WorldWideScience

Sample records for basic concepts evolution

  1. Bracken Basic Concept Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naglieri, Jack A.; Bardos, Achilles N.

    1990-01-01

    The Bracken Basic Concept Scale, for use with preschool and primary-aged children, determines a child's school readiness and knowledge of English-language verbal concepts. The instrument measures 258 basic concepts in such categories as comparisons, time, quantity, and letter identification. This paper describes test administration, scoring and…

  2. Basic concepts in oceanography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic concepts in oceanography include major wind patterns that drive ocean currents, and the effects that the earth's rotation, positions of land masses, and temperature and salinity have on oceanic circulation and hence global distribution of radioactivity. Special attention is given to coastal and near-coastal processes such as upwelling, tidal effects, and small-scale processes, as radionuclide distributions are currently most associated with coastal regions. (author)

  3. Nuclear multifragmentation: Basic concepts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Chaudhuri; S Mallik; S Das Gupta

    2014-05-01

    We present a brief overview of nuclear multifragmentation reaction. Basic formalism of canonical thermodynamical model based on equilibrium statistical mechanics is described. This model is used to calculate basic observables of nuclear multifragmentation like mass distribution, fragment multiplicity, isotopic distribution and isoscaling. Extension of canonical thermodynamical model to a projectile fragmentation model is outlined. Application of the projectile fragmentation model for calculating average number of intermediate mass fragments and the average size of the largest cluster at different bound, differential charge distribution and cross-section of neutron-rich nuclei of different projectile fragmentation reactions at different energies are described. Application of nuclear multifragmentation reaction in basic research as well as in other domains is outlined.

  4. Using Fossil Shark Teeth to Illustrate Evolution and Introduce Basic Geologic Concepts in a High School Biology Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, J. G.; Nunn, J. A.

    2007-12-01

    Shell Foundation sponsors a program at Louisiana State University called Shell Undergraduate Recruitment and Geoscience Education (SURGE). The purpose of SURGE is to help local high school science teachers incorporate geology into their classrooms by providing resources and training. As part of this program, a workshop for high school biology teachers was held at Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge on June 3-5, 2007. We had the teachers do a series of activities on fossil shark teeth to illustrate evolution and introduce basic earth science concepts such as geologic time, superposition, and faunal succession and provided the teachers with lesson plans and materials. As an example, one of our exercises explores the evolution of the megatoothed shark lineage leading to Carcharocles megalodon, the largest predatory shark in history with teeth up to 17 cm long. Megatoothed shark teeth make excellent evolutionary subjects because they have a good fossil record and show continuous transitions in morphology from the Eocene to Pliocene. Our activity follows the learning cycle model. We take advantage of the curiosity of sharks shared by most people, and allow students to explore the variations among different shark teeth and explain the causes of those variations. The objectives of this exercise are to have the students: 1) sort fossil shark teeth into biologically reasonable species; 2) form hypotheses about evolutionary relationships among fossil shark teeth; and 3) describe and interpret evolutionary trends in the fossil Megatoothed lineage. To do the activity, students are divided into groups of 2-3 and given a shuffled set of 72 shark tooth cards with different images of megatoothed shark teeth. They are instructed to group the shark tooth cards into separate species of sharks. After sorting the cards, students are asked to consider the evolutionary relationships among their species and arrange their species chronologically according to the species first

  5. Basic concept in plasma diagnostics

    OpenAIRE

    Rai, V. N.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the basic concept of various plasma diagnostics used for the study of plasma characteristics in different plasma experiments ranging from low temperature to high energy density plasma.

  6. Stereochemistry basic concepts and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Nógrádi, M

    2013-01-01

    Stereochemistry: Basic Concepts and Applications is a three-chapter text that introduces the basic principles and concepts of stereochemistry, as well as its application to organic chemistry application.Chapter 1 describes first the stereochemistry of the ground state, specifically the configuration and conformation of organic compounds, as well as the most important methods for its investigation. This chapter also deals with the kinetics of conformational changes and provides an overview of the so-called ""applied stereochemistry"". Chapter 2 focuses on the analysis of the internal motions of

  7. The chemisorptive bond basic concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Alfred

    1974-01-01

    The Chemisorptive Bond: Basic Concepts describes the basic concepts of the chemisorptive bond on solid surfaces from the simple analogies with ordinary chemical bonds to the quantum-mechanical approaches.This book is composed of 10 chapters and begins with discussions of simple formulas for correlating measurable quantities in chemisorptions and catalysis. The succeeding chapters deal with theories based on quantum-mechanical principles that describe the mutual interactions of atoms of the solid and foreign atoms on the surface. The remaining chapters consider the possible arrangements

  8. Basic concepts of materials accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of accounting for nuclear materials to the efficient, safe, and economical operation of nuclear facilities is introduced, and the following topics are covered: material balance equation; item control areas; material balance uncertainty; decision procedures for materials accounting; conventional and near-real-time accounting; regulatory requirements of the US Department of Energy and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission; and a summary related to the development of a materials accounting system to implement the basic concepts described. The summary includes a section on each of the following: problem definition, system objectives, and system design

  9. Basic concepts in social sciences III

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoede, C.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the set of concepts considered to be basic to the fields of Economics, Organization Theory, Political Science, Psychology and Sociology is completed. The set of 55 basic concepts in the first two papers on basic concepts was mainly determined by considering concepts in relation to soci

  10. Basic concepts in social sciences III

    OpenAIRE

    Hoede, C.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the set of concepts considered to be basic to the fields of Economics, Organization Theory, Political Science, Psychology and Sociology is completed. The set of 55 basic concepts in the first two papers on basic concepts was mainly determined by considering concepts in relation to social atoms. The concepts that play a role in n-networks form the majority of the concepts added in this paper.

  11. Basic concepts in social sciences II

    OpenAIRE

    Hoede, C.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper an extension is given of the set of concepts considered to be basic to the fields of Economics, Organization Theory, Political Science, Psychology and Sociology. The modeling is in terms of automata and automata networks. In the first paper on basic concepts the simplest unit, the social atom, stood central. In this second paper social structures and processes are focused upon.

  12. Basic concepts in social sciences II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoede, C.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper an extension is given of the set of concepts considered to be basic to the fields of Economics, Organization Theory, Political Science, Psychology and Sociology. The modeling is in terms of automata and automata networks. In the first paper on basic concepts the simplest unit, the soci

  13. Basic Concepts of CNS Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowski, R. S.

    1987-01-01

    The goals of this review are to: (1) provide a set of concepts to aid in the understanding of complex processes which occur during central nervous system (CNS) development; (2) illustrate how they contribute to our knowlege of adult brain anatomy; and (3) delineate how modifications of normal developmental processes may affect the structure and…

  14. Basic concepts in computational physics

    CERN Document Server

    Stickler, Benjamin A

    2016-01-01

    This new edition is a concise introduction to the basic methods of computational physics. Readers will discover the benefits of numerical methods for solving complex mathematical problems and for the direct simulation of physical processes. The book is divided into two main parts: Deterministic methods and stochastic methods in computational physics. Based on concrete problems, the first part discusses numerical differentiation and integration, as well as the treatment of ordinary differential equations. This is extended by a brief introduction to the numerics of partial differential equations. The second part deals with the generation of random numbers, summarizes the basics of stochastics, and subsequently introduces Monte-Carlo (MC) methods. Specific emphasis is on MARKOV chain MC algorithms. The final two chapters discuss data analysis and stochastic optimization. All this is again motivated and augmented by applications from physics. In addition, the book offers a number of appendices to provide the read...

  15. Basic concepts of control theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a philosophical introduction on control theory and its position among various branches of science, mathematical control theory and its connection with functional analysis are discussed. A chapter on system theory concepts follows. After a summary of results and notations in the general theory of ordinary differential equations, a qualitative theory of control dynamical systems and chapters on the topological dynamics, and the controllability of linear systems are presented. As examples of autonomous linear systems, the switching locus for the synthesis of optimal controllers and linear dynamics with quadratic cost optimization are considered. (author)

  16. Basic Concepts of String Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Blumenhagen, Ralph; Theisen, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to thoroughly prepare the reader for research in string theory. It is intended as a textbook in the sense that, starting from the basics, the material is presented in a pedagogical and self-contained fashion. The emphasis is on the world-sheet perspective of closed strings and of open strings ending on D-branes, where two-dimensional conformal field theory is the main tool. Compactifications of string theory, with and without fluxes, and string dualities are also discussed from the space-time point of view, i.e. in geometric language. End-of-chapter references have been added to guide the reader intending to pursue further studies or to start research in the topics covered by this book.

  17. Psychometrics in Psychiatry: Basic Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Gülec

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding human mental process as a natural event is the mainstay for positive science. Measurement or scaling these processes is the basic component of positive science. If we call the science of psychometrics as “mind measuring”, then the scales should be remarked as the tools of “mind meter”. Besides, if science is considered as a play in which your assertions are only within the limit of your measurements, and then the book of rules ought to be written precisely and updated regularly. In the history of science, there are many incidents in which different tools which had been marked to measure several variables or things were later found to be unable to implement the measurement it had been assigned. Thus the book of rules should set the boundaries of measurements, where to start and to finish, by preventing any confounding factors. Validity and especially construct validity of the scales set the basic conceptual framework. But, positive science should present the proof of reliability before providing the validity. Reliability –how you measure- is considered to put an upper limit on validity because any problem in reliability makes it harder to detect a valid “signal”. Another important step in measurement is to apply same directives to all participants to assure standardization. Thereby, we could ensure that the entire world keep same standard in the evaluation and application of the scale. Other process is to obtain normative value according to related variables in order to prevent confounding possible cultural factors. All of these steps has been comprised under the title of standardization. With this article, we would like to make sense to the reader concerning what is meant by psychometric properties of scales and focus on the process of standardization and its components.

  18. Basic concepts in social sciences I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoede, C.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper the results are given of an investigation into concepts from Economics, Organization Theory, Political Science, Psychology and Sociology. The goal of this investigation was to find out whether there is a set of concepts that may be considered to be basic to all these five social scienc

  19. Basic concepts in social sciences I

    OpenAIRE

    Hoede, C.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper the results are given of an investigation into concepts from Economics, Organization Theory, Political Science, Psychology and Sociology. The goal of this investigation was to find out whether there is a set of concepts that may be considered to be basic to all these five social sciences. The set of concepts found will be modeled in terms of automata, thus providing a way of unifying the five fields in a general mathematical setting.

  20. The basic concept of patient safety and its evolution%病人安全基本理念及其沿革

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段玉蓉; 艾昌林; 张鸣明

    2009-01-01

    病人安全已成为近10年全球医疗服务的热门话题及最大挑战.病人安全并非是一个新理念,有其明确的文化根基,早在中即有相关论述.回顾病人安全理念的由来及其发展演变的过程,有助于更好地认识病人安全基本理念."医疗风险无处不在"已成为全球医疗界的共识.病人安全是医学领域的永恒课题,也是医疗服务的最基本出发点和终极目标.%Patient safety has become a hot topic and a big challenge for heahhcare services globally during the past ten years. Patient safety is not a new concept but has its explicit cultural root. There were some related elaborations early in the collected works of Hippocrates. Reviewing the origin and developmen-tal process of the concept of patient safety can benefit acquiring a deeper recognition of the basic concept of patient safety. "Medical risk is everywhere" has become the consensus of heahhcare professions globally.Patient safety is a perpetual task of the medical area as well as the most basic starting point and final desti-nation in healthcare service.

  1. Basic Statistical Concepts for Sample Size Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vithal K Dhulkhed

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available For grant proposals the investigator has to include an estimation of sample size .The size of the sample should be adequate enough so that there is sufficient data to reliably answer the research question being addressed by the study. At the very planning stage of the study the investigator has to involve the statistician. To have meaningful dialogue with the statistician every research worker should be familiar with the basic concepts of statistics. This paper is concerned with simple principles of sample size calculation. Concepts are explained based on logic rather than rigorous mathematical calculations to help him assimilate the fundamentals.

  2. Basic principles simulators - concept training simulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic Principles Simulators have the purpose of teaching general concepts, demonstrating and displaying the fundamental physical processes of a plant. They are used to illustrate theory to students and also to provide a preliminary training to the operators, to aquaint them with the basic dynamic interactions of the various systems during the normal operation of a plant, and to show the consequences of the most important and common transients and malfunctions. Basic principles simulators may vary in size from small desk cabinets to large panels. They represent with a certain detail the nuclear and thermohydraulic part of the plant. The availability of video displays allows to present detailed information about process parameters which are not shown on the control panels. In general the overall plant behaviour is represented well. Limitations are mostly found in the areas of logic and control. (orig./HP)

  3. Basic concepts and techniques of dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliareni, Jonathan M; Clarkson, Earl

    2015-04-01

    Dental implants provide completely edentulous and partial edentulous patients the function and esthetics they had with natural dentition. It is critical to understand and apply predictable surgical principles when treatment planning and surgically restoring edentulous spaces with implants. This article defines basic implant concepts that should be meticulously followed for predictable results when treating patients and restoring dental implants. Topics include biological and functional considerations, biomechanical considerations, preoperative assessments, medical history and risk assessments, oral examinations, radiographic examinations, contraindications, and general treatment planning options. PMID:25835792

  4. Basic methodical concept of engineering safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The determination and assessment of technical risks constitute the basis for setting safety standards which should be guided by the principle of similarly low risks in comparable situations. Safety science cannot yet provide international standardization efforts with a complete basic methodical concept promising enough to be universally recognized. For causally substantiated risks, the methodical instrument of risk comparison seems to be best suited as an optimization principle. For causally not removable imponderabilities, no risk comparisons are possible. Such cases can only be judged by opportunity, because their non-causal character does not stand scientific treatment. (orig.)

  5. Basic concepts from magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has grown exponentially, due in part to excellent anatomic and pathologic detail provided by the modality, as recent technological advances that have led to more rapid acquisition times. Radiology residents in different parts of the world now receive training in MR images from their first year of residence, included the pulse sequences training spin-echo, gradient-echo, inversion-recovery, echo-planar image and MR angiographic sequences, commonly used in medical imaging. However, to optimize the use of this type of study, it has been necessary to understand the basic concepts of physics, included the concepts of recovery T1, degradation T2* and T2, repetition time, echo time, and the effects of chemical shift. Additionally, it has been important to understand the contrast weighting for better representation of specific tissues and thus perform an appropriate differential diagnosis of various pathological processes. (author)

  6. 人权基本概念的演变与人权发展历程%The Evolution of the Basic Concepts of Human Rights and the Developing Process of Human Rights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞从容

    2011-01-01

    人权是我们这个时代的共同话语,同时也是一个深刻、敏感并极富争议性的论题,其中人权概念就是一个必须认真对待的基本问题。现代人权概念是一个历时性与共时性相互作用的产物。在人类的人权发展史上,曾先后出现过人权的几个基本概念,厘清这些概念将有助于我们理解人权概念本身的演变及其内涵与外延的丰富与发展过程。它们从某个角度记载了人权事业发展的曲折艰难历程和人类在人权事业上不断进步的足迹。%The issue of human rights is a common topic of our era and is also a sensitive and controversial topic.First of all,the concept of human rights must be dealt with seriously.The concept of modern human rights is the product of historical and synchronic reciprocity.In the developing process of human rights,there appear many basic concepts of human rights.Making these concepts clear can help us understand the evolution of the basic concepts of human rights as well as their connotation and extension.

  7. INNOVATIVE SECURITY: THE BASIC CONCEPTS, ESSENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Sakovich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Some theoretical and methodological aspects of a role and value of innovative security in system of national security of the state are considered. The basic concepts of innovative security, essence of innovative security in formation of innovative economy, economy of knowledge are analyzed. Questions of innovative security get the special importance because now innovative technologies and processes of their introduction have crucial value for improvement of quality of life, expansion of possibilities of development and maintenance of national security of all without an exception of the states. In the majority of economically developed states already long time researches devoted to problems of national and economic security are conducted. And, the innovative component in these researches is considered as a component economic or scientific and technical (technological security. The methodology of studying national and economic is in this time developed, security, there was a conceptual device and structure of categories «national security». Recognising importance of the spent workings out on a security problematics, it is necessary to notice that the system research devoted to studying of problems of maintenance of national security in the conditions of innovative development till now it was not spent. Especially it concerns processes of maintenance of interrelation of national security and innovative activity, formation of the concept of innovative security, its realisation in practice. Till now there is no unequivocal interpretation of essence of innovations, their influences on national and economic security. The analysis shows that at transition to an innovative way of development there are changes not only in economy and its making parts, but, and in world outlook, psychological, political, social and economic, scientifically-technological, educational and cultural spheres, institutional structures of the state and a society, in development

  8. Operationalising the Concept of Basic Needs

    OpenAIRE

    RICHARD J. SZAL

    1980-01-01

    Much rhetoric has appeared over the last few years about the desirability of the basic-needs approach to development planning. The basic-needs approach, however, has remained more of a proclamation of good intentions than a strategy for development. Operationalising it poses certain difficulties. In this article, two novel ways of transforming the basic-needs philosophy into concrete policies and strategies are presented. The discussion consists of explanations of planning tools entitled basi...

  9. The Basic Unit System concept and The Principle of Synergy

    CERN Document Server

    Paternina, E

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a new proposal to both dualistic and holistic paradigm, by introducing a complex basic unit system mathematical concept in which the quantitative and the qualitative aspects of reality commingle in a unit, and by presenting a new principle, the principle of synergy, we have then a new framework in which the opposites can become complementary. The purpose of the Bus is to establish a complex mathematical unit concept based on Euler relation from which reality, physical reality can be treated and interpreted, starting from more basic principles or just from a unified theoretical point of view. The exact simple pendulum formula and the well-known Schodinger Wave Equation will be the starting point. This approach will mean a departure from the normal evolution of physical western science had taken, but its main advantage will not only be a synthesis of that science but also a unification that will permit validate those great achievements of figures like Galileo, Newton, Amp...

