pampillón Ponce

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the evolutionary definition of the concept of journalist through a diachronic study using hemerographic and bibliographic research, together with evidence from interviews applied to well-known figures in the sector. The evolutionary scale proposed is from larval journalism to cyber-journalism. The research results show a dynamic concept depending on historical and cultural context that accompanies it. At first (before the nineteenth century the journalist term is linked to a person who publishes periodically primarily through written press. However, since the nineties, and in view of the widespread use of new Information and Communication Technologies (ICT, somehow everyone can be a communicator now through media such as the Internet. In conclusion, the debate on the figure of the journalist is especially complex and denotes the exaltation of ethical and moral values, imperative for the work of a journalist.

  20. Cosmic Evolution Through UV Spectroscopy (CETUS): A NASA Probe-Class Mission Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heap, Sara R.; CETUS Team

    2017-01-01

    CETUS is a probe-class mission concept proposed for study to NASA in November 2016. Its overarching objective is to provide access to the ultraviolet (~100-400 nm) after Hubble has died. CETUS will be a major player in the emerging global network of powerful, new telescopes such as E-ROSITA, DESI, Subaru/PFS, GMT, LSST, WFIRST, JWST, and SKA. The CETUS mission concept provisionally features a 1.5-m telescope with a suite of instruments including a near-UV multi-object spectrograph (200-400 nm) complementing Subaru/PFS observations, wide-field far-UV and near-UV cameras, and far-UV and near-UV spectrographs that can be operated in either high-resolution or low-resolution mode. We have derived the scope and specific science requirements for CETUS for understanding the evolutionary history of galaxies, stars, and dust, but other applications are possible.

  1. Evolution of the concept of altruistic suicide in pre-Durkheim suicidology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldney, Robert D; Schioldann, Johan A

    2004-01-01

    Suicide as self-sacrifice was described by early nineteenth century authors before the delineation of altruism by the French Philosopher and Mathematician Auguste Comte. The concept evolved, leading to the categorization of altruistic suicide by Savage in England in 1892 and the elaboration of the term by Durkheim in France in 1897. Pre-Durkheim suicidologists were aware of the subtleties of sacrifice as opposed to revenge in this type of suicide.

  2. Towards Sustainable Agricultural Stewardship: Evolution and Future Directions of the Permaculture Concept

    OpenAIRE

    Jungho Suh

    2014-01-01

    This paper traces the origins of the concept of permaculture and discusses the sustainability of permaculture itself as a form of alternative agriculture. The principles of permaculture are shown to have many views and perspectives in common with Taoism and with Buddhist ecology and economics. The amalgamation of these Oriental traditions can be translated into the Kaya equation and beyond. It is argued that future permaculture movements should focus on revitalising the communitarian spirit o...

  3. Basic concepts in quantum computation

    CERN Document Server

    Ekert, A K; Inamori, H; Ekert, Artur; Hayden, Patrick; Inamori, Hitoshi

    2000-01-01

    Section headings: 1 Qubits, gates and networks 2 Quantum arithmetic and function evaluations 3 Algorithms and their complexity 4 From interferometers to computers 5 The first quantum algorithms 6 Quantum search 7 Optimal phase estimation 8 Periodicity and quantum factoring 9 Cryptography 10 Conditional quantum dynamics 11 Decoherence and recoherence 12 Concluding remarks

  4. [Basic concepts of radiology physics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambini, D-J

    2010-11-01

    An x-ray tube mainly emits low-energy X-rays, with few maximum energy E₀ (equal in keV to the voltage U in kV) x-rays. Aluminium filtration (mandatory minimum thickness of 1.5 to 2.5 mm based on tube voltage) reduces soft X-rays and provides a mean energy equal to 2/3 E₀. The half value layer of a reference material characterizes the spectrum. X-ray attenuation in tissues is due to secondary electron interactions: photoelectric effect at low-energy, especially in dense materials with high Z number; compton effect at intermediate-energy, proportional to density. The optimization of acquisition parameters of a medically necessary examination is based on appropriate selection of the highest voltage (U in kV) providing the best contrast and lowest tube current (Q in mAs) providing a diagnostic image.

  5. Basic concepts in freezing cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazur, P.

    1985-01-01

    Freezing involves the lowering of temperature and the formation of ice. Most cells have not been found to be sensitive to the former; rather injury is a consequence of the removal of water from the system in the form of ice. Some cells such as boar sperm and those of many tropical crops are susceptible to even short-term lowering of temperature to near O/sup 0/C. This susceptiblity, which is independent of the rate of temperature drop, is defined as chilling injury. Other cells are injured by chilling only if the rate of cooling is high, a phenomenon referred to as thermal shock. This paper discusses the physical-chemical events during freezing and on freezing injury will assume that lowered temperature per se is not injurious.

  6. Basic concepts in modern mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Hafstrom, John Edward

    2013-01-01

    In-depth overview, geared toward undergraduates of all backgrounds, covers natural numbers; sets, variables, and statement forms; mappings and operations; groups; relations and partitions; integers; and rational and real numbers. 1961 edition.

  7. Islam: Basic Terms and Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wires, Richard

    1983-01-01

    The news media constantly uses words and references that require specific knowledge and understanding if the public is to grasp the substance and implications of events and developments concerning the Islamic religion. Most frequently encountered Islamic terms and ideas are explained. (RM)

  8. Sound Symbolism in Basic Vocabulary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Wichmann

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between meanings of words and their sound shapes is to a large extent arbitrary, but it is well known that languages exhibit sound symbolism effects violating arbitrariness. Evidence for sound symbolism is typically anecdotal, however. Here we present a systematic approach. Using a selection of basic vocabulary in nearly one half of the world’s languages we find commonalities among sound shapes for words referring to same concepts. These are interpreted as due to sound symbolism. Studying the effects of sound symbolism cross-linguistically is of key importance for the understanding of language evolution.

  9. US long distance fiber optic networks: Technology, evolution and advanced concepts. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Over the past two decades, fiber optics has emerged as a highly practical and cost-efficient communications technology. Its competitiveness vis-a-vis other transmission media, especially satellite, has become a critical question. This report studies the likely evolution and application of fiber optic networks in the United States to the end of the century. The outlook for the technology of fiber systems is assessed and forecast, scenarios of the evolution of fiber optic network development are constructed, and costs to provide service are determined and examined parametrically as a function of network size and traffic carried. Volume 1 consists of the Executive Summary. Volume 2 focuses on fiber optic technology and long distance fiber optic networks. Volume 3 develops a traffic and financial model of a nationwide long distance transmission network. Among the study's most important conclusions are: revenue requirements per circuit for LATA-to-LATA fiber optic links are less than one cent per call minute; multiplex equipment, which is likely to be required in any competing system, is the largest contributor to circuit costs; the potential capacity of fiber optic cable is very large and as yet undefined; and fiber optic transmission combined with other network optimization schemes can lead to even lower costs than those identified in this study.

  10. [Evolution of the concept of positive mental health: a systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Cristóbal Ovidio; Restrepo, Diego; Cardona, Doris

    2016-03-01

    Objective Characterize the theoretical models that have underpinned empirical research on the concept of positive mental health from the time it first emerged in the field of health up to the present. Methods A systematic search of the literature was conducted in PubMed, EBSCO (including Academic Search Complete, ERIC, Academic Source, MasterFILE Premier, MedicLatina, MEDLINE, and the Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection), Science Direct, Psicodoc, Springer Link, Taylor & Francis, Wiley Online Library, Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Redalyc, SciELO, Ovid, Embase, and ProQuest (including Health and Medical Complete, the Nursing and Allied Health Source, Psychology Journals, and Social Science Journals). The search criterion was the descriptor "positive mental health." Results Of 51 studies consulted, 84% used a quantitative approach; 84% were published in English; and the same percentage were conducted between 2000 and 2014. The concept of positive mental health has been applied in essentially five different ways: as the absence of disease; as the subject of the Jahoda model; as a combination of factors on the Lluch scale; as a synonym of well-being; and as part of more complex scales of measurement. Conclusions Positive mental health should not be viewed as the opposite of a mental disorder, the absence of disease, or the sum of a given set of personal conditions. It is important to move forward in the development of conceptual models that will serve as a basis for approaching mental health from the perspective of health promotion.

  11. [Common paths of psychiatry and forensic medicine--history and evolution of insanity defense concept from antiquity to modern times].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolechała, Filip

    2009-01-01

    Forensic psychiatry and psychology were in their beginnings inseparably associated with the forensic medicine, constituting one of its related branches of knowledge. Progress and development of these disciplines, education and the practical application for the purposes of the law were a contribution of a several generations of forensic pathologists in the 19th and 20th centuries. One of the major issues of common interest was opinionating on the sanity of offenders. However, the problem of criminal responsibility of the mentally ill perpetrators dates back to much earlier times and has its roots in the distant beginnings of human civilization. In this paper, the history and evolution of the insanity concept (as a circumstance excluding the guilt of the offender) were presented, from the oldest theories to ideas underlying modern codifications.

  12. A synthesis of the theories and concepts of early human evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslin, Mark A; Shultz, Susanne; Trauth, Martin H

    2015-03-05

    Current evidence suggests that many of the major events in hominin evolution occurred in East Africa. Hence, over the past two decades, there has been intensive work undertaken to understand African palaeoclimate and tectonics in order to put together a coherent picture of how the environment of Africa has varied over the past 10 Myr. A new consensus is emerging that suggests the unusual geology and climate of East Africa created a complex, environmentally very variable setting. This new understanding of East African climate has led to the pulsed climate variability hypothesis that suggests the long-term drying trend in East Africa was punctuated by episodes of short alternating periods of extreme humidity and aridity which may have driven hominin speciation, encephalization and dispersals out of Africa. This hypothesis is unique as it provides a conceptual framework within which other evolutionary theories can be examined: first, at macro-scale comparing phylogenetic gradualism and punctuated equilibrium; second, at a more focused level of human evolution comparing allopatric speciation, aridity hypothesis, turnover pulse hypothesis, variability selection hypothesis, Red Queen hypothesis and sympatric speciation based on sexual selection. It is proposed that each one of these mechanisms may have been acting on hominins during these short periods of climate variability, which then produce a range of different traits that led to the emergence of new species. In the case of Homo erectus (sensu lato), it is not just brain size that changes but life history (shortened inter-birth intervals, delayed development), body size and dimorphism, shoulder morphology to allow thrown projectiles, adaptation to long-distance running, ecological flexibility and social behaviour. The future of evolutionary research should be to create evidence-based meta-narratives, which encompass multiple mechanisms that select for different traits leading ultimately to speciation.

  13. The concept of revelation in terms of the evolution of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Nürnberger

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Following Paul’s injunction in 1 Corinthians 9:19–23 we have to ‘become scientists’ to a scientifically informed audience. While theology cannot agree with the naturalist denial of transcendence, it can adopt the experiential-realist approach typical for the sciences in its description of the Christian faith as an immanent part of cosmic evolution, albeit at a higher level of emergence. The article begins with my understanding of evolutionary theory (big bang cosmology, entropy, emergence, neural networks as infrastructure of consciousness, evolution and differentiation, sequences of past, present and future, contingency etc. It then describes God consciousness as the intuition, perception or conceptualisation of the transcendent Source and Destiny of experienced reality and locates God consciousness in the evolutionary process. Biblical God consciousness displays two distinct characteristics: God’s creative power is experienced in reality, while God’s benevolent intentionality is proclaimed on the basis of a religious tradition. The evolutionary trajectory of biblical God consciousness, culminating in the Christ-event, is sketched and the God consciousness of Jesus is deduced from its religious embeddedness, its social-environmental relationships and its religious impact. Implications of an experiential-realist approach are (1 a dynamic, rather than ontological Christology and (2 the cosmic significance of the sacrifice of God in Christ. On this basis revelation is described first in experiential-realist and then in theological terms. The tension between the experience of God’s creative power and the proclamation of God’s benevolence leads to a dynamic, rather than ontological rendering of the Trinity. Finally, traditional eschatological assumptions are reconceptualised as God’s dynamic vision of comprehensive well-being operating like a horizon that moves on as we approach it and displays ever new vistas, challenges and

  14. The basic concept of library crisis management and content analysis%图书馆危机管理的基本概念及内容分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李荣

    2014-01-01

    the library crisis means of library system security threat and destruction, so that the library into a state of high volatility. The emergence of library crisis management is to prevent the crisis after crisis has the correct effectively solve the corresponding strategy and so on the basic concept and content of library crisis management is necessary to in-depth study.%图书馆危机指的是对图书馆系统安全造成威胁和破坏从而使图书馆进入高度震荡的状态。图书馆危机管理就是为了防范危机的出现概率,出现危机后能有正确有效的对应解决策略,所以对图书馆危机管理的基本概念以及内容进行深入研究是非常有必要的。

  15. Circulating tumour cells: the evolving concept and the inadequacy of their enrichment by EpCAM-based methodology for basic and clinical cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, P K; Cummins, A G; Price, T J; Roberts-Thomson, I C; Hardingham, J E

    2014-08-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that circulating tumour cells (CTCs) are responsible for metastatic relapse and this has fuelled interest in their detection and quantification. Although numerous methods have been developed for the enrichment and detection of CTCs, none has yet reached the 'gold' standard. Since epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM)-based enrichment of CTCs offers several advantages, it is one of the most commonly used and has been adapted for high-throughput technology. However, emerging evidence suggests that CTCs are highly heterogeneous: they consist of epithelial tumour cells, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) cells, hybrid (epithelial/EMT(+)) tumour cells, irreversible EMT(+) tumour cells, and circulating tumour stem cells (CTSCs). The EpCAM-based approach does not detect CTCs expressing low levels of EpCAM and non-epithelial phenotypes such as CTSCs and those that have undergone EMT and no longer express EpCAM. Thus, the approach may lead to underestimation of the significance of CTCs, in general, and CTSCs and EMT(+) tumour cells, in particular, in cancer dissemination. Here, we provide a critical review of research literature on the evolving concept of CTCs and the inadequacy of their enrichment by EpCAM-based technology for basic and clinical cancer research. The review also outlines future perspectives in the field.

  16. Evolution of asymptotic giant branch stars I. Updated synthetic TP-AGB models and their basic calibration

    CERN Document Server

    Marigo, P; Marigo, Paola; Girardi, Leo

    2007-01-01

    We present new synthetic models of the TP-AGB evolution. They are computed for 7 values of initial metal content (Z from 0.0001 to 0.03) and for initial masses between 0.5 and 5.0 Msun, thus extending the low- and intermediate-mass tracks of Girardi et al. (2000) until the beginning of the post-AGB phase. The calculations are performed by means of a synthetic code that incorporates many recent improvements, among which we mention: (1) the use of detailed and revised analytical relations to describe the evolution of quiescent luminosity, inter-pulse period, third dredge-up, hot bottom burning, pulse cycle luminosity variations, etc.; (2) the use of variable molecular opacities -- i.e. opacities consistent with the changing photospheric chemical composition -- in the integration of a complete envelope model, instead of the standard choice of scaled-solar opacities; (3) the use of formalisms for the mass-loss rates derived from pulsating dust-driven wind models of C- and O-rich AGB stars; and (4) the switching o...

  17. The Gordian Knot of Interpretation: Roman written sources, the idea of socio-cultural evolution and the concept of Romanization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir D. Mihajlović

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the Roman Empire, under the Greek influences, authors shared the idea of “the degree of humanity”, according to which the Romans formed value judgements about the “barbarian” societies. The framework of reference was constituted by the Roman society itself, taken as superior and predestined as the centre of the known world. The criteria for comparison were based upon the natural and climatic environment, socio-political organization, economy, religion, ways of life, warfare, marital practices, certain kinds of material culture and cultural practices in general. According to this view, the Mediterranean societies were “the most human”, and the level of humanity declined in direct relation to the geographical remoteness and other differences as compared to the centre. Although these speculations were not organized into a unified interpretive framework, like the modern social theories, they nevertheless were implicit assumptions of the Roman elite. This „naive“ or “common-sense anthropology” has had a strong impact on the formation of the premises of the modern anthropological theories, due to the general role of the ancient written sources in the processes of knowledge formation in modern Europe. It is therefore possible to assume that the ancient ideas, along with the later ones, played an important role in the shaping of the postulates of the early theory of socio-cultural evolution – the implicit base of interpretation of human societies during the 19th century. Consequently, the written sources have played a double role in the processes of formation of the concept of Romanization – directly, as well as through socio-cultural evolution, onto which the concept itself relied. In this way, the prejudices stemming from the discourse of Romanization gained the air of scientific interpretations, verified by two seemingly independent reference systems.

  18. Management of patient education in US hospitals: evolution of a concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giloth, B E

    1990-04-01

    While patient education has been an integral part of health care for centuries, the management of this process is a relatively new concept for US hospitals. Beginning in the late 1960s, documentation of patient education coordinator positions, policies, committee mandates, and other management structures began to appear. National surveys and projects documented the growth of these structures and provided some evidence that their existence positively impacted the number of programs and their effectiveness. Financial pressures on hospitals including the advent of the prospective pricing system, other actions by government and business to control health care costs, and changes in technology have resulted in budget cuts, staff reductions, and reorganizations that have posed new challenges for the development of patient education management. This paper discusses these developments and their impact on management of patient education programs in hospitals.

  19. Industrialization and City Change; the Concept and Historical Evolution of Urban Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Mehdipour

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study is essentially motivated by the increasing number of problems caused by industrial diversity in urban areas. Environmental degradation, Social decay and economic decline as ultimate outcomes of the Industrialization period forced dramatic changes in the process of urbanization, particularly in the developed countries where the population growth rapidly transformed the textures of cities. Hence, several cities were compelled to reconsider and encourage the practice of sustainable urban regeneration as a momentous process to revitalize these declined urban fabrics. This study first aims to trigger a brief discussion about the Industrialization period and how this trend contributed to transformation of cities. Subsequently, the concept and objectives of urban regeneration process will be extensively explained.

  20. In vivo tissue engineering of heart valves: evolution of a novel concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleicher, Martina; Wendel, Hans Peter; Fritze, Olaf; Stock, Ulrich A

    2009-07-01

    Current tissue-engineering principles of heart valves include tissue- or stem cell-derived cells with subsequent in vitro incubation on various scaffolds prior to implantation. Limitations of this approach include a long in vitro culture, an accompanied risk of infection and sophisticated, cost-intensive infrastructures. An 'off-the-shelf' heart valve with in vivo endothelialization and tissue-regeneration potential would overcome these limitations. Additionally, the development of a heart valve with growth potential would be a huge improvement for pediatric patients. This article discusses different starter matrices, homing and immobilization strategies of host cells and masking approaches of inflammatory structures for in vivo surface and tissue engineering of heart valves. Novel concepts will be presented based on highly specific DNA-aptamers immobilized on the heart valve surface as capture molecules for endothelial progenitor cells circulating in the bloodstream.

  1. The Evolution of the Nondiscrimination Concept in the European Labor Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Răzvan Popescu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Most states have incorporated all the grounds of discrimination included in the two Directives their national antidiscrimination legislation. The most pressing issue is the proper application of national anti discrimination laws and the active enforcement of rights. In general, protection against discrimination on any of the grounds of the Directives in the states is not conditional on nationality, citizenship or residence status. In the majority of states, both natural and legal persons are protected against discrimination. complex and remedies often inadequate. Further work is needed to ensure the credibility and admissibility of methods of proof such as statistical evidence. When a decision is rendered by courts or equality bodies, sanctions are not always observed by respondents, and recommendations are not always followed by authorities. We think this article is a small step in the disclosure of the problem nondiscrimination concept.

  2. Concepts, Instruments, and Model Systems that Enabled the Rapid Evolution of Surface Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somorjai, Gabor A.; Park, Jeong Y.

    2009-01-10

    Over the past forty years, surface science has evolved to become both an atomic scale and a molecular scale science. Gerhard Ertl's group has made major contributions in the field of molecular scale surface science, focusing on vacuum studies of adsorption chemistry on single crystal surfaces. In this review, we outline three important aspects which have led to recent advances in surface chemistry: the development of new concepts, in situ instruments for molecular scale surface studies at buried interfaces (solid-gas and solid-liquid), and new model nanoparticle surface systems, in addition to single crystals. Combined molecular beam surface scattering and low energy electron diffraction (LEED)- surface structure studies on metal single crystal surfaces revealed concepts, including adsorbate-induced surface restructuring and the unique activity of defects, atomic steps, and kinks on metal surfaces. We have combined high pressure catalytic reaction studies with ultra high vacuum (UHV) surface characterization techniques using a UHV chamber equipped with a high pressure reaction cell. New instruments, such as high pressure sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) which permit molecular-level surface studies have been developed. Tools that access broad ranges of pressures can be used for both the in situ characterization of solid-gas and solid-liquid buried interfaces and the study of catalytic reaction intermediates. The model systems for the study of molecular surface chemistry have evolved from single crystals to nanoparticles in the 1-10 nm size range, which are currently the preferred media in catalytic reaction studies.

  3. [Neurophysiological endophenotypes and schizophrenic disorder: emergence and evolution of a clinical concept].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micoulaud Franchi, J-A; Vion Dury, J; Cermolacce, M

    2012-12-01

    It is proposed an historical approach to concepts leading to the development of operational paradigms for measuring objectives neurophysiological endophenotypes. It is hypothesized that psychiatric interest for paradigms measuring Event-Related Potential (ERP) come from Bleuler (1911) and McGhie and Chapman (1961) phenomenological and clinical descriptions. They noted, first that patients with schizophrenia generally feel as if they are being flooded by an overwhelming mass of sensory input combined with a heightened sensory perception, second that they were distractible to irrelevant sensory stimuli. These subjective abnormalities may be related, first to inability to filter incongruent information measured in a double click paradigm by a deficit in P50 amplitude gating, and second to an inability to select a stimulus of interest measured in the oddball paradigm by a deficit in P300 amplitude. The analysis of these P50 and P300 ERP in cohorts of patients with schizophrenia found most of Gottesman endophenotype criteria. P50 and P300 ERP are therefore relevant neurophysiological endophenotypes. However, from a clinical point of view, these endophenotypes lack specificity. The hypothesis of this article leads us to formulate ways of research. It is shown the value of combining objective neurophysiological measures with subjective measures using self-administered questionnaires ("offline") or psychophysiological tests ("online") to develop rigorous neurophysiological experimental paradigms especially as clinical observations of their origins are not forgotten.

  4. [Evolution of the climate change concept and its impact in the public health of Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Zavaleta, Carlos A

    2016-03-01

    The term "climate change" is not a new concept but its impact on public health is under constant review. We know that climate has already changed and will continue to change for centuries with the rise in average global temperature, and the associated rise in sea level. This fact makes mitigation efforts relevant only in the very long term and for generations of humans whose parents have not yet been born. When we talk about public health in the context of climate change, we are talking about adaptation. In the present, countries that are currently the most affected by climate change are precisely countries like Peru, without a significant carbon footprint at the global level but that are highly sensitive to the effects of climate. Without reliable climate projections, the health impact of climate change can be uncertain and complicated. Nevertheless, at the local level, every district can identify its vulnerabilities and define priorities to protect the health of its population. There are, and it can also be developed, environmental health indicators that can help monitor how well we are adapting and how prepared we are for changes in the climate. Adaptation to climate change implies improving living conditions, enhancing epidemiological surveillance systems and extending access to healthcare. The fight against the effects of climate change in public health is a fight against poverty and inequality, and that is nothing new in Peru.

