WorldWideScience

Sample records for basic concepts evolution

  1. Basic concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorner, B.

    1999-01-01

    The basic concepts of neutron scattering as a tool for studying the structure and the dynamics of condensed matter. Theoretical aspects are outlined, the two different cases of coherent and incoherent scattering are presented. The issue of resolution, coherence volume and the role of monochromators are also discussed. (K.A.)

  2. Basic concepts in oceanography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small, L.F.

    1997-01-01

    Basic concepts in oceanography include major wind patterns that drive ocean currents, and the effects that the earth's rotation, positions of land masses, and temperature and salinity have on oceanic circulation and hence global distribution of radioactivity. Special attention is given to coastal and near-coastal processes such as upwelling, tidal effects, and small-scale processes, as radionuclide distributions are currently most associated with coastal regions. (author)

  3. Precompound Reactions: Basic Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidenmueller, H. A.

    2008-01-01

    Because of the non-zero nuclear equilibration time, the compound-nucleus scattering model fails when the incident energy exceeds 10 or 20 MeV, and precompound reactions become important. Basic ideas used in the quantum-statistical approaches to these reactions are described

  4. Basic concepts of epidemiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savitz, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    Epidemiology can be defined simply as the science of the distribution and determinants of disease in human populations. As a descriptive tool, epidemiology can aid health care service providers, for example, in allocation of resources. In its analytic capacity, the epidemiologic approach can help identify determinants of disease through the study of human populations. Epidemiology is primarily an observational rather than experimental methodology, with corresponding strengths and limitations. Relative to other approaches for assessing disease etiology and impacts of potential health hazards, epidemiology has a rather unique role that is complementary to, but independent of, both basic biologic sciences and clinical medicine. Experimental biologic sciences such as toxicology and physiology provide critical information on biologic mechanisms of disease required for causal inference. Clinical medicine often serves as the warning system that provides etiologic clues to be pursued through systematic investigation. The advantage of the epidemiologic approach is its reliance on human field experience, that is, the real world. While laboratory experimentation is uniquely well suited to defining potential hazards, it can neither determine whether human populations have actually been affected nor quantify that effect. Building all the complexities of human behavior and external factors into a laboratory study or mathematical model is impossible. By studying the world as it exists, epidemiology examines the integrated, summarized product of the myriad factors influencing health

  5. Stereochemistry basic concepts and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Nógrádi, M

    2013-01-01

    Stereochemistry: Basic Concepts and Applications is a three-chapter text that introduces the basic principles and concepts of stereochemistry, as well as its application to organic chemistry application.Chapter 1 describes first the stereochemistry of the ground state, specifically the configuration and conformation of organic compounds, as well as the most important methods for its investigation. This chapter also deals with the kinetics of conformational changes and provides an overview of the so-called ""applied stereochemistry"". Chapter 2 focuses on the analysis of the internal motions of

  6. Basic Concepts of Surface Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degras, D A

    1974-07-01

    The basic concepts of surface physics are given in this paper which deals mainly with the thermodynamics of metal surfaces. one finds also a short review of vibrational and electronic properties. Written for a Summer School, the text provides numerous references.

  7. Basic concepts of materials accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markin, J.T.

    1989-01-01

    The importance of accounting for nuclear materials to the efficient, safe, and economical operation of nuclear facilities is introduced, and the following topics are covered: material balance equation; item control areas; material balance uncertainty; decision procedures for materials accounting; conventional and near-real-time accounting; regulatory requirements of the US Department of Energy and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission; and a summary related to the development of a materials accounting system to implement the basic concepts described. The summary includes a section on each of the following: problem definition, system objectives, and system design

  8. Basic Concepts of Reading Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan ARI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Reading act is performed by connected physiological, psychological and cognitive processes. The operations taking place in these processes are expected to continue for life by being developed with certain strategies. A lot of information is gained with reading skill in education life. Therefore, basic concepts that constitute reading education in teaching and improving reading are important for teachers. The aim of this study is to submit information compiled from the literature about reading education process and which basic concepts are used in reading education. While teaching reading from part to whole, from whole to part and interactional approaches are used. From part to whole approach is at the forefront. Then with interactional approach strategies, both code solving and making sense is improved. Teachers should know the characteristics of bouncing, stopping, turning back, and scanning movements of the eye both in code solving and making sense. The teacher should configure the teaching for the students to gain fluid reading elements by making use of reading out and reading silently. After reading act is acquired; good reader characteristics should be gained by improving asking questions, guessing, summarizing, interpretation skills in integrated readings. Reading skill is improved by studies on the text. Therefore, the students should come across texts that are suitable to their levels, textuality and readability criteria. The vocabulary of children should be improved in a planned way with text-based word and meaning studies. Fluid reading, making sense and interpretation skills of children should be pursued with different evaluation types. In the long term, work should be done to make reading a habit for them.

  9. Advanced Messaging Concept Development Basic Safety Message

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Contains all Basic Safety Messages (BSMs) collected during the Advanced Messaging Concept Development (AMCD) field testing program. For this project, all of the Part...

  10. Basic concepts in computational physics

    CERN Document Server

    Stickler, Benjamin A

    2016-01-01

    This new edition is a concise introduction to the basic methods of computational physics. Readers will discover the benefits of numerical methods for solving complex mathematical problems and for the direct simulation of physical processes. The book is divided into two main parts: Deterministic methods and stochastic methods in computational physics. Based on concrete problems, the first part discusses numerical differentiation and integration, as well as the treatment of ordinary differential equations. This is extended by a brief introduction to the numerics of partial differential equations. The second part deals with the generation of random numbers, summarizes the basics of stochastics, and subsequently introduces Monte-Carlo (MC) methods. Specific emphasis is on MARKOV chain MC algorithms. The final two chapters discuss data analysis and stochastic optimization. All this is again motivated and augmented by applications from physics. In addition, the book offers a number of appendices to provide the read...

  11. Basic Concepts of CNS Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowski, R. S.

    1987-01-01

    The goals of this review are to: (1) provide a set of concepts to aid in the understanding of complex processes which occur during central nervous system (CNS) development; (2) illustrate how they contribute to our knowlege of adult brain anatomy; and (3) delineate how modifications of normal developmental processes may affect the structure and…

  12. Basic concepts of control theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markus, L.

    1976-01-01

    After a philosophical introduction on control theory and its position among various branches of science, mathematical control theory and its connection with functional analysis are discussed. A chapter on system theory concepts follows. After a summary of results and notations in the general theory of ordinary differential equations, a qualitative theory of control dynamical systems and chapters on the topological dynamics, and the controllability of linear systems are presented. As examples of autonomous linear systems, the switching locus for the synthesis of optimal controllers and linear dynamics with quadratic cost optimization are considered. (author)

  13. Basic Concepts of String Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Blumenhagen, Ralph; Theisen, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to thoroughly prepare the reader for research in string theory. It is intended as a textbook in the sense that, starting from the basics, the material is presented in a pedagogical and self-contained fashion. The emphasis is on the world-sheet perspective of closed strings and of open strings ending on D-branes, where two-dimensional conformal field theory is the main tool. Compactifications of string theory, with and without fluxes, and string dualities are also discussed from the space-time point of view, i.e. in geometric language. End-of-chapter references have been added to guide the reader intending to pursue further studies or to start research in the topics covered by this book.

  14. Basic concepts of string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumenhagen, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to thoroughly prepare the reader for research in string theory. It is intended as a textbook in the sense that, starting from the basics, the material is presented in a pedagogical and self-contained fashion. The emphasis is on the world-sheet perspective of closed strings and of open strings ending on D-branes, where two-dimensional conformal field theory is the main tool. Compactifications of string theory, with and without fluxes, and string dualities are also discussed from the space-time point of view, i.e. in geometric language. End-of-chapter references have been added to guide the reader intending to pursue further studies or to start research in the topics covered by this book.

  15. [Biometric bases: basic concepts of probability calculation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinya, E

    1998-04-26

    The author gives or outline of the basic concepts of probability theory. The bases of the event algebra, definition of the probability, the classical probability model and the random variable are presented.

  16. Basic concepts in social sciences I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoede, C.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper the results are given of an investigation into concepts from Economics, Organization Theory, Political Science, Psychology and Sociology. The goal of this investigation was to find out whether there is a set of concepts that may be considered to be basic to all these five social

  17. Item Response Theory: A Basic Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Jumailiyah

    2017-01-01

    With the development in computing technology, item response theory (IRT) develops rapidly, and has become a user friendly application in psychometrics world. Limitation in classical theory is one aspect that encourages the use of IRT. In this study, the basic concept of IRT will be discussed. In addition, it will briefly review the ability…

  18. The basic concept for the geological surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deguchi, Akira; Takahashi, Yoshiaki

    1998-01-01

    Before the construction of high level radioactive waste repository, the implementing entity will go through three siting stages for the repository. In each of those three stages, the implementing entity will carry out geological surveys. In this report, the concept for the geological surveys is described, on the basic of 'The policies for the high level radioactive waste disposal (a tentative draft)' issued by the Atomic Energy Commission in July, 1997. (author)

  19. Basic units and concepts in radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mlekodaj, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    Some of the most common units, concepts and models in use today in dealing with radiation exposures and the associated risks are presented. Discussions toward a better understanding of some of the basic difficulties in quantifying risks associated with low levels of radiation are presented. The main thrust of this talk is to lay a foundation for better understanding and appreciation of the talks to follow in this symposium

  20. Plasma basic concepts and nitrogen containing plasmas

    OpenAIRE

    Sanz Lluch, M. del Mar; Tanarro, Isabel

    2007-01-01

    Basic concepts related to plasmas are described as well as the typical characterization methods currently available. A brief overview about some plasma applications is given, but focusing on plasma used in material processing mainly devoted to the microelectronics industry. Finally, specific applications related to plasma-assisted MBE for nitrides and dilute nitrides are given, showing some interesting research works performed to that purpose, and giving the usual characterization techniques ...

  1. Basic principles simulators - concept training simulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benkert, J.

    1986-01-01

    Basic Principles Simulators have the purpose of teaching general concepts, demonstrating and displaying the fundamental physical processes of a plant. They are used to illustrate theory to students and also to provide a preliminary training to the operators, to aquaint them with the basic dynamic interactions of the various systems during the normal operation of a plant, and to show the consequences of the most important and common transients and malfunctions. Basic principles simulators may vary in size from small desk cabinets to large panels. They represent with a certain detail the nuclear and thermohydraulic part of the plant. The availability of video displays allows to present detailed information about process parameters which are not shown on the control panels. In general the overall plant behaviour is represented well. Limitations are mostly found in the areas of logic and control. (orig./HP)

  2. Spent nuclear fuel storage - Basic concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krempel, Ascanio; Santos, Cicero D. Pacifici dos; Sato, Heitor Hitoshi; Magalhaes, Leonardo de

    2009-01-01

    According to the procedures adopted in others countries in the world, the spent nuclear fuel elements burned to produce electrical energy in the Brazilian Nuclear Power Plant of Angra do Reis, Central Nuclear Almirante Alvaro Alberto - CNAAA will be stored for a long time. Such procedure will allow the next generation to decide how they will handle those materials. In the future, the reprocessing of the nuclear fuel assemblies could be a good solution in order to have additional energy resource and also to decrease the volume of discarded materials. This decision will be done in the future according to the new studies and investigations that are being studied around the world. The present proposal to handle the nuclear spent fuel is to storage it for a long period of time, under institutional control. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to introduce a proposal of a basic concept of spent fuel storage, which involves the construction of a new storage building at site, in order to increase the present storage capacity of spent fuel assemblies in CNAAA installation; the concept of the spent fuel transportation casks that will transfer the spent fuel assemblies from the power plants to the Spent Fuel Complementary Storage Building and later on from this building to the Long Term Intermediate Storage of Spent Fuel; the concept of the spent fuel canister and finally the basic concept of the spent fuel long term storage. (author)

  3. Action Relations. Basic Design Concepts for Behaviour Modelling and Refinement.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quartel, Dick

    This thesis presents basic design concepts, design methods and a basic design language for distributed system behaviours. This language is based on two basic concepts: the action concept and the causality relation concept. Our methods focus on behaviour refinement, which consists of replacing an

  4. Basic concepts from magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Arroyo, Diego

    2011-01-01

    The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has grown exponentially, due in part to excellent anatomic and pathologic detail provided by the modality, as recent technological advances that have led to more rapid acquisition times. Radiology residents in different parts of the world now receive training in MR images from their first year of residence, included the pulse sequences training spin-echo, gradient-echo, inversion-recovery, echo-planar image and MR angiographic sequences, commonly used in medical imaging. However, to optimize the use of this type of study, it has been necessary to understand the basic concepts of physics, included the concepts of recovery T1, degradation T2* and T2, repetition time, echo time, and the effects of chemical shift. Additionally, it has been important to understand the contrast weighting for better representation of specific tissues and thus perform an appropriate differential diagnosis of various pathological processes. (author) [es

  5. Stereotactic radiosurgery: basic concepts and current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaur, Maheep Singh

    2016-01-01

    Term Stereotactic Radiosurgery was coined by Prof Lars Leksell in 1951 as concept. Leksell's experimented together with the radiobiologist Borje Larsson in Uppsala, on trying to develop 'stereotactic radiosurgery', aimed at lesioning in the central brain in functional operations such as thalamotomy and capsulotomy. Clinical experiments using a proton beam were initiated at the Gustav Werner Institute in Uppsala, and a few patients had been treated. Experiences from these led Leksell to design a multi-source 'beam knife', which became ready for use in 1967 as the first 'Gamma Knife' and installed at the private hospital Sophiahammet in Stockholm as a clinical research unit. Moving from functional neurosurgery today Gamma knife is used for a wide range on brain tumors, vascular malformations and functional disorders. Introduction of newer technology in navigation and radiation delivery has made it possible to do whole body Radiosurgery. Various technologies, basic principles, radiobiological aspects and applications will be discussed. (author)

  6. Action Relations. Basic Design Concepts for Behaviour Modelling and Refinement.

    OpenAIRE

    Quartel, Dick

    1998-01-01

    This thesis presents basic design concepts, design methods and a basic design language for distributed system behaviours. This language is based on two basic concepts: the action concept and the causality relation concept. Our methods focus on behaviour refinement, which consists of replacing an abstract behaviour by a more concrete behaviour, such that the concrete behaviour conforms to the abstract behaviour. An important idea underlying this thesis is that an effective design methodology s...

  7. Nonsymmetric entropy I: basic concepts and results

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Chengshi

    2006-01-01

    A new concept named nonsymmetric entropy which generalizes the concepts of Boltzman's entropy and shannon's entropy, was introduced. Maximal nonsymmetric entropy principle was proven. Some important distribution laws were derived naturally from maximal nonsymmetric entropy principle.

  8. A brain-based account of "basic-level" concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Andrew James; Just, Marcel Adam

    2017-11-01

    This study provides a brain-based account of how object concepts at an intermediate (basic) level of specificity are represented, offering an enriched view of what it means for a concept to be a basic-level concept, a research topic pioneered by Rosch and others (Rosch et al., 1976). Applying machine learning techniques to fMRI data, it was possible to determine the semantic content encoded in the neural representations of object concepts at basic and subordinate levels of abstraction. The representation of basic-level concepts (e.g. bird) was spatially broad, encompassing sensorimotor brain areas that encode concrete object properties, and also language and heteromodal integrative areas that encode abstract semantic content. The representation of subordinate-level concepts (robin) was less widely distributed, concentrated in perceptual areas that underlie concrete content. Furthermore, basic-level concepts were representative of their subordinates in that they were neurally similar to their typical but not atypical subordinates (bird was neurally similar to robin but not woodpecker). The findings provide a brain-based account of the advantages that basic-level concepts enjoy in everyday life over subordinate-level concepts: the basic level is a broad topographical representation that encompasses both concrete and abstract semantic content, reflecting the multifaceted yet intuitive meaning of basic-level concepts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Basic Principles and Concepts for Achieving Quality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baker, Emanuel R; Fisher, Matthew J; Goethert, Wolfhart; Marino, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    ...) developed in the early 1980s for the Department of Defense (DoD) by Baker and colleagues. The original quality concepts of the SQF are extended beyond software to include products, services, and processes...

  10. Basic Concepts and Principles of Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beder, Hal

    1986-01-01

    Presents an overview of marketing concepts and principles. These include (1) organizational objectives, (2) exchange, (3) value, (4) market segmentation, (5) market position, (6) consumer analysis, (7) product, (8) promotion, (9) place, and (10) price. (CH)

  11. Alfred-Adler's Basic Concepts and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, Robert W.

    This book presents the basic principles of Adler's psychology. The first chapter looks at Adlerian psychology as it exists today, and examines earlier influences. The second chapter examines feelings of inferiority and compensation for these feelings. The third chapter considers the nature of goals and how they are formulated. The fourth chapter…

  12. Basic Writing Concepts for Scientists and Engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, John H.

    1980-01-01

    Notes the differences between poetry and technical communication. Charges English teacher/humanists with confusing students about emotional writing, style, and effective technical communication. Offers five concepts that technical writing teachers can use to place "style" on a rational basis and to make students understand the true purposes of…

  13. The Basic Concepts of Contemporary Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davydov, V. V.

    1988-01-01

    Presents chapter one of V. V. Davydov's 1986 monograph, "Problems of Developmental Teaching." Examines the dialectical-materialist sources of the psychological concept of activity; and activity, the mind, and consciousness. Building from Lev S. Vygotsky's work and within a Marxist-Leninist framework, explores relationships among…

  14. Basic Concepts for rethinking environmental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Ladron de Guevara, Francisco Jose; Valencia Cuellar, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a review of the fundamental concepts from which environmental problems have been explained and solved during the last decades. Environment is understood as an encounter between nature and culture that is a social construct that reflects the interaction between human beings and the biophysical space in which they live. On the other hand, development is conceived as the ability that societies have to develop their potentialities, being a notion of a totalizing and ethical political nature, which incorporates the biophysical and social heritage of a certain society. Regarding the concept of culture, it must be said that it is built upon the basis that this is an adaptive strategy of the human species. Finally, the relationships between the concepts of culture, environment and development are studied in order to formulate a new perspective for rethinking the environmental issue, so that, in turn, it could be used to redirect survival strategies that human beings currently apply in their interaction with the environment.

  15. Basic concepts in marine biology and ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small, L.F.

    1997-01-01

    An introduction to the marine biota, and how the biota interact with their physico-chemical environment, is given in this chapter. In particular, food web and trophic level relationships are discussed, from phytopIankton production through consumer organisms and the ''microbial loop''. The effects of organism size and functional relationships within the food web paradigm are emphasized, rather than taxonomic relationships. Examples initially given in terms of carbon, nitrogen, or energy transfer through food webs are placed in context with radionuclide transfer and the concept of biomagnification. (author)

  16. RF engineering basic concepts: S-parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Caspers, F

    2011-01-01

    The concept of describing RF circuits in terms of waves is discussed and the S-matrix and related matrices are defined. The signal flow graph (SFG) is introduced as a graphical means to visualize how waves propagate in an RF network. The properties of the most relevant passive RF devices (hybrids, couplers, non-reciprocal elements, etc.) are delineated and the corresponding S-parameters are given. For microwave integrated circuits (MICs) planar transmission lines such as the microstrip line have become very important.

  17. REVIVING SOME BASIC CONCEPTS IN ETHICAL REGISTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARMEN COZMA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Being sensitive to the challenges placed before us in a globalizing world, it is obviously that the ethical benchmark became one of the priorities in our individual and communitarian life. An in-depth knowledge of both the axiological and normative dimensions of ethics can open an important way for an adequate approach of today’s problems. By rethinking the foundations, we may reach accuracy as regards what does really matter in life. So, a call to revive some value-laden concepts coming from the ancient Greek moral philosophy represents the aim of this paper, to emphasize the support given us by healthy roots for reflection and understanding, in part at least, our present problematic situation in the world.

  18. Basic general concepts in the network analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boja Nicolae

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This survey is concerned oneself with the study of those types of material networks which can be met both in civil engineering and also in electrotechnics, in mechanics, or in hydrotechnics, and of which behavior lead to linear problems, solvable by means of Finite Element Method and adequate algorithms. Here, it is presented a unitary theory of networks met in the domains mentioned above and this one is illustrated with examples for the structural networks in civil engineering, electric circuits, and water supply networks, but also planar or spatial mechanisms can be comprised in this theory. The attention is focused to make evident the essential proper- ties and concepts in the network analysis, which differentiate the networks under force from other types of material networks. To such a network a planar, connected, and directed or undirected graph is associated, and with some vector fields on the vertex set this graph is endowed. .

  19. Basic conceptions for reactor pressure vessel manipulators and their evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popp, P.

    1987-01-01

    The study deals with application fields and basic design conceptions of manipulators in reactor pressure vessels as well as their evaluation. It is shown that manipulators supported at the reactor flange have essential advantages

  20. Interpretation of basic concepts in theories of human motor abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Adam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic aim of this research is to point to the possible language, logical and knowledge problems in interpretation and understanding of basic concepts in theories of motor abilities (TMA. Such manner of review is not directed only to 'mere understanding', it can lead to a new growth of scientific knowledge. Accordingly, the research question is set, i.e. the research issue: Is there a language, logical and knowledge agreement between basic concepts in the theories of human motor abilities? The answer to the set question direct that a more complete agreement between the basic concepts in the theories of human motor abilities should be searched in a scientific dialog between researchers of various beliefs.

  1. Futility: a concept in evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jeffrey P; Truog, Robert D

    2007-12-01

    The debate about how to resolve cases in which patients and families demand interventions that clinicians regard as futile has been in evolution over the past 20 years. This debate can be divided into three generations. The first generation was characterized by attempts to define futility in terms of certain clinical criteria. These attempts failed because they proposed limitations to care based on value judgments for which there is no consensus among a significant segment of society. The second generation was a procedural approach that empowered hospitals, through their ethics committees, to decide whether interventions demanded by families were futile. Many hospitals adopted such policies, and some states incorporated this approach into legislation. This approach has also failed because it gives hospitals authority to decide whether or not to accede to demands that the clinicians regard as unreasonable, when any national consensus on what is a "beneficial treatment" remains under intense debate. Absent such a consensus, procedural mechanisms to resolve futility disputes inevitably confront the same insurmountable barriers as attempts to define futility. We therefore predict emergence of a third generation, focused on communication and negotiation at the bedside. We present a paradigm that has proven successful in business and law. In the small number of cases in which even the best efforts at communication and negotiation fail, we suggest that clinicians should find ways to better support each other in providing this care, rather than seeking to override the requests of these patients and families.

  2. The Evolution of the Concept of Bureaucracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ţierean O.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The first half of the paper defines the concept of bureaucracy, its evolution over the time and the current academic debates. A short review of the most debatable theories written by Lowi, Niskanen, Dunleavy and Choudhury is included. The second half focuses on the three concepts of power put forward by Russel and the non-paid goals bureaucratic offices pursue on a daily basis. The paper also analyses the issue of monitoring the output of bureaucratic offices.

  3. Nuclear data uncertainties: I, Basic concepts of probability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.L.

    1988-12-01

    Some basic concepts of probability theory are presented from a nuclear-data perspective, in order to provide a foundation for thorough understanding of the role of uncertainties in nuclear data research. Topics included in this report are: events, event spaces, calculus of events, randomness, random variables, random-variable distributions, intuitive and axiomatic probability, calculus of probability, conditional probability and independence, probability distributions, binomial and multinomial probability, Poisson and interval probability, normal probability, the relationships existing between these probability laws, and Bayes' theorem. This treatment emphasizes the practical application of basic mathematical concepts to nuclear data research, and it includes numerous simple examples. 34 refs.

  4. Nuclear data uncertainties: I, Basic concepts of probability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.

    1988-12-01

    Some basic concepts of probability theory are presented from a nuclear-data perspective, in order to provide a foundation for thorough understanding of the role of uncertainties in nuclear data research. Topics included in this report are: events, event spaces, calculus of events, randomness, random variables, random-variable distributions, intuitive and axiomatic probability, calculus of probability, conditional probability and independence, probability distributions, binomial and multinomial probability, Poisson and interval probability, normal probability, the relationships existing between these probability laws, and Bayes' theorem. This treatment emphasizes the practical application of basic mathematical concepts to nuclear data research, and it includes numerous simple examples. 34 refs

  5. [Games as an alternative for teaching basic health concepts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo Lizardo, J M; Rodríguez-Morán, M; Guerrero-Romero, F

    2001-05-01

    To determine, for the teaching of basic health concepts to school-age children, the effectiveness of an educational strategy based on traditional children's games. Intervention study carried out in the city of Durango, Mexico, in June 2000 with 300 children from 9 to 11 years old. The children were randomly divided into two groups. The children in Group A used a modified version of a Mexican popular game called Serpientes y Escaleras (Snakes and Ladders) that included messages on basic health concepts; the children in Group B made up the control group and did not play the modified game. At baseline there were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of age, grade level, or their scores on a knowledge test of basic health concepts. After the educational intervention, the health concepts test scores, out of a maximum possible of 10, were 9.3 +/- 0.8 for Group A and 7.5 +/- 1.1 for Group B (P games that include health and hygiene messages can be an alternative for teaching basic health concepts.

  6. Spanish Translation and Validation of the Bracken Basic Concept Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, Bruce A; Fouad, Nadya

    1987-01-01

    The Bracken Basic Concept Scale (BBCS) was translated into Spanish, and 32 preschool and primary age bilingual children were assessed in a counter-balanced format with the English and newly translated Spanish forms to assess the adequacy of the translation. Preliminary content validity of the Spanish BBCS was demonstrated. (Author/JAZ)

  7. Pre-Service Teachers' Mental Models of Basic Astronomy Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, A. Saglam; Durikan, U.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to determine pre-service teachers' mental models related to basic astronomy concepts. The study was conducted using a survey method with 293 pre-service teachers from 4 different departments; physics education, science education, primary teacher education and early childhood education. An achievement test with…

  8. Students' Self-Concept and Their Achievement in Basic Science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the relationship between students self-concept andtheir academic performance in Basic Science. It further examines genderdifference in students performance. The study adopted ex-post factorresearch design and made use of 300 students all from Public Schools. Theadapted Version of ...

  9. Identifying Students’ Misconceptions on Basic Algorithmic Concepts Through Flowchart Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahimi, E.; Barendsen, E.; Henze, I.; Dagienė, V.; Hellas, A.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a flowchart-based approach to identifying secondary school students’ misconceptions (in a broad sense) on basic algorithm concepts is introduced. This approach uses student-generated flowcharts as the units of analysis and examines them against plan composition and construct-based

  10. CONCEPT AND EVOLUTION OF BANK MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turkes (Vint Mirela Catalina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The bank marketing, a specialized field of the marketing, has emerged following the extensive development of the general marketing and following the appearance, separation and development of services marketing. The article shows the appearance, development and delimitation of the bank marketing concept following the increase of the financial-banking sector in all world countries due to the appearance of new competitors and the competition intensification. The research consisted in presenting the evolution stages of the bank marketing and the manner in which the concept has been approached and perceived, in time, by various Romanian and foreign specialists. Through analysis, I have shown the importance of including the bank marketing concept into the assembly of tactical and strategic decisions of the banking companies.

  11. Basic concepts and assumptions behind the new ICRP recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, B.

    1979-01-01

    A review is given of some of the basic concepts and assumptions behind the current recommendations by the International Commission on Radiological Protection in ICRP Publications 26 and 28, which form the basis for the revision of the Basic Safety Standards jointly undertaken by IAEA, ILO, NEA and WHO. Special attention is given to the assumption of a linear, non-threshold dose-response relationship for stochastic radiation effects such as cancer and hereditary harm. The three basic principles of protection are discussed: justification of practice, optimization of protection and individual risk limitation. In the new ICRP recommendations particular emphasis is given to the principle of keeping all radiation doses as low as is reasonably achievable. A consequence of this is that the ICRP dose limits are now given as boundary conditions for the justification and optimization procedures rather than as values that should be used for purposes of planning and design. The fractional increase in total risk at various ages after continuous exposure near the dose limits is given as an illustration. The need for taking other sources, present and future, into account when applying the dose limits leads to the use of the commitment concept. This is briefly discussed as well as the new quantity, the effective dose equivalent, introduced by ICRP. (author)

  12. Development of FBR integrity system code. Basic concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asayama, Tai

    2001-05-01

    For fast breeder reactors to be commercialized, they must be more reliable, safer, and at the same, economically competitive with future light water reactors. Innovation of elevated temperature structural design standard is necessary to achieve this goal. The most powerful way is to enlarge the scope of structural integrity code to cover items other than design evaluation that has been addressed in existing codes. Items that must be newly covered are prerequisites of design, fabrication, examination, operation and maintenance, etc. This allows designers to choose the most economical combination of design variations to achieve specific reliability that is needed for a particular component. Designing components by this concept, a cost-minimum design of a whole plant can be realized. By determining the reliability that must be achieved for a component by risk technologies, further economical improvement can be expected by avoiding excessive quality. Recognizing the necessity for the codes based on the new concept, the development of 'FBR integrity system code' began in 2000. Research and development will last 10 years. For this development, the basic logistics and system as well as technologies that materialize the concept are necessary. Original logistics and system must be developed, because no existing researches are available in and out of Japan. This reports presents the results of the work done in the first year regarding the basic idea, methodology, and structure of the code. (author)

  13. Modern concepts for basic radiobiological factors characterizing tumor tissue radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gocheva, L.; Sergieva, K.

    2002-01-01

    Traditionally radiotherapy is prescribed at doses consistent with the expected therapeutic response and tolerance of tumor and normal tissues without consideration to individual differences in radiosensitivity. However, the basic radiobiological knowledge and clinical experience along this line point to significant variations in the observed therapeutic results. It has been established that cells and tissues under experimental and clinical conditions manifest a wide spectrum of individual radiosensitivity. The aim of this survey is to outline the current concepts for the basic radiobiological factors influencing tumor radiosensitivity. A thorough discussion is done of the essence, mechanisms of action, methods of determination and measurement, and effect on the prognosis in patients with malignant diseases of a number of radiobiological factors, such as: tumor-cell proliferation, apoptosis, tumor hypoxia and neovascularization. Although the knowledge of the mechanisms of radiosensitivity is constantly expanding, its clinical implementation is still rather limited. The true role of radiosensitivity in predicting the therapeutic response should be more accurately defined. (authors)

  14. Basic concepts in physics from the cosmos to quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Chaichian, Masud; Tureanu, Anca

    2014-01-01

    "Basic Concepts in Physics: From the Cosmos to Quarks" is the outcome of the authors' long and varied teaching experience in different countries and for different audiences, and gives an accessible and eminently readable introduction to all the main ideas of modern physics. The book’s fresh approach, using a novel combination of historical and conceptual viewpoints, makes it ideal complementary reading to more standard textbooks. The first five chapters are devoted to classical physics, from planetary motion to special relativity, always keeping in mind its relevance to questions of contemporary interest. The next six chapters deal mainly with newer developments in physics, from quantum theory and general relativity to grand unified theories, and the book concludes by discussing the role of physics in living systems. A basic grounding in mathematics is required of the reader, but technicalities are avoided as far as possible; thus complex calculations are omitted so long as the essential ideas remain clear....

  15. Structural Equation Modeling with Mplus Basic Concepts, Applications, and Programming

    CERN Document Server

    Byrne, Barbara M

    2011-01-01

    Modeled after Barbara Byrne's other best-selling structural equation modeling (SEM) books, this practical guide reviews the basic concepts and applications of SEM using Mplus Versions 5 & 6. The author reviews SEM applications based on actual data taken from her own research. Using non-mathematical language, it is written for the novice SEM user. With each application chapter, the author "walks" the reader through all steps involved in testing the SEM model including: an explanation of the issues addressed illustrated and annotated testing of the hypothesized and post hoc models expl

  16. Fuzzy logic and neural networks basic concepts & application

    CERN Document Server

    Alavala, Chennakesava R

    2008-01-01

    About the Book: The primary purpose of this book is to provide the student with a comprehensive knowledge of basic concepts of fuzzy logic and neural networks. The hybridization of fuzzy logic and neural networks is also included. No previous knowledge of fuzzy logic and neural networks is required. Fuzzy logic and neural networks have been discussed in detail through illustrative examples, methods and generic applications. Extensive and carefully selected references is an invaluable resource for further study of fuzzy logic and neural networks. Each chapter is followed by a question bank

  17. Endoradiotherapy in cancer treatment--basic concepts and future trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoller, Frederic; Eisenhut, Michael; Haberkorn, Uwe; Mier, Walter

    2009-12-25

    Endoradiotherapy represents an alternative therapeutic method in cancer treatment with advantageous features compared to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Intelligent dose delivery concepts using small drugs, peptides or antibodies as radionuclide carriers enable the verification of a selective accumulation in the tumour lesion and to reduce radiation toxicity for the peripheral organs. The development of endoradiotherapeutic agents, especially chelator-conjugated biomolecules, for example ibritumomab tiuxetan or DOTATOC, gains importance due to the stable complexation of versatile radiometals, such as (90)Y or (177)Lu. The rational design of novel target binding sides and their grafting into a drug scaffold is a highly promising strategy, which may promote further implication in endoradiotherapy. This review highlights the basic concepts of endoradiotherapy and discusses the potential of targeted therapy and the properties of energy-rich particles emitted by radionuclides for tumour therapy.

  18. EVOLUTION of the Pressure Wave Supercharger Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costiuc, Iuliana; Chiru, Anghel

    2017-10-01

    Born more than a century ago, the concept of exploiting the pressure wave phenomenon has evolved with rather small steps, experiencing an accelerated progress over the past decades. This paper aims an overview on the researchers’ results over time regarding the pressure wave technology and its applications, pointing out on the internal combustion engine’s supercharging application. This review complements the past reports on the subject, presenting the evolution of the concept and technology, as well as the researcher’s efforts on solving the specific shortcomings of this pressure wave technology. Undoubtedly, the pressure wave rotors have been a research goal over the years. At first, most of the researches were experimental and the theoretical calculations required to improve the technology were too arduous. Recently, new computer software dedicated to accurate simulation of the processes governing the wave rotor operation, altogether with modern experimental measurement instruments and well-developed diagnostic techniques have opened wide possibilities to innovate the pressure wave supercharging technology. This paper also highlights the challenges that specialists still have to overcome and aspects to become future preoccupations and research directions.

  19. Protection of structures and buildings against the effect of electrical storms: basic concepts, evolution and application in Mexico; Proteccion contra el efecto de las tormentas electricas de estructuras y edificios: conceptos basicos, evolucion y aplicacion en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvan Diego, Arturo; Velazquez Sanchez, Raul [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    The applied technology, supported by the analysis, the experimentation and the scientific observation, has demonstrated its effectiveness in the modernization of hundreds of industrial and commercial processes, of communication and services, as well as of the materials and methodologies used for the protection of diverse equipment and processes; from the protection in systems and equipment in high tension to systems that handle very low energy, among them are included electronic and digital devices. Nevertheless, fundamental laws like the Ohm's Law, the gravity law or the universal gas law exist that, although they were discovered many years ago, still are effective and their validity provides invaluable elements for the development of new methods, technological processes and developments. One of the most relevant cases than amalgamates the application of fundamental criteria and the development of new technologies and its application in the so-called no conventional protective devices, constitute the protection against the effect of electrical storms in buildings and structures. The worldwide application of these devices has generated skepticism of a great part of the scientific community, diverse reactions among the users and a firm position on the part of the manufacturers so that these technologies are included in international standards. The objective of this article is to offer the reader the basic information on the beginnings of the protection, the evolution that the protection methods against electrical storms have had since the XVIII century, the application of the fundamental criteria of protection in structures or modern buildings and their content, as well as the situation that prevails at the moment in the committees of the diverse national and international normative organizations with respect to the inclusion of the new technologies in the design guides. [Spanish] La tecnologia aplicada, apoyada en el analisis, la experimentacion y la

  20. [Seed geography: its concept and basic scientific issues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shun-Li; Wang, Zong-Shuai; Zeren, Wangmu

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a new concept 'seed geography' was provided, and its definition, research contents, and scientific issues were put forward. Seed geography is a newly developed interdisciplinary science from plant geography, seed ecology, and phytosociology, which studies the geographic variation patterns of seed biological traits as well as their relationships with environmental factors from macroscopic to microscopic, and the seed formation, development, and change trends. The main research contents would include geography of seed mass, geography of seed chemical components, geography of seed morphology, geography of seed cell biological characteristics, geography of seed physiological characteristics, geography of seed genetic characteristics, and geography of flower and fruit. To explore the scientific issues in seed geography would help us to better understand the long-term adaptation and evolution of seed characteristics to natural environments.

  1. Atomic and molecular spectroscopy basic concepts and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kakkar, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Spectroscopy is the study of electromagnetic radiation and its interaction with solid, liquid, gas and plasma. It is one of the widely used analytical techniques to study the structure of atoms and molecules. The technique is also employed to obtain information about atoms and molecules as a result of their distinctive spectra. The fast-spreading field of spectroscopic applications has made a noteworthy influence on many disciplines, including energy research, chemical processing, environmental protection and medicine. This book aims to introduce students to the topic of spectroscopy. The author has avoided the mathematical aspects of the subject as far as possible; they appear in the text only when inevitable. Including topics such as time-dependent perturbation theory, laser action and applications of Group Theory in interpretation of spectra, the book offers a detailed coverage of the basic concepts and applications of spectroscopy.

  2. Basic concept and its aims of E-journal of advanced maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miya, Kenzo

    2009-01-01

    This article describes basic concept and aims of EJAM with history of effort to realize the launching of it. It took about three years until launching of the journal through approach to EPRI and negotiation with international publishing companies. It consists of three major articles. They are 1) general articles, 2) academic papers and 3) maintenance technique to be applied to repairing of components of nuclear power plants. All together of these articles may contribute to understanding of clear image of what maintenance is in this journal. Finally future image of this journal is described in light of maintenance evolution. (author)

  3. Basic concepts in physics. From the cosmos to quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaichian, M.; Tureanu, A.; Perez Rojas, H.

    2014-01-01

    A clear, concise and beautifully written presentation of modern physics. Readers will not only learn physics, they will learn to enjoy it. Self-contained and comprehensive History, concepts and formal treatment go hand-in-hand. Suppresses mathematical technicalities in favor of a wide scope of topics. Suited for class use, e.g. as a textbook for the course ''Modern Physics'', but also ideal for ''lone explorers'' and other newcomers to physics. ''Basic Concepts in Physics: From the Cosmos to Quarks'' is the outcome of the authors' long and varied teaching experience in different countries and for different audiences, and gives an accessible and eminently readable introduction to all the main ideas of modern physics. The book's fresh approach, using a novel combination of historical and conceptual viewpoints, makes it ideal complementary reading to more standard textbooks. The first five chapters are devoted to classical physics, from planetary motion to special relativity, always keeping in mind its relevance to questions of contemporary interest. The next six chapters deal mainly with newer developments in physics, from quantum theory and general relativity to grand unified theories, and the book concludes by discussing the role of physics in living systems. A basic grounding in mathematics is required of the reader, but technicalities are avoided as far as possible; thus complex calculations are omitted so long as the essential ideas remain clear. The book is addressed to undergraduate and graduate students in physics and will also be appreciated by many professional physicists. It will likewise be of interest to students, researchers and teachers of other natural sciences, as well as to engineers, high-school teachers and the curious general reader, who will come to understand what physics is about and how it describes the different phenomena of Nature. Not only will readers of this book learn much about physics, they will also learn to love it.

  4. APPLICATION OF THE BASIC INCOME CONCEPT IN UKRAINIAN ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stavytskyy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Finance for the social sphere remains a great challenge in modern economy. The necessity of adequate living standards under limited resources raises a complicated problem for governments to provide appropriate distributing mechanism among the most vulnerable sections of the population. The paper analysed the concept of absolute basic income, which in some EU countries is considered as a substitution for a modern system of social security. Inequality of incomes creates not only a social problem but it is also an obstacle in the way of economic growth. It leads to the conclusion that government should provide some strategy to avoid high inequality. The model of rational individual with certain basic income is under investigation. The analysis of the model suggests that the presence of additional income not only facilitates more effective involvement of individuals to work, but it is a sort of indisputable factor for guaranteeing freedom of individuals and increasing their mutual respect. Thus, the idea of basic income, which spreads among European countries, has not only economic, but also political and psychological components that may affect the mentality of people in future. It is demonstrated that the transition to a new social security schemes in Ukraine can accumulate from 856 to 1020 bln. UAH in 2015 prices. It can provide guaranteed monthly payments from 1928 to 2297 UAH per capita and from 482 to 574 USD per child without changing the structure of the budget in case of replacement minimum pensions, minimum wages and full monetization of privileges. Obviously, such strategy not only would improve the efficiency of budget spending, but also produce a multiplier effect on the economy by changing and optimizing the consumption patterns of the population, increasing the competition in all markets for a real consumer. It has a chance of reducing the struggle to obtain state funds through tenders. However, the transition to the new system can be

  5. From basic concepts to emerging technologies in regional anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillane, Derek; Tsui, Ban C H

    2010-10-01

    The present article details how our understanding of the basic concepts of regional anesthesia has recently evolved. We will appraise current technological advances and question the commensurate nature of the relationship between tradition and innovation. Ultrasound localization has enhanced our understanding of the needle-nerve relationship. Intraneural injection of local anesthetic may occur with greater frequency than previously thought without inevitably leading to neurological complications. The ratio of neural to non-neural tissue varies both between and within nerves and may be an important determinant of neural injury. Ultrasonographic evidence of intraneural injection is subject to observer expertise and the resolution of the ultrasound image. Current ultrasound resolution capability does not reliably permit differentiation between intrafascicular and extrafascicular drug injection. Perineural electrical impedance may be a determinant of current threshold and conceivably distinguish between intraneural and extraneural tissue. Technology that enhances the sonographic image of both procedure needle and target nerve is the focus of current endeavors in ultrasound innovation.There is inconclusive evidence that the use of ultrasound technology has reduced the incidence of local anesthetic toxicity. Lipid emulsion therapy is now an accepted treatment for systemic local anesthetic toxicity. There are new reports on the development of an ultra long-acting local anesthetic agent that would permit lower doses and superannuate catheter-based continuous regional anesthesia techniques. Over the past decade, our understanding of the fundamental concepts of regional anesthesia continues to be challenged by emerging experimental and clinical evidence.

  6. Initiating Young Children into Basic Astronomical Concepts and Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallery, M.

    2010-07-01

    In the present study we developed and implemented three units of activities aiming at acquainting very young children with basic astronomical concepts and phenomena such as the sphericity of the earth, the earth’s movements and the day/night cycle. The activities were developed by a group composed of a researcher/facilitator and six early-years teachers. In the activities children were presented with appropriate for their age scientific information along with conceptual tools such as a globe and an instructional video. Action research processes were used to optimize classroom practices and to gather useful information for the final shaping of the activities and the instruction materials. In these activities the adopted approach to learning can be characterized as socially constructed. The results indicated awareness of concepts and phenomena that the activities dealt with in high percentages of children, storage of the new knowledge in the long term memory and easy retrieval of it, and children’s enthusiasm for the subject.

  7. History and Evolution of Concepts in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varvoglis, Harry

    The history of any discipline is always based on written texts. In this way, to restrict ourselves to texts of Antiquity, the history of the Jewish people is based on the books of the Old Testament, the history of the Persian Wars on the books by Herodotus and the history of the Peloponnesian War on the books by Thucydides. Even the history of the Trojan War is based on Homer's written work, although this was based, in turn, on earlier oral traditions of the Greeks of Homer's time. This rule, of course, cannot find an exemption in the history of physics. This is the main reason why the history of physics, and hence the evolution of concepts in this science, necessarily starts from the ancient Greeks. It is certain that other people of historical times were also involved in scientific activities, such as the Babylonians, who developed astronomy, and the Egyptians, who developed geometry. But their aim was to solve practical problems of their everyday life and not to understand nature and its laws. The geometry of the ancient Egyptians was developed for the purpose of redistributing land after the annual flooding of Nile, while Babylonian astronomy was limited to the simple recording of astronomical observations, with a few surviving examples of predictions of future events. Instead, the interpretation of nature and its laws, in both these nations, was the responsibility of priests and kings. In other words, the interpretation of nature for them was not a result of rational thinking; it was based on truth by revelation. The "truth" was revealed to rulers, nobles and priests, and accepted, without questioning, by the rest of the people. This truth was closely related to the religion of each nation.

  8. Basic concepts in physics. From the cosmos to quarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaichian, M.; Tureanu, A. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics; Perez Rojas, H. [ICIMAF, La Habana (Cuba). Dept. of Theoretical Physics

    2014-08-01

    A clear, concise and beautifully written presentation of modern physics. Readers will not only learn physics, they will learn to enjoy it. Self-contained and comprehensive History, concepts and formal treatment go hand-in-hand. Suppresses mathematical technicalities in favor of a wide scope of topics. Suited for class use, e.g. as a textbook for the course ''Modern Physics'', but also ideal for ''lone explorers'' and other newcomers to physics. ''Basic Concepts in Physics: From the Cosmos to Quarks'' is the outcome of the authors' long and varied teaching experience in different countries and for different audiences, and gives an accessible and eminently readable introduction to all the main ideas of modern physics. The book's fresh approach, using a novel combination of historical and conceptual viewpoints, makes it ideal complementary reading to more standard textbooks. The first five chapters are devoted to classical physics, from planetary motion to special relativity, always keeping in mind its relevance to questions of contemporary interest. The next six chapters deal mainly with newer developments in physics, from quantum theory and general relativity to grand unified theories, and the book concludes by discussing the role of physics in living systems. A basic grounding in mathematics is required of the reader, but technicalities are avoided as far as possible; thus complex calculations are omitted so long as the essential ideas remain clear. The book is addressed to undergraduate and graduate students in physics and will also be appreciated by many professional physicists. It will likewise be of interest to students, researchers and teachers of other natural sciences, as well as to engineers, high-school teachers and the curious general reader, who will come to understand what physics is about and how it describes the different phenomena of Nature. Not only will readers of this book learn

  9. Health recommender systems: concepts, requirements, technical basics and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesner, Martin; Pfeifer, Daniel

    2014-03-03

    During the last decades huge amounts of data have been collected in clinical databases representing patients' health states (e.g., as laboratory results, treatment plans, medical reports). Hence, digital information available for patient-oriented decision making has increased drastically but is often scattered across different sites. As as solution, personal health record systems (PHRS) are meant to centralize an individual's health data and to allow access for the owner as well as for authorized health professionals. Yet, expert-oriented language, complex interrelations of medical facts and information overload in general pose major obstacles for patients to understand their own record and to draw adequate conclusions. In this context, recommender systems may supply patients with additional laymen-friendly information helping to better comprehend their health status as represented by their record. However, such systems must be adapted to cope with the specific requirements in the health domain in order to deliver highly relevant information for patients. They are referred to as health recommender systems (HRS). In this article we give an introduction to health recommender systems and explain why they are a useful enhancement to PHR solutions. Basic concepts and scenarios are discussed and a first implementation is presented. In addition, we outline an evaluation approach for such a system, which is supported by medical experts. The construction of a test collection for case-related recommendations is described. Finally, challenges and open issues are discussed.

  10. Health Recommender Systems: Concepts, Requirements, Technical Basics and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Wiesner

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades huge amounts of data have been collected in clinical databases representing patients’ health states (e.g., as laboratory results, treatment plans, medical reports. Hence, digital information available for patient-oriented decision making has increased drastically but is often scattered across different sites. As as solution, personal health record systems (PHRS are meant to centralize an individual’s health data and to allow access for the owner as well as for authorized health professionals. Yet, expert-oriented language, complex interrelations of medical facts and information overload in general pose major obstacles for patients to understand their own record and to draw adequate conclusions. In this context, recommender systems may supply patients with additional laymen-friendly information helping to better comprehend their health status as represented by their record. However, such systems must be adapted to cope with the specific requirements in the health domain in order to deliver highly relevant information for patients. They are referred to as health recommender systems (HRS. In this article we give an introduction to health recommender systems and explain why they are a useful enhancement to PHR solutions. Basic concepts and scenarios are discussed and a first implementation is presented. In addition, we outline an evaluation approach for such a system, which is supported by medical experts. The construction of a test collection for case-related recommendations is described. Finally, challenges and open issues are discussed.

  11. Structural equation modeling with EQS basic concepts, applications, and programming

    CERN Document Server

    Byrne, Barbara M

    2013-01-01

    Readers who want a less mathematical alternative to the EQS manual will find exactly what they're looking for in this practical text. Written specifically for those with little to no knowledge of structural equation modeling (SEM) or EQS, the author's goal is to provide a non-mathematical introduction to the basic concepts of SEM by applying these principles to EQS, Version 6.1. The book clearly demonstrates a wide variety of SEM/EQS applications that include confirmatory factor analytic and full latent variable models. Written in a "user-friendly" style, the author "walks" the reader through the varied steps involved in the process of testing SEM models: model specification and estimation, assessment of model fit, EQS output, and interpretation of findings. Each of the book's applications is accompanied by: a statement of the hypothesis being tested, a schematic representation of the model, explanations of the EQS input and output files, tips on how to use the pull-down menus, and the data file upon which ...