  10. [The evolution of the concept of archetypes in Jungian psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Urdaniz, A; Romero, E F

    1995-01-01

    The concept of archetype is basic in the Junguian conception of the human mind. Without archetypes the Junguian theory of the collective unconscions is absurd. Jung himself recognized that the concept of archetype had originated the worst misunderstandings of his theories. Within Junguian schools there is an archetypal school which has originated archetypal conceptions quite apart from the initial junguian ideas. In this paper the evolution of the concept of archetype is studied, and its implications for the practice of Junguian psychotherapy are considered.

  11. [The evolution of the concept of archetypes in Jungian psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Urdaniz, A; Romero, E F

    1995-01-01

    The concept of archetype is basic in the Junguian conception of the human mind. Without archetypes the Junguian theory of the collective unconscions is absurd. Jung himself recognized that the concept of archetype had originated the worst misunderstandings of his theories. Within Junguian schools there is an archetypal school which has originated archetypal conceptions quite apart from the initial junguian ideas. In this paper the evolution of the concept of archetype is studied, and its implications for the practice of Junguian psychotherapy are considered. PMID:8553923

  12. Basic Concepts and Principles of Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beder, Hal

    1986-01-01

    Presents an overview of marketing concepts and principles. These include (1) organizational objectives, (2) exchange, (3) value, (4) market segmentation, (5) market position, (6) consumer analysis, (7) product, (8) promotion, (9) place, and (10) price. (CH)

  13. Alfred-Adler's Basic Concepts and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, Robert W.

    This book presents the basic principles of Adler's psychology. The first chapter looks at Adlerian psychology as it exists today, and examines earlier influences. The second chapter examines feelings of inferiority and compensation for these feelings. The third chapter considers the nature of goals and how they are formulated. The fourth chapter…

  14. On some basic concepts of quantum mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loinger, A.

    1987-01-01

    The present review concerns the discussion of some fundamental concepts of quantum mechanics, which either are not generally known, or have fallen into an unjustified and unjustifiable oblivion. The work begins with a remembrance of well-known mathematical notions, for which I have followed closely an excellent and concise treatment by Mackey. For Ludwig's generalization of quantum mechanics, I owe very much to a private communication by L. Lanz. (orig./BUD).

  15. Public health genomics: origins and basic concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Zimmern

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge and technologies arising from the Human Genome Project promise in time to offer new opportunities for the treatment and prevention of disease. The enterprise of public health genomics aims to bridge the gap between advances in basic research and their responsible and effective implementation in clinical services and public health programmes. Public health genomics stresses the importance of understanding how genes and environment act together to influence health; avoiding genetic exceptionalism; appreciating the social and political context of genomic advances; and encouraging critical evaluation of proposed new tests and interventions. New international networks and collaborations are being established to develop public health genomics and further its aims.

  16. Basic concepts in marine biology and ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An introduction to the marine biota, and how the biota interact with their physico-chemical environment, is given in this chapter. In particular, food web and trophic level relationships are discussed, from phytopIankton production through consumer organisms and the ''microbial loop''. The effects of organism size and functional relationships within the food web paradigm are emphasized, rather than taxonomic relationships. Examples initially given in terms of carbon, nitrogen, or energy transfer through food webs are placed in context with radionuclide transfer and the concept of biomagnification. (author)

  17. Basic conceptions for reactor pressure vessel manipulators and their evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study deals with application fields and basic design conceptions of manipulators in reactor pressure vessels as well as their evaluation. It is shown that manipulators supported at the reactor flange have essential advantages

  18. ADAPTATION OF BRACKEN BASIC CONCEPT SCALEEXPRESSIVE FORM INTO TURKISH LANGUAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Yolyeri, Sibel; Sevinç, Müzeyyen

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of this research is to adapt „Bracken basic concept scale- expressiveform‟ into Turkish for preschool children(3-6 years) and to construc the reliabilityand validity of the scale. 3 -6 year old 380 children who live in İzmir and attendingkindergarten have participated in reliability and validity study of the scale. Forreliability studies of „Bracken basic concept scale- expressive form, arithmetic average,standard deviation values, the internal consistency coefficients have beenc...

  19. American and Chinese Children's Knowledge of Basic Relational Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zheng; Boehm, Ann E.

    2001-01-01

    Three hundred Beijing students in kindergarten through second grade were given the Boehm Test of Basic Concepts Revised (BTBC-R) to determine whether lexical diversity and morphological complexity affect the rate of acquisition of languages and whether conceptual factors interact with linguistic differences in development of relational concepts.…

  20. Modeling Concept Evolution: A Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzolo, Flavio; Velegrakis, Yannis; Mylopoulos, John; Bykau, Siarhei

    The world is changing, and so must the data that describes its history. Not surprisingly, considerable research effort has been spent in Databases along this direction, covering topics such as temporal models and schema evolution. A topic that has not received much attention, however, is that of concept evolution. For example, Germany (instance-level concept) has evolved several times in the last century as it went through different governance structures, then split into two national entities that eventually joined again. Likewise, a caterpillar is transformed into a butterfly, while a mother becomes two (maternally-related) entities. As well, the concept of Whale (a class-level concept) changed over the past two centuries thanks to scientific discoveries that led to a better understanding of what the concept entails. In this work, we present a formal framework for modeling, querying and managing such evolution. In particular, we describe how to model the evolution of a concept, and how this modeling can be used to answer historical queries of the form "How has concept X evolved over period Y". Our proposal extends an RDF-like model with temporal features and evolution operators. Then we provide a query language that exploits these extensions and supports historical queries.

  1. Comparing Understanding of Programming Design Concepts Using Visual Basic and Traditional Basic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop-Clark, Cathy

    1998-01-01

    A study of 89 computer programming students in two instructional groups found that those using Visual Basic (VB) mastered programming design concepts as well as those using traditional BASIC. Concludes that VB is an excellent choice for a first programming course (high school or university) emphasizing sequence, selection, iteration, variables,…

  2. [Evolution of the neuroprotection concept].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrovskaia, R U

    2003-01-01

    Although the modern concept of neuroprotection has been formulated quite recently, the basis of this approach was laid about four decades ago when Zakusov initiated the study of mechanisms involved in the neuroprotector action of GABA shunt metabolites (in particular, alpha-hydroxybutyric acid and succinic semialdehyde) during hypoxia. It was suggested to consider these agents as a system of endogenous neuroprotectors. The interest of Zakusov in endogenous regulators (including oligopeptides) had stimulated research in this direction and gave impact to the investigations of A. P. Skoldinov and T. A. Gudasheva initiated in the early 1980s. Proceeding from the original concept of the possibility of imitation of the action of neurotropic agents by their structural-conformational oligopeptide analogs, a number of biologically active stable dipeptides were obtained, based on pyroglutamate and proline, and high specific bioaccessibility of these dipeptides for the brain was established. Our investigations showed that these compounds not only possess nootropic activity (in a dose 1000 times lower than that of piracetam), but produce a pronounced neuroprotector action as well. Most thoroughly studied in this respect were substituted acyl-prolyl dipeptides, in particular, the drug noopept exhibiting a combined neuroprotector effect both in vitro and in vivo. Noopept decreases the extent of necrotic damage caused by photoinduced thrombosis of cortical blood vessels. It was established that the neuroprotector effect of noopept is related to its action upon the well-known "triad", whereby the drug reduces neurotoxic effects of excess extracellular calcium, glutamate, and free radicals. Two additional components of the neuroprotector action of noopept are related to the antiinflammatory and antithrombotic activity. The prospects of using direct and indirect action upon neurotrophin system for neuroprotection purposes are considered. Taking into account common secondary

  3. Nuclear data uncertainties: I, Basic concepts of probability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some basic concepts of probability theory are presented from a nuclear-data perspective, in order to provide a foundation for thorough understanding of the role of uncertainties in nuclear data research. Topics included in this report are: events, event spaces, calculus of events, randomness, random variables, random-variable distributions, intuitive and axiomatic probability, calculus of probability, conditional probability and independence, probability distributions, binomial and multinomial probability, Poisson and interval probability, normal probability, the relationships existing between these probability laws, and Bayes' theorem. This treatment emphasizes the practical application of basic mathematical concepts to nuclear data research, and it includes numerous simple examples. 34 refs

  4. Nuclear data uncertainties: I, Basic concepts of probability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.L.

    1988-12-01

    Some basic concepts of probability theory are presented from a nuclear-data perspective, in order to provide a foundation for thorough understanding of the role of uncertainties in nuclear data research. Topics included in this report are: events, event spaces, calculus of events, randomness, random variables, random-variable distributions, intuitive and axiomatic probability, calculus of probability, conditional probability and independence, probability distributions, binomial and multinomial probability, Poisson and interval probability, normal probability, the relationships existing between these probability laws, and Bayes' theorem. This treatment emphasizes the practical application of basic mathematical concepts to nuclear data research, and it includes numerous simple examples. 34 refs.

  5. Pre-Service Teachers' Mental Models of Basic Astronomy Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, A. Saglam; Durikan, U.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to determine pre-service teachers' mental models related to basic astronomy concepts. The study was conducted using a survey method with 293 pre-service teachers from 4 different departments; physics education, science education, primary teacher education and early childhood education. An achievement test with…

  6. 29 CFR 779.202 - Basic concepts of definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... leasing arrangements. On the other hand, the definition excludes from the “enterprise” activities only... RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Employment to Which the Act May Apply; Enterprise Coverage Enterprise; the Business Unit § 779.202 Basic concepts of definition. Under the definition, the “enterprise” consists...

  7. Spanish Translation and Validation of the Bracken Basic Concept Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, Bruce A; Fouad, Nadya

    1987-01-01

    The Bracken Basic Concept Scale (BBCS) was translated into Spanish, and 32 preschool and primary age bilingual children were assessed in a counter-balanced format with the English and newly translated Spanish forms to assess the adequacy of the translation. Preliminary content validity of the Spanish BBCS was demonstrated. (Author/JAZ)

  8. Chinese and American Children's Knowledge of Basic Relational Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zheng; Boehm, Ann E.

    This study compared the performance of 300 Chinese children on the Boehm Test of Basic Concepts-Revised (BTBC-R) with that of American children from the standardization sample of the BTBC-R. Subjects were in kindergarten, first, and second grade, and completed the test at the end of the 1996-97 school year. The focus of the comparison was to…

  9. Evolution of the total logistics costs concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the evolution stages of the total logistics cost concept; an interrelations of TLC and EOQ models has been analyzed. The author presented analytical approaches to determine a value of total cost, as well as an integral criterion for logistics systems' functioning, based upon package treatment of the total costs value and service level.

  10. Tracking Concept Development through Semiotic Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronen, Ilana

    2015-01-01

    A qualitative research focused on a case study aiming to monitor emergent knowledge in a discourse group by tracking the development of the concept "goal." The analysis, based on "Semiotic Evolution" methodology facilitates the description of interactions between personal perceptions in the group discourse, illustrating the…

  11. Basic didactic principles in the study of mathematical concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Testоv Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of understanding in the study of basic mathematical concepts in mathematics education has exacerbated during recent years. This is largely due to the fact that the style of thinking of pupils and students thanks to the intensive use of the Web becomes figurative and emotional, less inclined to abstract constructions. Fragments-clip thinking has become more common for most of students. The article deals with the didactic principles to be used in the study of mathematical concepts, which will contribute to achieving understanding.

  12. The basic technical concept of the SWR 1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On behalf of the German electricity companies operating nuclear power plants, Siemens/KWU is developing a BWR-type reactor with enhanced engineered safety and a rated electrical output of about 1000 MW. The development work is placed under the roof of a joint project, partners in this project besides Siemens/KWU being the electricity companies, the Juelich Research Center, and several international contributing partners. The management of the international partnership and activities for engineering tasks is the responsibility of Finland and the Netherlands, while Switzerland and Italy are responsible for cooperative activities in connection with the required experimental work. The activities for elaboration of the design concept started in 1992, and the basic design phase is expected to be terminated in mid-1999. Subsequent phases for design work going deeper into details will follow. The basic design concept has advanced to a stage permitting analysis and evaluation of engineering aspects and economics of the new design. (orig./CB)

  13. Particulate Systems for Targeting of Macrophages: Basic and Therapeutic Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghimi, Seyed Moien; Parhamifar, Ladan; Ahmadvand, Davoud;

    2012-01-01

    and intracellular drug release processes can be optimized through modifications of the drug carrier physicochemical properties, which include hydrodynamic size, shape, composition and surface characteristics. Through such modifications together with understanding of macrophage cell biology, targeting may be aimed...... at a particular subset of macrophages. Advances in basic and therapeutic concepts of particulate targeting of macrophages and related nanotechnology approaches for immune cell modifications are discussed.Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel...

  14. BASICS FOR APPLYING A CONTEMPORARY CONCEPT FOR HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Camilovic, Slobodan

    2009-01-01

    In the process of organizational adaptation to environmental demands, primarily through the anticipated outputs, human resources play a key role. The procuring of necessary human resources, their working commitment and development, are the basic assignments of the management of human resources. The appliance of a contemporary concept of management of human resources, based on theoretical and practical cognizance of successful organizations, contributes to a successful execution of these an...

  15. Teacher knowledge of basic language concepts and dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Erin K; Joshi, R Malatesha; Binks-Cantrell, Emily S

    2011-05-01

    Roughly one-fifth of the US population displays one or more symptoms of dyslexia: a specific learning disability that affects an individual's ability to process written language. Consequently, elementary school teachers are teaching students who struggle with inaccurate or slow reading, poor spelling, poor writing, and other language processing difficulties. Findings from studies have indicated that teachers lack essential knowledge needed to teach struggling readers, particularly children with dyslexia. However, few studies have sought to assess teachers' knowledge and perceptions about dyslexia in conjunction with knowledge of basic language concepts related to reading instruction. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to examine elementary school teachers' knowledge of basic language concepts and their knowledge and perceptions about dyslexia. Findings from the present study indicated that teachers, on average, were able to display implicit skills related to certain basic language concepts (i.e. syllable counting), but failed to demonstrate explicit knowledge of others (i.e. phonics principles). Also, teachers seemed to hold the common misconception that dyslexia is a visual processing deficit rather than phonological processing deficit. PMID:21290479

  16. CONCEPT AND EVOLUTION OF BANK MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turkes (Vint Mirela Catalina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The bank marketing, a specialized field of the marketing, has emerged following the extensive development of the general marketing and following the appearance, separation and development of services marketing. The article shows the appearance, development and delimitation of the bank marketing concept following the increase of the financial-banking sector in all world countries due to the appearance of new competitors and the competition intensification. The research consisted in presenting the evolution stages of the bank marketing and the manner in which the concept has been approached and perceived, in time, by various Romanian and foreign specialists. Through analysis, I have shown the importance of including the bank marketing concept into the assembly of tactical and strategic decisions of the banking companies.

  17. Evolution of Digital Literacy: New Concepts and New Literacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raidell Avello Martínez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The concept of digital literacy has been basically limited to the technical aspects and the use of information and communication technologies. Consequently, a holistic view regarding the role played by digital literacy in both teaching-learning processes and society has not been achieved. The present paper aims at conducting a bibliographical and theoretical review for understanding the evolution and modifications of the concept of digital literacy, as well as the elements and criteria for its definition. Development of Internet towards the social web or the web 2.0 was found to be the major change leading to the reformulation of the concept of digital literacy. The literature review allowed analyzing the theoretical foundations of digital literacy in Cuba and abroad in depth.

  18. Basic concepts and assumptions behind the new ICRP recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is given of some of the basic concepts and assumptions behind the current recommendations by the International Commission on Radiological Protection in ICRP Publications 26 and 28, which form the basis for the revision of the Basic Safety Standards jointly undertaken by IAEA, ILO, NEA and WHO. Special attention is given to the assumption of a linear, non-threshold dose-response relationship for stochastic radiation effects such as cancer and hereditary harm. The three basic principles of protection are discussed: justification of practice, optimization of protection and individual risk limitation. In the new ICRP recommendations particular emphasis is given to the principle of keeping all radiation doses as low as is reasonably achievable. A consequence of this is that the ICRP dose limits are now given as boundary conditions for the justification and optimization procedures rather than as values that should be used for purposes of planning and design. The fractional increase in total risk at various ages after continuous exposure near the dose limits is given as an illustration. The need for taking other sources, present and future, into account when applying the dose limits leads to the use of the commitment concept. This is briefly discussed as well as the new quantity, the effective dose equivalent, introduced by ICRP. (author)

  19. Basic concepts in physics from the cosmos to quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Chaichian, Masud; Tureanu, Anca

    2014-01-01

    "Basic Concepts in Physics: From the Cosmos to Quarks" is the outcome of the authors' long and varied teaching experience in different countries and for different audiences, and gives an accessible and eminently readable introduction to all the main ideas of modern physics. The book’s fresh approach, using a novel combination of historical and conceptual viewpoints, makes it ideal complementary reading to more standard textbooks. The first five chapters are devoted to classical physics, from planetary motion to special relativity, always keeping in mind its relevance to questions of contemporary interest. The next six chapters deal mainly with newer developments in physics, from quantum theory and general relativity to grand unified theories, and the book concludes by discussing the role of physics in living systems. A basic grounding in mathematics is required of the reader, but technicalities are avoided as far as possible; thus complex calculations are omitted so long as the essential ideas remain clear....