  5. A new concept for paleohydrological evolution of the Younger Dryas in NE Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouimetarhan, Ilham; Prange, Matthias; Gonzalez, Catalina; Dupont, Lydie

    2016-04-01

    The late deglacial interval from approximately 13 to 11 kyr BP contains some of the best documented abrupt climate changes in the Past, the Younger Dryas (YD). It is also an interval when the bipolar climatic signature of millennial-scale changes in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) is well expressed. Here we present a high-resolution palynological record from core GeoB16205-4 (1°21.11'N, 43°05.80'W), retrieved off the Parnaíba River mouth, southeast of the Amazon River (~1955 m water depth). Pollen and organic-walled dinoflagellate cyst assemblages indicate a predominantly wet climate during the YD in the nowadays semi-arid Nordeste, whereby a second phase between ~12.3 and 11.7 kyr BP is wetter than the period before. This is recorded by a strong increase in the concentrations of river plume dinoflagellate cyst assemblages indicative of a stratified surface water column and reduced salinity environments, as well as a drop in grass pollen and microcharcoal particle concentrations along with strong fluctuations in the representation of rain forest, gallery forest and tree ferns suggesting year-round humid conditions. This shift from a relatively wet first phase to a much wetter second phase is in agreement with the transient TRACE-21k coupled climate model simulation which shows a first pluvial Parnaíba stage from ~12.8 to 12.3 kyr BP and a second stronger pluvial stage between ~12.3 and 11.7 kyr BP to be related to a very weak AMOC due to meltwater pulses in the North Atlantic. The AMOC variation induces a steep temperature gradient between the Southern and the Northern Hemisphere which forces a southward shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and its associated rainfall. The two-step hydroclimatic and environmental evolution during the Younger Dryas has not been documented previously in this region.

  6. 大数据基本概念、技术与挑战%Basic Concept, Technology and Challenge of Big Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵苏阳; 李艳军; 钱小燕; 曹愈远; 许振腾; 乔磊; 汪雷

    2015-01-01

    With the development of cloud computing, Internet of things, social networks, the number and types of data showing explosive growth, the big data era is coming. People found that the data can be used as a fundamental resource and not just a simple processing object. The complexity of data complexity, large data calculation complexity and data processing systems are a great challenge for calculation and ap-plication of large data. Analysing the basic concept, features of the data processing mode and technical difficulties is helpful to better tap the potential and advantages of large data.%随着云计算、物联网、社交网络的发展,数据类型和数量呈现出爆炸式的增长,大数据时代正式到来。人们发现数据可以被当做一种基础性的资源而不仅仅只是简单的处理对象。大数据的数据复杂性、计算复杂性以及数据处理系统的复杂性都给大数据的计算及应用带来极大的挑战。对大数据的基本概念、特征、处理模式以及技术难点进行剖析研究都有助于更好地利用挖掘大数据的潜能和优势。

  7. Ubiquitous geospatial concept in evolution of the macro and micro spatial planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabri, S.; Ludin, A. N. M.; Majid, M. R.

    2014-02-01

    There are many examples of GIS application in planning such as urban land-use planning, cultural heritage conservation, coastal zone management, and the design of structure plans for sustainable economic development. All these applications are dealing with systems in which natural and human factors are interconnected. But an issue that should be addressed is to what extent the current information technology is able to connect all these parts together? Contemporary improvement in information technology made the computer so imbedded in our everyday practices that we use it without having to think about it. Thus, computing is becoming truly ubiquitous and is available anywhere anytime. Advances in the internet facilities and devices, such as high speed wireless networks, mobile middleware, and smart technologies, has pushed the concept of ubiquitous computing to the forefront of GIS research and development. There are developments in this regards, these are such as GeoWeb 2.0, voluntarily geographic Information (VGI), and Mashups, whereby the application of cloud computing was possible in visualizing urban air pollution and emergency responses to ensure the safety and security. These advancements therefore, have changed the conventional facet of macro and micro spatial planning. Every possible information system such as residential, medical, business, environmental, governmental, and the like can be linked through ubiquitous computing technologies and acts as a virtually one system which works for society. However, the journey to achieve a true ubiquitous GIS is not without challenges. Despite the current potentials there are many issues and obstacles need to be addressed before GIS can to be truly ubiquitous in planning context. Perhaps four criteria as explained by Goodchild et al (1997) can be applied to ubiquitous GIS in planning very well: the system must be distributed (data storage, processing and user interaction can occur at locations that are potentially

  8. Aromaticidade: evolução histórica do conceito e critérios quantitativos Aromaticity: historical evolution of the concept and quantitative criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Finoto Caramori

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the evolution of the concept of aromaticity is discussed. It considers not only historical aspects of the aromaticity concept but also the different criteria (theoretical and experimental that have appeared to explain the properties of the aromatic compounds. The topics range from the isolation of benzene by Faraday (1825 until the modern criteria based on geometries, magnetic properties, resonance energy (RE, aromatic stabilization energy (ASE, topological analyses, and others. A chronological separation of issues concerning aromaticity was made, splitting the definitions before and after the appearance of the quantum chemistry. This work reviews the concept of aromaticity.

  9. Parallel Evolution in Science: The Historical Roots and Central Concepts of General Systems Theory; and "General Systems Theory,""Modern Organizational Theory," and Organizational Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Linda Costigan; Rogers, Don

    The two papers in this document focus on general systems theory. In her paper, Linda Lederman discusses the emergence and evolution of general systems theory, defines its central concepts, and draws some conclusions regarding the nature of the theory and its value as an epistemology. Don Rogers, in his paper, relates some of the important features…

  10. Analysis of a Group of Basic Concepts Laying a Foundation for Research and Design of Software Architectures%解析奠定软件体系结构研究与设计基础的一组基本概念

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿技; 周明天; 秦志光

    2001-01-01

    A group of basic concepts and their interrelations are analyzed in this paper. This group of basic concepts includes Software Structure, Software Structural Style, Software Structural View and Software Structural Level. They jointly lay a foundation for research and design of software architec-ture. So ,it is important for people working in software architecture field to clearly understand meanings and interrelations of these basic concepts.

  11. Historical evolution of the concept of anorexia nervosa and relationships with orthorexia nervosa, autism, and obsessive-compulsive spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dell'Osso L

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Liliana Dell’Osso,1 Marianna Abelli,1 Barbara Carpita,1 Stefano Pini,1 Giovanni Castellini,2 Claudia Carmassi,1 Valdo Ricca2 1Psychiatry Section, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa, 2Department of Neuroscience, Psychology, Drug Research and Child Health (NEUROFARBA, University of Florence, Florence, Italy Abstract: Eating disorders have been defined as “characterized by persistence disturbance of eating or eating-related behavior that results in the altered consumption or absorption of food and that significantly impairs health or psychosocial functioning”. The psychopathology of eating disorders changed across time under the influence of environmental factors, determining the emergence of new phenotypes. Some of these conditions are still under investigation and are not clearly identified as independent diagnostic entities. In this review, the historic evolution of the eating disorder concept up to the recent Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, has been evaluated. We also examined literature supporting the inclusion of new emergent eating behaviors within the eating disorder spectrum, and their relationship with anorexia, autism, and obsessive–compulsive disorder. In particular, we focused on what is known about the symptoms, epidemiology, assessment, and diagnostic boundaries of a new problematic eating pattern called orthorexia nervosa that could be accepted as a new psychological syndrome, as emphasized by an increasing number of scientific articles in the last few years. Keywords: anorexia nervosa, autism spectrum disorders, eating disorders spectrum, obsessive–compulsive spectrum, orthorexia nervosa, DSM-5

  12. Historical evolution of the concept of anorexia nervosa and relationships with orthorexia nervosa, autism, and obsessive-compulsive spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Osso, Liliana; Abelli, Marianna; Carpita, Barbara; Pini, Stefano; Castellini, Giovanni; Carmassi, Claudia; Ricca, Valdo

    2016-01-01

    Eating disorders have been defined as "characterized by persistence disturbance of eating or eating-related behavior that results in the altered consumption or absorption of food and that significantly impairs health or psychosocial functioning". The psychopathology of eating disorders changed across time under the influence of environmental factors, determining the emergence of new phenotypes. Some of these conditions are still under investigation and are not clearly identified as independent diagnostic entities. In this review, the historic evolution of the eating disorder concept up to the recent Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, has been evaluated. We also examined literature supporting the inclusion of new emergent eating behaviors within the eating disorder spectrum, and their relationship with anorexia, autism, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. In particular, we focused on what is known about the symptoms, epidemiology, assessment, and diagnostic boundaries of a new problematic eating pattern called orthorexia nervosa that could be accepted as a new psychological syndrome, as emphasized by an increasing number of scientific articles in the last few years.

  13. Historical evolution of the concept of anorexia nervosa and relationships with orthorexia nervosa, autism, and obsessive–compulsive spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell’Osso, Liliana; Abelli, Marianna; Carpita, Barbara; Pini, Stefano; Castellini, Giovanni; Carmassi, Claudia; Ricca, Valdo

    2016-01-01

    Eating disorders have been defined as “characterized by persistence disturbance of eating or eating-related behavior that results in the altered consumption or absorption of food and that significantly impairs health or psychosocial functioning”. The psychopathology of eating disorders changed across time under the influence of environmental factors, determining the emergence of new phenotypes. Some of these conditions are still under investigation and are not clearly identified as independent diagnostic entities. In this review, the historic evolution of the eating disorder concept up to the recent Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, has been evaluated. We also examined literature supporting the inclusion of new emergent eating behaviors within the eating disorder spectrum, and their relationship with anorexia, autism, and obsessive–compulsive disorder. In particular, we focused on what is known about the symptoms, epidemiology, assessment, and diagnostic boundaries of a new problematic eating pattern called orthorexia nervosa that could be accepted as a new psychological syndrome, as emphasized by an increasing number of scientific articles in the last few years. PMID:27462158

  14. THE EVOLUTION OF THE CONCEPT OF “GROUND” IN G. I. CHULKOV’S WRITINGS ABOUT F. M. DOSTOEVSKY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Bogdanova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available F. M. Dostoevsky’s ideas and images imbued the entire creative work of a distinguished Silver Age writer and critic G. I. Chulkov: beginning with the article “Dostoevsky and Revolution” (1906 and ending with the book “How Dostoevsky worked” (1939. The works dedicated to Dostoevsky demonstrate the evolution of the literator’s vision of “ground” from denying it in pre-revolutionary years (that was common among the representatives of “New Christian Consciousness” to accepting it in the 1930’s (that corresponded with the attitude of Dostoevsky, best seen in “The Brothers Karamazov” and with the religious views of Chulkov, who had been already inchurched by that time. The focus of the article is the analysis of the vision of “ground” in Chulkov’s unpublished work Dostoevsky’s Life (1935–1936, whose autograph and typewritten copies are kept in three diff erent Russian archives. In the research Chulkov’s interest to religious philosophy of the Silver Age associated with the names of D. S. Merezhkovsky, V. I. Ivanov and N. A. Berdyaev is evident. However, the concept of “ground”, based on Chulkov’s opposition to “Soviet patriotism” of the 1930s, in general, tends to have the canonical explanation.

  15. 基于能力本位观的《基本乐理》课程建设研究%Based on the Concept of "Ability Standard" Curriculum Construction of Basic Music Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙江江; 郎启训

    2016-01-01

    我国《基本乐理》课程教材版本众多无法抉择,并且该课程师资力量匮乏,文章以能力本位观为指导,从基本乐理课程理念的落实、师资力量的培育以及教材建设等方面来对《基本乐理》的课程建设展开研究,从而希望能达到促进基本乐理课程教学良性发展的目的。%There are different methods for the teaching of Basic Music Theory in our country, so it is difficult to decide on which one is better. Meanwhile, there is short of qualified teachers in the teaching of Basic Music Theory. This paper carries out a constructive study on the course of Basic Music Theory from three aspects, the implementation of curriculum concept of Basic Music Theory, the training and education of teachers and academic research, under the guidance of ability standard concept so that it hopes to be able to achieve the purpose of promoting the benign development of the teaching of Basic Music Theory.

  16. The basic level of taxonomy of the concept «Visual perception» (the case study of English and French verbs)

    OpenAIRE

    BABINA L.V.; UDANTSEVA N.A.

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with verb representation of visual perception in the English and French languages on the basis of construction of a complex cognitive model called the verb taxonomy of the concept VISUAL PERCEPTION. The model allows us to present a part of the lexical system of the English and French languages with account of the conceptual level, namely the concepts represented by verbs of visual perception. The semantic structure of the verbs of visual perception and conceptual characteris...

  17. 台湾本土体育概念的演进研究%Investigation into the Evolution of the Concept of Taiwanese Sports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓陆

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the evolution course of sports concepts in Taiwan and to build a diachronic trajectory of sports. It is concluded that the concept of sports regards gymnastics as markers, and it has been used since the recovery period. Although the name has been changed, the evolution of the concept connotation becomes diverse with the emergence of different events. The changes of the concept have been induced from the point of history. Thus sports concept covers multiple factors such as leisure, athletics, health and education and becomes a comprehensive grand concept.%探讨体育概念在台湾的演变历程,旨在架构体育一词的历时性变化轨迹。研究结论认为:体育概念以体操为标记,在光复年间称为"体育"沿用至今。名称虽有变化,但概念内涵的演进,却随不同事件的出现而更丰富多元。从历史痕迹来看,引发概念变化的力量。体育概念的内容因而涵盖休闲、竞技、健康与教育等多元面向,成为一个无所不包的宏大概念。

  18. ERT basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butters, M. [MBC Energy and Environment, Ottawa, ON (Canada)]|[National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    ERT is an economic instrument which helps power companies achieve emission reduction compliance cost-effectively. This paper presents the basics of ERT with reference to trading concepts, types of systems and types of emissions. The paper also describes the state of the Canadian energy market regarding greenhouse gases (GHG), nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide and volatile organic compounds. The association between ERT and district energy is also explained. By 2010, the global market for GHG trading is expected to be worth $10 billion to $3 trillion U.S. Canada has committed to reducing its GHG to 6 per cent below 1990 levels by 2012, but currently emits 705 Mt per year. This is expected to increase to 770 Mt by 2010. Therefore, in order to meet its commitment, GHGs will have to be reduced 200 Mt per year. Canada is currently considering ratifying the Kyoto agreement and a trading system is being developed. There are several abatement technologies currently under consideration for district energy systems, including adding scrubbers, improving efficiency, and fuel switching. The marginal cost of abatement was also discussed. tabs., figs.

  19. Asthma Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Asthma Basics KidsHealth > For Parents > Asthma Basics A A ... Asthma Categories en español Asma: aspectos fundamentales About Asthma Asthma is a common lung condition in kids ...

  20. Astronomy4Kids: Utilizing online video forums to teach basic planetary concepts to children (pre-K to 2nd-grade)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Richard L.

    2016-10-01

    We have developed Astronomy4Kids to help cultivate the next generation of scientists by using technology to reach every interested child in both formal and informal learning environments. This online video series fills the void of effective STEM education tools for children under the age of 8. Our first collection of videos discuss many planetary topics, including the following: planet and moon formation theories, solar and lunar eclipses, and the seasonal effect of the Earth's tilt. As education and outreach become a larger focus of groups such as AAS and NASA, it is imperative to include programs such as Astronomy4Kids to extend these initiatives to younger age groups.Traditionally, this age group has been viewed as too young to be introduced to physics and astronomy concepts. However, child development research is consistently demonstrating the amazing plasticity of a young child's mind: the younger one is introduced to a complex concept, the easier it is to grasp later on. Following the philosophies of Fred Rogers, we present children with a real, relatable, instructor allowing them to focus on the concepts being presented.The format of Astronomy4Kids includes short instruction video clips that usually include a hands-on activity that is easily reproduced at home or in the classroom. This permits flexibility in how the video series is utilized. Within formal classroom or after-school situations, teachers and instructors can lead the discussion and activity with help from the video and supplemental materials (e.g. worksheets, concept outlines, etc.). Informal environments permit the viewer to complete the tasks on their own or simply enjoy the presentation. The video series can be found on YouTube (under "Astronomy 4 Kids") or Facebook (at www.facebook.com/astronomy4kids); we have also expanded to Instagram (www.instragram.com/astronomy4kids) and Pinterest (www.pinterest.com/astronomy4kids).

  1. The analysis and perspectives of studying basic and special types of self-determination according to A.L. Zhuravlev’s and A.B. Kupreichenko’s concept.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorobieva, A.E.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of Russian and foreign ways of understanding the phenomenon of self-determination has been performed. It has been found that the concept of individual and group self-determination by A.L. Zhuravlev and A.B. Kupreichenko is the most developed in modern Russian psychological science. Using the concept as a basis, the conceptual schemes (made by A.E. Vorobieva and A.A. Akbarova of studies of personal, moral, social and economic self-determination were considered as the examples of the basic and special types of self-determination. Moral self-determination was studied with questions about ideas of morality, moral strategies and personality orientation, attitude toward unethical phenomena, ability for self-regulation and emotional intellect. Social and economic self-determination were studied with questions that show one’s social level, satisfaction with economic and social status and their dynamics, a valuation of favorable circumstances for an increase of status and economic activity. Value and anti-value, spheres and forms of showing of social and living personality’s activity were also determined. Fundamental differences (variability, success criteria, implementation in behavior, a level of ability to control a process, the role of external factors and similarities (successfulness, a formation level, a range, dynamics, conceptions, strategy, values, factors between the components of the conceptual schemes of these types of selfdetermination were identified. The principles of studying (proportion of basic and specific types of self-determination, a display of resultative, procedural and formal-dynamic characteristics, consideration of factors of different levels of basic and special types of self-determination were suggested.

  2. The general practice of Judo in the formation of self-concept, self-esteem and school performance in children of the first cycle of basic education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Alexandre da Silva Batista

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to relate the practice of Judo with the formation of self-concept, self-esteem and school performance in students from lower primary.The sample has been composed of 531 Portuguese students of which 295 (55.6% are children and 236 (44.4% children, with an average of 9.13 years. From this sample, 394 subjects (74% practiced at least one formal exercise extra-curricular character, and 96 students (24% practiced Judo, with an experience of 9 months to 5 years, and graduations between white belt and green belt.As data collection instrument was used Self-Concept Scale Susan Harter validated for the Portuguese population (Martins, Peixoto, Mata, & Monteiro, 1995. Focus groups were developed with Judo coaches and officials education with the intention of evaluating opinions about the practice of Judo and its importance and relationship to the variables studied. The results show that the practice of judo promotes positive developments in the formation of self-concept and self-esteem, also improving school performance.

  3. Conception on the Structure Optimization of Basic Party Organizations in University%优化高校基层党组织结构的设想

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      目前高校基层党组织设置存在支部党员规模太大或党支部数过多的问题,制约了支部作用的发挥。针对这些问题,可以建立一种三级组织结构,并通过制度创新、提高党建队伍管理水平、完善内涵建设等方面促进高校基层党组织结构的优化。%There are problems with the installation of the basic party organizations in university presently:the scope or number of the party branch so large that the function was limited. To solve these problems, the structure of the third class should be estab-lished. The system innovation, improve management level of party affairs worker troop and perfect the inner construction and so on may help to promote the structure optimization of the basic party organizations in university.

  4. Basic stress analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Iremonger, M J

    1982-01-01

    BASIC Stress Analysis aims to help students to become proficient at BASIC programming by actually using it in an important engineering subject. It also enables the student to use computing as a means of learning stress analysis because writing a program is analogous to teaching-it is necessary to understand the subject matter. The book begins by introducing the BASIC approach and the concept of stress analysis at first- and second-year undergraduate level. Subsequent chapters contain a summary of relevant theory, worked examples containing computer programs, and a set of problems. Topics c

  5. Quantum electronics basic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Fain, V M; Sanders, J H

    1969-01-01

    Quantum Electronics, Volume 1: Basic Theory is a condensed and generalized description of the many research and rapid progress done on the subject. It is translated from the Russian language. The volume describes the basic theory of quantum electronics, and shows how the concepts and equations followed in quantum electronics arise from the basic principles of theoretical physics. The book then briefly discusses the interaction of an electromagnetic field with matter. The text also covers the quantum theory of relaxation process when a quantum system approaches an equilibrium state, and explai

  6. Unconscious phantasy as a structural principle and organizer of mental life: The evolution of a concept from Freud to Klein and some of her successors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Heinz

    2017-02-17

    Starting with Freud's discovery of unconscious phantasy as a means of accessing his patients' internal world, the author discusses the evolution of the concept in the work of Melanie Klein and some of her successors. Whereas Freud sees phantasy as a wish fulfilling imagination, dominated by primary process functioning and kept apart from reality testing, Klein understands phantasies as a structural function and organizer of mental life. From their very beginnings they involve object relations and gradually evolve from primitive body-near experiences to images and symbolic representations. With her concept of projective identification in particular, Klein anticipates the communicative function of unconscious phantasies. They are at the basis of processes of symbolization, but may also be put into the service of complex defensive operations. The author traces the further evolution of the concept from the contributions of S. Isaacs, the theories of thinking proposed by W.R. Bion and R. Money-Kyrle, Hanna Segal's ideas on symbolization and reparation all the way to the latest approaches by R. Britton, J. Steiner and others, including the understanding of transference and counter-transference as a 'total situation'. Points of contact with Freud are to be found particularly in connection with his concept of 'primal phantasies'. In the author's view, the idea of the transmission and communicative potential of unconscious phantasies enabled these authors to overcome the solipsistic origins of drive theory in favour of a notion in which unconscious phantasies both set down the coordinates of the inner world and form and reflect the matrix of inter-subjective relations.

  7. INNOVATIONS AND TOURISTIC ACTIVITY EVOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Novikov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental and applied innovations impact activities in the tourist industry and evolution thereof. More and more sophisticated technologies and communication techniques are practically used to serve tourists. Basically, innovative tourist activity development concept represents innovation of values and in particular means that tourist’s impression is taken into account to higher extent and tourist product personification changes the products’ consumer value. Discussed in the article are tourist activity, tourist cluster, destination and glocalization development prospects.