  12. Proposals of new basic concepts on safety and radioactive waste and of new High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor based on these basic concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Masuro

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The author proposed new basic concepts on safety and radioactive waste. • A principle of ‘continue confining’ to realize the basic concept on safety is also proposed. • It is indicated that only a HTGR can attain the conditions required from the principle. • Technologies to realize the basic concept on radioactive waste are also discussed. • A New HTGR system based on the new basic concepts is proposed. - Abstract: A new basic concept on safety of ‘Not causing any serious catastrophe by any means’ and a new basic concept on radioactive waste of ‘Not returning any waste that possibly affects the environment’ are proposed in the present study, aiming at nuclear power plants which everybody can accept, in consideration of the serious catastrophe that happened at Fukushima Japan in 2011. These new basic concepts can be found to be valid in comparison with basic concepts on safety and waste in other industries. The principle to realize the new basic concept on safety is, as known well as the inherent safety, to use physical phenomena such as Doppler Effect and so on which never fail to work even if all equipment and facilities for safety lose their functions. In the present study, physical phenomena are used to ‘continue confining’, rather than ‘confine’, because the consequence of emission of radioactive substances to the environment cannot be mitigated. To ‘continue confining’ is meant to apply natural correction to fulfill inherent safety function. Fission products must be detoxified to realize the new basic concept on radioactive waste, aiming at the final processing and disposal of radioactive wastes as same as that in the other wastes such as PCB, together with much efforts not to produce radioactive wastes and to reduce their volume nevertheless if they are emitted. Technology development on the detoxification is one of the most important subjects. A new High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor, namely the New HTGR

  13. Proposals of new basic concepts on safety and radioactive waste and of new High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor based on these basic concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Masuro, E-mail: ogawa.masuro@jaea.go.jp

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • The author proposed new basic concepts on safety and radioactive waste. • A principle of ‘continue confining’ to realize the basic concept on safety is also proposed. • It is indicated that only a HTGR can attain the conditions required from the principle. • Technologies to realize the basic concept on radioactive waste are also discussed. • A New HTGR system based on the new basic concepts is proposed. - Abstract: A new basic concept on safety of ‘Not causing any serious catastrophe by any means’ and a new basic concept on radioactive waste of ‘Not returning any waste that possibly affects the environment’ are proposed in the present study, aiming at nuclear power plants which everybody can accept, in consideration of the serious catastrophe that happened at Fukushima Japan in 2011. These new basic concepts can be found to be valid in comparison with basic concepts on safety and waste in other industries. The principle to realize the new basic concept on safety is, as known well as the inherent safety, to use physical phenomena such as Doppler Effect and so on which never fail to work even if all equipment and facilities for safety lose their functions. In the present study, physical phenomena are used to ‘continue confining’, rather than ‘confine’, because the consequence of emission of radioactive substances to the environment cannot be mitigated. To ‘continue confining’ is meant to apply natural correction to fulfill inherent safety function. Fission products must be detoxified to realize the new basic concept on radioactive waste, aiming at the final processing and disposal of radioactive wastes as same as that in the other wastes such as PCB, together with much efforts not to produce radioactive wastes and to reduce their volume nevertheless if they are emitted. Technology development on the detoxification is one of the most important subjects. A new High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor, namely the New HTGR

  14. Unders and Overs: Using a Dice Game to Illustrate Basic Probability Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Sandra Hanson

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the dice game "Unders and Overs" is described and presented as an active learning exercise to introduce basic probability concepts. The implementation of the exercise is outlined and the resulting presentation of various probability concepts are described.

  15. Metrology concept design of the GAIA basic angle monitoring system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veggel, van A.A.; Vink, H.J.P.; Rosielle, P.C.J.N.; Nijmeijer, H.; Wielders, A.A.; Antebi, J.; Lemke, D.

    2004-01-01

    The GAIA satellite, scheduled for launch in 2010, will make a highly accurate map of our Galaxy. It will measure the position of stars with an accuracy of 50 prad using two telescopes, which are positioned under a 'basic' angle between the the lines-of-sight of the telescopes of 106°. With a Basic

  16. Introduction to basic concepts and elements in process synthesis and process intensification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rong, Ben-Guang

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter, we introduce some basic concepts and elements for process synthesis (PS) and process intensification (PI). These basic concepts and elements are taken partially from distillation systems synthesis and intensification, as described in Chapter 2. In Chapter 2,we present six distill...... these common concepts and elements in the context of general PS and PI works. We hope that at least some of the concepts and elements can be examined and addressed in the methodological approaches for PS and PI....

  17. Dyslexia: The evolution of a scientific concept

    OpenAIRE

    FLETCHER, JACK M.

    2009-01-01

    In the past 25 years, scientific understanding of dyslexia and other learning disabilities has seen rapid progress in domains involving definition and classification, neuropsychological correlates, neurobiological factors, and intervention. I discuss this progress, emphasizing the central organizing influence of research and theory on basic academic skills on identification and sampling issues. I also emphasize how neuropsychological approaches to dyslexia have evolved and the importance of a...

  18. CONCEPT AND EVOLUTION OF BANK MARKETING

    OpenAIRE

    Turkes (Vînt) Mirela Catalina

    2010-01-01

    The bank marketing, a specialized field of the marketing, has emerged following the extensive development of the general marketing and following the appearance, separation and development of services marketing. The article shows the appearance, development and delimitation of the bank marketing concept following the increase of the financial-banking sector in all world countries due to the appearance of new competitors and the competition intensification. The research consisted in presenting ...

  19. Basic concepts and assumptions behind the ICRP recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, B.

    1981-03-01

    The paper gives a review of the current radiation protection recommendations by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). It discusses concepts like stochastic effects, radiation detriments, collective dose, dose equivalent and dose limits. (G.B.)

  20. Rethinking basic concepts in ICRP's system of dose limitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, W.A.; Mossman, K.L.

    1991-01-01

    The present criterion for radiation protection appears to be exposure reduction rather than adequate protection of health. The 1990 ICRP draft recommendations for a system of dose limitation would further implement this more restrictive criterion by implementing certain academic concepts and assumptions. These concepts and assumptions are discussed and the suggestion is made that the radiation protection community needs to carefully examine the need for the complex system proposed

  1. Evolution of the concept of sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrizosa Umana, Julio

    2000-01-01

    Topics like the sustainable development are analyzed before the years eighty; main models and criticize current. In her it is to synthesize the process of theoretical construction of the concept, making emphasis in the relativity of the development idea, in the relationship of the sustainability with the justness, and in their vision of the future. The neo liberal pattern of D.S is presented and the variations introduced by the World Bank as well as the proposals of construction of a model of community DS

  2. The Java Series: Basic Concepts in Object Oriented Programming

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2000-01-01

    The talk will be general enough not to require any previous knowledge of any programming language but some insight in software development would be convenient. In the same way, the talk will give you the basics to learn any OO based methodology or language.

  3. Giant Magnetoresistance: Basic Concepts, Microstructure, Magnetic Interactions and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennen, Inga; Kappe, Daniel; Rempel, Thomas; Glenske, Claudia; Hütten, Andreas

    2016-06-17

    The giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect is a very basic phenomenon that occurs in magnetic materials ranging from nanoparticles over multilayered thin films to permanent magnets. In this contribution, we first focus on the links between effect characteristic and underlying microstructure. Thereafter, we discuss design criteria for GMR-sensor applications covering automotive, biosensors as well as nanoparticular sensors.

  4. History and evolution of concepts in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Varvoglis, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of nature, and in particular of physics and the laws governing it, has changed radically since the days of the ancient Greek natural philosophers. This book explains how and why these changes occurred, through landmark experiments as well as theories that - for their time - were revolutionary. The presentation covers Mechanics, Optics, Electromagnetism, Thermodynamics, Relativity Theory, Atomic Physics and Quantum Physics. The book places emphasis on ideas and on a qualitative presentation, rather than on mathematics and equations. Thus, although primarily addressed to those who are studying or have studied science, it can also be read by non-specialists. The author concludes with a discussion of the evolution and organization of universities, from ancient times until today, and of the organization and dissemination of knowledge through scientific publications and conferences.

  5. Concept Systems and Ontologies: Recommendations for Basic Terminology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Gunnar O.; Smith, Barry

    This essay concerns the problems surrounding the use of the term ``concept'' in current ontology and terminology research. It is based on the constructive dialogue between realist ontology on the one hand and the world of formal standardization of health informatics on the other, but its conclusions are not restricted to the domain of medicine. The term ``concept'' is one of the most misused even in literature and technical standards which attempt to bring clarity. In this paper we propose to use the term ``concept'' in the context of producing defined professional terminologies with one specific and consistent meaning which we propose for adoption as the agreed meaning of the term in future terminological research, and specifically in the development of formal terminologies to be used in computer systems. We also discuss and propose new definitions of a set of cognate terms. We describe the relations governing the realm of concepts, and compare these to the richer and more complex set of relations obtaining between entities in the real world. On this basis we also summarize an associated terminology for ontologies as representations of the real world and a partial mapping between the world of concepts and the world of reality.

  6. The concept of entropy in landscape evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Luna Bergere; Langbein, Walter Basil

    1962-01-01

    The concept of entropy is expressed in terms of probability of various states. Entropy treats of the distribution of energy. The principle is introduced that the most probable condition exists when energy in a river system is as uniformly distributed as may be permitted by physical constraints. From these general considerations equations for the longitudinal profiles of rivers are derived that are mathematically comparable to those observed in the field. The most probable river profiles approach the condition in which the downstream rate of production of entropy per unit mass is constant. Hydraulic equations are insufficient to determine the velocity, depths, and slopes of rivers that are themselves authors of their own hydraulic geometries. A solution becomes possible by introducing the concept that the distribution of energy tends toward the most probable. This solution leads to a theoretical definition of the hydraulic geometry of river channels that agrees closely with field observations. The most probable state for certain physical systems can also be illustrated by random-walk models. Average longitudinal profiles and drainage networks were so derived and these have the properties implied by the theory. The drainage networks derived from random walks have some of the principal properties demonstrated by the Horton analysis; specifically, the logarithms of stream length and stream numbers are proportional to stream order.

  7. Path to AWAKE: Evolution of the concept

    CERN Document Server

    Caldwell, A.; Amorim, L.; Apsimon, R.; Argyropoulos, T.; Assmann, R.; Bachmann, A.-M.; Batsch, F.; Bauche, J.; Berglyd Olsen, V.K.; Bernardini, M.; Bingham, R.; Biskup, B.; Bohl, T.; Bracco, C.; Burrows, P.N.; Burt, G.; Buttenschön, B.; Butterworth, A.; Cascella, M.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chevallay, E.; Cipiccia, S.; Damerau, H.; Deacon, L.; Dirksen, P.; Doebert, S.; Dorda, U.; Elsen, E.; Farmer, J.; Fartoukh, S.; Fedosseev, V.; Feldbaumer, E.; Fiorito, R.; Fonseca, R.; Friebel, F.; Geschonke, G.; Goddard, B.; Gorn, A.A.; Grulke, O.; Gschwendtner, E.; Hansen, J.; Hessler, C.; Hillenbrand, S.; Hofle, W.; Holloway, J.; Huang, C.; Hüther, M.; Jaroszynski, D.; Jensen, L.; Jolly, S.; Joulaei, A.; Kasim, M.; Keeble, F.; Kersevan, R.; Kumar, N.; Li, Y.; Liu, S.; Lopes, N.; Lotov, K.V.; Lu, W.; Machacek, J.; Mandry, S.; Martin, I.; Martorelli, R.; Martyanov, M.; Mazzoni, S.; Meddahi, M.; Merminga, L.; Mete, O.; Minakov, V.A.; Mitchell, J.; Moody, J.; Müller, A.-S.; Najmudin, Z.; Noakes, T.C.Q.; Norreys, P.; Osterhoff, J.; Öz, E.; Pardons, A.; Pepitone, K.; Petrenko, A.; Plyushchev, G.; Pozimski, J.; Pukhov, A.; Reimann, O.; Rieger, K.; Roesler, S.; Ruhl, H.; Rusnak, T.; Salveter, F.; Savard, N.; Schmidt, J.; von der Schmitt, H.; Seryi, A.; Shaposhnikova, E.; Sheng, Z.M.; Sherwood, P.; Silva, L.; Simon, F.; Soby, L.; Sosedkin, A.P.; Spitsyn, R.I.; Tajima, T.; Tarkeshian, R.; Timko, H.; Trines, R.; Tückmantel, T.; Tuev, P.V.; Turner, M.; Velotti, F.; Verzilov, V.; Vieira, J.; Vincke, H.; Wei, Y.; Welsch, C.P.; Wing, M.; Xia, G.; Yakimenko, V.; Zhang, H.; Zimmermann, F.

    2016-09-01

    This report describes the conceptual steps in reaching the design of the AWAKE experiment currently under construction at CERN. We start with an introduction to plasma wakefield acceleration and the motivation for using proton drivers. We then describe the self-modulation instability --- a key to an early realization of the concept. This is then followed by the historical development of the experimental design, where the critical issues that arose and their solutions are described. We conclude with the design of the experiment as it is being realized at CERN and some words on the future outlook. A summary of the AWAKE design and construction status as presented in this conference is given in [1].

  8. Evolution Of The Concept Of Dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Journeau, Philippe F.

    2007-01-01

    Concepts of time elapsing 'in' a space measuring the real emerge over the centuries. But Kant refutes absolute time and defines it, with space, as forms reacting to Newtonian mechanics. Einstein and Minkowski open a 20th century where time is a dimension, a substratum of reality 'with' space rather than 'in' it. Kaluza-Klein and String theories then develop a trend of additional spatial dimensions while de Broglie and Bohm open the possiblity that form, to begin with wave, be a reality together 'with' a space-time particle. Other recent theories, such as spin networks, causal sets and twistor theory, even head to the idea of other 'systems of dimensions'. On the basis of such progresses and recent experiments the paper then considers a background independent fourfold time-form-action-space system of dimensions

  9. Adiabatic invariants in stellar dynamics. 1: Basic concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Martin D.

    1994-01-01

    The adiabatic criterion, widely used in astronomical dynamics, is based on the harmonic oscillator. It asserts that the change in action under a slowly varying perturbation is exponentially small. Recent mathematical results that precisely define the conditions for invariance show that this model does not apply in general. In particular, a slowly varying perturbation may cause significant evolution stellar dynamical systems even if its time scale is longer than any internal orbital time scale. This additional 'heating' may have serious implications for the evolution of star clusters and dwarf galaxies which are subject to long-term environmental forces. The mathematical developments leading to these results are reviewed, and the conditions for applicability to and further implications for stellar systems are discussed. Companion papers present a computational method for a general time-dependent disturbance and detailed example.

  10. Mathematical Modeling in Mathematics Education: Basic Concepts and Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbas, Ayhan Kürsat; Kertil, Mahmut; Çetinkaya, Bülent; Çakiroglu, Erdinç; Alacaci, Cengiz; Bas, Sinem

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical modeling and its role in mathematics education have been receiving increasing attention in Turkey, as in many other countries. The growing body of literature on this topic reveals a variety of approaches to mathematical modeling and related concepts, along with differing perspectives on the use of mathematical modeling in teaching and…

  11. Basic concepts of Density Functional Theory: Electronic structure calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, B. Indrajit

    2016-01-01

    We are looking for a material which possesses the required properties as demanded for technological applications. For this we have to repeat the preparation of the appropriate materials and its characterizations. So, before proceeding to experiments, one can study on computer generated structure and predict the properties of the desired material. To do this, a concept of Density Functional Theory comes out. (paper)

  12. The evolution of concepts of color vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Barry B

    2008-07-01

    The evolution of ideas about the way we see color was closely linked to physical theories of light. Proponents of both corpuscular and wave theories viewed light as a continuous spectrum. This was not easily reconciled with the fact that, for the human eye, all colors can be matched by mixture of three primaries. Physicists such as Mayer who described trichromatic color matching often assumed that there were just three types of rays in the spectrum. This argument was finally resolved by Thomas Young, who noted that trichromatic color matching was consistent with a continuous spectrum if there were just three receptors in the eye. This kind of conceptual mistake, in this case the confusion of the properties of the visual system with physical properties of light, has been common in the history of color science. As another example, the idea of trichromacy was disputed by those who viewed color sensations as opponent processes, red-green, blue-yellow and black-white. The discovery of color-opponent neurons in the visual pathway has partly resolved this dilemma. Much of the physiological substrate of the way we detect and distinguish colors is now established, but the link between the signals leaving the retina and the way we name and order colors is still poorly defined.

  13. The availability and accessibility of basic concept vocabulary in AAC software: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Jillian H; Schwarz, Ilsa; Ashworth, Morgan

    2017-09-01

    Core vocabulary lists obtained through the analyses of children's utterances include a variety of basic concept words. Supporting young children who use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) to develop their understanding and use of basic concepts is an area of practice that has important ramifications for successful communication in a classroom environment. This study examined the availability of basic concept words across eight frequently used, commercially available AAC language systems, iPad© applications, and symbol libraries used to create communication boards. The accessibility of basic concept words was subsequently examined using two AAC language page sets and two iPad applications. Results reveal that the availability of basic concept words represented within the different AAC language programs, iPad applications, and symbol libraries varied but was limited across programs. However, there is no significant difference in the accessibility of basic concept words across the language program page sets or iPad applications, generally because all of them require sophisticated motor and cognitive plans for access. These results suggest that educators who teach or program vocabulary in AAC systems need to be mindful of the importance of basic concept words in classroom settings and, when possible, enhance the availability and accessibility of these words to users of AAC.

  14. Path to AWAKE: Evolution of the concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, A. [Max Planck Institute for Physics, Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Adli, E. [University of Oslo, 0316 Oslo (Norway); Amorim, L. [GoLP/Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon (Portugal); Apsimon, R. [Cockcroft Institute, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YR (United Kingdom); Argyropoulos, T. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Assmann, R. [DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Bachmann, A.-M.; Batsch, F. [Max Planck Institute for Physics, Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Bauche, J. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Berglyd Olsen, V.K. [University of Oslo, 0316 Oslo (Norway); Bernardini, M. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Bingham, R. [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Biskup, B. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Czech Technical University, Zikova 1903/4, 166 36 Praha 6 (Czech Republic); Bohl, T.; Bracco, C. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Burrows, P.N. [John Adams Institute for Accelerator Science, Oxford (United Kingdom); University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 2JD (United Kingdom); Burt, G. [Cockcroft Institute, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YR (United Kingdom); Buttenschön, B. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Wendelsteinstr. 1, 17491 Greifswald (Germany); Butterworth, A. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Cascella, M. [UCL, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); and others

    2016-09-01

    This paper describes the conceptual steps in reaching the design of the AWAKE experiment currently under construction at CERN. We start with an introduction to plasma wakefield acceleration and the motivation for using proton drivers. We then describe the self-modulation instability – a key to an early realization of the concept. This is then followed by the historical development of the experimental design, where the critical issues that arose and their solutions are described. We conclude with the design of the experiment as it is being realized at CERN and some words on the future outlook. A summary of the AWAKE design and construction status as presented in this conference is given in Gschwendtner et al. [1]. - Highlights: • Proton-driven plasma wakefield acceleration is proposed to bring electron bunches to high energies. • The self-modulation instability allows the use of existing proton bunches. • Schemes for overcoming the varying wake phase velocity were developed. • AWAKE will demonstrate proton-driven plasma wakefield acceleration for the first time.

  15. Pseudo-populations a basic concept in statistical surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Quatember, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This book emphasizes that artificial or pseudo-populations play an important role in statistical surveys from finite universes in two manners: firstly, the concept of pseudo-populations may substantially improve users’ understanding of various aspects in the sampling theory and survey methodology; an example of this scenario is the Horvitz-Thompson estimator. Secondly, statistical procedures exist in which pseudo-populations actually have to be generated. An example of such a scenario can be found in simulation studies in the field of survey sampling, where close-to-reality pseudo-populations are generated from known sample and population data to form the basis for the simulation process. The chapters focus on estimation methods, sampling techniques, nonresponse, questioning designs and statistical disclosure control.This book is a valuable reference in understanding the importance of the pseudo-population concept and applying it in teaching and research.

  16. Evolution of the marketing theory: genesis, conception, periodization

    OpenAIRE

    M.A. Oklander; T.O. Oklander

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article. The article deals with evolution of the marketing theory in it genesis context, modern conception, periodization. Mercantilism, classical and neoclassical political economy, marginalism, institutionalism are distinguished as scientific sources of marketing. One defines that modern marketing conception is a socially responsible marketing form, based on mass individualization, the highest customer value supply, consumer’s problems effective solving. The marketing theory...

  17. Fundamentals of natural computing basic concepts, algorithms, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    de Castro, Leandro Nunes

    2006-01-01

    Introduction A Small Sample of Ideas The Philosophy of Natural Computing The Three Branches: A Brief Overview When to Use Natural Computing Approaches Conceptualization General Concepts PART I - COMPUTING INSPIRED BY NATURE Evolutionary Computing Problem Solving as a Search Task Hill Climbing and Simulated Annealing Evolutionary Biology Evolutionary Computing The Other Main Evolutionary Algorithms From Evolutionary Biology to Computing Scope of Evolutionary Computing Neurocomputing The Nervous System Artif

  18. PRONET: Basic concepts of a system of Artificial Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lasai

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available In the work are expounded the principles and basic elements of a system of artificial intelligence. Knowledge representation develops according to the method settled for processing. A thing, a phenomenon can be determined or established by more modules subject to their state as well as the links and relations between them. The system creates a set of blocks (modules for which the concurrent work is pre- established. The volume of knowledge can be also increased without increasing the number of blocks.

  19. Basic concepts of philosophy of management and corporations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl

    2013-01-01

    This chapter presents some fundamental concepts of the philosophy of management and corporations by addressing the problem of corporate legitimacy and Immanuel Kant’s distinction between theoretical, practical, and aesthetic reason and judgment. This chapter begins with a general definition...... of philosophy of management and corporations and continues by presenting its ontological and epistemological underpinnings. This approach is used to address the relation between economics, business ethics, and philosophy of management. Finally, ethical and aesthetic judgment is presented as the mediator between...... theoretical, aesthetic, and practical reason in philosophy of management....

  20. Introduction to Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Volume 1; Basic techniques and concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Saurabh; Goli, Divakar

    2018-05-01

    Animal biotechnology is a broad field including polarities of fundamental and applied research, as well as DNA science, covering key topics of DNA studies and its recent applications. In Introduction to Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, DNA isolation procedures followed by molecular markers and screening methods of the genomic library are explained. Interesting areas like isolation, sequencing and synthesis of genes, with the broader coverage on synthesis of genes, are also described. The book begins with an introduction to biotechnology and its main branches, explaining both the basic science and the applications of biotechnology-derived pharmaceuticals, with special emphasis on their clinical use. It then moves on to historical development and scope of biotechnology with an overall review of early applications that scientists employed long before the field was defined.

  1. THE MEANING IN THE CULTURE: BASIC CONCEPT TO ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ÁLVARO ENRÍQUEZ MARTÍNEZ

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on three key psychological concepts: learning, culture and meaning, the present essay proposes a conceptualbase frame, oriented toward the understanding of development in organizations into current milieu ofcompetitiveness and temporality, of the relationships among people working into them. The organizations whichare typically embedded in a context of values, needs and symbols that made up their cultures, must evolve in orderto face the demands for new developments and change, to which they are forced to. The concept of “meaning of theculture”, is presented as the base over which is build and rooted the organizational learning - in a technical and socialsense. The different types of learning are the ways in which the organizations satisfy the requirements coming fromtheir environments, in front of which must generate knowledge and consequently, new products and services,based on the people that form such organizations. The people that belong and constitutes the organization, incircumstances of temporal cohesion and within temporary working networks, must achieve results and to beadjusted to these new working and organizational facts, developing self-management and autonomy, in order tosignify and get adapted into the cultural tissue.

  2. Evolution of the Concept of "Human Capital" in Economic Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perepelkin, Vyacheslav A.; Perepelkina, Elena V.; Morozova, Elena S.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the researched problem is determined by transformation of the human capital into the key economic resource of development of the postindustrial society. The purpose of the article is to disclose the content of evolution of the human capital as a scientific concept and phenomenon of the economic life. The leading approach to the…

  3. On the concept of individual in ecology and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, J A J

    2013-03-01

    Part of the art of theory building is to construct effective basic concepts, with a large reach and yet powerful as tools for getting at conclusions. The most basic concept of population biology is that of individual. An appropriately reengineered form of this concept has become the basis for the theories of structured populations and adaptive dynamics. By appropriately delimiting individuals, followed by defining their states as well as their environment, it become possible to construct the general population equations that were introduced and studied by Odo Diekmann and his collaborators. In this essay I argue for taking the properties that led to these successes as the defining characteristics of the concept of individual, delegating the properties classically invoked by philosophers to the secondary role of possible empirical indicators for the presence of those characteristics. The essay starts with putting in place as rule for effective concept engineering that one should go for relations that can be used as basis for deductive structure building rather than for perceived ontological essence. By analysing how we want to use it in the mathematical arguments I then build up a concept of individual, first for use in population dynamical considerations and then for use in evolutionary ones. These two concepts do not coincide, and neither do they on all occasions agree with common intuition-based usage.

  4. Mobile agents basic concepts, mobility models, and the tracy toolkit

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Mobile agents are software nomads that act as your personal representative, working autonomously through networks. They are able to visit network nodes directly using available computing power and are not limited by platform. This emerging field is now poised to become a cornerstone for new Web-based ubiquitous computing environments. Mobile Agents provides a practical introduction to mobile agent technology and surveys the state of the art in mobile agent research. Students and researchers can use the book as an introduction to the concepts and possibilities of this field and as an overview of ongoing research. Developers can use it to identify the capabilities of the technology to decide if mobile agents are the right solution for them. Practioners can also gain hands-on experience in programming mobile agents through exploration of the source code for a complete mobile agent environment available through the companion website.*Summarizes the state of the art in mobile agent research*Identifies the benefits...

  5. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics and information theory: basic concepts and relaxing dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altaner, Bernhard

    2017-01-01

    Thermodynamics is based on the notions of energy and entropy. While energy is the elementary quantity governing physical dynamics, entropy is the fundamental concept in information theory. In this work, starting from first principles, we give a detailed didactic account on the relations between energy and entropy and thus physics and information theory. We show that thermodynamic process inequalities, like the second law, are equivalent to the requirement that an effective description for physical dynamics is strongly relaxing. From the perspective of information theory, strongly relaxing dynamics govern the irreversible convergence of a statistical ensemble towards the maximally non-commital probability distribution that is compatible with thermodynamic equilibrium parameters. In particular, Markov processes that converge to a thermodynamic equilibrium state are strongly relaxing. Our framework generalizes previous results to arbitrary open and driven systems, yielding novel thermodynamic bounds for idealized and real processes. (paper)

  6. Coprecipitation of radionuclides: basic concepts, literature review and first applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curti, E.

    1997-11-01

    Coprecipitation of radionuclides with solid products is currently not analysed quantitatively in safety assessments for nuclear waste repositories, although this process is thought to be an important mechanism for limiting nuclide concentrations in solution. This is due to the fact that neither the solid phases controlling coprecipitation nor the parameter values necessary to describe this process are known sufficiently. This introductory report provides basic knowledge on this subject and a review of experimental data from the literature. Emphasis is placed on experiments of trace metal coprecipitation with calcite, because this mineral is a dominating alteration product of cement in the Swiss L/ILW repository. This resulted in a database of partition coefficients, which allow to describe empirically the distribution of trace elements between calcite and solution and thus to quantify coprecipitation processes. Since laboratory data on coprecipitation with calcite are lacking for many safety-relevant radioelements, their partition coefficients were inferred with the help of estimation techniques. Such techniques rely on empirical correlations, which relate the uptake of trace metals in calcite (measured in laboratory tests) with selected chemical properties of the coprecipitated metals (e.g. ionic radius, sorption properties, solubility products of the pure trace metal carbonates). The combination of these correlations with independent geochemical evidence allows the extrapolation of radioelement-specific partition coefficients, which are then used for the quantitative modelling. In a first step the potential role of radionuclide coprecipitation during cement degradation in the L/ILW repository planned at Wellenberg is assessed. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  7. Spinal fusion-hardware construct: Basic concepts and imaging review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouh, Mohamed Ragab

    2012-01-01

    The interpretation of spinal images fixed with metallic hardware forms an increasing bulk of daily practice in a busy imaging department. Radiologists are required to be familiar with the instrumentation and operative options used in spinal fixation and fusion procedures, especially in his or her institute. This is critical in evaluating the position of implants and potential complications associated with the operative approaches and spinal fixation devices used. Thus, the radiologist can play an important role in patient care and outcome. This review outlines the advantages and disadvantages of commonly used imaging methods and reports on the best yield for each modality and how to overcome the problematic issues associated with the presence of metallic hardware during imaging. Baseline radiographs are essential as they are the baseline point for evaluation of future studies should patients develop symptoms suggesting possible complications. They may justify further imaging workup with computed tomography, magnetic resonance and/or nuclear medicine studies as the evaluation of a patient with a spinal implant involves a multi-modality approach. This review describes imaging features of potential complications associated with spinal fusion surgery as well as the instrumentation used. This basic knowledge aims to help radiologists approach everyday practice in clinical imaging. PMID:22761979

  8. Coprecipitation of radionuclides: basic concepts, literature review and first applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curti, E. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-11-01

    Coprecipitation of radionuclides with solid products is currently not analysed quantitatively in safety assessments for nuclear waste repositories, although this process is thought to be an important mechanism for limiting nuclide concentrations in solution. This is due to the fact that neither the solid phases controlling coprecipitation nor the parameter values necessary to describe this process are known sufficiently. This introductory report provides basic knowledge on this subject and a review of experimental data from the literature. Emphasis is placed on experiments of trace metal coprecipitation with calcite, because this mineral is a dominating alteration product of cement in the Swiss L/ILW repository. This resulted in a database of partition coefficients, which allow to describe empirically the distribution of trace elements between calcite and solution and thus to quantify coprecipitation processes. Since laboratory data on coprecipitation with calcite are lacking for many safety-relevant radioelements, their partition coefficients were inferred with the help of estimation techniques. Such techniques rely on empirical correlations, which relate the uptake of trace metals in calcite (measured in laboratory tests) with selected chemical properties of the coprecipitated metals (e.g. ionic radius, sorption properties, solubility products of the pure trace metal carbonates). The combination of these correlations with independent geochemical evidence allows the extrapolation of radioelement-specific partition coefficients, which are then used for the quantitative modelling. In a first step the potential role of radionuclide coprecipitation during cement degradation in the L/ILW repository planned at Wellenberg is assessed. (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  9. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics and information theory: basic concepts and relaxing dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altaner, Bernhard

    2017-11-01

    Thermodynamics is based on the notions of energy and entropy. While energy is the elementary quantity governing physical dynamics, entropy is the fundamental concept in information theory. In this work, starting from first principles, we give a detailed didactic account on the relations between energy and entropy and thus physics and information theory. We show that thermodynamic process inequalities, like the second law, are equivalent to the requirement that an effective description for physical dynamics is strongly relaxing. From the perspective of information theory, strongly relaxing dynamics govern the irreversible convergence of a statistical ensemble towards the maximally non-commital probability distribution that is compatible with thermodynamic equilibrium parameters. In particular, Markov processes that converge to a thermodynamic equilibrium state are strongly relaxing. Our framework generalizes previous results to arbitrary open and driven systems, yielding novel thermodynamic bounds for idealized and real processes. , which features invited work from the best early-career researchers working within the scope of J. Phys. A. This project is part of the Journal of Physics series’ 50th anniversary celebrations in 2017. Bernhard Altaner was selected by the Editorial Board of J. Phys. A as an Emerging Talent.

  10. TERRITORIAL AND SPATIAL IDENTITY: NEW APPROARCH TO THE BASIC CONCEPTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Yu. Okunev

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to popular belief, the spatial aspect of political processes is  determined not only by objective factors. Space affects politics not  only directly, but also indirectly, through subjective and sometimes  distorted notions of space, formed by man. To study this subjective world, geography has its own terminology, some of which  are in dialectical connection with the concepts of «objective»  geography (territoriality vs. spatiality, absolute vs. relative space,  and some are unique for the discourse of this science (heterotopy,  spatial inversion, spatial experience, the place of memory, spatial  myth, and co-spatiality. The key to political geography is the notion of territorial and spatial identity, because they link ideas  about space with the political behavior of the individual. Recently,  the applied sphere of political geography has been actively  developing, based on the application of identity knowledge - territory branding based on place policy.

  11. Adaptive fractionation therapy: I. Basic concept and strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Weiguo; Chen Mingli; Chen Quan; Ruchala, Kenneth; Olivera, Gustavo

    2008-01-01

    Radiotherapy is fractionized to increase the therapeutic ratio. Fractionation in conventional treatment is determined as part of the prescription, and a fixed fraction size is used for the whole course of treatment. Due to patients' day-to-day variations on the relative distance between the tumor and the organs at risk (OAR), a better therapeutic ratio may be attained by using an adaptive fraction size. Intuitively, we want to use a larger fraction size when OAR and the tumor are far apart and a smaller fraction size when OAR and the tumor are close to each other. The concept and strategies of adaptive fractionation therapy (AFT) are introduced in this paper. AFT is an on-line adaptive technique that utilizes the variations of internal structures to get optimal OAR sparing. Changes of internal structures are classified as different configurations according to their feasibility to the radiation delivery. A priori knowledge is used to describe the probability distribution of these configurations. On-line processes include identifying the configuration via daily image guidance and optimizing the current fraction size. The optimization is modeled as a dynamic linear programming problem so that at the end of the treatment course, the tumor receives the same planned dose while OAR receives less dose than the regular fractionation delivery. Extensive simulations, which include thousands of treatment courses with each course consisting of 40 fractions, are used to test the efficiency and robustness of the presented technique. The gains of OAR sparing depend on the variations on configurations and the bounds of the fraction size. The larger the variations and the looser the bounds are, the larger the gains will be. Compared to the conventional fractionation technique with 2 Gy/fraction in 40 fractions, for a 20% variation on tumor-OAR configurations and [1 Gy, 3 Gy] fraction size bounds, the cumulative OAR dose with adaptive fractionation is 3-8 Gy, or 7-20% less than that

  12. Identifying Students' Conceptions of Basic Principles in Sequence Stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Juan S.; Riggs, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    Sequence stratigraphy is a major research subject in the geosciences academia and the oil industry. However, the geoscience education literature addressing students' understanding of the basic concepts of sequence stratigraphy is relatively thin, and the topic has not been well explored. We conducted an assessment of 27 students' conceptions of…

  13. EVOLUTION OF THE CONCEPT OF GUILT IN HISTORICAL CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Екатерина Валерьевна Юрчак

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available As in philosophy and in legal science is no single concept of guilt. This is partly explained by the fact that the philosophy of the concept of guilt tried to give the followers of different schools of thought and jurisprudence in the concept of guilt is different in each area of law. That is why it is important to identify common features of the legal and philosophical category of "guilt".The purpose of this study to trace the evolution of the concept of guilt in the philosophy and theory of law.Scientific and practical significance of the work lies in the fact that comprehensive studies of this nature brings us closer to the development of a unified concept of guilt.The author uses an analytical, philosophical and comparative - historical methods.The article analyzes the evolution of the concept of guilt in a historical context. The author analyzes the legal significance of the concept of guilt in theology and philosophy, focusing on Russian philosophy and Marxism, and comes to the conclusion that the issue of guilt is recognized by all philosophies, the most consistent explanation of the fault is given in the idealist doctrine. In the understanding of guilt there is dualism, which leads to the need for the external and internal sides of human actions.The results of this study provide scientific and practical value, since they can be used in teaching students of legal and philosophical disciplines, as well as - a legislator, in the formulation of the concept of a single fault in the law.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-10-19

  14. Visualization: A Tool for Enhancing Students' Concept Images of Basic Object-Oriented Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: to investigate students' concept images about class, object, and their relationship and to help them enhance their learning of these notions with a visualization tool. Fifty-six second-year university students participated in the study. To investigate his/her concept images, the researcher developed a survey…

  15. Dynamical evolution of star-forming regions - II. Basic kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Richard J.; Wright, Nicholas J.

    2016-04-01

    We follow the dynamical evolution of young star-forming regions with a wide range of initial conditions and examine how the radial velocity dispersion, σ, evolves over time. We compare this velocity dispersion to the theoretically expected value for the velocity dispersion if a region were in virial equilibrium, σvir and thus assess the virial state (σ/σvir) of these systems. We find that in regions that are initially subvirial, or in global virial equilibrium but subvirial on local scales, the system relaxes to virial equilibrium within several million years, or roughly 25-50 crossing times, according to the measured virial ratio. However, the measured velocity dispersion, σ, appears to be a bad diagnostic of the current virial state of these systems as it suggests that they become supervirial when compared to the velocity dispersion estimated from the virial mass, σvir. We suggest that this discrepancy is caused by the fact that the regions are never fully relaxed, and that the early non-equilibrium evolution is imprinted in the one-dimensional velocity dispersion at these early epochs. If measured early enough (interquartile range (IQR) dispersion, with measures of spatial structure, places stronger constraints on the dynamical history of a region than using the velocity dispersion in isolation.

  16. Basic processes and mechanisms of the water-rock system evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Shvartsev, Stepan Lvovich

    2007-01-01

    A new conception of progressive evolution and self-organizing presence in dead matter is developed; inner mechanisms and processes, realizing this development, are revealed. It is proven that the water-rock system satisfy these requirements

  17. The Concept of Basic Income: Global Experience and Implementation Possibilities in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algimantas Laurinavičius

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article gives an overview of universal basic income as one of the instruments of the asset-based policy, analyses its theoretical concept and practical examples. Latest trends in Europe, especially in Finland and Switzerland, are overviewed and possibilities to implement such an instrument in Lithuania are evaluated. Research methods of scientific literature analysis, comparative and logical analysis of statistical data, data grouping and presentation were used. Article finds out that the concept of basic income is being implemented on a small scale in the US state of Alaska and in a small autonomous territory of China – Macao. Finland and Switzerland are determined to fully implement the concept of basic income by providing monthly benefits to all their citizens. Although Lithuania is categorized as a country with high income inequality and high level of poverty risk, currently it is not possible to implement the concept of basic income in Lithuania: the state social insurance fund budget would not be able to fund sufficient benefits, and the benefits that could be provided by the budget would not comply with the objectives of the concept of basic income.

  18. Basic research in evolution and ecology enhances forensics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Benbow, M Eric; Tarone, Aaron M; Mohr, Rachel M

    2011-02-01

    In 2009, the National Research Council recommended that the forensic sciences strengthen their grounding in basic empirical research to mitigate against criticism and improve accuracy and reliability. For DNA-based identification, this goal was achieved under the guidance of the population genetics community. This effort resulted in DNA analysis becoming the 'gold standard' of the forensic sciences. Elsewhere, we proposed a framework for streamlining research in decomposition ecology, which promotes quantitative approaches to collecting and applying data to forensic investigations involving decomposing human remains. To extend the ecological aspects of this approach, this review focuses on forensic entomology, although the framework can be extended to other areas of decomposition. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. The Basic Concepts Classification as a Bottom-Up Strategy for the Semantic Web

    OpenAIRE

    Rick Szostak

    2014-01-01

    The paper proposes that the Basic Concepts Classification (BCC) could serve as the controlled vocabulary for the Semantic Web. The BCC uses a synthetic approach among classes of things, relators, and properties. These are precisely the sort of concepts required by RDF triples. The BCC also addresses some of the syntactic needs of the Semantic Web. Others could be added to the BCC in a bottom‐up process that carefully evaluates the costs, benefits, and best format for each rule considered.

  20. [Schizoaffective Disorder: Evolution and Current Status of the Concept].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhy, Susanta; Hedge, Aditya

    2015-01-01

    Schizoaffective disorder as a diagnostic entity is of particular present-day relevance; however, the concept of schizoaffective disorder, and its management and prognosis remain contentious. Descriptions of the disorder have varied over time. In this literature review, after tracking the evolution of the concept and nosology of schizoaffective disorder, research findings are summarized. This review takes a broad overview of the epidemiology, neurobiology, clinical presentation, diagnostic validity and stability, treatment, course, and outcome of schizoaffective disorder. Importance is given to the distinctness of schizoaffective disorder, and the overlap with schizophrenia and mood disorders, and problems associated with the construct are examined. Possible ways to treat the construct in the future in the best interest of patients, clinicians, and researchers are discussed.

  1. Examination of the Film "My Father and My Son" According to the Basic Concepts of Multigenerational Family Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Tulin; Voltan-Acar, Nilufer

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the basic concepts of multigenerational Family Therapy and to evaluate the scenes of the film ''My Father and My Son'' according to these concepts. For these purposes firstly basic concepts of Multigenerational Family Therapy such as differentiation of self, triangles/triangulation, nuclear family emotional…

  2. Teaching Basic Programming Concepts to Young Primary School Students Using Tablets: Results of a Pilot Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokides, Emmanuel

    2018-01-01

    The study presents the results of a project in which tablets and a ready-made application were used for teaching basic programming concepts to young primary school students (ages 7-9). A total of 135 students participated in the study, attending primary schools in Athens, Greece, divided into three groups. The first was taught conventionally. The…

  3. Basic concepts in the management of heart failure in general clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Basic concepts in the management of heart failure in general clinical practice. KO Ogunyankin. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

  4. After Almost Half-Century Landing on the Moon and Still Countering Basic Astronomy Conceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkmen, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of study is to investigate the fifth graders' understandings of the basic astronomy concept and, if they have, to define their misconceptions and then to determine what reason/s behind them. For this purpose, two hundred seventy fifth grade students from 6 different schools participated. Randomly selected 45 students performing under…

  5. Introduction to Probability, Part 1 - Basic Concepts. Student Text. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeslee, David W.; And Others

    This book is designed to introduce the reader to some fundamental ideas about probability. The mathematical theory of probability plays an increasingly important role in science, government, industry, business, and economics. An understanding of the basic concepts of probability is essential for the study of statistical methods that are widely…

  6. The Etymology of Basic Concepts in the Experimental Analysis of Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinsmoor, James A.

    2004-01-01

    The origins of many of the basic concepts used in the experimental analysis of behavior can be traced to Pavlov's (1927/1960) discussion of unconditional and conditional reflexes in the dog, but often with substantial changes in meaning (e.g., stimulus, response, and reinforcement). Other terms were added by Skinner (1938/1991) to describe his…

  7. Using a Self-Administered Visual Basic Software Tool To Teach Psychological Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Harold R.; Sullivan, Amie K.; Schoeny, Zahrl G.

    2002-01-01

    Introduces LearningLinks, a Visual Basic software tool that allows teachers to create individualized learning modules that use constructivist and behavioral learning principles. Describes field testing of undergraduates at the University of Virginia that tested a module designed to improve understanding of the psychological concepts of…

  8. Multinational Validation of the Spanish Bracken Basic Concept Scale for Cross-Cultural Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, Bruce A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Investigated construct validity of the Spanish translation of the Bracken Basic Concept Scale (BBCS) in Latino children (n=293) including monolingual Spanish-speaking children from Puerto Rico and Venezuela and Spanish-dominant bilingual Latino children from Texas. Results provided support for construct validity of the Spanish version of the…

  9. Master Curriculum Guide in Economics. A Framework for Teaching the Basic Concepts. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Phillip; And Others

    Intended for curriculum developers, this revised Framework presents a set of basic concepts for teaching K-12 economics. The revision reflects the change and development which the field of economics has undergone and includes improvements suggested by users of the first edition. The purpose of teaching economics is to impart a general…

  10. Geographies of American Popular Music: Introducing Students to Basic Geographic Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Stephen S.

    2010-01-01

    Popular music can be used to study many subjects and issues related to the social sciences. "Geographies of American Popular Music" was a workshop that not only examined the history and development of select genres of American music, it also introduced students to basic geographic concepts such as the culture hearth and spatial diffusion. Through…

  11. The Vital Role of Basic Mathematics in Teaching and Learning the Mole Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Alka; Koul, Anjni

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the importance of activity-based teaching in understanding the mole concept and the vital role of basic mathematical operations. It describes needs-based training for teachers in a professional development programme in India. Analysis of test results before and after the training indicates that teachers improved their…

  12. Teaching Two Basic Nanotechnology Concepts in Secondary School by Using a Variety of Teaching Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonder, Ron; Sakhnini, Sohair

    2012-01-01

    A nanotechnology module was developed for ninth grade students in the context of teaching chemistry. Two basic concepts in nanotechnology were chosen: (1) size and scale and (2) surface-area-to-volume ratio (SA/V). A wide spectrum of instructional methods (e.g., game-based learning, learning with multimedia, learning with models, project based…

  13. Fundamentals in Biostatistics for Research in Pediatric Dentistry: Part I - Basic Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrocho-Rangel, J A; Ruiz-Rodríguez, M S; Pozos-Guillén, A J

    The purpose of this report was to provide the reader with some basic concepts in order to better understand the significance and reliability of the results of any article on Pediatric Dentistry. Currently, Pediatric Dentists need the best evidence available in the literature on which to base their diagnoses and treatment decisions for the children's oral care. Basic understanding of Biostatistics plays an important role during the entire Evidence-Based Dentistry (EBD) process. This report describes Biostatistics fundamentals in order to introduce the basic concepts used in statistics, such as summary measures, estimation, hypothesis testing, effect size, level of significance, p value, confidence intervals, etc., which are available to Pediatric Dentists interested in reading or designing original clinical or epidemiological studies.

  14. A Management Concept of the Technosphere’s Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Krichevsky

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the philosophical and methodological management aspects of the technosphere’s evolution. The foundations of the management concept of the technosphere’s evolution, consisting of two blocks were developed: 1 a conceptual model of the technosphere structure and the process of the technosphere’s evolution; 2 a conceptual model of the management system of the technosphere’s evolution. In the article the characteristics of the boundaries of the technosphere beyond the Earth are considered. The technosphere as a global system was formed during the 20th century, its development continues in the unstable mode of the accelerating non-linear development and spatial expansion. In the technosphere there is no internal and external communication, including feedback, that is necessary for the balanced development. These are the main causes of the “uncontrollability” of the technosphere. The management system structure of the technosphere’s evolution and the strategy that is aimed to achieve three main goals were proposed: 1 saving the Earth’s biosphere; 2 security, survival and sustainable development of humankind in the balance (co-evolution with the biosphere and the environment on the Earth and in the Solar system; 3 the creation of the conditions for disclosure and the use of the potential of technologies, equipment, technical development to manage the future, the implementation of the transition to the noosphere, the attainment of human immortality in the Universe. The three management scenarios, main features, and limitations were considered. A common approach to the management of the technosphere’s evolution: the system approach in the framework of the socio-techno-natural system, the paradigm of the balanced and sustainable development and managing the future. In order to manage the infrastructure, technologies and technological mode by the effects of the technosphere on the environment, new approaches, methods

  15. Basic concepts in dosimetry. A critical analysis of the concepts of ionizing radiation and energy imparted

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    The concepts of ionizing radiation and energy imparted defined by the ICRU in 1971 (Radiation Quantities and Units, Report 19, International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements, Washington, D.C., 1971) are critically analyzed. It is found that the definitions become more consistent by changing them at two points. Charged particles with insufficient kinetic energy to ionize by collision but which are capable of initiating nuclear and elementary particle transformations are suggested to be classified as ionizing particles. In addition, the expressions ''the energy released'' or the ''energy expended'' in a nuclear or elementary particle transformation are suggested to be specified as ''the change in rest-mass energy of nuclei and elementary particles.'' Then the ionization caused by, for instance, nuclear reactions contributes to the energy imparted and the Q-value of an excitation or deexcitation of the electron structure, regarded as an elementary particle transformation, is zero

  16. Three Short Films about Water: Presenting Basic Concepts to Students and Stakeholders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigo, J. S.; Hooper, R. P.; Michel, A.; Wilde, P.; Lilienfeld, L.

    2011-12-01

    Three short form (3 - 5 minute) movies were produced for CUAHSI, to convey basic concepts such as a hydrologic budget, stores and fluxes of water, and the flowpaths and residence time of water. The films were originally intended to be used by scientists to explain the concepts behind potential environmental observatories, but evolved into serving a broader purpose. The films combine still photos, satellite images, animation and video clips, and interviews with CUAHSI members explaining hydrologic concepts in simple, accessible terms. In producing these films, we have found the importance of engaging scientists in conversation first, to develop a script around key accessible concepts and relevant information. Film and communication professionals play a critical role in distilling the scientific explanation and concepts into accessible, engaging film material. The films have been widely distributed through CD and online to educators for use in courses. Additionally, they provide a way to engage stakeholders, particularly land owners, by conveying basic concepts that are necessary to understand the hydrologic and earth science foundation of many of today's political and environmental issues. The films can be viewed online at the CUAHSI website, which also contains links to other film related resources and programs.

  17. Self-Concept and Sport Participation in Sixth Grade Basic School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špela Virag

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to examine self-concept in relation to sport participation among basic school children. The sample included 109 sixth grade students of different Slovenian basic schools. The participants completed the Slovenian version of the SelfPerception Profile for Children – SPPC. The results show significant gender differences in some specific components of self-concept. Boys exhibited higher scores in perceived physical appearance and athletic competence, whereas girls exhibited higher levels in perceived behavioural conduct. Mean values show that students, engaged in organized sport practice, reported higher scores in all self-concept subscales than their inactive peers, although significant differences between these two groups were found in perceived scholastic competence and athletic competence. The study offers a detailed insight into the multidimensional self-perceptions of sixth grade basic school students. The results highlight the importance of physical/sports activity in the self-concept development and can be useful in promoting an active lifestyle among youth.

  18. The Basic Concepts Classification as a Bottom-Up Strategy for the Semantic Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick Szostak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes that the Basic Concepts Classification (BCC could serve as the controlled vocabulary for the Semantic Web. The BCC uses a synthetic approach among classes of things, relators, and properties. These are precisely the sort of concepts required by RDF triples. The BCC also addresses some of the syntactic needs of the Semantic Web. Others could be added to the BCC in a bottom‐up process that carefully evaluates the costs, benefits, and best format for each rule considered.

  19. Computing as Empirical Science – Evolution of a Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polak Paweł

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the evolution of philosophical and methodological considerations concerning empiricism in computer/computing science. In this study, we trace the most important current events in the history of reflection on computing. The forerunners of Artificial Intelligence H.A. Simon and A. Newell in their paper Computer Science As Empirical Inquiry (1975 started these considerations. Later the concept of empirical computer science was developed by S.S. Shapiro, P. Wegner, A.H. Eden and P.J. Denning. They showed various empirical aspects of computing. This led to a view of the science of computing (or science of information processing - the science of general scope. Some interesting contemporary ways towards a generalized perspective on computations were also shown (e.g. natural computing.

  20. The Past Almost Half-Century Landing On The Moon And Still Countering Basic Astronomy Conceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Türkmen, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of study is to investigate the fifth graders’ understandings of the basic astronomy concept and, if they have, to define their misconceptions and then to determine what reason/s behind them. For this purpose, two hundred seventy fifth grade students from 6 different schools participated. Randomly selected 45 students performing under the class average and 6 teachers were interviewed to determine what reason/s behind students’ misconceptions. The results of study showed that many 5...