  20. Basic EDMS concepts and information structures at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Høimyr, Nils-Joar

    1998-01-01

    Life-cycle support of a product such as an LHC detector from design and construction to maintenance, requires that the data describing the product is structured in a coherent manner. This note explains the basic concepts and objects in the Engineering Data Management System (EDMS) CADIM/EDB in use at CERN and gives some recommendations for how to structure information in Engineering projects in order to benefit the most from the functionality of an EDMS. Although using CERN specific examples, the paper also applies to other engineering projects and EDM systems.

  1. Fuzzy logic and neural networks basic concepts & application

    CERN Document Server

    Alavala, Chennakesava R

    2008-01-01

    About the Book: The primary purpose of this book is to provide the student with a comprehensive knowledge of basic concepts of fuzzy logic and neural networks. The hybridization of fuzzy logic and neural networks is also included. No previous knowledge of fuzzy logic and neural networks is required. Fuzzy logic and neural networks have been discussed in detail through illustrative examples, methods and generic applications. Extensive and carefully selected references is an invaluable resource for further study of fuzzy logic and neural networks. Each chapter is followed by a question bank

  2. Telerobotic work system: Concept development and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Lyle M.

    1987-01-01

    The basic concept of a telerobotic work system (TWS) consists of two dexterous manipulator arms controlled from a remote station. The term telerobotic describes a system that is a combination of teleoperator control and robotic operation. Work represents the function of producing physical changes. System describes the integration of components and subsystems to effectively accomplish the needed mission. Telerobotics reduces exposure to hazards for flight crewmembers and increases their productivity. The requirements for the TWS are derived from both the mission needs and the functional capabilities of existing hardware and software to meet those needs. The development of the TWS is discussed.

  3. Basic Concepts in Early Childhood Educational Standards: A 50-State Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, Bruce A.; Crawford, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    The incidence of basic concepts in early childhood educational standards is explored across all 50 US states. Concept inclusion in state standards is described in terms of the representation of the universe of basic concepts, representation of concept categories, the depth and breadth of individual concept inclusion, and unique examples.…

  4. Asymptotic analysis, Working Note No. 1: Basic concepts and definitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbey, M. [Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, 69 - Villeurbanne (France). Lab. d`Analyse Numerique; Kaper, H.G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1993-07-01

    In this note we introduce the basic concepts of asymptotic analysis. After some comments of historical interest we begin by defining the order relations O, o, and O{sup {number_sign}}, which enable us to compare the asymptotic behavior of functions of a small positive parameter {epsilon} as {epsilon} {down_arrow} 0. Next, we introduce order functions, asymptotic sequences of order functions and more general gauge sets of order functions and define the concepts of an asymptotic approximation and an asymptotic expansion with respect to a given gauge set. This string of definitions culminates in the introduction of the concept of a regular asymptotic expansion, also known as a Poincare expansion, of a function f : (0, {epsilon}{sub o}) {yields} X, where X is a normed vector space of functions defined on a domain D {epsilon} R{sup N}. We conclude the note with the asymptotic analysis of an initial value problem whose solution is obtained in the form of a regular asymptotic expansion.

  5. ADAPTIVE SYSTEMS THEORY: SOME BASIC CONCEPTS, METHODS AND RESULTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Lei

    2003-01-01

    The adaptive systems theory to be presented in this paper consists of two closely related parts: adaptive estimation (or filtering, prediction) and adaptive control of dynamical systems. Both adaptive estimation and control are nonlinear mappings of the on-line observed signals of dynamical systems, where the main features are the uncertainties in both the system's structure and external disturbances, and the non-stationarity and dependency of the system signals. Thus, a key difficulty in establishing a mathematical theory of adaptive systems lies in how to deal with complicated nonlinear stochastic dynamical systems which describe the adaptation processes. In this paper, we will illustrate some of the basic concepts, methods and results through some simple examples. The following fundamental questions will be discussed: How much information is needed for estimation? How to deal with uncertainty by adaptation? How to analyze an adaptive system? What are the convergence or tracking performances of adaptation? How to find the proper rate of adaptation in some sense? We will also explore the following more fundamental questions: How much uncertainty can be dealt with by adaptation ? What are the limitations of adaptation ? How does the performance of adaptation depend on the prior information ? We will partially answer these questions by finding some "critical values" and establishing some "Impossibility Theorems" for the capability of adaptation, for several basic classes of nonlinear dynamical control systems with either parametric or nonparametric uncertainties.

  6. OPENED MONADS: THE EVOLUTION OF A CONCEPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Pernisa Júnior

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary digital narratives are the focus of this paper. The evolution of the concept of “opened monads” – the mainly subject in discussion – will be portrayed since it was still connected to journalistic reporting in the web, arriving to the field of arts. The horizontal structure of the “opened monads” model is an important point to the understanding of its positions in contemporary communications, once it is no longer the one called “mass media”, but the one assuming new aspects, even establishing new connections with other areas. In this case, the connection with arts, under the technology bias, is a possible interface. In its methodology, there is a theoretical investigation, but maintaining its link with the applied part, with examples of existing work, work in progress or work that is still on going.

  7. APPLICATION OF THE BASIC INCOME CONCEPT IN UKRAINIAN ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stavytskyy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Finance for the social sphere remains a great challenge in modern economy. The necessity of adequate living standards under limited resources raises a complicated problem for governments to provide appropriate distributing mechanism among the most vulnerable sections of the population. The paper analysed the concept of absolute basic income, which in some EU countries is considered as a substitution for a modern system of social security. Inequality of incomes creates not only a social problem but it is also an obstacle in the way of economic growth. It leads to the conclusion that government should provide some strategy to avoid high inequality. The model of rational individual with certain basic income is under investigation. The analysis of the model suggests that the presence of additional income not only facilitates more effective involvement of individuals to work, but it is a sort of indisputable factor for guaranteeing freedom of individuals and increasing their mutual respect. Thus, the idea of basic income, which spreads among European countries, has not only economic, but also political and psychological components that may affect the mentality of people in future. It is demonstrated that the transition to a new social security schemes in Ukraine can accumulate from 856 to 1020 bln. UAH in 2015 prices. It can provide guaranteed monthly payments from 1928 to 2297 UAH per capita and from 482 to 574 USD per child without changing the structure of the budget in case of replacement minimum pensions, minimum wages and full monetization of privileges. Obviously, such strategy not only would improve the efficiency of budget spending, but also produce a multiplier effect on the economy by changing and optimizing the consumption patterns of the population, increasing the competition in all markets for a real consumer. It has a chance of reducing the struggle to obtain state funds through tenders. However, the transition to the new system can be

  8. [Causality in cardiology: concepts in evolution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Gustavo F

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes several concepts about causality from Empedocles, Aristoteles and Galeno, to Koch and Hill and the evolution of these concepts related to cardiovascular diseases. Also defines cause and risk, and the philosophical theories about scientific knowledge: inductive versus refutation analysis. On these basis, the study of cardiovascular disease's causality, especially coronary heart disease, allows us the identification of several risk factors involved in its development. However, even with the presently coronary heart disease risk charts (from Framingham and European studies) the higher probability for the development of a cardiovascular ischemic event is around 40%, establishing an important degree of uncertainty. With the improvement in molecular biology techniques, genetics have attempted to analyse several genetic polymorphisms in search of the origin of coronary heart disease. Unfortunately, less than 10% of these polymorphisms have had a positive correlation with coronary heart disease being of minor risk that those obtained for having the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus or hypercholesterolemia. On these basis, the requirement of new population research projects in which clinical and genetic risk factors are to be studied for the appropriate understanding of the causality process of cardiovascular diseases must be a worldwide priority.

  9. Protection of structures and buildings against the effect of electrical storms: basic concepts, evolution and application in Mexico; Proteccion contra el efecto de las tormentas electricas de estructuras y edificios: conceptos basicos, evolucion y aplicacion en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvan Diego, Arturo; Velazquez Sanchez, Raul [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    The applied technology, supported by the analysis, the experimentation and the scientific observation, has demonstrated its effectiveness in the modernization of hundreds of industrial and commercial processes, of communication and services, as well as of the materials and methodologies used for the protection of diverse equipment and processes; from the protection in systems and equipment in high tension to systems that handle very low energy, among them are included electronic and digital devices. Nevertheless, fundamental laws like the Ohm's Law, the gravity law or the universal gas law exist that, although they were discovered many years ago, still are effective and their validity provides invaluable elements for the development of new methods, technological processes and developments. One of the most relevant cases than amalgamates the application of fundamental criteria and the development of new technologies and its application in the so-called no conventional protective devices, constitute the protection against the effect of electrical storms in buildings and structures. The worldwide application of these devices has generated skepticism of a great part of the scientific community, diverse reactions among the users and a firm position on the part of the manufacturers so that these technologies are included in international standards. The objective of this article is to offer the reader the basic information on the beginnings of the protection, the evolution that the protection methods against electrical storms have had since the XVIII century, the application of the fundamental criteria of protection in structures or modern buildings and their content, as well as the situation that prevails at the moment in the committees of the diverse national and international normative organizations with respect to the inclusion of the new technologies in the design guides. [Spanish] La tecnologia aplicada, apoyada en el analisis, la experimentacion y la

  10. Conducting polymer actuators: From basic concepts to proprioceptive systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez Gil, Jose Gabriel

    Designers and engineers have been dreaming for decades of motors sensing, by themselves, working and surrounding conditions, as biological muscles do originating proprioception. Here bilayer full polymeric artificial muscles were checked up to very high cathodic potential limits (-2.5 V) in aqueous solution by cyclic voltammetry. The electrochemical driven exchange of ions from the conducting polymer film, and the concomitant Faradaic bending movement of the muscle, takes place in the full studied potential range. The presence of trapped counterion after deep reduction was corroborated by EDX determinations giving quite high electronic conductivity to the device. The large bending movement was used as a tool to quantify the amount of water exchanged per reaction unit (exchanged electron or ion). The potential evolutions of self-supported films of conducting polymers or conducting polymers (polypyrrole, polyaniline) coating different microfibers, during its oxidation/reduction senses working mechanical, thermal, chemical or electrical variables. The evolution of the muscle potential from electrochemical artificial muscles based on electroactive materials such as intrinsically conducting polymers and driven by constant currents senses, while working, any variation of the mechanical (trailed mass, obstacles, pressure, strain or stress), thermal or chemical conditions of work. One physically uniform artificial muscle includes one electrochemical motor and several sensors working simultaneously under the same driving reaction. Actuating (current and charge) and sensing (potential and energy) magnitudes are present, simultaneously, in the only two connecting wires and can be read by the computer at any time. From basic polymeric, mechanical and electrochemical principles a physicochemical equation describing artificial proprioception has been developed. It includes and describes, simultaneously, the evolution of the muscle potential during actuation as a function of the

  11. Basic concepts in physics. From the cosmos to quarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaichian, M.; Tureanu, A. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics; Perez Rojas, H. [ICIMAF, La Habana (Cuba). Dept. of Theoretical Physics

    2014-08-01

    A clear, concise and beautifully written presentation of modern physics. Readers will not only learn physics, they will learn to enjoy it. Self-contained and comprehensive History, concepts and formal treatment go hand-in-hand. Suppresses mathematical technicalities in favor of a wide scope of topics. Suited for class use, e.g. as a textbook for the course ''Modern Physics'', but also ideal for ''lone explorers'' and other newcomers to physics. ''Basic Concepts in Physics: From the Cosmos to Quarks'' is the outcome of the authors' long and varied teaching experience in different countries and for different audiences, and gives an accessible and eminently readable introduction to all the main ideas of modern physics. The book's fresh approach, using a novel combination of historical and conceptual viewpoints, makes it ideal complementary reading to more standard textbooks. The first five chapters are devoted to classical physics, from planetary motion to special relativity, always keeping in mind its relevance to questions of contemporary interest. The next six chapters deal mainly with newer developments in physics, from quantum theory and general relativity to grand unified theories, and the book concludes by discussing the role of physics in living systems. A basic grounding in mathematics is required of the reader, but technicalities are avoided as far as possible; thus complex calculations are omitted so long as the essential ideas remain clear. The book is addressed to undergraduate and graduate students in physics and will also be appreciated by many professional physicists. It will likewise be of interest to students, researchers and teachers of other natural sciences, as well as to engineers, high-school teachers and the curious general reader, who will come to understand what physics is about and how it describes the different phenomena of Nature. Not only will readers of this book learn

  12. Health recommender systems: concepts, requirements, technical basics and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesner, Martin; Pfeifer, Daniel

    2014-03-03

    During the last decades huge amounts of data have been collected in clinical databases representing patients' health states (e.g., as laboratory results, treatment plans, medical reports). Hence, digital information available for patient-oriented decision making has increased drastically but is often scattered across different sites. As as solution, personal health record systems (PHRS) are meant to centralize an individual's health data and to allow access for the owner as well as for authorized health professionals. Yet, expert-oriented language, complex interrelations of medical facts and information overload in general pose major obstacles for patients to understand their own record and to draw adequate conclusions. In this context, recommender systems may supply patients with additional laymen-friendly information helping to better comprehend their health status as represented by their record. However, such systems must be adapted to cope with the specific requirements in the health domain in order to deliver highly relevant information for patients. They are referred to as health recommender systems (HRS). In this article we give an introduction to health recommender systems and explain why they are a useful enhancement to PHR solutions. Basic concepts and scenarios are discussed and a first implementation is presented. In addition, we outline an evaluation approach for such a system, which is supported by medical experts. The construction of a test collection for case-related recommendations is described. Finally, challenges and open issues are discussed.

  13. Health Recommender Systems: Concepts, Requirements, Technical Basics and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Wiesner

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades huge amounts of data have been collected in clinical databases representing patients’ health states (e.g., as laboratory results, treatment plans, medical reports. Hence, digital information available for patient-oriented decision making has increased drastically but is often scattered across different sites. As as solution, personal health record systems (PHRS are meant to centralize an individual’s health data and to allow access for the owner as well as for authorized health professionals. Yet, expert-oriented language, complex interrelations of medical facts and information overload in general pose major obstacles for patients to understand their own record and to draw adequate conclusions. In this context, recommender systems may supply patients with additional laymen-friendly information helping to better comprehend their health status as represented by their record. However, such systems must be adapted to cope with the specific requirements in the health domain in order to deliver highly relevant information for patients. They are referred to as health recommender systems (HRS. In this article we give an introduction to health recommender systems and explain why they are a useful enhancement to PHR solutions. Basic concepts and scenarios are discussed and a first implementation is presented. In addition, we outline an evaluation approach for such a system, which is supported by medical experts. The construction of a test collection for case-related recommendations is described. Finally, challenges and open issues are discussed.

  14. Rate and Sequence of Positive and Negative Poles in Basic Concept Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, Bruce A.

    1988-01-01

    Ninety-eight concepts from the Bracken Basic Concept Scale were paired, polarity (positive or negative) was assigned, and concept pairs were contrasted with 1,109 children ages three through seven to determine rate and sequence of polar concept acquisition. For 70 percent of the pairs the positive-pole concept was acquired before the negative-pole…

  15. Fulfilmen of Basic Needs: Concept, Measurement and Muslim Countries’ Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Zubair

    1997-01-01

    This paper adopts a relative approach to the fulfillment of basic needs. It constructs a basic needs gap index (BNGI)to measure the performance of selected Muslim countries at three points of time 1987, 1991, and 1994

  16. History and Evolution of Concepts in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varvoglis, Harry

    The history of any discipline is always based on written texts. In this way, to restrict ourselves to texts of Antiquity, the history of the Jewish people is based on the books of the Old Testament, the history of the Persian Wars on the books by Herodotus and the history of the Peloponnesian War on the books by Thucydides. Even the history of the Trojan War is based on Homer's written work, although this was based, in turn, on earlier oral traditions of the Greeks of Homer's time. This rule, of course, cannot find an exemption in the history of physics. This is the main reason why the history of physics, and hence the evolution of concepts in this science, necessarily starts from the ancient Greeks. It is certain that other people of historical times were also involved in scientific activities, such as the Babylonians, who developed astronomy, and the Egyptians, who developed geometry. But their aim was to solve practical problems of their everyday life and not to understand nature and its laws. The geometry of the ancient Egyptians was developed for the purpose of redistributing land after the annual flooding of Nile, while Babylonian astronomy was limited to the simple recording of astronomical observations, with a few surviving examples of predictions of future events. Instead, the interpretation of nature and its laws, in both these nations, was the responsibility of priests and kings. In other words, the interpretation of nature for them was not a result of rational thinking; it was based on truth by revelation. The "truth" was revealed to rulers, nobles and priests, and accepted, without questioning, by the rest of the people. This truth was closely related to the religion of each nation.

  17. Metrology concept design of the GAIA basic angle monitoring system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veggel, M. van; Vink, R.; Rosielle, N.; Nijmeijer, H.; Wielders, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    The GAIA satellite, scheduled for launch in 2010, will make a highly accurate map of our Galaxy. It will measure the position of stars with an accuracy of 50 prad using two telescopes, which are positioned under a 'basic' angle between the the lines-of-sight of the telescopes of 106°. With a Basic A

  18. The Analysis of the Understanding Levels of Teacher Candidates in Different Departments about Basic Astronomy Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durukan, Ümmü Gülsüm; Saglam-Arslan, Aysegül

    2015-01-01

    Learners face a variety of concepts during the instructional process they experience. These concepts are mostly introduced by teachers; thus, the competences of teachers in terms of teaching concepts are vitally important. The aim of this study is to detect the understanding levels of teacher candidates about basic astronomy concepts. The method…

  19. American and Chinese Children's Understanding of Basic Relational Concepts in Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zheng; Boehm, Ann E.