  8. Basic electrotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Ashen, R A

    2013-01-01

    BASIC Electrotechnology discusses the applications of Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC) in engineering, particularly in solving electrotechnology-related problems. The book is comprised of six chapters that cover several topics relevant to BASIC and electrotechnology. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to BASIC, and Chapter 2 talks about the use of complex numbers in a.c. circuit analysis. Chapter 3 covers linear circuit analysis with d.c. and sinusoidal a.c. supplies. The book also discusses the elementary magnetic circuit theory. The theory and performance of two windi

  9. A Dialectic Study of the Structure and Basic Concepts of Traditional Chinese Law and an Analysis of the Relationship Between li (ceremony) and fa (law)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Xianyi; MA Xiaohong

    2006-01-01

    In the course of history,the meaning offa (a Chinese character with an approximate meaning of "law") has not been invariable,and its connotation in modem times has been enriched constantly,so as to incorporate many elements of ancient li (ceremony).If the modem concept of law,already changed and still changing,is to be used to mechanically compare and interpret traditional Chinese law,misunderstandings might arise.Actually,li and fa are indispensable components of traditional Chinese law,and the lack of necessary study of the li will prevent us from understanding and explaining the spirit of traditional Chinese law.In traditional Chinese law,"fa" usually refers to an institutional dimension,especially after Qin and Han dynasties,whereas li,especially li yi (moral basis for rites and ceremonies),is where the value and spirit of traditional Chinese law can be found.

  10. “智能”学科建设的基本概念问题%Basic Concept Problems of Academics Construction of "Intelligence"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏世泽

    2011-01-01

    与智能相关的学会联合召开专题会议,研讨智能学科(专业)建设问题,实属当务之急。但“智能”概念的内涵、外延如何定位、划分?这仍是一个悬而未决的问题。通过此次研讨,若能使“智能”的定义更明确、学科定位更准确,乃是全国智能科教工作者的愿望。本文是从智能概念的由来、发展与学科定位等基本问题的一个书面发言。%The intelligence related academic association, the consociation convenes a special subject meeting, study and discuss the construction problem of the intelligence academics(profession), in really urgent matter of the moment.But the content of "intelligence" concept, outside postpone how to position, demarcation?This is still a pending problem.Pass this time study and discuss, if can make the definition of "intelligence" explicit, academics fixed position more accurate, is the wishes that the national intelligence section teaches a worker.This text can be regarded as from the intelligence concept of since, development and academics position to talk about of a writing form speech.

  11. Basic physics for all

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, B N

    2012-01-01

    This is a simple, concise book for both student and non-physics students, presenting basic facts in straightforward form and conveying fundamental principles and theories of physics. This book will be helpful as a supplement to class teaching and to aid those who have difficulty in mastering concepts and principles.

  12. Basic Nuclear Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    Basic concepts of nuclear structures, radiation, nuclear reactions, and health physics are presented in this text, prepared for naval officers. Applications to the area of nuclear power are described in connection with pressurized water reactors, experimental boiling water reactors, homogeneous reactor experiments, and experimental breeder…

  13. 矿产资源综合利用基本术语概念体系研究%Research on the Concept System of Basic Terminological Standard for Comprehensive Utilization of Mineral Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于常亮; 兰井志; 刘亚改

    2011-01-01

    Basic terminological standard is one of the most important elements in normative management and technology of comprehensive utilization. The author analyzes the implication and extension of the term "comprehensive utilization of mineral resources", and cleares the main elements of basic terminological standard for comprehensive utilization of mineral resources and the relationship between them; According to the concerned fields with comprehensive utilization of mineral resources and results in front of the paper, researcher builds the concept system of the basic terminological standard.%术语标准是综合利用管理和技术规范化的重要基础。笔者从矿产资源综合利用概念的内涵和外延入手,在明确术语标准的研究主体及主体之间关系的基础上,按照矿产资源综合利用工作涉及的具体领域,研究构建了矿产资源综合利用术语标准的概念体系。

  14. The Basic Concepts and Practical Application of Training Transfer%训练迁移的基本原理和现实应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡艳; 胡斐; 张仁祥; 金洋; 马继政

    2015-01-01

    During different sports preparation, training transfer has been not only regarded as an important realis-tic problem in daily training need to face but also consid-ered as a key problem for the basic theory of training. Training transfer determines whether training methods se-lected will help to improve athletic performance. In the as-pect of transfer of technical skills, the development and application of biological technology and artificial environ-ment makes the experimental research into practical appli-cations;In the aspect of training transfer of motor abili-ties,the interaction between sports practice and basic re-search promotes training transfer toward fine direction. At present, with the sports practice, technology and experi-mental research development, to develop evidence-based raining transfer is the development trend of the current training theory.%在各种运动项目的准备方面,训练迁移是日常训练需要面对的一个重要的现实问题,也是训练基础理论中的一个关键的问题。训练迁移决定选择练习手段是否有助于提高运动成绩。在技术迁移方面,生物技术和人工环境发展和应用,推动了实验研究向实践应用方面的转化。在运动能力训练迁移方面,运动实践和基础研究相互作用,推动了训练迁移朝向精细化方向发展。当前,随着运动实践、技术和实验研究不断深入发展,制定以实证为基础的训练迁移是当前训练理论的发展趋势。

  15. Concept theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2009-01-01

      Concept theory is an extremely broad, interdisciplinary and complex field of research related to many deep fields with very long historical traditions without much consensus. However, information science and knowledge organization cannot avoid relating to theories of concepts. Knowledge...... organizing systems (e.g. classification systems, thesauri and ontologies) should be understood as systems basically organizing concepts and their semantic relations. The same is the case with information retrieval systems. Different theories of concepts have different implications for how to construe......, evaluate and use such systems. Based on "a post-Kuhnian view" of paradigms this paper put forward arguments that the best understanding and classification of theories of concepts is to view and classify them in accordance with epistemological theories (empiricism, rationalism, historicism and pragmatism...

  16. 卫生法学的概念及基本范畴辨析%The Basic Framework of the Concept of Health Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李筱永

    2011-01-01

    Health Law is a legal science that study the health law (normative law ),and the phenomenon of the law (law of life )and its related issues. Through the phenomenon of the health law ,we can find that pursuing human health is the best interest of the health law, the essence of the health law views social welfare as the legal interest, and its essence is to make health service more equitable. Building the basic law that regards the health right as the core is the top priority of health law.%卫生法学是研究卫生法、卫生法的现象及其与卫生法相关问题的一门法律科学.透过卫生法现象不难发现,卫生法以追求人的生命健康为最大利益,卫生法的本质是以社会公益为法益的法律,其实质就是让卫生服务更加公平.制定以健康权为核心的卫生基本法是卫生法学的重中之重.

  17. The Basic Paradigm of Chinese Traditional Theory of Human Nature and Its Evolution%中国传统人性论的基本范式及其演变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程欢

    2014-01-01

    Person's stipulation ,human nature ,human nature ,the essence of man ,human nature ,and so on words in different thinkers and scholars have different understanding , there on the definition of the concept should be there and give the different meaning ,they constitute the understanding the essence of human nature , performance ,and contact the words family members ,and the“humanity”words have both sex and simplicity .So you can put to study especially the human basic stipulation and the contact way of learning is called “human nature”.The theory of human nature , since this knowledge to produce , is “flowers, schools of thought con-tend”.So this article in China in different periods ,different thinkers'understanding of human nature and grasp as a benchmark,also discusses the paradigm theory of human nature in different periods ,and the evolution of the theory of human nature have a deeper understanding and the understanding .%人的规定性、人性、人的属性、人的本质、人的本质属性等词语在不同思想家和学者那里有不同的理解,在概念的界定上应该是有差别的并赋予其不同的内涵,他们构成了理解人的本质、表现、本质和联系方式的语词家族的基本成员,而“人性”语词具有统摄性和简单性。因此可以把以人为研究对象尤其是研究人的基本规定性与基本联系方式的学问称为“人性论”。而关于人性的理论,自这一学问产生以来,呈现的是“百花齐放,百家争鸣”的状态。文章以中国不同时期、不同思想家对人性的理解和把握为基准,探讨不同时期人性论的不同范式,从而对人性论的演变有一个更深层次的认识和理解。

  18. Adaptation as Rewriting: Evolution of a Concept L’Adaptation comme réécriture : Évolution d’un concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne Lhermitte

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Cet article retrace l’évolution du genre « adaptation » à partir du Moyen âge jusqu’au XXIe siècle et met en lumière des corrélations intéressantes entre les processus de traduction et d’adaptation. Jusqu’au XVIIIe siècle, l’adaptation était considérée comme un sous-genre de la traduction, souvent utilisé par les traducteurs et écrivains pour mettre en valeur leur créativité et affiner leur talent littéraire. L’adaptation était vue comme un moyen d’enrichir la littérature. Or, de nos jours, la terminologie employée par certains critiques ressemble trop souvent au jargon utilisé dans un tribunal. Des termes tels que violation, viol, tromperie, infidélité, trahison, tricherie, duperie, vol, sont fréquemment usités pour décrire les adaptations littéraires au lieu de mettre l’accent sur leurs contributions artistiques. Etant donné que les traductions et adaptations suggèrent l’existence de textes primaires, elles sont rarement examinées pour leurs propres mérites esthétiques mais opposées aux « œuvres originales sacrées.» Il en résulte que l’adaptation et la traduction sont souvent considérées comme des formes de création inférieures et n’échappent pas à ce que Barbara Folkart nomme « l’effet d’entropie » ou lente dégradation d’une œuvre originale et, en conséquence, sont rarement évaluées en termes de créativité et d’originalité. Cet article explore les raisons à l’origine de l’évolution des mentalités et souligne l’importance de la rupture épistémologique qui a eu lieu au XVIIIe siècle, modifiant à jamais notre conception de l’adaptation littéraire.

  19. Fundamental concepts of geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Meserve, Bruce E

    1983-01-01

    Demonstrates relationships between different types of geometry. Provides excellent overview of the foundations and historical evolution of geometrical concepts. Exercises (no solutions). Includes 98 illustrations.

  20. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Basics will introduce you to some of this science, such as: How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic structure of the brain How different parts of the brain communicate and work with each other How changes in the brain ...

  1. Evolution of different dual-use concepts in international and national law and its implications on research ethics and governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Johannes; Ischi, Monique; Perkins, Dana

    2014-09-01

    This paper provides an overview of the various dual-use concepts applied in national and international non-proliferation and anti-terrorism legislation, such as the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention, the Chemical Weapons Convention and United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540, and national export control legislation and in relevant codes of conduct. While there is a vast literature covering dual-use concepts in particular with regard to life sciences, this is the first paper that incorporates into such discussion the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540. In addition, recent developments such as the extension of dual-use export control legislation in the area of human rights protection are also identified and reviewed. The discussion of dual-use concepts is hereby undertaken in the context of human- and/or national-security-based approaches to security. This paper discusses four main concepts of dual use as applied today in international and national law: civilian versus military, peaceful versus non-peaceful, legitimate versus illegitimate and benevolent versus malevolent. In addition, the usage of the term to describe positive technology spin-offs between civilian and military applications is also briefly addressed. Attention is also given to the roles civil society and research ethics may play in the governance of dual-use sciences and technologies.

  2. Metabolically Coupled Replicator Systems: Overview of an RNA-world model concept of prebiotic evolution on mineral surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czárán, Tamás; Könnyű, Balázs; Szathmáry, Eörs

    2015-09-21

    Metabolically Coupled Replicator Systems (MCRS) are a family of models implementing a simple, physico-chemically and ecologically feasible scenario for the first steps of chemical evolution towards life. Evolution in an abiotically produced RNA-population sets in as soon as any one of the RNA molecules become autocatalytic by engaging in template directed self-replication from activated monomers, and starts increasing exponentially. Competition for the finite external supply of monomers ignites selection favouring RNA molecules with catalytic activity helping self-replication by any possible means. One way of providing such autocatalytic help is to become a replicase ribozyme. An additional way is through increasing monomer supply by contributing to monomer synthesis from external resources, i.e., by evolving metabolic enzyme activity. Retroevolution may build up an increasingly autotrophic, cooperating community of metabolic ribozymes running an increasingly complicated and ever more efficient metabolism. Maintaining such a cooperating community of metabolic replicators raises two serious ecological problems: one is keeping the system coexistent in spite of the different replicabilities of the cooperating replicators; the other is constraining parasitism, i.e., keeping "cheaters" in check. Surface-bound MCRS provide an automatic solution to both problems: coexistence and parasite resistance are the consequences of assuming the local nature of metabolic interactions. In this review we present an overview of results published in previous articles, showing that these effects are, indeed, robust in different MCRS implementations, by considering different environmental setups and realistic chemical details in a few different models. We argue that the MCRS model framework naturally offers a suitable starting point for the future modelling of membrane evolution and extending the theory to cover the emergence of the first protocell in a self-consistent manner. The

  3. 高中数学基本概念教学研究——浅谈高中新课程的数学基本概念的教学%Study on Teaching of Basic Concept of Middle School Math:Teaching of Basic Concept of Middle School Math in New Course

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    板华强

    2011-01-01

    The concept teaching is an integral part of classroom teaching, which plays a very important role in math teaching of middle school. In order to promote the quality of concept teaching of middle school math, we should do a good study for concept teaching of new course math. First, we should fully excavate the knowledge background of mathematical concepts to enable students to learn mathematical concepts experiencing the concept production process; second, we should pay attention to the issues; third, we should pay attention to the creation of circumstance revealing mathematical concept; forth, we should pay attention to the relation of concepts; fifth, we should focus on practical application.%概念教学是课堂教学的组成部分,在中学数学教学中占有很重要位置.为了促进中学数学概念教学质量的提高,要切实搞好新课程数学概念教学的以下几个方面研究:(1)充分挖掘数学概念产生的知识背景,让学生在体验概念产生过程中学习数学概念;(2)重视问题性;(3)重视创设体现数学概念的思想方法的情境;(4)注重概念联系性;(5)注重应用性.

  4. [Resuscitational aspects of evolution of history of death teaching and interpretation of concept of death as bioethical category].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhaladze, V M

    2007-04-01

    The aim of the research was to determine the role of resuscitation science and practice in development of new trends in thanatology; and to determine the significance of integrated interdisciplinary approach to notion "death" as "biological, medical, and bioethical" categories. The author discusses nine distinct concepts of death and concludes that only complex scientific approach can enrich the knowledge about the notion of death. The list of different aspects of interdisciplinary bioethical definition of notion "death" was developed.

  5. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit of ... but sometimes give rise to disabilities or diseases. neural circuit —A network of neurons and their interconnections. ...

  6. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a ... blues" from time to time. In contrast, major depression is a serious disorder that lasts for weeks. ...

  7. Schizophrenia Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I know with schizophrenia? For More Information Share Schizophrenia Basics Download PDF Download ePub Order a free hardcopy What is schizophrenia? Schizophrenia is a serious mental disorder that affects ...

  8. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  9. Brain Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  10. Fluoridation Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Page Basic Information About Fluoride Benefits: Strong Teeth History of Fluoride in Water Cost: Saves Money, Saves Teeth Fluoride in the Water Today The mineral fluoride occurs naturally on earth and is released from rocks into the soil, ...

  11. Basic Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittek, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    A discussion of the basic measures of corporate financial strength, and the sources of the information is reported. Considered are: balance sheet, income statement, funds and cash flow, and financial ratios.

  12. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... science, such as: How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic ... that with brain development in people mental disorders. Genes and environmental cues both help to direct this ...

  13. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot effectively coordinate the billions ... the basic working unit of the brain and nervous system. These cells are highly specialized for the function ...

  14. A systematic understanding of the evolution of Hindu deities in the development of the concept of avatara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Sukdaven

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Within the primary and secondary Hindu scriptures, especially the Vedas, Epics and Puranas, many gods are mentioned. At times a hierarchy of deities is distinguishable, and at other times these deities assume each others’ names and functions. Then there are some deities that manifest themselves in other forms such as a bird, an animal, a human, or both animal and human. These manifestations are at times clearly construed as avataras. To determine the transformation (metamorphosis, progression and/or regression of Hindu deities from the Vedas through to the Puranas, the researcher applied the systematic literature review methodology. He argued that this evolution of Hindu deities is the result of changes in the specific needs of the community in their quest for immortality. Accompanying this metamorphosis of Hindu deities is the notion of avatara which gained significant prominence in the Bhagavad Gita and the Puranas, although there are indications that the notion of avatara can be read into the Vedas. Considering these complexities, the researcher defined the term avatara and traced the origins and evolution of these Hindu deities through the various Hindu scriptures. This study consolidated this process systematically, resulting in sufficient proof that there was a decline in certain Vedic deities, a rise to prominence of other ‘unimportant’ deities and the appearance of other deities not mentioned in the Vedas.

  15. Physics, Formation and Evolution of Rotating Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Maeder, André

    2009-01-01

    Rotation is ubiquitous at each step of stellar evolution, from star formation to the final stages, and it affects the course of evolution, the timescales and nucleosynthesis. Stellar rotation is also an essential prerequisite for the occurrence of Gamma-Ray Bursts. In this book the author thoroughly examines the basic mechanical and thermal effects of rotation, their influence on mass loss by stellar winds, the effects of differential rotation and its associated instabilities, the relation with magnetic fields and the evolution of the internal and surface rotation. Further, he discusses the numerous observational signatures of rotational effects obtained from spectroscopy and interferometric observations, as well as from chemical abundance determinations, helioseismology and asteroseismology, etc. On an introductory level, this book presents in a didactical way the basic concepts of stellar structure and evolution in "track 1" chapters. The other more specialized chapters form an advanced course on the gradua...

  16. The Analysis of Concept Maps Research Evolution Based on Knowledge Mapping%概念图研究演进的知识图谱分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    寇继虹; 楼雯

    2012-01-01

    以ISlWebofknowledge收录的文献题录作为数据样本,利用可视化动态网络分析工具——CiteSpaceⅡ对所采集的数据进行文献共引分析和聚类分析,绘制出概念图研究发展演进的知识图谱,揭示了概念图研究的三个不同时期,得出各个时期的代表人物和代表文献;展现了概念图研究和应用的热点领域,以科研评价、教育教学、生物医学和企业知识学习为代表;呈现出以概念图的定量化分析、知识管理、三维概念图、概念图的网络实时协作构建以及新概念图模型和软件为代表的前沿研究领域。%Based on the bibliography references included in ISI Web of Knowledge, and by use of visualization network analysis tool-CiteSpace II to conduct co-citation and cluster analysis of collected data, this paper renders knowledge mapping on the devel- oprnent and evolution of concept mapping research, reveals three different periods of concept mapping research, and identifies repre- sentative scientists as well as relevant literatures in each period. Meanwhile, this paper demonstrates the hot research fields repre- sented by scientific research evaluation, education, biomedical and enterprise knowledge learning areas, and further presents the frontiers represented by quantitative study of concept maps, knowledge management, three-dimensional concept maps, network collaborative and real-time concept mapping and the new concept maps model and software.

  17. Schumpeter's Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Esben Sloth

    reworking of his basic theory of economic evolution in Development from 1934, and this reworking was continued in Cycles from 1939. Here Schumpeter also tried to handle the statistical and historical evidence on the waveform evolution of the capitalist economy. Capitalism from 1942 modified the model...

  18. Concept - or no concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Uffe

    1999-01-01

    Discussion about concept in industrial companies. A method for mapping of managerial concept in specific area is shown......Discussion about concept in industrial companies. A method for mapping of managerial concept in specific area is shown...

  19. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrook, Harold D

    1971-01-01

    Basic Electronics is an elementary text designed for basic instruction in electricity and electronics. It gives emphasis on electronic emission and the vacuum tube and shows transistor circuits in parallel with electron tube circuits. This book also demonstrates how the transistor merely replaces the tube, with proper change of circuit constants as required. Many problems are presented at the end of each chapter. This book is comprised of 17 chapters and opens with an overview of electron theory, followed by a discussion on resistance, inductance, and capacitance, along with their effects on t

  20. Studies of Basic Electronic Properties of CdTe-Based Solar Cells and Their Evolution During Processing and Stress: Final Technical Report, 16 October 2001 - 31 August 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaydanov, V. I.; Ohno, T. R.

    2007-02-01

    This report describes basic issues behind CdTe/CdS cell performance and stability, such as the nature and electronic properties of impurities and defects that control the majority carrier concentration, mechanisms of dopant compensation, recombination processes, their nature and properties, migration and transformation of defects under various processing, stress, and operating conditions. We believe that a better basic understanding of the specific influence of grain boundaries, especially for fine-grain materials such as those making up CdTe-based cells, is now one of the most important issues we must address. We need to clarify the role of grain boundaries in forming the film electronic properties, as well as those of the p-n junction.

  1. Analysis of the Evolution of Astronomical Concepts Presented by Teachers of Some Schools (Mauá, Ribeirão Pires and Rio Grande da Serra)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzaga, E. P.

    2009-12-01

    The reason for the development of this work is based on knowing many Basic Education's teachers (EB) don't deal concepts related to astronomy and when they do, followed didactic books which contain many conceptual errors, it also know that astronomy is one of the contents that it being taught in the EB and do part of what is proposed by the Education Ministry and Education Department São Paulo State and also, that several researchers point out many mistakes in the teaching of Astronomy. It's purpose of minimizing some deficiencies, which was drawed an University Extension Course for Teachers of Diretoria de Ensino Regional (Mauá, Ribeirão Pires and Rio Grande da Serra) with the following objectives: to raise alternative conceptions; to subsidize teachers by means of lectures, discussions and workshops, and to check the learning after the course. Therefore, sixteen questions were applied before and after the course, so it was established that 100% of the teachers knew the names of the phases of the moon, 97.0% understood that the Solar System is composed by eight planets, 78.1% explained as occured "Lunar Eclipse", "Solar Eclipse" and "Solstice", 72.7% knew to explain the occurrence of the seasons of the year; 64.5% explained the occurrence of the equinox correctly, 89.7% were able to define properly "comet"; 63.6% defined "Asteroid", 54.5% defined "meteor"; 58.1% defined "galaxy", and 42.4% defined "planet".