  1. ECOLOGICAL LIFESTYLE, THE BASIC PRINCIPLES OF THE OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF THE CONCEPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesya Nikolaevna Tarasova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the analysis of approaches to the empirical study of the environmental aspects of lifestyle are presented the basic principles that distinguish ecological way of life off the set of environmental practices that need to be taken into account in empirical measurement, namely: systematicity, conceptuality, contextual conformity and processuality. The article provides a theoretical basis and operational definition as an ecological way of life in general and the principles that distinguish it from other concepts of environmental sociology.

  2. Evolution in health and medicine Sackler colloquium: Making evolutionary biology a basic science for medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesse, Randolph M; Bergstrom, Carl T; Ellison, Peter T; Flier, Jeffrey S; Gluckman, Peter; Govindaraju, Diddahally R; Niethammer, Dietrich; Omenn, Gilbert S; Perlman, Robert L; Schwartz, Mark D; Thomas, Mark G; Stearns, Stephen C; Valle, David

    2010-01-26

    New applications of evolutionary biology in medicine are being discovered at an accelerating rate, but few physicians have sufficient educational background to use them fully. This article summarizes suggestions from several groups that have considered how evolutionary biology can be useful in medicine, what physicians should learn about it, and when and how they should learn it. Our general conclusion is that evolutionary biology is a crucial basic science for medicine. In addition to looking at established evolutionary methods and topics, such as population genetics and pathogen evolution, we highlight questions about why natural selection leaves bodies vulnerable to disease. Knowledge about evolution provides physicians with an integrative framework that links otherwise disparate bits of knowledge. It replaces the prevalent view of bodies as machines with a biological view of bodies shaped by evolutionary processes. Like other basic sciences, evolutionary biology needs to be taught both before and during medical school. Most introductory biology courses are insufficient to establish competency in evolutionary biology. Premedical students need evolution courses, possibly ones that emphasize medically relevant aspects. In medical school, evolutionary biology should be taught as one of the basic medical sciences. This will require a course that reviews basic principles and specific medical applications, followed by an integrated presentation of evolutionary aspects that apply to each disease and organ system. Evolutionary biology is not just another topic vying for inclusion in the curriculum; it is an essential foundation for a biological understanding of health and disease.

  3. Evolution of design concepts for remotely maintainable equipment racks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peishel, F.L.; Mouring, R.W.; Schrock, S.L.

    1986-01-01

    Equipment racks have been used to support process equipment in radioactive facilities for many years. Improvements in the design of these racks have evolved relatively slowly primarily as a result of limitations in the capabilities of maintenance equipment; that is, tasks could only be approached from above using bridge cranes with viewing primarily through periscopes. In recent years, however, technological advances have been made by the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in bridge-mounted servomanipulators with onboard auxiliary hoists and television viewing systems. These advances permit full cell coverage by the manipulator arms which, in turn, allow maintenance tasks to be approached horizontally as well as from above. Maintainable equipment items can be stacked vertically on a rack because total overhead access is less important and maintenance tasks that would not have been attempted in the past can now be performed. These advances permit greater flexibility in the design and cell layout of the racks and lead to concepts that could significantly increase the availability of a facility. The evolution of rack design and a description of the alternative concepts based on present maintenance systems capabilities are presented in this paper. 13 refs., 11 figs

  4. Evolution of Wenger's concept of community of practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coyte Peter C

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the experience of health professionals, it appears that interacting with peers in the workplace fosters learning and information sharing. Informal groups and networks present good opportunities for information exchange. Communities of practice (CoPs, which have been described by Wenger and others as a type of informal learning organization, have received increasing attention in the health care sector; however, the lack of uniform operating definitions of CoPs has resulted in considerable variation in the structure and function of these groups, making it difficult to evaluate their effectiveness. Objective To critique the evolution of the CoP concept as based on the germinal work by Wenger and colleagues published between 1991 and 2002. Discussion CoP was originally developed to provide a template for examining the learning that happens among practitioners in a social environment, but over the years there have been important divergences in the focus of the concept. Lave and Wenger's earliest publication (1991 centred on the interactions between novices and experts, and the process by which newcomers create a professional identity. In the 1998 book, the focus had shifted to personal growth and the trajectory of individuals' participation within a group (i.e., peripheral versus core participation. The focus then changed again in 2002 when CoP was applied as a managerial tool for improving an organization's competitiveness. Summary The different interpretations of CoP make it challenging to apply the concept or to take full advantage of the benefits that CoP groups may offer. The tension between satisfying individuals' needs for personal growth and empowerment versus an organization's bottom line is perhaps the most contentious of the issues that make CoPs difficult to cultivate. Since CoP is still an evolving concept, we recommend focusing on optimizing specific characteristics of the concept, such as support for members

  5. Basic Definitions and Concepts of Systems Approach, Mathematical Modeling and Information Technologies in Sports Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. Лопатьєв

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective is to systematize and adapt the basic definitions and concepts of the systems approach, mathematical modeling and information technologies to sports science. Materials and methods. The research has studied the availability of appropriate terms in shooting sports, which would meet the requirements of modern sports science. It has examined the compliance of the shooting sports training program for children and youth sports schools, the Olympic reserve specialized children and youth schools, schools of higher sports skills, and sports educational institutions with the modern requirements and principles. Research results. The paper suggests the basic definitions adapted to the requirements of technical sports and sports science. The research has thoroughly analyzed the shooting sports training program for children and youth sports schools, the Olympic reserve specialized children and youth schools, schools of higher sports skills, and sports educational institutions. The paper offers options to improve the training program in accordance with the modern tendencies of training athletes.  Conclusions. The research suggests to systematize and adapt the basic definitions and concepts of the systems approach, mathematical modeling and information technologies using the example of technical sports.

  6. [August Weismann's concept of germ plasma as the basic reason for the inadequacy of neo-Darwinism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grodnitskiĭ, D L

    2000-01-01

    Neo-Darwinism is a result of synthesis of Darwinian concept of natural selection with Weismannian concept of germ plasma. The concept of germ plasma is based on a hypothesis that phenotypic traits are completely determined by genes. Hence, neo-Darwinism describes evolution as a process of alternation of gene frequencies under the effect of natural selection. This is an inadequate approach to the study of evolution. In the course of evolution, genes change their functions, whereas phenotypic characters change their corresponding genes. As a result, every step of evolutionary transformation changes the structure of phenotype-to-genotype correspondence. Therefore, phenotypic evolution cannot be described in genetic terms, the same as to human languages cannot be translated one into another whenever the meaning of words is constantly changing. Consequently, Weismannian germ-plasma concept adequately describes the relation of characters to genes only during stasis, but is inapplicable to evolution.

  7. Multidimensional Generalized Functions in Aeroacoustics and Fluid Mechanics. Part 1; Basic Concepts and Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farassat, Fereidoun; Myers, Michael K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is the first part of a three part tutorial on multidimensional generalized functions (GFs) and their applications in aeroacoustics and fluid mechanics. The subject is highly fascinating and essential in many areas of science and, in particular, wave propagation problems. In this tutorial, we strive to present rigorously and clearly the basic concepts and the tools that are needed to use GFs in applications effectively and with ease. We give many examples to help the readers in understanding the mathematical ideas presented here. The first part of the tutorial is on the basic concepts of GFs. Here we define GFs, their properties and some common operations on them. We define the important concept of generalized differentiation and then give some interesting elementary and advanced examples on Green's functions and wave propagation problems. Here, the analytic power of GFs in applications is demonstrated with ease and elegance. Part 2 of this tutorial is on the diverse applications of generalized derivatives (GDs). Part 3 is on generalized Fourier transformations and some more advanced topics. One goal of writing this tutorial is to convince readers that, because of their powerful operational properties, GFs are absolutely essential and useful in engineering and physics, particularly in aeroacoustics and fluid mechanics.

  8. Evolution of the MOS transistor - From conception to VLSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sah, C.T.

    1988-01-01

    Historical developments of the metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistor (MOSFET) during the last sixty years are reviewed, from the 1928 patent disclosures of the field-effect conductivity modulation concept and the semiconductor triodes structures proposed by Lilienfeld to the 1947 Shockley-originated efforts which led to the laboratory demonstration of the modern silicon MOSFET thirty years later in 1960. A survey is then made of the milestones of the past thirty years leading to the latest submicron silicon logic CMOS (Complementary MOS) and BICMOS (Bipolar-Junction-Transistor CMOS combined) arrays and the three-dimensional and ferroelectric extensions of Dennard's one-transistor dynamic random access memory (DRAM) cell. Status of the submicron lithographic technologies (deep ultra-violet light, X-ray, electron-beam) are summarized. Future trends of memory cell density and logic gate speed are projected. Comparisons of the switching speed of the silicon MOSFET with that of silicon bipolar and GaAs field-effect transistors are reviewed. Use of high-temperature superconducting wires and GaAs-on-Si monolithic semiconductor optical clocks to break the interconnect-wiring delay barrier is discussed. Further needs in basic research and mathematical modeling on the failure mechanisms in submicron silicon transistors at high electric fields (hot electron effects) and in interconnection conductors at high current densities and low as well as high electric fields (electromigration) are indicated

  9. Introduction to the Basic-Concepts of Bose-Einstein Condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagnato, V. S.; Magalhaes, K. M. F.; Seman, J. A.; Henn, E. A. L.; Ramos, E. R. F.

    2008-01-01

    This text corresponds to part of the course presented at the ELAF XXXVIII. It is composed of work previously done along the years. The level of this introduction follows the last year of undergraduate and first year of graduate courses. We apologize to the experts on this field, but the idea here is to provide the basic principles and tools for students just getting involved with this topic. For those interested in a deeper reading on the subject, we strongly recommend the review article published by Courteille, Bagnato and Yukalov from which part of this text was extracted. The lecture is divided in three parts: an introduction, the basic concepts of Bose-Einstein Condensation and information about making and probing BECs

  10. Detection and quantification limits: basic concepts, international harmonization, and outstanding ('low-level') issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currie, L.A.

    2004-01-01

    A brief review is given of concepts, basic definitions, and terminology for metrological detection and quantification capabilities, representing harmonized recommendations and norms of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), respectively. Treatment of the (low-level) blank and variance function are discussed in some detail, together with special problems arising with detection decisions and the reporting of low-level data. Key references to the international documents follow, as well as specialized references addressing very low-level counting data, skewed environmental blank distributions, and multiple and multivariate detection decisions

  11. BASIC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg; Schmidt, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    De sidste 10 år har vi været vidner til opkomsten af et nyt evidensbaseret policy paradigme, Behavioural Public Policy (BPP), der søger at integrere teoretiske og metodiske indsigter fra adfærdsvidenskaberne i offentlig politikudvikling. Arbejdet med BPP har dog båret præg af, at være usystematisk...... BPP. Tilgangen består dels af den overordnede proces-model BASIC og dels af et iboende framework, ABCD, der er en model for systematisk adfærdsanalyse, udvikling, test og implementering af adfærdsrettede løsningskoncepter. Den samlede model gør det muligt for forskere såvel som offentligt ansatte...

  12. Basic concept on safety regulation for land disposal of low level radioactive solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    As to the land disposal of low level radioactive solid wastes, to which the countermeasures have become the urgent problem at present, it is considered to be a realistic method to finally store the solid wastes concentratedly outside the sites of nuclear power stations and others, and effort has been exerted by those concerned to realize it. Besides, as for extremely low level radioactive solid wastes, the measures of disposing them corresponding to the radioactivity level are necessary, and the concrete method has been examined. The Committee on Safety Regulation for Radioactive Wastes has discussed the safety regulation for those since April, 1984, and the basic concept on the safety regulation was worked up. It is expected that the safety of the land disposal of low level radioactive solid wastes can be ensured when the safety regulation is carried out in conformity with this basic concept. The present status of the countermeasures to the land disposal of low level radioactive solid wastes is shown. As the concrete method, the disposal in shallow strate has been generally adopted. At present, the plan for the final storage in Aomori Prefecture is considered, and it will be started with the first stage of four-stage control. (Kako, I.)

  13. Basic Concepts in the Taxonomy of Health-Related Behaviors, Habits and Lifestyle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Alonso, Federico; Gomez, Rafael; Walsh, Carolyn O.; Almenara, José; Ruiz, Mencía; Abellán, María José

    2013-01-01

    Background: Health-related Habits (HrH) are a major priority in healthcare. However there is little agreement on whether exercise, diet, smoking or dental hygiene are better described as lifestyles, habits or behaviors, and on what is their hierarchical relationship. This research is aimed at representing the basic concepts which are assumed to constitute the conceptual framework enabling us to interpret and organize the field of HrH. Methods: A group of 29 experts with different backgrounds agreed on the definition and hierarchy of HrH following an iterative process which involved framing analysis and nominal group techniques. Results: Formal definitions of health-related behavior, habit, life-style and life-style profile were produced. In addition a series of basic descriptors were identified: health reserve, capital, risk and load. Six main categories of HrH were chosen based on relevance to longevity: diet/exercise, vitality/stress, sleep, cognition, substance use and other risk. Attributes of HrH are clinical meaningfulness, quantifiability, temporal stability, associated morbidity, and unitarity (non-redundancy). Two qualifiers (polarity and stages of change) have also been described. Conclusions: The concepts represented here lay the groundwork for the development of clinical and policy tools related to HrH and lifestyle. An adaptation of this system to define targets of health interventions and to develop the classification of person factors in ICF may be needed in the future. PMID:23670578

  14. Basic Concepts in the Taxonomy of Health-Related Behaviors, Habits and Lifestyle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    eVITAL group

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health-related Habits (HrH are a major priority in healthcare. However there is little agreement on whether exercise, diet, smoking or dental hygiene are better described as lifestyles, habits or behaviors, and on what is their hierarchical relationship. This research is aimed at representing the basic concepts which are assumed to constitute the conceptual framework enabling us to interpret and organize the field of HrH. Methods: A group of 29 experts with different backgrounds agreed on the definition and hierarchy of HrH following an iterative process which involved framing analysis and nominal group techniques. Results: Formal definitions of health-related behavior, habit, life-style and life-style profile were produced. In addition a series of basic descriptors were identified: health reserve, capital, risk and load. Six main categories of HrH were chosen based on relevance to longevity: diet/exercise, vitality/stress, sleep, cognition, substance use and other risk. Attributes of HrH are clinical meaningfulness, quantifiability, temporal stability, associated morbidity, and unitarity (non-redundancy. Two qualifiers (polarity and stages of change have also been described. Conclusions: The concepts represented here lay the groundwork for the development of clinical and policy tools related to HrH and lifestyle. An adaptation of this system to define targets of health interventions and to develop the classification of person factors in ICF may be needed in the future.

  15. An Investigation of Mathematical Knowledge Related to Mathematics Teachers' Basic Concepts in Sets Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurullah YAZICI

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted in order to examine the subject matter of Mathematics teachers in the context of "Mathematical Knowledge For Teaching" (MKT model of "Basic Concepts in Sets" which is the first topic of the 9th class "Sets". The study group, which is one of the qualitative research methods, used the case study design, constitutes 5 mathematics teachers who work in different education levels (primary and secondary education in the academic year of 2015-2016. Open-ended questions and semi-structured interview form developed by the researcher were used for data collection. A descriptive analysis technique was used to analyze the data obtained through interviews. While analyzing the data, teacher and student textbooks, which were prepared by the Ministry of National Education for the purpose of teaching in 2015-2016 academic year, were taken as a reference. According to the research findings, it was determined that the teachers had deficiencies in the subject field of "Basic Concepts in the Sets" and had superficial knowledge rather than in depth knowledge.

  16. The evolution of the female sexual response concept: Treatment implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damjanović Aleksandar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexual dysfunctions have been the most prevalent group of sexual disorders and include a large number of populations of both sexes. The research of sexual behavior and treatment of women with sexual distress arises many questions related to differences in sexual response of men and women. The conceptualization of this response in modern sexology has changed over time. The objective of our paper was to present the changes and evolution of the female’s sexual response concept in a summarized and integrated way, to analyze the expanded and revised definitions of the female sexual response as well as implications and recommendations of new approaches to diagnostics and treatment according to the established changes. The lack of adequate empirical basis of the female sexual response model is a critical question in the literature dealing with this issue. Some articles report that linear models demonstrate more correctly and precisely the sexual response of women with normal sexual functions in relation to women with sexual dysfunction. Modification of this model later resulted in a circular model which more adequately presented the sexual response of women with sexual function disorder than of women with normal sexual function. The nonlinear model of female sexual response constructed by Basson incorporates the value of emotional intimacy, sexual stimulus and satisfaction with the relationship. Female functioning is significantly affected by multiple psychosocial factors such as satisfaction with the relationship, self-image, earlier negative sexual experience, etc. Newly revised, expanded definitions of female sexual dysfunction try to contribute to new knowledge about a highly contextual nature of woman’s sexuality so as to enhance clinical treatment of dysfunctions. The definitions emphasize the evaluation of the context of women’s problematic sexual experiences.

  17. Evolution of the Astronomy Concepts Along Basic Education Cycle. (Breton Title: Evolução dos Conceitos de Astronomia no Decorrer da Educação Básica.) La Evolución de los Conceptos de Astronomía Durante la Educación Básica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darroz, Luiz Marcelo; da Rosa, Cleci Werner; Becker da Rosa, Álvaro; Samudio Pèrez, Carlos Ariel

    2014-07-01

    Although astronomy is considered one of the older sciences of humanity and that the understanding of its concepts has brought tremendous advances to Science and therefore, to society, it is observed that a significant portion of people live outside of this kind of knowledge. According to the Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais for basic education, it is the school responsibility the dissemination of scientifically correct concepts, including those related to astronomy. Concerning this issue, we present a survey of 140 students of ninth grade of elementary school and 120 third-grade high-school students from four schools in the region of Passo Fundo/RS. We sought to determine, through a questionnaire consisting of open and multiple choice questions, the knowledge of this group of students about the basic terms and astronomical phenomena, and also verify that the hit rate increases as they advance through the different and progressive grades of primary and secondary education. Overall, the results show that the teaching of astronomy in basic education is facing problems. Of the 20 issues investigated, in 17 the indicators are similar in the correct answers given by students for elementary and middle school, revealing that many misconceptions still remain along basic education. This demonstrates that such issues are not - or are rarely - covered during these two school levels. Thus, we conclude that the discussion of concepts related to astronomy should receive greater emphasis on approaching different subjects, requiring a national action in support of their teaching. It is believed that a national action should be supported by a triple pillar of collective actors: the scientific community, semi-professional astronomy community and the school community. Finally, this pillar would be the basis for future discussions related to the performance of these protagonists as a means to promote active changes in the curricular structure, providing, in more effective ways, the

  18. Loess studies in central United States: Evolution of concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follmer, L.R.

    1996-01-01

    Few words in the realm of earth science have caused more debate than "loess". It is a common term that was first used as a name of a silt deposit before it was defined in a scientific sense. Because this "loose" deposit is easily distinguished from other more coherent deposits, it was recognized as a matter of practical concern and later became the object of much scientific scrutiny. Loess was first recognized along the Rhine Valley in Germany in the 1830s and was first noted in the United States in 1846 along the lower Mississippi River where it later became the center of attention. The use of the name eventually spread around the world, but its use has not been consistently applied. Over the years some interpretations and stratigraphic correlations have been validated, but others have been hotly contested on conceptual grounds and semantic issues. The concept of loess evolved into a complex issue as loess and loess-like deposits were discovered in different parts of the US. The evolution of concepts in the central US developed in four indefinite stages: the eras of (1) discovery and development of hypotheses, (2) conditional acceptance of the eolian origin of loess, (3) "bandwagon" popularity of loess research, and (4) analytical inquiry on the nature of loess. Toward the end of the first era around 1900, the popular opinion on the meaning of the term loess shifted from a lithological sense of loose silt to a lithogenetic sense of eolian silt. However, the dual use of the term fostered a lingering skepticism during the second era that ended in 1944 with an explosion of interest that lasted for more than a decade. In 1944, R.J. Russell proposed and H.N. Fisk defended a new non-eolian, property-based, concept of loess. The eolian advocates reacted with surprise and enthusiasm. Each side used constrained arguments to show their view of the problem, but did not examine the fundamental problem, which was not in the proofs of their hypothesis, but in the definition of

  19. Analysis of Students' Conceptions of Basic Magnetism from a Complex Systems Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmer, Miriam; Kriek, Jeanne; Erasmus, Benita

    2018-03-01

    This study established whether 12 South African secondary school physics students had incorrect conceptions of basic magnetism and if they had, to what extent they consistently applied such conceptions. Different scenarios in the form of thought experiments were presented in a clinical interview approach. A complex systems perspective underpinned the study and was firstly used to analyze 12 students' conceptions in terms of intuitive fragments of knowledge elements, structured misconceptions, and theory-like system of knowledge elements. Secondly, coherence in each student's ideas expressed across ten themes using thought experiments was analyzed in an effort to determine variations or coherence in responses. Examples of student explanations and sketches are discussed in the paper to illustrate the conceptual structures they applied. Most of the students in this study used a variety of knowledge elements in accord with a complex systems perspective, but three students seemed to prefer a specific perspective. One student's ideas tended to be mainly fragmented, a second exposed a number of structured misconceptions, while another student's reasoning can be described as a theory-like system of knowledge elements. Accordingly, the emphasis of physics education research should no longer be on the compilation of a list of misconceptions that have to be remedied or replaced, but on the conceptual connections, students make and their associative reasoning patterns (i.e., knowledge systems revealed). It remains for the teacher to use the complex systems perspective as a framework to facilitate students' conceptual development and understanding, proceeding on their existing knowledge systems.

  20. Water chemistry of Atucha II PHWVR. Design concepts and evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chocron, Mauricio; Rodriguez, Ivanna; Duca, Jorge; Fernandez, Ricardo; Rico, Jorge

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Atucha II is a pressurized heavy water vessel reactor designed by Siemens-KWU, currently part of AREVA NP, of 745 MWe and similar to Atucha I, which has been in operation over 25 years. The primary heat transport system (PHTS) is composed by vertical channels (277-313 C degrees) that allocate the fuel elements while the moderator circuit is composed by a partially separated circuit (142-173 C degrees). The moderation power is transferred to the feedwater through the moderator heat exchangers (HX). These HXs operate as the last, high pressure water-steam cycle heaters as well. Materials (with exception of fuel channels and fuel sheaths which are made of zirconium alloys) are all austenitic steels while cobalt containing alloys have been all replaced at the design stage. Steam generator and moderator HX tubing are Alloy 800 made. The core is operated without boron except with the first fresh nucleus. The secondary circuit or Balance of plant (BOP) is similar in conception to that of a PWR but the moderator HXs. It is entirely built of ferrous alloys, has a feedwater-deaerator tank and moisture separator. The energy sink is the Rio de la Plata River. The Reactors Chemistry Department, Chemistry Division, National Atomic Energy Commission, in its character of R and D institution has been committed by CNA II-N.A.S.A Project to prepare the water chemistry specifications, water chemistry engineering and manuals, considering the type of reactor, design and construction aspects and operation characteristics, taking into account the current state-of-the art and worldwide standards. This includes conceptual aspects and implementation and operative aspects as well. This documentation will be released after a designer's review as it has been stated in the respective agreement. Respecting the confidentiality agreement between CNEA and NASA and the confidentiality regarding handling original documentation provided by the designer, it is considered illustrative to

  1. Teaching Future Teachers Basic Astronomy Concepts--Seasonal Changes--at a Time of Reform in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumper, Ricardo

    2006-01-01

    Bearing in mind students' misconceptions about basic concepts in astronomy, the present study conducted a series of constructivist activities aimed at changing future elementary and junior high school teachers' conceptions about the cause of seasonal changes, and several characteristics of the Sun-Earth-Moon relative movements like Moon phases,…

  2. Use of modulated excitation signals in ultrasound. Part I: Basic concepts and expected benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misaridis, Thanassis; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2005-01-01

    This paper, the first from a series of three papers on the application of coded excitation signals in medical ultrasound, discusses the basic principles and ultrasound-related problems of pulse compression. The concepts of signal modulation and matched filtering are given, and a simple model...... of attenuation relates the matched filter response with the ambiguity function, known from radar. Based on this analysis and the properties of the ambiguity function, the selection of coded waveforms suitable for ultrasound imaging is discussed. It is shown that linear frequency modulation (FM) signals have...... that in the case of linear FM signals, a SNR improvement of 12 to 18 dB can be expected for large imaging depths in attenuating media, without any depth-dependent filter compensation. In contrast, nonlinear FM modulation and binary codes are shown to give a SNR improvement of only 4 to 9 dB when processed...

  3. A new look at some basic concepts in arbitrage pricing theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA; Jianming(夏建明); YAN; Jia'an(严加安)

    2003-01-01

    The notion of No Free Lunch with Vanishing Risk (or NFLVR in short) w.r.t. admissible strategies depends on the choice of numeraire. Yan introduced the notion of allowable strategy and showed that condition of NFLVR w.r.t. allowable strategies is independent of the choice of numeraire and is equivalent to the existence of an equivalent martingale measure for the deflated price process. In this paper we establish a version of the Kramkov's optional decomposition theorem in the setting of equivalent martingale measures. Based on this theorem, we have a new look at some basic concepts in arbitrage pricing theory: superhedging, fair price,attainable contingent claims, complete markets and etc.

  4. Diffusion-weighted imaging: basic concepts and application in cerebral stroke and head trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huisman, Thierry A.G.M.

    2003-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) of the brain represents a new imaging technique that extends imaging from depiction of neuroanatomy to the level of function and physiology. DWI measures a fundamentally different physiological parameter compared with conventional MRI. Image contrast is related to differences in the diffusion rate of water molecules rather than to changes in total tissue water. DWI can reveal pathology in cases where conventional MRI remains unremarkable. DWI has proven to be highly sensitive in the early detection of acute cerebral ischemia and seems promising in the evaluation of traumatic brain injury. DWI can differentiate between lesions with decreased and increased diffusion. In addition, full-tensor DWI can evaluate the microscopic architecture of the brain, in particular white matter tracts, by measuring the degree and spatial distribution of anisotropic diffusion within the brain. This article reviews the basic concepts of DWI and its application in cerebral ischemia and traumatic brain injury. (orig.)

  5. Transfer of polarized light in planetary atmospheres basic concepts and practical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Hovenier, Joop W; Domke, Helmut

    2004-01-01

    The principal elements of the theory of polarized light transfer in planetary atmospheres are expounded in a systematic but concise way. Basic concepts and practical methods are emphasized, both for single and multiple scattering of electromagnetic radiation by molecules and particles in the atmospheres of planets in the Solar System, including the Earth, and beyond. A large part of the book is also useful for studies of light scattering by particles in comets, the interplanetary and interstellar medium, circumstellar disks, reflection nebulae, water bodies like oceans and suspensions of particles in a gas or liquid in the laboratory. Throughout the book symmetry principles, such as the reciprocity principle and the mirror symmetry principle, are employed. In this way the theory is made more transparent and easier to understand than in most papers on the subject. In addition, significant computational reductions, resulting from symmetry principles, are presented. Hundreds of references to relevant literature ...

  6. Diffusion-weighted imaging: basic concepts and application in cerebral stroke and head trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huisman, Thierry A.G.M. [Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology Section and MGH-NMR Center, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, MA 02129, Boston (United States); Department of Radiology, University Children' s Hospital Zurich, Steinwiesstrasse 75, 8032, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2003-10-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) of the brain represents a new imaging technique that extends imaging from depiction of neuroanatomy to the level of function and physiology. DWI measures a fundamentally different physiological parameter compared with conventional MRI. Image contrast is related to differences in the diffusion rate of water molecules rather than to changes in total tissue water. DWI can reveal pathology in cases where conventional MRI remains unremarkable. DWI has proven to be highly sensitive in the early detection of acute cerebral ischemia and seems promising in the evaluation of traumatic brain injury. DWI can differentiate between lesions with decreased and increased diffusion. In addition, full-tensor DWI can evaluate the microscopic architecture of the brain, in particular white matter tracts, by measuring the degree and spatial distribution of anisotropic diffusion within the brain. This article reviews the basic concepts of DWI and its application in cerebral ischemia and traumatic brain injury. (orig.)

  7. Basic conception of simultaneous multi-layer hybrid type ECT apparatus 'HEADTOME-2'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, Shigemasa

    1981-01-01

    Following on the one-slice hybrid type ECT (emission computer tomography) apparatus HEADTOME-1 for the measurement of local cerebral blood stream by single-photon measurement and the measurement of local cerebral metabolism by positron measurement, the development of the simultaneous multi-layer hybrid type ECT apparatus HEADTOME-2 was started for the simultaneous measurement of whole brains. Being designed also for obtaining single-photon simultaneous multi-layer tomography, a peculiar mode of collimator structure was employed, thereby the defect in HEADTOME-1 was eliminated. The design of the detector section is as follows: detector array diameter 42 cm, effective vision-field diameter 21 cm, patient tunnel diameter 25 cm, detector rings 3, slice interval 35 cm, and NaI (Tl) crystals 64 per layer. The basic conception of HEADTOME-2, such as the detectors, collimator, the number of slices, specifications, and data processing system, is described. (J.P.N.)

  8. Structural equation modeling with LISREL, PRELIS, and SIMPLIS basic concepts, applications, and programming

    CERN Document Server

    Byrne, Barbara M

    2013-01-01

    This book illustrates the ease with which various features of LISREL 8 and PRELIS 2 can be implemented in addressing research questions that lend themselves to SEM. Its purpose is threefold: (a) to present a nonmathmatical introduction to basic concepts associated with SEM, (b) to demonstrate basic applications of SEM using both the DOS and Windows versions of LISREL 8, as well as both the LISREL and SIMPLIS lexicons, and (c) to highlight particular features of the LISREL 8 and PRELIS 2 progams that address important caveats related to SEM analyses. This book is intended neither as a text on the topic of SEM, nor as a comprehensive review of the many statistical funcitons available in the LISREL 8 and PRELIS 2 programs. Rather, the intent is to provide a practical guide to SEM using the LISREL approach. As such, the reader is "walked through" a diversity of SEM applications that include both factor analytic and full latent variable models, as well as a variety of data management procedures.

  9. SPECIALIZED MAPPING OF CRUSTAL FAULT ZONES. PART 1: BASIC THEORETICAL CONCEPTS AND PRINCIPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Zh. Seminsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term studies of shear zones have included collection of data on fractures showing no indication of displacement which are termed as 'blank' fractures. A method aimed at mapping fault structures and stress fields has been developed on the basis of results of paragenetic analysis of measurements of abundant fractures. The method is termed as 'specialized mapping', firstly, due to its specific structural goal so that to distinguish it from the conventional geological mapping of regions in nature, and, secondly, because of the specific procedure applied to refer to fractures as references to decipher fault-block patterns of natural regions. In Part 1, basic theoretical concepts and principles of specialized mapping are described. Part 2 is being prepared for publication in one of the next issues of the journal; it will cover stages of the proposed method and describe some of the cases of its application.In terms of general organizational principles, specialized mapping is similar to other methods based on structural paragenetic analysis and differs from such methods in types of paragenesises viewed as references to reveal crustal fault zones. Such paragenesises result from stage-by-stage faulting (Fig 2 and Fig. 7 during which stress fields of the 2nd order are regularly changeable within the shear zone. According to combined experimental and natural data, a complete paragenesis of fractures in the shear zone includes a major (1st order fault plane and fractures of other seven types, R, R’, n, n’, t, t’ and T (2nd order (Fig. 4 and Fig 8. At the fracture level, each of them corresponds to a paragenesis including three nearly perpendicular systems of early ruptures (Fig. 1, which are based on two classical patterns of conjugated fractures, one of which is consistent with the position of the fault plane (Fig. 3. Taking into account that strike-slip, reverse and normal faults are similar in terms of mechanics (i.e. they are formed due to

  10. Transactional Infrastructure of the Economy: the Evolution of Concepts and Synthesis of Definitions

    OpenAIRE

    Maruschak Irina Valeryevna

    2017-01-01

    The overview of evolution of market infrastructure concepts is provided, the first concepts of institutional infrastructure are revealed in the paper. Evolutionarily developed narrowing of essence of infrastructure in connection with the priority analysis of its physical (material and technological) components is proved. It ignores the fact that transactional resources, being drivers (driving forces) of economic systems evolution, in turn evolve, becoming harder and harder, combining increase...

  11. THEORETICAL CONTEXT EVOLUTION OF THE CONCEPT OF «NATION»

    OpenAIRE

    Іванов, Микола Семенович; Гречук, О. В.

    2015-01-01

    There are a lot of approaches to understand the concept of «nation». Scientific interest to the problem of determining the nature of this phenomenon is substantiated. Some researchers define the nation as an ethnic community, others have put the basis for understanding the nation’s social and psychological components. In particular, the concept of nation German sociologist M. Weber was formed in the system of concepts such as «nation-state», «culture», and was closely associated with such are...

  12. The evolution of ageing : concepts, causation and calculus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wensink, Maarten Jan

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of ageing is a field flush with misconceptions, misunderstandings, and hiatuses. In this thesis I address the most important misunderstanding and misconceptions, and develop new theory to fill the gaps. This work directly leads to the restatement of the central question in the

  13. Basic concept of fuel safety design and assessment for sodium-cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakae, Nobuo; Baba, Toshikazu; Kamimura, Katsuichiro

    2013-03-01

    'Philosophy in Safety Evaluation of Fast Breeder Reactors' was published as a guideline for safety design and safety evaluation of Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor in Japan. This guideline points out that cladding creep and swelling due to internal pressure should be taken into account since the fuel is used under high temperature and high burnup, and that fuel assembly deformation and the prevention from coolant channel blockage should be taken into account in viewpoints of nuclear and thermal hydraulic design. However, the requirements including their criteria and evaluation items are not described. Two other domestic guidelines related to core design are applied for fuel design of fast reactor, but the description is considered to not be enough to practically use. In addition, technical standard for nuclear fuel used in power reactors is also applied for fuel inspection. Therefore, the technical standard and guideline for fuel design and safety evaluation are considered to be very important issue for nuclear safety regulation. This document has been developed according to the following steps: The guidelines and the technical standards, which are prepared in foreign countries and international organization, were reviewed. The technical background concerning fuel design and safety evaluation for fast reactor was collected and summarized in the world wide scale. The basic concept of fuel safety design and assessment for sodium-cooled fast reactor was developed by considering a wide range of views of the specialists in Japan. In order to discuss the content with foreign specialists IAEA Consultancy Meetings have been held on January, 2011 and January, 2012. The participants of the meeting came from USA, UK, EC, India, China and South Korea. The specialists of IAEA and JNES were also joined. Although this document is prepared for application to 'Monju'(prototype LMFR), it may be applied to experimental, demonstration and commercial types of LMFR after revising it by taking

  14. The Co-evolution of Concepts and Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delton, Andrew W; Sell, Aaron

    2014-04-01

    Does the human mind contain evolved concepts? Many psychologists have doubted this or have investigated only a narrow set (e.g., object, number, cause). Does the human mind contain evolved motivational systems? Many more assent to this claim, holding that there are evolved motivational systems for, among other tasks, social affiliation, aggressive competition, and finding food. An emerging research program, however, reveals that these are not separate questions. Any evolved motivational system needs a wealth of conceptual structure that tethers the motivations to real world entities. For instance, what use is a fear of predators without knowing what predators are and how to respond to them effectively? As we illustrate with case studies of cooperation and conflict, there is no motivation without representation: To generate adaptive behavior, motivational systems must be interwoven with the concepts required to support them, and cannot be understood without explicit reference to those concepts.

  15. Partial least squares path modeling basic concepts, methodological issues and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Noonan, Richard

    2017-01-01

    This edited book presents the recent developments in partial least squares-path modeling (PLS-PM) and provides a comprehensive overview of the current state of the most advanced research related to PLS-PM. The first section of this book emphasizes the basic concepts and extensions of the PLS-PM method. The second section discusses the methodological issues that are the focus of the recent development of the PLS-PM method. The third part discusses the real world application of the PLS-PM method in various disciplines. The contributions from expert authors in the field of PLS focus on topics such as the factor-based PLS-PM, the perfect match between a model and a mode, quantile composite-based path modeling (QC-PM), ordinal consistent partial least squares (OrdPLSc), non-symmetrical composite-based path modeling (NSCPM), modern view for mediation analysis in PLS-PM, a multi-method approach for identifying and treating unobserved heterogeneity, multigroup analysis (PLS-MGA), the assessment of the common method b...

  16. Revisiting the Basic Symptom Concept: Towards Translating Risk Symptoms for Psychosis into Neurobiological Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frauke eSchultze-Lutter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In its initial formulation, the concept of basic symptoms (BSs integrated findings on the early symptomatic course of schizophrenia and first in vivo evidence of accompanying brain aberrations. It argued that the subtle subclinical disturbances in mental processes described as BSs were the most direct self-experienced expression of the underlying neurobiological aberrations of the disease. Other characteristic symptoms of psychosis (e.g., delusions, hallucinations were conceptualized as secondary phenomena, resulting from dysfunctional beliefs and suboptimal coping styles with emerging BSs and/or concomitant stressors. While BSs can occur in many mental disorders, in particular affective disorders, a subset of perceptive and cognitive BSs appear to be specific to psychosis and are currently employed in two alternative risk criteria. However, despite their clinical recognition in the early detection of psychosis, neurobiological research on the aetiopathology of psychosis with neuroimaging methods has only just begun to consider the neural correlate of BSs. This perspective paper reviews the emerging evidence of an association between BSs and aberrant brain activation, connectivity patterns, and metabolism, and outlines promising routes for the use of BSs in aetiopathological research on psychosis.

  17. Successive Evolutions of the Defence in Depth Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulat, B., E-mail: B.Poulat@iaea.org [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Department of Nuclear Safety and Security, Wagramer Strasse 5, P.O. Box 100, 1400 Vienna (Austria)

    2014-10-15

    Following Fukushima Daiichi accident, the Defence-in-depth concept, which is usually defined as a combination of a number of consecutive and independent levels of protection that would have to fail before harmful effects could be caused, has been confirmed as an essential element to be applied in the design of a nuclear facility to protect people and the environment. However, and although the implementation of the defence in depth concept had been required for long, the Fukushima Daiichi accident and the “stress tests” conducted in different countries have revealed deficiencies in its implementation. Consequently within the review of the IAEA safety requirements requested by Member states, it was important to check whether this concept was appropriately defined in order to be properly understood and fully implemented by vendors and operating organizations. By screening the successive definitions of the defence in depth principle and concept, this paper emphasizes the few issues which have been gradually clarified and enhanced to ensure effectiveness of the defence in depth as expressed from its original statement. (author)

  18. Fractional ultrabasic-basic evolution of upper-mantle magmatism: Evidence from xenoliths in kimberlites, inclusions in diamonds and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvin, Yuriy; Kuzyura, Anastasia

    2017-04-01

    ultrabasic-basic magmatic evolution and petrogenesis may be controlled by the following melting relations: from Ol, Opx, L field to cotectic curve Ol, Opx, Cpx, L, peritectic point Ol, Opx, Cpx, Grt, L (loss of Opx), cotectic curve Ol, (Cpx+Jd), Grt, L, peritectic point Ol, (Cpx→Omph), Grt, L (loss of Ol), divariant field Omph,Grt,L, cotectic curve Ky, Omph, Grt, L, eutectic point Ky,Coe,Omph, Grt,L, subsolidus assemblage Ky,Coe,Omph, Grt. The fractional ultrabasic-basic evolution of the upper-mantle silicate-carbonate-carbon melts-solutions, which are responsible for genesis of diamond-and-inclusions associations and diamond-bearing peridotites and eclogites, follows the similar physico-chemical mechanisms (Litvin et al., 2016). This is illustrated by fractional syngenesis diagram for diamonds and associated minerals which construction is based on evidence from high pressure experiments. References Gasparik T., Litvin Yu.A (1997). Stability of Na2Mg2Si2O7 and melting relations on the forsterite - jadeite join at pressures up to 22 GPa. Eur, J. Mineral. 9(2), 311-326. Litvin Yu.A. (1991). Physico-Chemical Study of Melting of Materials from the Deep Earth. Moscow: Nauka. 312 p. Litvin Yu.A., Spivak A.V., Kuzyura A.V. (2016). Fundamentals of the mantle-carbonatite concept of diamond genesis, Geochemistry Internat. 34(10), 839-857.

  19. The evolution of thoughts from ICRP 46 concept of potential exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugier, A.

    2008-01-01

    Since issuing its latest basic recommendations in 1991 as ICRP Publication 60, the Commission has reviewed these recommendations regularly and, from time to time, has issued supplementary reports in the Annals of the ICRP. The extent of these supplementary reports has indicated a need for consolidation and rationalization. New scientific data have also been published since Publication 60, and while the biological and physical assumptions and concepts remain robust, some updating is required. In addition, there have been societal developments in that more emphasis is now given on the protection of individuals and stakeholder involvement in the management of radiological risk. Finally, it has also become apparent that the radiological protection of non-human species should receive more emphasis than in the past. It is against this background that the Commission has now decided to adopt a revised set of Recommendations while at the same time maintaining stability with the previous recommendations. Following several years of an open and worldwide discussion process, mainly through web consultation, ICRP intends to publish its new recommendations in 2007. In the context of AEN/NEA seminar on safety case for the deep disposal of radioactive waste, it appeared necessary first of all to examine the above mentioned evolution of ICRP system, as well as to recall the main ICRP publications on potential exposure and waste disposal and finally to focus on the main recommendations on solid waste disposal which are still valid. (author)

  20. The Max Launch Abort System - Concept, Flight Test, and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) is an independent engineering analysis and test organization providing support across the range of NASA programs. In 2007 NASA was developing the launch escape system for the Orion spacecraft that was evolved from the traditional tower-configuration escape systems used for the historic Mercury and Apollo spacecraft. The NESC was tasked, as a programmatic risk-reduction effort to develop and flight test an alternative to the Orion baseline escape system concept. This project became known as the Max Launch Abort System (MLAS), named in honor of Maxime Faget, the developer of the original Mercury escape system. Over the course of approximately two years the NESC performed conceptual and tradeoff analyses, designed and built full-scale flight test hardware, and conducted a flight test demonstration in July 2009. Since the flight test, the NESC has continued to further develop and refine the MLAS concept.

  1. Work Engagement: Evolution of the Concept and a New Inventory

    OpenAIRE

    Angus C. H. Kuok; Robert J. Taormina

    2017-01-01

    To provide a more integrated framework for the study of work engagement, the literature on this concept was reviewed in order to develop a clearer definition of this construct that (instead of being based on the separate construct of burnout) is based on the original theory of work engagement, which allowed a new, more precise measure of work engagement to be created. The new work engagement items were tested to assess their psychometrics. Their integrity was tested via exploratory and confir...

  2. An approach to the concept and evolution of the logistic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo Ruiz-Cárdenas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the logistic, has become the new paradigm for the competitive advantages generation, so the concept of supply chain management SCM is established as an instrument, througt in the organizations board the supply the creation, distribution and sale of their products; since the real competence ins not carried out in an isolated form among enterprises rather it is perform among supply chain management.

  3. Factors which influence Texas biology teachers' decisions to emphasize fundamental concepts of evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilica, Kimberly Lynn

    The teaching of biological evolution in public science classrooms has been mitigated by a lingering and historic climate of controversy (Skoog, 1984; Skoog, 1979). This controversy has successfully stalled attempts to bring authentic science literacy to the American public (Bybee, 1997). The first encouraging signs of the abatement of this controversy occurred during the early 1990s when several prominent science organizations promoted evolution to its appropriate status as a central and unifying concept in biology (National Science Teachers Association, 1992; National Research Council, 1996; American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1990, 1993). The organizations acknowledged that not only should biological evolution be taught, evolution should stand as one of a select group of essential concepts upon which biology curricula should be built. Bandura's Social Learning theory (Bandura, 1997; Lumpe, Haney, & Czerniak, 2000) and Helms' Model of Identity (Helms, 1998) provide the theoretical basis for this study. Both Bandura and Helms explain the actions of teachers by examining the beliefs and values that influence their decisions. The models distinguish between two types of belief systems: capacity beliefs and context beliefs (Lumpe, et al, 2000; Helms, 1998). Both belief types influence and are influenced by individual actions. In this study, the action to be described is the decision that teachers make about the degree of emphasis on evolution in the classroom. The capacity beliefs that will be examined are teachers' beliefs about their capability to teach evolution. The contextual beliefs in this study are perceptions about students' capabilities to learn evolution, the status of evolution in science, the place of evolution in the biology classroom, the influence of textbooks, time, and community/school values. This study contributes to and extends the knowledge base established by studies of evolution education by exploring the relative amount of

  4. The concepts of exclusion, exemption and clearance as used in the interagency basic safety standards and related IAEA documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webbl, G.A.M.

    1997-01-01

    Mechanisms are needed to remove from regulatory control those exposures or radiation sources that do not warrant concern. In this paper three such conceptual mechanisms are examined from their historical development to their current usage in the Interagency Basic Safety Standards. These concepts are exclusion, applied to exposures that are not amenable to control, exemption applied in advance on the basis of low risks to prevent practices or sources from entering the regulatory control system, and clearance, a similar concept but used to remove sources from the regulatory control system. The application of and interrelationships between these concepts, is described. (author)

  5. Development and Validation of the Life Sciences Assessment: A Measure of Preschool Children's Conceptions of Basic Life Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maherally, Uzma Nooreen

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a science assessment tool termed the Life Sciences Assessment (LSA) in order to assess preschool children's conceptions of basic life sciences. The hypothesis was that the four sub-constructs, each of which can be measured through a series of questions on the LSA, will make a significant…

  6. keV sterile neutrino dark matter from singlet scalar decays: basic concepts and subtle features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merle, Alexander; Totzauer, Maximilian

    2015-01-01

    We perform a detailed and illustrative study of the production of keV sterile neutrino Dark Matter (DM) by decays of singlet scalars in the early Universe. In the current study we focus on providing a clear and general overview of this production mechanism. For the first time we study all regimes possible on the level of momentum distribution functions, which we obtain by solving a system of Boltzmann equations. These quantities contain the full information about the production process, which allows us to not only track the evolution of the DM generation but to also take into account all bounds related to the spectrum, such as constraints from structure formation or from avoiding too much dark radiation. In particular we show that this simple production mechanism can, depending on the regime, lead to strongly non-thermal DM spectra which may even feature more than one peak in the momentum distribution. These cases could have particularly interesting consequences for cosmological structure formation, as their analysis requires more refined tools than the simplistic estimate using the free-streaming horizon. Here we present the mechanism including all concepts and subtleties involved, for now using the assumption that the effective number of relativistic degrees of freedom is constant during DM production, which is applicable in a significant fraction of the parameter space. This allows us to derive analytical results to back up our detailed numerical computations, thus leading to the most comprehensive picture of keV sterile neutrino DM production by singlet scalar decays that exists up to now

  7. The Cosmic Evolution Through UV Spectroscopy (CETUS) Probe Mission Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danchi, William; Heap, Sara; Woodruff, Robert; Hull, Anthony; Kendrick, Stephen E.; Purves, Lloyd; McCandliss, Stephan; Kelly Dodson, Greg Mehle, James Burge, Martin Valente, Michael Rhee, Walter Smith, Michael Choi, Eric Stoneking

    2018-01-01

    CETUS is a mission concept for an all-UV telescope with 3 scientific instruments: a wide-field camera, a wide-field multi-object spectrograph, and a point-source high-resolution and medium resolution spectrograph. It is primarily intended to work with other survey telescopes in the 2020’s (e.g. E-ROSITA (X-ray), LSST, Subaru, WFIRST (optical-near-IR), SKA (radio) to solve major, outstanding problems in astrophysics. In this poster presentation, we give an overview of CETUS key science goals and a progress report on the CETUS mission and instrument design.

  8. Basic Concepts in G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Homo- and Heterodimerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Franco

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, heptahelical G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs were considered to be expressed as monomers on the cell surface of neuronal and non-neuronal cells. It is now becoming evident that this view must be overtly changed since these receptors can form homodimers, heterodimers, and higher-order oligomers on the plasma membrane. Here we discuss some of the basics and some new concepts of receptor homo- and heteromerization. Dimers-oligomers modify pharmacology, trafficking, and signaling of receptors. First of all, GPCR dimers must be considered as the main molecules that are targeted by neurotransmitters or by drugs. Thus, binding data must be fitted to dimer-based models. In these models, it is considered that the conformational changes transmitted within the dimer molecule lead to cooperativity. Cooperativity must be taken into account in the binding of agonists-antagonists-drugs and also in the binding of the so-called allosteric modulators. Cooperativity results from the intramolecular cross-talk in the homodimer. As an intramolecular cross-talk in the heterodimer, the binding of one neurotransmitter to one receptor often affects the binding of the second neurotransmitter to the partner receptor. Coactivation of the two receptors in a heterodimer can change completely the signaling pathway triggered by the neurotransmitter as well as the trafficking of the receptors. Heterodimer-specific drugs or dual drugs able to activate the two receptors in the heterodimer simultaneously emerge as novel and promising drugs for a variety of central nervous system (CNS therapeutic applications.

  9. The Limbic System Conception and Its Historical Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo R. Roxo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the centuries, scientific observers have endeavoured to extend their knowledge of the interrelationships between the brain and its regulatory control of human emotions and behaviour. Since the time of physicians such as Aristotle and Galen and the more recent observations of clinicians and neuropathologists such as Broca, Papez, and McLean, the field of affective neuroscience has matured to become the province of neuroscientists, neuropsychologists, neurologists, and psychiatrists. It is accepted that the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex, hippocampus, and insula participate in the majority of emotional processes. New imaging technologies and molecular biology discoveries are expanding further the frontiers of knowledge in this arena. The advancements of knowledge on the interplay between the human brain and emotions came about as the legacy of the pioneers mentioned in this field. The aim of this paper is to describe the historical evolution of the scientific understanding of interconnections between the human brain, behaviour, and emotions.