    2004-01-01

    Two hundred first- and second-grade Chinese children's knowledge of basic relational concepts in following directions was assessed on the "Applications Booklet" of the "Boehm Test of Basic Concepts-Revised" (BTBC-R, 1986). Chinese children's performance was then compared with that of the standardization sample of the BTBC-R. Results indicated that…

  20. Analyzing the Relationship between Learning Styles and Basic Concept Knowledge Level of Kindergarten Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balat, Gülden Uyanik

    2014-01-01

    Most basic concepts are acquired during preschool period. There are studies indicating that the basic concept knowledge of children is related to language development, cognitive development, academic achievement and intelligence. The relationship between learning behaviors (sometime called learning or cognitive styles) and a child academic success…

  1. Using the Bracken Basic Concept Scale and Bracken Concept Development Program in the Assessment and Remediation of Young Children's Concept Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, Bruce A.; Panter, Janet E.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a historical description of and research related to the development, validation, and combined use of the multiple editions of the Bracken Basic Concept Scale and its companion curriculum, the Bracken Concept Development Program. In tandem, the scale and curriculum were designed to assess and teach more than 300 basic language…

  2. Exploring Relations among Preservice Elementary Teachers' Ideas about Evolution, Understanding of Relevant Science Concepts, and College Science Coursework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Diana C.; Kaya, Sibel

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relations among preservice elementary teachers' ideas about evolution, their understanding of basic science concepts and college science coursework. Forty-two percent of 240 participants did not accept the theory of human evolution, but held inconsistent ideas about related topics, such as co-existence of humans and…

  3. The Java Series: Basic Concepts in Object Oriented Programming

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2000-01-01

    The talk will be general enough not to require any previous knowledge of any programming language but some insight in software development would be convenient. In the same way, the talk will give you the basics to learn any OO based methodology or language.

  4. Giant Magnetoresistance: Basic Concepts, Microstructure, Magnetic Interactions and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Ennen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The giant magnetoresistance (GMR effect is a very basic phenomenon that occurs in magnetic materials ranging from nanoparticles over multilayered thin films to permanent magnets. In this contribution, we first focus on the links between effect characteristic and underlying microstructure. Thereafter, we discuss design criteria for GMR-sensor applications covering automotive, biosensors as well as nanoparticular sensors.

  5. Giant Magnetoresistance: Basic Concepts, Microstructure, Magnetic Interactions and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennen, Inga; Kappe, Daniel; Rempel, Thomas; Glenske, Claudia; Hütten, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect is a very basic phenomenon that occurs in magnetic materials ranging from nanoparticles over multilayered thin films to permanent magnets. In this contribution, we first focus on the links between effect characteristic and underlying microstructure. Thereafter, we discuss design criteria for GMR-sensor applications covering automotive, biosensors as well as nanoparticular sensors. PMID:27322277

  6. [Significance of basic concepts in depth psychology for psychosomatics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barz, H

    1984-12-01

    The concept of "the unconscious" is considered the central concept of depth psychology. While the unconscious in Freud's conception consists essentially of repressed material and through conversion can result in psychosomatic illnesses, C. G. Jung saw in the "collective unconscious", which he discovered, the source of all psychic and spiritual development. Mediation between the collective unconscious and the conscious is effected by means of the "archetypes", whose function can be compared with the instincts. Archetypes are manifested through symbols, whose assimilation by consciousness is a prerequisite for psychic and physical health. Consideration of the archetype of the physician suggests that the grounding of medical science in depth psychology would modify not only our understanding of illnesses, but also the physician's understanding of himself.

  7. [Significance of basic concepts in depth psychology for psychosomatics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barz, H

    1984-12-01

    The concept of "the unconscious" is considered the central concept of depth psychology. While the unconscious in Freud's conception consists essentially of repressed material and through conversion can result in psychosomatic illnesses, C. G. Jung saw in the "collective unconscious", which he discovered, the source of all psychic and spiritual development. Mediation between the collective unconscious and the conscious is effected by means of the "archetypes", whose function can be compared with the instincts. Archetypes are manifested through symbols, whose assimilation by consciousness is a prerequisite for psychic and physical health. Consideration of the archetype of the physician suggests that the grounding of medical science in depth psychology would modify not only our understanding of illnesses, but also the physician's understanding of himself. PMID:6515375

  8. Mathematical Modeling in Mathematics Education: Basic Concepts and Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbas, Ayhan Kürsat; Kertil, Mahmut; Çetinkaya, Bülent; Çakiroglu, Erdinç; Alacaci, Cengiz; Bas, Sinem

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical modeling and its role in mathematics education have been receiving increasing attention in Turkey, as in many other countries. The growing body of literature on this topic reveals a variety of approaches to mathematical modeling and related concepts, along with differing perspectives on the use of mathematical modeling in teaching and…

  9. The Relationship between Lexicon Rankings and Item Difficulty on the Bracken Basic Concept Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisby, Craig L.

    1992-01-01

    Analysis of the Bracken Basic Concept Scale (BBCS) indicated that all subtests except two (Quantity and Time) showed statistically significant correlations between item difficulty and frequency of concept words. Administration of the BBCS to 36 first graders revealed that most concept words showed expected item discrimination indices. (Author/JDD)

  10. Semi-quantitative diagram about temporal evolution in basic physics learning: a study with engineering students

    CERN Document Server

    Talero, Paco; Organista, Orlando; Barbosa, Luis

    2012-01-01

    We show a new semi-quantitative technique of analysis about of temporal evolution of learning of basic physics concepts. In this technique we arrange a geometric diagram with the score and the homogeneity (H-S), in this diagram we have a quantitative and qualitative information about the learning of students and the effectiveness instruction. We applied this technique to study the temporal evolution of the graphical interpretation of motion in one dimension through tutorials in a introductory course physics with 20 students of engineering at the Universidad Central de Bogot\\'a Colombia for a period of 6 weeks. We found in the general diagram that (Smax,Hmax)=(0.75,0.75).

  11. Pseudo-populations a basic concept in statistical surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Quatember, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This book emphasizes that artificial or pseudo-populations play an important role in statistical surveys from finite universes in two manners: firstly, the concept of pseudo-populations may substantially improve users’ understanding of various aspects in the sampling theory and survey methodology; an example of this scenario is the Horvitz-Thompson estimator. Secondly, statistical procedures exist in which pseudo-populations actually have to be generated. An example of such a scenario can be found in simulation studies in the field of survey sampling, where close-to-reality pseudo-populations are generated from known sample and population data to form the basis for the simulation process. The chapters focus on estimation methods, sampling techniques, nonresponse, questioning designs and statistical disclosure control.This book is a valuable reference in understanding the importance of the pseudo-population concept and applying it in teaching and research.

  12. Measuring Segregation: Basic Concepts and Extensions to Other Domains

    OpenAIRE

    Silber, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the main concepts used in measuring segregation. First it shows that the cardinal as well as the ordinal approach to the measurement of occupational segregation, when only two groups are considered (generally men and women), borrowed many ideas from the income inequality measurement literature. Second, it shows that more recent advances in segregation measurement, that were the consequence of an extension of segregation measures to the case of multi-group segregation and m...

  13. Fundamentals of natural computing basic concepts, algorithms, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    de Castro, Leandro Nunes

    2006-01-01

    Introduction A Small Sample of Ideas The Philosophy of Natural Computing The Three Branches: A Brief Overview When to Use Natural Computing Approaches Conceptualization General Concepts PART I - COMPUTING INSPIRED BY NATURE Evolutionary Computing Problem Solving as a Search Task Hill Climbing and Simulated Annealing Evolutionary Biology Evolutionary Computing The Other Main Evolutionary Algorithms From Evolutionary Biology to Computing Scope of Evolutionary Computing Neurocomputing The Nervous System Artif

  14. Muslim Egyptian and Lebanese Students' Conceptions of Biological Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boujaoude, Saouma; Wiles, Jason R.; Asghar, Anila; Alters, Brian

    2011-09-01

    In this study, we investigated distinctions among the diversity of religious traditions represented by Lebanese and Egyptian Muslim high school students regarding their understanding and acceptance of biological evolution and how they relate the science to their religious beliefs. We explored secondary students' conceptions of evolution among members of three Muslim sects—Sunni, Shiite, and Druze—in two cultural contexts; one in which the overwhelming majority of the population is Muslim (Egypt) and another in which there is a sizable Christian community (Lebanon). Data were collected via surveys that examined students' scientific and religious understandings of evolution among 162 Egyptian students (all Sunni Muslims; 63% females and 37% males) and 629 Lebanese students (38.5% Sunni, 38% Shiite, and 23.5% Druze; 49% females and 51% males). Additional data were collected via semi-structured interviews with 30 Lebanese students to allow triangulation of data for accuracy and authenticity. Results indicate that many Egyptian and Lebanese Muslim students have misconceptions about evolution and the nature of science which often lead to rejection of evolution. Also, Lebanese Sunni and Shiite students and Egyptian Sunni students tend to exhibit high levels of religiosity, and these students report that their religious beliefs influence their positions regarding evolution. Finally, Sunni and Shiite Lebanese students have religious beliefs, conceptions of evolution, and positions regarding evolution similar to those of Sunni Egyptian students. These conceptions and positions, however, are substantially different from those of Druze Lebanese students.

  15. PRONET: Basic concepts of a system of Artificial Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lasai

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available In the work are expounded the principles and basic elements of a system of artificial intelligence. Knowledge representation develops according to the method settled for processing. A thing, a phenomenon can be determined or established by more modules subject to their state as well as the links and relations between them. The system creates a set of blocks (modules for which the concurrent work is pre- established. The volume of knowledge can be also increased without increasing the number of blocks.

  16. Basic concepts of philosophy of management and corporations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl

    2013-01-01

    This chapter presents some fundamental concepts of the philosophy of management and corporations by addressing the problem of corporate legitimacy and Immanuel Kant’s distinction between theoretical, practical, and aesthetic reason and judgment. This chapter begins with a general definition of...... philosophy of management and corporations and continues by presenting its ontological and epistemological underpinnings. This approach is used to address the relation between economics, business ethics, and philosophy of management. Finally, ethical and aesthetic judgment is presented as the mediator between...... theoretical, aesthetic, and practical reason in philosophy of management....

  17. Sets, sequences and mappings the basic concepts of analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Students progressing to advanced calculus are frequently confounded by the dramatic shift from mechanical to theoretical and from concrete to abstract. This text bridges the gap, offering a systematic development of the real number system and careful treatment of mappings, sequences, limits, continuity, and metric spaces.The first five chapters consist of a systematic development of many of the important properties of the real number system, plus detailed treatment of such concepts as mappings, sequences, limits, and continuity. The sixth and final chapter discusses metric spaces and generaliz

  18. History and evolution of concepts in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Varvoglis, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of nature, and in particular of physics and the laws governing it, has changed radically since the days of the ancient Greek natural philosophers. This book explains how and why these changes occurred, through landmark experiments as well as theories that - for their time - were revolutionary. The presentation covers Mechanics, Optics, Electromagnetism, Thermodynamics, Relativity Theory, Atomic Physics and Quantum Physics. The book places emphasis on ideas and on a qualitative presentation, rather than on mathematics and equations. Thus, although primarily addressed to those who are studying or have studied science, it can also be read by non-specialists. The author concludes with a discussion of the evolution and organization of universities, from ancient times until today, and of the organization and dissemination of knowledge through scientific publications and conferences.

  19. Mobile agents basic concepts, mobility models, and the tracy toolkit

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Mobile agents are software nomads that act as your personal representative, working autonomously through networks. They are able to visit network nodes directly using available computing power and are not limited by platform. This emerging field is now poised to become a cornerstone for new Web-based ubiquitous computing environments. Mobile Agents provides a practical introduction to mobile agent technology and surveys the state of the art in mobile agent research. Students and researchers can use the book as an introduction to the concepts and possibilities of this field and as an overview of ongoing research. Developers can use it to identify the capabilities of the technology to decide if mobile agents are the right solution for them. Practioners can also gain hands-on experience in programming mobile agents through exploration of the source code for a complete mobile agent environment available through the companion website.*Summarizes the state of the art in mobile agent research*Identifies the benefits...

  20. Path to AWAKE: Evolution of the concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, A.; Adli, E.; Amorim, L.; Apsimon, R.; Argyropoulos, T.; Assmann, R.; Bachmann, A.-M.; Batsch, F.; Bauche, J.; Berglyd Olsen, V. K.; Bernardini, M.; Bingham, R.; Biskup, B.; Bohl, T.; Bracco, C.; Burrows, P. N.; Burt, G.; Buttenschön, B.; Butterworth, A.; Cascella, M.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chevallay, E.; Cipiccia, S.; Damerau, H.; Deacon, L.; Dirksen, P.; Doebert, S.; Dorda, U.; Elsen, E.; Farmer, J.; Fartoukh, S.; Fedosseev, V.; Feldbaumer, E.; Fiorito, R.; Fonseca, R.; Friebel, F.; Geschonke, G.; Goddard, B.; Gorn, A. A.; Grulke, O.; Gschwendtner, E.; Hansen, J.; Hessler, C.; Hillenbrand, S.; Hofle, W.; Holloway, J.; Huang, C.; Hüther, M.; Jaroszynski, D.; Jensen, L.; Jolly, S.; Joulaei, A.; Kasim, M.; Keeble, F.; Kersevan, R.; Kumar, N.; Li, Y.; Liu, S.; Lopes, N.; Lotov, K. V.; Lu, W.; Machacek, J.; Mandry, S.; Martin, I.; Martorelli, R.; Martyanov, M.; Mazzoni, S.; Meddahi, M.; Merminga, L.; Mete, O.; Minakov, V. A.; Mitchell, J.; Moody, J.; Müller, A.-S.; Najmudin, Z.; Noakes, T. C. Q.; Norreys, P.; Osterhoff, J.; Öz, E.; Pardons, A.; Pepitone, K.; Petrenko, A.; Plyushchev, G.; Pozimski, J.; Pukhov, A.; Reimann, O.; Rieger, K.; Roesler, S.; Ruhl, H.; Rusnak, T.; Salveter, F.; Savard, N.; Schmidt, J.; von der Schmitt, H.; Seryi, A.; Shaposhnikova, E.; Sheng, Z. M.; Sherwood, P.; Silva, L.; Simon, F.; Soby, L.; Sosedkin, A. P.; Spitsyn, R. I.; Tajima, T.; Tarkeshian, R.; Timko, H.; Trines, R.; Tückmantel, T.; Tuev, P. V.; Turner, M.; Velotti, F.; Verzilov, V.; Vieira, J.; Vincke, H.; Wei, Y.; Welsch, C. P.; Wing, M.; Xia, G.; Yakimenko, V.; Zhang, H.; Zimmermann, F.

    2016-09-01

    This paper describes the conceptual steps in reaching the design of the AWAKE experiment currently under construction at CERN. We start with an introduction to plasma wakefield acceleration and the motivation for using proton drivers. We then describe the self-modulation instability - a key to an early realization of the concept. This is then followed by the historical development of the experimental design, where the critical issues that arose and their solutions are described. We conclude with the design of the experiment as it is being realized at CERN and some words on the future outlook. A summary of the AWAKE design and construction status as presented in this conference is given in Gschwendtner et al. [1].

  1. Path to AWAKE: Evolution of the concept

    CERN Document Server

    Caldwell, A; Amorim, L.; Apsimon, R.; Argyropoulos, T.; Assmann, R.; Bachmann, A.-M.; Batsch, F.; Bauche, J.; Berglyd Olsen, V.K.; Bernardini, M.; Bingham, R.; Biskup, B.; Bohl, T.; Bracco, C.; Burrows, P.N.; Burt, G.; Buttenschön, B.; Butterworth, A.; Cascella, M.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chevallay, E.; Cipiccia, S.; Damerau, H.; Deacon, L.; Dirksen, P.; Doebert, S.; Dorda, U.; Elsen, E.; Farmer, J.; Fartoukh, S.; Fedosseev, V.; Feldbaumer, E.; Fiorito, R.; Fonseca, R.; Friebel, F.; Geschonke, G.; Goddard, B.; Gorn, A.A.; Grulke, O.; Gschwendtner, E.; Hansen, J.; Hessler, C.; Hillenbrand, S.; Hofle, W.; Holloway, J.; Huang, C.; Hüther, M.; Jaroszynski, D.; Jensen, L.; Jolly, S.; Joulaei, A.; Kasim, M.; Keeble, F.; Kersevan, R.; Kumar, N.; Li, Y.; Liu, S.; Lopes, N.; Lotov, K.V.; Lu, W.; Machacek, J.; Mandry, S.; Martin, I.; Martorelli, R.; Martyanov, M.; Mazzoni, S.; Meddahi, M.; Merminga, L.; Mete, O.; Minakov, V.A.; Mitchell, J.; Moody, J.; Müller, A.-S.; Najmudin, Z.; Noakes, T.C.Q.; Norreys, P.; Osterhoff, J.; Öz, E.; Pardons, A.; Pepitone, K.; Petrenko, A.; Plyushchev, G.; Pozimski, J.; Pukhov, A.; Reimann, O.; Rieger, K.; Roesler, S.; Ruhl, H.; Rusnak, T.; Salveter, F.; Savard, N.; Schmidt, J.; von der Schmitt, H.; Seryi, A.; Shaposhnikova, E.; Sheng, Z.M.; Sherwood, P.; Silva, L.; Simon, F.; Soby, L.; Sosedkin, A.P.; Spitsyn, R.I.; Tajima, T.; Tarkeshian, R.; Timko, H.; Trines, R.; Tückmantel, T.; Tuev, P.V.; Turner, M.; Velotti, F.; Verzilov, V.; Vieira, J.; Vincke, H.; Wei, Y.; Welsch, C.P.; Wing, M.; Xia, G.; Yakimenko, V.; Zhang, H.; Zimmermann, F.