  2. Air quality in the Metropolitan zone of the Mexico City and recommendations to improve It considering basic concepts of environmental engineering; La calidad del aire en la zona Metropolitana de la Ciudad de Mexico y recomendaciones para mejorarla considerando conceptos basicos de ingenieria ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo Alvarez, H.; Sosa Hecheverria, R.; Sanchez Alvarez, P.; Jaimes Palomera, M. [Centro de ciencias de la atmosfera, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2002-12-01

    The atmospheric pollution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Zone (MCMZ), was detected during the 1960's and presents nowadays considerable dimensions. The atmospheric pollution problem evolution in the MCMZ is presented in this paper, considering criteria pollutants as particles and ozone, and hazardous air pollutants as benzene. Successful an unsuccessful experiences looking for improve the air quality in the MCMZ are evaluated. These experiences should be account for in other Mexican cities, as well as in developing countries. The MCMZ air quality evolution is an important case where implemented strategies in order to reduce sulphur dioxide and lead, resulted an increase in levels, frequency and duration of ozone concentrations in the atmosphere. Basic concepts of environmental engineering: prevention, minimization and control, as well as pollution control in the source, must be considered. [Spanish] La contaminacion atmosferica en la Zona Metropolitana de la Ciudad de Mexico (ZMCM), se hizo evidente en la decada de los a s sesenta y, a la fecha, ha alcanzado dimensiones considerables. En este trabajo se presenta la evolucion del problema de contaminacion atmosferica en la ZMCM, enfocandolo a contaminantes criterio como particulas y ozono, y contaminantes toxicos como el benceno. Asimismo, se exponen experiencias exitosas y las que han fracasado en busca de una mejor calidad del aire para la ZMCM; es recomendable que dichas experiencias sean consideradas en otras ciudades de nuestro pais, asi como en otros paises en vias de desarrollo, ofreciendoles la importancia debida. Deben considerarse los conceptos basicos de la ingenieria ambiental como son la prevencion, la minimizacion y el control de la contaminacion en la fuente, ya que mandatos del ejecutivo tendientes a reducir niveles de bioxido de azufre y de plomo en la atmosfera metropolitana trajeron, por falta de la infraestructura necesaria, un drastico incremento en los niveles, frecuencia y duracion de

  3. A brief description of the evolution of the concepts of the television media in China%简述中国电视观念的沿革

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白阳

    2014-01-01

    In the course of the half-century development , the concepts of the television media has been in the great e-volution in China .TV media people TV media people have experienced the gradual shift from the-producer-age, to the-pro-duction-manager age, then to the-creative-director-age, which brought along the program change , from sole program, to TV columns, then to TV channels.Meanwhile, audiences changed their initiative .In sum, these lively concepts are on their way of leading the TV media to operate and develop .%中国电视在半个世纪的发展过程中,观念历经变革。电视本体从制作人时代到制片人时代再到策划人时代的步步演进,推动了电视节目形式单个节目-栏目化-频道化的步步递进,受众的地位也由被动转为主动。这些生动鲜活的观念,指导着电视实践的推进和发展。

  4. The evolution of the European Union’s conception in the foreign policy discourse of Armenia: implications for U-turn and the path beyond the Association Agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aram TERZYAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The question of why Armenia abruptly shifted from the Association Agreement (AA with the European Union (EU to the Russian-led Eurasian Economic Union (EEA has produced perplexing conclusions. Drawing on discourse analysis and semi-structured interviews, this study seeks to explain the evolution of the EU’s conception in foreign policy discourse of Armenia, delving into its implications for U-turn and the prospects of EU-Armenia further partnership. Departing from mainstream explanations, it argues that Armenia’s U-turn was preceded by marked disillusionment with the ‘expectation – capability’ gaps attributed to the Eastern Partnership (EaP. This has significantly influenced the EU’s conception in Armenia’s official discourse, shifting it from the notions of ‘normative’, ‘liberal’ and ‘status quo challenging’ power to ‘pragmatic’ actor and ‘political dwarf’. The paper concludes that a major breakthrough in bilateral ‘edited’ partnership cannot be expected anytime soon due to Armenia’s large - scale Eurasian integration and lower security expectations from the EU.

  5. Ethanol Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-01-30

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  6. Body Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more about how the body works, what basic human anatomy is, and what happens when parts of the body don't function properly. Blood Bones, Muscles, and Joints Brain and Nervous System Digestive System Endocrine System Eyes Female Reproductive System Heart and Circulatory System Immune ...

  7. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit ... final destination. Chemical signals from other cells guide neurons in forming various brain structures. Neighboring neurons make connections with each other ...

  8. Insulin Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ≡ Are You At Risk? Diabetes Basics Living with Diabetes Food & Fitness In My ... Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy ...

  9. Basics of Computer Networking

    CERN Document Server

    Robertazzi, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Springer Brief Basics of Computer Networking provides a non-mathematical introduction to the world of networks. This book covers both technology for wired and wireless networks. Coverage includes transmission media, local area networks, wide area networks, and network security. Written in a very accessible style for the interested layman by the author of a widely used textbook with many years of experience explaining concepts to the beginner.

  10. ISN Forefronts Symposium 2015: The Evolution of Hypertension–Old Genes, New Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morag K. Mansley

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is known as the “silent killer,” driving the global public health burden of cardiovascular and renal disease. Blood pressure homeostasis is intimately associated with sodium balance and the distribution of sodium between fluid compartments and within tissues. On a population level, most societies consume 10 times more salt that the 0.5 g required by physiological need. This high salt intake is strongly linked to hypertension and to the World Health Organization targeting a ∼30% relative reduction in mean population salt intake to arrest the global mortality due to cardiovascular disease. But how does a habitually high-salt diet cause blood pressure to rise? In this focused review, we discuss 2 “evolutionary medicine” concepts, presented at the ISN Forefront Meeting “Immunomodulation of Cardio-renal Function.” We first examine how ancestral variants in genes that conferred a selection advantage during early human development are now maladaptive. We then discuss the conservation of “renal” sodium transport processes across multiple organ systems, including the brain. These systems influence sodium appetite and can exert an often-overlooked effect on long-term blood pressure control.

  11. Luminescence basic concepts, applications and instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Virk, Hardev Singh

    2014-01-01

    The word luminescence was first used by a German physicist, Eilhardt Wiedemann, in 1888. He also classified luminescence into six kinds according to the method of excitation. No better basis of classification is available today. He recognized photoluminescence, thermoluminescence, electroluminescence, crystalloluminescence, triboluminescence, and chemiluminescence. The designations are obvious, characterized by the prefix. This Volume consists of 9 Chapters, including 8 Review Papers and one Case Study. The first two papers are based on OLEDs. Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) have been th

  12. Basic concepts and definitions of clinical management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Román

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Management is leading, administering resources, and achieving the goals and objectives that have been set. In the Chilean health care system, management can be subdivided in three main levels – macro-management, meso-management and micro-management. Managing health care is also about epidemiological changes, information and technology innovations, patient groups demanding better services, but mostly about a huge escalation in costs that is not necessarily substantiated by evidence on more efficiency in health outcomes.Clinical management is more than a management tool. It is a cultural change that will provide new values to professional practice and to the organization as a whole. However, clinical management demands more commitment on behalf of the human teams that need to learn how to lead and to be led. These teams will be called upon to help in the decision-making process for the betterment of the institution.

  13. Basic Concepts of Magnetic Water Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Mosin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This review article outlines an overview of new trends and modern approaches for practical implementation of magnetic water treatment to eliminate scaling salts (carbonate, chloride and sulfate salts of Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+ and Fe3+ cations in power heat-exchanger devices and pipe lines. The principles of physical effects of the magnetic field on H2O molecules as well as the parameters of physico-chemical processes occurring in water and the behavior of the dissolved in water scaling salts subjected to the magnetic treatment are discussed. It is demonstrated that the effect of the magnetic field on water is a complex multifactorial phenomenon resulted in changes of the structure of hydrated ions as well as the physico-chemical properties and behavior of dissolved inorganic salts, changes in the rate of electrochemical coagulation and aggregate stability (clumping and consolidation, formation of multiple nucleation sites on the particles of fine dispersed precipitate consisting of crystals of substantially uniform size. There are also submitted data on constructive features of various magnetic water treatment devices produced by domestic industry, based on the permanent magnets and electromagnets (solenoids, such as hydro magnetic systems (HMS, magnetic transducers (MT and magnetic activators (MA of water. It was estimated the efficiency of using the various magnetic water treatment devices in water treatment technologies.

  14. Dental photography today. Part 1: basic concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    CASAGLIA, A.; DE DOMINICIS, P.; ARCURI, L.; GARGARI, M.; OTTRIA, L.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY This paper is the first article in a new series on digital dental photography. Part 1 defines the aims and objectives of dental photography for examination, diagnosis and treatment planning, legal and forensic documentation, publishing, education, marketing and communication with patients, dental team members, colleagues and dental laboratory. PMID:28042424

  15. Science and Technology Text Mining Basic Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    from author. Kostoff, R. N. (1993). Database Tomography for Technical Intelligence. Competitive Intelligence Review. 4:1. Kostoff, R.N. (1994...Database Tomography: Origins and Applications. Competitive Intelligence Review, Special Issue on Technology, 5:1. Kostoff, R.N. et al (1995) System and

  16. Nature value: the evolution of this concept Valor da natureza: a evolução desse conceito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Soares da Silva

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available More attention has been paid to environmental matters in recent years, mainly due to the current scenario of accentuated environmental degradation. The economic valuation of nature goods can contribute to the decision-making process in environment management, generating a more comprehensive informational base. This paper aims to present, in a historic perspective, the different concepts attributed to nature goods and were related to the current predominant perspectives of nature analyses. For this purpose, this paper presents the different concepts attributed to value since the pre-classical period, when nature were viewed as inert and passive providers of goods and services, this view legitimized nature's exploration without concern over the preservation and conservation of nature. The capacity of nature to absorb the impact of human action appears to be reaching its limit, considering the irreversibility, the irreproducibility and the possibility of collapse. The appropriate method for valuing natural resources is not known, but more important than the method is to respect and incorporate the particular characteristics of the nature goods into this process. These characteristics must be valuated in order to arrive at a more consistence approach to nature value and promote sustainability.Nos últimos anos, mais atenção tem sido dada às questões ambientais, principalmente decorrente do atual cenário de acentuada degradação. A avaliação econômica dos recursos naturais pode contribuir com o processo de tomada de decisão na gestão ambiental, gerando uma importante base de informações. Neste artigo, buscou-se apresentar, em uma perspectiva histórica, os diferentes conceitos atribuídos ao valor dos recursos naturais e como eles se relacionam às perspectivas atuais de análise ambiental. Com essa finalidade, foram apresentados os conceitos atribuídos ao valor desde o período pré-clássico, quando a natureza era vista como

  17. The Importance of History and Philosophy of Science in Correcting Distorted Views of "Amount of Substance" and "Mole" Concepts in Chemistry Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Kira; Furio-Mas, Carles

    2008-01-01

    The knowledge of historical facts can help teachers and students to correctly appreciate a variety of scientific theories. It is important to be aware of the evolution of the basic concepts, particularly the ones our students find very abstract and therefore difficult to understand. Historical knowledge of chemical concepts will allow us to…

  18. Evolução do conceito e controvérsias atuais sobre o transtorno bipolar do humor Bipolar disorder: evolution of the concept and current controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Del Porto

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available O autor revê o conceito de transtorno bipolar como um processo em evolução. Suas raízes podem ser encontradas no trabalho de Araeteus da Capadócia, que assumia serem a melancolia e a mania duas formas da mesma doença. A compreensão atual da doença bipolar começou na França, através dos trabalhos de Falret (1851 e Baillarguer (1854. Os conceitos fundamentais de Kraepelin mudaram as bases da nosologia psiquiátrica, e o conceito unitário de Kraepelin sobre a insanidade maníaco-depressiva passou a ser amplamente aceito. Depois de Kraepelin, no entanto, as idéias de Kleist e Leonhard, na Alemanha, e o trabalho subseqüente de Angst, Perris e Winokur enfatizaram a distinção entre as formas monopolares e bipolares da depressão. Mais recentemente a ênfase mudou novamente para o espectro bipolar, que em suas formas leves expande-se às bordas dos temperamentos normais. Finalizando, o autor sumariza os aspectos polêmicos da nosologia da doença bipolar e seus limites com as esquizofrenias, a doença esquizoafetiva e as psicoses ciclóides.The author reviews the evolution of the concept of bipolar disorder as an ongoing process. Its roots can be found in the work of Araeteus of Capadocia, who assumed that melancholia and mania were two forms of the same disease. The modern understanding of bipolar disorder began in France, through the work of Falret (1851 and Baillarger (1854. The pivotal concepts of Emil Kraepelin changed the basis of psychiatric nosology, and Kraepelin's unitary concept of manic-depressive insanity was largely accepted. Kraepelin and Weigandt's ideas on mixed states were the cornerstone of this unitary concept. After Kraepelin, however, the ideas of Kleist and Leonhard, in Germany, as well as the work of Angst, Perris and Winokur, emphasized the distinction between unipolar and bipolar forms of depression. More recently, the emphasis has shifted again to the bipolar spectrum, which, in its mild forms, expanded to the

  19. The history of hepatitis C virus (HCV): Basic research reveals unique features in phylogeny, evolution and the viral life cycle with new perspectives for epidemic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukh, Jens

    2016-10-01

    The discovery of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in 1989 permitted basic research to unravel critical components of a complex life cycle for this important human pathogen. HCV is a highly divergent group of viruses classified in 7 major genotypes and a great number of subtypes, and circulating in infected individuals as a continuously evolving quasispecies destined to escape host immune responses and applied antivirals. Despite the inability to culture patient viruses directly in the laboratory, efforts to define the infectious genome of HCV resulted in development of experimental recombinant in vivo and in vitro systems, including replicons and infectious cultures in human hepatoma cell lines. And HCV has become a model virus defining new paradigms in virology, immunology and biology. For example, HCV research discovered that a virus could be completely dependent on microRNA for its replication since microRNA-122 is critical for the HCV life cycle. A number of other host molecules critical for HCV entry and replication have been identified. Thus, basic HCV research revealed important molecules for development of host targeting agents (HTA). The identification and characterization of HCV encoded proteins and their functional units contributed to the development of highly effective direct acting antivirals (DAA) against the NS3 protease, NS5A and the NS5B polymerase. In combination, these inhibitors have since 2014 permitted interferon-free therapy with cure rates above 90% among patients with chronic HCV infection; however, viral resistance represents a challenge. Worldwide control of HCV will most likely require the development of a prophylactic vaccine, and numerous candidates have been pursued. Research characterizing features critical for antibody-based virus neutralization and T cell based virus elimination from infected cells is essential for this effort. If the world community promotes an ambitious approach by applying current DAA broadly, continues to develop

  20. 宪法发展与刑法理念的更新——国权刑法向民权刑法的嬗变%Constitutional Development and the Updating of the Concept of Criminal Law -- The Evolution o~ Country Rights Criminal Law to the Civil Rights Criminal Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛波

    2012-01-01

    As the enforcement of the constitution, criminal Law directly inherited the basic spirit of the constitution. Evolution on value, spirit and concept of the constitution will have a direct impact on the transmutation of the value, spirit and concept of criminal law. The transmutation can be reflected from country rights criminal law to the civil rights criminal law. Regulations about human rights protection and non - public economy in the constitution promote the evolution of country rights criminal law to the civil rights criminal law.%刑法作为宪法的实施法,直接传承着宪法中所蕴涵的基础精神。宪法的价值、精神、理念的嬗变会直接影响到刑法价值、精神及理念的嬗变,这种嬗变可体现为国权刑法向民权刑法的嬗变。宪法关于人权保障的规范和关于非公有制经济的规范直接推动国权刑法向民权刑法的嬗变。

  1. Three Concepts or One? Students' Understanding of Basic Limit Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Plaza, José Antonio; Simpson, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    In many mathematics curricula, the notion of limit is introduced three times: the limit of a sequence, the limit of a function at a point and the limit of a function at infinity. Despite the use of very similar symbols, few connections between these notions are made explicitly and few papers in the large literature on student understanding of…

  2. Estrabismo y ambliopía, conceptos básicos para el médico de atención primaria. Estrabismo and amblyopia, basic concepts to the physician in primary attention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Serrano Camacho, MD*

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El estrabismo y la ambliopía son patologías relativamente frecuentes en la población general. La ambliopía constituye la causa principal de disminución de visión unilateral. Existen diferentes tipos de estrabismo mientras que la ambliopía se debe únicamente a tres mecanismos fisiopatológicos. El objetivo de este artículo es brindar al médico de atención primaria y al estudiante de medicina una revisión completa y actualizada sobre estos dos temas. Para esto revisamos libros de texto reconocidos y utilizando MEDLINE, artículos representativos relacionados con el tema y mostramos un panorama general que incluye aspectos básicos de anatomía de los músculos extraoculares, nomenclatura y terminología empleada en estrabismo, aspectos de fisiología motora, pruebas clínicas utilizadas para el diagnóstico, generalidades sobre los principales tipos de estrabismo y manejo. [Serrano J, Gaviria M. Estrabismo y ambliopía, conceptos básicos para el médico de atención primaria. MedUNAB 2011;14:108-120]. _____________________________________________________________________________________Strabismus and amblyopia are seen quite frecuently in the general population. Amblyopia is responsable for more unilaterally reduced vision of childhood onset than all other causes combined. There are severeal causes of strabismus while amblyopia is caused by three phisiopathologic states. We pretend to provide the primary care physician a general and up date review on this subject. In this article we reviewed recognized textbooks and, using MEDLINE some representative articles on this subject. We provide an overview of anatomical concepts, abbreviated designations for types of strabismus, some aspects on motor physiology, diagnostic techniques for strabismus and amblyopia, general concepts on various endodeviations and exodeviations and the management of each type. [Serrano J, Gaviria M. Estrabismo and amblyopia, basic concepts to the physician in

  3. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Tayal, DC

    2010-01-01

    The second edition of this book incorporates the comments and suggestions of my friends and students who have critically studied the first edition. In this edition the changes and additions have been made and subject matter has been rearranged at some places. The purpose of this text is to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date study of the principles of operation of solid state devices, their basic circuits and application of these circuits to various electronic systems, so that it can serve as a standard text not only for universities and colleges but also for technical institutes. This book

  4. Regression Basics

    CERN Document Server

    Kahane, Leo H

    2007-01-01

    Using a friendly, nontechnical approach, the Second Edition of Regression Basics introduces readers to the fundamentals of regression. Accessible to anyone with an introductory statistics background, this book builds from a simple two-variable model to a model of greater complexity. Author Leo H. Kahane weaves four engaging examples throughout the text to illustrate not only the techniques of regression but also how this empirical tool can be applied in creative ways to consider a broad array of topics. New to the Second Edition Offers greater coverage of simple panel-data estimation:

  5. Evolution Born of Moisture: Analogies and Parallels Between Anaximander's Ideas on Origin of Life and Man and Later Pre-Darwinian and Darwinian Evolutionary Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kočandrle, Radim; Kleisner, Karel

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on the origin of life as presented in the thought of Anaximander of Miletus but also points to some parallel motifs found in much later conceptions of both the pre-Darwinian German romantic science and post-Darwinian biology. According to Anaximander, life originated in the moisture associated with earth (mud). This moist environment hosted the first living creatures that later populated the dry land. In these descriptions, one can trace the earliest hints of the notion of environmental adaptation. The origin of humans was seen as connected in some way with fish: ancient humans were supposed to have developed inside fish-like animals. Anaximander took into account changes in the development of living creatures (adaptations) and speculated on the origins of humans. Similar ideas are found also in the writings of much later, eighteenth and nineteenth century authors who were close to the tradition of German romantic science. We do not argue that these later concepts are in any way directly linked with those of the pre-Socratics, but they show surprising parallels in, e.g., the hypothesis that life originated in a moist environment or the supposition that human developed from fish-like ancestors. These transformations are seen as a consequence of timeless logic rather than as evolution in historical terms. Despite the accent on the origin of living things, both Anaximander and the later Naturphilosophen lack in their notions the element most characteristic of Darwin's thought, that is, the emphasis on historicity and uniqueness of all that comes into being.

  6. Key concepts in energy

    CERN Document Server

    Madureira, Nuno Luis

    2014-01-01

    Highlights how key energy concepts surfaced, tracing their evolution throughout history to encompasses four economic concepts and four technological-engineering concepts developed through their history to conclude with current economic and environmental sciences Considers the process of energy-substitutions through complementary usages, hybridization and technological mixes Combines a conceptual approach with key theoretical concepts from engineering, geological and economic sciences providing cross disciplinary overview of energy fundamentals in a short and focused reading

  7. The Extended Enterprise concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Bjørn; Vesterager, Johan; Gobbi, Chiara

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the work that has been done regarding the Extended Enterprise concept in the Common Concept team of Globeman 21 including references to results deliverables concerning the development of the Extended Enterprise concept. The first section presents the basic concept...... picture from Globeman21, which illustrates the Globeman21 way of realising the Extended Enterprise concept. The second section presents the Globeman21 EE concept in a life cycle perspective, which to a large extent is based on the thoughts and ideas behind GERAM (ISO/DIS 15704)....

  8. Measuring Student Teachers' Basic Psychological Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Marjan; Castelijns, Jos; Kools, Quinta; Koster, Bob

    2012-01-01

    In Self-Determination Theory, basic psychological needs for relatedness, autonomy and competence are distinguished. Basic psychological need-fulfilment is considered to be critical for human development and intrinsic motivation. In the Netherlands, the concept of basic psychological need-fulfilment is introduced in the curricula of many teacher…

  9. Measuring student teachers' basic psychological needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Marjan; Castelijns, Jos; Kools, Quinta; Koster, Bob

    2012-01-01

    In the Self-Determination Theory (SDT) basic psychological needs for relatedness, autonomy and competence are distinguished. Basic psychological need fulfilment is considered to be critical for human development and intrinsic motivation. In the Netherlands, the concept of basic psychological need fu

  10. La medición de la sintaxis: evolución de un concepto (Measurement of syntax: evolution of a concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Crespo Allende

    2011-12-01

    1100600, the objective of this article is to give an account of the evolution of the concept of syntax and the procedures to study empirically this phenomenon. For this purpose, the main linguistic theories are revisited as well as the way in which these have assessed syntactical development. Traditional theories which assume that syntactic maturity implies larger number of elements per sentence are reviewed. Later on, Hunt’s (1965, 1970 proposal, which helps measure terminal minimal units (Unit-T and is influenced by generativism, is presented. Finally, Beman’s "clause packaging", a unit of analysis that functions as an interface between syntax and discourse (Katzenberger, 2003; Berman, 2004; Nir and Berman, 2010 is presented. Findings help to see an evolution map that addresses from an isolated view of this phenomenon to an integrated view of syntax in discourse.

  11. Basic Research in Materials Science and Economic Sustainable Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermeier, H.-U.

    2000-09-01

    The necessity of public funding of basic research has been proclaimed by V. Bush 1945 in the `social contract for science' and this concept has been unanimously accepted as a vital prerequisite for the wealth of nations during the past 50 years. Recent developments gave rise to a paradigm shift away from the Bush's concept. In this paper this development is critically explored and the economical impact of research is discussed. Current evolution in knowledge generation and a change of the political boundary conditions require a new concept for an integrated research system. Examples taken from the semiconductor industry serve as an indicator of the enabling importance of materials science and condensed matter physics in the past. Basic research in materials science of functional ceramics generated new developments that are believed to have similar impact in the future. Already appearing and in the years ahead more emphasized nature of materials science as an multidisciplinary activity serves a model for the proposal of the vision of an integrated system of basic research and education. This is a prerequisite to master the challenges we are facind in the next century. A science based winning culture is the model for the future.

  12. Basic electronic circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Buckley, P M

    1980-01-01

    In the past, the teaching of electricity and electronics has more often than not been carried out from a theoretical and often highly academic standpoint. Fundamentals and basic concepts have often been presented with no indication of their practical appli­ cations, and all too frequently they have been illustrated by artificially contrived laboratory experiments bearing little relationship to the outside world. The course comes in the form of fourteen fairly open-ended constructional experiments or projects. Each experiment has associated with it a construction exercise and an explanation. The basic idea behind this dual presentation is that the student can embark on each circuit following only the briefest possible instructions and that an open-ended approach is thereby not prejudiced by an initial lengthy encounter with the theory behind the project; this being a sure way to dampen enthusiasm at the outset. As the investigation progresses, questions inevitably arise. Descriptions of the phenomena encounte...