  10. Genesis and Development of the Concept of Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilde Sánchez Morales

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Darwin's evolutionary theory, on the date of the publication of On the Origin of Species (1859, immediately attracted the attention, but received unanimous acceptance. Many considered it contrary to religious orthodoxy and a threat that threatened the traditional ideological nature. Others agreed with restrictions and other taken it as absolute truth. Admittedly that the educated opinion of the Victorian Era was strongly conservative and hostile to anything that deviated from orthodoxy. To this we must add that Darwin's approach violated the concept of nature hitherto recognized; so that by broad sectors of the church's reaction ware very aggressive. The discussions and publications on this subject have become especially visible on the occasion of the celebration, in 2009, the bicentennial of the birth of Charles Robert Darwin.

  11. SEMI-ANALYTIC GALAXY EVOLUTION (SAGE): MODEL CALIBRATION AND BASIC RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croton, Darren J.; Stevens, Adam R. H.; Tonini, Chiara; Garel, Thibault; Bernyk, Maksym; Bibiano, Antonio; Hodkinson, Luke; Mutch, Simon J.; Poole, Gregory B.; Shattow, Genevieve M. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, P.O. Box 218, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia)

    2016-02-15

    This paper describes a new publicly available codebase for modeling galaxy formation in a cosmological context, the “Semi-Analytic Galaxy Evolution” model, or sage for short.{sup 5} sage is a significant update to the 2006 model of Croton et al. and has been rebuilt to be modular and customizable. The model will run on any N-body simulation whose trees are organized in a supported format and contain a minimum set of basic halo properties. In this work, we present the baryonic prescriptions implemented in sage to describe the formation and evolution of galaxies, and their calibration for three N-body simulations: Millennium, Bolshoi, and GiggleZ. Updated physics include the following: gas accretion, ejection due to feedback, and reincorporation via the galactic fountain; a new gas cooling–radio mode active galactic nucleus (AGN) heating cycle; AGN feedback in the quasar mode; a new treatment of gas in satellite galaxies; and galaxy mergers, disruption, and the build-up of intra-cluster stars. Throughout, we show the results of a common default parameterization on each simulation, with a focus on the local galaxy population.

  12. SEMI-ANALYTIC GALAXY EVOLUTION (SAGE): MODEL CALIBRATION AND BASIC RESULTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croton, Darren J.; Stevens, Adam R. H.; Tonini, Chiara; Garel, Thibault; Bernyk, Maksym; Bibiano, Antonio; Hodkinson, Luke; Mutch, Simon J.; Poole, Gregory B.; Shattow, Genevieve M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a new publicly available codebase for modeling galaxy formation in a cosmological context, the “Semi-Analytic Galaxy Evolution” model, or sage for short. 5 sage is a significant update to the 2006 model of Croton et al. and has been rebuilt to be modular and customizable. The model will run on any N-body simulation whose trees are organized in a supported format and contain a minimum set of basic halo properties. In this work, we present the baryonic prescriptions implemented in sage to describe the formation and evolution of galaxies, and their calibration for three N-body simulations: Millennium, Bolshoi, and GiggleZ. Updated physics include the following: gas accretion, ejection due to feedback, and reincorporation via the galactic fountain; a new gas cooling–radio mode active galactic nucleus (AGN) heating cycle; AGN feedback in the quasar mode; a new treatment of gas in satellite galaxies; and galaxy mergers, disruption, and the build-up of intra-cluster stars. Throughout, we show the results of a common default parameterization on each simulation, with a focus on the local galaxy population

  13. ”FEMININE WRITING” - THE EVOLUTION OF A CONCEPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela BACALI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of “feminine writing” has caused much controversy in time. It appeared in France after the feminist movements in 1970, as a reaction to the lack of visibility of women writers, and it had three important stages. The first, temporally placed right after the events, whose spokeswoman was Hélène Cixous and was marked by her disputatious spirit. In the second stage, between the 80s and the 90s, a less troubled period, as the revolutionary enthusiasm decreased, the works of reference are those signed by Béatrice Didier and Christine Planté. A third stage is the one we are in at the moment – the stage from the beginning of the millennium – characterized by the fact that gender studies are more and more frequent and the efforts to reinstate a literature that has been ignored for a long time, as well as the concern to bring to the fore the literary femininity multiply. If in the period before the postmodernist era feminine literature had certain peculiarities due also to the social situation of women in a masculine society, nowadays the process of un-differentiation – a reflex of an equality that women gained with so much difficulty – is also manifested in the writing field.

  14. Work Engagement: Evolution of the Concept and a New Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angus C. H. Kuok

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available To provide a more integrated framework for the study of work engagement, the literature on this concept was reviewed in order to develop a clearer definition of this construct that (instead of being based on the separate construct of burnout is based on the original theory of work engagement, which allowed a new, more precise measure of work engagement to be created. The new work engagement items were tested to assess their psychometrics. Their integrity was tested via exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, which retained 18 items for a three-component model having satisfactory fit indexes with three 6-item subscales named Cognitive, Emotional, and Physical Work Engagement. The reliabilities and validities of the new scales were also empirically tested, with reliabilities ranging from .78 to .91; and correlation tests yielded statistical support for the convergent, divergent, and concurrent validities of the new measure. The scales were also tested for application to organizations, with Self-Efficacy as a positive predictor that explained 10% to 16% of the variance for all three work engagement measures. Also, the three work engagement scales were all negative predictors of, and, together, explained 12% of the variance for Turnover Intention. Moreover, work engagement and burnout were empirically shown to be independent constructs.

  15. THE EVOLUTION OF ROMAN FRONTIER CONCEPT AND POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Cupcea

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Roman power is, ideologically, infinite in time and space. Nevertheless, the Roman state had experienced a wide variety of territorial limits, evolving in time and space, more or less throughout a millennium. If at first the Roman state, limited to Rome metropolitan area, later to the Italian peninsula, was easily defensible, beginning with the heavy expansion, also came trouble. The Romans, always innovating, find solutions for the fortification of the contact zones with the Barbarians. The Roman frontier concept was fundamentally different from the modern one. If the defence of Roman possessions was obviously priority, the border should remain an open ensemble, allowing for the free circulation of people and goods, some of the fundamental Roman rights. The peak of Roman expansion, 2nd century A.D. brings also the maximum development of the Empire frontier. Dacia overlaps widely chronologically on this trend, this being one of the reasons for one of the most complex frontier system in the Empire.

  16. Establishing the Basic Concepts of a Healthy Physical Education through an Expert Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Javier López Gutiérrez

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the basic knowledge needed by the sports practitioner who wishes to have a healthy physical education. To determine the necessary basic knowledge, we used a methodology of standard expertise, delving further into the subject by means of a semistructured interview. The interview was taped, transcribed and analyzed through the program Nudist NVivo. We have grouped the common responses emerging from the analysis into different categories, thus obtaining a total of 9 basic considerations which should be habitually transmitted to Physical Education students, so that they may achieve adequate self-management in the practice of physical activity.

  17. 191 Students' Self-Concept and Their Achievement in Basic Science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-07-21

    Jul 21, 2011 ... Achievement Test in Basic showed Science (SATBS) were employed as .... Higher Studies; Teacher-Students opinion and found out that students .... Factors and Pupils Leaning Outcome in Bended Primary Science Project,.

  18. Transactional Infrastructure of the Economy: the Evolution of Concepts and Synthesis of Definitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruschak Irina Valeryevna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The overview of evolution of market infrastructure concepts is provided, the first concepts of institutional infrastructure are revealed in the paper. Evolutionarily developed narrowing of essence of infrastructure in connection with the priority analysis of its physical (material and technological components is proved. It ignores the fact that transactional resources, being drivers (driving forces of economic systems evolution, in turn evolve, becoming harder and harder, combining increase in efficiency of the elements and strengthening of heterogeneity and discrepancy of their structure. Transactional evolution of economy in general and evolution of separate transactional resources of production are the perspective directions of the special analysis. Transactional infrastructure is considered as the integrated complex of institutional, organizational (relational and information infrastructures. The problems of the first concepts of transactional infrastructure connected with difficulties of differentiation of its subsystems always operating jointly are revealed. Prospect of transition from the isolated analysis of separate resources of transactional type (institutes, organizations, information, social capital, trust, etc. to studying corresponding specific software infrastructures and to the system analysis of integrated transactional infrastructure of economy are argued. The transactional sector (as set of the specialized industries and the appropriate collective and individual subjects providing with resources market transaction is offered to be considered as transactional structure of economy. Transactional infrastructure is treated as critically significant factor of economic evolution which in the conditions of post-industrial type of economy gradually purchases transactional nature.

  19. The Efficacy of Multimedia Modules for Teaching Basic Literacy-Related Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayeski, Kristin L.; Kennedy, Michael J.; de Irala, Sandra; Clinton, Elias; Hamel, Melissa; Thomas, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have found that teacher preparation programs are not universally preparing teacher candidates in concepts associated with the alphabetic principle. Yet, the majority of students with reading disabilities or who struggle with beginning reading have difficulty with phonology and concepts associated with the alphabetic principle. The…

  20. Evaluation of the basic concepts of approaches for the coexistence of nuclear energy and people/local community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Shunsuke; Kuroki, Shinichi; Nakagiri, Yuko

    2007-01-01

    In November 2007, the Policy Evaluation Committee compiled the report, which evaluated the basic concepts of approaches to the coexistence of nuclear energy and people/local community, specified in the Framework for Nuclear Energy Policy. The report states that the 'concerned administrative bodies are carrying out measures related to the coexistence of nuclear energy and people/local communities in line with these basic concept' and summarizes fifteen proposals conductive to the betterment and improvement of these measures, which were classified as 1) secure transparency and promotion of mutual understanding with the public, 2) development and enrichment of learning opportunities and public participation, 3) relationship between the government and local governments and 4) coexistence with local residents. The Japan Atomic Energy Commission (JAEC) considers this report to be reasonable. This article presented an overview of this activity. (T. Tanaka)

  1. Basic concept of common reactor physics code systems. Final report of working party on common reactor physics code systems (CCS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-03-01

    A working party was organized for two years (2001-2002) on common reactor physics code systems under the Research Committee on Reactor Physics of JAERI. This final report is compilation of activity of the working party on common reactor physics code systems during two years. Objectives of the working party is to clarify basic concept of common reactor physics code systems to improve convenience of reactor physics code systems for reactor physics researchers in Japan on their various field of research and development activities. We have held four meetings during 2 years, investigated status of reactor physics code systems and innovative software technologies, and discussed basic concept of common reactor physics code systems. (author)

  2. Basic conceptions for development of new-type high-efficiency cooling towers with enhanced reliability, maneuverability and maintainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim En Be; Nedviga, Yu.S.

    1990-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of cooling tower design, construction and operation is analysed. From the analysis formulated are general requirements which can be imposed upon cooling towers serving as most important technological apparatuses in water supply systems of thermal and nuclear power plants. With these requirements taken into account, basic research and technical conceptions are developed to be used in designing new-type cooling towers characterized by enhanced reliability, maneuverability and maintainability

  3. The Effect of Using an Educational Website in Achievement of Bachelor Students in the Course of Basic Concepts in Mathematics at Al al-Bayt University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qudah, Ahmad Hassan

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to detect the effect of using an educational site on the Internet in the collection of bachelor's students in the course of basic concepts in mathematics at Al al-Bayt University, and the study sample consisted of all students in the course basic concepts in mathematics in the first semester of the academic year 2014/2015 and the…

  4. A multi-crucible core-catcher concept: Design considerations and basic results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, I.

    1995-01-01

    A multi-crucible core-catcher concept to be implemented in new light water reactor containments has recently been proposed. This paper deals with conceptual design considerations and the various ways this type of core-catcher could be designed to meet requirements for reactor application. A systematic functional analysis of the multi-crucible core-catcher concept and the results of the preliminary design calculation are presented. Finally, the adequacy of the multi-crucible core-catcher concept for reactor application is discussed. (orig.)

  5. Embedded Information Literacy in the Basic Oral Communication Course: From Conception through Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Kari D.; Pier, Penni M.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the process of embedding information literacy into a basic oral communication course. Discussion includes student performance as an impetus for change, collaborative course design between the oral communication teaching team and instructional librarians, and assessment initiatives. Suggestions for future collaborative work…

  6. Revisiting Preschoolers' Living Things Concept: A Microgenetic Analysis of Conceptual Change in Basic Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opfer, John E.; Siegler, Robert S.

    2004-01-01

    Many preschoolers know that plants and animals share basic biological properties, but this knowledge does not usually lead them to conclude that plants, like animals, are living things. To resolve this seeming paradox, we hypothesized that preschoolers largely base their judgments of life status on a biological property, capacity for teleological…

  7. Teaching Basic Quantum Mechanics in Secondary School Using Concepts of Feynman Path Integrals Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanaro, Maria de los Angeles; Otero, Maria Rita; Arlego, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the teaching of basic quantum mechanics in high school. Rather than following the usual formalism, our approach is based on Feynman's path integral method. Our presentation makes use of simulation software and avoids sophisticated mathematical formalism. (Contains 3 figures.)

  8. Consecutive Course Modules Developed with Simple Materials to Facilitate the Learning of Basic Concepts in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okulu, Hasan Zuhtu; Oguz-Unver, Ayse

    2015-01-01

    From the perspective of teaching, the huge natural laboratory that astronomy provides constitutes the most prominent connection between astronomy and other branches of science. The purpose of this research was to provide educators with activities of observation using simple materials that were developed to facilitate the teaching of basic concepts…

  9. Utilization of old vibro-acoustic measuring equipment to grasp basic concepts of vibration measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darula, Radoslav

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to show that even old vibro-acoustic (analog) equipment can be used as a very suitable teaching equipment to grasp basic principles of measurements in an era, when measurement equipments are more-or-less treated as ‘black-boxes’, i.e. the user cannot see directly how...

  10. Being a (Good) Student: Conceptions of Identity of Adult Basic Education Participants Transitioning to College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Mina

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the perceptions of identity of a category of students that has rarely been studied in the context of higher education. These are adults who have participated in GED preparation or English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) courses in Adult Basic Education (ABE) programs. A college education is increasingly necessary for…

  11. Evolution of the technical concept of fast reactors. The concept of BREST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlov, V.V.

    2001-01-01

    Having understood that conventional power was limited by available fuel resources, as well as the environmental concern, and willing to use the advantages of defense nuclear power achievements, the development of civil nuclear power was initiated. Scarce supply of uranium has been a matter of concern from the very beginning of nuclear power development, but plutonium produced in the thermal reactors was supposed to be used as fuel for the fast reactors which would not be limited by fuel resources. In order to attain high breeding ratio and high power density, the first generation of fast reactors were designed with sodium coolant, uranium blanket to make up for a decrease in breeding ratio if uranium oxides were used as fuel. Development of nuclear power in the sixties and seventies was followed by stagnation. Lessons learned from a 50-year experience and new conditions set for power industry demand a new concept of fast reactor which would meet a variety of cost-efficiency and safety requirements in their present understanding. Development of fast breeders in Russia began after commissioning of BN-350 and completion of BN-600 design. According to present demands BREST reactors should be designed so as to implement consistently the principles of natural safety without deviation from materials and technology which was proven in defense and civil nuclear power facilities

  12. From Conception to Birth: The Forces Responsible for AFCyber’s Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    key  technologies” from the F‐35. A fire‐control array radar system,  thrust ‐ vectoring  jet  nozzle , electro‐   11    Cyber Policy and Organizations: USG...EVOLUTION BY JOHANNES MOORE A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE FACULTY OF THE SCHOOL OF ADVANCED AIR AND SPACE STUDIES FOR COMPLETION OF GRADUATION...contribute in concept and execution toward joint operations. This thesis describes in unprecedented detail the evolution of AFCYBER, identifies the

  13. Berimbau: A simple instrument for teaching basic concepts in the physics and psychoacoustics of music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilão, Rui C.; Melo, Santino L. S.

    2014-12-01

    We address the production of musical tones by a simple musical instrument of the Brazilian tradition: the berimbau-de-barriga. The vibration physics of the string and of the air mass inside the gourd are reviewed. Straightforward measurements of an actual berimbau, which illustrate the basic physical phenomena, are performed using a PC-based "soundcard oscilloscope." The inharmonicity of the string and the role of the gourd are discussed in the context of known results in the psychoacoustics of pitch definition.

  14. The Mediational Role of Psychological Basic Needs in the Relation Between Conception of God and Psychological Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Sebastiano; Gugliandolo, Maria C; Barberis, Nadia; Larcan, Rosalba

    2016-02-01

    Relatively few studies have examined the relationship between conception of God and psychological outcomes in a self-determination theory (SDT) framework. The aim of this study was to examine the role of basic psychological needs as a mediator of the association between conception of God and psychological outcomes. In a sample of 210 religious young adults, we found that the concept of a controlling God was positively associated with feelings of need frustration and depression, whilst the concept of an autonomy-supporting God was positively associated with feelings of need satisfaction and vitality. In turn, need satisfaction promoted feelings of vitality, whereas need frustration led to feelings of depression. The satisfaction of needs was a full mediator of the relationship between autonomy-supporting God and vitality, whilst the frustration of needs was a full mediator of the relationship between controlling God and depression. These findings are discussed in terms of SDT. We also discuss how future research may further increase our understanding of the dynamics involved in concepts of God and psychological outcomes.

  15. Early Science Education: Exploring Familiar Contexts To Improve the Understanding of Some Basic Scientific Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Isabel P.; Veiga, Luisa

    2001-01-01

    Argues that science education is a fundamental tool for global education and that it must be introduced in early years as a first step to a scientific culture for all. Describes testing validity of a didactic strategy for developing the learning of concepts, which was based upon an experimental work approach using everyday life contexts. (Author)

  16. Strain, clone and species : comments on three basic concepts of bacteriology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ursing, BM; Ursing, JB

    Different aspects of the terms strain, clone and species are discussed. The term strain is commonly used to denote a pure culture - here called 'the strain in the taxonomic sense' - but does also refer to a natural concept closely related to the clone. The term clone on the other hand is used both

  17. The Nature of Living Systems: An Exposition of the Basic Concepts in General Systems Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, James G.

    General systems theory is a set of related definitions, assumptions, and propositions which deal with reality as an integrated hierarchy of organizations of matter and energy. In this paper, the author defines the concepts of space, time, matter, energy, and information in terms of their meaning in general systems theory. He defines a system as a…

  18. Basic sculpturing methods as innovatory incentives in the development of aesthetic form concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bente Dahl

    2009-01-01

      Many project teams grapple for a long time with developing ideas to the form concept because of a lack of methods to solve the many form problems they face in sketching. They also have difficulty in translating the project requirements for product proportions or volumes to an aesthetic form...

  19. Basic Concepts for Convection Parameterization in Weather Forecast and Climate Models: COST Action ES0905 Final Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun–Ichi Yano

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The research network “Basic Concepts for Convection Parameterization in Weather Forecast and Climate Models” was organized with European funding (COST Action ES0905 for the period of 2010–2014. Its extensive brainstorming suggests how the subgrid-scale parameterization problem in atmospheric modeling, especially for convection, can be examined and developed from the point of view of a robust theoretical basis. Our main cautions are current emphasis on massive observational data analyses and process studies. The closure and the entrainment–detrainment problems are identified as the two highest priorities for convection parameterization under the mass–flux formulation. The need for a drastic change of the current European research culture as concerns policies and funding in order not to further deplete the visions of the European researchers focusing on those basic issues is emphasized.

  20. The basic concepts of a fuel-power detector for nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, G.F.

    1979-01-01

    Fuel power is proposed as an alternative to neutron or gamma-ray flux for control and safety functions in CANDU power reactors. To satisfy in-core power monitoring requirements, a detector whose dynamic response corresponds to the heat production rate in the fuel is needed. This report explores the concept of tailoring the response characteristics of a mixed-response self-powered flux detector to match the requirements of an ideal fuel-power detector. (author)

  1. The potential of speech act theory for New Testament exegesis: Some basic concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Botha

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Exegetes and biblical scholars are increasingly utilising the precepts of modern literary and linguistic theories in dealing with the text of the Bible. Speech act theory as well offers New Testament exegesis some additional ways and means of approaching the text of the New Testament. This first in a series of two articles making a plea for the continued utilisation and application of this theory to the text of the New Testament, offers a brief discussion of the basic principles of the theory.

  2. Basic concepts and formulations for isotope geochemical modelling of groundwater systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalin, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    This chapter describes the basic chemical principles and methodologies for geochemical models and their use in the field of isotope hydrology. Examples of calculation procedures are given on actual field data. Summary information on available PC software for geochemical modeling is included. The specific software, NETPATH, which can be used for chemical speciation, mass balance and isotope balance along a flow path in groundwater systems, is discussed at some length with an illustrative example of its application to field data. (author). Refs, 14 figs, 15 tabs

  3. Basic concepts and formulations for isotope geochemical modelling of groundwater systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalin, R M [The Queen` s University, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1996-10-01

    This chapter describes the basic chemical principles and methodologies for geochemical models and their use in the field of isotope hydrology. Examples of calculation procedures are given on actual field data. Summary information on available PC software for geochemical modeling is included. The specific software, NETPATH, which can be used for chemical speciation, mass balance and isotope balance along a flow path in groundwater systems, is discussed at some length with an illustrative example of its application to field data. (author). Refs, 14 figs, 15 tabs.

  4. Application of the basic concepts of dynamic materials accountancy to the Tokai spent fuel reprocessing facilityssing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovett, J.E.; Ikawa, Koji; Hirata, Mitsuho; Augustson, R.H.

    1980-11-01

    During 1978 and 1979 individuals from the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, and the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute investigated the feasibility of applying the basic concepts of dynamic materials accountancy to PNC-Tokai reprocessing facility in Japan. The system developed for Tokai requires weekly in-process physical inventories for the process MBA, and allows 2-3 additional days for completion of measurements and for data reduction and evaluation. The study concluded that such a system would be feasible, and recommended that an actual field test should be conducted as soon as feasible. (author)

  5. Basics concepts and clinical applications of oxygen-enhanced MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Yoshiharu; Hatabu, Hiroto

    2007-01-01

    Oxygen-enhanced MR imaging is a new technique, and its physiological significance has not yet been fully elucidated. This review article covers (1) the theory of oxygen enhancement and its relationship with respiratory physiology; (2) design for oxygen-enhanced MR imaging sequencing; (3) a basic study of oxygen-enhanced MR imaging in animal models and humans; (4) a clinical study of oxygen-enhanced MR imaging; and (5) a comparison of advantages and disadvantages of this technique with those of hyperpolarized noble gas MR ventilation imaging. Oxygen-enhanced MR imaging provides not only the ventilation-related, but also respiration-related information. Oxygen-enhanced MR imaging has the potential to replace nuclear medicine studies for the identification of regional pulmonary function, and many investigators are now attempting to adapt this technique for routine clinical studies. We believe that further basic studies as well as clinical applications of this new technique will define the real significance of oxygen-enhanced MR imaging for the future of pulmonary functional imaging and its usefulness for diagnostic radiology and pulmonary medicine

  6. When and how should we teach the basic concepts of radiation beam dosage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewin, T B [Institute of Radiotherapeutics and Oncology, Glasgow (UK)

    1977-06-01

    The difficulty that many trainees, including those medically qualified, have in achieving a sound working grasp of certain basic principles of radiation beam dosage is often underestimated. Since any failure of understanding may seriously impair the efficiency of the team treating the patient, the discussion of these problems (and especially the monitoring of the results of such discussion by means of oral and written tests) deserves a high priority. Contrary to traditional practice, there would seem to be no good reason why teaching of radiation beam dosage, and the effect on dose-rate of changes in the treatment distance or in the amount of scattered radiation, should not begin in the very first week of training and be immediately integrated with discussion of the dose-rate information available at every radiotherapy unit when the patient is treated. A preliminary course of physics lectures does not usually make the understanding of these principles any easier and can be done either concurrently or later. For many radiotherapy trainees and for many doctors in other fields, comparison with drug dosage and with the brightness and scatter of ordinary light beams, avoiding technical terms so far as possible, may achieve a better initial understanding of basic principles than is achieved by mathematical equations and theoretical physics.

  7. When and how should we teach the basic concepts of radiation beam dosage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewin, T.B.

    1977-01-01

    The difficulty that many trainees, including those medically qualified, have in achieving a sound working grasp of certain basic principles of radiation beam dosage is often underestimated. Since any failure of understanding may seriously impair the efficiency of the team treating the patient, the discussion of these problems (and especially the monitoring of the results of such discussion by means of oral and written tests) deserves a high priority. Contrary to traditional practice, there would seem to be no good reason why teaching of radiation beam dosage, and the effect on dose-rate of changes in the treatment distance or in the amount of scattered radiation, should not begin in the very first week of training and be immediately integrated with discussion of the dose-rate information available at every radiotherapy unit when the patient is treated. A preliminary course of physics lectures does not usually make the understanding of these principles any easier and can be done either concurrently or later. For many radiotherapy trainees and for many doctors in other fields, comparison with drug dosage and with the brightness and scatter of ordinary light beams, avoiding technical terms so far as possible, may achieve a better initial understanding of basic principles than is achieved by mathematical equations and theoretical physics. (author)

  8. The ParaShield Entry Vehicle Concept: Basic Theory and Flight Test Development

    OpenAIRE

    Akin, David

    1990-01-01

    With the emergence of microsatellite launch vehicle technology and the development of interest in space commercialization, there is a renewed need for entry vehicle technology to return mass from low earth orbit. This paper documents the ParaShield concept of the Space Systems Laboratory, which is an ultra-low ballistic coefficient (ULβ) entry vehicle. Trajectory simulations show that as the ballistic coefficient is lowered into the range of 100-150 Pa (2-3lb/ft2) the total heat load and peak...

  9. Technological integration in Brazilian public basic education: an analysis of the temporal evolution and the interdisciplinarity of the theme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Cadorin Nicolete

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The complexity inherent to technological integration in the context of basic education in the current reality of the students and the digital culture that permeates society today features a transformation in the dynamics of knowledge construction. It is difficult to connect students, fully involving them in this process when using traditional teaching and learning methods. This new context requires interdisciplinary research for better understanding, involving experts in the field of sciences and more technical areas such as engineering and computer science. To answer the question of how to handle the evolution of interdisciplinary theoretical and empirical studies related to the subject, it was developed a survey in order to understand the evolution, interdisciplinarity and the theoretical and empirical variables related to the integration of technologies in the Brazilian basic education. This article presents the results of the exploratory survey of systematic review procedures of literature in electronic databases, then bibliometric and descriptive analyzes. Among the obtained results, were identified as strategies for the integration of technologies in Brazilian public basic education: Remote Experimentation for Physics, Mobile Learning and Software teaching for practices in Mathematics classes. The studies are divided into six large areas of knowledge: Social Sciences, Decision Science, Computer Science, Engineering, Business and Mathematics, demonstrating the interdisciplinarity of the theme.

  10. Basic concepts in metal work failure after metastatic spine tumour surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Naresh; Patel, Ravish; Wadhwa, Anshuja Charvi; Kumar, Aravind; Milavec, Helena Maria; Sonawane, Dhiraj; Singh, Gurpal; Benneker, Lorin Michael

    2018-04-01

    The development of spinal implants marks a watershed in the evolution of metastatic spine tumour surgery (MSTS), which has evolved from standalone decompressive laminectomy to instrumented stabilization and decompression with reconstruction when necessary. Fusion may not be feasible after MSTS due to poor quality of graft host bed along with adjunct chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy postoperatively. With an increase in the survival of patients with spinal tumours, there is a probability of an increase in the rate of implant failure. This review aims to help establish a clear understanding of implants/constructs used in MSTS and to highlight the fundamental biomechanics of implant/construct failures. Published literature on implant failure after spine surgery and MSTS has been reviewed. The evolution of spinal implants and their role in MSTS has been briefly described. The review defines implant/construct failures using radiological parameters that are practical, feasible, and derived from historical descriptions. We have discussed common modes of implant/construct failure after MSTS to allow further understanding, interception, and prevention of catastrophic failure. Implant failure rates in MSTS are in the range of 2-8%. Variability in patterns of failure has been observed based on anatomical region and the type of constructs used. Patients with construct/implant failures may or may not be symptomatic and present either as early (failures (> 3months). It has been noted that not all the implant failures after MSTS result in revisions. Based on the observed radiological criteria and clinical presentations, we have proposed a clinico-radiological classification for implant/construct failure after MSTS.

  11. Plasma in dentistry: a review of basic concepts and applications in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Hoon; Lee, Mi-Ae; Han, Geum-Jun; Cho, Byeong-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Plasma-related technologies are essential in modern industries. Recently, plasma has attracted increased attention in the biomedical field. This paper provides a basic knowledge of plasma and a narrative review of plasma applications in dentistry. To review plasma applications in dentistry, an electronic search in PubMed, SCOPUS and Google scholar up to December 2012 was done. This was followed by extensive hand searching using reference lists from relevant articles. There have been attempts to apply plasma technology in various fields of dentistry including surface modifications of dental implants, adhesion, caries treatment, endodontic treatment and tooth bleaching. Although many studies were in early stages, the potential value of plasma for dental applications has been demonstrated. To enlarge the scope of plasma applications and put relevant research to practical use, interdisciplinary research with participation of dental professionals is required.

  12. Lens ion transport: from basic concepts to regulation of Na,K-ATPase activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delamere, Nicholas A.; Tamiya, Shigeo

    2009-01-01

    In the late 1960s, studies by George Duncan explained many of the basic principles that underlie lens ion homeostasis. The experiments pointed to a permeability barrier close to the surface of the lens and illustrated the requirement for continuous Na,K-ATPase-mediated active sodium extrusion. Without active sodium extrusion, lens sodium and calcium content increases resulting in lens swelling and deterioration of transparency. Later, Duncan's laboratory discovered functional muscarinic and purinergic receptors at the surface of the lens. Recent studies using intact lens suggest purinergic receptors might be involved in short-term regulation of Na,K-ATPase in the epithelium. Purinergic receptor agonists ATP and UTP selectively activate certain Src family tyrosine kinases and stimulate Na,K-ATPase activity. This might represent part of a control mechanism capable of adjusting, perhaps fine tuning, lens ion transport machinery. PMID:18614168

  13. The evolution of the causation concept and its relation with statistical methods in Epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Lisboa

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A historical review places the first registers of Epidemiology in ancient Greece, with Hippocrates, who identified environmental causes of diseases. Along the centuries, the evolution of the causation concept started to be related to changes in scientific paradigms. In London, during the 17th century, the quantitative method was introduced in Epidemiology, but it was only by the end of the 19th century that the concept of the environment and a mathematical approach to understanding Public Health issues were well established. This was a very rich period to setting new concepts and systematizations in epidemiologic methodology. The beginning of the 20th century consolidated Epidemiology as a scientific discipline and the development of computers in the post-war years brought much advance in this field. Nowadays, Epidemiology plays an important role as it integrates scientific knowledge on the health/disease process to the professional area, participating in population healthcare efforts.

  14. Implementation of basic chemistry experiment based on metacognition to increase problem-solving and build concept understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuhaida, A.

    2018-04-01

    Implementation of the experiment have the three aspects of the goal: 1) develop basic skills of experimenting; 2) develop problem-solving skills with a scientific approach; 3) improve understanding of the subject matter. On the implementation of the experiment, students have some weaknesses include: observing, identifying problems, managing information, analyzing, and evaluating. This weakness is included in the metacognition indicator.The objective of the research is to implementation of Basic Chemistry Experiment based on metacognition to increase problem-solving skills and build concept understanding for students of Science Education Department. The method of this research is a quasi- experimental method with pretest-posttest control group design. Problem-solving skills are measured through performance assessments using rubrics from problem solving reports, and results presentation. The conceptual mastery is measured through a description test. The result of the research: (1) improve the problem solving skills of the students with very high category; (2) increase the students’ concept understanding better than the conventional experiment with the result of N-gain in medium category, and (3) increase student's response positively for learning implementation. The contribution of this research is to extend the implementation of practical learning for some subjects, and to improve the students' competence in science.

  15. BASIC CONCEPTS AND METHODS OF RESTORATION OF NATURAL FORESTS IN EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Korotkov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The modern forest in coniferous-broadleaf (hemiboreal and broadleaf zones of Eastern Europe were formed as a result of long-term human impact. This led to the loss of natural forests and total dominance of secondary forests combined with monocultures of spruce and pine that were created in clearings, burned areas and fallow lands. The reforestation model that was common in the late XIX and first half of the XX century and that was focused on the establishment of monocultures commercially valuable coniferous tree species (spruce and pine over large areas has resulted in declining biological diversity, increasing risk of tree damage due to outbreaks of pathogens and phytophagous insects, decreasing soil fertility, worsening soil and water conservation functions of forests. When restoring the prototypes of natural forests it is necessary to be guided by the modern concepts of synecology and model reconstructions of forest cover in pre-anthropogenic period that are briefly discussed in the paper. Based on the analysis of literature and research experience the author proposes the concept of natural forest restoration that can be applied primarily to the coniferous-broadleaf and broadleaf forests. The main goal is to create multiple-aged and polydominant near-natural forest ecosystems with higher resistance to fungal diseases and outbreaks of phytophagous insects. The field of concept application is specially protected natural areas (national parks, natural parks, wildlife sanctuaries, etc., different categories of protective forests located within the zones of coniferous-broadleaf and broadleaf forests on the East European Plain. The formation of multiple-aged forests is possible when group felling and group-clear felling that largely imitate the natural gap-mosaic stand are implemented. The formation of new generations of trees is possible both due to the natural regeneration and the development of forest cultures. The article provides the full set

  16. Implementation of Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) in basic scientific research: Translating the concept beyond regulatory compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, G B; Chavan, Sapana

    2017-10-01

    The principles of Good Laboratory Practices (GLPs) are mainly intended for the laboratories performing studies for regulatory compliances. However, today GLP can be applied to broad disciplines of science to cater to the needs of the experimental objectives, generation of quality data and assay reproducibility. Considering its significance, it can now be applied in academics; industries as well as government set ups throughout the world. GLP is the best way to promote the reliability, reproducibility of the test data and hence facilitates the international acceptability. Now it is high time to translate and implement the concept of GLP beyond regulatory studies. Thus, it can pave the way for better understanding of scientific problems and help to maintain a good human and environmental health. Through this review, we have made an attempt to explore the uses of GLP principles in different fields of science and its acceptability as well as looking for its future perspectives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Ab initio molecular dynamics: basic concepts, current trends and novel applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuckerman, Mark E

    2002-01-01

    The field of ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD), in which finite temperature molecular dynamics (MD) trajectories are generated with forces obtained from accurate 'on the fly' electronic structure calculations, is a rapidly evolving and growing technology that allows chemical processes in condensed phases to be studied in an accurate and unbiased way. This article is intended to present the basics of the AIMD method as well as to provide a broad survey of the state of the art of the field and showcase some of its capabilities. Beginning with a derivation of the method from the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, issues including the density functional representation of electronic structure, basis sets, calculation of observables and the Car-Parrinello extended Lagrangian algorithm are discussed. A number of example applications, including liquid structure and dynamics and aqueous proton transport, are presented in order to highlight some of the current capabilities of the approach. Finally, advanced topics such as inclusion of nuclear quantum effects, excited states and scaling issues are addressed. (topical review)

  18. Basic concepts about application of dual vibration absorbers to seismic design of nuclear piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, F.; Seto, K.

    1987-01-01

    The design value of damping for nuclear piping systems is a vital parameter in ensuring safety in nuclear plants during large earthquakes. Many experiments and on-site tests have been undertaken in nuclear-industry developed countries to determine rational design values. However damping value in nuclear piping systems is so strongly influenced by many piping parameters that it shows a tremendous dispersion in its experimental values. A new trend has recently appeared in designing nuclear pipings, where they attempt to use a device to absorb vibration energy induced by seismic excitation. A typical device is an energy absorbing device, made of a special material having a high capacity of plasticity, which is installed between the piping and the support. This paper deals with the basic study of application of dual vibration absorbers to nuclear piping systems to accomplish high damping value and reduce consequently seismic response at resonance frequencies of a piping system, showing their effectiveness from not only numerical calculation but also experimental evaluation of the vibration responses in a 3D model piping system equipped with dual two vibration absorbers

  19. Ethics of genetic counseling--basic concepts and relevance to Islamic communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hazmi, Mohsen A F

    2004-01-01

    Scientific advances and technical developments in the field of laboratory diagnosis and their practical applications have raised ethical issues linked to religion, beliefs, lifestyle and traditions prevailing in different communities. Some of these are pertinent to genetic screening at various stages of life, prenatal diagnosis and the right of the genetically affected fetus to live--all aspects relevant to inbreeding marriages. Of relevance are medical and ethical principles based on professional responsibility. These ideological and social aspects encounter the challenges of science and its applications in the health field, which are linked, directly or indirectly, to scientific achievements and applications related to human genetics. Analysis of the human genome and identification of its sequence, and chemical components, and theories arising from connection of human genome components in health and disease conditions, have led to global requirements to outline legal aspects and ethical principles in relation to diagnosis, prevention and health care. This paper presents basic aspects of disseminating genetic information, guiding the individual, the couple, or the concerned family through genetically induced ill health and methods of control and prevention. The paper discusses the elements and manner and presents details of the application of genetic counseling in Islamic communities in light of scientific, religious, social and legal aspects in the Islamic arena.

  20. Using Hollywood Movies to Teach Basic Geological Concepts: A Comparison of Student Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowder, M. E.

    2008-12-01

    Throughout the history of cinema, events based in Earth Science have been the focus of many an action- disaster plot. From the most recent 2008 remake of Journey to the Center of the Earth, to 1965's Crack in the World, and all the way back to the 1925 silent film rendition of The Lost World, Hollywood's obsession with the geological sciences has been clear. These particular sub-genres of disaster films and science fiction present science that, from a Hollywood viewpoint, looks exciting and seems realistic. However, from a scientific viewpoint, the presentations of science are often shockingly incorrect and unfortunately serve to perpetuate common misconceptions. In 2003, Western Kentucky University began offering an elective non-majors science course, Geology and Cinema, to combat these misconceptions while using the framework of Hollywood films as a tool to appeal and connect to a broad student population. To see if this method is truly working, this study performs a student outcome comparison for basic geologic knowledge and general course perception between several sections of standard, lecture-based Introductory Geology courses and concurrent semester sections of Geology and Cinema. Preliminary results indicate that while performance data is similar between the courses, students have a more positive perception of the Cinema sections.

  1. BASIC CONCEPTS OF TAX SECURITY AS PART OF THE FINANCIAL SECURITY OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiy Golikov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to examine the essence of the term «tax security», its fundamental characteristics, such as threats, risks, interests and protection, defined how the state could provide them. The paper analyses economic, social and legal nature of the term. Key indicators of tax security of Ukraine identified and analyzed. In addition, the paper studies an integrated approach of tax security threats. In case of a big amount of threats, they divided to four main sources of threats: the state of the national economy, the state of the public finances, social features of the society and institutional environment. For each source, there have been identified and analyzed the most important factors of threats of tax security of Ukraine. Methodology. The survey based on an analysis of existing studies of Ukrainian and foreign scientists about the essence and nature of "tax security" for the last 10 years. In addition, to determine the essence and the concept, goals and objectives, methods and principles of the economic nature of the tax security, main risks, threats, expectations and results of efficient tax security identified. To build an integrated approach it is necessary to analyse all existing and potential factors of threats. There data used from reports of the State Statistics Service of Ukraine, Ministry of Economic Development and Trade of Ukraine, PWC and World Bank. Results of the survey showed that tax security is such a condition of tax security, when the process of harmonization of taxation provided under effective management of risks and threats that arise in tax area, by taking the necessary measures by the executive bodies to meet the interests of the state, society and taxpayers (business entities, organizations, people. Integrated approach of threats analysis of tax security shows that the most dangerous threats are those that are associated with poor economic development, considerable socio-economic stratification of

  2. Klugheit. Grundbegriff des Praktischen bei Aristoteles [Prudence.The Basic Concept of the Practical in Aristotle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berthold Wald

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article begins by recalling the most important understandings associated with the term prudence in the history of philosophy.Then it introduces the Aristotelian concept of prudence linked to practical truth—prudence seen in contrast to wisdom and knowledge of manufacturing. The article discusses various forms of rational knowledge associated with the right will, and proves the need of linking prudence to all the other ethical virtues based on moral principles. It emphasizes the problem of how to relate general principles to specific actions which involve particular goods. For resolving this problem, the article refers to Aristotle who sees the solution in political ethics which has a significant impact on individual behavior; consequently, good law and proper education are considered to be necessary conditions which allow to form the moral judgment skills for providing a morally good life. The article concludes with the claim that the proper field to capture the specificity of prudence includes the theory of human action and that of human morality.

  3. Current and emerging basic science concepts in bone biology: implications in craniofacial surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Adam J; Mesa, John; Buchman, Steven R

    2012-01-01

    Ongoing research in bone biology has brought cutting-edge technologies into everyday use in craniofacial surgery. Nonetheless, when osseous defects of the craniomaxillofacial skeleton are encountered, autogenous bone grafting remains the criterion standard for reconstruction. Accordingly, the core principles of bone graft physiology continue to be of paramount importance. Bone grafts, however, are not a panacea; donor site morbidity and operative risk are among the limitations of autologous bone graft harvest. Bone graft survival is impaired when irradiation, contamination, and impaired vascularity are encountered. Although the dura can induce calvarial ossification in children younger than 2 years, the repair of critical-size defects in the pediatric population may be hindered by inadequate bone graft donor volume. The novel and emerging field of bone tissue engineering holds great promise as a limitless source of autogenous bone. Three core constituents of bone tissue engineering have been established: scaffolds, signals, and cells. Blood supply is the sine qua non of these components, which are used both individually and concertedly in regenerative craniofacial surgery. The discerning craniofacial surgeon must determine the proper use for these bone graft alternatives, while understanding their concomitant risks. This article presents a review of contemporary and emerging concepts in bone biology and their implications in craniofacial surgery. Current practices, areas of controversy, and near-term future applications are emphasized.

  4. Phases and Actions of the Evolution of the Concept of Quality in Canada and Australia – A Theoretical Modelling of the Development of Knowledge in Business Performance in the XXI Century - The Approach to Excellence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Raluca Popescu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the paper “Phases and Actions of the Evolution of the Concept of Quality in Canada and Australia – A Theoretical Modelling of the Development of Knowledge in Business Performance in the XXI Century - The Approach to Excellence” the authors present the basic features of the phases and actions of the evolution of the concept of quality in Canada and Australia, as a theoretical modelling of the development of knowledge in business performance in the XXI century in order to improve the organizational processes so that excellence can be achieved.

  5. Concepts of particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottfried, K.; Weisskopf, V.F.

    1984-01-01

    This volume elucidates basic and well-established concepts of particle physics for the autodidact who is curious about recent developments in fundamental physics. Elementary quantum mechanics is a background must. Contents, abridged: The evolution of the particle concept before the advent of quantum mechanics. Nonrelativistic quantum mechanics and atomic physics. Relativistic quantum theory. Nuclear phenomena. Subnuclear phenomena. Index

  6. The evolution of the break preclusion concept for nuclear power plants in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, H. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, Koeln (Germany)

    1997-04-01

    In the updating of the Guidelines for PWR`s of the {open_quotes}Reaktor-Sicherheitskommission{close_quotes} (RSK) in 1981 the requirements on the design have been changed with respect to the postulated leaks and breaks in the primary pressure boundary. The major change was a revision in the requirements for pipe whip protection. As a logical consequence of the {open_quotes}concept of basic safety{close_quotes} a guillotine type break or any other break type resulting in a large opening is not postulated any longer for the calculation of reaction and jet forces. As an upper limit for a leak an area of 0, 1 A (A = open cross section of the pipe) is postulated. This decision was based on a general assessment of the present PWR system design in Germany. Since then a number of piping systems have been requalified in the older nuclear power plants to comply with the break preclusion concept. Also a number of extensions of the concept have been developed to cover also leak-assumptions for branch pipes. Furthermore due considerations have been given to other aspects which could contribute to a leak development in the primary circuit, like vessel penetrations, manhole covers, flanges, etc. Now the break preclusion concept originally applied to the main piping has been developed into an integrated concept for the whole pressure boundary within the containment and will be applied also in the periodic safety review of present nuclear power plants.

  7. Basic concepts for designing renewable electricity support aiming at a full-scale transition by 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbruggen, Aviel; Lauber, Volkmar

    2009-01-01

    Renewable electricity supply is a crucial factor in the realization of a low-carbon energy economy. The understanding is growing that a full turn-over of the electricity sectors by 2050 is an elementary condition for avoiding global average temperature increase beyond 2 C. This article adopts such full transition as Europe's target when designing renewable energy policy. An immediate corollary is that phasing-in unprecedented energy efficiency and renewable generation must be paralleled by phasing-out non-sustainable fossil fuel and nuclear power technologies. The double phasing programme assigns novel meaning to nearby target settings for renewable power as share of total power consumption. It requires organizing in the medium term EU-wide markets for green power, a highly demanding task in the present context of poorly functional markets in brown power. The EU Commission's 2007/2008 proposals of expanding tradable certificates markets were not based on solid analysis of past experiences and future necessities. The keystone of sound policies on renewable electricity development is a detailed scientific differentiation and qualification of renewable electricity sources and technologies, for measuring the huge diversity in the field. We provide but structuring concepts about such qualification, because implementation requires extensive research resources. Support for renewable electricity development is organized via feed-in prices or premiums, and via quota obligations connected to tradable green certificates. Green certificates are dependent on physical generated renewable power, but separable and no joint products. Contrary to conventional wisdom we argue their separation in cost analysis but firm linking during trade. A few graphs illustrate the importance of assigning qualities to different renewable power sources/technologies. Feed-in systems based on an acceptable qualification perform generally better than certificate markets imposing uniform approaches on a

  8. Why human evolution should be a basic science for medicine and psychology students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanza, Paola; Parmigiani, Stefano

    2016-06-20

    Based on our teaching experience in medicine and psychology degree programs, we examine different aspects of human evolution that can help students to understand how the human body and mind work and why they are vulnerable to certain diseases. Three main issues are discussed: 1) the necessity to consider not only the mechanisms, i.e. the "proximate causations", implicated in biological processes but also why these mechanisms have evolved, i.e. the "ultimate causations" or "adaptive significance", to understand the functioning and malfunctioning of human body and mind; 2) examples of how human vulnerabilities to disease are caused by phylogenetic constraints, evolutionary tradeoffs reflecting the combined actions of natural and sexual selection, and/or mismatch between past and present environment (i.e., evolution of the eye, teeth and diets, erect posture and their consequences); 3) human pair-bonding and parent-offspring relationships as the result of socio-sexual selection and evolutionary compromises between cooperation and conflict. These psychobiological mechanisms are interwoven with our brain developmental plasticity and the effects of culture in shaping our behavior and mind, and allow a better understanding of functional (normal) and dysfunctional (pathological) behaviors. Thus, because the study of human evolution offers a powerful framework for clinical practice and research, the curriculum studiorum of medical and psychology students should include evolutionary biology and human phylogeny.

  9. Business Service Outsourcing: An Evolution of Concentration on Core Business Concepts and Transaction Cost Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad H. Juma'h

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Present and evaluate the literature with respect to business service outsourcing (BSO, with a particular concentration on a common form of BSO, information technology (IT. The review defines the issues with respect to BSO in terms of drivers and motivations, as well as internal and external implications for BSO companies and their contractors. BSO is an evolution of transaction cost theory and concentration on core business concepts. Although, there are several attempts to explain when a company should outsource, these theoretical frameworks are difficult to apply in practice since satisfaction is a function of expectation and the identification of activities are core commodity is not straightforward.

  10. Dhat syndrome: Evolution of concept, current understanding, and need of an integrated approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujita Kumar Kar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dhat syndrome has often been construed as a culture-bound sexual neurosis of the Indian subcontinent. Symptoms similar to that of Dhat syndrome has been described in other cultures across different time periods. The present paper looks at the evolution of the concept of Dhat syndrome in India. The review also takes an overview of the current understanding of this syndrome in terms of nosological status as a distinct entity and its "culture-bound" status. The narrative finally attempts to discuss the integrated approach for the treatment of this disorder.

  11. Amide proton transfer imaging in clinics: Basic concepts and current and future use in brain tumors and stoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ji Eun [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jahng, Geon Ho [Dept. of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Ha Kyu [Philips Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Amide proton transfer (APT) imaging is gaining attention as a relatively new in vivo molecular imaging technique that has higher sensitivity and spatial resolution than magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging. APT imaging is a subset of the chemical exchange saturation transfer mechanism, which can offer unique image contrast by selectively saturating protons in target molecules that get exchanged with protons in bulk water. In this review, we describe the basic concepts of APT imaging, particularly with regard to the benefit in clinics from the current literature. Clinical applications of APT imaging are described from two perspectives: in the diagnosis and monitoring of the treatment response in brain glioma by reflecting endogenous mobile proteins and peptides, and in the potential for stroke imaging with respect to tissue acidity.