    2016-01-01

    This report describes the conceptual steps in reaching the design of the AWAKE experiment currently under construction at CERN. We start with an introduction to plasma wakefield acceleration and the motivation for using proton drivers. We then describe the self-modulation instability --- a key to an early realization of the concept. This is then followed by the historical development of the experimental design, where the critical issues that arose and their solutions are described. We conclude with the design of the experiment as it is being realized at CERN and some words on the future outlook. A summary of the AWAKE design and construction status as presented in this conference is given in [1].

  2. Relationship of the Gesell Developmental Exam and the Bracken Basic Concept Scale to Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterner, Anne G.; McCallum, R. Steve

    1988-01-01

    Administered the Gesell Development Exam and the Bracken Basic Concept Scale (BBCS) to kindergarten graduates (N=80). Found the BBCS may be a better predictor of achievement from a current state of readiness. (Author/ABL)

  3. Coprecipitation of radionuclides: basic concepts, literature review and first applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curti, E. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-11-01

    Coprecipitation of radionuclides with solid products is currently not analysed quantitatively in safety assessments for nuclear waste repositories, although this process is thought to be an important mechanism for limiting nuclide concentrations in solution. This is due to the fact that neither the solid phases controlling coprecipitation nor the parameter values necessary to describe this process are known sufficiently. This introductory report provides basic knowledge on this subject and a review of experimental data from the literature. Emphasis is placed on experiments of trace metal coprecipitation with calcite, because this mineral is a dominating alteration product of cement in the Swiss L/ILW repository. This resulted in a database of partition coefficients, which allow to describe empirically the distribution of trace elements between calcite and solution and thus to quantify coprecipitation processes. Since laboratory data on coprecipitation with calcite are lacking for many safety-relevant radioelements, their partition coefficients were inferred with the help of estimation techniques. Such techniques rely on empirical correlations, which relate the uptake of trace metals in calcite (measured in laboratory tests) with selected chemical properties of the coprecipitated metals (e.g. ionic radius, sorption properties, solubility products of the pure trace metal carbonates). The combination of these correlations with independent geochemical evidence allows the extrapolation of radioelement-specific partition coefficients, which are then used for the quantitative modelling. In a first step the potential role of radionuclide coprecipitation during cement degradation in the L/ILW repository planned at Wellenberg is assessed. (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  4. The evolution of concepts of color vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Barry B

    2008-07-01

    The evolution of ideas about the way we see color was closely linked to physical theories of light. Proponents of both corpuscular and wave theories viewed light as a continuous spectrum. This was not easily reconciled with the fact that, for the human eye, all colors can be matched by mixture of three primaries. Physicists such as Mayer who described trichromatic color matching often assumed that there were just three types of rays in the spectrum. This argument was finally resolved by Thomas Young, who noted that trichromatic color matching was consistent with a continuous spectrum if there were just three receptors in the eye. This kind of conceptual mistake, in this case the confusion of the properties of the visual system with physical properties of light, has been common in the history of color science. As another example, the idea of trichromacy was disputed by those who viewed color sensations as opponent processes, red-green, blue-yellow and black-white. The discovery of color-opponent neurons in the visual pathway has partly resolved this dilemma. Much of the physiological substrate of the way we detect and distinguish colors is now established, but the link between the signals leaving the retina and the way we name and order colors is still poorly defined.

  5. [Basic concept for the inspection of imported foods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Hisashi

    2011-01-01

    According to Article 4 of the Food Safety Basic Law (Law No. 48 of 2003), food safety must be ensured by taking necessary measures appropriately at each step of the food supply process both in Japan and overseas. From this viewpoint, for ensuring safety of imported foods further, the quarantine stations have obligations such as confirmation of the import-notification documents submitted under Article 27 of the Law, issue of inspection orders in accordance with Article 26 of the Law for imported foods suspected with high probability of violating the Act (in order to prevent harm to public health from the perspective of food sanitation), and implement of monitoring inspection under Article 28 of the Law to enforce checking of the food-sanitation conditions of various imported foods. If a quarantine station or local organization (including prefectures, cities and specially designated wards that operate public health centers) identify any violation of the Law, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (hereinafter referred to as "the MHLW"), the quarantine station and the related prefecture shall cooperate to take appropriate measures to help the corresponded importer recall the food as soon as possible. In addition, taking measures to prevent recurrence of such violations by demonstration of examples of violations and guidance to importers. Under the recent situation of accidents such as addition of toxic substances to the food, it is important to make continuous efforts for achieving food safety in exporting countries. With recognition that assurance of the safety of the consumer from foodborn illness, it is necessary for the MHLW, the Agency of Consumer Affaires, local governments and related offices to make active efforts together through risk evaluation, risk management and the risk communication for 1 while measuring the communication. PMID:21720129

  6. [Basic concept for the inspection of imported foods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Hisashi

    2011-01-01

    According to Article 4 of the Food Safety Basic Law (Law No. 48 of 2003), food safety must be ensured by taking necessary measures appropriately at each step of the food supply process both in Japan and overseas. From this viewpoint, for ensuring safety of imported foods further, the quarantine stations have obligations such as confirmation of the import-notification documents submitted under Article 27 of the Law, issue of inspection orders in accordance with Article 26 of the Law for imported foods suspected with high probability of violating the Act (in order to prevent harm to public health from the perspective of food sanitation), and implement of monitoring inspection under Article 28 of the Law to enforce checking of the food-sanitation conditions of various imported foods. If a quarantine station or local organization (including prefectures, cities and specially designated wards that operate public health centers) identify any violation of the Law, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (hereinafter referred to as "the MHLW"), the quarantine station and the related prefecture shall cooperate to take appropriate measures to help the corresponded importer recall the food as soon as possible. In addition, taking measures to prevent recurrence of such violations by demonstration of examples of violations and guidance to importers. Under the recent situation of accidents such as addition of toxic substances to the food, it is important to make continuous efforts for achieving food safety in exporting countries. With recognition that assurance of the safety of the consumer from foodborn illness, it is necessary for the MHLW, the Agency of Consumer Affaires, local governments and related offices to make active efforts together through risk evaluation, risk management and the risk communication for 1 while measuring the communication.

  7. Large light X-ray optics: basic ideas and concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citterio, O.; Ghigo, M.; Mazzoleni, F.; Pareschi, G.; Aschenbach, B.; Braeuninger, H.; Friedrich, P.; Hasinger, G.; Parodi, G.

    2004-01-01

    One of the main guidelines for future X-ray astronomy projects like, e.g., XEUS (ESA) and Generation-X (NASA) is to utilize grazing-incidence focusing optics with extremely large telescopes (several tens of m 2 at 1 keV), with a dramatic increase in collecting area of about two order of magnitude compared to the current X-ray telescopes. In order to avoid the problem of the source's confusion limit at low fluxes, the angular resolution required for these optics should be superb (a few arcsec at most). The enormous mirror dimensions together with the high imaging performances give rise to a number of manufacturing problems. It is basically impossible to realize so large mirrors from closed Wolter I shells which benefit from high mechanical stiffness. Instead the mirrors need to be formed as rectangular segments and a series of them will be assembled in a petal. Taking into account the realistic load capabilities of space launchers, to be able to put in orbit so large mirror modules the mass/geometric-area ratio of the optics should be very small. Finally, with a so large optics mass it would be very difficult to provide the electric power for an optics thermal active control, able to maintain the mirrors at the usual temperature of 20 °C. Therefore, very likely, the optics will instead operate in extreme thermal conditions, with the mirror temperature oscillating between -30 and -40 °C, that tends to exclude the epoxy replication approach (the mismatch between the CTE of the substrate and that of the resin would cause prohibitively large deformations of the mirror surface profiles). From these considerations light weight materials with high thermal-mechanical properties such as glass or ceramics become attractive to realize the mirrors of future Xray telescopes. In this paper, we will discuss a segments manufacturing method based on Borofloat TM glass. A series of finite element analysis concerning different aspects of the production, testing and integration of

  8. A "Bulletin" Special--Part I: Basic Concepts of leadership--Leadership Concepts for the Principal: A Practical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehouse, Oliver L.

    1988-01-01

    Explores basic leadership concepts, demolishes three leadership myths, and advises principals concerning ways to vary their management styles using either directive or interactive behavior. Choice of style depends on the situation and a particular subordinate's degree of readiness or compliance. (MLH)

  9. The Concept of Basic Income: Global Experience and Implementation Possibilities in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algimantas Laurinavičius

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article gives an overview of universal basic income as one of the instruments of the asset-based policy, analyses its theoretical concept and practical examples. Latest trends in Europe, especially in Finland and Switzerland, are overviewed and possibilities to implement such an instrument in Lithuania are evaluated. Research methods of scientific literature analysis, comparative and logical analysis of statistical data, data grouping and presentation were used. Article finds out that the concept of basic income is being implemented on a small scale in the US state of Alaska and in a small autonomous territory of China – Macao. Finland and Switzerland are determined to fully implement the concept of basic income by providing monthly benefits to all their citizens. Although Lithuania is categorized as a country with high income inequality and high level of poverty risk, currently it is not possible to implement the concept of basic income in Lithuania: the state social insurance fund budget would not be able to fund sufficient benefits, and the benefits that could be provided by the budget would not comply with the objectives of the concept of basic income.

  10. Molecular evolution: concepts and the origin of disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Díaz, Edna

    2009-03-01

    This paper focuses on the consolidation of Molecular Evolution, a field originating in the 1960s at the interface of molecular biology, biochemistry, evolutionary biology, biophysics and studies on the origin of life and exobiology. The claim is made that Molecular Evolution became a discipline by integrating different sorts of scientific traditions: experimental, theoretical and comparative. The author critically incorporates Timothy Lenoir's treatment of disciplines (1997), as well as ideas developed by Stephen Toulmin (1962) on the same subject. On their account disciplines are spaces where the social and epistemic dimensions of science are deeply and complexly interwoven. However, a more detailed account of discipline formation and the dynamics of an emerging disciplinary field is lacking in their analysis. The present essay suggests focusing on the role of scientific concepts in the double configuration of disciplines: the social/political and the epistemic order. In the case of Molecular Evolution the concepts of molecular clock and informational molecules played a central role, both in differentiating molecular from classical evolutionists, and in promoting communication between the different sorts of traditions integrated in Molecular Evolution. The paper finishes with a reflection on the historicity of disciplines, and the historicity of our concepts of disciplines. PMID:19268873

  11. EVOLUTION OF THE CONCEPT OF GUILT IN HISTORICAL CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Екатерина Валерьевна Юрчак

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available As in philosophy and in legal science is no single concept of guilt. This is partly explained by the fact that the philosophy of the concept of guilt tried to give the followers of different schools of thought and jurisprudence in the concept of guilt is different in each area of law. That is why it is important to identify common features of the legal and philosophical category of "guilt".The purpose of this study to trace the evolution of the concept of guilt in the philosophy and theory of law.Scientific and practical significance of the work lies in the fact that comprehensive studies of this nature brings us closer to the development of a unified concept of guilt.The author uses an analytical, philosophical and comparative - historical methods.The article analyzes the evolution of the concept of guilt in a historical context. The author analyzes the legal significance of the concept of guilt in theology and philosophy, focusing on Russian philosophy and Marxism, and comes to the conclusion that the issue of guilt is recognized by all philosophies, the most consistent explanation of the fault is given in the idealist doctrine. In the understanding of guilt there is dualism, which leads to the need for the external and internal sides of human actions.The results of this study provide scientific and practical value, since they can be used in teaching students of legal and philosophical disciplines, as well as - a legislator, in the formulation of the concept of a single fault in the law.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-10-19

  12. The articulation of integration of clinical and basic sciences in concept maps: differences between experienced and resident groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vink, Sylvia; van Tartwijk, Jan; Verloop, Nico; Gosselink, Manon; Driessen, Erik; Bolk, Jan

    2016-08-01

    To determine the content of integrated curricula, clinical concepts and the underlying basic science concepts need to be made explicit. Preconstructed concept maps are recommended for this purpose. They are mainly constructed by experts. However, concept maps constructed by residents are hypothesized to be less complex, to reveal more tacit basic science concepts and these basic science concepts are expected to be used for the organization of the maps. These hypotheses are derived from studies about knowledge development of individuals. However, integrated curricula require a high degree of cooperation between clinicians and basic scientists. This study examined whether there are consistent variations regarding the articulation of integration when groups of experienced clinicians and basic scientists and groups of residents and basic scientists-in-training construct concept maps. Seven groups of three clinicians and basic scientists on experienced level and seven such groups on resident level constructed concept maps illuminating clinical problems. They were guided by instructions that focused them on articulation of integration. The concept maps were analysed by features that described integration. Descriptive statistics showed consistent variations between the two expertise levels. The concept maps of the resident groups exceeded those of the experienced groups in articulated integration. First, they used significantly more links between clinical and basic science concepts. Second, these links connected basic science concepts with a greater variety of clinical concepts than the experienced groups. Third, although residents did not use significantly more basic science concepts, they used them significantly more frequent to organize the clinical concepts. The conclusion was drawn that not all hypotheses could be confirmed and that the resident concept maps were more elaborate than expected. This article discusses the implications for the role that residents and

  13. The basic concept for the democracy ranking of the quality of democracy

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, David F. J.

    2008-01-01

    "The following paper presents the basic concept for the Democracy Ranking of the Quality of Democracy and positions this approach in context of academic discourses about democracy and the quality of democracy. Key dimensions of democracy are freedom, equality and control. Quality-of-democracy models commonly emphasize a democracy understanding that is broader than earlier concepts of primarily electoral democracies. Different global democracy and democratization measurement initiatives (Freed...

  14. The Nature and Variability of Children's Alternative Conceptions of Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Uyen Adelyn

    In recent years a large amount of research has focused on the alternative conceptions about evolution found among secondary and university students, but few studies have investigated younger students' ideas on this subject. The present study examines the alternative conceptions of evolution harbored by second and third-grade students who participated in a summer instructional course that scaffolded the mechanisms of natural selection through cases of microevolution. In order to identify the categories of alternative conceptions that students expressed, 60 sets of pre- and posttest structured interviews were analyzed, and these showed that participants in this study expressed alternative conceptions closely related to those identified in studies conducted using high school and college-age participants. The results demonstrated a variability of alternative conceptions across a range of interview items, and also revealed how contextual features in the assessment tasks may account for the patterns that emerged in students' responses. Students' evocations of alternative conceptions declined after their participation in the instructional course. The analyses of the four case study students, whose pre-and posttest patterns were representative of their cohorts, provided a detailed within-subject look at how these alternative conceptions occurred in the context of the interview items and how they changed from pre- to posttest. These findings have broad relevance to understanding conceptual development in young children and important implications both for considering at how early an age instruction about evolutionary biology should begin and for evaluating the potential long-term impact of a curriculum that targets sources of student difficulty at earlier grade levels.

  15. The evolution of the female sexual response concept: Treatment implications

    OpenAIRE

    Damjanović Aleksandar; Duišin Dragana; Barišić Jasmina

    2013-01-01

    Sexual dysfunctions have been the most prevalent group of sexual disorders and include a large number of populations of both sexes. The research of sexual behavior and treatment of women with sexual distress arises many questions related to differences in sexual response of men and women. The conceptualization of this response in modern sexology has changed over time. The objective of our paper was to present the changes and evolution of the female’s sexual response concept in a summari...

  16. Examination of the Film "My Father and My Son" According to the Basic Concepts of Multigenerational Family Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Tulin; Voltan-Acar, Nilufer

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the basic concepts of multigenerational Family Therapy and to evaluate the scenes of the film ''My Father and My Son'' according to these concepts. For these purposes firstly basic concepts of Multigenerational Family Therapy such as differentiation of self, triangles/triangulation, nuclear…

  17. Using a Self-Administered Visual Basic Software Tool To Teach Psychological Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Harold R.; Sullivan, Amie K.; Schoeny, Zahrl G.

    2002-01-01

    Introduces LearningLinks, a Visual Basic software tool that allows teachers to create individualized learning modules that use constructivist and behavioral learning principles. Describes field testing of undergraduates at the University of Virginia that tested a module designed to improve understanding of the psychological concepts of…

  18. Teaching Young Children Basic Concepts of Geography: A Literature-Based Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannibal, Mary Anne Zeitler; Vasiliev, Ren; Lin, Qiuyun

    2002-01-01

    This article advocates a literature-based instructional approach as a way of promoting geographic awareness in early childhood classrooms. Instruction focuses on basic geography concepts of location, place, human- environment interaction, movement, and region. Examples of children's picture books are included to show what early childhood teachers…

  19. Geographies of American Popular Music: Introducing Students to Basic Geographic Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Stephen S.

    2010-01-01

    Popular music can be used to study many subjects and issues related to the social sciences. "Geographies of American Popular Music" was a workshop that not only examined the history and development of select genres of American music, it also introduced students to basic geographic concepts such as the culture hearth and spatial diffusion. Through…

  20. Teaching Two Basic Nanotechnology Concepts in Secondary School by Using a Variety of Teaching Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonder, Ron; Sakhnini, Sohair

    2012-01-01

    A nanotechnology module was developed for ninth grade students in the context of teaching chemistry. Two basic concepts in nanotechnology were chosen: (1) size and scale and (2) surface-area-to-volume ratio (SA/V). A wide spectrum of instructional methods (e.g., game-based learning, learning with multimedia, learning with models, project based…

  1. The Etymology of Basic Concepts in the Experimental Analysis of Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinsmoor, James A.