  13. Inflation Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Dan [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2014-03-01

    inflation since metrical fluctuations, both scalar and tensor, are also produced in inflationary models. Thus, the time appears to be appropriate for a very basic and simple exposition of the inflationary model written from a particle physics perspective. Only the simplest scalar model will be explored because it is easy to understand and contains all the basic elements of the inflationary model.

  14. Inflation Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Dan [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2014-03-01

    inflation since metrical fluctuations, both scalar and tensor, are also produced in inflationary models. Thus, the time appears to be appropriate for a very basic and simple exposition of the inflationary model written from a particle physics perspective. Only the simplest scalar model will be explored because it is easy to understand and contains all the basic elements of the inflationary model.

  15. A roadmap for bridging basic and applied research in forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomberlin, J K; Mohr, R; Benbow, M E; Tarone, A M; VanLaerhoven, S

    2011-01-01

    The National Research Council issued a report in 2009 that heavily criticized the forensic sciences. The report made several recommendations that if addressed would allow the forensic sciences to develop a stronger scientific foundation. We suggest a roadmap for decomposition ecology and forensic entomology hinging on a framework built on basic research concepts in ecology, evolution, and genetics. Unifying both basic and applied research fields under a common umbrella of terminology and structure would facilitate communication in the field and the production of scientific results. It would also help to identify novel research areas leading to a better understanding of principal underpinnings governing ecosystem structure, function, and evolution while increasing the accuracy of and ability to interpret entomological evidence collected from crime scenes. By following the proposed roadmap, a bridge can be built between basic and applied decomposition ecology research, culminating in science that could withstand the rigors of emerging legal and cultural expectations.

  16. Basic Concepts of Astronomy: a Methodological Proposal. (Spanish Title: Conceptos Básicos de Astronomía: Una Propuesta Metodológica.) Conceitos Básicos de Astronomia: Uma Proposta Metodológica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darroz, Luiz Marcelo; Heineck, Renato; Samudio Pérez, Carlos Ariel

    2011-12-01

    In this report, the development of a methodological proposal which approaches basic concepts of astronomy-grounded pedagogically on Meaningful Learning is described. The proposal, which consists of four meetings, was developed by teachers and academics of the course of Professor in Physics of the University of Passo Fundo (UPF), through an extension course to a group of highschool students of a public school of the town of Passo Fundo, RS. The work was focused into basic concepts of astronomy. The signs of Meaningful Learning have been obtained by means of research and evaluation tools that were applied at the end of each meeting. The evaluation of the proposal has been conducted by means of a final questionnaire which was answered by the participants at the end ofthe development of activities. By means of the results obtained from the different instruments, and the comments made by the participants during the activities and by means of the high rates of approval obtained in the final questionnaire, we think that the proposal reached the established goals and it may be repeated with the certainty of success. En este relato se describe una propuesta de desarrollo metodológico que aborda conceptos básicos de astronomía fundamentada pedagógicamente en el Aprendizaje Significativo. La propuesta que comprende cuatro encuentros, fue desarrollada por profesores y académicos del curso de Licenciatura en Física de la Universidad de Passo Fundo (UPF), a través de un curso de extensión para un grupo de Liceo del 6º año de una Escuela Pública de la ciudad de Passo Fundo/RS. El trabajo tuvo como eje principal los "conceptos básicos de astronomía". Los indicios de Aprendizaje Significativo fueron obtenidos por instrumentos de pesquisa y evaluación, siempre aplicados después de cada encuentro. La evaluación de la propuesta fue hecha a través de un cuestionario final y contestado por los participantes al finalizar el desarrollo de actividades. Por los resultados

  17. The Basic Conception of the Subway Culture Construction--For example Homgzhon Metro%地铁文化建设的基本内涵--以杭州地铁为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴伟强; 彭江; 吴安琪

    2013-01-01

      Subway is a key node running through the developmental history of a city. Subway culture can extend and enhance the culture of a city. And thus the spirit to erect a subway culture is to reflect the civilization of the city. This paper discusses the basic conception of the subway culture construction in three dimensions: passenger, administrator and infrastructure. Only when we completely get rid of egoism, try hard to arouse passengers ’ public awareness, transform administrators’ opinion of regulation to the kindness to passengers, and pursue the value of aesthetic value instead of instrumentalism, can we truly show the deep meaning of the subway culture.%  地铁是城市发展历史中的一个结点,地铁文化可以延伸和提升城市文化。地铁文化建设的灵魂是承载和体现城市文明。从乘客、管理者、基础设施三个维度论述地铁文化建设的基本内涵。当我们彻底摆脱了自我中心主义,努力培育出乘客的公共意识,将管理者的规制意识转变为对乘客的平等关爱,并放弃工具主义思想转而追求地铁的美学价值,地铁的文化内涵才能真正得以展现。

  18. Basic statistics for social research

    CERN Document Server

    Hanneman, Robert A; Riddle, Mark D

    2012-01-01

    A core statistics text that emphasizes logical inquiry, notmath Basic Statistics for Social Research teaches core generalstatistical concepts and methods that all social science majorsmust master to understand (and do) social research. Its use ofmathematics and theory are deliberately limited, as the authorsfocus on the use of concepts and tools of statistics in theanalysis of social science data, rather than on the mathematicaland computational aspects. Research questions and applications aretaken from a wide variety of subfields in sociology, and eachchapter is organized arou

  19. Key Concepts in Informatics: Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szlávi, Péter; Zsakó, László

    2014-01-01

    "The system of key concepts contains the most important key concepts related to the development tasks of knowledge areas and their vertical hierarchy as well as the links of basic key concepts of different knowledge areas." (Vass 2011) One of the most important of these concepts is the algorithm. In everyday life, when learning or…

  20. Microscope basics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluder, Greenfield; Nordberg, Joshua J

    2013-01-01

    This chapter provides information on how microscopes work and discusses some of the microscope issues to be considered in using a video camera on the microscope. There are two types of microscopes in use today for research in cell biology-the older finite tube-length (typically 160mm mechanical tube length) microscopes and the infinity optics microscopes that are now produced. The objective lens forms a magnified, real image of the specimen at a specific distance from the objective known as the intermediate image plane. All objectives are designed to be used with the specimen at a defined distance from the front lens element of the objective (the working distance) so that the image formed is located at a specific location in the microscope. Infinity optics microscopes differ from the finite tube-length microscopes in that the objectives are designed to project the image of the specimen to infinity and do not, on their own, form a real image of the specimen. Three types of objectives are in common use today-plan achromats, plan apochromats, and plan fluorite lenses. The concept of mounting video cameras on the microscope is also presented in the chapter.

  1. 炎性肠病外科百年发展历程%Historical evolution and current concepts of surgical treatment for inflammatory bowel diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    练磊; 吴小剑; 谢明颢; 兰平

    2016-01-01

    外科治疗是炎性肠病(IBD)出现肠道并发症或内科治疗失败时重要的治疗手段. 对于有手术适应证的患者应及时选择合适的术式进行外科治疗. 随着外科手术操作的不断优化和手术方式的不断创新,IBD 外科治疗的理念和手术方式在一个多世纪的发展期间已发生了翻天覆地的变化. 了解各种治疗理念和手术方式的发展历程, 对深入理解及熟练掌握各类术式的适应证和手术技巧具有十分积极的意义.随着生物制剂、腹腔镜、多学科合作等新的技术和理念的发展,IBD外科医师及时更新知识体系是顺应时代进步的必然要求.%Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) may require surgical intervention for refractory disease or complications. Prompt surgery and appropriate surgical procedures are critical when surgery is indicatedd. With continuous optimization and innovation of surgical procedures, there have been significant changes in the concepts and operations of IBD in the past century. Learning the evolution of surgical treatment for IBD could help us understand the rationale, indications, and pertinent techniques of surgical procedures. Innovations are emerging in IBD management including the advent of biological agents, laparoscopy, and multi-disciplinary team approach, it is imperative for IBD specialist to learn the state-of-the-art knowledge.

  2. Chosen Concepts of Human Resources Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin W. Staniewski

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The article is a trial of clarifying and making order of terminology that is used in area of human resources management. This is an overview of basic definitions, conceptions and models of people management, that emerged from the beginning (XIX/XX century to nowadays. The article is a kind of presentation of human resources management evolution. It comprises a descriptions of broad range of human resources management models beginning from classic models (Harvard and Michigan models and finishing on strategic human resources models (orthodox model and human resources architecture, proposed by R.G. Klimecki S. A. Litz and D.P. Lepak S.A. Snell.

  3. E-Basics: Online Basic Training in Program Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silliman, Ben

    2016-01-01

    E-Basics is an online training in program evaluation concepts and skills designed for youth development professionals, especially those working in nonformal science education. Ten hours of online training in seven modules is designed to prepare participants for mentoring and applied practice, mastery, and/or team leadership in program evaluation.…

  4. History evolution and contemporary enlightenment of China's administrative ethics concept%中国行政伦理观的历史演进及当代启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何东铭

    2011-01-01

    行政伦理观是公共行政主体和国家公务员在公共行政领域中关于行政伦理价值追求的总体观念,从行政伦理观的历史演变的角度出发,采用了理论研究方法,分析了不同历史时期行政伦理观的传承与变迁,针对不同历史时期行政伦理观的价值观念转变,归纳当代行政伦理观建设的启示。%Administrative ethics concept is the overall concept of public administrative subjects and civ-il servants about administrative ethics value pursuit in public field.Based on the historical evolution of administrative ethics concept and corresponding theory,analyses were made of the inheritance and changes of administrative ethics concept in different historical periods.Based on the value concept changes of administrative ethics concept in different historical periods,the contemporary enlightenment on the construction of administrative ethics concept are summed up.

  5. Ludwig von Bertalanffy's organismic view on the theory of evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drack, Manfred

    2015-03-01

    Ludwig von Bertalanffy was a key figure in the advancement of theoretical biology. His early considerations already led him to recognize the necessity of considering the organism as a system, as an organization of parts and processes. He termed the resulting research program organismic biology, which he extended to all basic questions of biology and almost all areas of biology, hence also to the theory of evolution. This article begins by outlining the rather unknown (because often written in German) research of Bertalanffy in the field of theoretical biology. The basics of the organismic approach are then described. This is followed by Bertalanffy's considerations on the theory of evolution, in which he used methods from theoretical biology and then introduced his own, organismic, view on evolution, leading to the demand for finding laws of evolution. Finally, his view on the concept of homology is presented.

  6. Evolution of Substrate Specificity within a Diverse Family of [beta/alpha]-Barrel-fold Basic Amino Acid Decarboxylases X-ray Structure Determination of Enzymes with Specificity for L-Arginine and Carboxynorspermidine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Xiaoyi; Lee, Jeongmi; Michael, Anthony J.; Tomchick, Diana R.; Goldsmith, Elizabeth J.; Phillips, Margaret A. (Sungkyunkwan); (UTSMC)

    2010-08-26

    Pyridoxal 5{prime}-phosphate (PLP)-dependent basic amino acid decarboxylases from the {beta}/{alpha}-barrel-fold class (group IV) exist in most organisms and catalyze the decarboxylation of diverse substrates, essential for polyamine and lysine biosynthesis. Herein we describe the first x-ray structure determination of bacterial biosynthetic arginine decarboxylase (ADC) and carboxynorspermidine decarboxylase (CANSDC) to 2.3- and 2.0-{angstrom} resolution, solved as product complexes with agmatine and norspermidine. Despite low overall sequence identity, the monomeric and dimeric structures are similar to other enzymes in the family, with the active sites formed between the {beta}/{alpha}-barrel domain of one subunit and the {beta}-barrel of the other. ADC contains both a unique interdomain insertion (4-helical bundle) and a C-terminal extension (3-helical bundle) and it packs as a tetramer in the asymmetric unit with the insertions forming part of the dimer and tetramer interfaces. Analytical ultracentrifugation studies confirmed that the ADC solution structure is a tetramer. Specificity for different basic amino acids appears to arise primarily from changes in the position of, and amino acid replacements in, a helix in the {beta}-barrel domain we refer to as the 'specificity helix.' Additionally, in CANSDC a key acidic residue that interacts with the distal amino group of other substrates is replaced by Leu{sup 314}, which interacts with the aliphatic portion of norspermidine. Neither product, agmatine in ADC nor norspermidine in CANSDC, form a Schiff base to pyridoxal 5{prime}-phosphate, suggesting that the product complexes may promote product release by slowing the back reaction. These studies provide insight into the structural basis for the evolution of novel function within a common structural-fold.

  7. Operation safety of complex industrial systems. Main concepts; Surete de fonctionnement des systemes industriels complexes. Principaux concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwingelstein, G

    2009-06-15

    Operation safety consists in knowing, evaluating, foreseeing, measuring and mastering the technological system and human failures in order to avoid their impacts on health and people's safety, on productivity, and on the environment, and to preserve the Earth's resources. This article recalls the main concepts of operation safety: 1 - evolutions in the domain; 2 - failures, missions and functions of a system and of its components: functional failure, missions and functions, industrial processes, notions of probability; 3 - basic concepts and operation safety: reliability, unreliability, failure density, failure rate, relations between them, availability, maintainability, safety. (J.S.)

  8. On the Basic Features of CPC's Concept of People's Livelihood%论中国共产党民生观的基本特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺方彬

    2011-01-01

    90-years' history of the Chinese Communist Party is a history of liberating and improving people's livelihood constantly. In the process of the livelihood of the liberation and construction, by the means of answering "What is livelihood? How to protect and improve people's livelihood?" Systematically, it has formed and developed a distinctive concept of the people's livelihood with the basic characteristics showing a unity of theory and practice, unity of class and the people, unity of science and value, unity of reality and ideal, unity of continuity and innovation, the unity of integrity and plate, unity of universality and particularity, unity of comprehensiveness and focus. It is greatly significant to systematically grasp these features of CPC's people's livelihood while the party implements its general principle to protect and improve the people's livelihood in the new historical starting point.%中国共产党90年的历史,就是一部不断解放和改善民生的历史。党在领导民生解放和民生建设的过程中,通过系统地解答“什么是民生,怎么样保障和改善民生”这一民生观的基本问题,形成并发展了具有鲜明特色的民生观,呈现出“理论性与实践性的统一。阶级性与人民性的统一,科学性与价值性的统一,现实性与理想性的统一,继承性与创新性的统一,板块性与整体性的统一,普遍性与特殊性的统一”等基本特点,系统地把握党民生观的这些基本特点,对于我们党在新的历史起点上继续践行党的根本宗旨,着力保障和改善民生,具有重要的启示意义。

  9. Ultrastructure, macromolecules, and evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Dillon, Lawrence S

    1981-01-01

    Thus far in the history of biology, two, and only two, fundamental principles have come to light that pervade and unify the entire science-the cell theory and the concept of evolution. While it is true that recently opened fields of inves­ tigation have given rise to several generalizations of wide impact, such as the universality of DNA and the energetic dynamics of ecology, closer inspection reveals them to be part and parcel of either of the first two mentioned. Because in the final analysis energy can act upon an organism solely at the cellular level, its effects may be perceived basically to represent one facet of cell me­ tabolism. Similarly, because the DNA theory centers upon the means by which cells build proteins and reproduce themselves, it too proves to be only one more, even though an exciting, aspect of the cell theory. In fact, if the matter is given closer scrutiny, evolution itself can be viewed as being a fundamental portion of the cell concept, for its effects arise only as a consequence ...

  10. Concepções e concepções alternativas de média: Um estudo comparativo entre professores e alunos do Ensino Fundamental Conception and alternative conception of mean: a comparative study among teachers and students from basic school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Magina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo analisa concepções de estudantes e professores sobre média, tanto aquelas válidas quanto as alternativas, com validade para alguns casos. Um teste, em lápis e papel, composto de 3 questões foi elaborado e aplicado com 287 estudantes e professores brasileiros, dos quais: 54 eram alunos da 4ª série e 47 eram da 5ª série do ensino fundamental, 61 eram estudantes iniciantes e 82 eram estudantes concluintes do curso de pedagogia, e 43 eram professores das séries iniciais do ensino fundamental. O teste foi aplicado de forma coletiva, em sala de aula. Excetuando-se o grupo de professores, todos os grupos tendem a confundir média com adição dos valores ou com o valor máximo. Os resultados mostram que, apesar da evolução no entendimento do conceito de média em relação ao nível de escolaridade, algumas confusões ainda são identificadas entre o grupo de professores.The present study aims to analyze students and teachers conceptions and misconceptions of average. A paper and pencil test, comprised of three questions, was designed. 287 Brazilian students and teachers undertook the test. They were: 54 pupils from 4th grade, 47 from 5th grade, 61 students beginning undergraduation on Pedagogy, 82 students finishing their undergraduation on Pedagogy and 43 elementary school teachers. The test was undertaken in a collective way. Excepting to the teachers group, all the groups tend to confuse average to addition of the values, or to the maximum value. The result points that, in spite of an evolution on the understanding of the concept of average according to the educational level of the groups, some misconceptions are found within the teachers' group.

  11. Serial concept maps: tools for concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    All, Anita C; Huycke, LaRae I

    2007-05-01

    Nursing theory challenges students to think abstractly and is often a difficult introduction to graduate study. Traditionally, concept analysis is useful in facilitating this abstract thinking. Concept maps are a way to visualize an individual's knowledge about a specific topic. Serial concept maps express the sequential evolution of a student's perceptions of a selected concept. Maps reveal individual differences in learning and perceptions, as well as progress in understanding the concept. Relationships are assessed and suggestions are made during serial mapping, which actively engages the students and faculty in dialogue that leads to increased understanding of the link between nursing theory and practice. Serial concept mapping lends itself well to both online and traditional classroom environments.

  12. Coloured Petri Nets: Basic Concepts, Analysis Methods and Practical Use. Vol. 1, Basic Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    This three-volume work presents a coherent description of the theoretical and practical aspects of coloured Petri nets. These CP-nets are shown to be a full-fledged language for the design, specification, simulation, validation and implementation of large software systems. The introductory first...

  13. Evolution of concepts of cultivated land quality and recognition%耕地质量观的演变与再认识

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜国明; 刘彦随; 于凤荣; 刘美; 郑惠玉

    2016-01-01

    耕地质量对农业效益、粮食安全、耕地资源可持续利用能力具有重要影响。明确耕地质量概念、构成、特点和影响因素,对于加强耕地质量基础理论研究、推动土地整治与高标准农田建设、开展耕地质量管理实践工作具有重要意义。该文在梳理当前3种主要耕地质量观、剖析质量与土地质量内涵的基础上,阐述了新的耕地质量观。主要结论如下:1)当前主要存在基于耕地自然属性、自然-经济双重属性和多重属性的3种耕地质量观,他们既存在先后演化关系,又同时并存、互有区别;2)质量是产品一组固有特性满足要求的程度,土地质量是土地满足某种利用类型特定要求的能力和程度;3)耕地质量是耕地本身的特性满足农业生产并获取经济利润,以及满足人类福祉的程度,包括地力质量、工程质量、空间质量、生态环境质量、美学与文化质量;4)耕地质量具有生产性、内在性、综合性、空间性和时间性,耕地质量受到自然要素、工程要素和社会因素及其组合特征的影响。在耕地质量的理论研究与管理实践中,应充分考虑耕地质量的综合性,防止以偏概全;应将耕地质量的客观性与耕地质量需求的主观性有机统一;应根据耕地评价目的、监测的空间尺度和时间频率,科学构建耕地质量指标及评价指标体系,以科学合理地评价耕地质量状况。%Cultivated land quality has important implications for agricultural benefit, food security, and sustainable utilization ability of cultivated land resources. To understand concept, composition, characteristics and influencing factors of cultivated land quality is important for strengthening basic research in cultivated land quality, promoting land remediation and high-standard basic farmland construction, and launching cultivated land quality management practice work

  14. Fifty years of co-evolution and beyond: integrating co-evolution from molecules to species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, Diego; Fitzpatrick, Connor R; Johnson, Marc T J

    2015-11-01

    Fifty years after Ehrlich and Raven's seminal paper, the idea of co-evolution continues to grow as a key concept in our understanding of organic evolution. This concept has not only provided a compelling synthesis between evolutionary biology and community ecology, but has also inspired research that extends beyond its original scope. In this article, we identify unresolved questions about the co-evolutionary process and advocate for the integration of co-evolutionary research from molecular to interspecific interactions. We address two basic questions: (i) What is co-evolution and how common is it? (ii) What is the unit of co-evolution? Both questions aim to explore the heart of the co-evolutionary process. Despite the claim that co-evolution is ubiquitous, we argue that there is in fact little evidence to support the view that reciprocal natural selection and coadaptation are common in nature. We also challenge the traditional view that co-evolution only occurs between traits of interacting species. Co-evolution has the potential to explain evolutionary processes and patterns that result from intra- and intermolecular biochemical interactions within cells, intergenomic interactions (e.g. nuclear-cytoplasmic) within species, as well as intergenomic interactions mediated by phenotypic traits between species. Research that bridges across these levels of organization will help to advance our understanding of the importance of the co-evolutionary processes in shaping the diversity of life on Earth.

  15. CURRENT CONCEPTS IN ACL RECONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddie H. Fu

    2008-09-01

    's most experienced surgeons to produce a so called "Bible of ACL". The most current concepts not only for the clinical approach but the latest knowledge in basic sciences which the clinical concepts are based on also reviewed including biology, biomechanics, and kinematics. Advances in the diagnostic measures mainly MR imaging are also included. "Current Concepts in ACL Reconstruction" is a complete and the most up-to-date review providing the latest techniques for the treatment of ACL injuries in details, including the perspectives of the most experienced ACL surgeons of the world. Rich illustrations and an accompanying video CD-ROM comprehensively demonstrates the procedures and the techniques described in the book. The differences between single and double-bundle techniques, the technical details in different grafts choices, the technique and approach in the revision surgery are described in detail and explained in the anatomical basis. Pearls, technical pitfalls, personal experience and advices of the most experienced ACL surgeons not only from USA but also from the other pioneer countries of the world in ACL surgery may be the most welcomed parts of the book even by the highly experienced ACL surgeons especially for technically demanding procedures like double-bundle reconstruction. Postoperative rehabilitation described in phases provides the current rehabilitation concept after ACL reconstruction. Outcome measures to assess success after surgery are also reviewed and aspects for future are recommended. Principles and experiences in the navigation technologies in ACL reconstruction are providing the reader new perspectives for future possibilities in diagnosis and treatment. Review of basic sciences, advances in technology and clinical approach from history to future also clearly demonstrates the evolution "where are we and the way to go" and future aspects in the treatment of a thorn ACL

  16. Investigation of historical evolution stages of the term "pedagogical innovation" in modern scientific discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Світлана Миколаївна Ефендієва

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the basic concepts of innovation. The formation of pedagogical innovations was analyzed and factors of effective management of innovative development were theoretically grounded. The essence of the concepts of scientific and pedagogical discourse was highlighted. The historical stages of the evolution of the term «pedagogical innovation» were investigated. The main draft laws about innovation activity in education were characterized

  17. 高职经管类微积分基本概念蕴含的思想方法%On the Thinking Methods Embodied in the Basic Con-cepts of Calculus for Higher Vocational Economic Man-agement Majors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺金兰

    2015-01-01

    本文阐述高职经管类微积分中函数、极限、导数、定积分四个基本概念蕴含的思想方法。%This paper elaborates the thinking methods embodied in the four basic concepts of calculus for higher vocational eco-nomic management majors, including function, limit, derivative and definite integral.