  12. Basic processes and factors determining the evolution of collapse sinkholes: a sensitivity study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanov, Douchko; Kaufmann, Georg

    2017-04-01

    Collapse sinkholes appear as closed depressions at the surface. The origin of these karst features is related to the continuous dissolution of the soluble rock caused by a focussed sub-surface flow. Water flowing along a preferential pathway through fissures and fractures within the phreatic part of a karst aquifer is able to dissolve the rock (limestone, gypsum, anhydrite). With time, the dissolved void volume increases and part of the ceiling above the stream can become unstable, collapses, and accumulates as debris in the flow path. The debris partially blocks the flow and thus activates new pathways. Because of the low compaction of the debris (high hydraulic conductivity), the flow and the dissolution rates within this crushed zone remain high. This allows a relatively fast dissolutional and erosional removal of the crushed material and the development of new empty voids. The void volume expands upwards towards the surface until a collapse sinkhole is formed. The collapse sinkholes exhibit a large variety of shapes (cylindrical, cone-, bowl-shaped), depths (from few to few hundred meters) and diameters (meters up to hundreds of meters). Two major processes are responsible for this diversity: a) the karst evolution of the aquifer - responsible for the dissolutional and erosional removal of material; b) the mechanical evolution of the host rock and the existence of structural features, faults for example, which determine the stability and the magnitude of the subsequent collapses. In this work we demonstrate the influence of the host rock type, the hydrological and geological boundary conditions, the chemical composition of the flowing water, and the geometry and the scale of the crushed zone, on the location and the evolution of the growing sinkhole. We demonstrate the ability of the karst evolution models to explain, at least qualitatively, the growth and the morphology of the collapse sinkholes and to roughly predict their shape and location. Implementing

  13. On new evolution in development of basic technology of atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    In 1988, the expert committee on the promotion of basic technology organized in the Atomic Energy Commission presented the report and showed concretely the subjects of research and development to be promoted in four fields of material technology, artificial intelligence technology, laser technology and the technology for evaluating and reducing radiation risks for atomic energy, and the measures of efficiently promoting the technical development. The research and development achieved the steady results following this report. The creation of radiation resistant materials, the development of knowledge base system and robot technology, the development of the laser technology required for atomic energy, and the technology for evaluating and reducing radiation risks and so on have been carried out. As the measures for efficiently promoting the technical development, the promotion of the active interchange of researches, the intentional rearing of creative men, the positive development of international interchange, the introduction of the new evaluation of research and the promotion of spread of the results of research have been carried out. The state of execution and the new development measures of the development of the basic technology are reported. (K.I.)

  14. Triatominae biochemistry goes to school: evaluation of a novel tool for teaching basic biochemical concepts of Chagas disease vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Leonardo Rodrigues; Cudischevitch, Cecília de Oliveira; Carneiro, Alan Brito; Macedo, Gustavo Bartholomeu; Lannes, Denise; Silva-Neto, Mário Alberto Cardoso da

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate a new approach to teaching the basic biochemistry mechanisms that regulate the biology of Triatominae, major vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. We have designed and used a comic book, "Carlos Chagas: 100 years after a hero's discovery" containing scientific information obtained by seven distinguished contemporary Brazilian researchers working with Triatominaes. Students (22) in the seventh grade of a public elementary school received the comic book. The study was then followed up by the use of Concept Maps elaborated by the students. Six Concept Maps elaborated by the students before the introduction of the comic book received an average score of 7. Scores rose to an average of 45 after the introduction of the comic book. This result suggests that a more attractive content can greatly improve the knowledge and conceptual understanding among students not previously exposed to insect biochemistry. In conclusion, this study illustrates an alternative to current strategies of teaching about the transmission of neglected diseases. It also promotes the diffusion of the scientific knowledge produced by Brazilian researchers that may stimulate students to choose a scientific career. © 2014 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  15. Effects of Geographic Information System on the Learning of Environmental Education Concepts in Basic Computer-Mediated Classrooms in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayobami Gideon Adeleke

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This research paper specifically examined the impact of Geographic Information System (GIS integration in a learning method and on the performance and retention of Environmental Education (EE concepts in basic social studies. Non-equivalent experimental research design was employed. 126 pupils in four intact, computer-mediated classrooms were sampled. Instruments included Envi-Geo Info System (EGIS package and Environmental Information Achievement Test (EAT. The study found no significant effect of treatment on performances of participants in EGIS integrated treatment groups. No significant effect was found across the groups on pupils retention even though, treatment groups retention mean was higher than contemporaries. The study concluded that, adaptation of EGIS into sorted EE concepts will improve learning and might boost retention even in computer-mediated social studies classroom provided the use of GIS is made feasible in Nigeria and adopted into teaching-learning process. It recommended that stakeholders in Nigerian education system should foster workable strategies to improve teaching and learning and that, the use of GIS locally must be placed in the national education objectives. It is in the best interest of the people to learn the rudiments of personal safety, spatial development, incidental natural alerts, as well as preventions and solutions

  16. Design e-learning with flipped learning model to improve layout understanding the concepts basic of the loop control structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handayani, D. P.; Sutarno, H.; Wihardi, Y.

    2018-05-01

    This study aimed in design and build e-learning with classroom flipped model to improve the concept of understanding of SMK students on the basic programming subject. Research and development obtained research data from survey questionnaire given to students of SMK class X RPL in SMK Negeri 2 Bandung and interviews to RPL productive teacher. Data also obtained from questionnaire of expert validation and students' assessment from e-learning with flipped classroom models. Data also obtained from multiple-choice test to measure improvements in conceptual understanding. The results of this research are: 1) Developed e- learning with flipped classroom model considered good and worthy of use by the average value of the percentage of 86,3% by media experts, and 85,5% by subjects matter experts, then students gave judgment is very good on e-learning either flipped classroom model with a percentage of 79,15% votes. 2) e-learning with classroom flipped models show an increase in the average value of pre-test before using e-learning 26.67 compared to the average value post-test after using e- learning at 63.37 and strengthened by the calculation of the index gains seen Increased understanding of students 'concepts by 50% with moderate criteria indicating that students' understanding is improving.

  17. Impact of a didactic sequence on basic Astronomy concepts for graduates in physics of online and classroom modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelzke, M. R.; Barbosa, J. I. L.

    2017-07-01

    In the transition from elementary school to high school, the topics related to astronomy are studied within the curriculae component of physics. In this context, at some point of time a Physic's teacher at this level of education will be faced with the need to work with the contents related to this science. In this way, it is important to broaden the discussion about teacher education, as well as to apply in practice the means for it. Therefore, this work has the objective to present the results, obtained by application of a questionnaire at the beginning (a pre-test), and at the final stage by a course for physics graduates of online and classroom modalities (completed with a post-test), which was organized through the Potentially Significant Teaching Units - PSTUs; and this work also presents the level of satisfaction of them in relation to the course. It is an applied and descriptive research, and the adopted technical procedures consisted of the survey and a participatory research. The data were organized in spreadsheets and the statistical analyzes were made in the sequence, with the objective of establishing comparisons between the studied groups, of their evolution of acquired knowledge and their level of satisfaction, resulting from the development in the course. The results indicate that there has been an evolution of the student's s basic knowledge with relation to the proposed topics of Astronomy in the didactic sequences, i.e., the activities developed in the administered course created a favorable atmosphere for the learning, which is therefore contributing to the initial formation of these physics teachers.

  18. Critical groups - basic concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, M.W.

    1992-01-01

    The potential exposure pathways from the land application site to man are presented. It is emphasised that the critical group is not necessary the population group closest to the source. It could be the group impact by the most significant pathways(s). Only by assessing the importance of each of these pathways and then combining them can a proper choice of critical group be made. It would be wrong to select a critical group on the basis that it seems the most probable one, before the pathways have been properly assessed. A calculation in Carter (1983) suggested that for the operating mine site, the annual doses to an Aboriginal person, a service worker and a local housewife, were all about the same and were in the range 0.1 to 0.2 mSv per year. Thus it may be that for the land application area, the critical group turns out to be non-Aboriginal rather than the expected Aboriginal group. 6 refs., 3 figs

  19. Some basic business concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that recent history has shown that, even for industries in state-owned, centrally planned economies, the measurement of success must relate to making an economic profit or else the industry, and ultimately the entire economy, will fail spectacularly. In short, success must be measured by the KISS (keep it simple, stupid) principle that income must exceed outgo. Let's expand the KISS principle to a definition of success (profit or loss) for an enterprise of any size engaged in oil and gas exploration and development (including acquisition of producing properties): Profit = Income + Drawdown of cash reserves - Outgo. Note that this is not an accounting definition nor a tax definition nor even a business school definition. It is a survival definition. If this measure is negative at any time, the enterprise can continue to exist only at the forbearance of its creditors

  20. Nuclear multifragmentation: Basic concepts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-05-02

    May 2, 2014 ... model [2], isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics (IQMD) model ... easier to implement analytically and its main advantage is that one can ... We also have to state which nuclei are included in computing QN0,Z0 (eq.

  1. Fundamental problems and basic tests of stellar evolution theory - the case of carbon stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iben, I. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Carbon stars are thought to be in the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase of evolution, alternately burning hydrogen and helim in shells above an electron-degenerate carbon-oxygen (CO) core. In model stars of large CO core mass, the source of neutrons for producing the neutron-rich isotopes is the 22 Ne(α,n) 25 Mg reaction and the isotopes are produced in the solar system s-process distribution. In models of small core mass, the 13 C(α,n) 16 O reaction is thought to be responsible for the release of neutrons, and the resultant distribution of neutron-rich isotopes is expected to vary considerably from one star to the next, with the distribution in isolated instances possibly resembling the solar system distribution of r-process isotopes. There is qualitative accord between the properties of carbon stars in the Magellanic Clouds and properties of model stars, but considerably more theoretical work is required before a quantitative match is achieved. (Auth.)

  2. Cultural Diversity as a Concept of Global Law: Origins, Evolution and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Burri

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available “Cultural diversity” has become one of the latest buzzwords on the international policymaking scene. It is employed in various contexts—sometimes as a term close to “biological diversity”, at other times as correlated to the “exception culturelle” and most often, as a generic concept that is mobilised to counter the perceived negative effects of economic globalisation. While no one has yet provided a precise definition of what cultural diversity is, what we can observe is the emergence of the notion of cultural diversity as incorporating a distinct set of policy objectives and choices at the global level. These decisions are not confined, as one might have expected, to cultural policymaking, but rather spill over to multiple governance domains because of the complex linkages inherent to the simultaneous pursuit of economic and other societal goals that cultural diversity encompasses and has effects on. Accounting for these intricate interdependencies, the present article clarifies the origins of the concept of cultural diversity as understood in global law and traces its evolution over time. Observing the dynamics of the concept and the surrounding political and legal developments in particular in the context of trade and culture, the article explores its justification and overall impact on the global legal regime, as well as its discrete effects on different domains of policymaking, such as media and intellectual property. While the analysis is legal in essence, the article is also meant to speak to a broader transdisciplinary public.

  3. Genomic potential hypothesis of evolution: a concept of biogenesis in habitable spaces of the universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabe, Christian

    2002-11-01

    The new hypothesis of evolution establishes a contiguity of life sciences with cosmology, physics, and chemistry, and provides a basis for the search for life on other planets. Chemistry is the sole driving force of the assembly of life, under the subtle guidance exerted by bonding orbital geometry. That phenomenon leads to multiple origins that function on the same principles but are different to the extent that their nucleic acid core varies. Thus, thoughts about the origins of life and the development of complexity have been transferred from the chance orientation of the past to the realm of atomic structures, which are subject to the laws of thermodynamics and kinetics. Evolution is a legitimate subject of basic science, and the complexity of life will submit to the laws of chemistry and physics as the problem is viewed from a new perspective. The paradigm connects life to the big events that formed every sphere of our living space and that keeps conditions fine-tuned for life to persist, perhaps a billion years or more. The "genomic potential" hypothesis leads to the prediction that life like ours is likely to exist in galaxies that are as distant from the origin of the universe as the Milky Way, and that the habitable zone of our galaxy harbors other living planets as well. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. History and evolution of the pharmacophore concept in computer-aided drug design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güner, Osman F

    2002-12-01

    With computer-aided drug design established as an integral part of the lead discovery and optimization process, pharmacophores have become a focal point for conceptualizing and understanding receptor-ligand interactions. In the structure-based design process, pharmacophores can be used to align molecules based on the three-dimensional arrangement of chemical features or to develop predictive models (e.g., 3D-QSAR) that correlate with the experimental activities of a given training set. Pharmacophores can be also used as search queries for retrieving potential leads from structural databases, for designing molecules with specific desired attributes, or as fingerprints for assessing similarity and diversity of molecules. This review article presents a historical perspective on the evolution and use of the pharmacophore concept in the pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and fragrances industry with published examples of how the technology has contributed and advanced the field.

  5. Case management: evolution of the concept in the 80's and 90's

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casarin Santina Nunes Alves

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Case Management is a term that is present in almost every American health care situation. It is mostly used to coordinate community services with satisfactory results for the patient within a certain period of time, with limited resources. Through time, it has been used for different purposes. The goal of this study was to show the historical evolution of case management as expressed by the American nursing literature, in the 80's and 90's, according to its use, meaning, and application, and following a theoretical framework for concept analysis. The data was extracted from two journals: "Nursing Management" and "Journal of Nursing Administration". The publications showed case management portrayed as a process that serves a common goal; where quality and cost of care were the prevalent and influential elements along time, and its practice focusing in a given population defined as of high risk and high cost for health care.

  6. Virtual laboratory learning media development to improve science literacy skills of mechanical engineering students on basic physics concept of material measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannati, E. D.; Setiawan, A.; Siahaan, P.; Rochman, C.

    2018-05-01

    This study aims to determine the description of virtual laboratory learning media development to improve science literacy skills of Mechanical Engineering students on the concept of basic Physics. Quasi experimental method was employed in this research. The participants of this research were first semester students of mechanical engineering in Majalengka University. The research instrument was readability test of instructional media. The results of virtual laboratory learning media readability test show that the average score is 78.5%. It indicates that virtual laboratory learning media development are feasible to be used in improving science literacy skill of Mechanical Engineering students in Majalengka University, specifically on basic Physics concepts of material measurement.

  7. Basic concepts on threat, vulnerability and risk associated to a process of massive use of gaseous fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ospina G, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    The massive use of gaseous fuels, natural gas and liquefied gas of the oil or G.L.P., demands the implementation and complex technologies utilization in each one of the technical activities operative that transportation, distribution and consumption of these fuels requires, in order to accomplish each one of they in the form most efficient and possible insurance. Natural phenomena (earthquakes, landslides) and technical phenomena and caused by the man (terrorism, not appropriate designs of transportation and distribution net, wrong manipulation of the gas equipment) represent a latent danger for the distributors as well as for the users of the gas, generating a threat, of large proportions, for the normal development of the program of massive use of the gas, in any geographical environment where this is implemented. In this article are described the disaster concepts, threat, vulnerability and risk and the form as are related to the project of massive use of the gas, basically to transportation areas, distribution and final use

  8. Japanese contributions to IAEA INTOR workshop, phase two A, part 2, chapter XI: concept evolution, chapter XII: design concept, and chapter XIII: operation and test programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomabechi, Ken; Fujisawa, Noboru; Iida, Hiromasa

    1985-07-01

    This report corresponds to Chapters XI, XII, and XIII of Japanese contribution report to IAEA INTOR Workship, Phase Two A, Part 2. In the phase Two A, Part 2 workshop, we have studied critical technical issues and have also assessed scientific and technical data bases. Based on those results, the INTOR design have been modified to upgrade the design concept. The major modification items are related to plasma beta value, plasma operation scenario, reactor size reduction, neutron fluence, tritium producing blanket, and implementation of active control coils. In those chapters, the concept evolution for the design modification and main results are described. (author)

  9. Opportunities to Learn in School and at Home: How can they predict students' understanding of basic science concepts and principles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Su; Liu, Xiufeng; Zhao, Yandong

    2012-09-01

    As the breadth and depth of economic reforms increase in China, growing attention is being paid to equalities in opportunities to learn science by students of various backgrounds. In early 2009, the Chinese Ministry of Education and Ministry of Science and Technology jointly sponsored a national survey of urban eighth-grade students' science literacy along with their family and school backgrounds. The present study focused on students' understanding of basic science concepts and principles (BSCP), a subset of science literacy. The sample analyzed included 3,031 students from 109 randomly selected classes/schools. Correlation analysis, one-way analysis of variance, and two-level linear regression were conducted. The results showed that having a refrigerator, internet, more books, parents purchasing books and magazines related to school work, higher father's education level, and parents' higher expectation of the education level of their child significantly predicted higher BSCP scores; having siblings at home, owning an apartment, and frequently contacting teachers about the child significantly predicted lower BSCP scores. At the school level, the results showed that being in the first-tier or key schools, having school libraries, science popularization galleries, computer labs, adequate equipment for teaching, special budget for teacher training, special budget for science equipment, and mutual trust between teachers and students significantly predicated higher BSCP scores; and having science and technology rooms, offering science and technology interest clubs, special budget for science curriculum development, and special budget for science social practice activities significantly predicted lower BSCP scores. The implications of the above findings are discussed.

  10. From the Ouchless Place to Comfort Central: the evolution of a concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schechter, Neil L

    2008-11-01

    Although the past 20 years have yielded an outpouring of research on pain management in children, this information is often not applied uniformly to children in the hospital. To address this deficiency, we developed a systematic institution-wide program to reduce pain in all children in the hospital. Our goal was to create a setting in which attention to pain control and comfort measures would be inherent in all inpatient encounters. We labeled the inpatient unit in which this concept evolved as the "Ouchless Place" and described the program and its development in a 1997 Pediatrics article. In this article we describe the further evolution of that concept in light of the broader changes that have occurred in the field of pain management and in our community. The development of a new children's hospital allowed us to examine what we had learned from our previous experience and modify our program on the basis of that review. This new initiative was renamed "Comfort Central," recognizing that although no inpatient experience could be entirely "ouchless," we could still pledge to families that we were attentive to pain and would provide the most comfort that we could. Specific changes that were put in place in our model included the acquisition of administrative authority to mandate change; the extension of our program to the laboratory, outpatient clinics, and physician offices; the incorporation of newer, more active educational models; increased emphasis on collaboration with other services; increased visibility of pain-relief efforts; and development of an ongoing quality improvement program that monitors the efficacy of pain-relief initiatives in the institution. The elements of this program may be applicable to other health care systems that desire to develop a more cohesive system-wide approach to pain reduction in those for whom they provide care.

  11. The Concept of Biosimilars: From Characterization to Evolution-A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, Fadi; Torres, Alfredo; Park, Wungki; de Lima Lopes, Gilberto; Mudad, Raja; Ikpeazu, Chukwuemeka; Abi Aad, Simon

    2018-03-01

    Biologic agents are currently the fastest emerging segment of drug expenditure. Unlike chemically synthesized small-molecule drugs, biologics are more complex, medicinal products produced by a living organism. They have become part of the standard of care in the treatment of a large variety of diseases, such as growth disorders, autoimmune diseases, cancer, cardiovascular illnesses, hemophilia, and rare genetic conditions, to name a few. Biosimilars, which are copies of biologics that are highly similar, were introduced in the market with an aim to offer efficacy that is not clinically different from the originator or reference product, at lower prices. We aim to clarify the concept of biosimilar, from definitions, history, market entry, challenges faced, and future evolution. For that purpose, we performed a literature search on the sites of the medicines regulatory agencies and PubMed from 1990 to 2014 with the keywords "biosimilars," "market," and "regulatory." In 2006, the first biosimilar, somatropin [rDNA origin], was marketed and led the way for biosimilar drug manufacturing. As a result, manufacturers have entered a diversified competition, facing challenges in manufacturing these complex agents, such as immunogenicity and efficiency. Biosimilars are set to evolve differently in various markets, namely the U.S., Japan, the European Union, and the "pharmerging" economies. This article highlights the importance of biosimilars, as a cost-cutting strategy, in the delivery of state-of-the-art health care in developing countries, at a fraction of what a reference biological agent would cost. © AlphaMed Press 2017.

  12. A new concept of relatedness and its significance to the theory of social evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Drummond

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Data on primitively social groups of Hymenoptera have been somewhat contradictory with respect to kin recognition, degree of relatedness and social evolution. This study presents a new concept of "relatedness coefficient". Called "aggregated relatedness", the hypothesis here introduced proposes that genes shared by any two individuals affect formation of family units to an extent dependent on their frequency and manner of dispersion in neighboring populations.Dados de campo de espécies de Hymenoptera primitivamente sociais têm se mostrado contraditórios quanto ao papel do reconhecimento de parentes e do grau de parentesco na evolução social. Nesse trabalho um novo conceito de "coeficiente de parentesco" foi desenvolvido. Esta nova hipótese foi chamada de "parentesco agregado". Nesse conceito, genes compartilhados por dois indivíduos quaisquer têm importância significativa na formação das unidades familiares, dependendo de suas freqüências e da forma como estão distribuídos na população circunvizinha a esta unidade familiar.

  13. An evolutionary concept of polycystic ovarian disease: does evolution favour reproductive success over survival?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleicher, Norbert; Barad, David

    2006-05-01

    Polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) is currently considered as possibly the most frequent cause of female infertility. It is also closely associated with syndrome XX, which, in turn, is closely linked with premature and excessive mortality. Considering these adverse effects on reproductive success and human survival, the evolutionary survival of PCOD, itself considered by many to be a genetically transmitted condition, would, on first glance, appear surprising, since evolution usually discriminates against both of these traits. However, an analysis of some recently reported characteristics of the condition calls for the reconsideration of PCOD as a condition which, from an evolutionary viewpoint, favours decreased reproductive success. Indeed, the reported observations that patients with PCOD will resume spontaneous ovulation with even relatively minor weight loss, and experience later menopause than controls, suggests exactly the opposite. Under an evolutionary concept, PCOD can thus be seen as a 'fertility storage condition' which in fact favours human reproductive success and allows the human species to maintain fertility even during adverse environmental circumstances, such as famines.

  14. The evolution of the concepts of growth, development and other related, during the last decades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek S. Jankiewicz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of such terms as growth, differentiation, development, morphogenesis etc. is discussed. It is proposed that the term (notion development should be understood to comprise "growth", "differentiation" and even "abscission, abortion and necrosis". The term "development" is already used in such a way by some authors. The relations among the phenomena denoted by the above terms are presented in a graphic form to show that they partly overlap. The concept that growth and development represent quantitative and qualitative aspects (respectively of plant augmentation is criticized. The newly introduced terms "development hormone" or "development regulator" seem more suitable than "growth hormone" and "growth regulator", however, these later ones are correct and may be used. The traditional term "phytohormone" and the newly introduced one "phytoregulator" seem convenient, but it must be kept in mind that such substances may transmit information both on a chemical basis as well as on a biophysical one. An example here can be auxin; a change in the wavy character of its transport may serve as information. In some cases a complex of two or more substances may play the role of a hormone, for instance ACC and ethylene, of which one is easily transportable but little active and the other is very active but exerts its action rather locally. Other combinations of activities may exist in other such pairs.

  15. Development of the RFBB “Bargouzine” concept for Ariane-5 evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumin, Yuriy; Kostromin, Sergey F.; Panichkin, Nikolai; Prel, Yves; Osin, Mikhail; Iranzo-Greus, David; Prampolini, Marco

    2009-10-01

    This paper presents the study of a concept of Ariane-5 evolution by means of replacement of two solid-propellant boosters EAP with two liquid-propellant reusable fly-back boosters (RFBBs) called "Bargouzine". The main design feature of the reference RFBB is LOX/LH2 propellant, the canard aerodynamic configuration with delta wings and rocket engines derived from Vulcain-2 identical to that of the central core except for the nozzle length. After separation RFBBs return back by use of air breathing engines mounted in the aft part and then landing on a runway. The aim of the study is a more detailed investigation of critical technology issues concerning reliability, re-usability and maintenance requirements. The study was performed in three main phases: system trade-off, technical consolidation, and programmatic synthesis. The system trade-off includes comparative analysis of two systems with three and four engines on each RFBB and determination of the necessary thrust level taking into account thrust reservation for emergency situations. Besides, this phase contains trade-off on booster aerodynamic configurations and abort scenario analysis. The second phase includes studying of controllability during the ascent phase and separation, thermo-mechanical design, development of ground interfaces and attachment means, and turbojets engine analysis taking into account reusability.

  16. Skulls and Human Evolution: The Use of Casts of Anthropoid Skulls in Teaching Concepts of Human Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipps, John

    1991-01-01

    Proposes the use of a series of 11 casts of fossil skulls as a method of teaching about the theory of human evolution. Students explore the questions of which skulls are "human" and which came first in Homo Sapien development, large brain or upright stance. (MDH)

  17. The Secret of Future Defeat: The Evolution of US Joint and Army Doctrine 1993-2006 and the Flawed Conception of Stability Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-24

    The Secret of Future Defeat: the Evolution of US Joint and Army Doctrine 1993-2006 and the Flawed Conception of Stability Operations A...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Secret of Future Defeat: the Evolution of US Joint and 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Army Doctrine 1993-2006 and the Flawed... The Secret of Future Defeat: the Evolution of US Joint and Army Doctrine 1993-2006 and the Flawed Conception of Stability Operations Approved by

  18. Trust, moral responsibility, the self, and well-ordered societies: the importance of basic philosophical concepts for clinical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccullough, Laurence B

    2002-02-01

    Although the work of clinical ethics is intensely practical, it employs and presumes philosophical concepts from the central branches of philosophy, including metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, and political philosophy. This essay introduces this issue in the Journal on clinical ethics by considering how the papers and book reviews included in it illuminate four such concepts: trust, moral responsibility, the self and well-ordered societies.

  19. The Learning of Science Basic Concept by Using Scientifiq Inquiry to Improve Student’s Thinking, Working, and Scientific Attitude Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wachidatul Linda Yuhanna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This research was a classroom action research which was conducted intwo cycles, each cycle consists of planning, implementing, observing, and reflecting. The data used was quantitative data on student observation sheet instruments. The Results of the study which were obtained from the first cycle showed about the students’ thinking skills and scientific works. They were categorized as excellent 18.18%, good 22.73%, enough 52.27%, and sufficiently less 6.82%. As for the scientific attitude with a very active category of 11.36%, 43.18% and less active 45.45%. It has not reached indicators of success, so it was necessary to cycle II. Cycle II demonstrated the excellent category 38.63%, 36.36% good, good enough18.18% and less 6.81%. While the scientific attitude in the cycle II was an active attitude 29.54%, active 54.54%, inactive 15.91%. These results show an increase from the cycle I to cycle II. The conclusion of this study were: 1 learning the basic concepts of science with scientific inquiry in students can be conducible applied.2 Learning the basic concepts of science with scientific inquiry can improve thinking ability and scientific work and students’ scientific attitude. 3 Learning the basic concepts of science with scientific inquiry be able to explore and develop student creativity in designing simple experiments which can be applied in primary schools.

  20. The role of rules in the evolution of the market system: Hayek’s concept of evolutionary epistemology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Miloš

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the concept of the Darwinian paradigm that, by using Darwin’s principles of variation, selection, and retention, all domains from biology to economic systems can be explained, the advocates of modern evolutionary epistemology have analyzed the role of thoughtful institutional design in the process of cultural evolution. In light of the issue of how human intention and evolutionary forces interact in socioeconomic processes, this paper examines the views of F. A. Hayek, the most famous follower of evolutionary epistemology, on the evolution of the market economy system. In this paper special attention will be devoted to Hayek’s concept of rational liberalism and his evolutionary epistemology. [Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179066: Improving the Competitiveness of the Public and Private Sectors by Networking Competences in the European Integration Process of Serbia

  1. Evolution/Creationism Controversy: Analysis of Past and Current Policies in Public Schools and the Practice of Allowing Students to Opt Out of Learning Evolution Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speake, Jacquelyn Hoffmann

    2011-07-01

    Recent anti-evolution legislation, in the form of Academic Freedom bills, has been introduced in many state legislatures over the last three years. The language in the proposed Academic Freedom bills may allow different interpretations of what can be taught in the science classrooms, and possibly spur parents to take advantage of their perceived parental rights to request their child be opted-out of class when the scientific theory of evolution is taught. Five research questions guided the analysis of participant responses to questions and perception statements focusing on secondary school administrators' actions, perceptions, and awareness as they relate to their decision to allow or not allow a student to opt out of academics, specifically evolution, through the collection of data using a web-based survey. Opt out policies are typically invoked to excuse students from activities to which they or their parents may have religious objections (Scott & Branch, 2008). Florida statutes allow parents to opt out their child from human sexuality and animal dissection. The population consisted of 281 Florida public secondary school administrators, who were divided into two subgroups based on whether they have allowed or would allow a student to opt out of evolution, or have not allowed or would not allow a student to opt out of class when the scientific theory of evolution is taught. Results found that over 70% of the administrators who completed the survey have allowed or would allow parents to opt out their child from learning about the scientific theory of evolution. There was a significant relationship between the decision to allow opt out and the following variables: (a) Free and Reduced Lunch population, (b) grade level served, (c) support for teaching evolution and alternative theories, and (d) the perception that parent rights supersede state statute requiring students to learn evolution. In Florida, any scientific concept that is based on empirical evidence is

  2. Differences in the Concept of Fitness Between Artificial Evolution and Natural Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Adami, Christoph; Bryson, David M.; Ofria, Charles; Pennock, Robert T.; Lichocki, Pawel; Keller, Laurent; Floreano, Dario

    2012-01-01

    Evolutionary algorithms were proposed to automatically find solutions to computational problems, much like evolution discovers new adaptive traits. Lately, they have been used to address challenging questions about the evolution of modularity, the genetic code, communication, division of labor and cooperation. Evolutionary algorithms are increasingly popular in biological studies, because they give precise control over the experimental conditions and allow the study of evolution at unpreceden...

  3. Exploring the Relationship between Secondary Science Teachers' Subject Matter Knowledge and Knowledge of Student Conceptions While Teaching Evolution by Natural Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, Margaret M.; Petrosino, Anthony J.; Delgado, Cesar

    2017-01-01

    The fundamental scientific concept of evolution occurring by natural selection is home to many deeply held alternative conceptions and considered difficult to teach. Science teachers' subject matter knowledge (SMK) and the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) component of knowledge of students' conceptions (KOSC) can be valuable resources for…

  4. The Basic/Helix-Loop-Helix Protein Family in Gossypium: Reference Genes and Their Evolution during Tetraploidization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Yan

    Full Text Available Basic/helix-loop-helix (bHLH proteins comprise one of the largest transcription factor families and play important roles in diverse cellular and molecular processes. Comprehensive analyses of the composition and evolution of the bHLH family in cotton are essential to elucidate their functions and the molecular basis of cotton development. By searching bHLH homologous genes in sequenced diploid cotton genomes (Gossypium raimondii and G. arboreum, a set of cotton bHLH reference genes containing 289 paralogs were identified and named as GobHLH001-289. Based on their phylogenetic relationships, these cotton bHLH proteins were clustered into 27 subfamilies. Compared to those in Arabidopsis and cacao, cotton bHLH proteins generally increased in number, but unevenly in different subfamilies. To further uncover evolutionary changes of bHLH genes during tetraploidization of cotton, all genes of S5a and S5b subfamilies in upland cotton and its diploid progenitors were cloned and compared, and their transcript profiles were determined in upland cotton. A total of 10 genes of S5a and S5b subfamilies (doubled from A- and D-genome progenitors maintained in tetraploid cottons. The major sequence changes in upland cotton included a 15-bp in-frame deletion in GhbHLH130D and a long terminal repeat retrotransposon inserted in GhbHLH062A, which eliminated GhbHLH062A expression in various tissues. The S5a and S5b bHLH genes of A and D genomes (except GobHLH062 showed similar transcription patterns in various tissues including roots, stems, leaves, petals, ovules, and fibers, while the A- and D-genome genes of GobHLH110 and GobHLH130 displayed clearly different transcript profiles during fiber development. In total, this study represented a genome-wide analysis of cotton bHLH family, and revealed significant changes in sequence and expression of these genes in tetraploid cottons, which paved the way for further functional analyses of bHLH genes in the cotton genus.

  5. Basic hydraulics

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, P D

    1982-01-01

    BASIC Hydraulics aims to help students both to become proficient in the BASIC programming language by actually using the language in an important field of engineering and to use computing as a means of mastering the subject of hydraulics. The book begins with a summary of the technique of computing in BASIC together with comments and listing of the main commands and statements. Subsequent chapters introduce the fundamental concepts and appropriate governing equations. Topics covered include principles of fluid mechanics; flow in pipes, pipe networks and open channels; hydraulic machinery;

  6. Triatominae Biochemistry Goes to School: Evaluation of a Novel Tool for Teaching Basic Biochemical Concepts of Chagas Disease Vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Leonardo Rodrigues; de Oliveria Cudischevitch, Cecília; Carneiro, Alan Brito; Macedo, Gustavo Bartholomeu; Lannes, Denise; da Silva-Neto, Mário Alberto Cardoso

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate a new approach to teaching the basic biochemistry mechanisms that regulate the biology of Triatominae, major vectors of "Trypanosoma cruzi," the causative agent of Chagas disease. We have designed and used a comic book, "Carlos Chagas: 100 years after a hero's discovery" containing scientific information obtained by…

  7. Evolution and Implementation of the NASA Robotic Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis Concept of Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, L.; Hejduk, M.; Frigm, R.; Duncan, M.

    2014-09-01

    On-orbit collisions pose a significant mission risk to satellites operating in the space environment. Recognizing the likelihood and consequence of on-orbit collisions, NASA has taken several proactive measures to mitigate the risk of both a catastrophic loss of mission and the increase in the space debris population. In fall 2004, NASA GSFC established an Agency-wide, institutionalized process and service for identifying and reacting to predicted close approaches. The team responsible for executing this mission is the NASA Robotic Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis (CARA) team. By fall 2005, this process had resulted in the execution of the first collision avoidance maneuver by a NASA unmanned satellite. In February 2008, NASA adopted a policy, documented in NASA Procedural Requirement 8715.6a Process for Limiting Orbital Debris that directed maneuverable satellites to have such an on-orbit collision mitigation process. In 2009, NASA decided to require support for all operational satellites. By January 2014, the CARA team has processed nearly 500,000 close approach messages from the Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) and has assisted our mission customers with planning and executing over 75 collision avoidance maneuvers for unmanned satellites in LEO, GEO, and HEO orbital regimes. With the increase in number of operational missions supported; growth in the orbital debris environment due to events such as the intentional destruction of the Fengyun 1-C satellite in 2007 and collision between Iridium-33 and Cosmos-2251; and improvements to the United States Space Surveillance Network (SSN) and its ability to track, catalog, and screen against small debris objects, the demands on the CARA process have consequently required the CARA Concept of Operations (CONOPS) to evolve to manage those demands. This evolution is centered on the ability to effectively and efficiently manage JSpOC, CARA, and Mission Operations resources, applying operational and analytical

  8. Fishing-induced evolution of growth: concepts, mechanisms and the empirical evidence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Enberg, K.; Jørgensen, C.; Dunlop, E. S.; Varpe, Ø.; Boukal S., David; Baulier, L.; Eliassen, S.; Heino, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 1 (2012), s. 1-25 ISSN 0173-9565 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : fisheries -induced evolution * fishing-induced evolution * growth Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.561, year: 2012 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1439-0485.2011.00460.x/pdf

  9. Ethics of Plant Breeding: The IFOAM Basic Principles as a Guide for the Evolution of Organic Plant Breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammerts Van Bueren, E.

    2010-01-01

    The basic values of organic agriculture is laid down in the IFOAM four basic principles: the principle of health, the principle of ecology, the principle of fairness and the principle of care. These principles and the consequences and challenges for the further development of organic plant breeding

  10. Evolution of meanings of the concept of gen in students of higher education in the teaching of biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Diez de Tancredi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to identify initial meanings of the concept of the gene among 50 students from the career training of teachers of biology at the University Pedagogical Experimental Libertador (UPEL, Pedagogical Institute of Caracas, who enrolled in Cell Biology (BC and General Genetics (GG, as well as those built from a didactic intervention that formed part of Participatory Action Research (PAR. The work is based on the Theory of Meaningful Learning of Ausubel, on the principles of critical meaningful learning facilitators of Moreira, and on elements of the educational act of Novak. To investigate the evolution of meaning of this concept were used: questionnaires, interviews, maps and graphic representations of concepts developed by students. The data analysis provides a differentiated evolution of the meaning of the gene in the students, which corresponds to the didactic intervention and teachers, actions in both courses. It shows the importance of organizing the teaching in a potentially meaningful way to reflect on the content and learning, so that abstract concepts such as gene, must be presented with a critical and reflexive epistemology.

  11. El juego como alternativa para la enseñanza de conceptos básicos de salud Games as an alternative for teaching basic health concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Castillo Lizardo

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Determinar la eficacia de una estrategia educativa basada en juegos populares para la enseñanza de conceptos básicos de salud en niños de edad escolar que asisten a la escuela. Métodos. Estudio de intervención desarrollado en la ciudad de Durango, México, en junio de 2000, en el que se incluyeron 300 niños de 9 a 11 años de edad, asignados de manera aleatoria al grupo A, que utilizó una versión modificada del juego popular mexicano Serpientes y Escaleras, en la que se incluyeron mensajes sobre conceptos básicos de salud, o al grupo B, o grupo de control. Resultados. En condiciones basales no hubo diferencias de edad, escolaridad ni sobre conceptos básicos de salud entre los niños de ambos grupos. Después de la intervención educativa la calificación sobre conceptos básicos de salud fue de 9,3 ± 0,8 para el grupo A y de 7,5 ± 1,1 para el B (P Objective. To determine, for the teaching of basic health concepts to school-age children, the effectiveness of an educational strategy based on traditional children's games. Methods. Intervention study carried out in the city of Durango, Mexico, in June 2000 with 300 children from 9 to 11 years old. The children were randomly divided into two groups. The children in Group A used a modified version of a Mexican popular game called Serpientes y Escaleras (Snakes and Ladders that included messages on basic health concepts; the children in Group B made up the control group and did not play the modified game. Results. At baseline there were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of age, grade level, or their scores on a knowledge test of basic health concepts. After the educational intervention, the health concepts test scores, out of a maximum possible of 10, were 9.3 ± 0.8 for Group A and 7.5 ± 1.1 for Group B (P < 0.001. Conclusions. Using games that include health and hygiene messages can be an alternative for teaching basic health concepts.

  12. The concept and tasks of the basic method of investigation of crimes related to illegal trafficking narcotic drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chistova L.E.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available the article substantiates the need to develop a basic methodology for investigating crimes related to illicit trafficking in narcotic drugs due to the fact that these crimes are inextricably linked, interdependent and can not be carried out separately from each other in principle. The existing separate private methods develop recommendations for the investigation of specific types of crimes, for example, only smuggling of these funds or their sale and they are not connected with each other. In this regard, it is not possible to trace the whole cycle of criminal activity from the introduction of controlled means to illicit trafficking prior to their sale. Therefore, the basic methodology for investigating such crimes will allow us to trace the whole chain of criminal acts and to reveal all the circumstances that affect the full and objective investigation of such crimes.

  13. Medical Students’ View about the Effects of Practical Courses on Learning the General Theoretical Concepts of Basic Medical Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Leila Roshangar; Fariba Salek Ranjbarzadeh; Reza Piri; Mahdi Karimi Shoar; Leila Rasi Marzabadi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The basic medical sciences section requires 2.5 years in the medical education curriculum. Practical courses complement theoretical knowledge in this period to improve their appreciation. Despite spending lots of disbursement and time, this period’s efficacy is not clearly known. Methods: One hundred thirty-three General Practitioner (GP) students have been included in this descriptive cross-sectional study and were asked by questionnaire about the positive impact of practical c...

  14. Astronomy: a proposal to promote meaningful learning of basic concepts of Astronomy in the shaping of teachers of High School Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Marcelo Darroz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available One presents, in this article, the process of drawing up and developing a didactic proposal about basic concepts of Astronomy. This proposal, which sought to build an educational path for the occurrence of significant learning of the concepts covered, was developed under an extension course to a group of 13 students graduating from teacher training in High School of a public school in Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul. Initially one has developed the teaching methodology following from the Theory of Meaningful Learning Conceptions. The traces of meaningful learning have been obtained by means of instruments of research and evaluation, such as conceptual maps and role playing of the studied contents where the students transposed the approached subjects into new contexts. The obtained results from the learning questionnaires reached a high rate of hits. Through the registries of the meetings and the representations by drawings of the concepts, one has noticed that the students have genuinely understood the approached subjects. Through the conceptual maps the students were able to establish a progressive differentiation and an integrative reconciliation of the concepts. Thus, it was concluded that a methodology that takes into consideration what the student already knows it is essential to develop the joy of Science, the construction of meaning and appreciation of what is being learned.

  15. A Study on Identifying the Misconceptions of Pre-Service and In-Service Teachers about Basic Astronomy Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanli, Uygar

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, the importance given to astronomy teaching in science and physics education has been gradually increasing. At the same time, teachers play an important role in remediating the misconceptions about astronomy concepts held by students. The present study aims to determine the misconceptions of pre-service physics teachers (n = 117),…

  16. DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A PROPOSAL TO TEACH BASIC CONCEPTS IN PRIMARY PHYSICAL BASED ON THE THEORY OF MEANINGFUL LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Paola Martínez-Salcedo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discloses an experimental strategy that aims to contribute to science education in Colombia, through a proposal focusing on learning the concept of force. For this experimental teaching sequence for teaching and learning the concept of "Force" was developed from the perspective of meaningful learning of Ausubel; and applied to students from fifth grade of School Lucrecio Jaramillo Vélez, headquarters "Agrupación Colombia".  Initially an investigation of prior knowledge about the concept of force, according to the results was performed was developed and applied a proposal that included questionnaires, field work, observations in science classes, surveys, experiments, socialization of work laboratory and representations contained in the notebooks, the results of these activities were analyzed qualitatively, obtaining an evaluation and interpretation of the acquired learning observed in students an appropriation of the concept, possibly because it is a proposal of an experimental nature, focusing on the student, in which the exploration of phenomena by experimental means is favorable, the approach of hypotheses and troubleshooting, besides favoring an approach to enjoyment and joy by science.

  17. Basic Thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duthil, P

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to present a general thermodynamic basis that is useable in the context of superconductivity and particle accelerators. The first part recalls the purpose of thermodynamics and summarizes its important concepts. Some applications, from cryogenics to magnetic systems, are covered. In the context of basic thermodynamics, only thermodynamic equilibrium is considered

  18. Basic Thermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duthil, P [Orsay, IPN (France)

    2014-07-01

    The goal of this paper is to present a general thermodynamic basis that is useable in the context of superconductivity and particle accelerators. The first part recalls the purpose of thermodynamics and summarizes its important concepts. Some applications, from cryogenics to magnetic systems, are covered. In the context of basic thermodynamics, only thermodynamic equilibrium is considered.

  19. Recent and future evolution of the conception of French PWR facing safety and reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vignon, D.; Morin, R.; Brisbois, J.

    1987-11-01

    The realization of French construction of REP(54 units) has conducted at an original approach of the safety. Now this approach is finished and the totality of detained dispositions are taken in consideration for the conception of the new standardized plant series N4. For the future, after this rationalization of this safety approach, a research on the simplification of the conception is provided. This new conception is based on the experience returns and on the results of the probabilistic studies on the 900 and 1300 MWe reactors. This rationalization, the new concepts and the research of simplifications are illustrated by concrete examples in this presentation [fr

  20. Evolution of the liquid metal reactor: The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.

    1989-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept has been under development at Argonne National Laboratory since 1984. A key feature of the IFR concept is the metallic fuel. Metallic fuel was the original choice in early liquid metal reactor development. Solid technical accomplishments have been accumulating year after year in all aspects of the IFR development program. But as we make technical progress, the ultimate potential offered by the IFR concept as a next generation advanced reactor becomes clearer and clearer. The IFR concept can meet all three fundamental requirements needed in a next generation reactor. This document discusses these requirements: breeding, safety, and waste management. 5 refs., 4 figs

  1. Teaching the basic concepts of the Special Relativity in the secondary school in the framework of the Theory of Conceptual Fields of Vergnaud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rita Otero, Marıa; Arlego, Marcelo; Prodanoff, Fabiana

    2016-05-01

    In this work, we investigate the conceptualization of the basic aspects of Special Relativity (SR) at secondary school level. We have conducted our research along the lines of the Theory of Conceptual Fields (TCF) proposed by Vergnaud (Vergnaud G., Infancia y Aprendizaje, 36 (2013) 131). The investigation consisted in the design, implementation and evaluation of a didactic sequence specially elaborated to conceptualize the basic aspects of SR. The proposal is composed by eight situations, complemented with a set of exercises. It was carried out in two classrooms with students of the last year of secondary level (17years old, N = 43 . The conceptualization was analyzed in a classroom context, where the selected situations are essential to promote the emergence of the relevant concepts.

  2. Teaching the basic concepts of the Special Relativity in the secondary school in the framework of the Theory of Conceptual Fields of Vergnaud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otero, Maria Rira; Arlego, Marcelo; Prodanoff, F.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we investigate the conceptualization of the basic aspects of Special Relativity (SR) at secondary school level. We have conducted our research along the lines of the Theory of Conceptual Fields (TCF) proposed by Vergnaud (Vergnaud G., Infancia y Aprendizaje, 36 (2013) 131). The investigation consisted in the design, implementation and evaluation of a didactic sequence specially elaborated to conceptualize the basic aspects of SR. The proposal is composed by eight situations, complemented with a set of exercises. It was carried out in two classrooms with students of the last year of secondary level (17 years old, N = 43). The conceptualization was analyzed in a classroom context, where the selected situations are essential to promote the emergence of the relevant concepts.

  3. The evolution of the branding concept as a tool of the competitive advantages of the country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereshchuk Maryna Ihorivna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the essence of the concepts of "brand" and "branding", the genesis of the concepts "nation brand" and "nation branding". Among other things, it shows that this marketing technique was considered and is still considered in a pragmatic aspect as a mean of ensuring the country's competitive advantages in the global arena.

  4. Wavelet basics

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, Y T

    1995-01-01

    Since the study of wavelets is a relatively new area, much of the research coming from mathematicians, most of the literature uses terminology, concepts and proofs that may, at times, be difficult and intimidating for the engineer. Wavelet Basics has therefore been written as an introductory book for scientists and engineers. The mathematical presentation has been kept simple, the concepts being presented in elaborate detail in a terminology that engineers will find familiar. Difficult ideas are illustrated with examples which will also aid in the development of an intuitive insight. Chapter 1 reviews the basics of signal transformation and discusses the concepts of duals and frames. Chapter 2 introduces the wavelet transform, contrasts it with the short-time Fourier transform and clarifies the names of the different types of wavelet transforms. Chapter 3 links multiresolution analysis, orthonormal wavelets and the design of digital filters. Chapter 4 gives a tour d'horizon of topics of current interest: wave...

  5. Comparison of transports expected under different waste management concepts: determination of basic data for application in risk analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alter, U.; Mielke, H.G.; Wehner, G.

    1983-01-01

    According to the Atomic Act, article 9a, paragraph 1, the licensees of nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany are obliged to provide for the management of radioactive wastes resulting from the operation of these plants. Concerning the provisions to be made for the management of such wastes, two concepts are discussed: nuclear reprocessing and final waste disposal center (Nukleares Entsorgungszentrum, NEZ); and the integrated spent fuel and waste management concept (Integriertes Entsorgungskonzept, IEK). Unlike the NEZ, the IEK-concept may have different sites for the following fuel cycle facilities: intermediate spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning and final disposal, and uranium and plutonium fuel element fabrication facilities. The fundamental differences of the pertinent transports are presented. Transport scenarios expected under the two alternatives NEZ and IEK have been elaborated for the purpose of a data collection covering the following aspects: materials to be shipped, number of packages shipped, number of packages shipped per transport, transport by rail or by road, transport routes and distances, and duration of transports

  6. Relationship of beliefs, epistemology, and alternate conceptions to college student understanding of evolution and common descent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joyce Catherine

    Quantitative and qualitative methodologies were combined to explore the relationships between an understanding of evolution and 4 epistemology factors: (a) control of learning, (b) speed of learning , (c) stability of knowledge, and (d) belief in evolution/creationism. A 17-item instrument was developed that reliably measured a belief in creationism and subtle differences between this belief and an acceptance of evolution. The subjects were 45 students enrolled in a biology course at a 2-year community college. Evolution was taught in a traditional format, and common descent was taught in an inquiry-based laboratory session consisting of: (a) a comparison of hemoglobin DNA sequences of the human, chimpanzee, and gorilla; and (b) a comparison of 8 primate skull casts, including the modern human, chimpanzee, gorilla, and five prehistoric fossils. Prior to instruction the students completed an epistemology questionnaire and a knowledge test about evolution. Five weeks after instruction, the students completed a posttest. A t-test revealed no differences between the pretest and the posttest. However, the group of students that scored higher on the posttest than on the pretest was found to have a stronger belief in the uncertainty of knowledge. Pearson r was computed to check for relationships between the 4 epistemological factors and the understanding of evolution. There was a significant relationship between a belief in creationism and a lessor understanding of evolution as measured on both the pretest and the posttest (ps humans evolved from the chimpanzee. Additionally, students grouped the 8 primate skulls into just 2 categories: human and animals. Other misconceptions included a nonevolutionary use of the term, related, and the use of naive organizers leading to incorrect conclusions about the relatedness of certain organisms, such as a connection between fish and whales. These organizers included: (a) similarity of traits, (b) environment, (c) relative size, (d

  7. Advanced plutonium assembly (apa): evolution of the concept, neutron and thermal-mechanic constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porta, J.; Gastaldi, B.; Krakowiak-Aillaud, C.; Buffe, L.

    2002-01-01

    The APA concept was developed with the aim of increasing the PWR capacity to burn plutonium emerging from the recycling of irradiated fuels in the French park of nuclear power plants. At first, a concept using annular pins was optimised to allow a good consumption of plutonium while preserving an acceptable neutron control. To cope with the technological problems and those posed by the manufacture of these annular pins, an alternative concept is presented here. It poses as initial conditions the conservation of both the plutonium balance and the respect of the reactivity control. (authors)

  8. Astrophysical Concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Harwit, Martin

    2006-01-01

    This classic text, aimed at senior undergraduates and beginning graduate students in physics and astronomy, presents a wide range of astrophysical concepts in sufficient depth to give the reader a quantitative understanding of the subject. Emphasizing physical concepts, the book outlines cosmic events but does not portray them in detail: it provides a series of astrophysical sketches. For this fourth edition, nearly every part of the text has been reconsidered and rewritten, new sections have been added to cover recent developments, and others have been extensively revised and brought up to date. The book begins with an outline of the scope of modern astrophysics and enumerates some of the outstanding problems faced in the field today. The basic physics needed to tackle these questions are developed in the next few chapters using specific astronomical processes as examples. The second half of the book enlarges on these topics and shows how we can obtain quantitative insight into the structure and evolution of...