    2004-01-01

    The origins of many of the basic concepts used in the experimental analysis of behavior can be traced to Pavlov's (1927/1960) discussion of unconditional and conditional reflexes in the dog, but often with substantial changes in meaning (e.g., stimulus, response, and reinforcement). Other terms were added by Skinner (1938/1991) to describe his…

  2. Concurrent Validity of the Bracken Basic Concept Scale with Language and Intelligence Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhyner, Paula M. Pecyna; Bracken, Bruce A.

    1988-01-01

    Comparison of results obtained for 62 normally developing preschool children on the Bracken Basic Concept Scale, the Preschool Language Scale, and the Slosson Intelligence Test revealed low to moderate correlations between the three tests. Results suggest the tests do not measure the same abilities and thus cannot be used interchangeably. (DB)

  3. Multinational Validation of the Spanish Bracken Basic Concept Scale for Cross-Cultural Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, Bruce A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Investigated construct validity of the Spanish translation of the Bracken Basic Concept Scale (BBCS) in Latino children (n=293) including monolingual Spanish-speaking children from Puerto Rico and Venezuela and Spanish-dominant bilingual Latino children from Texas. Results provided support for construct validity of the Spanish version of the…

  4. Performance of Black and White Children on the Bracken Basic Concept Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, Bruce A.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Administered Bracken Basic Concept Scale (BBCS) to 114 matched pairs of Black and White children. Scores of White children were nearly identical with national average while Black children scored approximately one-half standard deviation below their White counterparts. Blacks and Whites showed similar performance patterns on BBCS subtests,…

  5. Evolution and Trends Regarding the Concepts of Innovation and Invention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Liviu DESPA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on analyzing the difference between the concepts of innovation and invention in terms of trends and evolution. The research is centered on innovation with invention being a benchmark for validating results. An economic perspective regarding the differences between invention and innovation is presented. The differences between the two concepts are also analyzed from a legal point of view. The number of references to the concept of innovation, made into a large corpus of books, is analyzed from an evolutionary perspective. The concept of invention is also analyzed in terms of number of occurrences in books. A pattern is drafted for both innovation and invention. The paper tackles the interest shown by the online community in innovation compared to the interested showed in invention. Relevant data sets depict the world's most interested online communities in innovation and invention. Online communities are analyzed by country and by city. Online communities' interest in innovation and invention is measured using statistics regarding Google searches. Events that triggered picks in interest shown towards one concept or the other are identified and portrayed. Data from relevant reports that are publicly available is presented.

  6. Basic Grounds of Formation of the Concept of Social Security of Economically Active Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliak Natalia O.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is justification of a necessity of development of the national concept of social security in Ukraine and revelation of basic grounds of formation of such a concept for economically active population on the basis of specification of its goals, tasks and identification of main directions and measures of realisation. The author offers the following main directions of realisation of the concept of social security of economically active population: expansion of the sphere of coverage of social security of economically active population, creation of a efficient system of state social standards and guarantees, introduction of financial and economic justification of social laws into practice, realisation of social responsibility and use of modern social technologies. Development of the concept of social security of economically active population in Ukraine would facilitate, in general, improvement of the existing system of social security, improvement of the living standards and socio-economic development of the state.

  7. The Articulation of Integration of Clinical and Basic Sciences in Concept Maps: Differences between Experienced and Resident Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vink, Sylvia; van Tartwijk, Jan; Verloop, Nico; Gosselink, Manon; Driessen, Erik; Bolk, Jan

    2016-01-01

    To determine the content of integrated curricula, clinical concepts and the underlying basic science concepts need to be made explicit. Preconstructed concept maps are recommended for this purpose. They are mainly constructed by experts. However, concept maps constructed by residents are hypothesized to be less complex, to reveal more tacit basic…

  8. The Basic Concepts Classification as a Bottom-Up Strategy for the Semantic Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick Szostak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes that the Basic Concepts Classification (BCC could serve as the controlled vocabulary for the Semantic Web. The BCC uses a synthetic approach among classes of things, relators, and properties. These are precisely the sort of concepts required by RDF triples. The BCC also addresses some of the syntactic needs of the Semantic Web. Others could be added to the BCC in a bottom‐up process that carefully evaluates the costs, benefits, and best format for each rule considered.

  9. The Concept of Basic Income: Global Experience and Implementation Possibilities in Lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Algimantas Laurinavičius; Antanas Laurinavičius

    2016-01-01

    The article gives an overview of universal basic income as one of the instruments of the asset-based policy, analyses its theoretical concept and practical examples. Latest trends in Europe, especially in Finland and Switzerland, are overviewed and possibilities to implement such an instrument in Lithuania are evaluated. Research methods of scientific literature analysis, comparative and logical analysis of statistical data, data grouping and presentation were used. Article finds out that the...

  10. BASIC PRINCIPLES AND CONCEPTS UNDERLYING RECENT ADVANCES IN MRI OF THE DEVELOPING BRAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Panigrahy, Ashok; Borzage, Matthew; Blüml, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Over the last decade, magnetic resonance imaging has become an essential tool in the evaluation of both in vivo human brain development and perinatal brain injury. Recent technology including MR compatible neonatal incubators, neonatal head coils, advanced MR pulse sequences and 3T field strength magnets allow high quality MR imaging studies to be performed on sick neonates. This article will review basic principles and concepts underlying recent advances in MR spectroscopy, diffusion, perfus...

  11. Evolution of Stellar Objects According to J. Wheeler's Geometrodynamic Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belyakov A. V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The proposed model is based on J. Wheeler’s geometrodynamic concept, in which space continuum is considered as a topologically non-unitary coherent surface admitting the existence of transitions of the input-output kind between distant regions of the space in an additional dimension. The existence of closed structures (macrocontours formed at the expense of interbalance of gravitational, electric, magnetic and inertial forces has been substantiated. It is such macrocontours that have been demonstrated to form — in- dependently of their material basis — the essential structure of stellar objects (SO and to determine the position of these objects on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. Mod- els of the characteristic types of stellar objects: stars and compact bodies emerging in the end of stellar evolution — have been presented, and their standard parameters at different stages of evolution have been calculated. The existence of the Hertzsprung- Russell diagram has been substantiated, and its computational analogue has been given. Parallels between stellar and microcosmic objects are drawn.

  12. Evolution of Wenger's concept of community of practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coyte Peter C

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the experience of health professionals, it appears that interacting with peers in the workplace fosters learning and information sharing. Informal groups and networks present good opportunities for information exchange. Communities of practice (CoPs, which have been described by Wenger and others as a type of informal learning organization, have received increasing attention in the health care sector; however, the lack of uniform operating definitions of CoPs has resulted in considerable variation in the structure and function of these groups, making it difficult to evaluate their effectiveness. Objective To critique the evolution of the CoP concept as based on the germinal work by Wenger and colleagues published between 1991 and 2002. Discussion CoP was originally developed to provide a template for examining the learning that happens among practitioners in a social environment, but over the years there have been important divergences in the focus of the concept. Lave and Wenger's earliest publication (1991 centred on the interactions between novices and experts, and the process by which newcomers create a professional identity. In the 1998 book, the focus had shifted to personal growth and the trajectory of individuals' participation within a group (i.e., peripheral versus core participation. The focus then changed again in 2002 when CoP was applied as a managerial tool for improving an organization's competitiveness. Summary The different interpretations of CoP make it challenging to apply the concept or to take full advantage of the benefits that CoP groups may offer. The tension between satisfying individuals' needs for personal growth and empowerment versus an organization's bottom line is perhaps the most contentious of the issues that make CoPs difficult to cultivate. Since CoP is still an evolving concept, we recommend focusing on optimizing specific characteristics of the concept, such as support for members

  13. How is a trumpet known? The "basic object level" concept and perception of musical instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, C F; Jones, R K; Hennessy, B L; Unze, M G; Pick, A D

    1989-01-01

    What are the object properties that serve as a basis for the musical instrument classification system, and how do general and specific experience affect knowledge of these properties? In the first study, the multimodal quality of properties underlying children's and adults' perception was investigated. Subjects listened to solos and identified instruments producing the sounds. Even children who did not have experience with all the instruments correctly identified the family of instruments they were listening to. The hypothesis of the second study, that musical instrument families function as a "basic level" in the instrument taxonomy, was confirmed. Variation in the basic level with varying expertise was documented in the third study with musicians. In the fourth study, children and adults identified the source of sounds from unfamiliar objects, Chinese musical instruments. It is suggested that the concept of affordances may be relevant for understanding the importance for behavior of different levels of abstraction of category systems.

  14. [August Weismann's concept of germ plasma as the basic reason for the inadequacy of neo-Darwinism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grodnitskiĭ, D L

    2000-01-01

    Neo-Darwinism is a result of synthesis of Darwinian concept of natural selection with Weismannian concept of germ plasma. The concept of germ plasma is based on a hypothesis that phenotypic traits are completely determined by genes. Hence, neo-Darwinism describes evolution as a process of alternation of gene frequencies under the effect of natural selection. This is an inadequate approach to the study of evolution. In the course of evolution, genes change their functions, whereas phenotypic characters change their corresponding genes. As a result, every step of evolutionary transformation changes the structure of phenotype-to-genotype correspondence. Therefore, phenotypic evolution cannot be described in genetic terms, the same as to human languages cannot be translated one into another whenever the meaning of words is constantly changing. Consequently, Weismannian germ-plasma concept adequately describes the relation of characters to genes only during stasis, but is inapplicable to evolution.

  15. Image-guided radiation therapy:basic concepts and clinical potentials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Omar Abdel-Rahman

    2014-01-01

    The adaptation and integration of imaging into the process of cancer detection, diagnosis, and intervention is an area of medicine that is undergoing extremely rapid development. Radiation therapy is a prime example of this change. While the objectives of these developments are clear, they raise numerous issues regarding the skil s and resources that assure these technologies are appropriately integrated and applied. We wil explore the basic concepts related to image guidance in various radiotherapy-related procedures with special emphasis on the clinical potentials of this impressive technology.

  16. CONCEPTS OF DICHOTOMY FOR SKEW-EVOLUTION SEMIFLOWS IN BANACH SPACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihail Megan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate some dichotomy concepts for skew-evolution semiflows in Banachspaces.Our main objective is to estab-lish relations between these concepts.We motivate our approach byillustrative examples.

  17. Basic Concepts in the Taxonomy of Health-Related Behaviors, Habits and Lifestyle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    eVITAL group

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health-related Habits (HrH are a major priority in healthcare. However there is little agreement on whether exercise, diet, smoking or dental hygiene are better described as lifestyles, habits or behaviors, and on what is their hierarchical relationship. This research is aimed at representing the basic concepts which are assumed to constitute the conceptual framework enabling us to interpret and organize the field of HrH. Methods: A group of 29 experts with different backgrounds agreed on the definition and hierarchy of HrH following an iterative process which involved framing analysis and nominal group techniques. Results: Formal definitions of health-related behavior, habit, life-style and life-style profile were produced. In addition a series of basic descriptors were identified: health reserve, capital, risk and load. Six main categories of HrH were chosen based on relevance to longevity: diet/exercise, vitality/stress, sleep, cognition, substance use and other risk. Attributes of HrH are clinical meaningfulness, quantifiability, temporal stability, associated morbidity, and unitarity (non-redundancy. Two qualifiers (polarity and stages of change have also been described. Conclusions: The concepts represented here lay the groundwork for the development of clinical and policy tools related to HrH and lifestyle. An adaptation of this system to define targets of health interventions and to develop the classification of person factors in ICF may be needed in the future.

  18. Reflections on the concept of basic needs and primary health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quenum, C A

    1981-01-01

    The notion or concept of need has different meanings according to the individual groups or ages to which it is applied. A need is something which man subjectively feels an urge to satisfy. Basic or primary needs are the minimum vital requirements which must be met to ensure dignified human existence. Basic needs relate both to individuals and communities. Although the needs of individuals and communities are contingent, they are not necessarily in harmony. One of the principal goals of socioeconomic development in general and health care development in particular is the satisfaction of the basic needs of the greatest number of people. Growth-oriented strategies have so far failed to reduce inequalities and physical, mental, and social destitution. Development strategies focusing on basic needs must: 1) eliminate social inequalities; 2) include coherent programs of activities relating to basic needs; and 3) undergo radical structural changes (a social revolution in community health). Promotion of health care for the most underprivileged segments of society necessitate: 1) production of goods necessary for the satisfaction of basic needs such as building materials or essential medicines; 2) construction of country roads; and 3) development of programs of rural health, water supply, literacy, and housing. Primary health care is essential care which is fundamental to basic needs. Policies, strategies, and plans of action should be formulated in order to develop primary health care. An excellent means of implementing primary health care is the choice of appropriate technology for health care. Choosing the appropriate technology for development entails finding the right balance between labor-intensive and capital-intensive technology; it should be the result of combining knowledge and practices which help improve the physical, mental, and social well-being of individuals, families, and communities. In most rural populations of the world, infections and epidemic and

  19. Moment-independent importance measure of basic random variable and its probability density evolution solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    To analyze the effect of basic variable on failure probability in reliability analysis,a moment-independent importance measure of the basic random variable is proposed,and its properties are analyzed and verified.Based on this work,the importance measure of the basic variable on the failure probability is compared with that on the distribution density of the response.By use of the probability density evolution method,a solution is established to solve two importance measures,which can efficiently avoid the difficulty in solving the importance measures.Some numerical examples and engineering examples are used to demonstrate the proposed importance measure on the failure probability and that on the distribution density of the response.The results show that the proposed importance measure can effectively describe the effect of the basic variable on the failure probability from the distribution density of the basic variable.Additionally,the results show that the established solution on the probability density evolution is efficient for the importance measures.

  20. Amphiphiles Self-Assembly: Basic Concepts and Future Perspectives of Supramolecular Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Lombardo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Amphiphiles are synthetic or natural molecules with the ability to self-assemble into a wide variety of structures including micelles, vesicles, nanotubes, nanofibers, and lamellae. Self-assembly processes of amphiphiles have been widely used to mimic biological systems, such as assembly of lipids and proteins, while their integrated actions allow the performance of highly specific cellular functions which has paved a way for bottom-up bionanotechnology. While amphiphiles self-assembly has attracted considerable attention for decades due to their extensive applications in material science, drug and gene delivery, recent developments in nanoscience stimulated the combination of the simple approaches of amphiphile assembly with the advanced concept of supramolecular self-assembly for the development of more complex, hierarchical nanostructures. Introduction of stimulus responsive supramolecular amphiphile assembly-disassembly processes provides particularly novel approaches for impacting bionanotechnology applications. Leading examples of these novel self-assembly processes can be found, in fact, in biosystems where assemblies of different amphiphilic macrocomponents and their integrated actions allow the performance of highly specific biological functions. In this perspective, we summarize in this tutorial review the basic concept and recent research on self-assembly of traditional amphiphilic molecules (such as surfactants, amphiphile-like polymers, or lipids and more recent concepts of supramolecular amphiphiles assembly which have become increasingly important in emerging nanotechnology.

  1. History of evolution of the concept of medical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Sisir K

    2003-01-01

    "Time present and time past are both perhaps present in time future and time future contained in time past".--Thomas Steams Eliot (1888-1965), Noble Literature Laureate, 1948. History and evolution of the concept of Medical Ethics is the classical example of this poetic expression. Virtually, every human society has some forces of myth to explain the origin of morality. Indian ethics was philosophical from its very birth. In the Vedas (1500 B.C.), ethics was an integral aspect of philosophical and religious speculation about the nature of reality. The Vedas says how people ought to live and is the oldest philosophical literature in the world. It was the first account of philosophical ethics in human history. The old Testament of (c. 200 B.C.) the Hebrew Bible (Greek--ta biblia--"the books") gives account of God giving the Ten Commandments--the oral and written Law engraved on tablets of Stone to Moses around 13th century B.C. on Mount Sinai (Arabic--Gebel Musa) the Mountain near the tip of the Sinai Peninsula in West Asia.

  2. Chemie im Kontext: Situating Learning in Relevant Contexts while Systematically Developing Basic Chemical Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nentwig, Peter M.; Demuth, Reinhard; Parchmann, Ilka; Gräsel, Cornelia; Ralle, Bernd

    2007-09-01

    Inspired by the Salters Approach (UK) and ChemCom (USA), units for a new curriculum for chemistry teaching are being developed in Germany based on theories of scientific literacy, motivation, and situated learning. The curriculum follows a context-based approach. Rather than using the structure of the discipline, it generates basic chemical concepts from issues relevant to the learners, starting with the learners' ideas and questions. The teaching methodology of the course builds strongly on self-directed and cooperative forms of learning activities in the classroom. Currently, a large implementation program is under way with working groups of teachers in 14 of the 16 federal states (Bundesländer) in Germany. This program combines the development of teaching units, their implementation in schools, and the professional development of teachers. Now in its third year, the project has yielded positive results and funds for continuation have been granted.

  3. A new look at some basic concepts in arbitrage pricing theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA; Jianming(夏建明); YAN; Jia'an(严加安)

    2003-01-01

    The notion of No Free Lunch with Vanishing Risk (or NFLVR in short) w.r.t. admissible strategies depends on the choice of numeraire. Yan introduced the notion of allowable strategy and showed that condition of NFLVR w.r.t. allowable strategies is independent of the choice of numeraire and is equivalent to the existence of an equivalent martingale measure for the deflated price process. In this paper we establish a version of the Kramkov's optional decomposition theorem in the setting of equivalent martingale measures. Based on this theorem, we have a new look at some basic concepts in arbitrage pricing theory: superhedging, fair price,attainable contingent claims, complete markets and etc.