  18. Basics of plasma astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Chiuderi, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    This book is an introduction to contemporary plasma physics that discusses the most relevant recent advances in the field and covers a careful choice of applications to various branches of astrophysics and space science. The purpose of the book is to allow the student to master the basic concepts of plasma physics and to bring him or her up to date in a number of relevant areas of current research. Topics covered include orbit theory, kinetic theory, fluid models, magnetohydrodynamics, MHD turbulence, instabilities, discontinuities, and magnetic reconnection. Some prior knowledge of classical physics is required, in particular fluid mechanics, statistical physics, and electrodynamics. The mathematical developments are self-contained and explicitly detailed in the text. A number of exercises are provided at the end of each chapter, together with suggestions and solutions.

  19. Molecular Phylogenetics: Concepts for a Newcomer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajawatanawong, Pravech

    2016-10-26

    Molecular phylogenetics is the study of evolutionary relationships among organisms using molecular sequence data. The aim of this review is to introduce the important terminology and general concepts of tree reconstruction to biologists who lack a strong background in the field of molecular evolution. Some modern phylogenetic programs are easy to use because of their user-friendly interfaces, but understanding the phylogenetic algorithms and substitution models, which are based on advanced statistics, is still important for the analysis and interpretation without a guide. Briefly, there are five general steps in carrying out a phylogenetic analysis: (1) sequence data preparation, (2) sequence alignment, (3) choosing a phylogenetic reconstruction method, (4) identification of the best tree, and (5) evaluating the tree. Concepts in this review enable biologists to grasp the basic ideas behind phylogenetic analysis and also help provide a sound basis for discussions with expert phylogeneticists.

  20. Electronic imaging fundamentals: basic theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizy, K N

    1983-01-01

    Introduction of the computer into the field of medical imaging, as typified by the extensive use of digital subtraction angiography (DSA), created an important need for a basic understanding of the principles of digital imaging. This paper reviews these fundamental principles, starting with the definition of images and the interaction of these images with television display systems, then continuing with a detailed description of the way in which imaging systems are specified. This work defines the basic terms and concepts that will be used throughout the contents of this issue.

  1. Basics of Solar Heating & Hot Water Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Inst. of Architects, Washington, DC.

    In presenting the basics of solar heating and hot water systems, this publication is organized from the general to the specific. It begins by presenting functional and operational descriptions of solar heating and domestic hot water systems, outlining the basic concepts and terminology. This is followed by a description of solar energy utilization…

  2. Teachers' Conceptions of Tangent Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paez Murillo, Rosa Elvira; Vivier, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the conceptions, and their evolutions, of the tangent line to a curve an updating workshop which took place in Mexico was designed for upper secondary school teachers. This workshop was planned using the methodology of cooperative learning, scientific debate and auto reflection (ACODESA) and the conception-knowing-concept model…

  3. Evolution and current situation of the quality and industrial safety. Concepts, laws and regulations; Evolucion y situacion actual de la calidad y seguridad industrial. Conceptos, leyes y reglamentos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz, A.

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this article is to show the difference between the concepts of quality and industrial safety and how in the legislation of products and industrial installation there is a very close relationship between both concepts. So, that Spanish companies could place in the market not only safe products but also reliable ones that meet the society's demand regarding quality. (Author)

  4. The Secret of Future Defeat: The Evolution of US Joint and Army Doctrine 1993-2006 and the Flawed Conception of Stability Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-24

    corruption of language because of organizational dynamics. The Army’s doctrina approach has equated to “repair service behavior,” or focusing exclusively...Concepts and ndum (Fort Monro 2 December 2005) 2. 44 assessment as described in JP 3-0.” 180 The manual stated that EBA was a tool appropriate to t...Lieutenant General. Effects Based Concepts and Doctrine in Army Education. Memorandum. Fort Monroe , Virginia: Headquarters, US Army Training and

  5. From Aplysia to the constitution: evolution of concepts in behavior analysis / Da Aplysia à constituição: evolução de conceitos na análise do comportamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Claudio Todorov

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the evolution of concepts in behavior analysis, especially in the writings of Skinner, from the definition of operant behavior and reinforcement contingency to processes of selection by consequences, following the development of a conceptual language that covers both the behavior of molluscs and the metacontingencies included in the constitution of a country. Skinner's first papers used the terminology developed by Pavlov in his studies of conditioned reflexes to deal with behavior in general. From Skinner's doctoral dissertation to the papers published in the 80's there was an evolution, followed by the field of behavior analysis, which today uses the same, sophisticated language to deal with complex issues like cultural practices and the survival of cultures.

  6. Stem Cell Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tips Info Center Research Topics Federal Policy Glossary Stem Cell Information General Information Clinical Trials Funding Information Current ... Basics » Stem Cell Basics I. Back to top Stem Cell Basics I. Introduction: What are stem cells, and ...

  7. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Donate Experts \\ The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Topics Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 Spinal ... Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Preventing ...

  8. Basic emotions - self-awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Correia, Ana Almeida; Veiga-Branco, Augusta

    2011-01-01

    We start from basic emotions using Paul Ekman’s model (1999): joy, sadness, anger, surprise, disgust, fear and contempt, to study the concepts of Self- Awareness - Knowing our own emotions - (Goleman, 1995), and Emotional Awareness - Ability to become aware of one's own emotions - (Bisquerra, 2001). Objectives: To understand the levels of Emotional Self-awareness/ Emotional awareness of a group of preschool, primary and lower secondary school teachers through the identifi...

  9. Basic Operational Robotics Instructional System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Brian Keith; Fischer, James; Falgout, Jane; Schweers, John

    2013-01-01

    The Basic Operational Robotics Instructional System (BORIS) is a six-degree-of-freedom rotational robotic manipulator system simulation used for training of fundamental robotics concepts, with in-line shoulder, offset elbow, and offset wrist. BORIS is used to provide generic robotics training to aerospace professionals including flight crews, flight controllers, and robotics instructors. It uses forward kinematic and inverse kinematic algorithms to simulate joint and end-effector motion, combined with a multibody dynamics model, moving-object contact model, and X-Windows based graphical user interfaces, coordinated in the Trick Simulation modeling environment. The motivation for development of BORIS was the need for a generic system for basic robotics training. Before BORIS, introductory robotics training was done with either the SRMS (Shuttle Remote Manipulator System) or SSRMS (Space Station Remote Manipulator System) simulations. The unique construction of each of these systems required some specialized training that distracted students from the ideas and goals of the basic robotics instruction.

  10. 20世纪初文学进化观念的回顾与反思%A Review to the Concept of Literary Evolution in the Early 20th Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20世纪初中国学人对于文学进化有着多种不同的理解。梁启超将文学进化理解为线性的、不可逆的、永恒发展进步的过程。黄人、刘师培及王国维一方面接受进化的观念,将文学的历史看作一个发展变化的序列,一方面又不将其简单化、模式化,不试图以一个单一化、总体化的图式来说明文学史的整个变迁。胡适对于文学进化的理解又回归简单化、模式化,在他看来,文学进化主要是语言进化,语言进化即白话代替文言。相比较之下,黄人、刘师培、王国维的文学进化观念也许更富有方法论的启示意义。%Chinese scholars in the early 20th century had a different understanding about the evolution of literature. Liang Qichao understood literary evolution as a linear and irreversible, eternal process of progress. Huangren, Wang Guowei and Liu Shipei on the one hand accepted the idea of evolution,understanding the literary history as a sequence of development and changes, on the other hand, not tried to use a simple and overall scheme to illustrate the change of literature history. Hushi understood literary evolution in a simple and model way again, in his view, the literary evolution was mainly language evolution, language evolution was simplified as vernacular movement. By comparison, Huangren,Liu Shipei and Wang Guowei's literary evolution concept may be more instructive and illuminating.

  11. Concept Maps

    OpenAIRE

    Schwendimann, Beat Adrian

    2014-01-01

    A concept map is a node-link diagram showing the semantic relationships among concepts. The technique for constructing concept maps is called "concept mapping". A concept map consists of nodes, arrows as linking lines, and linking phrases that describe the relationship between nodes. Two nodes connected with a labeled arrow are called a proposition. Concept maps are versatile graphic organizers that can represent many different forms of relationships between concepts. The relationship between...

  12. A concepção dos enfermeiros no processo gerencial em Unidade Básica de Saúde La concepción de los enfermeros en el proceso gerencial en unidad basica de salud Nurse's concept in the managerial conception of a basic health unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanir Pereira Passos

    2006-12-01

    el objeto, los instrumentos y el producto final, siendo la satisfacción de la clientela y la calidad de la asistencia los resultados esperados en la producción de bienes y servicios.This study is part of a larger survey called "Use of indicators in nurses' managerial practice in Basic Health Care Units in the city of Rio de Janeiro", which was carried out in the Basic Health Care Units of the Planning Area 5.3 and whose objectives were to identify nurses' conception regarding the tools required for management in those units and to discuss the role of management in organizing health services. The study is descriptive and data were collected in interviews with seven nurse managers. The results show that health services actions are organized and directed to the purpose of the working process through the relationship esta-blished between the object, the instruments and the final product, and that for those nurses the end result to be achieved is client's satisfaction and the quality of medical and nursing care.

  13. Fundamental concepts of mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Goodstein, R L

    Fundamental Concepts of Mathematics, 2nd Edition provides an account of some basic concepts in modern mathematics. The book is primarily intended for mathematics teachers and lay people who wants to improve their skills in mathematics. Among the concepts and problems presented in the book include the determination of which integral polynomials have integral solutions; sentence logic and informal set theory; and why four colors is enough to color a map. Unlike in the first edition, the second edition provides detailed solutions to exercises contained in the text. Mathematics teachers and people

  14. 美国地质调查局核心理念的演变与启示%Evolution of USGS core concept and its implication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔熙琳; 周平

    2015-01-01

    This paper generally introduces the three evolutionary stages of the United States Geological Survey’s core concept,namely “Provide Services for West Region’s Development”,“Provide Geo-scientific Information for National Development”and “Sciences for a Changing World”,and summarizes the main features of this core concept that reflects the position,mission and function of USGS,has become the pillar of USGS’s development,and can keep pace with times.These features may enlighten us in terms of structuring and establishing the core concept of China Geological Survey.In this context,this paper proposes the following suggestions:firstly,pay attention to the industries ’ characteristics and social demand;secondly,extract the core concept based on collecting comments widely;thirdly,actively expand the concept system;fourthly,construct the communication channel;fifthly,link with the base construction.%本文概要介绍了美国地质调查局核心理念演变的三个阶段历程,即“为西部大开发服务”、“为国家发展提供地学信息”和“科学为变化的世界服务”,并总结了该局核心理念具有体现了机构的定位、使命与职能,已成为机构发展的支柱,以及与时俱进等主要特点。这些对于对中国地质调查局核心理念的构建及建设颇具启示意义,为此本文提出以下建议:一要注重行业特点和社会需求;二要广泛征求意见,提炼核心理念;三要积极扩展理念体系;四要构建沟通渠道;五要与基地建设相衔接。

  15. Basic Research Firing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Basic Research Firing Facility is an indoor ballistic test facility that has recently transitioned from a customer-based facility to a dedicated basic research...

  16. The Basics of Basic Education: Reflections on the Review and Updating of Basic Education Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Coll

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This lecture presents a reflection on the fundamental content of the basic education curriculum. The arguments set forth within the Spanish educational context may be divided into three main categories. The first refers to the contradictions in the decision making processes regarding what should be taught and what should be learned in basic education, and in which the requirement to attend to the needs of new social, economic and technological scenarios call for the incorporation of new content in the curriculum, but the accumulation of curricular contents makes it practically impossible for them to be taught and learned. Secondly, the author ponders some aspects or dimensions that acquire a special relevance in the new perspective of the basic education curriculum and in which concepts of content such as “indispensable basic” and “desirable basic” are discussed as criteria for decision making. Finally, in the third category, a succinct diagram is presented as an example based on the concepts of literacy, competency and knowledge associated with the acquisition and development of the capacities that illustrate this new perspective.

  17. Weygandt's On the Mixed States of Manic-Depressive Insanity: a translation and commentary on its significance in the evolution of the concept of bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, Paola; Baldessarini, Ross J; Centorrino, Franca; Egli, Samy; Albert, Matthew; Gerhard, Angela; Maggini, Carlo

    2002-01-01

    Wilhelm Weygandt's Uber die Mischzustände des manisch-depressiven Irreseins (On the Mixed States of Manic-Depressive Insanity) describes and conceptualizes mixed states of mood, behavior, and thinking commonly found in manic-depressive disorders. These ideas emerged from Weygandt's service in the 1890s at the Psychiatric Clinic of the University of Heidelberg, directed by Emil Kraepelin. In the sixth (1899) edition of Kraepelin's influential textbook, the concept of manic-depressive illnesses underwent a fundamental shift from a complex group of syndromal subtypes to a single integrated disorder, widely known from the 1921 English translation of the eighth (1920) edition. In the 1899 edition, Kraepelin acknowledged Weygandt for a new section on mixed manic-depressive states within the new integrated view of manic-depressive disorder. We provide biographical notes on Weygandt, a little-known but historically important figure, as well as the first English translation of his monograph and interpretive summaries of his findings. We also consider whether Weygandt's important insight that the same person could be both manic and depressed not only at different times but even at the same time served as an important stimulus to Kraepelin's unified manic-depressive disorder concept, which survives as bipolar disorder a century later.

  18. Soundscapes/Artabilitation - Evolution of a Hybrid Human Performance Concept, Method & Apparatus Where Digital Interactive Media, The Arts, & Entertainment are Combined

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, A. L.

    'SoundScapes' is a body of empirical research that for almost two decades has focused upon investigating noninvasive gesture control of multi-sensory stimuli and potential uses in therapy and the arts. In this context noninvasive gesture refers to motion in invisible activity zones of a system input device utilizing technology outside of human vision. Especially targeted are disabled people of all ages, and special focus has been on the profoundly impaired who especially have limited opportunities for creative self-articulation and playful interaction. The concept has been explored in various situations including: - live stage performances; interactive room installations for museums, workshops, and festivals; and in health-care sessions at hospitals, institutes and special schools. Multifaceted aspects continuously cross-inform in a systemic manner, and each situation where the motion-sensitive environment is applied is considered as a hybrid system. Whilst simplistic in concept, i.e. learning by playful and creative doings, inherent are complexities of optimizing the interactive system to user-experience and evaluation of same. This chapter presents the system in context to its conceived-for-target community; it also presents the parallel practice-led investigations in performance art. Reciprocal design and reflective cross-analysis of the activities has resulted such that performance informs design and strategies of intervention and evaluation with impaired users, and vice versa.

  19. Body Basics Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness About the Body Basics Library KidsHealth > For Teens > About the Body Basics Library A A A Did you ever wonder what ... system, part, and process works. Use this medical library to find out about basic human anatomy, how ...

  20. Body Basics Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness About the Body Basics Library KidsHealth > For Teens > About the Body Basics Library Print A A A Did you ever wonder ... system, part, and process works. Use this medical library to find out about basic human anatomy, how ...

  1. Basic Cake Decorating Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdany, Mel

    Included in this student workbook for basic cake decorating are the following: (1) Drawings of steps in a basic way to ice a layer cake, how to make a paper cone, various sizes of flower nails, various sizes and types of tin pastry tubes, and special rose tubes; (2) recipes for basic decorating icings (buttercream, rose paste, and royal icing);…

  2. Nuclear medicine physics the basics

    CERN Document Server

    Chandra, Ramesh

    2012-01-01

    For decades this classic reference has been the book to review to master the complexities of nuclear-medicine physics. Part of the renowned The Basics series of medical physics books, Nuclear Medicine Physics has become an essential resource for radiology residents and practitioners, nuclear cardiologists, medical physicists, and radiologic technologists. This thoroughly revised Seventh Edition retains all the features that have made The Basics series a reliable and trusted partner for board review and reference. This handy manual contains key points at the end of each chapter that help to underscore principal concepts. You'll also find review questions at the end of each chapter—with detailed answers at the end of the book—to help you master the material. This edition includes useful appendices that elaborate on specific topics, such as physical characteristics of radionuclides and CGS and SI Units.

  3. Basics of modern mathematical statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Spokoiny, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    This textbook provides a unified and self-contained presentation of the main approaches to and ideas of mathematical statistics. It collects the basic mathematical ideas and tools needed as a basis for more serious studies or even independent research in statistics. The majority of existing textbooks in mathematical statistics follow the classical asymptotic framework. Yet, as modern statistics has changed rapidly in recent years, new methods and approaches have appeared. The emphasis is on finite sample behavior, large parameter dimensions, and model misspecifications. The present book provides a fully self-contained introduction to the world of modern mathematical statistics, collecting the basic knowledge, concepts and findings needed for doing further research in the modern theoretical and applied statistics. This textbook is primarily intended for graduate and postdoc students and young researchers who are interested in modern statistical methods.

  4. 脂肪源性干细胞(ADSCs)在美容整形外科应用的基本概念%Basic Concepts for the utilization of ADSCs in the field of Aesthetic-Plastic Surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜景进

    2014-01-01

    Recently ,medical application of stem cell is growing rapidly as a way of treatment which utilizes the capability of autotherapy maximumly .In relation to autologous fat transplantation ,positive results have been reported on the use of adipocyte-derived stem cells (ADSCs ) , which has become more popular , in order to increase survival rate and sustainability of transplanted fat .But , so far the functions of stem cells are not fully identified yet . Although it is burdensome that there is possibility that later on the contents of stem cells can change anytime ,there are fundamental concepts of stem cells and ADSCs that must be known by a plastic aesthetic surgeon .Hence ,concepts which have been known so far will be briefly explained in this paper .%近来,干细胞作为一种利用最大自疗能力的治疗方法在医学领域得到了迅速发展。很多文献报道,利用脂肪源性干细胞(ADSCs)进行自体脂肪细胞移植在提高脂肪移植的成活率和持续性方面,取得了良好的效果,并越来越受欢迎。目前,干细胞的功能尚没有完全阐明,后续关于干细胞的研究使其内容随时发生变化的可能性是存在的。但是干细胞和 ADSCs 的基本概念需要每一位整形美容外科医生掌握。本文将主要介绍当前干细胞和脂肪源性干细胞的一些基本概念。

  5. Modularity in developmental biology and artificial organs: a missing concept in tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenas, Petros; Luyten, Frank P; Doblare, Manuel; Nicodemou-Lena, Eleni; Lanzara, Andreina Elena

    2011-06-01

    Tissue engineering is reviving itself, adopting the concept of biomimetics of in vivo tissue development. A basic concept of developmental biology is the modularity of the tissue architecture according to which intermediates in tissue development constitute semiautonomous entities. Both engineering and nature have chosen the modular architecture to optimize the product or organism development and evolution. Bioartificial tissues do not have a modular architecture. On the contrary, artificial organs of modular architecture have been already developed in the field of artificial organs. Therefore the conceptual support of tissue engineering by the field of artificial organs becomes critical in its new endeavor of recapitulating in vitro the in vivo tissue development.

  6. Basic statistics an introduction with R

    CERN Document Server

    Raykov, Tenko

    2012-01-01

    Basic Statistics provides an accessible and comprehensive introduction to statistics using the free, state-of-the-art, powerful software program R. This book is designed to both introduce students to key concepts in statistics and to provide simple instructions for using R.Teaches essential concepts in statistics, assuming little background knowledge on the part of the readerIntroduces students to R with as few sub-commands as possible for ease of useProvides practical examples from the educational, behavioral, and social sciencesBasic Statistics will appeal to students and professionals acros

  7. Basic radiotherapy physics and biology

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, David S; Das, Indra J; Mendonca, Marc S; Dynlacht, Joseph R

    2014-01-01

    This book is a concise and well-illustrated review of the physics and biology of radiation therapy intended for radiation oncology residents, radiation therapists, dosimetrists, and physicists. It presents topics that are included on the Radiation Therapy Physics and Biology examinations and is designed with the intent of presenting information in an easily digestible format with maximum retention in mind. The inclusion of mnemonics, rules of thumb, and reader-friendly illustrations throughout the book help to make difficult concepts easier to grasp. Basic Radiotherapy Physics and Biology is a

  8. Security basics for computer architects

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Ruby B

    2013-01-01

    Design for security is an essential aspect of the design of future computers. However, security is not well understood by the computer architecture community. Many important security aspects have evolved over the last several decades in the cryptography, operating systems, and networking communities. This book attempts to introduce the computer architecture student, researcher, or practitioner to the basic concepts of security and threat-based design. Past work in different security communities can inform our thinking and provide a rich set of technologies for building architectural support fo

  9. Basic Elements of Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin W. Staniewski

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is a review of basic knowledge management terminology. It presents such a description as: knowledge resources levels (data, information, knowledge, and wisdom, knowledge sources (internal, external, and knowledge typology (implicit, tacit or individual, social. Moreover the article characterizes knowledge management process, knowledge management system and main knowledge management strategies (codification, personalization. At the end of the article there is mentioned the knowledge creating process (the concept of knowledge creation spiral and the role of Intelligence Technology (IT and organizational culture as main elements supporting knowledge management implementation in organizations.

  10. Digital storytelling teaching robotics basics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Scandola

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital Storytelling (DST is a powerful tool for teaching complex concepts. DSTs are typically used in the humanities but several papers have shown that they are also a wonderful tool for the sciences because they are more involving, contextualized and can easily lead to deeper understanding. In the classical use of DST the story is thecontent, while the digital medium is the way of telling it. Our approach is slightly different: the story is not the content but a glue for the main contents, while the digital medium remains the way to tell the story. We propose the use of DST as a means to teach surgeons the basics of robotic surgery, by using a story that should be involving forthem, i.e. a surgical operation, within which we will illustrate specific concepts onrobotics in surgery.

  11. 翻转课堂理念下高校计算机应用基础课程教学设计%Discussion on Teaching Design of Basic Computer Application Course in University under the Concept of Flipped Classroom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐正梅; 杨颖; 曹红兵; 张永华

    2016-01-01

    针对传统教学模式下计算机应用基础课程教学存在的问题,尝试采用翻转课堂进行教学,经过精心的课前任务设计和多样化的课堂交互形式,学生的学习积极性、动手操作能力、自主学习能力和协作创新能力得到明显提升,取得了很好的教学效果。%With regard to the problems of traditional teaching mode of basic computer application course , using the flipped classroom teaching can not only improve students’ enthusiasm, hands-on ability, self-learning ability, and collaborative innovation capacity as well, but also achieve good teaching results, through the careful design of the task before class and diverse forms of in-teraction in the classroom .