  9. US long distance fiber optic networks: Technology, evolution and advanced concepts. Volume 3: Advanced networks and economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-10-01

    This study projects until 2000 the evolution of long distance fiber optic networks in the U.S. Volume 1 is the executive Summary. Volume 2 focuses on fiber optic components and systems that are directly related to the operation of long-haul networks. Optimistic, pessimistic and most likely scenarios of technology development are presented. The activities of national and regional companies implementing fiber long haul networks are also highlighted, along with an analysis of the market and regulatory forces affecting network evolution. Volume 3 presents advanced fiber optic network concept definitions. Inter-LATA traffic is quantified and forms the basis for the construction of 11-, 15-, 17-, and 23-node networks. Using the technology projections from Volume 2, a financial model identifies cost drivers and determines circuit mile costs between any two LATAs. A comparison of fiber optics with alternative transmission concludes the report.

  10. US long distance fiber optic networks: Technology, evolution and advanced concepts. Volume 2: Fiber optic technology and long distance networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-10-01

    The study projects until 2000 the evolution of long distance fiber optic networks in the U.S. Volume 1 is the Executive Summary. Volume 2 focuses on fiber optic components and systems that are directly related to the operation of long-haul networks. Optimistic, pessimistic and most likely scenarios of technology development are presented. The activities of national and regional companies implementing fiber long haul networks are also highlighted, along with an analysis of the market and regulatory forces affecting network evolution. Volume 3 presents advanced fiber optic network concept definitions. Inter-LATA traffic is quantified and forms the basis for the construction of 11-, 15-, 17-, and 23-node networks. Using the technology projections from Volume 2, a financial model identifies cost drivers and determines circuit mile costs between any two LATAs. A comparison of fiber optics with alternative transmission concludes the report.

  11. Liquid metal embrittlement. From basic concepts to recent results related to structural materials for liquid metal spallation targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorse, D.; Goryachev, S.; Auger, T.

    2003-01-01

    At first, the basic features of LME are recalled (definition, characteristics, embrittling couples), together with classical experimental features and open questions. Then, a review of a few very recent results obtained on classical embrittling couples but using new powerful investigation techniques developed in France is proposed. Second we define LMC. The 'LME-LMC' correlation is postulated. Then we concentrate on the LME-LMC problem related to the build-up of the Liquid Metal Spallation target in the frame of the MEGAPIE project. The Russian expertise on LME is briefly mentioned. Then we present some results obtained in the frame of the Groupement de Recherche' GEDEON, focusing on steel grade T91 in contact with lead and lead-bismuth eutectic, in agreement with Russian literature. (author)

  12. Concept and basic performance of an in-pile experimental reactor for fast breeder reactors using fast driver core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obara, Toru; Sekimoto, Hiroshi

    1997-01-01

    The possibility of an in-pile experimental reactor for fast breeder reactors using a fast driver core is investigated. The driver core is composed of a particle bed with diluted fuel. The results of various basic analyses show that this reactor could perform as follows: (1) power peaking at the outer boundary of test core does not take place for large test core; (2) the radial power distribution in test fuel pin is expected to be the same as a real reactor; (3) the experiments with short half width pulse is possible; (4) for the ordinary MOX core, enough heating-up is possible for core damage experiments; (5) the positive effects after power burst can be seen directly. These are difficult for conventional thermal in-pile experimental reactors in large power excursion experiments. They are very attractive advantages in the in-pile experiments for fast breeder reactors. (author)

  13. Medical Students’ View about the Effects of Practical Courses on Learning the General Theoretical Concepts of Basic Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Roshangar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The basic medical sciences section requires 2.5 years in the medical education curriculum. Practical courses complement theoretical knowledge in this period to improve their appreciation. Despite spending lots of disbursement and time, this period’s efficacy is not clearly known. Methods: One hundred thirty-three General Practitioner (GP students have been included in this descriptive cross-sectional study and were asked by questionnaire about the positive impact of practical courses on learning theoretical knowledge. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics. Result: The agreement in “Practical Head and Neck Anatomy” was 40.91% ± 29.45, in “Practical Trunk Anatomy” was 63.62% ± 2.32 and in “Practical Anatomy of Extremities” was 56.16% ± 2.57. In “Practical Histology”, agreement was 69.50%±2.19; “Practical Biophysics” was 45.97%±2.25, “Practical Physiology” 61.75%±2.17; “Practical Biochemistry” 36.28%±2.42; “Practical Pathology” 59.80%±2.53; “Practical Immunology” 56.25%±26.40; “Practical Microbiology and Virology” 60.39%±2.27 and “Practical Mycology and Parasitology” 68.2%± 2.16.Conclusion: GP students in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences are not optimistic about the applicability of practical courses of basic medical sciences lessons.

  14. Development and evaluation of a hypermedia system that integrates basic concepts of mechanics, biomechanics and human anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Rezende

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the modeling of a hypermedia learning system (called “Biomec” that integrates physical, biomechanical and anatomical concepts involved in the human motion and a study carried out with undergraduate students who interacted with the system. The instructional design of the “Biomec” hypermedia system was developed on the basis of a theoretical framework which articulates the Cognitive Flexibility Theory and the interdisciplinary approach to knowledge. The system was evaluated based on its use by students of Biomechanics I and Kinesiology in a Pre Service Teachers Training Course of Physical Education aiming to discuss the following questions: (i what is its impact on the students’ attitude related to Physics? (ii in what extent does the hypertextual approach to the content favor the interdisciplinary conception of human motion? (iii in what extent do the students’ navigation profiles adapt to conceptual needs of the different disciplines of the course? The students answered instruments that assessed affective and cognitive aspects before and after the interaction with the system, and had their navigation registered and analyzed. The set of data obtained allowed to conclude that the “Biomec” system is a relevant instructional material, capable of positively influence the students’ attitude related to Physics, to favor the interdisciplinary approach of human motion and to attend the students enrolled in Biomechanics I better than the students enrolled in Kinesiology.

  15. Evolution of systems concepts for a 100 kWe class space nuclear power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katucki, R.; Josloff, A.; Kirpich, A.; Florio, F.

    1985-01-01

    Conceptual designs for the SP-100 space nuclear power system have been prepared that meet baseline, backup and growth program scenarios. Near-term advancement in technology was considered in the design of the baseline concept. An improved silicon-germanium thermoelectric technique is used to convert the heat from a fast-spectrum, liquid lithium cooled reactor. This system produces a net power of 100 kWe with a 10-year end of life, under the specific constraints of area and volume. Output of the backup concept is estimated to be 60 kWe for a 10-year end of life. This system differs from the naseline concept because currently available thermoelectric conversion is used from energy supplied by a liquid sodium cooled reactor. The growth concept uses Stirling engine conversion to produce 100 kWe within the constraints of mass and volume. The growth concept can be scaled up to produce a 1 MWe output that uses the same type reactor developed for the baseline concept. Assessments made for each of the program scenarios indicate the key development efforts needed to initiate detailed design and hardware program phases. Development plans were prepared for each scenario that detail the work elements and show the program activities leading to a state of flight readiness

  16. Evolution of systems concepts for a 100 kWe class Space Nuclear Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katucki, R.; Josloff, A.; Kirpich, A.; Florio, F.

    1985-01-01

    Conceptual designs for the SP-100 Space Nuclear Power System have been prepared that meet baseline, backup and growth program scenarios. Near-term advancement in technology was considered in the design of the Baseline Concept. An improved silicon-germanium thermoelectric technique is used to convert the heat from a fast-spectrum, liquid lithium cooled reactor. This system produces a net power of 100 kWe with a 10-year end of life, under the specific constraints of area and volume. Output of the Backup Concept is estimated to be 60 kWe for a 10-year end of life. This system differs from the Baseline Concept because currently available thermoelectric conversion is used from energy supplied by a liquid sodium cooled reactor. The Growth Concept uses Stirling engine conversion to produce 100 kWe within the constraints of mass and volume. The Growth Concept can be scaled up to produce a 1 MWe output that uses the same type reactor developed for the Baseline Concept. Assessments made for each of the program scenarios indicate the key development efforts needed to initiate detailed design and hardware program phases. Development plans were prepared for each scenario that detail the work elements and show the program activities leading to a state of flight readiness.

  17. Nursing expertise: a course of ambiguity and evolution in a concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Marie; Higson, Mary; Cleary, Michelle; Jackson, Debra

    2016-12-01

    In this article, we clarify and describe the nature of nursing expertise and provide a framework to guide its identification and further development. To have utility and rigour, concept-driven research and theories of practice require underlying concepts that are robust, valid and reliable. Advancing understanding of a concept requires careful attention to explicating its knowledge, metaphors and conceptual meaning. Examining the concepts and metaphors of nursing expertise, and how they have been interpreted into the nursing discourse, we aimed to synthesise definitions and similarities between concepts and elicit the defining characteristics and properties of nursing expertise. In clarifying the concept, we sought to move beyond the ambiguity that currently surrounds expertise in nursing and unravel it to make explicit the characteristics of nursing expertise from published peer-reviewed studies and structured literature synthesis. Findings indicate a lack of clarity surrounding the use of the term expertise. Traditional reliance upon intuition as a way of explaining expert performance is slowly evolving. Emerging from the analysis is a picture of expertise as the relationship between networks of contextual reasoning, understanding and practice. Striking absences in the discourse include limited explication of ethical reasoning and theorising a broader interpretation of expertise reflective of contemporary forms of nursing. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. LEVEL OF KNOWLEDGE OF THE BASIC CONCEPTS OF PHYSICAL EVALUATION FOR THE PROFESSIONALS IN THE ACADEMICS OF THE CITY OF JOÃO PESSOA - PB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Benevides Ceriani

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to verify the level of knowledge of the basic concepts of physical evaluation for the responsible professionals for this practice in the academies. He/she/you elapses of a traverse study, of field, with professionals that act in the area of Physical Evaluation, registered by CREF 10 - PB/RN. questionnaire of open and closed questions was Applied in 39 individuals. The statistics was applied of percentile of frequency through spreadsheet Excel. The results found that: 61,54% collect for the physical activity, being in 41,66% of the cases, 15 real; 69,23% don't include in the registration; 84,61% have knowledge of the one that is test; 61,54% of the one that it is to measure and 53,45% of the one that it is to evaluate. Three people were found without graduation in physical education, or in another course of superior level, acting in the area Conclusions: They still act inside of the academies, directly with the physical evaluation, professionals not graduated in physical education or in another course of superior level. Many appraisers don't possess the basic theoretical knowledge regarding the concepts that involve to test, to measure and to evaluate. In general it is collected by the physical evaluation, being most included in the customer's registration

  19. Projects for the implementation of science technology society approach in basic concept of natural science course as application of optical and electrical instruments’ material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satria, E.

    2018-03-01

    Preservice teachers in primary education should be well equipped to meet the challenges of teaching primary science effectively in 21century. The purpose of this research was to describe the projects for the implementation of Science-Technology-Society (STS) approach in Basic Concept of Natural Science course as application of optical and electrical instruments’ material by the preservice teachers in Elementary Schools Teacher Education Program. One of the reasons is the lack of preservice teachers’ ability in making projects for application of STS approach and optical and electrical instruments’ material in Basic Concept of Natural Science course. This research applied descriptive method. The instrument of the research was the researcher himself. The data were gathered through observation and documentation. Based on the results of the research, it was figured out that preservice teachers, in groups, were creatively and successful to make the projects of optical and electrical instruments assigned such as projector and doorbell. It was suggested that the construction of the instruments should be better (fixed and strong structure) and more attractive for both instruments, and used strong light source, high quality images, and it could use speaker box for projector, power battery, and heat sink for electrical instruments.

  20. Tracking the Evolution of the Internet of Things Concept Across Different Application Domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra-Esquer, Jorge E; González-Navarro, Félix F; Flores-Rios, Brenda L; Burtseva, Larysa; Astorga-Vargas, María A

    2017-06-14

    Both the idea and technology for connecting sensors and actuators to a network to remotely monitor and control physical systems have been known for many years and developed accordingly. However, a little more than a decade ago the concept of the Internet of Things (IoT) was coined and used to integrate such approaches into a common framework. Technology has been constantly evolving and so has the concept of the Internet of Things, incorporating new terminology appropriate to technological advances and different application domains. This paper presents the changes that the IoT has undertaken since its conception and research on how technological advances have shaped it and fostered the arising of derived names suitable to specific domains. A two-step literature review through major publishers and indexing databases was conducted; first by searching for proposals on the Internet of Things concept and analyzing them to find similarities, differences, and technological features that allow us to create a timeline showing its development; in the second step the most mentioned names given to the IoT for specific domains, as well as closely related concepts were identified and briefly analyzed. The study confirms the claim that a consensus on the IoT definition has not yet been reached, as enabling technology keeps evolving and new application domains are being proposed. However, recent changes have been relatively moderated, and its variations on application domains are clearly differentiated, with data and data technologies playing an important role in the IoT landscape.

  1. Aquecimento em forno de microondas / desenvolvimento de alguns conceitos fundamentais Heating in microwave ovens/ developing of basic concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia R. N. Barboza

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The microwave oven became a common domestic equipment, due mainly to the short time spent to heat foods. One of the most interesting characteristics of the microwave oven is the selective heating. Different from the conventional oven, where the heating is not selective, the heating by microwave depends on the chemical nature of the matter. Many Students of Chemistry have no knowledge of the principles involved in this selective heating, in spite of the daily microwave oven use. The heating by microwave is feasible for chemistry courses. In discussions about the microwave absorption by the matter it is possible to explore chemical properties like: heat capacity, chemical bound, molecular structure, dipole moments, polarization and dielectric constant. This paper presents the basic principles involved in the microwave heating. It is proposed a simple and inexpensive experiment that could be developed in general chemistry courses, to illustrate the relationship between heating and the chemical properties of some solvents. Experiments to check the power of the microwave oven are also proposed.

  2. Darwin's concepts in a test tube: parallels between organismal and in vitro evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Arenas, Carolina; Lehman, Niles

    2009-02-01

    The evolutionary process as imagined by Darwin 150 years ago is evident not only in nature but also in the manner in which naked nucleic acids and proteins experience the "survival of the fittest" in the test tube during in vitro evolution. This review highlights some of the most apparent evolutionary patterns, such as directional selection, purifying selection, disruptive selection, and iterative evolution (recurrence), and draws parallels between what happens in the wild with whole organisms and what happens in the lab with molecules. Advances in molecular selection techniques, particularly with catalytic RNAs and DNAs, have accelerated in the last 20 years to the point where soon any sort of complex differential hereditary event that one can ascribe to natural populations will be observable in molecular populations, and exploitation of these events can even lead to practical applications in some cases.

  3. Dynamical Behavior of a Rigid Body with One Fixed Point (Gyroscope. Basic Concepts and Results. Open Problems: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetoslav Ganchev Nikolov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study of the dynamic behavior of a rigid body with one fixed point (gyroscope has a long history. A number of famous mathematicians and mechanical engineers have devoted enormous time and effort to clarify the role of dynamic effects on its movement (behavior – stable, periodic, quasi-periodic or chaotic. The main objectives of this review are: 1 to outline the characteristic features of the theory of dynamical systems and 2 to reveal the specific properties of the motion of a rigid body with one fixed point (gyroscope.This article consists of six sections. The first section addresses the main concepts of the theory of dynamical systems. Section two presents the main theoretical results (obtained so far concerning the dynamic behavior of a solid with one fixed point (gyroscope. Section three examines the problem of gyroscopic stabilization. Section four deals with the non-linear (chaotic dynamics of the gyroscope. Section five is a brief analysis of the gyroscope applications in engineering. The final section provides conclusions and generalizations on why the theory of dynamical systems should be used in the study of the movement of gyroscopic systems.

  4. Mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and strokelike episodes: basic concepts, clinical phenotype, and therapeutic management of MELAS syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sproule, Douglas M; Kaufmann, Petra

    2008-10-01

    Since the initial description almost 25 years ago, the syndrome of mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and strokelike episodes (MELAS) has been a useful model to study the complex interplay of factors that define mitochondrial disease. This syndrome, most commonly caused by an A-to-G transition mutation at position 3243 of the mitochondrial genome, is typified by characteristic neurological manifestations including seizures, encephalopathy, and strokelike episodes, as well as other frequent secondary manifestations including short stature, cognitive impairment, migraines, depression, cardiomyopathy, cardiac conduction defects, and diabetes mellitus. In this review, we discuss the history, pathogenesis, clinical features, and diagnostic and management strategies of mitochondrial disease in general and of MELAS in particular. We explore features of mitochondrial genetics, including the concepts of heteroplasmy, mitotic segregation, and threshold effect, as a basis for understanding the variability and complicated inheritance patterns seen with this group of diseases. We also describe systemic manifestations of MELAS-associated mutations, including cardiac, renal, endocrine, gastrointestinal, and endothelial abnormalities and pathology, as well as the hypothetical role of derangements to COX enzymatic function in driving the unique pathology and clinical manifestations of MELAS. Although therapeutic options for MELAS and other mitochondrial diseases remain limited, and recent trials have been disappointing, we also consider current and potential therapeutic modalities.

  5. The Evolution of cluster concept in Catalonia : the case of Cork Cluster – AECORK

    OpenAIRE

    Serarols Tarrés, Joyce

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this final degree project is two-fold: first, to introduce the evolutionary concept of the cluster in Catalonia from a strategic perspective and, second, to analyse the case of the Catalan Cork cluster located in the province of Girona, that is, the northeast of Spain

  6. Tracking the Evolution of the Internet of Things Concept Across Different Application Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E. Ibarra-Esquer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Both the idea and technology for connecting sensors and actuators to a network to remotely monitor and control physical systems have been known for many years and developed accordingly. However, a little more than a decade ago the concept of the Internet of Things (IoT was coined and used to integrate such approaches into a common framework. Technology has been constantly evolving and so has the concept of the Internet of Things, incorporating new terminology appropriate to technological advances and different application domains. This paper presents the changes that the IoT has undertaken since its conception and research on how technological advances have shaped it and fostered the arising of derived names suitable to specific domains. A two-step literature review through major publishers and indexing databases was conducted; first by searching for proposals on the Internet of Things concept and analyzing them to find similarities, differences, and technological features that allow us to create a timeline showing its development; in the second step the most mentioned names given to the IoT for specific domains, as well as closely related concepts were identified and briefly analyzed. The study confirms the claim that a consensus on the IoT definition has not yet been reached, as enabling technology keeps evolving and new application domains are being proposed. However, recent changes have been relatively moderated, and its variations on application domains are clearly differentiated, with data and data technologies playing an important role in the IoT landscape.

  7. Tracking the Evolution of the Internet of Things Concept Across Different Application Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra-Esquer, Jorge E.; González-Navarro, Félix F.; Flores-Rios, Brenda L.; Burtseva, Larysa; Astorga-Vargas, María A.

    2017-01-01

    Both the idea and technology for connecting sensors and actuators to a network to remotely monitor and control physical systems have been known for many years and developed accordingly. However, a little more than a decade ago the concept of the Internet of Things (IoT) was coined and used to integrate such approaches into a common framework. Technology has been constantly evolving and so has the concept of the Internet of Things, incorporating new terminology appropriate to technological advances and different application domains. This paper presents the changes that the IoT has undertaken since its conception and research on how technological advances have shaped it and fostered the arising of derived names suitable to specific domains. A two-step literature review through major publishers and indexing databases was conducted; first by searching for proposals on the Internet of Things concept and analyzing them to find similarities, differences, and technological features that allow us to create a timeline showing its development; in the second step the most mentioned names given to the IoT for specific domains, as well as closely related concepts were identified and briefly analyzed. The study confirms the claim that a consensus on the IoT definition has not yet been reached, as enabling technology keeps evolving and new application domains are being proposed. However, recent changes have been relatively moderated, and its variations on application domains are clearly differentiated, with data and data technologies playing an important role in the IoT landscape. PMID:28613238

  8. From larval journalist to cyber-journalist: evolution of the journalism concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Andrés Pampillón Ponce

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the evolutionary definition of the concept of journalist through a diachronic study using hemerographic and bibliographic research, together with evidence from interviews applied to well-known figures in the sector. The evolutionary scale proposed is from larval journalism to cyber-journalism. The research results show a dynamic concept depending on historical and cultural context that accompanies it. At first (before the nineteenth century the journalist term is linked to a person who publishes periodically primarily through written press. However, since the nineties, and in view of the widespread use of new Information and Communication Technologies (ICT, somehow everyone can be a communicator now through media such as the Internet. In conclusion, the debate on the figure of the journalist is especially complex and denotes the exaltation of ethical and moral values, imperative for the work of a journalist.

  9. Evolution of the concept of altruistic suicide in pre-Durkheim suicidology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldney, Robert D; Schioldann, Johan A

    2004-01-01

    Suicide as self-sacrifice was described by early nineteenth century authors before the delineation of altruism by the French Philosopher and Mathematician Auguste Comte. The concept evolved, leading to the categorization of altruistic suicide by Savage in England in 1892 and the elaboration of the term by Durkheim in France in 1897. Pre-Durkheim suicidologists were aware of the subtleties of sacrifice as opposed to revenge in this type of suicide.

  10. Determination of Basic Structure-Property Relations for Processing and Modeling in Advanced Nuclear Fuel: Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, Kirk; Parra, Manuel; Peralta, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    The project objective is to study structure-property relations in solid solutions of nitrides and oxides with surrogate elements to simulate the behavior of fuels of inert matrix fuels of interest to the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), with emphasis in zirconium-based materials. Work with actual fuels will be carried out in parallel in collaboration with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Three key aspects will be explored: microstructure characterization through measurement of global texture evolution and local crystallographic variations using Electron Backscattering Diffraction (EBSD); determination of mechanical properties, including fracture toughness, quasi-static compression strength, and hardness, as functions of load and temperature, and, finally, development of structure-property relations to describe mechanical behavior of the fuels based on experimental data. Materials tested will be characterized to identify the mechanisms of deformation and fracture and their relationship to microstructure and its evolution. New aspects of this research are the inclusion of crystallographic information into the evaluation of fuel performance and the incorporation of statistical variations of microstructural variables into simplified models of mechanical behavior of fuels that account explicitly for these variations. The work is expected to provide insight into processing conditions leading to better fuel performance and structural reliability during manufacturing and service, as well as providing a simplified testing model for future fuel production

  11. [The history of the pituitary gland: evolution of mental representation and concepts over time].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedidi, H; Jedidi, Z; Beckers, A

    2014-02-01

    The hypothalamo pituitary axis, as the true conductor of the endocrine orchestra, is frequently involved in a large variety of pathological conditions such as acromegaly, behavioral disorders, obesity or dwarfism. It is paradoxical to note that, in spite of its importance, this system has been almost ignored by the physiologists of the late centuries. From the physiological conceptions of the physicians and philosophers of antiquity to the theories of the medieval and of the Renaissance physiologists, we will try to understand why the role of pituitary remained so long unrecognized.

  12. The evolution of the environmental Kuznets curve concept: The review of the research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginevičius Romualdas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to describe the evolution of the environmental Kuznets curve, from its origin up to its present status, and to systemise the results of the empirical studies of the relationship between the emissions of greenhouse gases and economic growth. The environmental Kuznets curve indicates that at the early stages of economic growth, pollution increases with the growing use of resources, but when a certain level of income per capita is reached, the trend reverses so that, at a higher development stage, further economic growth leads to the improvement of the environment. The paper starts with a description of the most influential theories of the environmental economics that helps to highlight an effective environmental approach. The article may be useful for scientists and policy makers, analysing the trends of the economic development of various countries and the problems of the relationship between the environmental indicators and economic growth.

  13. The concept of revelation in terms of the evolution of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Nürnberger

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Following Paul’s injunction in 1 Corinthians 9:19–23 we have to ‘become scientists’ to a scientifically informed audience. While theology cannot agree with the naturalist denial of transcendence, it can adopt the experiential-realist approach typical for the sciences in its description of the Christian faith as an immanent part of cosmic evolution, albeit at a higher level of emergence. The article begins with my understanding of evolutionary theory (big bang cosmology, entropy, emergence, neural networks as infrastructure of consciousness, evolution and differentiation, sequences of past, present and future, contingency etc. It then describes God consciousness as the intuition, perception or conceptualisation of the transcendent Source and Destiny of experienced reality and locates God consciousness in the evolutionary process. Biblical God consciousness displays two distinct characteristics: God’s creative power is experienced in reality, while God’s benevolent intentionality is proclaimed on the basis of a religious tradition. The evolutionary trajectory of biblical God consciousness, culminating in the Christ-event, is sketched and the God consciousness of Jesus is deduced from its religious embeddedness, its social-environmental relationships and its religious impact. Implications of an experiential-realist approach are (1 a dynamic, rather than ontological Christology and (2 the cosmic significance of the sacrifice of God in Christ. On this basis revelation is described first in experiential-realist and then in theological terms. The tension between the experience of God’s creative power and the proclamation of God’s benevolence leads to a dynamic, rather than ontological rendering of the Trinity. Finally, traditional eschatological assumptions are reconceptualised as God’s dynamic vision of comprehensive well-being operating like a horizon that moves on as we approach it and displays ever new vistas, challenges and

  14. [Evolution of the concept of positive mental health: a systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Cristóbal Ovidio; Restrepo, Diego; Cardona, Doris

    2016-03-01

    Objective Characterize the theoretical models that have underpinned empirical research on the concept of positive mental health from the time it first emerged in the field of health up to the present. Methods A systematic search of the literature was conducted in PubMed, EBSCO (including Academic Search Complete, ERIC, Academic Source, MasterFILE Premier, MedicLatina, MEDLINE, and the Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection), Science Direct, Psicodoc, Springer Link, Taylor & Francis, Wiley Online Library, Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Redalyc, SciELO, Ovid, Embase, and ProQuest (including Health and Medical Complete, the Nursing and Allied Health Source, Psychology Journals, and Social Science Journals). The search criterion was the descriptor "positive mental health." Results Of 51 studies consulted, 84% used a quantitative approach; 84% were published in English; and the same percentage were conducted between 2000 and 2014. The concept of positive mental health has been applied in essentially five different ways: as the absence of disease; as the subject of the Jahoda model; as a combination of factors on the Lluch scale; as a synonym of well-being; and as part of more complex scales of measurement. Conclusions Positive mental health should not be viewed as the opposite of a mental disorder, the absence of disease, or the sum of a given set of personal conditions. It is important to move forward in the development of conceptual models that will serve as a basis for approaching mental health from the perspective of health promotion.

  15. Sound Symbolism in Basic Vocabulary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Wichmann

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between meanings of words and their sound shapes is to a large extent arbitrary, but it is well known that languages exhibit sound symbolism effects violating arbitrariness. Evidence for sound symbolism is typically anecdotal, however. Here we present a systematic approach. Using a selection of basic vocabulary in nearly one half of the world’s languages we find commonalities among sound shapes for words referring to same concepts. These are interpreted as due to sound symbolism. Studying the effects of sound symbolism cross-linguistically is of key importance for the understanding of language evolution.

  16. Basic Concepts in Cyber Warfare

    OpenAIRE

    Lior Tabansky

    2011-01-01

    Developments in computers have made possible far reaching changes in all areas of life, and the rapid progress in computing, communications, and software has led to a dramatic reduction in the cost of producing, processing, and disseminating information. Information technologies continue to develop at an accelerated pace, and a new era has arisen in the information revolution. The rapid growth in the fields of computing and communications and the ongoing improvement in the performance of compu...

  17. Basic concepts in modern mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Hafstrom, John Edward

    2013-01-01

    In-depth overview, geared toward undergraduates of all backgrounds, covers natural numbers; sets, variables, and statement forms; mappings and operations; groups; relations and partitions; integers; and rational and real numbers. 1961 edition.

  18. Basic concepts of medical genetics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mohammad Saad Zaghloul Salem

    2012-04-20

    Apr 20, 2012 ... 1), entails that genes regulate synthesis of proteins which mediate all life ..... Excess urinary excretion of keratan sulfate should sug- gest a diagnosis of: ... Treatment of hyperammonemia due to urea cycle de- fects include the ...

  19. Basic concepts of Finslerian geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, R.B.

    1986-11-01

    This paper treats some aspects of the fundamental theory of Finsler manifolds, with special emphasis on the covariant differentiation related to the Euclidean connection of Cartan and of Berwald. (author)

  20. A new concept for paleohydrological evolution of the Younger Dryas in NE Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouimetarhan, Ilham; Prange, Matthias; Gonzalez, Catalina; Dupont, Lydie

    2016-04-01

    The late deglacial interval from approximately 13 to 11 kyr BP contains some of the best documented abrupt climate changes in the Past, the Younger Dryas (YD). It is also an interval when the bipolar climatic signature of millennial-scale changes in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) is well expressed. Here we present a high-resolution palynological record from core GeoB16205-4 (1°21.11'N, 43°05.80'W), retrieved off the Parnaíba River mouth, southeast of the Amazon River (~1955 m water depth). Pollen and organic-walled dinoflagellate cyst assemblages indicate a predominantly wet climate during the YD in the nowadays semi-arid Nordeste, whereby a second phase between ~12.3 and 11.7 kyr BP is wetter than the period before. This is recorded by a strong increase in the concentrations of river plume dinoflagellate cyst assemblages indicative of a stratified surface water column and reduced salinity environments, as well as a drop in grass pollen and microcharcoal particle concentrations along with strong fluctuations in the representation of rain forest, gallery forest and tree ferns suggesting year-round humid conditions. This shift from a relatively wet first phase to a much wetter second phase is in agreement with the transient TRACE-21k coupled climate model simulation which shows a first pluvial Parnaíba stage from ~12.8 to 12.3 kyr BP and a second stronger pluvial stage between ~12.3 and 11.7 kyr BP to be related to a very weak AMOC due to meltwater pulses in the North Atlantic. The AMOC variation induces a steep temperature gradient between the Southern and the Northern Hemisphere which forces a southward shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and its associated rainfall. The two-step hydroclimatic and environmental evolution during the Younger Dryas has not been documented previously in this region.

  1. [Evolution of the climate change concept and its impact in the public health of Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Zavaleta, Carlos A

    2016-03-01

    The term "climate change" is not a new concept but its impact on public health is under constant review. We know that climate has already changed and will continue to change for centuries with the rise in average global temperature, and the associated rise in sea level. This fact makes mitigation efforts relevant only in the very long term and for generations of humans whose parents have not yet been born. When we talk about public health in the context of climate change, we are talking about adaptation. In the present, countries that are currently the most affected by climate change are precisely countries like Peru, without a significant carbon footprint at the global level but that are highly sensitive to the effects of climate. Without reliable climate projections, the health impact of climate change can be uncertain and complicated. Nevertheless, at the local level, every district can identify its vulnerabilities and define priorities to protect the health of its population. There are, and it can also be developed, environmental health indicators that can help monitor how well we are adapting and how prepared we are for changes in the climate. Adaptation to climate change implies improving living conditions, enhancing epidemiological surveillance systems and extending access to healthcare. The fight against the effects of climate change in public health is a fight against poverty and inequality, and that is nothing new in Peru.

  2. Evolution of war and cyber attacks in the concept of conventional warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Kuru

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Humanity have witnessed many confrontations of states whose interests challenge at some points and their struggle to neutralize problems in battlefield. While war was perceived as a way of eliminating deadlocks for some parties, some considered it as one of the international policy materials. The definition and content of conventional warfare have been subject to change for centuries, while the new weapons and technologies have been developed by human beings that it has brought constant change in the law of war and at the same time more lethal and devastating consequences. The struggle for superiority in international relations played an impulsive role in the development of weapons used in the battlefield. Countries have used their labor and financial resources to improve their military skills. Beginning with stones and sticks in the battlefield, this struggle has reached the point of using the next generation satellite controlled unmanned and armed aircrafts and having nuclear weapons has become more deterrent than using them. The struggle between strong countries and the limited countries in terms of technology and armed groups that do not have enough technology and skills completely changed the definition of conventional warfare. This fight has led Asymmetric warfare born which can turn commercial airline planes full of innocent people into a weapon like September-11 attacks. In this study, the historical development and the change in the content of the warfare were briefly explained and then cyber-attacks in the concept of the fourth generation warfare was analyzed taking into account of prominent attacks.

  3. La evolución del concepto de tabaquismo The evolution in the concept of smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Teixeira do Carmo

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available El concepto de tabaquismo ha evolucionado mucho en las últimas décadas. De hábito en los años 60, el consumo pasó a ser considerado como dependencia psicológica en los años 70, después como adicción en los 80 y en los años 90 se instauró la clínica del fumador. Para entender el mecanismo del hábito de fumar debemos considerar que fumar representa mucho más que la dependencia física a la nicotina. Con el paso del tiempo el fumador pasa a recibir estímulos sociales, comportamentales o culturales que refuerzan su hábito y probablemente serán los elementos causantes del establecimiento de la dependencia psicológica. Tanto el componente psicológico como el físico de la dependencia al tabaco tienen un papel fundamental en el mantenimiento del hábito.The concept of smoking has evolved considerably in recent decades. From a habit in the 1960s, tobacco consumption came to be viewed as a chemical dependency in the 1970s and an addiction in the 1980s, until smokers' clinics were implemented in the 1990s. To understand the mechanism of the smoking habit, it is important to recall that smoking represents much more than physical dependence on nicotine. Over time, smokers receive social, behavioral, and cultural stimuli that reinforce their habit and probably serve as the causal elements for establishing their psychological dependence. Both the psychological and physical components of tobacco dependence play a fundamental role in maintaining the habit.

  4. Biological evolution: Some genetic considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saad Zaghloul Salem

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Natural selection might be observed in nature but not in life. The concept of biological evolution is an illogic and insensible hypothesis since it stands in direct contradiction with our current knowledge regarding the behavior as well as the structural and functional characteristics of the human genome and human proteome. Additionally, almost all basic postulations of this concept can neither be tested nor imitated for experimentation, which is a prerequisite for acceptance and validation of any scientific hypotheses.

  5. Effects of basic character design and animation concepts using the flipped learning and project-based learning approach on learning achievement and creative thinking of higher education students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autapao, Kanyarat; Minwong, Panthul

    2018-01-01

    Creative thinking was an important learning skill in the 21st Century via learning and innovation to promote students' creative thinking and working with others and to construct innovation. This is one of the important skills that determine the readiness of the participants to step into the complex society. The purposes of this research were 1) to compare the learning achievement of students after using basic character design and animation concepts using the flipped learning and project-based learning and 2) to make a comparison students' creative thinking between pretest and posttest. The populations were 29 students in Multimedia Technology program at Thepsatri Rajabhat University in the 2nd semester of the academic year 2016. The experimental instruments were lesson plans of basic character design and animation concepts using the flipped learning and project based learning. The data collecting instrument was creative thinking test. The data were analyzed by the arithmetic mean, standard deviation and The Wilcoxon Matched Pairs Signed-Ranks Test. The results of this research were 1) the learning achievement of students were statistically significance of .01 level and 2) the mean score of student's creativity assessment were statistically significance of .05 level. When considering all of 11 KPIs, showed that respondents' post-test mean scores higher than pre-test. And 5 KPIs were statistically significance of .05 level, consist of Originality, Fluency, Elaboration, Resistance to Premature Closure, and Intrinsic Motivation. It's were statistically significance of .042, .004, .049, .024 and .015 respectively. And 6 KPIs were non-statistically significant, include of Flexibility, Tolerance of Ambiguity, Divergent Thinking, Convergent Thinking, Risk Taking, and Extrinsic Motivation. The findings revealed that the flipped learning and project based learning provided students the freedom to simply learn on their own aptitude. When working together with project

  6. Ubiquitous geospatial concept in evolution of the macro and micro spatial planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabri, S; Ludin, A N M; Majid, M R

    2014-01-01

    There are many examples of GIS application in planning such as urban land-use planning, cultural heritage conservation, coastal zone management, and the design of structure plans for sustainable economic development. All these applications are dealing with systems in which natural and human factors are interconnected. But an issue that should be addressed is to what extent the current information technology is able to connect all these parts together? Contemporary improvement in information technology made the computer so imbedded in our everyday practices that we use it without having to think about it. Thus, computing is becoming truly ubiquitous and is available anywhere anytime. Advances in the internet facilities and devices, such as high speed wireless networks, mobile middleware, and smart technologies, has pushed the concept of ubiquitous computing to the forefront of GIS research and development. There are developments in this regards, these are such as GeoWeb 2.0, voluntarily geographic Information (VGI), and Mashups, whereby the application of cloud computing was possible in visualizing urban air pollution and emergency responses to ensure the safety and security. These advancements therefore, have changed the conventional facet of macro and micro spatial planning. Every possible information system such as residential, medical, business, environmental, governmental, and the like can be linked through ubiquitous computing technologies and acts as a virtually one system which works for society. However, the journey to achieve a true ubiquitous GIS is not without challenges. Despite the current potentials there are many issues and obstacles need to be addressed before GIS can to be truly ubiquitous in planning context. Perhaps four criteria as explained by Goodchild et al (1997) can be applied to ubiquitous GIS in planning very well: the system must be distributed (data storage, processing and user interaction can occur at locations that are potentially

  7. Ubiquitous geospatial concept in evolution of the macro and micro spatial planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabri, S.; Ludin, A. N. M.; Majid, M. R.

    2014-02-01

    There are many examples of GIS application in planning such as urban land-use planning, cultural heritage conservation, coastal zone management, and the design of structure plans for sustainable economic development. All these applications are dealing with systems in which natural and human factors are interconnected. But an issue that should be addressed is to what extent the current information technology is able to connect all these parts together? Contemporary improvement in information technology made the computer so imbedded in our everyday practices that we use it without having to think about it. Thus, computing is becoming truly ubiquitous and is available anywhere anytime. Advances in the internet facilities and devices, such as high speed wireless networks, mobile middleware, and smart technologies, has pushed the concept of ubiquitous computing to the forefront of GIS research and development. There are developments in this regards, these are such as GeoWeb 2.0, voluntarily geographic Information (VGI), and Mashups, whereby the application of cloud computing was possible in visualizing urban air pollution and emergency responses to ensure the safety and security. These advancements therefore, have changed the conventional facet of macro and micro spatial planning. Every possible information system such as residential, medical, business, environmental, governmental, and the like can be linked through ubiquitous computing technologies and acts as a virtually one system which works for society. However, the journey to achieve a true ubiquitous GIS is not without challenges. Despite the current potentials there are many issues and obstacles need to be addressed before GIS can to be truly ubiquitous in planning context. Perhaps four criteria as explained by Goodchild et al (1997) can be applied to ubiquitous GIS in planning very well: the system must be distributed (data storage, processing and user interaction can occur at locations that are potentially

  8. Aromaticidade: evolução histórica do conceito e critérios quantitativos Aromaticity: historical evolution of the concept and quantitative criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Finoto Caramori

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the evolution of the concept of aromaticity is discussed. It considers not only historical aspects of the aromaticity concept but also the different criteria (theoretical and experimental that have appeared to explain the properties of the aromatic compounds. The topics range from the isolation of benzene by Faraday (1825 until the modern criteria based on geometries, magnetic properties, resonance energy (RE, aromatic stabilization energy (ASE, topological analyses, and others. A chronological separation of issues concerning aromaticity was made, splitting the definitions before and after the appearance of the quantum chemistry. This work reviews the concept of aromaticity.

  9. Study on large scale knowledge base with real time operation for autonomous nuclear power plant. 1. Basic concept and expecting performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, Yoshihiko; Suda, Kazunori; Yoshikawa, Shinji; Ozawa, Kenji

    1996-04-01

    Since it is desired to enhance availability and safety of nuclear power plants operation and maintenance by removing human factor, there are many researches and developments for intelligent operation or diagnosis using artificial intelligence (AI) technique. We have been developing an autonomous operation and maintenance system for nuclear power plants by substituting AI's and intelligent robots. It is indispensable to use various and large scale knowledge relative to plant design, operation, and maintenance, that is, whole life cycle data of the plant for the autonomous nuclear power plant. These knowledge must be given to AI system or intelligent robots adequately and opportunely. Moreover, it is necessary to insure real time operation using the large scale knowledge base for plant control and diagnosis performance. We have been studying on the large scale and real time knowledge base system for autonomous plant. In the report, we would like to present the basic concept and expecting performance of the knowledge base for autonomous plant, especially, autonomous control and diagnosis system. (author)

  10. Proof of concept of a workflow methodology for the creation of basic canine head anatomy veterinary education tool using augmented reality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxie Christ

    Full Text Available Neuroanatomy can be challenging to both teach and learn within the undergraduate veterinary medicine and surgery curriculum. Traditional techniques have been used for many years, but there has now been a progression to move towards alternative digital models and interactive 3D models to engage the learner. However, digital innovations in the curriculum have typically involved the medical curriculum rather than the veterinary curriculum. Therefore, we aimed to create a simple workflow methodology to highlight the simplicity there is in creating a mobile augmented reality application of basic canine head anatomy. Using canine CT and MRI scans and widely available software programs, we demonstrate how to create an interactive model of head anatomy. This was applied to augmented reality for a popular Android mobile device to demonstrate the user-friendly interface. Here we present the processes, challenges and resolutions for the creation of a highly accurate, data based anatomical model that could potentially be used in the veterinary curriculum. This proof of concept study provides an excellent framework for the creation of augmented reality training products for veterinary education. The lack of similar resources within this field provides the ideal platform to extend this into other areas of veterinary education and beyond.

  11. Proof of concept of a workflow methodology for the creation of basic canine head anatomy veterinary education tool using augmented reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Roxie; Guevar, Julien; Poyade, Matthieu; Rea, Paul M

    2018-01-01

    Neuroanatomy can be challenging to both teach and learn within the undergraduate veterinary medicine and surgery curriculum. Traditional techniques have been used for many years, but there has now been a progression to move towards alternative digital models and interactive 3D models to engage the learner. However, digital innovations in the curriculum have typically involved the medical curriculum rather than the veterinary curriculum. Therefore, we aimed to create a simple workflow methodology to highlight the simplicity there is in creating a mobile augmented reality application of basic canine head anatomy. Using canine CT and MRI scans and widely available software programs, we demonstrate how to create an interactive model of head anatomy. This was applied to augmented reality for a popular Android mobile device to demonstrate the user-friendly interface. Here we present the processes, challenges and resolutions for the creation of a highly accurate, data based anatomical model that could potentially be used in the veterinary curriculum. This proof of concept study provides an excellent framework for the creation of augmented reality training products for veterinary education. The lack of similar resources within this field provides the ideal platform to extend this into other areas of veterinary education and beyond.

  12. Parallel Evolution in Science: The Historical Roots and Central Concepts of General Systems Theory; and "General Systems Theory,""Modern Organizational Theory," and Organizational Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Linda Costigan; Rogers, Don

    The two papers in this document focus on general systems theory. In her paper, Linda Lederman discusses the emergence and evolution of general systems theory, defines its central concepts, and draws some conclusions regarding the nature of the theory and its value as an epistemology. Don Rogers, in his paper, relates some of the important features…

  13. Analysis of chemical concepts as the basic of virtual laboratory development and process science skills in solubility and solubility product subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syafrina, R.; Rohman, I.; Yuliani, G.

    2018-05-01

    This study aims to analyze the concept characteristics of solubility and solubility products that will serve as the basis for the development of virtual laboratory and students' science process skills. Characteristics of the analyzed concepts include concept definitions, concept attributes, and types of concepts. The concept analysis method uses concept analysis according to Herron. The results of the concept analysis show that there are twelve chemical concepts that become the prerequisite concept before studying the solubility and solubility and five core concepts that students must understand in the solubility and Solubility product. As many as 58.3% of the definitions of the concepts contained in high school textbooks support students' science process skills, the rest of the definition of the concept is memorized. Concept attributes that meet three levels of chemical representation and can be poured into a virtual laboratory have a percentage of 66.6%. Type of concept, 83.3% is a concept based on principle; and 16.6% concepts that state the process. Meanwhile, the science process skills that can be developed based on concept analysis are the ability to observe, calculate, measure, predict, interpret, hypothesize, apply, classify, and inference.

  14. Mobile Computing and Ubiquitous Networking: Concepts, Technologies and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Samuel

    2001-01-01

    Analyzes concepts, technologies and challenges related to mobile computing and networking. Defines basic concepts of cellular systems. Describes the evolution of wireless technologies that constitute the foundations of mobile computing and ubiquitous networking. Presents characterization and issues of mobile computing. Analyzes economical and…

  15. The evolution of concepts of vestibular peripheral information processing: toward the dynamic, adaptive, parallel processing macular model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Muriel D.

    2003-01-01

    In a letter to Robert Hooke, written on 5 February, 1675, Isaac Newton wrote "If I have seen further than certain other men it is by standing upon the shoulders of giants." In his context, Newton was referring to the work of Galileo and Kepler, who preceded him. However, every field has its own giants, those men and women who went before us and, often with few tools at their disposal, uncovered the facts that enabled later researchers to advance knowledge in a particular area. This review traces the history of the evolution of views from early giants in the field of vestibular research to modern concepts of vestibular organ organization and function. Emphasis will be placed on the mammalian maculae as peripheral processors of linear accelerations acting on the head. This review shows that early, correct findings were sometimes unfortunately disregarded, impeding later investigations into the structure and function of the vestibular organs. The central themes are that the macular organs are highly complex, dynamic, adaptive, distributed parallel processors of information, and that historical references can help us to understand our own place in advancing knowledge about their complicated structure and functions.

  16. THE EVOLUTION OF THE CONCEPT OF “GROUND” IN G. I. CHULKOV’S WRITINGS ABOUT F. M. DOSTOEVSKY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Bogdanova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available F. M. Dostoevsky’s ideas and images imbued the entire creative work of a distinguished Silver Age writer and critic G. I. Chulkov: beginning with the article “Dostoevsky and Revolution” (1906 and ending with the book “How Dostoevsky worked” (1939. The works dedicated to Dostoevsky demonstrate the evolution of the literator’s vision of “ground” from denying it in pre-revolutionary years (that was common among the representatives of “New Christian Consciousness” to accepting it in the 1930’s (that corresponded with the attitude of Dostoevsky, best seen in “The Brothers Karamazov” and with the religious views of Chulkov, who had been already inchurched by that time. The focus of the article is the analysis of the vision of “ground” in Chulkov’s unpublished work Dostoevsky’s Life (1935–1936, whose autograph and typewritten copies are kept in three diff erent Russian archives. In the research Chulkov’s interest to religious philosophy of the Silver Age associated with the names of D. S. Merezhkovsky, V. I. Ivanov and N. A. Berdyaev is evident. However, the concept of “ground”, based on Chulkov’s opposition to “Soviet patriotism” of the 1930s, in general, tends to have the canonical explanation.

  17. Historical evolution of the concept of anorexia nervosa and relationships with orthorexia nervosa, autism, and obsessive-compulsive spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Osso, Liliana; Abelli, Marianna; Carpita, Barbara; Pini, Stefano; Castellini, Giovanni; Carmassi, Claudia; Ricca, Valdo

    2016-01-01

    Eating disorders have been defined as "characterized by persistence disturbance of eating or eating-related behavior that results in the altered consumption or absorption of food and that significantly impairs health or psychosocial functioning". The psychopathology of eating disorders changed across time under the influence of environmental factors, determining the emergence of new phenotypes. Some of these conditions are still under investigation and are not clearly identified as independent diagnostic entities. In this review, the historic evolution of the eating disorder concept up to the recent Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, has been evaluated. We also examined literature supporting the inclusion of new emergent eating behaviors within the eating disorder spectrum, and their relationship with anorexia, autism, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. In particular, we focused on what is known about the symptoms, epidemiology, assessment, and diagnostic boundaries of a new problematic eating pattern called orthorexia nervosa that could be accepted as a new psychological syndrome, as emphasized by an increasing number of scientific articles in the last few years.

  18. Historical evolution of the concept of anorexia nervosa and relationships with orthorexia nervosa, autism, and obsessive–compulsive spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell’Osso, Liliana; Abelli, Marianna; Carpita, Barbara; Pini, Stefano; Castellini, Giovanni; Carmassi, Claudia; Ricca, Valdo

    2016-01-01

    Eating disorders have been defined as “characterized by persistence disturbance of eating or eating-related behavior that results in the altered consumption or absorption of food and that significantly impairs health or psychosocial functioning”. The psychopathology of eating disorders changed across time under the influence of environmental factors, determining the emergence of new phenotypes. Some of these conditions are still under investigation and are not clearly identified as independent diagnostic entities. In this review, the historic evolution of the eating disorder concept up to the recent Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, has been evaluated. We also examined literature supporting the inclusion of new emergent eating behaviors within the eating disorder spectrum, and their relationship with anorexia, autism, and obsessive–compulsive disorder. In particular, we focused on what is known about the symptoms, epidemiology, assessment, and diagnostic boundaries of a new problematic eating pattern called orthorexia nervosa that could be accepted as a new psychological syndrome, as emphasized by an increasing number of scientific articles in the last few years. PMID:27462158

  19. Historical evolution of the concept of anorexia nervosa and relationships with orthorexia nervosa, autism, and obsessive-compulsive spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dell'Osso L

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Liliana Dell’Osso,1 Marianna Abelli,1 Barbara Carpita,1 Stefano Pini,1 Giovanni Castellini,2 Claudia Carmassi,1 Valdo Ricca2 1Psychiatry Section, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa, 2Department of Neuroscience, Psychology, Drug Research and Child Health (NEUROFARBA, University of Florence, Florence, Italy Abstract: Eating disorders have been defined as “characterized by persistence disturbance of eating or eating-related behavior that results in the altered consumption or absorption of food and that significantly impairs health or psychosocial functioning”. The psychopathology of eating disorders changed across time under the influence of environmental factors, determining the emergence of new phenotypes. Some of these conditions are still under investigation and are not clearly identified as independent diagnostic entities. In this review, the historic evolution of the eating disorder concept up to the recent Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, has been evaluated. We also examined literature supporting the inclusion of new emergent eating behaviors within the eating disorder spectrum, and their relationship with anorexia, autism, and obsessive–compulsive disorder. In particular, we focused on what is known about the symptoms, epidemiology, assessment, and diagnostic boundaries of a new problematic eating pattern called orthorexia nervosa that could be accepted as a new psychological syndrome, as emphasized by an increasing number of scientific articles in the last few years. Keywords: anorexia nervosa, autism spectrum disorders, eating disorders spectrum, obsessive–compulsive spectrum, orthorexia nervosa, DSM-5

  20. Air classifier technology (ACT) in dry powder inhalation. Part 1 : Introduction of a novel force distribution concept (FDC) explaining the performance of a basic air classifier on adhesive mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, A H; Hagedoorn, P; Gjaltema, D; Goede, J; Frijlink, H W

    2003-01-01

    Air classifier technology (ACT) is introduced as part of formulation integrated dry powder inhaler development (FIDPI) to optimise the de-agglomeration of inhalation powders. Carrier retention and de-agglomeration results obtained with a basic classifier concept are discussed. The theoretical

  1. Hydromechanics - basic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sung Tak; Lee, Je Geun

    1987-03-01

    This book tells of hydromechanics, which is about basic properties of hydromechanics such as conception, definition, mass, power and weight, and perfect fluid and perfect gas, hydrostatics with summary, basic equation of hydrostatics, relative balance of hydrostatics, and kinematics of hydromechanics, description method of floating, hydromechanics about basic knowledge, equation of moment, energy equation and application of Bernoulli equation, application of momentum theory, inviscid flow and fluid measuring.