  4. LINEAR ACTIVE STRUCTURES AND MODES (Ⅰ)--BASIC CONCEPTS AND PROPERTIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张景绘; 龚靖; 王永刚

    2004-01-01

    Some basic concepts about the active structures were firstly explained, and the main subjects to study in the field of active structure dynamics were synthesized. For the linear active structures, the annotations on the modes were done in detail. The physical meanings of the right and left eigenvectors were explained. The right eigenvectors are the modal shapes and the modal responses of an active structure depend on the left ones. The adjoint structure of an active structure was defined and the reciprocity theorem was interpreted. For two active structures, which are adjoint to each other and with the reciprocal gain-matrices, the right and left eigenvector are reciprocal. The relationship between an active structure and the corresponding passive structure is expressed with the transfer functions, which is employed to resolve the estimation problems.

  5. Nonparametric statistical tests for the continuous data: the basic concept and the practical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahm, Francis Sahngun

    2016-02-01

    Conventional statistical tests are usually called parametric tests. Parametric tests are used more frequently than nonparametric tests in many medical articles, because most of the medical researchers are familiar with and the statistical software packages strongly support parametric tests. Parametric tests require important assumption; assumption of normality which means that distribution of sample means is normally distributed. However, parametric test can be misleading when this assumption is not satisfied. In this circumstance, nonparametric tests are the alternative methods available, because they do not required the normality assumption. Nonparametric tests are the statistical methods based on signs and ranks. In this article, we will discuss about the basic concepts and practical use of nonparametric tests for the guide to the proper use. PMID:26885295

  6. Use of modulated excitation signals in ultrasound. Part I: Basic concepts and expected benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misaridis, Thanassis; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2005-01-01

    This paper, the first from a series of three papers on the application of coded excitation signals in medical ultrasound, discusses the basic principles and ultrasound-related problems of pulse compression. The concepts of signal modulation and matched filtering are given, and a simple model...... of attenuation relates the matched filter response with the ambiguity function, known from radar. Based on this analysis and the properties of the ambiguity function, the selection of coded waveforms suitable for ultrasound imaging is discussed. It is shown that linear frequency modulation (FM) signals have...... the best and most robust features for ultrasound imaging. Other coded signals such as nonlinear FM and binary complementary Golay codes also have been considered and characterized in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and sensitivity to frequency shifts. Using the simulation program Field II, it is found...

  7. Transfer of polarized light in planetary atmospheres basic concepts and practical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Hovenier, Joop W; Domke, Helmut

    2004-01-01

    The principal elements of the theory of polarized light transfer in planetary atmospheres are expounded in a systematic but concise way. Basic concepts and practical methods are emphasized, both for single and multiple scattering of electromagnetic radiation by molecules and particles in the atmospheres of planets in the Solar System, including the Earth, and beyond. A large part of the book is also useful for studies of light scattering by particles in comets, the interplanetary and interstellar medium, circumstellar disks, reflection nebulae, water bodies like oceans and suspensions of particles in a gas or liquid in the laboratory. Throughout the book symmetry principles, such as the reciprocity principle and the mirror symmetry principle, are employed. In this way the theory is made more transparent and easier to understand than in most papers on the subject. In addition, significant computational reductions, resulting from symmetry principles, are presented. Hundreds of references to relevant literature ...

  8. Basic concepts of quantum interference and electron transport in single-molecule electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, C J

    2015-02-21

    This tutorial outlines the basic theoretical concepts and tools which underpin the fundamentals of phase-coherent electron transport through single molecules. The key quantity of interest is the transmission coefficient T(E), which yields the electrical conductance, current-voltage relations, the thermopower S and the thermoelectric figure of merit ZT of single-molecule devices. Since T(E) is strongly affected by quantum interference (QI), three manifestations of QI in single-molecules are discussed, namely Mach-Zehnder interferometry, Breit-Wigner resonances and Fano resonances. A simple MATLAB code is provided, which allows the novice reader to explore QI in multi-branched structures described by a tight-binding (Hückel) Hamiltonian. More generally, the strengths and limitations of materials-specific transport modelling based on density functional theory are discussed. PMID:25255961

  9. Evolution of the Astronomy Concepts Along Basic Education Cycle. (Breton Title: Evolução dos Conceitos de Astronomia no Decorrer da Educação Básica.) La Evolución de los Conceptos de Astronomía Durante la Educación Básica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darroz, Luiz Marcelo; da Rosa, Cleci Werner; Becker da Rosa, Álvaro; Samudio Pèrez, Carlos Ariel

    2014-07-01

    Although astronomy is considered one of the older sciences of humanity and that the understanding of its concepts has brought tremendous advances to Science and therefore, to society, it is observed that a significant portion of people live outside of this kind of knowledge. According to the Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais for basic education, it is the school responsibility the dissemination of scientifically correct concepts, including those related to astronomy. Concerning this issue, we present a survey of 140 students of ninth grade of elementary school and 120 third-grade high-school students from four schools in the region of Passo Fundo/RS. We sought to determine, through a questionnaire consisting of open and multiple choice questions, the knowledge of this group of students about the basic terms and astronomical phenomena, and also verify that the hit rate increases as they advance through the different and progressive grades of primary and secondary education. Overall, the results show that the teaching of astronomy in basic education is facing problems. Of the 20 issues investigated, in 17 the indicators are similar in the correct answers given by students for elementary and middle school, revealing that many misconceptions still remain along basic education. This demonstrates that such issues are not - or are rarely - covered during these two school levels. Thus, we conclude that the discussion of concepts related to astronomy should receive greater emphasis on approaching different subjects, requiring a national action in support of their teaching. It is believed that a national action should be supported by a triple pillar of collective actors: the scientific community, semi-professional astronomy community and the school community. Finally, this pillar would be the basis for future discussions related to the performance of these protagonists as a means to promote active changes in the curricular structure, providing, in more effective ways, the

  10. The evolution of the female sexual response concept: Treatment implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damjanović Aleksandar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexual dysfunctions have been the most prevalent group of sexual disorders and include a large number of populations of both sexes. The research of sexual behavior and treatment of women with sexual distress arises many questions related to differences in sexual response of men and women. The conceptualization of this response in modern sexology has changed over time. The objective of our paper was to present the changes and evolution of the female’s sexual response concept in a summarized and integrated way, to analyze the expanded and revised definitions of the female sexual response as well as implications and recommendations of new approaches to diagnostics and treatment according to the established changes. The lack of adequate empirical basis of the female sexual response model is a critical question in the literature dealing with this issue. Some articles report that linear models demonstrate more correctly and precisely the sexual response of women with normal sexual functions in relation to women with sexual dysfunction. Modification of this model later resulted in a circular model which more adequately presented the sexual response of women with sexual function disorder than of women with normal sexual function. The nonlinear model of female sexual response constructed by Basson incorporates the value of emotional intimacy, sexual stimulus and satisfaction with the relationship. Female functioning is significantly affected by multiple psychosocial factors such as satisfaction with the relationship, self-image, earlier negative sexual experience, etc. Newly revised, expanded definitions of female sexual dysfunction try to contribute to new knowledge about a highly contextual nature of woman’s sexuality so as to enhance clinical treatment of dysfunctions. The definitions emphasize the evaluation of the context of women’s problematic sexual experiences.

  11. Diagnostic questionnaire of astronomy's basic concepts per integrated high school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima Barbosa, J. I.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2016-05-01

    Related themes to the study of astronomy permeates almost for all levels of education adopted in Brazil, however, this subject is not a specific discipline part of basic education curriculum, in other words, its contents are distributed in the subjects of Natural Sciences, Geography and Physics. This work presents a questionnaire diagnosis comprises a total of thirteen questions, which was applied to integrated high school students from four campuses of the Federal Institute of Alagoas - IFAL, and its purpose is to investigate the knowledge of these students astronomical basic concepts. The method used was survey and a total of 653 questionnaires were answered, 267 in the 1st year, 219 in 2nd year, and 167 in the 3rd year. This research is ongoing, however it can be initially noted that in ten questions the students of 1st year were below average (ie 50%), students of 2nd year fall short of this note in eight questions, and the students of the 3rd year, have not reached this note in five questions.

  12. An Innovative Passive Tip-Leakage Control Method for Axial Turbines: Basic Concept and Performance Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Markus Hamik; Reinhard Willinger

    2007-01-01

    The present paper introduces a new concept for passive turbine tip-leakage control. The basic idea of the method is the connection of the blade leading edge and the blade tip by an internal channel. Due to the difference between the stagnation pressure at the leading edge and the low pressure at the blade tip, a small amount of the working fluid is extracted from the blade passage. At the blade tip, a jet is injected roughly perpendicular to the tip gap flow driven by the blade pressure difference. It is proposed that the jet blocks at least a part of the tip gap flow.Since the tip-leakage losses are proportional to the tip gap mass flow rate, the tip injection results in a reduction of the associated losses. After the introduction of the concept, an analytical model is presented which describes the reduction of the tip gap discharge coefficient due to the tip injection. Furthermore, the analytical model is supported by the results of a preliminary CFD analysis. Finally, the potential of the efficiency improvement by the passive blade tip injection method is reported.

  13. Loess studies in central United States: Evolution of concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follmer, L.R.

    1996-01-01

    Few words in the realm of earth science have caused more debate than "loess". It is a common term that was first used as a name of a silt deposit before it was defined in a scientific sense. Because this "loose" deposit is easily distinguished from other more coherent deposits, it was recognized as a matter of practical concern and later became the object of much scientific scrutiny. Loess was first recognized along the Rhine Valley in Germany in the 1830s and was first noted in the United States in 1846 along the lower Mississippi River where it later became the center of attention. The use of the name eventually spread around the world, but its use has not been consistently applied. Over the years some interpretations and stratigraphic correlations have been validated, but others have been hotly contested on conceptual grounds and semantic issues. The concept of loess evolved into a complex issue as loess and loess-like deposits were discovered in different parts of the US. The evolution of concepts in the central US developed in four indefinite stages: the eras of (1) discovery and development of hypotheses, (2) conditional acceptance of the eolian origin of loess, (3) "bandwagon" popularity of loess research, and (4) analytical inquiry on the nature of loess. Toward the end of the first era around 1900, the popular opinion on the meaning of the term loess shifted from a lithological sense of loose silt to a lithogenetic sense of eolian silt. However, the dual use of the term fostered a lingering skepticism during the second era that ended in 1944 with an explosion of interest that lasted for more than a decade. In 1944, R.J. Russell proposed and H.N. Fisk defended a new non-eolian, property-based, concept of loess. The eolian advocates reacted with surprise and enthusiasm. Each side used constrained arguments to show their view of the problem, but did not examine the fundamental problem, which was not in the proofs of their hypothesis, but in the definition of

  14. Designing and Implementing Basic Sciences Ontology Based on Concepts and Relationships of Relevant Thesauri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molouk Sadat Hosseini Beheshti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the main portion of knowledge is stored in electronic texts and documents and for transferring that knowledge effectively, we must use proper methods to gather and retrieve relevant information. Ontologies provide means to produce structured documents and use intelligent search instead of keyword search. Ontology defines the common words and concepts used to describe and represent an area of knowledge. However, developing ontologies is a time consuming and labor work, so many ontology developers try to facilitate and speed up this process by reusing other resources. In fact, thesaurus contains semantic information and hierarchical structure that make it an appropriate resource for ontology construction. Therefore, we determined to use the thesauri previously developed at Iranian Research Institute for Information Science and Technology (IRANDOC to construct ontology in basic sciences domain. At first, we synchronized common concepts in thesauri before integrating them as a macro thesaurus and removed inconsistencies. To reduce the amount of time and human resources which were needed for synchronizing process, Thesaurus Synchronizer was developed to illustrate differences between matched cases of two thesauri. It provides powerful tools for demonstrating differences and suggestions for each of the existing matters. Thus, domain experts synchronized each two thesaurus semi-automatically. Then we merged thesauri and transform the data format into ISO 25964 standard. The conceptual model have been designed based on the terms and their relationships in the integrated thesaurus and the concept maps that were designed by domain experts for each of basic sciences (Chemistry, Physics, Biology, Geology and Mathematics. We used the methodology called METHONTOLOGY in this stage. The main activity in this methodology is conceptualization and it enables the construction of ontologies at the knowledge level. Ultimately, the ontology was generated by

  15. Water chemistry of Atucha II PHWVR. Design concepts and evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Atucha II is a pressurized heavy water vessel reactor designed by Siemens-KWU, currently part of AREVA NP, of 745 MWe and similar to Atucha I, which has been in operation over 25 years. The primary heat transport system (PHTS) is composed by vertical channels (277-313 C degrees) that allocate the fuel elements while the moderator circuit is composed by a partially separated circuit (142-173 C degrees). The moderation power is transferred to the feedwater through the moderator heat exchangers (HX). These HXs operate as the last, high pressure water-steam cycle heaters as well. Materials (with exception of fuel channels and fuel sheaths which are made of zirconium alloys) are all austenitic steels while cobalt containing alloys have been all replaced at the design stage. Steam generator and moderator HX tubing are Alloy 800 made. The core is operated without boron except with the first fresh nucleus. The secondary circuit or Balance of plant (BOP) is similar in conception to that of a PWR but the moderator HXs. It is entirely built of ferrous alloys, has a feedwater-deaerator tank and moisture separator. The energy sink is the Rio de la Plata River. The Reactors Chemistry Department, Chemistry Division, National Atomic Energy Commission, in its character of R and D institution has been committed by CNA II-N.A.S.A Project to prepare the water chemistry specifications, water chemistry engineering and manuals, considering the type of reactor, design and construction aspects and operation characteristics, taking into account the current state-of-the art and worldwide standards. This includes conceptual aspects and implementation and operative aspects as well. This documentation will be released after a designer's review as it has been stated in the respective agreement. Respecting the confidentiality agreement between CNEA and NASA and the confidentiality regarding handling original documentation provided by the designer, it is considered illustrative to

  16. Assessing Understanding of Social Awareness Concepts in Children with Intellectual Disability and Autism Spectrum Disorder Using the Bracken Basic Concept Scale-Third Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klubnik, Cynthia; Murphy, Laura; Campbell, Jonathan M.; Reed, Colby B.; Warner-Metzger, Christina M.

    2014-01-01

    Authors contrasted Bracken Basic Concept Scale: Receptive, Third Edition (BBCS: R-3) test performance between 57 children with intellectual disability (ID) and 76 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and ID. BBCS: R-3 School Readiness Composite (SRC) and Self-/Social Awareness subtests were analyzed. Multivariate analysis of covariance…

  17. Basic Concepts of Mohist Logic%墨子逻辑的基本概念

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒂埃里·卢卡斯

    2011-01-01

    The following text has been presented with minor modifications to the colloquium"The History of Logic in China" which took place in Amsterdam on November 24-26, 2010. It will briefly recall the historical and intellectual context of later Mohist Logic and will mainly discuss its basic logical concepts in relation with contemporary logic: disputation; name, object and their relation; proposition; "lèi" (class or sort or kind); inference. Other notions such as a priori, necessary and sufficient condition, quantification, necessity, time, space, infinity, ... will also be mentioned.%本文是作者在"中国逻辑史研讨会"(荷兰阿姆斯特丹,2010 年 11 月 24-26日)发言的修改版本。论文首先简要回顾了晚期墨家逻辑的历史和知识语境,主体部分讨论晚期墨家逻辑的基本逻辑概念与当代逻辑中的相关概念的关系,这些概念包括:辩;名、实、合;辞;"类";推理。论文还涉及到其它一些概念,包括先天、充要条件、量化、必然性、时间、空间,无限等等。

  18. Revisiting the Basic Symptom Concept: Towards Translating Risk Symptoms for Psychosis into Neurobiological Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frauke eSchultze-Lutter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In its initial formulation, the concept of basic symptoms (BSs integrated findings on the early symptomatic course of schizophrenia and first in vivo evidence of accompanying brain aberrations. It argued that the subtle subclinical disturbances in mental processes described as BSs were the most direct self-experienced expression of the underlying neurobiological aberrations of the disease. Other characteristic symptoms of psychosis (e.g., delusions, hallucinations were conceptualized as secondary phenomena, resulting from dysfunctional beliefs and suboptimal coping styles with emerging BSs and/or concomitant stressors. While BSs can occur in many mental disorders, in particular affective disorders, a subset of perceptive and cognitive BSs appear to be specific to psychosis and are currently employed in two alternative risk criteria. However, despite their clinical recognition in the early detection of psychosis, neurobiological research on the aetiopathology of psychosis with neuroimaging methods has only just begun to consider the neural correlate of BSs. This perspective paper reviews the emerging evidence of an association between BSs and aberrant brain activation, connectivity patterns, and metabolism, and outlines promising routes for the use of BSs in aetiopathological research on psychosis.

  19. Historical evolution of the concept of fibromyalgia: the main stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Pasero

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The concept of fibromyalgia is fairly recent, by evolving from previous notions such as muscular rheumatism and fibrositis. In this concise report the main stages leading to the development of the concept of fibromyalgia are sketched out, beginning from the notions of fibrositis nodules, trigger points and myofascial pain, up to the most recent knowledge including this clinical condition in the cluster of central sensitivity syndromes.