  12. Evolution for Young Victorians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightman, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Evolution was a difficult topic to tackle when writing books for the young in the wake of the controversies over Darwin's "Origin of Species." Authors who wrote about evolution for the young experimented with different ways of making the complex concepts of evolutionary theory accessible and less controversial. Many authors depicted presented…

  13. [The concept of loss of chance: A major evolution in the definition of damage or how to prevent litigation for loss of chance?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T-D

    2016-07-01

    The concept of medical error in responsibility litigation was based until the past last years on a necessary direct and definite causal link between fault and injury. In France, since the 1960s and increasingly during the last decade, the idea of loss of chance arose, considered as a new and genuine prejudice (practically, a fixable damage); it became the subject of several legal precedents from the Cour de cassation and the Conseil d'État. Thus, plaintiffs may currently demand a compensation for a loss of chance even though a doubt exists on the causal link between the fault and the observed damage. The most frequent litigation circumstances implying a loss of chance are lack of information, lack or delay in diagnosis, delay in action, and default in medical assessment. Based on practical cases, the author presents the most propitious situations where litigation for loss of chance may occur and discusses possible preventive measures.

  14. Basic of X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giacovazzo, C. [Bari Univ. (Italy). Dip. Geomineralogico

    1996-09-01

    The basic concepts of X-ray diffraction may be more easily understood if it is made preliminary use of a mathematical background. In these pages the authors will first define the delta function and its use for the representation of a lattice. Then the concepts of Fourier transform and convolution are given. At the end of this talk one should realize that a crystal is the convolution of the lattice with a function representing the content of the unit cell.

  15. EVOLUTION OF INSURANCE DEFINITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Gorb

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the evolution of the concept of insurance from the earliest forms to contemporary ones is shown. The development of insurance in Ukraine is demonstrated. A review of transformation of the insurance concept is presented in tabular form.

  16. OPERA超光速中微子与人类对时空观的认识历程%OPERA Superluminal Neutrinos and Evolutions of Spacetime Concepts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵立晶; 马伯强

    2011-01-01

    The understanding of space and time is the most important aspect of theoretical physics, and the current foundation of modern physics is based upon Einstein's relativistic spacetime. However, OPERA collaboration recently published their finding that muon neutrinos might travel faster than light, if proved, which will present a big revolution of Einstein's spacetime concepts. In this paper, we discuss OPERA superluminal neutrinos from experimental discoveries, possible theoretical interpretations, its relationship to the concepts of spacetime, and possible directions for experimental and theoretical researches. Since the understanding of spacetime is extremely important, we expect further experimental evidence to support or falsify OPERA result, and improve our knowledge of spacetime.%物理学对于时间与空间的理解,是推动其发展的重要因素。而现代物理学的根基,则是建立在爱因斯坦的相对论时空观上的。最近,OPERA合作研究组却发现了存在超光速中微子的可能性.倘若其被证实,将是对相对论时空观的一次重大挑战。本文从实验发现,可能的理论解释,人们对于时空观的认识等方面入手,较为客观地讨论了OPERA的实验结果,指出了其可能的实验与理论的研究方向。由于对于时空观的认识是个极其重要的过程,所以我们期待更多的实验来证实或者证伪OPERA超光速中微子的结果,从而推动物理学对于时空观的认识。

  17. Learning structural bioinformatics and evolution with a snake puzzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo S. Nido

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose here a working unit for teaching basic concepts of structural bioinformatics and evolution through the example of a wooden snake puzzle, strikingly similar to toy models widely used in the literature of protein folding. In our experience, developed at a Master’s course at the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (Spain, the concreteness of this example helps to overcome difficulties caused by the interdisciplinary nature of this field and its high level of abstraction, in particular for students coming from traditional disciplines. The puzzle will allow us discussing a simple algorithm for finding folded solutions, through which we will introduce the concept of the configuration space and the contact matrix representation. This is a central tool for comparing protein structures, for studying simple models of protein energetics, and even for a qualitative discussion of folding kinetics, through the concept of the Contact Order. It also allows a simple representation of misfolded conformations and their free energy. These concepts will motivate evolutionary questions, which we will address by simulating a structurally constrained model of protein evolution, again modelled on the snake puzzle. In this way, we can discuss the analogy between evolutionary concepts and statistical mechanics that facilitates the understanding of both concepts. The proposed examples and literature are accessible, and we provide supplementary material (see ‘Data Availability’ to reproduce the numerical experiments. We also suggest possible directions to expand the unit. We hope that this work will further stimulate the adoption of games in teaching practice.

  18. Basics of Bayesian Learning - Basically Bayes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan

    Tutorial presented at the IEEE Machine Learning for Signal Processing Workshop 2006, Maynooth, Ireland, September 8, 2006. The tutorial focuses on the basic elements of Bayesian learning and its relation to classical learning paradigms. This includes a critical discussion of the pros and cons...

  19. 从体操概念演变论竞技体操与基本体操的本质%On the Essence of Competitive Gymnastics and Basic Gymnastics through the Evolution of Gymnastics Concept

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉宝

    2011-01-01

    竞技体操和基本体操都隶属于体操,存在着概念混用和误用的现象.以体操概念的演变为切入点,深入分析竞技体操与基本体操的本质区别,彻底厘清两者的联系与区别.

  20. Basic molecular spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Gorry, PA

    1985-01-01

    BASIC Molecular Spectroscopy discusses the utilization of the Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC) programming language in molecular spectroscopy. The book is comprised of five chapters that provide an introduction to molecular spectroscopy through programs written in BASIC. The coverage of the text includes rotational spectra, vibrational spectra, and Raman and electronic spectra. The book will be of great use to students who are currently taking a course in molecular spectroscopy.

  1. Basic digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Lockhart, Gordon B

    1985-01-01

    Basic Digital Signal Processing describes the principles of digital signal processing and experiments with BASIC programs involving the fast Fourier theorem (FFT). The book reviews the fundamentals of the BASIC program, continuous and discrete time signals including analog signals, Fourier analysis, discrete Fourier transform, signal energy, power. The text also explains digital signal processing involving digital filters, linear time-variant systems, discrete time unit impulse, discrete-time convolution, and the alternative structure for second order infinite impulse response (IIR) sections.

  2. Unnatural Narratology. Basic Concepts and Recent Work [Jan Alber / Rüdiger Heinze: Unnatural Narratives – Unnatural Narratology. Berlin 2011. Per Krogh Hansen / Stefan Iversen / Henrik Skov Nielsen / Rolf Reitan (Eds.: Strange Voices in Narrative Fiction. Berlin 2011. David Herman / James Phelan / Peter Rabinowitz / Brian Richardson / Robyn Warhol: Narrative Theory: Core Concepts and Critical Debates. Columbus 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Richardson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Rezension zu / Review of:Jan Alber / Rüdiger Heinze: Unnatural Narratives – Unnatural Narratology. Berlin 2011. Per Krogh Hansen / Stefan Iversen / Henrik Skov Nielsen / Rolf Reitan (Eds.: Strange Voices in Narrative Fiction. Berlin  2011. David Herman / James Phelan / Peter Rabinowitz / Brian Richardson / Robyn Warhol: Narrative Theory: Core Concepts and Critical Debates. Columbus 2012.

  3. “慢旅游”开发的基本理念与开发路径探讨%Exploration on Basic Concept and Development Path about Slow Travel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹宁; 明庆忠

    2015-01-01

    In recent years,as the reflection to the high pace of life and cramming tourism,leisure tourism presents strongly mo-mentum of development in our country,and leisure and slow tourism has gradually become a recommended form of tourism by people.The complete development course and path about slow travel in domestic is under-researched.Firstly,the paper gave a definition of connotation of slow travel,considering there are 5 M concepts:Mood,Melody,Memory,Mainland Motion,and using physic wave particle duality principle to further explore the relationship between the slow travel and leisure travel;finally,it ana-lyzed the successful examples of slow travel,and on the basis of the development of leisure and slow travel path,it proposed devel-opment paths of the slow travel like the original true protection,local identity and identity conversion.%近年来,随着人们对高节奏的生活和填鸭式旅游的反思,休闲旅游在我国呈现出强劲的发展势头,休闲慢旅游逐渐成为人们所推崇的旅游形式。有关国内慢旅游完整的发展脉络及其开发路径的探讨较少。首先对慢旅游内涵进行了界定,认为其有5M 理念:Mood,Melody,Memory,Mainland 和 Motion;并借用物理学的波、粒二象性原理,进一步探讨了慢旅游与休闲旅游的关系;最后再分析慢旅游开发的成功案例,以及在发展休闲慢旅游路径基础上,提出了慢旅游的原真保护、地方认同和身份转换等开发路径。

  4. Basic concept of treatment for chronic heart failure:past, present and future%慢性心衰治疗的基本理念:过去、现在和未来

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄峻

    2016-01-01

    上世纪70年代,慢性心力衰竭(心衰)的治疗主要采用强心、利尿和扩血管药物,以改善患者的血流动力学状态,但病死率未见显著降低。上世纪80年代末以来,研究证实肾素-血管紧张素-醛固酮系统和交感神经系统过度激活在心衰发生发展的病理生理学机制中发挥了极其重要的作用,阻断这两个系统的药物可显著降低心衰患者的病死率,从而成为心衰治疗的基石。2010年以来,3种不同类型的新药——伊伐布雷定、LCZ696和中药芪苈强心胶囊对心衰的疗效得到肯定,预示心衰治疗的理念又有了新的改变,未来心衰治疗新理念是:神经内分泌阻滞/调节与整体调控相结合。%In the 70s of last century, the treatment of chronic heart failure (CHF) mainly uses inotropic drugs, diuretic and vasodilators, which can improve the hemodynamic condition and have no change in mortality in patients. Since the end of 1980s, excessive activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and sympathetic nervous system have demonstrated to play a key role in the pathophysiology of CHF. Blockade of these two systems can significantly reduce the mortality of CHF, which become a comerstone of the treatment of heart failure. Since 2010, three different types of drugs namely ivabradine, LCZ696 and a kind of traditional Chinese medicine have been shown confirmed the curative effects for heart failure, that means a new concept of CHF treatment, neurohormonal blockade/inducing and systematical regulation.

  5. Introduction: Bridging Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davids, Karel

    2015-12-01

    How can those in the history of science, history of technology, and economics communicate more with each other than they are accustomed? How can they become more globally oriented? While these three disciplines today have more convergent interests than in the past, there is still a large potential for further exchange and involvement to explore and exploit. The contributors to this Focus section discuss a number of concepts that may serve as tools to bring these three disciplines more closely together and ease their evolution in a less Eurocentric direction. These concepts include trading zones, interaction and formalization, production, and machines and self-organization.

  6. Comparative analysis of deutocerebral neuropils in Chilopoda (Myriapoda: implications for the evolution of the arthropod olfactory system and support for the Mandibulata concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sombke Andy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Originating from a marine ancestor, the myriapods most likely invaded land independently of the hexapods. As these two evolutionary lineages conquered land in parallel but separately, we are interested in comparing the myriapod chemosensory system to that of hexapods to gain insights into possible adaptations for olfaction in air. Our study connects to a previous analysis of the brain and behavior of the chilopod (centipede Scutigera coleoptrata in which we demonstrated that these animals do respond to volatile substances and analyzed the structure of their central olfactory pathway. Results Here, we examined the architecture of the deutocerebral brain areas (which process input from the antennae in seven additional representatives of the Chilopoda, covering all major subtaxa, by histology, confocal laser-scan microscopy, and 3D reconstruction. We found that in all species that we studied the majority of antennal afferents target two separate neuropils, the olfactory lobe (chemosensory, composed of glomerular neuropil compartments and the corpus lamellosum (mechanosensory. The numbers of olfactory glomeruli in the different chilopod taxa ranged from ca. 35 up to ca. 90 and the shape of the glomeruli ranged from spheroid across ovoid or drop-shape to elongate. Conclusion A split of the afferents from the (first pair of antennae into separate chemosensory and mechanosensory components is also typical for Crustacea and Hexapoda, but this set of characters is absent in Chelicerata. We suggest that this character set strongly supports the Mandibulata hypothesis (Myriapoda + (Crustacea + Hexapoda as opposed to the Myriochelata concept (Myriapoda + Chelicerata. The evolutionary implications of our findings, particularly the plasticity of glomerular shape, are discussed.

  7. Integration of Basic Sciences in Health's Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzalis, L. A.; Giavarotti, L.; Sato, S. N.; Barros, N. M. T.; Junqueira, V. B. C.; Fonseca, F. L. A.

    2012-01-01

    Concepts from disciplines such as Biochemistry, Genetics, Cellular and Molecular Biology are essential to the understanding and treatment of an elevated number of illnesses, but often they are studied separately, with no integration between them. This article proposes a model for basic sciences integration based on problem-based learning (PBL) and…

  8. Teach NC Basics Step by Step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Roger

    1978-01-01

    Rapid expansion of numerical control (NC) machining in industry has created the need for inclusion of NC basic concepts in the industrial education curriculum. The author describes an NC unit in an industrial technology class and the program sheet and NC worksheet that he developed for machining a product. (MF)

  9. Conceptos básicos de enfermería en la atención gerontológica según el Modelo V. Henderson Basic concepts of nursing in gerontological care following V. Henderson's Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fina Vernet Aguiló

    2007-06-01

    which infirmary follows to perform their task, estimate health problems and plans its specific objectives, either individually or when collaborating with other professionals of health. The values and postulates of Henderson model are specially adapted to gerontology and make the model comprehensible and compatible with interdisciplinary objectives, reinforcing the nurse's leadership in the care team. The purpose of this work is to provide a gerontologist vision of the main concepts of Henderson model and care processes of infirmary, based on the reflection about clinical practice.

  10. Intelsat VII planning and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadkarni, P.; Neyret, P.; Allnutt, J.; Chidambaram, T.

    This paper describes the evolution of the Intelsat VII concept from among a number of spacecraft concepts considered in the planning process. The considerations of greatest importance in this evolution are examined, including the compatibility with small earth stations, available digital services and circuit multiplication techniques, schedule considerations, launch vehicle considerations, and operational flexibility. The roles of demand analysis and of architecture selection in the development of the Intelsat VII concept are addressed.

  11. The Building of the Core Concept of Safety Culture in Basic Construction Projects and the Evaluation of the Degree of the Safety Culture%基建项目施工中核心安全文化理念与程度的建立及评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈婧

    2014-01-01

    中国的基本建设项目飞速发展,然而施工安全形势日益严峻,安全事故频频发生。本文主要对核心安全文化理念的构建以及安全文化程度评价进行研究,加强施工管理人员和现场施工工人的安全施工意识,降低施工中的安全风险。%With the rapid development of China's basic construction, the situation of construction safety is becoming increasingly rigorous, safety accidents occur frequently. In this paper, the construction of the core concept of safety culture and evaluation of the degree of the safety culture were studied, and through enhancing safety awareness of the management personnel and construction workers to effectively reduce the security risks.

  12. Basic Research Objectives Reaffirmed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Haiyan; Zhao Baohua

    2002-01-01

    @@ As a national institution for scientific research and a component of the national innovation system, CAS should and must make key contributions to the great national rejuvenation of the country. Keeping this in mind, CAS has developed four developmental targets for its basic research. This was revealed at a CAS conference on basic research held June 11-12 in Beijing.

  13. Cycles in basic innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de E.A. (Bert); Franses, P.H.P.H.

    2005-01-01

    Basic innovations are often believed to be the drivers of economic growth. It has been widely documented that economic growth follows cyclical patterns of varying length. In this paper we examine if such patterns are also present in basic innovations. For an annual time series of count data covering

  14. Basic Science Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummel, Clete

    These six learning modules were developed for Lake Michigan College's Basic Science Training Program, a workshop to develop good study skills while reviewing basic science. The first module, which was designed to provide students with the necessary skills to study efficiently, covers the following topics: time management; an overview of a study…

  15. Basic principle of superconductivity

    OpenAIRE

    De Cao, Tian

    2007-01-01

    The basic principle of superconductivity is suggested in this paper. There have been two vital wrong suggestions on the basic principle, one is the relation between superconductivity and the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC), and another is the relation between superconductivity and pseudogap.

  16. Space Mission Concept Development Using Concept Maturity Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessen, Randii R.; Borden, Chester; Ziemer, John; Kwok, Johnny

    2013-01-01

    Over the past five years, pre-project formulation experts at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has developed and implemented a method for measuring and communicating the maturity of space mission concepts. Mission concept development teams use this method, and associated tools, prior to concepts entering their Formulation Phases (Phase A/B). The organizing structure is Concept Maturity Level (CML), which is a classification system for characterizing the various levels of a concept's maturity. The key strength of CMLs is the ability to evolve mission concepts guided by an incremental set of assessment needs. The CML definitions have been expanded into a matrix form to identify the breadth and depth of analysis needed for a concept to reach a specific level of maturity. This matrix enables improved assessment and communication by addressing the fundamental dimensions (e.g., science objectives, mission design, technical risk, project organization, cost, export compliance, etc.) associated with mission concept evolution. JPL's collaborative engineering, dedicated concept development, and proposal teams all use these and other CML-appropriate design tools to advance their mission concept designs. This paper focuses on mission concept's early Pre-Phase A represented by CMLs 1- 4. The scope was limited due to the fact that CMLs 5 and 6 are already well defined based on the requirements documented in specific Announcement of Opportunities (AO) and Concept Study Report (CSR) guidelines, respectively, for competitive missions; and by NASA's Procedural Requirements NPR 7120.5E document for Projects in their Formulation Phase.

  17. Da Aplysia à constituição: evolução de conceitos na análise do comportamento From Aplysia to the constitution: evolution of concepts in behavior analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Claudio Todorov

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se apresentar a evolução de conceitos na análise do comportamento, especialmente nos trabalhos de Skinner, desde a definição do conceito de operante, de contingência de reforço, até os processos de seleção por conseqüências, seguindo o desenvolvimento de uma linguagem teórica que abarca desde o comportamento de moluscos até o texto da Constituição, enquanto metacontingência. Os trabalhos iniciais de Skinner usavam a linguagem desenvolvida por Pavlov no estudo de reflexos condicionados para abranger todo o comportamento. De sua dissertação de doutorado até os trabalhos publicados nos anos 1980, Skinner evoluiu e com ele toda a análise do comportamento, que hoje usa a mesma linguagem mais sofisticada para abordar temas complexos como práticas culturais e a sobrevivência de culturas.This work presents the evolution of concepts in behavior analysis, especially in the writings of Skinner, from the definition of operant behavior and reinforcement contingency to processes of selection by consequences, following the development of a conceptual language that covers both the behavior of molluscs and the metacontingencies included in the constitution of a country. Skinner's first papers used the terminology developed by Pavlov in his studies of conditioned reflexes to deal with behavior in general. From Skinner's doctoral dissertation to the papers published in the 80's there was an evolution, followed by the field of behavior analysis, which today uses the same, sophisticated language to deal with complex issues like cultural practices and the survival of cultures.

  18. Contribution to the study of {sup 233}U production with MOX-ThPu fuel in PWR reactor. Transition scenarios towards Th/{sup 233}U iso-generating concepts in thermal spectrum. Development of the MURE fuel evolution code; Contribution a l'etude de la production d'{sup 233}U en combustible MOX-ThPu en reacteur a eau sous pression. Scenarios de transition vers des concepts isogenerateurs Th/{sup 233}U en spectre thermique. Developpement du code MURE d'evolution du combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel-Sendis, F

    2006-12-15

    If nuclear power is to provide a significant fraction of the growing world energy demand, only through the breeding concept can the development of sustainable nuclear energy become a reality. The study of such a transition, from present-day nuclear technologies to future breeding concepts is therefore pertinent. Among these future concepts, those using the thorium cycle Th/U-233 in a thermal neutron spectrum are of particular interest; molten-salt type thermal reactors would allow for breeding while requiring comparatively low initial inventories of U-233. The upstream production of U-233 can be obtained through the use of thorium-plutonium mixed oxide fuel in present-day light water reactors. This work presents, firstly, the development of the MURE evolution code system, a C++ object-oriented code that allows the study, through Monte Carlo (M.C.) simulation, of nuclear reactors and the evolution of their fuel under neutron irradiation. The M.C. methods are well-suited for the study of any reactor, whether it'd be an existing reactor using a new kind of fuel or a future concept altogether, the simulation is only dependent on nuclear data. Exact and complex geometries can be simulated and continuous energy particle transport is performed. MURE is an interface with MCNP, the well-known and validated transport code, that allows, among other functionalities, to simulate constant power and constant reactivity evolutions. Secondly, the study of MOX ThPu fuel in a conventional light water reactor (REP) is presented; it explores different plutonium concentrations and isotopic qualities in order to evaluate their safety characteristics. Simulation of their evolution allows us to quantify the production of U-233 at the end of burnup. Last, different french scenarios validating a possible transition towards a park of thermal Th/U-233 breeders, are presented. In these scenarios, U-233 is produced in ThPu moxed light water reactors. (author)

  19. A evolução histórica do conceito de estresse pós-traumático Historical evolution of the concept of posttraumatic stress disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidnei Schestatsky

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo aborda a evolução histórica do conceito de Transtorno de Estresse Pós-Traumático (TEPT. Cita a escola francesa como a primeira a abordar a questão da conexão psicológica entre trauma e sintomas de histeria e, em especial, os trabalhos fundamentais de Charcot e Janet. As contribuições de Freud também são descritas, principalmente sua preocupação em integrar as dimensões intrapsíquica e ambiental. Também é referido o trabalho de Kardiner, que, ao cunhar o termo "neurose de guerra", fundamenta um conceito bastante importante tanto na Segunda Guerra, quanto na do Vietnã. Finalmente, os autores observam que os manuais da associação psiquiátrica americana de classificação diagnóstica (DSMs adotam o termo TEPT, que avalia, ao mesmo tempo, o quão ameaçador foi determinado evento traumático, assim como apresenta uma lista de sintomas que deverão ser apresentados pelos pacientes.The authors elaborate on the historical evolution of the concept of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. The authors quote the French scholars, mainly Charcot and Janet, as the first to connect traumatic events and symptoms of hysteria. The contributions of Freud are described with enphasis on his effort into integrating the intra-psychic and environmental dimensions. Kardiner is referred as the author who coined the concept of 'war neurosis', which was deemed as an important one during the Second World War and Vietnam War. In conclusion, the authors highlight that the concept of PTSD used in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM by the American Psychiatric Association assess, at the same time, how treatening was the traumatic event and the list of symptoms presented by the patients.

  20. Video Screen Capture Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This article is an introduction to video screen capture. Basic information of two software programs, QuickTime for Mac and BlueBerry Flashback Express for PC, are also discussed. Practical applications for video screen capture are given.