  2. The New Chinese Security Concept and the “Peaceful Rise of China”, as two basic pillars of the contemporary Chinese Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina Virginia ANTONESCU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Chinese foreign policy, at the beginning of XXIst century, develops a multitude of complex political concepts, such as harmonious world, the Five Principles of Peaceful Co-existence, New Relations between Great Powers, Peaceful Rise of China and others. The paper explores only some dimensions of two political concepts, such as the New Chinese Security concept and the Peaceful Rise of China, by revealing the contemporary meanings if these concepts and also, by emphasizing their roots within the philosophical ancient visions of the Chinese political tradition.

  3. Basic concept of the nuclear emergency preparedness and response in Japan after the accident of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station. The plain explanation for regional officials and emergency workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Sohei; Yamamoto, Kazuya

    2013-07-01

    After the accident of TEPCO's Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station occurred on March 11, 2011, actions for controlling the accident and protective actions for the residents like evacuation were taken. In parallel with this, it has been developed to reform the nuclear regulatory systems and the emergency preparedness and response systems in Japan. Especially the Nuclear Regulation Authority's Nuclear Emergency Preparedness and Response Guidelines were adopted with the introducing the basic concepts and the criteria on the basis of the IAEA's safety standards and differed greatly from the prior guidelines. Thus the arrangement of emergency response systems, resources and the operational procedures will be developed complying with according to the guidelines in municipalities around the nuclear power station sites. This work attempts to provide a plain explanation as possible for the regional officials and emergency workers about the basic concepts of the new guidelines. (author)

  4. The Correlation Study of Interest at Physics and Knowledge of Mathematics Basic Concepts towards the Ability to Solve Physics Problems of 7th Grade Students at Junior High School in Ambon Maluku Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izaak Hendrik Wenno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to determine the relation between interest at Physics and knowledge of Mathematics basic concepts with the ability to solve Physics problems. The populations are all students in the 7th grade at the junior high school in Ambon, Maluku, Indonesia. The used sample schools are Junior High Schools 8, 9, and 10 during 2013/2014 academic year with 44 students per school. Two independent variables and one dependent variable are studied. The independent variables are the interest at Physics (X1 and the knowledge of Mathematics basic concepts (X2, while the dependent variable is the ability to solve Physics problems (Y. Data collection technique for X1 is an interview with questionnaire instrument, while for the X2 and Y is using the test technique with test items instrument. The obtained data from the measurements were analyzed with descriptive analysis and inferential analysis. The results show that there is a positive relation between interest at Physics and knowledge of Mathematics basic concepts with students’ ability to solve Physics problems.

  5. Development NGOs: Basic Facts

    OpenAIRE

    Aldashev, Gani; Navarra, Cecilia

    2017-01-01

    This paper systematizes the results of the empirical literature on development non-governmental organizations (NGOs), drawing both from quantitative and qualitative analyses, and constructs a set of basic facts about these organizations. These basic facts concern the size of the development NGO sector and its evolution, the funding of NGOs, the allocation of NGO aid and projects across beneficiary countries, the relationship of NGOs with beneficiaries, and the phenomenon of globalization of d...

  6. The general practice of Judo in the formation of self-concept, self-esteem and school performance in children of the first cycle of basic education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Alexandre da Silva Batista

    2013-11-01

    As data collection instrument was used Self-Concept Scale Susan Harter validated for the Portuguese population (Martins, Peixoto, Mata, & Monteiro, 1995. Focus groups were developed with Judo coaches and officials education with the intention of evaluating opinions about the practice of Judo and its importance and relationship to the variables studied. The results show that the practice of judo promotes positive developments in the formation of self-concept and self-esteem, also improving school performance.

  7. INNOVATIONS AND TOURISTIC ACTIVITY EVOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Novikov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental and applied innovations impact activities in the tourist industry and evolution thereof. More and more sophisticated technologies and communication techniques are practically used to serve tourists. Basically, innovative tourist activity development concept represents innovation of values and in particular means that tourist’s impression is taken into account to higher extent and tourist product personification changes the products’ consumer value. Discussed in the article are tourist activity, tourist cluster, destination and glocalization development prospects.

  8. Hygiene Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hygiene Basics KidsHealth / For Teens / Hygiene Basics What's in this article? Oily Hair Sweat ... smell, anyway? Read below for information on some hygiene basics — and learn how to deal with greasy ...

  9. Schumpeter's Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Esben Sloth

    reworking of his basic theory of economic evolution in Development from 1934, and this reworking was continued in Cycles from 1939. Here Schumpeter also tried to handle the statistical and historical evidence on the waveform evolution of the capitalist economy. Capitalism from 1942 modified the model...

  10. Unconscious phantasy as a structural principle and organizer of mental life: The evolution of a concept from Freud to Klein and some of her successors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Heinz

    2017-06-01

    Starting with Freud's discovery of unconscious phantasy as a means of accessing his patients' internal world, the author discusses the evolution of the concept in the work of Melanie Klein and some of her successors. Whereas Freud sees phantasy as a wish fulfilling imagination, dominated by primary process functioning and kept apart from reality testing, Klein understands phantasies as a structural function and organizer of mental life. From their very beginnings they involve object relations and gradually evolve from primitive body-near experiences to images and symbolic representations. With her concept of projective identification in particular, Klein anticipates the communicative function of unconscious phantasies. They are at the basis of processes of symbolization, but may also be put into the service of complex defensive operations. The author traces the further evolution of the concept from the contributions of S. Isaacs, the theories of thinking proposed by W.R. Bion and R. Money-Kyrle, Hanna Segal's ideas on symbolization and reparation all the way to the latest approaches by R. Britton, J. Steiner and others, including the understanding of transference and counter-transference as a 'total situation'. Points of contact with Freud are to be found particularly in connection with his concept of 'primal phantasies'. In the author's view, the idea of the transmission and communicative potential of unconscious phantasies enabled these authors to overcome the solipsistic origins of drive theory in favour of a notion in which unconscious phantasies both set down the coordinates of the inner world and form and reflect the matrix of inter-subjective relations. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  11. Definitions and Basic Concepts of Supply and Demand Analysis Used to Determine Market Equilibrium. Principles of Economics II (Microeconomics), Lesson Plan No. 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu-Irion, Vicky

    Developed as part of a 37.5-hour microeconomics course, this lesson plan focuses on the concepts of supply and demand analysis used to determine market equilibrium. The objectives of the 50-minute lesson are to enable the student to: (1) explain how a demand schedule is derived from raw data; (2) graph a demand curve from the demand schedule; (3)…

  12. Basic Finite Element Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byeong Hae

    1992-02-01

    This book gives descriptions of basic finite element method, which includes basic finite element method and data, black box, writing of data, definition of VECTOR, definition of matrix, matrix and multiplication of matrix, addition of matrix, and unit matrix, conception of hardness matrix like spring power and displacement, governed equation of an elastic body, finite element method, Fortran method and programming such as composition of computer, order of programming and data card and Fortran card, finite element program and application of nonelastic problem.

  13. Twenty Years of Basic Vocational Education Provision in Spain: Changes and Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marhuenda-Fluixá, Fernando; Salvà, Francesca; Saurin, Almudena A. Navas; López, Miriam Abiétar

    2015-01-01

    Our contribution attempts to review basic vocational education programmes in Spain over the past 25 years. We intend to compare the evolution of these programmes in terms of conception and conditions of delivery in order to find out how different they are as skill-formation and remedial systems, as well as analysing how different political views…

  14. Basic nucleonics. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman, M.E.

    1989-01-01

    This book is oriented mainly towards professionals who are not physicists or experts in nuclear sciences, physicians planning to specialize in nuclear medicine or radiotherapy and technicians involved in nuclear applications. The book covers the fundamental concepts of nuclear science and technology in a simple and ordered fashion. Theory is illustrated with appropriate exercises and answers. With 17 chapters plus 3 appendices on mathematics, basic concepts are covered in: nuclear science, radioactivity, radiation and matter, nuclear reactions, X rays, shielding and radioprotection

  15. Badminton--Teaching Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Marilyn J.

    1988-01-01

    Teaching four basic badminton concepts along with the usual basic skill shots allows players to develop game strategy awareness as well as mechanical skills. These four basic concepts are: (1) ready position, (2) flight trajectory, (3) early shuttle contact, and (4) camouflage. (IAH)

  16. Quantum electronics basic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Fain, V M; Sanders, J H

    1969-01-01

    Quantum Electronics, Volume 1: Basic Theory is a condensed and generalized description of the many research and rapid progress done on the subject. It is translated from the Russian language. The volume describes the basic theory of quantum electronics, and shows how the concepts and equations followed in quantum electronics arise from the basic principles of theoretical physics. The book then briefly discusses the interaction of an electromagnetic field with matter. The text also covers the quantum theory of relaxation process when a quantum system approaches an equilibrium state, and explai

  17. Basic stress analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Iremonger, M J

    1982-01-01

    BASIC Stress Analysis aims to help students to become proficient at BASIC programming by actually using it in an important engineering subject. It also enables the student to use computing as a means of learning stress analysis because writing a program is analogous to teaching-it is necessary to understand the subject matter. The book begins by introducing the BASIC approach and the concept of stress analysis at first- and second-year undergraduate level. Subsequent chapters contain a summary of relevant theory, worked examples containing computer programs, and a set of problems. Topics c

  18. Basic concepts on the theory of high temperature superconductivity. The importance of the isotope effect. Grundvorstellungen zur Theorie der Hochtemperatur-Supraleitung. Die Rolle des Isotopieeffektes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Der, R.; Schumacher, W. (Zentralinstitut fuer Isotopen- und Strahlenforschung, Leipzig (Germany, F.R.))

    1991-01-01

    With the experimental detection of high temperature superconduction (HTSC) a lot of different new concepts for the explanation of this phenomenon have been developed. After a short reminiscence of the conventional theory of superconduction these new approaches are outlined and discussed. Contrarely to the conventional superconductors the isotopic effect in HTSC is generally very small or absent. The role of the isotopic effects in the investigation of new HTSC mechanisms is discussed. (orig.).

  19. Astronomy4Kids: Utilizing online video forums to teach basic planetary concepts to children (pre-K to 2nd-grade)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Richard L.

    2016-10-01

    We have developed Astronomy4Kids to help cultivate the next generation of scientists by using technology to reach every interested child in both formal and informal learning environments. This online video series fills the void of effective STEM education tools for children under the age of 8. Our first collection of videos discuss many planetary topics, including the following: planet and moon formation theories, solar and lunar eclipses, and the seasonal effect of the Earth's tilt. As education and outreach become a larger focus of groups such as AAS and NASA, it is imperative to include programs such as Astronomy4Kids to extend these initiatives to younger age groups.Traditionally, this age group has been viewed as too young to be introduced to physics and astronomy concepts. However, child development research is consistently demonstrating the amazing plasticity of a young child's mind: the younger one is introduced to a complex concept, the easier it is to grasp later on. Following the philosophies of Fred Rogers, we present children with a real, relatable, instructor allowing them to focus on the concepts being presented.The format of Astronomy4Kids includes short instruction video clips that usually include a hands-on activity that is easily reproduced at home or in the classroom. This permits flexibility in how the video series is utilized. Within formal classroom or after-school situations, teachers and instructors can lead the discussion and activity with help from the video and supplemental materials (e.g. worksheets, concept outlines, etc.). Informal environments permit the viewer to complete the tasks on their own or simply enjoy the presentation. The video series can be found on YouTube (under "Astronomy 4 Kids") or Facebook (at www.facebook.com/astronomy4kids); we have also expanded to Instagram (www.instragram.com/astronomy4kids) and Pinterest (www.pinterest.com/astronomy4kids).

  20. The analysis and perspectives of studying basic and special types of self-determination according to A.L. Zhuravlev’s and A.B. Kupreichenko’s concept.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorobieva, A.E.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of Russian and foreign ways of understanding the phenomenon of self-determination has been performed. It has been found that the concept of individual and group self-determination by A.L. Zhuravlev and A.B. Kupreichenko is the most developed in modern Russian psychological science. Using the concept as a basis, the conceptual schemes (made by A.E. Vorobieva and A.A. Akbarova of studies of personal, moral, social and economic self-determination were considered as the examples of the basic and special types of self-determination. Moral self-determination was studied with questions about ideas of morality, moral strategies and personality orientation, attitude toward unethical phenomena, ability for self-regulation and emotional intellect. Social and economic self-determination were studied with questions that show one’s social level, satisfaction with economic and social status and their dynamics, a valuation of favorable circumstances for an increase of status and economic activity. Value and anti-value, spheres and forms of showing of social and living personality’s activity were also determined. Fundamental differences (variability, success criteria, implementation in behavior, a level of ability to control a process, the role of external factors and similarities (successfulness, a formation level, a range, dynamics, conceptions, strategy, values, factors between the components of the conceptual schemes of these types of selfdetermination were identified. The principles of studying (proportion of basic and specific types of self-determination, a display of resultative, procedural and formal-dynamic characteristics, consideration of factors of different levels of basic and special types of self-determination were suggested.

  1. The general practice of Judo in the formation of self-concept, self-esteem and school performance in children of the first cycle of basic education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Alexandre da Silva Batista

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to relate the practice of Judo with the formation of self-concept, self-esteem and school performance in students from lower primary.The sample has been composed of 531 Portuguese students of which 295 (55.6% are children and 236 (44.4% children, with an average of 9.13 years. From this sample, 394 subjects (74% practiced at least one formal exercise extra-curricular character, and 96 students (24% practiced Judo, with an experience of 9 months to 5 years, and graduations between white belt and green belt.As data collection instrument was used Self-Concept Scale Susan Harter validated for the Portuguese population (Martins, Peixoto, Mata, & Monteiro, 1995. Focus groups were developed with Judo coaches and officials education with the intention of evaluating opinions about the practice of Judo and its importance and relationship to the variables studied. The results show that the practice of judo promotes positive developments in the formation of self-concept and self-esteem, also improving school performance.

  2. Physics, Formation and Evolution of Rotating Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Maeder, André

    2009-01-01

    Rotation is ubiquitous at each step of stellar evolution, from star formation to the final stages, and it affects the course of evolution, the timescales and nucleosynthesis. Stellar rotation is also an essential prerequisite for the occurrence of Gamma-Ray Bursts. In this book the author thoroughly examines the basic mechanical and thermal effects of rotation, their influence on mass loss by stellar winds, the effects of differential rotation and its associated instabilities, the relation with magnetic fields and the evolution of the internal and surface rotation. Further, he discusses the numerous observational signatures of rotational effects obtained from spectroscopy and interferometric observations, as well as from chemical abundance determinations, helioseismology and asteroseismology, etc. On an introductory level, this book presents in a didactical way the basic concepts of stellar structure and evolution in "track 1" chapters. The other more specialized chapters form an advanced course on the gradua...

  3. Basic electrotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Ashen, R A

    2013-01-01

    BASIC Electrotechnology discusses the applications of Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC) in engineering, particularly in solving electrotechnology-related problems. The book is comprised of six chapters that cover several topics relevant to BASIC and electrotechnology. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to BASIC, and Chapter 2 talks about the use of complex numbers in a.c. circuit analysis. Chapter 3 covers linear circuit analysis with d.c. and sinusoidal a.c. supplies. The book also discusses the elementary magnetic circuit theory. The theory and performance of two windi

  4. Proposal on experience learning of a nuclear reactor for children in future. A basic concept on a nuclear reactor facility for demonstration and education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Takashi; Yoshiki, Nobuya; Kinehara, Yoshiki; Nakagawa, Haruo

    2001-01-01

    The Science Council of Japan indicates in a proposal on R and D on nuclear energy forward the 21st Century that it is important to expand the educational object on nuclear energy from colleges and gradual schools to elementary, middle high schools. And, the Committee of Japan Nuclear Energy Industries also proposed that as an effort forward security of reliability and popularization of knowledge, completeness of learning chance on energy and nuclear energy in education such as usage of general learning time, concept on establishment of educational reactor for demonstration and experience, is essential. Here was described on a concept on establishment of nuclear reactor for demonstration and experience at objectives of common national peoples, which was based on results of searches and investigations carried out by authors and aimed to supply to a field to grow up a literary adequately and widely capable of judging various information on the peoples by focusing to effectiveness of empirical learning as a method of promoting corrective understanding of common citizens on high class technical system and by establishment of the reactor aiming at general education on nuclear energy at a place easily accessible by common citizens, such as large city. (G.K.)

  5. Proposal on experience learning of a nuclear reactor for children in future. A basic concept on a nuclear reactor facility for demonstration and education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, Takashi [Kyoto Univ., Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto (Japan); Yoshiki, Nobuya; Kinehara, Yoshiki; Nakagawa, Haruo

    2001-12-01

    The Science Council of Japan indicates in a proposal on R and D on nuclear energy forward the 21st Century that it is important to expand the educational object on nuclear energy from colleges and gradual schools to elementary, middle high schools. And, the Committee of Japan Nuclear Energy Industries also proposed that as an effort forward security of reliability and popularization of knowledge, completeness of learning chance on energy and nuclear energy in education such as usage of general learning time, concept on establishment of educational reactor for demonstration and experience, is essential. Here was described on a concept on establishment of nuclear reactor for demonstration and experience at objectives of common national peoples, which was based on results of searches and investigations carried out by authors and aimed to supply to a field to grow up a literary adequately and widely capable of judging various information on the peoples by focusing to effectiveness of empirical learning as a method of promoting corrective understanding of common citizens on high class technical system and by establishment of the reactor aiming at general education on nuclear energy at a place easily accessible by common citizens, such as large city. (G.K.)

  6. Establishment and evolution of the radiation risk concept for the man and human population in the 20th century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassilev, G.; Hadjieva

    2003-01-01

    The concept of radiation risk (RR) is the main basis for human protection from the harmful effect of ionizing radiation. It concerns the expected unfavorable health effects upon the irradiated person and probably upon his/her progeny. The early period of the history of RR evaluation was grounded on the assessment of acute skin reactions (erythema, epilation, dermatitis, ulceration) and on the measures (erythema dose) taken to diminish them. The second period covers the appraisal, based on estimation of different somatic effects and expected heredity ( genetic effects). They could be avoided if irradiation does not exceed the maximum permissible dose - the concept of zero RR. The current (third) period estimates both irradiation effects: deterministic effects that have a dose-related threshold and stochastic non-threshold effects. The ultimate goal of radiation protection is to exclude all deterministic effects and to diminish probability of stochastic effects (carcinogenesis and heredity effects) down to an acceptable level. Seven postulates describe the modern concept of RR for the man and human population: globalization irreversibility, accumulation, non-threshold harm, stochastic, non-specificity and acceptance of the risk

  7. Basic physics for all

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, B N

    2012-01-01

    This is a simple, concise book for both student and non-physics students, presenting basic facts in straightforward form and conveying fundamental principles and theories of physics. This book will be helpful as a supplement to class teaching and to aid those who have difficulty in mastering concepts and principles.

  8. Anesthesia Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Anesthesia Basics KidsHealth / For Teens / Anesthesia Basics What's in ... español Conceptos básicos sobre la anestesia What Is Anesthesia? No doubt about it, getting an operation can ...

  9. BASIC Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Carol Ann

    Designed for use by both secondary- and postsecondary-level business teachers, this curriculum guide consists of 10 units of instructional materials dealing with Beginners All-Purpose Symbol Instruction Code (BASIC) programing. Topics of the individual lessons are numbering BASIC programs and using the PRINT, END, and REM statements; system…

  10. General definition of the concept of "sport" as one of the basic constructs of the general theory of physical culture and sports theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasil Sutula

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to reveal modern ideas about the essence of the concept of "sport" and determine its role in the development of the general theory of physical culture and sports theory. Material & Methods: analysis of specialized literature, which highlights various aspects of the development of the field of people's activities related to the use of physical exercises. Results: in today's society there is an objective sphere of human activity related to the use of physical exercises, for which the name in domestic and foreign scientific and social practice is most often used the term "physical culture". Conclusion: the constitutive conditions of the process of developing a general theory of physical culture are singled out, it is shown that sport, as a special socio-cultural phenomenon, is a historically conditioned activity of people associated with the use of physical exercises, aimed at preparing and participating in competitions, as well as individual and socially significant results of such activity.

  11. Studies of Basic Electronic Properties of CdTe-Based Solar Cells and Their Evolution During Processing and Stress: Final Technical Report, 16 October 2001 - 31 August 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaydanov, V. I.; Ohno, T. R.

    2007-02-01

    This report describes basic issues behind CdTe/CdS cell performance and stability, such as the nature and electronic properties of impurities and defects that control the majority carrier concentration, mechanisms of dopant compensation, recombination processes, their nature and properties, migration and transformation of defects under various processing, stress, and operating conditions. We believe that a better basic understanding of the specific influence of grain boundaries, especially for fine-grain materials such as those making up CdTe-based cells, is now one of the most important issues we must address. We need to clarify the role of grain boundaries in forming the film electronic properties, as well as those of the p-n junction.

  12. Fundamental concepts of geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Meserve, Bruce E

    1983-01-01

    Demonstrates relationships between different types of geometry. Provides excellent overview of the foundations and historical evolution of geometrical concepts. Exercises (no solutions). Includes 98 illustrations.

  13. Physical self-concept in adolescents from Seville in relation with gender and the evolution of sport career

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Ries

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the physical capacities and the physical attractiveness of Seville adolescent athletes and whether these perceptions vary by gender and sport career development. 90 adolescents from 12 to 18 years (50 girls and 40 boys completed a Spanish adaptation of the Physical Self Description Questionnaire (Marsh, Richards, Johnson, Roche y Tremaye, 1994; Tomás, 1998 and a scale to collect physical attractiveness perceived (Alfermann, Saborowski y Würth, 1997. The results show that males have a more positive physical self-concept than females. There were no relationships of the variables with the level of sports performance. The follow-up survey, one year later, noted an increase in some subdomains of self-concept in terms of positive developments in the sport career. In this study the physical changes associated with maturation in adolescence seem to have fewer influences on the perception of the body as it has been reported in other studies

  14. Basic Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittek, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    A discussion of the basic measures of corporate financial strength, and the sources of the information is reported. Considered are: balance sheet, income statement, funds and cash flow, and financial ratios.

  15. A Socratic Method for Surveying Students' Readiness to Study Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfield, William D.

    2013-01-01

    Before beginning a series of presentations on evolution, it would be prudent to survey the general level of students' understanding of prerequisite basic concepts of reproduction, heredity, ontology, and phenotypic diversity so that teachers can avoid devoting time to well-known subjects of general knowledge and can spend more time on subjects…

  16. A perspective of some key issues related to the evolution of safeguards, the state level and regional concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Moreno, S.

    2013-01-01

    This presentation is focused on the implementation of safeguards at present and the directions that they could be taken in the future. There are some key questions to be answered in the implementation of international safeguards that are aimed at helping to determine more clearly what safeguards will be more effective and efficient under the so called 'state-level concept' (SLC). A first and important step is to agree on a definition and scope of the SLC and to determine how the IAEA and relevant States could achieve a smooth transition from the historic criteria based safeguards systems to a new one based on the SLC that would be more flexible, but yet technically oriented and non-discriminatory. A second issue is to fully reflect on the factors that are influencing safeguards developments and that impact on their future shape. Some suggestions about enhancing safeguard implementation at present and in the future include first: a fresh look to the approach to safeguards cooperation: the IAEA has to revisit its activities to assist states in establishing good SSAC (State Systems of Accounting and Control), and secondly: investigating and promoting the development of concepts and technologies to share its verification capabilities with states and regional organizations. Another key consideration to the future of safeguards is the people. Adequate staff and the existence of appropriate training and education in safeguards are very important considerations to ensure effective and professional safeguards. Highly technically qualified staff in nuclear sciences is vital to build competence in safeguards in states, the IAEA, and regional organizations. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (authors)

  17. New Federalism: Back to Basics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durenberger, Dave

    1983-01-01

    The senator explains the basic concepts of New Federalism, including a rethinking of responsibilities and intergovernmental relations and a reconsideration of the role of state and local government. (SK)

  18. Concept theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2009-01-01

      Concept theory is an extremely broad, interdisciplinary and complex field of research related to many deep fields with very long historical traditions without much consensus. However, information science and knowledge organization cannot avoid relating to theories of concepts. Knowledge...... organizing systems (e.g. classification systems, thesauri and ontologies) should be understood as systems basically organizing concepts and their semantic relations. The same is the case with information retrieval systems. Different theories of concepts have different implications for how to construe......, evaluate and use such systems. Based on "a post-Kuhnian view" of paradigms this paper put forward arguments that the best understanding and classification of theories of concepts is to view and classify them in accordance with epistemological theories (empiricism, rationalism, historicism and pragmatism...

  19. ISN Forefronts Symposium 2015: The Evolution of Hypertension–Old Genes, New Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morag K. Mansley

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is known as the “silent killer,” driving the global public health burden of cardiovascular and renal disease. Blood pressure homeostasis is intimately associated with sodium balance and the distribution of sodium between fluid compartments and within tissues. On a population level, most societies consume 10 times more salt that the 0.5 g required by physiological need. This high salt intake is strongly linked to hypertension and to the World Health Organization targeting a ∼30% relative reduction in mean population salt intake to arrest the global mortality due to cardiovascular disease. But how does a habitually high-salt diet cause blood pressure to rise? In this focused review, we discuss 2 “evolutionary medicine” concepts, presented at the ISN Forefront Meeting “Immunomodulation of Cardio-renal Function.” We first examine how ancestral variants in genes that conferred a selection advantage during early human development are now maladaptive. We then discuss the conservation of “renal” sodium transport processes across multiple organ systems, including the brain. These systems influence sodium appetite and can exert an often-overlooked effect on long-term blood pressure control.

  20. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrook, Harold D

    1971-01-01

    Basic Electronics is an elementary text designed for basic instruction in electricity and electronics. It gives emphasis on electronic emission and the vacuum tube and shows transistor circuits in parallel with electron tube circuits. This book also demonstrates how the transistor merely replaces the tube, with proper change of circuit constants as required. Many problems are presented at the end of each chapter. This book is comprised of 17 chapters and opens with an overview of electron theory, followed by a discussion on resistance, inductance, and capacitance, along with their effects on t

  1. Nature value: the evolution of this concept Valor da natureza: a evolução desse conceito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Soares da Silva

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available More attention has been paid to environmental matters in recent years, mainly due to the current scenario of accentuated environmental degradation. The economic valuation of nature goods can contribute to the decision-making process in environment management, generating a more comprehensive informational base. This paper aims to present, in a historic perspective, the different concepts attributed to nature goods and were related to the current predominant perspectives of nature analyses. For this purpose, this paper presents the different concepts attributed to value since the pre-classical period, when nature were viewed as inert and passive providers of goods and services, this view legitimized nature's exploration without concern over the preservation and conservation of nature. The capacity of nature to absorb the impact of human action appears to be reaching its limit, considering the irreversibility, the irreproducibility and the possibility of collapse. The appropriate method for valuing natural resources is not known, but more important than the method is to respect and incorporate the particular characteristics of the nature goods into this process. These characteristics must be valuated in order to arrive at a more consistence approach to nature value and promote sustainability.Nos últimos anos, mais atenção tem sido dada às questões ambientais, principalmente decorrente do atual cenário de acentuada degradação. A avaliação econômica dos recursos naturais pode contribuir com o processo de tomada de decisão na gestão ambiental, gerando uma importante base de informações. Neste artigo, buscou-se apresentar, em uma perspectiva histórica, os diferentes conceitos atribuídos ao valor dos recursos naturais e como eles se relacionam às perspectivas atuais de análise ambiental. Com essa finalidade, foram apresentados os conceitos atribuídos ao valor desde o período pré-clássico, quando a natureza era vista como

  2. Crustal structure and evolution of the Pyrenean-Cantabrian belt: A review and new interpretations from recent concepts and data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixell, A.; Labaume, P.; Ayarza, P.; Espurt, N.; de Saint Blanquat, M.; Lagabrielle, Y.

    2018-01-01

    . To the west, oceanic subduction of the Bay of Biscay under the North Iberian margin is supported by an upper plate thrust wedge, gravity and magnetic anomalies, and 3D inclined sub-crustal reflections. However, discrepancies remain for the location of continent-ocean transitions in the Bay of Biscay and for the extent of oceanic subduction. The plate-kinematic evolution during the Mesozoic, which involves issues as the timing and total amount of opening, as well as the role of strike-slip drift, is also under debate, discrepancies arising from first-order interpretations of the adjacent oceanic magnetic anomaly record.

  3. Body Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... learn more about how the body works, what basic human anatomy is, and what happens when parts of ... consult your doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All rights reserved. Images provided by The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Veer, Shutterstock, and Clipart.com.

  4. Ethanol Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-01-30

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  5. Evolution of the concept of Capacity-building, results achieved during the past years and the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laffaiteur, M.; Camacho, S.

    Capacity-building is one of the key elements for the implementation of space applications programmes, particularly in developing countries. As early as 1982, the work programme of the United Nations Programme on Space Applications was expanded in order to promote education and training by organizing seminars, training courses and workshops in various areas, such as astronomy, telecommunications and Earth observation. In the framework of this Programme, the Office for Outer Space Affairs undertook the initiative, at the beginning of the 1990's, aimed at establishing regional centres for space science and technology education, affiliated to the United Nations and located in developing countries. These centres have started their activities between 1995 and 2000 in Africa, Asia and the Pacific, and Latin America and the Caribbean. The centres are based on the concept that by pooling material and human resources, developing countries can have education and training centres, of an international-level quality. A considerable impetus has been given to capacity-building after the UNISPACE III Conference, in particular in the "Vienna Declaration on Space and Human Development". The necessity to enhance capacity-building through the development of human and budgetary resources, the training of teachers, the exchange of teaching methods, materials and experience and the development of infrastructure and policy regulatories. In the process of the implementation of the recommendations of UNISPACE III, Action Teams led by Governments were established. One of them was exclusively dealing with capacity-building. Its proposals have been reviewed last June by the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS) and will be examined, among other reports of Action Teams, by the General Assembly in next October. A lot of work has been done during the past years and have produced very important results. But there is still an important gap in capacity-building between space

  6. Air quality in the Metropolitan zone of the Mexico City and recommendations to improve It considering basic concepts of environmental engineering; La calidad del aire en la zona Metropolitana de la Ciudad de Mexico y recomendaciones para mejorarla considerando conceptos basicos de ingenieria ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo Alvarez, H.; Sosa Hecheverria, R.; Sanchez Alvarez, P.; Jaimes Palomera, M. [Centro de ciencias de la atmosfera, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2002-12-01

    The atmospheric pollution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Zone (MCMZ), was detected during the 1960's and presents nowadays considerable dimensions. The atmospheric pollution problem evolution in the MCMZ is presented in this paper, considering criteria pollutants as particles and ozone, and hazardous air pollutants as benzene. Successful an unsuccessful experiences looking for improve the air quality in the MCMZ are evaluated. These experiences should be account for in other Mexican cities, as well as in developing countries. The MCMZ air quality evolution is an important case where implemented strategies in order to reduce sulphur dioxide and lead, resulted an increase in levels, frequency and duration of ozone concentrations in the atmosphere. Basic concepts of environmental engineering: prevention, minimization and control, as well as pollution control in the source, must be considered. [Spanish] La contaminacion atmosferica en la Zona Metropolitana de la Ciudad de Mexico (ZMCM), se hizo evidente en la decada de los a s sesenta y, a la fecha, ha alcanzado dimensiones considerables. En este trabajo se presenta la evolucion del problema de contaminacion atmosferica en la ZMCM, enfocandolo a contaminantes criterio como particulas y ozono, y contaminantes toxicos como el benceno. Asimismo, se exponen experiencias exitosas y las que han fracasado en busca de una mejor calidad del aire para la ZMCM; es recomendable que dichas experiencias sean consideradas en otras ciudades de nuestro pais, asi como en otros paises en vias de desarrollo, ofreciendoles la importancia debida. Deben considerarse los conceptos basicos de la ingenieria ambiental como son la prevencion, la minimizacion y el control de la contaminacion en la fuente, ya que mandatos del ejecutivo tendientes a reducir niveles de bioxido de azufre y de plomo en la atmosfera metropolitana trajeron, por falta de la infraestructura necesaria, un drastico incremento en los niveles, frecuencia y duracion de

  7. Evolução do conceito e controvérsias atuais sobre o transtorno bipolar do humor Bipolar disorder: evolution of the concept and current controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Del Porto

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available O autor revê o conceito de transtorno bipolar como um processo em evolução. Suas raízes podem ser encontradas no trabalho de Araeteus da Capadócia, que assumia serem a melancolia e a mania duas formas da mesma doença. A compreensão atual da doença bipolar começou na França, através dos trabalhos de Falret (1851 e Baillarguer (1854. Os conceitos fundamentais de Kraepelin mudaram as bases da nosologia psiquiátrica, e o conceito unitário de Kraepelin sobre a insanidade maníaco-depressiva passou a ser amplamente aceito. Depois de Kraepelin, no entanto, as idéias de Kleist e Leonhard, na Alemanha, e o trabalho subseqüente de Angst, Perris e Winokur enfatizaram a distinção entre as formas monopolares e bipolares da depressão. Mais recentemente a ênfase mudou novamente para o espectro bipolar, que em suas formas leves expande-se às bordas dos temperamentos normais. Finalizando, o autor sumariza os aspectos polêmicos da nosologia da doença bipolar e seus limites com as esquizofrenias, a doença esquizoafetiva e as psicoses ciclóides.The author reviews the evolution of the concept of bipolar disorder as an ongoing process. Its roots can be found in the work of Araeteus of Capadocia, who assumed that melancholia and mania were two forms of the same disease. The modern understanding of bipolar disorder began in France, through the work of Falret (1851 and Baillarger (1854. The pivotal concepts of Emil Kraepelin changed the basis of psychiatric nosology, and Kraepelin's unitary concept of manic-depressive insanity was largely accepted. Kraepelin and Weigandt's ideas on mixed states were the cornerstone of this unitary concept. After Kraepelin, however, the ideas of Kleist and Leonhard, in Germany, as well as the work of Angst, Perris and Winokur, emphasized the distinction between unipolar and bipolar forms of depression. More recently, the emphasis has shifted again to the bipolar spectrum, which, in its mild forms, expanded to the

  8. Getting Back to Basics (& Acidics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Sam

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a few novel acid-base experiments intended to introduce students to the basic concepts of acid-base chemistry and provide practical examples that apply directly to the study of biology and the human body. Important concepts such as the reaction between carbon dioxide and water, buffers and protein denaturation, are covered.…

  9. Basics of Computer Networking

    CERN Document Server

    Robertazzi, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Springer Brief Basics of Computer Networking provides a non-mathematical introduction to the world of networks. This book covers both technology for wired and wireless networks. Coverage includes transmission media, local area networks, wide area networks, and network security. Written in a very accessible style for the interested layman by the author of a widely used textbook with many years of experience explaining concepts to the beginner.

  10. Basic accelerator optics

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit

    1985-01-01

    A complete derivation, from first principles, of the concepts and methods applied in linear accelerator and beamline optics will be presented. Particle motion and beam motion in systems composed of linear magnets, as well as weak and strong focusing and special insertions are treated in mathematically simple terms, and design examples for magnets and systems are given. This series of five lectures is intended to provide all the basic tools required for the design and operation of beam optical systems.

  11. Education: The Basics. The Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Kay

    2011-01-01

    Everyone knows that education is important, we are confronted daily by discussion of it in the media and by politicians, but how much do we really know about education? "Education: The Basics" is a lively and engaging introduction to education as an academic subject, taking into account both theory and practice. Covering the schooling system, the…

  12. Concept - or no concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Uffe

    1999-01-01

    Discussion about concept in industrial companies. A method for mapping of managerial concept in specific area is shown......Discussion about concept in industrial companies. A method for mapping of managerial concept in specific area is shown...

  13. A Primer on Basic Effect Size Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, Patricia B.; Rotou, Ourania

    The increased interest in reporting effect sizes means that it is necessary to consider what should be included in a primer on effect sizes. A review of papers on effect sizes and commonly repeated statistical analyses suggests that it is important to discuss effect sizes relative to bivariate correlation, t-tests, analysis of variance/covariance,…

  14. Geophysical worldwide networks: basic concepts and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruzie, G.; Baubron, G.

    1997-01-01

    The detection of nuclear explosions around the globe requires the setting up of networks of sensors on a worldwide basis. Such equipment should be able to transmit on-line data in real-time or pseudo real-time to a center or processing centers. The high level of demanded reliability for the data (generally better than 99 %) also has an impact on the accuracy and precision of the sensors and the communications technology, as well as the systems used for on-line checking. In the light of these requirements, DAM has developed a data gathering network based on the principle of VSTA duplex links which ensures the on-line transmission of data and operational parameters towards the Processing Centre via a hub. In the other direction, the Centre can act on a number of parameters in order to correct them if necessary, or notify the local maintenance team. To optimize the reliability of the main components of this system, the detection stations as well as their associated beacons have low consumption and can be supplied by solar panels, thus facilitating the installation of the networks. The seismic network on the French national territory is composed of 40 stations built on the principles outlined above. In order to gather data from stations established outside France, DAM is planning to use an analogue system to transmit data in on-line as well as off-line mode. (authors)

  15. Overview of IMRT - definitions and basic concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackie, T.R.

    2008-01-01

    A detailed advanced outline of the title topic is presented. Summary is formulated as follows: (i) Conventional MLC, developed for block replacement, require corrections and careful QA when when used for IMRT; (ii) There are both advantages and disadvantages of static or dynamic MLC delivery; (iii) Tomotherapy uses binary MLC systems specifically designed for IMRT; (iv) There are two types of optimization, grid of beamlets and direct aperture methods; (v) Optimization is controlled by objective functions. (P.A.)

  16. Dental photography today. Part 1: basic concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casaglia, A; DE Dominicis, P; Arcuri, L; Gargari, M; Ottria, L

    2015-01-01

    This paper is the first article in a new series on digital dental photography. Part 1 defines the aims and objectives of dental photography for examination, diagnosis and treatment planning, legal and forensic documentation, publishing, education, marketing and communication with patients, dental team members, colleagues and dental laboratory.

  17. Basic concept of QA for advanced technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mijnheer, Ben

    2008-01-01

    The lecture was structured as follows: (1) Rationale for accurate dose determination; (2) Existing recommendations and guidance; (3) Challenges within the current QA paradigm; (4) New paradigm adopted by AAPM TG 100; and (5) Application of new paradigm to IMRT. Attention was paid, i.a., to major accidents in radiotherapy such as Epinal-1. (P.A.)

  18. [Basic concept in computer assisted surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merloz, Philippe; Wu, Hao

    2006-03-01

    To investigate application of medical digital imaging systems and computer technologies in orthopedics. The main computer-assisted surgery systems comprise the four following subcategories. (1) A collection and recording process for digital data on each patient, including preoperative images (CT scans, MRI, standard X-rays), intraoperative visualization (fluoroscopy, ultrasound), and intraoperative position and orientation of surgical instruments or bone sections (using 3D localises). Data merging based on the matching of preoperative imaging (CT scans, MRI, standard X-rays) and intraoperative visualization (anatomical landmarks, or bone surfaces digitized intraoperatively via 3D localiser; intraoperative ultrasound images processed for delineation of bone contours). (2) In cases where only intraoperative images are used for computer-assisted surgical navigation, the calibration of the intraoperative imaging system replaces the merged data system, which is then no longer necessary. (3) A system that provides aid in decision-making, so that the surgical approach is planned on basis of multimodal information: the interactive positioning of surgical instruments or bone sections transmitted via pre- or intraoperative images, display of elements to guide surgical navigation (direction, axis, orientation, length and diameter of a surgical instrument, impingement, etc. ). And (4) A system that monitors the surgical procedure, thereby ensuring that the optimal strategy defined at the preoperative stage is taken into account. It is possible that computer-assisted orthopedic surgery systems will enable surgeons to better assess the accuracy and reliability of the various operative techniques, an indispensable stage in the optimization of surgery.

  19. Luminescence basic concepts, applications and instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Virk, Hardev Singh

    2014-01-01

    The word luminescence was first used by a German physicist, Eilhardt Wiedemann, in 1888. He also classified luminescence into six kinds according to the method of excitation. No better basis of classification is available today. He recognized photoluminescence, thermoluminescence, electroluminescence, crystalloluminescence, triboluminescence, and chemiluminescence. The designations are obvious, characterized by the prefix. This Volume consists of 9 Chapters, including 8 Review Papers and one Case Study. The first two papers are based on OLEDs. Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) have been th

  20. Basic concepts and definitions of clinical management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Román

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Management is leading, administering resources, and achieving the goals and objectives that have been set. In the Chilean health care system, management can be subdivided in three main levels – macro-management, meso-management and micro-management. Managing health care is also about epidemiological changes, information and technology innovations, patient groups demanding better services, but mostly about a huge escalation in costs that is not necessarily substantiated by evidence on more efficiency in health outcomes.Clinical management is more than a management tool. It is a cultural change that will provide new values to professional practice and to the organization as a whole. However, clinical management demands more commitment on behalf of the human teams that need to learn how to lead and to be led. These teams will be called upon to help in the decision-making process for the betterment of the institution.

  1. Science and Technology Text Mining Basic Concepts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Losiewicz, Paul

    2003-01-01

    ...). It then presents some of the most widely used data and text mining techniques, including clustering and classification methods, such as nearest neighbor, relational learning models, and genetic...

  2. OD structures in crystallography - basic concepts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ďurovič, S.; Hybler, Jiří

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 221, - (2006), s. 63-76 ISSN 0044-2968 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/03/0439 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : OD structures * polytypism * cronstedtite * kermesite * Fourier synthesis Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.897, year: 2006

  3. Medical cyclotron basic concepts and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Rajeev; Sonkawade, R.G.

    2012-01-01

    More than 3000 nuclides are known, of which approximately 2700 are radioactive, and rest are stable. The majority of radionuclides are artificially produced in the reactor and cyclotron. In a cyclotron, Charge particle such as proton, Deuteron, á (Alpha) particle, 3 He particles and so forth are accelerated in circular paths within the Dees under vacuum by means of an electromagnetic field. These accelerated particles can possess few KeV to several BeV of kinetic energy depending on the design of the cyclotron. At our setup we have an 11 MeV dual beam multi target cyclotron which is capable producing 11 C, 13 N, 15 O, 18 F and 2 F radioisotopes and all have been successfully produced and tested in our lab. Earlier cyclotrons were the best source of high-energy beams for nuclear physics experiments; several cyclotrons are still in use for this type of research. Cyclotrons can be used to treat cancer. Ion beams from cyclotrons can be used, as in proton therapy. The positron emitting isotopes are suitable for PET imaging. As discussed we are producing mainly Carbon-11, Nitrogen-13, Oxygen-15, and Fluorine-18: These are positron emitters used in PET for studying brain physiology and pathology, in particular for localizing epileptic focus, and in dementia, psychiatry and neuropharmacology studies. So these are having significant role in diagnosis of Oncological, Neurological and Cardiological disorder. More than ninety percent we are producing 18 F in FDG. 18 F in FDG (Flouro-Deoxy-glucose) has become very important in detection of cancers and the monitoring of progress in their treatment, using PET. Medical cyclotron is complex equipment requiring delicate handling by highly trained personnel. The aim of this article is to highlight few finer aspects of Medical cyclotron operation, including precautions for safety and smooth functioning of this sophisticated equipment. (author)

  4. Digital design basic concepts and principles

    CERN Document Server

    Karim, Mohammad A

    2007-01-01

    DATA TYPE AND REPRESENTATIONS Positional Number Systems Number System Conversion Negative Numbers Binary Arithmetic Unconventional Number System Binary Codes Error Detecting and Correcting Codes CAD System BOOLEAN ALGEBRA Logic Operations Logic Functions from Truth Tables Boolean Algebra MINIMIZATION OF LOGIC FUNCTIONS Karnaugh Map Incompletely Specified Functions in K-Map K-Maps for Product-of-sum Form of Functions Map-entered Variables Hazards Single-output Q-M Tabular Reduction Multiple-output Q-M Tabular reduction                               LOGIC FUNCTION IMPLEMENTATION Introduction Functionally Complete Operation Sets NAND-only and NOR-only Implementations Function Implementation Using XOR and XNOR Logic Circuit Implementation Using Gate Arrays Logic Function Implementation Using Multiplexers Logic Function Implementation Using Demultiplexers andecoders Logic Function Implementation Using ROM Logic Function Implementation Using PLD Logic Func...

  5. Radiation protection. Basic concepts of ICRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Tsutomu; Hirata, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    The title subject is easily explained. Main international organizations for radiation protection are United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The UNSCEAR objectively summarizes and publishes scientific findings; ICRP, an NGO, takes part in recommending the radiological protection from the expertized aspect; and IAEA, a UN autonomy, aims at peaceful usage of atomic power. These organizations support the legal regulation and standard of nations. The purpose of the ICRP recommendation (Pub. 103, 2007) is to contribute to the appropriate protection of radiation hazardous effects, which are assumed to be linearly proportional (the model of linear no-threshold, LNT) that radiation risk exists even at the lowest dose. When a change in the single cell results in hazardous alteration, the causative effects are called stochastic effects, which include the mutation leading to cancer formation and genetic effect in offspring (not observed in man). ICRP says the validity of LNT for the stochastic effects essentially from the protective aspect, although epidemiological data support it at >100 mSv exposure. The deterministic effects are caused by loss of cell itself or of its function, where the threshold is defined to be the dose causing >1% of disorder or death. Radiation protective system against exposure is on the situation (programmed, emergent and natural), category (occupational, public and medical) and 3 principles of justification, optimization and application of dose limit. (T.T.)

  6. Nudging Evolution?

    OpenAIRE

    Katharine N. Farrell; Andreas Thiel

    2013-01-01

    This Special Feature, "Nudging Evolution? Critical Exploration of the Potential and Limitations of the Concept of Institutional Fit for the Study and Adaptive Management of Social-Ecological Systems," aims to contribute toward the development of social theory and social research methods for the study of social-ecological system dynamics. Our objective is to help strengthen the academic discourse concerning if, and if so, how, to what extent, and in what concrete ways the concept of institut...

  7. Bus basics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobinson, R.W.

    1983-01-01

    The aims of this course are: 1. To introduce the general concepts of buses used to interconnect processors, perpherals, and instrumentation. 2. To classify, albeit crudely, different types of bus systems. 3. To give some examples of past, present, and future buses as applied to the field of high-energy physics, including some details of software. 4. To provide references for further study. (orig.)

  8. Basic principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, P.D.

    1996-01-01

    Some basic explanations are given of the principles underlying the nuclear fuel cycle, starting with the physics of atomic and nuclear structure and continuing with nuclear energy and reactors, fuel and waste management and finally a discussion of economics and the future. An important aspect of the fuel cycle concerns the possibility of ''closing the back end'' i.e. reprocessing the waste or unused fuel in order to re-use it in reactors of various kinds. The alternative, the ''oncethrough'' cycle, discards the discharged fuel completely. An interim measure involves the prolonged storage of highly radioactive waste fuel. (UK)

  9. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Tayal, DC

    2010-01-01

    The second edition of this book incorporates the comments and suggestions of my friends and students who have critically studied the first edition. In this edition the changes and additions have been made and subject matter has been rearranged at some places. The purpose of this text is to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date study of the principles of operation of solid state devices, their basic circuits and application of these circuits to various electronic systems, so that it can serve as a standard text not only for universities and colleges but also for technical institutes. This book

  10. Ludwig von Bertalanffy's organismic view on the theory of evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drack, Manfred

    2015-03-01

    Ludwig von Bertalanffy was a key figure in the advancement of theoretical biology. His early considerations already led him to recognize the necessity of considering the organism as a system, as an organization of parts and processes. He termed the resulting research program organismic biology, which he extended to all basic questions of biology and almost all areas of biology, hence also to the theory of evolution. This article begins by outlining the rather unknown (because often written in German) research of Bertalanffy in the field of theoretical biology. The basics of the organismic approach are then described. This is followed by Bertalanffy's considerations on the theory of evolution, in which he used methods from theoretical biology and then introduced his own, organismic, view on evolution, leading to the demand for finding laws of evolution. Finally, his view on the concept of homology is presented. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. From basic needs to basic rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facio, A

    1995-06-01

    After arriving at an understanding that basic rights refer to all human needs, it is clear that a recognition of the basic needs of female humans must precede the realization of their rights. The old Women in Development (WID) framework only understood women's needs from an androcentric perspective which was limited to practical interests. Instead, women's primary need is to be free from their subordination to men. Such an understanding places all of women's immediate needs in a new light. A human rights approach to development would see women not as beneficiaries but as people entitled to enjoy the benefits of development. Discussion of what equality before the law should mean to women began at the Third World Conference on Women in Nairobi where the issue of violence against women was first linked to development. While debate continues about the distinction between civil and political rights and economic, social, and cultural rights, the realities of women's lives do not permit such a distinction. The concept of the universality of human rights did not become codified until the UN proclaimed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948. The declaration has been criticized by feminists because the view of human rights it embodies has been too strongly influenced by a liberal Western philosophy which stresses individual rights and because it is ambiguous on the distinction between human rights and the rights of a citizen. The protection of rights afforded by the Declaration, however, should not be viewed as a final achievement but as an ongoing struggle. International conferences have led to an analysis of the human-rights approach to sustainable development which concludes that women continue to face the routine denial of their rights. Each human right must be redefined from the perspective of women's needs, which must also be redefined. Women must forego challenging the concept of the universality of human rights in order to overcome the argument of cultural

  12. Ultrastructure, macromolecules, and evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Dillon, Lawrence S

    1981-01-01

    Thus far in the history of biology, two, and only two, fundamental principles have come to light that pervade and unify the entire science-the cell theory and the concept of evolution. While it is true that recently opened fields of inves­ tigation have given rise to several generalizations of wide impact, such as the universality of DNA and the energetic dynamics of ecology, closer inspection reveals them to be part and parcel of either of the first two mentioned. Because in the final analysis energy can act upon an organism solely at the cellular level, its effects may be perceived basically to represent one facet of cell me­ tabolism. Similarly, because the DNA theory centers upon the means by which cells build proteins and reproduce themselves, it too proves to be only one more, even though an exciting, aspect of the cell theory. In fact, if the matter is given closer scrutiny, evolution itself can be viewed as being a fundamental portion of the cell concept, for its effects arise only as a consequence ...