  1. HIV Treatment: The Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV Treatment HIV Treatment: The Basics (Last updated 2/24/2017; last reviewed 2/24/2017) Key Points Antiretroviral therapy (ART) ... reduces the risk of HIV transmission . How do HIV medicines work? HIV attacks and destroys the infection- ...

  2. Kidney Disease Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Take the first step Alternate Language URL Kidney Disease Basics Page Content Your kidneys filter extra ... blood pressure are the most common causes of kidney disease. ​These conditions can slowly damage the kidneys ...

  3. Health Literacy Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions. 1 Health literacy is dependent on individual and systemic factors: Communication skills of lay persons and professionals Lay and professional ...

  4. Basic Financial Accounting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiborg, Karsten

    This textbook on Basic Financial Accounting is targeted students in the economics studies at universities and business colleges having an introductory subject in the external dimension of the company's economic reporting, including bookkeeping, etc. The book includes the following subjects...

  5. Basic Concurrency Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvengreen, Hans Henrik

    2002-01-01

    In this set of notes, we present some of the basic theory underlying the discipline of programming with concurrent processes/threads. The notes are intended to supplement a standard textbook on concurrent programming.......In this set of notes, we present some of the basic theory underlying the discipline of programming with concurrent processes/threads. The notes are intended to supplement a standard textbook on concurrent programming....

  6. Conceptions of health service robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    2015-01-01

    Technology developments create rich opportunities for health service providers to introduce service robots in health care. While the potential benefits of applying robots in health care are extensive, the research into the conceptions of health service robot and its importance for the uptake...... of robotics technology in health care is limited. This article develops a model of the basic conceptions of health service robots that can be used to understand different assumptions and values attached to health care technology in general and health service robots in particular. The article takes...... a discursive approach in order to develop a conceptual framework for understanding the social values of health service robots. First a discursive approach is proposed to develop a typology of conceptions of health service robots. Second, a model identifying four basic conceptions of health service robots...

  7. Basic sciences of nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalil, Magdy M. (ed.) [Imperial College London (United Kingdom). Biological Imaging Centre

    2011-07-01

    Nuclear medicine has become an ever-changing and expanding diagnostic and therapeutic medical profession. The day-to-day innovations seen in the field are, in great part, due to the integration of many scientific bases with complex technologic advances. The aim of this reference book, Basic Sciences of Nuclear Medicine, is to provide the reader with a comprehensive and detailed discussion of the scientific bases of nuclear medicine, covering the different topics and concepts that underlie many of the investigations and procedures performed in the field. Topics include radiation and nuclear physics, Tc-99m chemistry, single-photon radiopharmaceuticals and PET chemistry, radiobiology and radiation dosimetry, image processing, image reconstruction, quantitative SPECT imaging, quantitative cardiac SPECT, small animal imaging (including multimodality hybrid imaging, e.g., PET/CT, SPECT/CT, and PET/MRI), compartmental modeling, and tracer kinetics. (orig.)

  8. Introductory remote sensing principles and concepts principles and concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Introduction to Remote Sensing Principles and Concepts provides a comprehensive student introduction to both the theory and application of remote sensing. This textbook* introduces the field of remote sensing and traces its historical development and evolution* presents detailed explanations of core remote sensing principles and concepts providing the theory required for a clear understanding of remotely sensed images.* describes important remote sensing platforms - including Landsat, SPOT and NOAA * examines and illustrates many of the applications of remotely sensed images in various fields.

  9. Clinical course: a concept analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eben Arries

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Concepts are the most basic linguistic constructs with which individuals can get a grasp on their reality. Concepts assist persons to organise their experiences. Opsomming Konsepte is die mees basiese linguistiese konstrukte waarmee individue 'n greep op hulle werklikheid bekom. Konsepte help persone om hulle ervarings te organiseer. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

  10. Connotation Evolution of Basic Operation System in Countryside since Reform and Opening%改革开放以来农村基本经营制度的内涵演变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭贵华

    2014-01-01

    The dual operation system ,established since the reform and opening ,remains in function as the basic operation system in rural areas although its connotation has been changing .Now,to construct a new agri-cultural operation system is not to negate the dual operation system as the basic operation system in the coun -tryside .By constantly adjusting explanation of the connotation of the dual operation system ,the central commit-tee means to make it fit the rural reform development ,and make“to construct a new agricultural operation sys-tem”the nature of policy on upholding and improving the dual operation system .Whether to uphold and improve the dual operation system or to construct a new agricultural operation system ,what needs to do is ,on the basis of insisting on the basic position of household operation in agriculture ,strengthen the centralized operation and effectively solve problems such as low degree of organization of farmers and bad connection between small -scale production and big market so as to achieve“the combination of centralized operation with decentralized operation”.%双层经营体制是我国改革开放以来所确立且至今仍在坚持实行的农村基本经营制度,但其内涵并非一成不变而是与时俱进的。当前,构建新型农业经营体系并不是否定双层经营体制这一农村基本经营制度。中央通过对双层经营体制的内涵不断作出调整,使其契合农村改革发展情势,亦使当前构建新型农业经营体系成为坚持和完善双层经营体制的题中之义。无论是坚持和完善双层经营体制,还是加快构建新型农业经营体系,都是要在坚持家庭经营的基础性地位的同时,加强统一经营,有效解决农民组织化程度低、小生产与大市场衔接不畅的问题,从而真正实现“统分结合”。

  11. Science dialogues basic concepts and tools for effective science communication

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The book is dedicated to scientists who decide to engage in science communication. It covers the main aspects of science communication, seen as an essential element in constructing the relationship between science and society. It outlines the international context, the principle forms of communication, and provides some tools for helping the reader to construct their own personal communication project.

  12. The Diaspora and Temporary Migrant Workers: Basic Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Krstić

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper looks at the phenomenon of migrant workers who emigrated to Western European countries after World War II. The labor demands created by the economic reconstruction of these countries, most notably Great Britain, West Germany, France, Switzerland, the Benelux countries, Sweden and Austria, coupled with low birth rates and high death rates, made it necessary for them to hire immigrant workers. On the other hand, poor economic conditions, few employment opportunities and a yearning for a higher standard of living drove workers from Italy, Spain, Portugal, Turkey, Yugoslavia, Greece, Ireland, Finland and North Africa to seek work abroad. These temporary migrant workers represent a link between their countries of origin and their host countries, and, as a group of people maintaining links with their native countries, they can also be considered their countries’ diaspora. However, considering the temporary nature of their residence abroad, it is questionable whether they actually are a diaspora. It is for this reason that the paper juxtaposes the phenomena of the diaspora and temporary migrant workers in order to analyze the question of whether, when and how these workers become a diaspora. In particular, it focuses on migrant workers from Yugoslavia, usually referred to as “gastarbajteri” (gastarbeiter, who in the 1960s and 1970s migrated mostly to West Germany, Austria, Australia, France and Switzerland, and on their political treatment by the Yugoslav state.

  13. Basic concepts and principles of stoichiometric modeling of metabolic networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maarleveld, T.R.; Khandelwal, R.A.; Olivier, B.E.; Teusink, B.; Bruggeman, F.J.

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic networks supply the energy and building blocks for cell growth and maintenance. Cells continuously rewire their metabolic networks in response to changes in environmental conditions to sustain fitness. Studies of the systemic properties of metabolic networks give insight into metabolic pla

  14. The classical Stefan problem basic concepts, modelling and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, SC

    2003-01-01

    This volume emphasises studies related toclassical Stefan problems. The term "Stefan problem" isgenerally used for heat transfer problems with phase-changes suchas from the liquid to the solid. Stefan problems have somecharacteristics that are typical of them, but certain problemsarising in fields such as mathematical physics and engineeringalso exhibit characteristics similar to them. The term``classical" distinguishes the formulation of these problems fromtheir weak formulation, in which the solution need not possessclassical derivatives. Under suitable assumptions, a weak solutioncould be as good as a classical solution. In hyperbolic Stefanproblems, the characteristic features of Stefan problems arepresent but unlike in Stefan problems, discontinuous solutions areallowed because of the hyperbolic nature of the heat equation. Thenumerical solutions of inverse Stefan problems, and the analysis ofdirect Stefan problems are so integrated that it is difficult todiscuss one without referring to the other. So no...

  15. Teacher-student contact : Exploring a basic but complicated concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korthagen, Fred A J; Attema-Noordewier, Saskia; Zwart, Rosanne C.

    2014-01-01

    Contact is fundamental to teacher-student relationships, but empirical studies or theoretical frameworks on teacher-student contact are rare. This article describes a theoretical and empirical exploration aimed at building such a framework. In two studies using classroom observations and interviews

  16. Basic Concepts of Microarrays and Potential Applications in Clinical Microbiology

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Melissa B.; Tang, Yi-Wei

    2009-01-01

    Summary: The introduction of in vitro nucleic acid amplification techniques, led by real-time PCR, into the clinical microbiology laboratory has transformed the laboratory detection of viruses and select bacterial pathogens. However, the progression of the molecular diagnostic revolution currently relies on the ability to efficiently and accurately offer multiplex detection and characterization for a variety of infectious disease pathogens. Microarray analysis has the capability to offer robu...

  17. Pairing in Fermionic Systems Basic Concepts and Modern Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, John W; Alford, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Cooper pairing of fermions is a profound phenomenon that has become very important in many different areas of physics in the recent past. This book brings together, for the first time, experts from various fields involving Cooper pairing, at the level of BCS theory and beyond, including the study of novel states of matter such as ultracold atomic gases, nuclear systems at the extreme, and quark matter with application to neutron stars. Cross-disciplinary in nature, the book will be of interest to physicists in many different specialties, including condensed matter, nuclear, high-energy, and as

  18. Hyposplenism: a comprehensive review. Part I: basic concepts and causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    William, Basem M; Corazza, Gino R

    2007-02-01

    Hyposplenism is not a rare condition and can complicate a remarkable number of illnesses. The two most time-honored diseases associated with the development of hyposplenism are sickle cell anemia and celiac disease. Hyposplenism is relatively easy to recognize by typical changes observed on the peripheral blood smear; including Howell-Jolly bodies, monocytosis, lymphocytosis, and increased platelet counts. Diagnosis can be confirmed by pitted RBC counts or 99Tc-labelled radiocolloid scan of the spleen; wherever available. Diagnosis needs to be made promptly to institute pneumococcal vaccination in a timely fashion and to recognize and treat bacterial infections promptly and aggressively because of the tendency of hyposplenic subject to develop fatal invasive disease. Overwhelming pneumococcal sepsis accounts for the major mortality cases in hyposplenic subjects; however severe infections with other encapsulated bacteria and protozoa have been reported. Hyposplenic individuals may also be at a higher risk for vascular, autoimmune and thrombotic diseases and they may have a higher risk of developing solid tumors. The commonly used pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine is ineffective in asplenic subjects, because it requires the presence of IgM memory B cells, and should be given before splenectomy. In splenectomized, and functionally hyposplenic subjects, the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine is more effective, because it utilizes a T cell dependent mechanism, and should be the preferred vaccine in these circumstances.

  19. Tribology for scientists and engineers from basics to advanced concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Menezes, Pradeep L; Ingole, Sudeep P; Kailas, Satish V; Lovell, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    This book describes available tribology technologies and introduces a comprehensive overview of tribology. General, up-to-date knowledge on how tribology is approached in various related areas of research, both experimental and computational is provided.

  20. Fluid therapy in neurotrauma: basic and clinical concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando Raphael Alvis-Miranda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The patient with head trauma is a challenge for the emergency physician and for the neurosurgeon. Currently traumatic brain injury constitutes a public health problem. Knowledge of the various therapeutic strategies to provide support in the prehospital and perioperative are essential for optimal care. Rapid infusion of large volumes of crystalloids to restore blood volume and blood pressure quickly is now the standard treatment for patients with combined TBI and HS The fluid in patients with brain and especially in the carrier of brain injury is a critical topic; we present a review of the literature about the history, physiology of current fluid preparations, and a discussion regard the use of fluid therapy in traumatic brain injury and decompressive craniectomy.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/rhc.v5i1.636

  1. Modelling the behavior of systems : Basic concepts and algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cotroneo, T; Willems, JC; Powell, MJD; Scholtes, S

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the behavioral approach as a mathematical language for describing dynamical systems, in particular systems modeled by high order constant coefficient linear differential equations. We investigate what data have to be added in order to express the influence of the environme

  2. The ABCs of Challenging Behavior: Understanding Basic Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadan, Hedda; Ayvazo, Shiri; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.

    2016-01-01

    Many young children engage in challenging behaviors that could have short- and long-term negative effects for both the children and their families. Challenging behaviors refer to "any repeated pattern of behavior, or perception of behavior, that interferes with or is at risk of interfering with optimal learning or engagement in prosocial…

  3. Understanding the basic concepts of CO2 angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zannoli, Romano; Bianchini, David; Rossi, Pier Luca; Caridi, James G.; Corazza, Ivan

    2016-11-01

    The diagnostic quality of carbon dioxide angiography depends both on optimal setting of radiological aspects (X-ray emission and image post-processing) and on the mechanical behavior of the injected gas bubbles. The gas behavior differs in large cavities (d > 12 mm), medium sized vessels (d > 6 mm), and small diameter vessels (d cultural and practical intervention of a medical physicist is fundamental. Obtaining a good quality CO2 angiogram is not only a matter of medical operator experience or radiological system performance, but involves matching a wide knowledge of medical physics to particular pathophysiological conditions and to unusual measurement tests. Most medical physicists are used to dealing mainly with radiological problems, and other physical aspects are considered beyond their interest. In CO2 angiography, non-radiological aspects strongly interfere with radiological issues and an optimal result can only be obtained by tackling the two simultaneously.

  4. Chemical evolution and life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malaterre Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In research on the origins of life, the concept of “chemical evolution” aims at explaining the transition from non-living matter to living matter. There is however strong disagreement when it comes to defining this concept more precisely, and in particular with reference to a chemical form of Darwinian evolution: for some, chemical evolution is nothing but Darwinian evolution applied to chemical systems before life appeared; yet, for others, it is the type of evolution that happened before natural selection took place, the latter being the birthmark of living systems. In this contribution, I review the arguments defended by each side and show how both views presuppose a dichotomous definition of “life”.

  5. Teaching Basic Probability in Undergraduate Statistics or Management Science Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, Jaideep T.; Sanford, John F.

    2017-01-01

    Standard textbooks in core Statistics and Management Science classes present various examples to introduce basic probability concepts to undergraduate business students. These include tossing of a coin, throwing a die, and examples of that nature. While these are good examples to introduce basic probability, we use improvised versions of Russian…

  6. Travelling Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Karen-Margrethe

    2013-01-01

    Review of "Travelling Concepts, Metaphors, and Narratives: Literary and Cultural Studies in an Age of Interdisciplinary Research" ed. by Sibylle Baumgarten, Beatrice Michaelis and Ansagar Nünning, Trier; Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier, 2012......Review of "Travelling Concepts, Metaphors, and Narratives: Literary and Cultural Studies in an Age of Interdisciplinary Research" ed. by Sibylle Baumgarten, Beatrice Michaelis and Ansagar Nünning, Trier; Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier, 2012...

  7. A serious computer game using the basics of mathematical logic

    OpenAIRE

    Zupančič, Katja

    2015-01-01

    The Master's thesis entitled A serious computer game using the basics of mathematical logic presents some basic definitions of the concept of games, the theory of computer games and serious computer games. We analysed primary school syllabuses (the Mathematics syllabus and the syllabuses for optional subjects Logic and Mathematics workshop) and primary school textbooks for inclusion of the basics of mathematical logic. The main learning objectives of the competition in logic, organised by the...

  8. Basic mathematics for the biological and social sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Marriott, F H C

    2013-01-01

    Basic Mathematics for the Biological and Social Sciences deals with the applications of basic mathematics in the biological and social sciences. Mathematical concepts that are discussed in this book include graphical methods, differentiation, trigonometrical or circular functions, limits and convergence, integration, vectors, and differential equations. The exponential function and related functions are also considered. This monograph is comprised of 11 chapters and begins with an overview of basic algebra, followed by an introduction to infinitesimal calculus, scalar and vector quantities, co

  9. CHEMICAL EVOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvin, Melvin

    1965-06-01

    How did life come to be on the surface of the earth? Darwin himself recognized that his basic idea of evolution by variation and natural selection must be a continuous process extending backward in time through that period in which the first living things arose and into the period of 'Chemical Evolution' which preceded it. We are approaching the examination of these events by two routes. One is to seek for evidence in the ancient rocks of the earth which were laid down prior to that time in which organisms capable of leaving their skeletons in the rocks to be fossilized were in existence. This period is sometime prior to approximately 600 million years ago. The earth is believed to have taken its present form approximately 4700 million years ago. We have found in rocks whose age is about 1000 million years certain organic molecules which are closely related to the green pigment of plants, chlorophyll. This seems to establish that green plants were already fluorishing prior to that time. We have now found in rocks of still greater age, namely, 2500 million years, the same kinds of molecules mentioned above which can be attributed to the presence of living organisms. If these molecules are as old as the rocks, we have thus shortened the time available for the generation of the complex biosynthetic sequences which give rise to these specific hydrocarbons (polyisoprenoids) to less than 2000 million years.

  10. The Evolution of the Marketing Concept

    OpenAIRE

    Irina Nicolau

    2013-01-01

    Definitions are part of marketing management texts and courses; however, some representatives of the social and humanistic sciences tend to regard them cautiously. The simple definition of a process is a discipline in itself (Heilbrun, 1996), which leaves open a lot of alternatives. The concern that marketing definitions could be contested can be quickly dispelled if we refer to the fact that it is an academic field, at the same time the concern for defining this field persisted over approxim...

  11. Basic Electromagnetism and Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Moliton, André

    2007-01-01

    Basic Electromagnetism and Materials is the product of many years of teaching basic and applied electromagnetism. This textbook can be used to teach electromagnetism to a wide range of undergraduate science majors in physics, electrical engineering or materials science. However, by making lesser demands on mathematical knowledge than competing texts, and by emphasizing electromagnetic properties of materials and their applications, this textbook is uniquely suited to students of materials science. Many competing texts focus on the study of propagation waves either in the microwave or optical domain, whereas Basic Electromagnetism and Materials covers the entire electromagnetic domain and the physical response of materials to these waves. Professor André Moliton is Director of the Unité de Microélectronique, Optoélectronique et Polymères (Université de Limoges, France), which brings together three groups studying the optoelectronics of molecular and polymer layers, micro-optoelectronic systems for teleco...

  12. Basic Probability Theory for Biomedical Engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Enderle, John

    2006-01-01

    This is the first in a series of short books on probability theory and random processes for biomedical engineers. This text is written as an introduction to probability theory. The goal was to prepare students, engineers and scientists at all levels of background and experience for the application of this theory to a wide variety of problems--as well as pursue these topics at a more advanced level. The approach is to present a unified treatment of the subject. There are only a few key concepts involved in the basic theory of probability theory. These key concepts are all presented in the first

  13. Storing the Wisdom: Chemical Concepts and Chemoinformatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bawden

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to examine the nature of chemical concepts, and the ways in which they are applied in chemoinformatics systems. An account of concepts in philosophy and in the information sciences leads to an analysis of chemical concepts, and their representation. The way in which concepts are applied in systems for information retrieval and for structure–property correlation are reviewed, and some issues noted. Attention is focused on the basic concepts or substance, reaction and property, on the organising concepts of chemical structure, structural similarity, periodicity, and on more specific concepts, including two- and three-dimensional structural patterns, reaction types, and property concepts. It is concluded that chemical concepts, despite (or perhaps because of their vague and mutable nature, have considerable and continuing value in chemoinformatics, and that an increased formal treatment of concepts may have value in the future.

  14. Thought Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadrikov V.D.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The thought evolution is studied by historical reconstruction method that is based on the propositions of the theory of culturalhistorical determination of the psyche development, and the data of the morphological analysis and child development, and the conception of the psyche neuroontogenesis. The grounds for advisability of protothinking are presented. The protothinking is understood as the use of objective thought in cases of awareness absence. It is shown that protothinking is a form of transition from animal thinking to human speech. The particular attention is paid to the process of the word producing and thought generation in that process. The conditions of word producing as cooccurring acoustic pattern served for though expression are discussed. It is emphasized that a word is produced by a particular person. The historical development of the language and the specificity of this development are pointed out

  15. Software Architecture Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Many software systems eventually undergo changes to their basic architectural structure. Such changes may be prompted by new feature requests, new quality attribute requirements, changing technology, or other reasons. Whatever the causes, architecture evolution is commonplace in real-world software projects. Today's software architects, however,…

  16. Decontamination: back to basics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Susan J; Sjorgen, Geoff

    2008-07-01

    My invitation from this Journal's Editor, Felicia Cox, to provide a paper for this themed issue, included the sentence 'I was wondering if you or a colleague would like to contribute a back to basics article on the relevant standards and guidelines for decontamination, including what is compliance?'. The reason it is so interesting to me is that the term 'back to basics' implies reverting to a simpler time in life - when by just sticking to the rules, life became easier. However, with decontamination this is not actually true.

  17. Comprehensive basic mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Veena, GR

    2005-01-01

    Salient Features As per II PUC Basic Mathematics syllabus of Karnataka. Provides an introduction to various basic mathematical techniques and the situations where these could be usefully employed. The language is simple and the material is self-explanatory with a large number of illustrations. Assists the reader in gaining proficiency to solve diverse variety of problems. A special capsule containing a gist and list of formulae titled ''REMEMBER! Additional chapterwise arranged question bank and 3 model papers in a separate section---''EXAMINATION CORNER''.

  18. Basic set theory

    CERN Document Server

    Levy, Azriel

    2002-01-01

    An advanced-level treatment of the basics of set theory, this text offers students a firm foundation, stopping just short of the areas employing model-theoretic methods. Geared toward upper-level undergraduate and graduate students, it consists of two parts: the first covers pure set theory, including the basic motions, order and well-foundedness, cardinal numbers, the ordinals, and the axiom of choice and some of it consequences; the second deals with applications and advanced topics such as point set topology, real spaces, Boolean algebras, and infinite combinatorics and large cardinals. An

  19. Basic research championed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friebele, Elaine

    In April, the Office of National Science and Technology Policy released its biennial report to Congress. Science and Technology: Shaping the Twenty-First Century addresses the President's policy for maintaining U.S. leadership in science and technology, significant developments, and important national issues in science, and opportunities to use science and technology in federal programs and national goals. The administration strongly supports basic research as a sound investment and an inspiration to society. As corporate laboratories increasingly favor applied R&D projects, the federal government is becoming the dominant sponsor of long-term, basic research.

  20. Basic properties of semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Landsberg, PT

    2013-01-01

    Since Volume 1 was published in 1982, the centres of interest in the basic physics of semiconductors have shifted. Volume 1 was called Band Theory and Transport Properties in the first edition, but the subject has broadened to such an extent that Basic Properties is now a more suitable title. Seven chapters have been rewritten by the original authors. However, twelve chapters are essentially new, with the bulk of this work being devoted to important current topics which give this volume an almost encyclopaedic form. The first three chapters discuss various aspects of modern band theory and the