  13. A roadmap for bridging basic and applied research in forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomberlin, J K; Mohr, R; Benbow, M E; Tarone, A M; VanLaerhoven, S

    2011-01-01

    The National Research Council issued a report in 2009 that heavily criticized the forensic sciences. The report made several recommendations that if addressed would allow the forensic sciences to develop a stronger scientific foundation. We suggest a roadmap for decomposition ecology and forensic entomology hinging on a framework built on basic research concepts in ecology, evolution, and genetics. Unifying both basic and applied research fields under a common umbrella of terminology and structure would facilitate communication in the field and the production of scientific results. It would also help to identify novel research areas leading to a better understanding of principal underpinnings governing ecosystem structure, function, and evolution while increasing the accuracy of and ability to interpret entomological evidence collected from crime scenes. By following the proposed roadmap, a bridge can be built between basic and applied decomposition ecology research, culminating in science that could withstand the rigors of emerging legal and cultural expectations.

  14. Measuring student teachers' basic psychological needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr Bob Koster; Dr. Jos Castelijns; Dr. Marjan Vermeulen; dr.ir. Quinta Kools

    2012-01-01

    In the Self-Determination Theory (SDT) basic psychological needs for relatedness, autonomy and competence are distinguished. Basic psychological need fulfilment is considered to be critical for human development and intrinsic motivation. In the Netherlands, the concept of basic psychological need

  15. Measuring student teachers’ basic psychological needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Marjan; Castelijns, Jos; Koster, Bob; Kools, Quinta

    2018-01-01

    In the Self–Determination Theory (SDT) basic psychological needs for relatedness, autonomy and competence are distinguished. Basic psychological need fulfilment is considered to be critical for human development and intrinsic motivation. In the Netherlands, the concept of basic psychological need

  16. Basic radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyzadeoglu, M. M.; Ebruli, C.

    2008-01-01

    Basic Radiation Oncology is an all-in-one book. It is an up-to-date bedside oriented book integrating the radiation physics, radiobiology and clinical radiation oncology. It includes the essentials of all aspects of radiation oncology with more than 300 practical illustrations, black and white and color figures. The layout and presentation is very practical and enriched with many pearl boxes. Key studies particularly randomized ones are also included at the end of each clinical chapter. Basic knowledge of all high-tech radiation teletherapy units such as tomotherapy, cyberknife, and proton therapy are also given. The first 2 sections review concepts that are crucial in radiation physics and radiobiology. The remaining 11 chapters describe treatment regimens for main cancer sites and tumor types. Basic Radiation Oncology will greatly help meeting the needs for a practical and bedside oriented oncology book for residents, fellows, and clinicians of Radiation, Medical and Surgical Oncology as well as medical students, physicians and medical physicists interested in Clinical Oncology. English Edition of the book Temel Radyasyon Onkolojisi is being published by Springer Heidelberg this year with updated 2009 AJCC Staging as Basic Radiation Oncology

  17. Evolution of Substrate Specificity within a Diverse Family of [beta/alpha]-Barrel-fold Basic Amino Acid Decarboxylases X-ray Structure Determination of Enzymes with Specificity for L-Arginine and Carboxynorspermidine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Xiaoyi; Lee, Jeongmi; Michael, Anthony J.; Tomchick, Diana R.; Goldsmith, Elizabeth J.; Phillips, Margaret A. (Sungkyunkwan); (UTSMC)

    2010-08-26

    Pyridoxal 5{prime}-phosphate (PLP)-dependent basic amino acid decarboxylases from the {beta}/{alpha}-barrel-fold class (group IV) exist in most organisms and catalyze the decarboxylation of diverse substrates, essential for polyamine and lysine biosynthesis. Herein we describe the first x-ray structure determination of bacterial biosynthetic arginine decarboxylase (ADC) and carboxynorspermidine decarboxylase (CANSDC) to 2.3- and 2.0-{angstrom} resolution, solved as product complexes with agmatine and norspermidine. Despite low overall sequence identity, the monomeric and dimeric structures are similar to other enzymes in the family, with the active sites formed between the {beta}/{alpha}-barrel domain of one subunit and the {beta}-barrel of the other. ADC contains both a unique interdomain insertion (4-helical bundle) and a C-terminal extension (3-helical bundle) and it packs as a tetramer in the asymmetric unit with the insertions forming part of the dimer and tetramer interfaces. Analytical ultracentrifugation studies confirmed that the ADC solution structure is a tetramer. Specificity for different basic amino acids appears to arise primarily from changes in the position of, and amino acid replacements in, a helix in the {beta}-barrel domain we refer to as the 'specificity helix.' Additionally, in CANSDC a key acidic residue that interacts with the distal amino group of other substrates is replaced by Leu{sup 314}, which interacts with the aliphatic portion of norspermidine. Neither product, agmatine in ADC nor norspermidine in CANSDC, form a Schiff base to pyridoxal 5{prime}-phosphate, suggesting that the product complexes may promote product release by slowing the back reaction. These studies provide insight into the structural basis for the evolution of novel function within a common structural-fold.

  18. Inflation Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Dan [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2014-03-01

    inflation since metrical fluctuations, both scalar and tensor, are also produced in inflationary models. Thus, the time appears to be appropriate for a very basic and simple exposition of the inflationary model written from a particle physics perspective. Only the simplest scalar model will be explored because it is easy to understand and contains all the basic elements of the inflationary model.

  19. Inflation Basics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Dan

    2014-01-01

    waves imprinted on the CMB. These would be a ''smoking gun'' for inflation since metrical fluctuations, both scalar and tensor, are also produced in inflationary models. Thus, the time appears to be appropriate for a very basic and simple exposition of the inflationary model written from a particle physics perspective. Only the simplest scalar model will be explored because it is easy to understand and contains all the basic elements of the inflationary model.

  20. Transportation Emissions: some basics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontovas, Christos A.; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

    2016-01-01

    transportation and especially carbon dioxide emissions are at the center stage of discussion by the world community through various international treaties, such as the Kyoto Protocol. The transportation sector also emits non-CO2 pollutants that have important effects on air quality, climate, and public health......Transportation is the backbone of international trade and a key engine driving globalization. However, there is growing concern that the Earth’s atmospheric composition is being altered by human activities, including transportation, which can lead to climate change. Air pollution from....... The main purpose of this chapter is to introduce some basic concepts that are relevant in the quest of green transportation logistics. First, we present the basics of estimating emissions from transportation activities, the current statistics and future trends, as well as the total impact of air emissions...

  1. Basic Emotions: A Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, William A.; Capitanio, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Emotionality is a basic feature of behavior. The argument over whether the expression of emotions is based primarily on culture (constructivism, nurture) or biology (natural forms, nature) will never be resolved because both alternatives are untenable. The evidence is overwhelming that at all ages and all levels of organization, the development of emotionality is epigenetic: The organism is an active participant in its own development. To ascribe these effects to “experience” was the best that could be done for many years. With the rapid acceleration of information on how changes in organization are actually brought about, it is a good time to review, update, and revitalize our views of experience in relation to the concept of basic emotion. PMID:27110280

  2. Basic electronic circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Buckley, P M

    1980-01-01

    In the past, the teaching of electricity and electronics has more often than not been carried out from a theoretical and often highly academic standpoint. Fundamentals and basic concepts have often been presented with no indication of their practical appli­ cations, and all too frequently they have been illustrated by artificially contrived laboratory experiments bearing little relationship to the outside world. The course comes in the form of fourteen fairly open-ended constructional experiments or projects. Each experiment has associated with it a construction exercise and an explanation. The basic idea behind this dual presentation is that the student can embark on each circuit following only the briefest possible instructions and that an open-ended approach is thereby not prejudiced by an initial lengthy encounter with the theory behind the project; this being a sure way to dampen enthusiasm at the outset. As the investigation progresses, questions inevitably arise. Descriptions of the phenomena encounte...

  3. Basic statistics for social research

    CERN Document Server

    Hanneman, Robert A; Riddle, Mark D

    2012-01-01

    A core statistics text that emphasizes logical inquiry, notmath Basic Statistics for Social Research teaches core generalstatistical concepts and methods that all social science majorsmust master to understand (and do) social research. Its use ofmathematics and theory are deliberately limited, as the authorsfocus on the use of concepts and tools of statistics in theanalysis of social science data, rather than on the mathematicaland computational aspects. Research questions and applications aretaken from a wide variety of subfields in sociology, and eachchapter is organized arou

  4. Basic Concepts of Astronomy: a Methodological Proposal. (Spanish Title: Conceptos Básicos de Astronomía: Una Propuesta Metodológica.) Conceitos Básicos de Astronomia: Uma Proposta Metodológica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darroz, Luiz Marcelo; Heineck, Renato; Samudio Pérez, Carlos Ariel

    2011-12-01

    In this report, the development of a methodological proposal which approaches basic concepts of astronomy-grounded pedagogically on Meaningful Learning is described. The proposal, which consists of four meetings, was developed by teachers and academics of the course of Professor in Physics of the University of Passo Fundo (UPF), through an extension course to a group of highschool students of a public school of the town of Passo Fundo, RS. The work was focused into basic concepts of astronomy. The signs of Meaningful Learning have been obtained by means of research and evaluation tools that were applied at the end of each meeting. The evaluation of the proposal has been conducted by means of a final questionnaire which was answered by the participants at the end ofthe development of activities. By means of the results obtained from the different instruments, and the comments made by the participants during the activities and by means of the high rates of approval obtained in the final questionnaire, we think that the proposal reached the established goals and it may be repeated with the certainty of success. En este relato se describe una propuesta de desarrollo metodológico que aborda conceptos básicos de astronomía fundamentada pedagógicamente en el Aprendizaje Significativo. La propuesta que comprende cuatro encuentros, fue desarrollada por profesores y académicos del curso de Licenciatura en Física de la Universidad de Passo Fundo (UPF), a través de un curso de extensión para un grupo de Liceo del 6º año de una Escuela Pública de la ciudad de Passo Fundo/RS. El trabajo tuvo como eje principal los "conceptos básicos de astronomía". Los indicios de Aprendizaje Significativo fueron obtenidos por instrumentos de pesquisa y evaluación, siempre aplicados después de cada encuentro. La evaluación de la propuesta fue hecha a través de un cuestionario final y contestado por los participantes al finalizar el desarrollo de actividades. Por los resultados

  5. The Extended Enterprise concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Bjørn; Vesterager, Johan; Gobbi, Chiara

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the work that has been done regarding the Extended Enterprise concept in the Common Concept team of Globeman 21 including references to results deliverables concerning the development of the Extended Enterprise concept. The first section presents the basic concept...... picture from Globeman21, which illustrates the Globeman21 way of realising the Extended Enterprise concept. The second section presents the Globeman21 EE concept in a life cycle perspective, which to a large extent is based on the thoughts and ideas behind GERAM (ISO/DIS 15704)....

  6. E-Basics: Online Basic Training in Program Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silliman, Ben

    2016-01-01

    E-Basics is an online training in program evaluation concepts and skills designed for youth development professionals, especially those working in nonformal science education. Ten hours of online training in seven modules is designed to prepare participants for mentoring and applied practice, mastery, and/or team leadership in program evaluation.…

  7. Astrophysics and the evolution of the universe

    CERN Document Server

    Kisslinger, Leonard S

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this book is to teach undergraduate college or university students the basic physics concepts needed to understand the mathematics which describes the evolution of the universe, and based on this to teach the astrophysical theories behind evolution from very early times to the present. The book does not require students to have extensive knowledge of mathematics, like calculus, and includes material that explains concepts such as velocity, acceleration, and force. Based on this, fascinating topics such as Dark Matter, measuring Dark Energy via supernovae velocities, and the creation of mass via the Higgs mechanism are explained. All college students with an interest in science, especially astronomy, without extensive mathematical backgrounds should be able to use and learn from this book. Adults interested in topics like dark energy and the Higgs boson, which are in the news, can make use of this book as well.

  8. Chosen Concepts of Human Resources Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin W. Staniewski

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The article is a trial of clarifying and making order of terminology that is used in area of human resources management. This is an overview of basic definitions, conceptions and models of people management, that emerged from the beginning (XIX/XX century to nowadays. The article is a kind of presentation of human resources management evolution. It comprises a descriptions of broad range of human resources management models beginning from classic models (Harvard and Michigan models and finishing on strategic human resources models (orthodox model and human resources architecture, proposed by R.G. Klimecki S. A. Litz and D.P. Lepak S.A. Snell.

  9. Investigation of historical evolution stages of the term "pedagogical innovation" in modern scientific discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Світлана Миколаївна Ефендієва

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the basic concepts of innovation. The formation of pedagogical innovations was analyzed and factors of effective management of innovative development were theoretically grounded. The essence of the concepts of scientific and pedagogical discourse was highlighted. The historical stages of the evolution of the term «pedagogical innovation» were investigated. The main draft laws about innovation activity in education were characterized

  10. Play Therapy: Basics and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottman, Terry

    This book provides an atheoretical orientation to basic concepts involved in play therapy and an introduction to different skills used in play therapy. The demand for mental professionals and school counselors who have training and expertise in using play as a therapeutic tool when working with children has increased tremendously. In response to…

  11. Operation safety of complex industrial systems. Main concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwingelstein, G.

    2009-01-01

    Operation safety consists in knowing, evaluating, foreseeing, measuring and mastering the technological system and human failures in order to avoid their impacts on health and people's safety, on productivity, and on the environment, and to preserve the Earth's resources. This article recalls the main concepts of operation safety: 1 - evolutions in the domain; 2 - failures, missions and functions of a system and of its components: functional failure, missions and functions, industrial processes, notions of probability; 3 - basic concepts and operation safety: reliability, unreliability, failure density, failure rate, relations between them, availability, maintainability, safety. (J.S.)

  12. Concepções e concepções alternativas de média: Um estudo comparativo entre professores e alunos do Ensino Fundamental Conception and alternative conception of mean: a comparative study among teachers and students from basic school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Magina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo analisa concepções de estudantes e professores sobre média, tanto aquelas válidas quanto as alternativas, com validade para alguns casos. Um teste, em lápis e papel, composto de 3 questões foi elaborado e aplicado com 287 estudantes e professores brasileiros, dos quais: 54 eram alunos da 4ª série e 47 eram da 5ª série do ensino fundamental, 61 eram estudantes iniciantes e 82 eram estudantes concluintes do curso de pedagogia, e 43 eram professores das séries iniciais do ensino fundamental. O teste foi aplicado de forma coletiva, em sala de aula. Excetuando-se o grupo de professores, todos os grupos tendem a confundir média com adição dos valores ou com o valor máximo. Os resultados mostram que, apesar da evolução no entendimento do conceito de média em relação ao nível de escolaridade, algumas confusões ainda são identificadas entre o grupo de professores.The present study aims to analyze students and teachers conceptions and misconceptions of average. A paper and pencil test, comprised of three questions, was designed. 287 Brazilian students and teachers undertook the test. They were: 54 pupils from 4th grade, 47 from 5th grade, 61 students beginning undergraduation on Pedagogy, 82 students finishing their undergraduation on Pedagogy and 43 elementary school teachers. The test was undertaken in a collective way. Excepting to the teachers group, all the groups tend to confuse average to addition of the values, or to the maximum value. The result points that, in spite of an evolution on the understanding of the concept of average according to the educational level of the groups, some misconceptions are found within the teachers' group.

  13. Integral fast reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.I.; Marchaterre, J.F.; Sevy, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    Key features of the IFR consist of a pool-type plant arrangement, a metal fuel-based core design, and an integral fuel cycle with colocated fuel cycle facility. Both the basic concept and the technology base have been demonstrated through actual integral cycle operation in EBR-II. This paper discusses the inherent safety characteristics of the IFR concept

  14. Coloured Petri Nets: Basic Concepts, Analysis Methods and Practical Use. Vol. 1, Basic Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    This three-volume work presents a coherent description of the theoretical and practical aspects of coloured Petri nets. These CP-nets are shown to be a full-fledged language for the design, specification, simulation, validation and implementation of large software systems. The introductory first...... volume contains the formal definition of CP-nets and the mathematical theory behind their analysis methods. It gives a detailed presentation of many small examples and a brief overview of some industrial applications. The purpose of the book is to teach the reader how to construct CP-net models...

  15. From Aplysia to the constitution: evolution of concepts in behavior analysis / Da Aplysia à constituição: evolução de conceitos na análise do comportamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Claudio Todorov

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the evolution of concepts in behavior analysis, especially in the writings of Skinner, from the definition of operant behavior and reinforcement contingency to processes of selection by consequences, following the development of a conceptual language that covers both the behavior of molluscs and the metacontingencies included in the constitution of a country. Skinner's first papers used the terminology developed by Pavlov in his studies of conditioned reflexes to deal with behavior in general. From Skinner's doctoral dissertation to the papers published in the 80's there was an evolution, followed by the field of behavior analysis, which today uses the same, sophisticated language to deal with complex issues like cultural practices and the survival of cultures.

  16. Basic category theory

    CERN Document Server

    Leinster, Tom

    2014-01-01

    At the heart of this short introduction to category theory is the idea of a universal property, important throughout mathematics. After an introductory chapter giving the basic definitions, separate chapters explain three ways of expressing universal properties: via adjoint functors, representable functors, and limits. A final chapter ties all three together. The book is suitable for use in courses or for independent study. Assuming relatively little mathematical background, it is ideal for beginning graduate students or advanced undergraduates learning category theory for the first time. For each new categorical concept, a generous supply of examples is provided, taken from different parts of mathematics. At points where the leap in abstraction is particularly great (such as the Yoneda lemma), the reader will find careful and extensive explanations. Copious exercises are included.

  17. Energy the basics

    CERN Document Server

    Schobert, Harold

    2013-01-01

    People rarely stop to think about where the energy they use to power their everyday lives comes from and when they do it is often to ask a worried question: is mankind's energy usage killing the planet? How do we deal with nuclear waste? What happens when the oil runs out? Energy: The Basics answers these questions but it also does much more. In this engaging yet even-handed introduction, readers are introduced to: the concept of 'energy' and what it really means the ways energy is currently generated and the sources used new and emerging energy technologies such as solar power and biofuels the impacts of energy use on the environment including climate change Featuring explanatory diagrams, tables, a glossary and an extensive further reading list, this book is the ideal starting point for anyone interested in the impact and future of the world's energy supply.

  18. Magnetism basics and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Stefanita, Carmen-Gabriela

    2012-01-01

    This textbook is aimed at engineering students who are likely to come across magnetics applications in their professional practice. Whether designing lithography equipment containing ferromagnetic brushes, or detecting defects in aeronautics, some basic knowledge of 21st century magnetism is needed. From the magnetic tape on the pocket credit card to the read head in a personal computer, people run into magnetism in many products. Furthermore, in a variety of disciplines tools of the trade exploit magnetic principles, and many interdisciplinary laboratory research areas cross paths with magnetic phenomena that may seem mysterious to the untrained mind. Therefore, this course offers a broad coverage of magnetism topics encountered more often in this millenium, revealing key concepts on which many practical applications rest. Some traditional subjects in magnetism are discussed in the first half of the book, followed by areas likely to spark the curiosity of those more interested in today’s technological achi...

  19. Evolution and current situation of the quality and industrial safety. Concepts, laws and regulations; Evolucion y situacion actual de la calidad y seguridad industrial. Conceptos, leyes y reglamentos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz, A.

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this article is to show the difference between the concepts of quality and industrial safety and how in the legislation of products and industrial installation there is a very close relationship between both concepts. So, that Spanish companies could place in the market not only safe products but also reliable ones that meet the society's demand regarding quality. (Author)

  20. Multicolour Observations, Inhomogeneity & Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Hellaby, Charles

    2000-01-01

    We propose a method of testing source evolution theories that is independent of the effects of inhomogeneity, and thus complementary to other studies of evolution. It is suitable for large scale sky surveys, and the new generation of large telescopes. In an earlier paper it was shown that basic cosmological observations - luminosity versus redshift, area distance versus redshift and number counts versus redshift - cannot separate the effects of cosmic inhomogeneity, cosmic evolution and sourc...

  1. Stellar structure and evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kippernhahn, R.; Weigert, A.

    1990-01-01

    This book introduces the theory of the internal structure of stars and their evolution in time. It presents the basic physics of stellar interiors, methods for solving the underlying equations, and the most important results necessary for understanding the wide variety of stellar types and phenomena. The evolution of stars is discussed from their birth through normal evolution to possibly spectacular final stages. Chapters on stellar oscillations and rotation are included

  2. CURRENT CONCEPTS IN ACL RECONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddie H. Fu

    2008-09-01

    's most experienced surgeons to produce a so called "Bible of ACL". The most current concepts not only for the clinical approach but the latest knowledge in basic sciences which the clinical concepts are based on also reviewed including biology, biomechanics, and kinematics. Advances in the diagnostic measures mainly MR imaging are also included. "Current Concepts in ACL Reconstruction" is a complete and the most up-to-date review providing the latest techniques for the treatment of ACL injuries in details, including the perspectives of the most experienced ACL surgeons of the world. Rich illustrations and an accompanying video CD-ROM comprehensively demonstrates the procedures and the techniques described in the book. The differences between single and double-bundle techniques, the technical details in different grafts choices, the technique and approach in the revision surgery are described in detail and explained in the anatomical basis. Pearls, technical pitfalls, personal experience and advices of the most experienced ACL surgeons not only from USA but also from the other pioneer countries of the world in ACL surgery may be the most welcomed parts of the book even by the highly experienced ACL surgeons especially for technically demanding procedures like double-bundle reconstruction. Postoperative rehabilitation described in phases provides the current rehabilitation concept after ACL reconstruction. Outcome measures to assess success after surgery are also reviewed and aspects for future are recommended. Principles and experiences in the navigation technologies in ACL reconstruction are providing the reader new perspectives for future possibilities in diagnosis and treatment. Review of basic sciences, advances in technology and clinical approach from history to future also clearly demonstrates the evolution "where are we and the way to go" and future aspects in the treatment of a thorn ACL

  3. Basics of Solar Heating & Hot Water Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Inst. of Architects, Washington, DC.

    In presenting the basics of solar heating and hot water systems, this publication is organized from the general to the specific. It begins by presenting functional and operational descriptions of solar heating and domestic hot water systems, outlining the basic concepts and terminology. This is followed by a description of solar energy utilization…

  4. Molecular Phylogenetics: Concepts for a Newcomer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajawatanawong, Pravech

    Molecular phylogenetics is the study of evolutionary relationships among organisms using molecular sequence data. The aim of this review is to introduce the important terminology and general concepts of tree reconstruction to biologists who lack a strong background in the field of molecular evolution. Some modern phylogenetic programs are easy to use because of their user-friendly interfaces, but understanding the phylogenetic algorithms and substitution models, which are based on advanced statistics, is still important for the analysis and interpretation without a guide. Briefly, there are five general steps in carrying out a phylogenetic analysis: (1) sequence data preparation, (2) sequence alignment, (3) choosing a phylogenetic reconstruction method, (4) identification of the best tree, and (5) evaluating the tree. Concepts in this review enable biologists to grasp the basic ideas behind phylogenetic analysis and also help provide a sound basis for discussions with expert phylogeneticists.

  5. Stem Cell Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tips Info Center Research Topics Federal Policy Glossary Stem Cell Information General Information Clinical Trials Funding Information Current ... Basics » Stem Cell Basics I. Back to top Stem Cell Basics I. Introduction: What are stem cells, and ...

  6. Research and Teaching: An Investigation of the Evolution of High School and Undergraduate Student Researchers' Understanding of Key Science Ethics Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabrouk, Patricia Ann

    2013-01-01

    High school and undergraduate research students were surveyed over the 10-week period of their summer research programs to investigate their understanding of key concepts in science ethics and whether their understanding changed over the course of their summer research experiences. Most of the students appeared to understand the issues relevant to…

  7. Evolution for Young Victorians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightman, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Evolution was a difficult topic to tackle when writing books for the young in the wake of the controversies over Darwin's "Origin of Species." Authors who wrote about evolution for the young experimented with different ways of making the complex concepts of evolutionary theory accessible and less controversial. Many authors depicted presented…

  8. Basic standards for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.A.M.

    1982-01-01

    The basic standards for radiation protection have been based, for many years, on the recommendations of the International Commission of Radiological Protection. The three basic standards recommended by the Commission may be summarized as ''justification, optimization of protection and adherence to dose limitations. The applications of these basic principles to different aspects of protection are briefly summarized and the particular ways in which they have been applied to waste described in more detail. The application of dose limits, both in the control of occupational exposure and in regulating routine discharges of radioactive effluents is straight forward in principle although the measurement and calculational requirements may be substantial. Secondary standards such as derived limits may be extremely useful and the principles underlying their derivation will be described. Optimization of protection is inherently a more difficult concept to apply in protection and the various techniques used will be outlined by with particular emphasis on the use of cost benefit analysis are recommended by the ICRP. A review will be given of the problems involved in extending these basic concepts of the ICRP to probabilistic analyses such as those required for assessing the consequences of accidents or disruptive events in long term repositories. The particular difficulties posed by the very long timescales involved in the assessment of waste management practices will be discussed in some detail. (orig./RW)

  9. Basic Phage Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedon, Stephen T; Katsaounis, Tena I

    2018-01-01

    Basic mathematical descriptions are useful in phage ecology, applied phage ecology such as in the course of phage therapy, and also toward keeping track of expected phage-bacterial interactions as seen during laboratory manipulation of phages. The most basic mathematical descriptor of phages is their titer, that is, their concentration within stocks, experimental vessels, or other environments. Various phenomena can serve to modify phage titers, and indeed phage titers can vary as a function of how they are measured. An important aspect of how changes in titers can occur results from phage interactions with bacteria. These changes tend to vary in degree as a function of bacterial densities within environments, and particularly densities of those bacteria that are susceptible to or at least adsorbable by a given phage type. Using simple mathematical models one can describe phage-bacterial interactions that give rise particularly to phage adsorption events. With elaboration one can consider changes in both phage and bacterial densities as a function of both time and these interactions. In addition, phages along with their impact on bacteria can be considered as spatially constrained processes. In this chapter we consider the simpler of these concepts, providing in particular detailed verbal explanations toward facile mathematical insight. The primary goal is to stimulate a more informed use and manipulation of phages and phage populations within the laboratory as well as toward more effective phage application outside of the laboratory, such as during phage therapy. More generally, numerous issues and approaches to the quantification of phages are considered along with the quantification of individual, ecological, and applied properties of phages.

  10. Electrochemistry. The basics, with examples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefrou, Christine [LEPMI, Saint Martin d' Heres (France); Poignet, Jean-Claude; Fabry, Pierre

    2012-07-01

    This book offers original and new approaches to the teaching of electrochemical concepts, principles and applications. Throughout the text the authors provide a balanced coverage of the thermodynamic and kinetic processes at the heart of electrochemical systems. The first half of the book outlines fundamental concepts appropriate to undergraduate students and the second half gives an in-depth account of electrochemical systems suitable for experienced scientists and course lecturers. Concepts are clearly explained and mathematical treatments are kept to a minimum or reported in appendices. This book features: 1. Questions and answers for self-assessment 2. Basic and advanced level numerical descriptions. 3. Illustrated electrochemistry applications This book is accessible to both novice and experienced electrochemists and supports a deep understanding of the fundamental principles and laws of electrochemistry.

  11. Exact thermodynamic principles for dynamic order existence and evolution in chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahulikar, Shripad P.; Herwig, Heinz

    2009-01-01

    The negentropy proposed first by Schroedinger is re-examined, and its conceptual and mathematical definitions are introduced. This re-definition of negentropy integrates Schroedinger's intention of its introduction, and the subsequent diverse notions in literature. This negentropy is further corroborated by its ability to state the two exact thermodynamic principles: negentropy principle for dynamic order existence and principle of maximum negentropy production (PMNEP) for dynamic order evolution. These principles are the counterparts of the existing entropy principle and the law of maximum entropy production, respectively. The PMNEP encompasses the basic concepts in the evolution postulates by Darwin and de Vries. Perspectives of dynamic order evolution in literature point to the validity of PMNEP as the law of evolution. These two additional principles now enable unified explanation of order creation, existence, evolution, and destruction; using thermodynamics.

  12. Learning structural bioinformatics and evolution with a snake puzzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo S. Nido

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose here a working unit for teaching basic concepts of structural bioinformatics and evolution through the example of a wooden snake puzzle, strikingly similar to toy models widely used in the literature of protein folding. In our experience, developed at a Master’s course at the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (Spain, the concreteness of this example helps to overcome difficulties caused by the interdisciplinary nature of this field and its high level of abstraction, in particular for students coming from traditional disciplines. The puzzle will allow us discussing a simple algorithm for finding folded solutions, through which we will introduce the concept of the configuration space and the contact matrix representation. This is a central tool for comparing protein structures, for studying simple models of protein energetics, and even for a qualitative discussion of folding kinetics, through the concept of the Contact Order. It also allows a simple representation of misfolded conformations and their free energy. These concepts will motivate evolutionary questions, which we will address by simulating a structurally constrained model of protein evolution, again modelled on the snake puzzle. In this way, we can discuss the analogy between evolutionary concepts and statistical mechanics that facilitates the understanding of both concepts. The proposed examples and literature are accessible, and we provide supplementary material (see ‘Data Availability’ to reproduce the numerical experiments. We also suggest possible directions to expand the unit. We hope that this work will further stimulate the adoption of games in teaching practice.

  13. Biological evolution: Some genetic considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Salem, Mohammad Saad Zaghloul

    2014-01-01

    Background: The concept of biological evolution has long been accepted as a palatable theory aiming at explaining how life began and how creatures diverged so widely along the life span of the earth. Meticulous analysis and criticism of the different postulations of this concept, however, reveals that evolution is an illogic concept based on theoretical hypotheses that can never be tested. Creation, on the other hand, represents the other side of the coin, and up till now debates confronting ...

  14. Basic Research Firing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Basic Research Firing Facility is an indoor ballistic test facility that has recently transitioned from a customer-based facility to a dedicated basic research...

  15. Mobility on Demand Operational Concept Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-10

    This operational concept report provides an overview of the Mobility on Demand (MOD) concept and its evolution, description of the MOD ecosystem in a supply and demand framework, and its stakeholders and enablers. Leveraging the MOD ecosystem framewo...

  16. ¿Innovación o continuidad?: Dignidad humana y protección de la vida desde el momento de la concepción en la nueva Ley Fundamental húngara de 2011 // Innovation or continuity?: Human dignity and protection of life from conception in the new hungarian basic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Ruiz Ruiz

    2014-11-01

    La controversia en torno al art. II no sólo ha estado centrada en el supuesto enfoque más restrictivo del nuevo texto constitucional hacia el aborto, sino que se ha extendido a la propia concepción de derecho de la dignidad humana, que para cierta doctrina ha recibido una configuración distinta a la concepción predominante en el derecho europeo. Under Article II of Hungarian Basic Law «Human dignity shall be inviolable. Every human being shall have the right to life and human dignity; embryonic and foetal life shall be subject to protection from the moment of conception». It is evident that, unlike the previous Constitution, the Basic Law expressly mentions the fetal and embryonic life, as also expressly stipulates that it shall be protected from the moment of conception. This new constitutional provision would be for some scholars, not strictly expanding the holders of the right to life, but at least extending the protective cloak of the Constitution to fetal and embryonic life from its beginning, which would effectively exclude outright the possibility of legal abortion at discretion of woman in any event, implying an absence of constitutional guarantee for other mother’s fundamental rights at stake. The controversy about art. II has been focused not only on the supposed more restrictive approach of the new constitution to abortion, but has reached to the very conception of the right to human dignity, that for some scholars has received a different configuration to the prevailing conception in European law.

  17. Intuitive concepts in elementary topology

    CERN Document Server

    Arnold, BH

    2011-01-01

    Classroom-tested and much-cited, this concise text is designed for undergraduates. It offers a valuable and instructive introduction to the basic concepts of topology, taking an intuitive rather than an axiomatic viewpoint. 1962 edition.

  18. Fundamental concepts of mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Goodstein, R L

    Fundamental Concepts of Mathematics, 2nd Edition provides an account of some basic concepts in modern mathematics. The book is primarily intended for mathematics teachers and lay people who wants to improve their skills in mathematics. Among the concepts and problems presented in the book include the determination of which integral polynomials have integral solutions; sentence logic and informal set theory; and why four colors is enough to color a map. Unlike in the first edition, the second edition provides detailed solutions to exercises contained in the text. Mathematics teachers and people

  19. Basic Cake Decorating Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdany, Mel

    Included in this student workbook for basic cake decorating are the following: (1) Drawings of steps in a basic way to ice a layer cake, how to make a paper cone, various sizes of flower nails, various sizes and types of tin pastry tubes, and special rose tubes; (2) recipes for basic decorating icings (buttercream, rose paste, and royal icing);…

  20. CONCEPT OF MOBILE LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Г О Дуйсеева

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the definition and the description of mobile learning. Ten years’ experience of the latest mobile technologies use and devices in educational process abroad is analyzed. Prospects and the possibilities of application of these technologies are considered. The basic concepts and development of mobile learning which proposed by scientists for the last years have been given.

  1. Basic training of nuclear power reactor personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palabrica, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    The basic training of nuclear power reactor personnel should be given very close attention since it constitutes the foundation of their knowledge of nuclear technology. Emphasis should be given on the thorough understanding of basic nuclear concepts in order to have reasonable assurance of successful assimilation by those personnel of more specialized and advanced concepts to which they will be later exposed. Basic training will also provide a means for screening to ensure that those will be sent for further spezialized training will perform well. Finally, it is during the basic training phase when nuclear reactor operators will start to acquire and develop attitudes regarding reactor operation and it is important that these be properly founded. (orig.)

  2. Basics of modern mathematical statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Spokoiny, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    This textbook provides a unified and self-contained presentation of the main approaches to and ideas of mathematical statistics. It collects the basic mathematical ideas and tools needed as a basis for more serious studies or even independent research in statistics. The majority of existing textbooks in mathematical statistics follow the classical asymptotic framework. Yet, as modern statistics has changed rapidly in recent years, new methods and approaches have appeared. The emphasis is on finite sample behavior, large parameter dimensions, and model misspecifications. The present book provides a fully self-contained introduction to the world of modern mathematical statistics, collecting the basic knowledge, concepts and findings needed for doing further research in the modern theoretical and applied statistics. This textbook is primarily intended for graduate and postdoc students and young researchers who are interested in modern statistical methods.

  3. The genesis of neurosurgery and the evolution of the neurosurgical operative environment: part II--concepts for future development, 2003 and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Charles Y; Spicer, Mark; Apuzzo, Michael L J

    2003-01-01

    The future development of the neurosurgical operative environment is driven principally by concurrent development in science and technology. In the new millennium, these developments are taking on a Jules Verne quality, with the ability to construct and manipulate the human organism and its surroundings at the level of atoms and molecules seemingly at hand. Thus, an examination of currents in technology advancement from the neurosurgical perspective can provide insight into the evolution of the neurosurgical operative environment. In the future, the optimal design solution for the operative environment requirements of specialized neurosurgery may take the form of composites of venues that are currently mutually distinct. Advances in microfabrication technology and laser optical manipulators are expanding the scope and role of robotics, with novel opportunities for bionic integration. Assimilation of biosensor technology into the operative environment promises to provide neurosurgeons of the future with a vastly expanded set of physiological data, which will require concurrent simplification and optimization of analysis and presentation schemes to facilitate practical usefulness. Nanotechnology derivatives are shattering the maximum limits of resolution and magnification allowed by conventional microscopes. Furthermore, quantum computing and molecular electronics promise to greatly enhance computational power, allowing the emerging reality of simulation and virtual neurosurgery for rehearsal and training purposes. Progressive minimalism is evident throughout, leading ultimately to a paradigm shift as the nanoscale is approached. At the interface between the old and new technological paradigms, issues related to integration may dictate the ultimate emergence of the products of the new paradigm. Once initiated, however, history suggests that the process of change will proceed rapidly and dramatically, with the ultimate neurosurgical operative environment of the future

  4. Contents and assessment of basic tourism resources

    OpenAIRE

    Knezevic, Rade

    2008-01-01

    The article looks at the attractive factors of basic tourism resources and the structure of their attractions. The general term ‘resource’ refers to both natural and anthropogenic resources, while the content of this concept refers to elements used in creating a tourism product. Basic tourism resources are the most important factors of tourism processes, with a vital attribute of direct and indirect tourism resources being their substitutability. Natural (biotropic) resources are consid...

  5. Basic Elements of Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin W. Staniewski

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is a review of basic knowledge management terminology. It presents such a description as: knowledge resources levels (data, information, knowledge, and wisdom, knowledge sources (internal, external, and knowledge typology (implicit, tacit or individual, social. Moreover the article characterizes knowledge management process, knowledge management system and main knowledge management strategies (codification, personalization. At the end of the article there is mentioned the knowledge creating process (the concept of knowledge creation spiral and the role of Intelligence Technology (IT and organizational culture as main elements supporting knowledge management implementation in organizations.

  6. Security basics for computer architects

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Ruby B

    2013-01-01

    Design for security is an essential aspect of the design of future computers. However, security is not well understood by the computer architecture community. Many important security aspects have evolved over the last several decades in the cryptography, operating systems, and networking communities. This book attempts to introduce the computer architecture student, researcher, or practitioner to the basic concepts of security and threat-based design. Past work in different security communities can inform our thinking and provide a rich set of technologies for building architectural support fo

  7. Basic radiotherapy physics and biology

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, David S; Das, Indra J; Mendonca, Marc S; Dynlacht, Joseph R

    2014-01-01

    This book is a concise and well-illustrated review of the physics and biology of radiation therapy intended for radiation oncology residents, radiation therapists, dosimetrists, and physicists. It presents topics that are included on the Radiation Therapy Physics and Biology examinations and is designed with the intent of presenting information in an easily digestible format with maximum retention in mind. The inclusion of mnemonics, rules of thumb, and reader-friendly illustrations throughout the book help to make difficult concepts easier to grasp. Basic Radiotherapy Physics and Biology is a

  8. Basic statistics an introduction with R

    CERN Document Server

    Raykov, Tenko

    2012-01-01

    Basic Statistics provides an accessible and comprehensive introduction to statistics using the free, state-of-the-art, powerful software program R. This book is designed to both introduce students to key concepts in statistics and to provide simple instructions for using R.Teaches essential concepts in statistics, assuming little background knowledge on the part of the readerIntroduces students to R with as few sub-commands as possible for ease of useProvides practical examples from the educational, behavioral, and social sciencesBasic Statistics will appeal to students and professionals acros

  9. Comparative analysis of deutocerebral neuropils in Chilopoda (Myriapoda: implications for the evolution of the arthropod olfactory system and support for the Mandibulata concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sombke Andy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Originating from a marine ancestor, the myriapods most likely invaded land independently of the hexapods. As these two evolutionary lineages conquered land in parallel but separately, we are interested in comparing the myriapod chemosensory system to that of hexapods to gain insights into possible adaptations for olfaction in air. Our study connects to a previous analysis of the brain and behavior of the chilopod (centipede Scutigera coleoptrata in which we demonstrated that these animals do respond to volatile substances and analyzed the structure of their central olfactory pathway. Results Here, we examined the architecture of the deutocerebral brain areas (which process input from the antennae in seven additional representatives of the Chilopoda, covering all major subtaxa, by histology, confocal laser-scan microscopy, and 3D reconstruction. We found that in all species that we studied the majority of antennal afferents target two separate neuropils, the olfactory lobe (chemosensory, composed of glomerular neuropil compartments and the corpus lamellosum (mechanosensory. The numbers of olfactory glomeruli in the different chilopod taxa ranged from ca. 35 up to ca. 90 and the shape of the glomeruli ranged from spheroid across ovoid or drop-shape to elongate. Conclusion A split of the afferents from the (first pair of antennae into separate chemosensory and mechanosensory components is also typical for Crustacea and Hexapoda, but this set of characters is absent in Chelicerata. We suggest that this character set strongly supports the Mandibulata hypothesis (Myriapoda + (Crustacea + Hexapoda as opposed to the Myriochelata concept (Myriapoda + Chelicerata. The evolutionary implications of our findings, particularly the plasticity of glomerular shape, are discussed.

  10. CHEMICAL EVOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvin, Melvin

    1965-06-01

    How did life come to be on the surface of the earth? Darwin himself recognized that his basic idea of evolution by variation and natural selection must be a continuous process extending backward in time through that period in which the first living things arose and into the period of 'Chemical Evolution' which preceded it. We are approaching the examination of these events by two routes. One is to seek for evidence in the ancient rocks of the earth which were laid down prior to that time in which organisms capable of leaving their skeletons in the rocks to be fossilized were in existence. This period is sometime prior to approximately 600 million years ago. The earth is believed to have taken its present form approximately 4700 million years ago. We have found in rocks whose age is about 1000 million years certain organic molecules which are closely related to the green pigment of plants, chlorophyll. This seems to establish that green plants were already fluorishing prior to that time. We have now found in rocks of still greater age, namely, 2500 million years, the same kinds of molecules mentioned above which can be attributed to the presence of living organisms. If these molecules are as old as the rocks, we have thus shortened the time available for the generation of the complex biosynthetic sequences which give rise to these specific hydrocarbons (polyisoprenoids) to less than 2000 million years.

  11. Basic of X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giacovazzo, C [Bari Univ. (Italy). Dip. Geomineralogico

    1996-09-01

    The basic concepts of X-ray diffraction may be more easily understood if it is made preliminary use of a mathematical background. In these pages the authors will first define the delta function and its use for the representation of a lattice. Then the concepts of Fourier transform and convolution are given. At the end of this talk one should realize that a crystal is the convolution of the lattice with a function representing the content of the unit cell.

  12. Basic of X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giacovazzo, C.

    1996-01-01

    The basic concepts of X-ray diffraction may be more easily understood if it is made preliminary use of a mathematical background. In these pages the authors will first define the delta function and its use for the representation of a lattice. Then the concepts of Fourier transform and convolution are given. At the end of this talk one should realize that a crystal is the convolution of the lattice with a function representing the content of the unit cell

  13. Population and economy in the Bajo Ebro in Roman times. Basic concepts for a rural landscape model | Poblamiento y economía en el Bajo Ebro en época romana. Bases para un modelo de paisaje rural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Revilla Calvo

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the settlement patterns and the social-economic structures in Bajo Ebro in Roman times. It covers especifically relationships among settlements, rural landscape, structures of agricultural production and landowning. Likewise, the origin and historical evolution of these structures are studied, as well as their role within a broader political, social and economic framework in the Province of Tarraconensis. | El artículo analiza las formas del poblamiento y las estructuras socio-económicas del Bajo Ebro en época romana. Se plantean, en particular, las relaciones entre la distribución del habitat, el paisaje rural, las estructuras de la producción agrícola y de la propiedad. Se analiza igualmente el origen y evolución histórica de estas estructuras, así como su integración en un marco político, social y económico más amplio, constituido por la provincia Tarraconense.

  14. Integrating the Carbon and Water Footprints’ Costs in the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC Full Water Cost Recovery Concept: Basic Principles Towards Their Reliable Calculation and Socially Just Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Papadopoulou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the basic principles for the integration of the water and carbon footprints cost into the resource and environmental costs respectively, taking the suggestions set by the Water Framework Directive (WFD 2000/60/EC one step forward. WFD states that full water cost recovery (FWCR should be based on the estimation of the three sub-costs related: direct; environmental; and resource cost. It also strongly suggests the EU Member States develop and apply effective water pricing policies to achieve FWCR. These policies must be socially just to avoid any social injustice phenomena. This is a very delicate task to handle, especially within the fragile economic conditions that the EU is facing today. Water losses play a crucial role for the FWC estimation. Water losses should not be neglected since they are one of the major “water uses” in any water supply network. A methodology is suggested to reduce water losses and the related Non Revenue Water (NRW index. An Expert Decision Support System is proposed to assess the FWC incorporating the Water and Carbon Footprint costs.

  15. Chemical evolution and life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malaterre Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In research on the origins of life, the concept of “chemical evolution” aims at explaining the transition from non-living matter to living matter. There is however strong disagreement when it comes to defining this concept more precisely, and in particular with reference to a chemical form of Darwinian evolution: for some, chemical evolution is nothing but Darwinian evolution applied to chemical systems before life appeared; yet, for others, it is the type of evolution that happened before natural selection took place, the latter being the birthmark of living systems. In this contribution, I review the arguments defended by each side and show how both views presuppose a dichotomous definition of “life”.

  16. 体育社会互动:体育社会学的一个基本概念%Sports social interaction: a basic concept in sport sociology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永保

    2012-01-01

      Studying sport social phenomena must be started with establishing concepts. The author developed the lower concept of social interaction in sport sociology, named it as sports social interaction, and defined its connota-tion as “social communication activities in sports cultural activities, engaged in by people via certain channels and by following corresponding norms in order to satisfy and realize their certain needs and interests”. The author elaborated the constituent elements, main types and practical significance of sport social interaction respectively in such aspects as satisfying individual needs, passing on sports information, promoting resource sharing and boosting social communication, by basing the standards on the number, group identity, activities, interaction purposes and in-teraction manners, from the perspective of such links as activist, goal, carrier, norm and environment.%  研究体育社会现象必须从建立概念入手,把社会互动在体育社会学中的下位概念开发命名为体育社会互动,并将其内涵界定为“在体育文化活动中,人们为了满足和实现自身的某种需求和利益,通过一定的途径并遵循相应的规范所进行的社会交往活动”。从行动者、目标、载体、规范和环境等环节,以行动者的人数规模、群体归属、活动项目、互动目的和互动方式等为标准,从满足个体需求、传递体育信息、促成资源共享和增进社会交往等方面,分别对体育社会互动的构成要素、主要类型和实践意义进行阐述

  17. Basic digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Lockhart, Gordon B

    1985-01-01

    Basic Digital Signal Processing describes the principles of digital signal processing and experiments with BASIC programs involving the fast Fourier theorem (FFT). The book reviews the fundamentals of the BASIC program, continuous and discrete time signals including analog signals, Fourier analysis, discrete Fourier transform, signal energy, power. The text also explains digital signal processing involving digital filters, linear time-variant systems, discrete time unit impulse, discrete-time convolution, and the alternative structure for second order infinite impulse response (IIR) sections.

  18. Basic molecular spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Gorry, PA

    1985-01-01

    BASIC Molecular Spectroscopy discusses the utilization of the Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC) programming language in molecular spectroscopy. The book is comprised of five chapters that provide an introduction to molecular spectroscopy through programs written in BASIC. The coverage of the text includes rotational spectra, vibrational spectra, and Raman and electronic spectra. The book will be of great use to students who are currently taking a course in molecular spectroscopy.

  19. Relations between the galactic evolution and the stellar evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audouze, J.

    1984-01-01

    After a quick definition of the galactic evolution and a summary of the basic ingredients (namely the abundances of the chemical elements observed in different astrophysical sites), the parameters directly related to the stellar evolution which govern the galactic evolution are outlined. They are the rates of star formation, the initial mass functions and the various nucleosynthetic yields. The 'classical' models of chemical evolution of galaxies are then briefly recalled. Finally, attention is drawn to three recent contributions concerning both the galactic evolution and the stellar evolution. They are (i) some prediction of the rate of star formation for low mass stars made from the planetary nebula abundance distribution (ii) the chemical evolution of C, O and Fe and (iii) the chemical evolution of the galactic interstellar medium. (Auth.)

  20. Da Aplysia à constituição: evolução de conceitos na análise do comportamento From Aplysia to the constitution: evolution of concepts in behavior analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Claudio Todorov

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se apresentar a evolução de conceitos na análise do comportamento, especialmente nos trabalhos de Skinner, desde a definição do conceito de operante, de contingência de reforço, até os processos de seleção por conseqüências, seguindo o desenvolvimento de uma linguagem teórica que abarca desde o comportamento de moluscos até o texto da Constituição, enquanto metacontingência. Os trabalhos iniciais de Skinner usavam a linguagem desenvolvida por Pavlov no estudo de reflexos condicionados para abranger todo o comportamento. De sua dissertação de doutorado até os trabalhos publicados nos anos 1980, Skinner evoluiu e com ele toda a análise do comportamento, que hoje usa a mesma linguagem mais sofisticada para abordar temas complexos como práticas culturais e a sobrevivência de culturas.This work presents the evolution of concepts in behavior analysis, especially in the writings of Skinner, from the definition of operant behavior and reinforcement contingency to processes of selection by consequences, following the development of a conceptual language that covers both the behavior of molluscs and the metacontingencies included in the constitution of a country. Skinner's first papers used the terminology developed by Pavlov in his studies of conditioned reflexes to deal with behavior in general. From Skinner's doctoral dissertation to the papers published in the 80's there was an evolution, followed by the field of behavior analysis, which today uses the same, sophisticated language to deal with complex issues like cultural practices and the survival of cultures.