  20. Comparing Two Forms of Concept Map Critique Activities to Facilitate Knowledge Integration Processes in Evolution Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendimann, Beat A.; Linn, Marcia C.

    2016-01-01

    Concept map activities often lack a subsequent revision step that facilitates knowledge integration. This study compares two collaborative critique activities using a Knowledge Integration Map (KIM), a form of concept map. Four classes of high school biology students (n?=?81) using an online inquiry-based learning unit on evolution were assigned…

  1. keV sterile neutrino dark matter from singlet scalar decays: basic concepts and subtle features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merle, Alexander; Totzauer, Maximilian

    2015-06-01

    We perform a detailed and illustrative study of the production of keV sterile neutrino Dark Matter (DM) by decays of singlet scalars in the early Universe. In the current study we focus on providing a clear and general overview of this production mechanism. For the first time we study all regimes possible on the level of momentum distribution functions, which we obtain by solving a system of Boltzmann equations. These quantities contain the full information about the production process, which allows us to not only track the evolution of the DM generation but to also take into account all bounds related to the spectrum, such as constraints from structure formation or from avoiding too much dark radiation. In particular we show that this simple production mechanism can, depending on the regime, lead to strongly non-thermal DM spectra which may even feature more than one peak in the momentum distribution. These cases could have particularly interesting consequences for cosmological structure formation, as their analysis requires more refined tools than the simplistic estimate using the free-streaming horizon. Here we present the mechanism including all concepts and subtleties involved, for now using the assumption that the effective number of relativistic degrees of freedom is constant during DM production, which is applicable in a significant fraction of the parameter space. This allows us to derive analytical results to back up our detailed numerical computations, thus leading to the most comprehensive picture of keV sterile neutrino DM production by singlet scalar decays that exists up to now.

  2. From identity to organisation identity: The evolution of a concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Van Tonder

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The view that corporate and/or organisation identity is a contributing factor to organisational success, is increasingly observed in the media. At the same time research interest in the concept appears to be on the increase. While identity is not a novel concept and has presented in different forms, it remains shrouded in ambiguity and is in need of more precise articulation. The present study revisited the origins of the identity concept and reviewed various perspectives on identity. A specific meaning structure and theoretical framework for the organization identity concept is proposed and it is concluded that contemporary views of identity are increasingly embracing earlier psychological perspectives. Opsomming Die siening dat korporatiewe en/of organisasie-identiteit ’n bydraende faktor tot organisasiesukses is, word toenemend in die media waargeneem. Navorsingsbelangstelling in die konsep skyn terselfdertyd toe te neem. Terwyl identiteit geensins ’n nuwe konsep is nie en in verskillende vorme voorkom, bly dit in vaagheid gehul en word ’n meer duidelike omskrywing daarvan benodig. Die huidige studie het die oorsprong van die indentiteitskonsep nagespeur en verskeie perspektiewe op identiteit in oënskou geneem. ’n Bepaalde betekenisstruktuur en teoretiese raamwerk word vir die identiteitskonsep voorgestel en die gevolgtrekking word gemaak dat kontemporêre sienings van identiteit toenemend besig is om vroeëre psigologiese perspektiewe te omsluit.

  3. Evolution & Phylogenetic Analysis: Classroom Activities for Investigating Molecular & Morphological Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Wilfred A.

    2010-01-01

    In a flexible multisession laboratory, students investigate concepts of phylogenetic analysis at both the molecular and the morphological level. Students finish by conducting their own analysis on a collection of skeletons representing the major phyla of vertebrates, a collection of primate skulls, or a collection of hominid skulls.

  4. The Max Launch Abort System - Concept, Flight Test, and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) is an independent engineering analysis and test organization providing support across the range of NASA programs. In 2007 NASA was developing the launch escape system for the Orion spacecraft that was evolved from the traditional tower-configuration escape systems used for the historic Mercury and Apollo spacecraft. The NESC was tasked, as a programmatic risk-reduction effort to develop and flight test an alternative to the Orion baseline escape system concept. This project became known as the Max Launch Abort System (MLAS), named in honor of Maxime Faget, the developer of the original Mercury escape system. Over the course of approximately two years the NESC performed conceptual and tradeoff analyses, designed and built full-scale flight test hardware, and conducted a flight test demonstration in July 2009. Since the flight test, the NESC has continued to further develop and refine the MLAS concept.

  5. Cranial base topology and basic trends in the facial evolution of Homo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastir, Markus; Rosas, Antonio

    2016-02-01

    only partially overlap morphologically, and traditional concepts taken from research on two-dimensional (2D) lateral X-rays and sections have led to oversimplified and overly mechanistic models of basicranial evolution. PMID:26852811

  6. Basic concepts for the design of high-efficiency single-junction and multibandgap solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, J. C. C.

    1985-01-01

    Concepts for obtaining practical solar-cell modules with one-sun efficiencies up to 30 percent at air mass 1 are now well understood. Such high-efficiency modules utilize multibandgap structures. To achieve module efficiencies significantly above 30 percent, it is necessary to employ different concepts such as spectral compression and broad-band detection. A detailed description of concepts for the design of high-efficiency multibandgap solar cells is given.

  7. Sustainable or Distributed Energy—or both? Clarifying the Basic Concepts of Reforming the Energy Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Pekka Peura; Patrik Sjöholm

    2015-01-01

    This paper clarifies the concepts of Sustainable Energy (SE) and Distributed Energy (DE) including their related synonyms, by discussing, analyzing and presenting recommendations. This is important because these concepts are crucial in the on-going transformation from the fossil carbon based to renewable energy based societies, but still the use of the concepts has been confusing. SE consists of the integration of rational use of energy (energy saving, energy efficiency, use of renewable ener...

  8. LITTERATURE REVIEW OF THE EVOLUTION OF COMPETITIVENESS CONCEPT

    OpenAIRE

    HATEGAN D.B. Anca

    2012-01-01

    The concept of competitiveness can be reported – considering the level of disscution – to a product, firm, industry or sector, region, nation, commercial block or to a global aspect and there is a close connection or relationship between all these levels of competitiveness. Firstly, the quality of a certain product or service determines a firms possibilities to survive the competition. On the other hand, a firms economic performance is connected to the performance of a certain sector, reg...

  9. Semi-Analytic Galaxy Evolution (SAGE): Model Calibration and Basic Results

    CERN Document Server

    Croton, Darren J; Tonini, Chiara; Garel, Thibault; Bernyk, Maksym; Bibiano, Antonio; Hodkinson, Luke; Mutch, Simon J; Poole, Gregory B; Shattow, Genevieve M

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a new publicly available codebase for modelling galaxy formation in a cosmological context, the "Semi-Analytic Galaxy Evolution" model, or SAGE for short. SAGE is a significant update to that used in Croton et al. (2006) and has been rebuilt to be modular and customisable. The model will run on any N-body simulation whose trees are organised in a supported format and contain a minimum set of basic halo properties. In this work we present the baryonic prescriptions implemented in SAGE to describe the formation and evolution of galaxies, and their calibration for three N-body simulations: Millennium, Bolshoi, and GiggleZ. Updated physics include: gas accretion, ejection due to feedback, and reincorporation via the galactic fountain; a new gas cooling--radio mode active galactic nucleus (AGN) heating cycle; AGN feedback in the quasar mode; a new treatment of gas in satellite galaxies; and galaxy mergers, disruption, and the build-up of intra-cluster stars. Throughout, we show the results of ...

  10. Basic concept of common reactor physics code systems. Final report of working party on common reactor physics code systems (CCS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A working party was organized for two years (2001-2002) on common reactor physics code systems under the Research Committee on Reactor Physics of JAERI. This final report is compilation of activity of the working party on common reactor physics code systems during two years. Objectives of the working party is to clarify basic concept of common reactor physics code systems to improve convenience of reactor physics code systems for reactor physics researchers in Japan on their various field of research and development activities. We have held four meetings during 2 years, investigated status of reactor physics code systems and innovative software technologies, and discussed basic concept of common reactor physics code systems. (author)

  11. The Effect of Using an Educational Website in Achievement of Bachelor Students in the Course of Basic Concepts in Mathematics at Al al-Bayt University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qudah, Ahmad Hassan

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to detect the effect of using an educational site on the Internet in the collection of bachelor's students in the course of basic concepts in mathematics at Al al-Bayt University, and the study sample consisted of all students in the course basic concepts in mathematics in the first semester of the academic year 2014/2015 and the…

  12. The sigma receptor: evolution of the concept in neuropsychopharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, T; Su, Tp

    2005-10-01

    Although originally proposed as a subtype of opioid receptors, the sigma receptor is now confirmed to be a non-opioid receptor that binds diverse classes of psychotropic drugs. Sigma receptors are subdivided into two subtypes, sigma-1 and sigma-2. The sigma-1 receptor is a 25-kDa protein possessing one putative transmembrane domain and an endoplasmic reticulum retention signal. Sigma-1 receptors are highly expressed in deeper laminae of the cortex, olfactory bulb, nuclei of mesencephalon, hypothalamus, and Purkinje cells in the brain. Sigma-1 receptors are predominantly localized at the endoplasmic reticulum of both neurons and oligodendrocytes. From behavioral studies, sigma-1 receptors were shown to be involved in higher-ordered brain functions including memory and drug dependence. The actions mediated by sigma-1 receptors at the cellular level can be considered either as acute or chronic. The acute actions include the modulation of ion channels (i.e., K+ channel, NMDA receptors, IP3 receptors) and the sigma-1 receptor translocation. Chronic actions of sigma-1 receptors are basically considered to be the result of an up- or down regulation of the sigma-1 receptor itself. For example, the upregulation of sigma-1 receptors per se, even without exogenous ligands, promotes cellular differentiation and reconstitution of lipid microdomains (lipid rafts) in cultured cells. These findings together suggest that sigma-1 receptors might possess a constitutive biological activity, and that sigma-1 receptor ligands might merely work as modulators of the innate activity of this protein. Recent in vitro and in vitro studies strongly point to the possibility that sigma-1 receptors participate in membrane remodeling and cellular differentiation in the nervous system.

  13. On the Evolution of the Concept of Development and the Way to Measure it

    OpenAIRE

    Pellizzari Fausta

    2008-01-01

    Development is a complex concept requiring ethical thoughts and assessments on growth, progress, wellbeing, human values, income and wellbeing distribution. This paper offers a survey of the economic contributions to defining and improving the concept of development and of the methods to measure progress and failure that accompanied the evolution of the way of thinking about development. Having the right indicators to measure progress and wellbeing is essential to promote them.

  14. Training Concept, Evolution Time, and the Maximum Entropy Production Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Bezryadin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The maximum entropy production principle (MEPP is a type of entropy optimization which demands that complex non-equilibrium systems should organize such that the rate of the entropy production is maximized. Our take on this principle is that to prove or disprove the validity of the MEPP and to test the scope of its applicability, it is necessary to conduct experiments in which the entropy produced per unit time is measured with a high precision. Thus we study electric-field-induced self-assembly in suspensions of carbon nanotubes and realize precise measurements of the entropy production rate (EPR. As a strong voltage is applied the suspended nanotubes merge together into a conducting cloud which produces Joule heat and, correspondingly, produces entropy. We introduce two types of EPR, which have qualitatively different significance: global EPR (g-EPR and the entropy production rate of the dissipative cloud itself (DC-EPR. The following results are obtained: (1 As the system reaches the maximum of the DC-EPR, it becomes stable because the applied voltage acts as a stabilizing thermodynamic potential; (2 We discover metastable states characterized by high, near-maximum values of the DC-EPR. Under certain conditions, such efficient entropy-producing regimes can only be achieved if the system is allowed to initially evolve under mildly non-equilibrium conditions, namely at a reduced voltage; (3 Without such a “training” period the system typically is not able to reach the allowed maximum of the DC-EPR if the bias is high; (4 We observe that the DC-EPR maximum is achieved within a time, Te, the evolution time, which scales as a power-law function of the applied voltage; (5 Finally, we present a clear example in which the g-EPR theoretical maximum can never be achieved. Yet, under a wide range of conditions, the system can self-organize and achieve a dissipative regime in which the DC-EPR equals its theoretical maximum.

  15. Utilization of old vibro-acoustic measuring equipment to grasp basic concepts of vibration measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darula, Radoslav

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to show that even old vibro-acoustic (analog) equipment can be used as a very suitable teaching equipment to grasp basic principles of measurements in an era, when measurement equipments are more-or-less treated as ‘black-boxes’, i.e. the user cannot see directly how...

  16. Consecutive Course Modules Developed with Simple Materials to Facilitate the Learning of Basic Concepts in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okulu, Hasan Zuhtu; Oguz-Unver, Ayse

    2015-01-01

    From the perspective of teaching, the huge natural laboratory that astronomy provides constitutes the most prominent connection between astronomy and other branches of science. The purpose of this research was to provide educators with activities of observation using simple materials that were developed to facilitate the teaching of basic concepts…

  17. Correctness and Its Conceptions: The Meaning of Language Form for Basic Writers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Looks at correctness in writing as a sociolinguistic phenomena that conveys information about the author in terms of his or her capacity to write as a college student and in a form commensurate with academic standards. Concludes that correctness has a sociolinguistic role crucial to the field of basic writing. (TB)

  18. Teaching Basic Quantum Mechanics in Secondary School Using Concepts of Feynman Path Integrals Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanaro, Maria de los Angeles; Otero, Maria Rita; Arlego, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the teaching of basic quantum mechanics in high school. Rather than following the usual formalism, our approach is based on Feynman's path integral method. Our presentation makes use of simulation software and avoids sophisticated mathematical formalism. (Contains 3 figures.)

  19. Embedded Information Literacy in the Basic Oral Communication Course: From Conception through Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Kari D.; Pier, Penni M.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the process of embedding information literacy into a basic oral communication course. Discussion includes student performance as an impetus for change, collaborative course design between the oral communication teaching team and instructional librarians, and assessment initiatives. Suggestions for future collaborative work…

  20. SEMI-ANALYTIC GALAXY EVOLUTION (SAGE): MODEL CALIBRATION AND BASIC RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croton, Darren J.; Stevens, Adam R. H.; Tonini, Chiara; Garel, Thibault; Bernyk, Maksym; Bibiano, Antonio; Hodkinson, Luke; Mutch, Simon J.; Poole, Gregory B.; Shattow, Genevieve M. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, P.O. Box 218, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia)

    2016-02-15

    This paper describes a new publicly available codebase for modeling galaxy formation in a cosmological context, the “Semi-Analytic Galaxy Evolution” model, or sage for short.{sup 5} sage is a significant update to the 2006 model of Croton et al. and has been rebuilt to be modular and customizable. The model will run on any N-body simulation whose trees are organized in a supported format and contain a minimum set of basic halo properties. In this work, we present the baryonic prescriptions implemented in sage to describe the formation and evolution of galaxies, and their calibration for three N-body simulations: Millennium, Bolshoi, and GiggleZ. Updated physics include the following: gas accretion, ejection due to feedback, and reincorporation via the galactic fountain; a new gas cooling–radio mode active galactic nucleus (AGN) heating cycle; AGN feedback in the quasar mode; a new treatment of gas in satellite galaxies; and galaxy mergers, disruption, and the build-up of intra-cluster stars. Throughout, we show the results of a common default parameterization on each simulation, with a focus on the local galaxy population.

  1. Semi-Analytic Galaxy Evolution (SAGE): Model Calibration and Basic Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croton, Darren J.; Stevens, Adam R. H.; Tonini, Chiara; Garel, Thibault; Bernyk, Maksym; Bibiano, Antonio; Hodkinson, Luke; Mutch, Simon J.; Poole, Gregory B.; Shattow, Genevieve M.

    2016-02-01

    This paper describes a new publicly available codebase for modeling galaxy formation in a cosmological context, the “Semi-Analytic Galaxy Evolution” model, or sage for short.5 sage is a significant update to the 2006 model of Croton et al. and has been rebuilt to be modular and customizable. The model will run on any N-body simulation whose trees are organized in a supported format and contain a minimum set of basic halo properties. In this work, we present the baryonic prescriptions implemented in sage to describe the formation and evolution of galaxies, and their calibration for three N-body simulations: Millennium, Bolshoi, and GiggleZ. Updated physics include the following: gas accretion, ejection due to feedback, and reincorporation via the galactic fountain; a new gas cooling-radio mode active galactic nucleus (AGN) heating cycle; AGN feedback in the quasar mode; a new treatment of gas in satellite galaxies; and galaxy mergers, disruption, and the build-up of intra-cluster stars. Throughout, we show the results of a common default parameterization on each simulation, with a focus on the local galaxy population.

  2. A broadband dc SQUID based rf amplifier: experimental basics and development concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prokopenko, G.V.; Shitov, S.V.; Mygind, Jesper

    2002-01-01

    We present a concept of a broadband IF amplifier based on experimental results obtained with a dc SQUID rf amplifier (SQA). The frequency range is broadened by using several SQAs, each one tuned to its own central frequency at both input and output; the numerical simulations are presented. A.......(C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  3. Some Aspects of Rubberlike Elasticity Useful in Teaching Basic Concepts in Physical Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, J. E.

    2002-01-01

    Explains the benefits of including polymer topics in both graduate and undergraduate physical chemistry courses. Provides examples of how to use rubberlike elasticity to demonstrate some of the general and thermodynamic concepts including equations of state, Carnot cycles and mechanochemistry, gel collapse, energy storage and hysteresis, and…

  4. Early Science Education: Exploring Familiar Contexts To Improve the Understanding of Some Basic Scientific Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Isabel P.; Veiga, Luisa

    2001-01-01

    Argues that science education is a fundamental tool for global education and that it must be introduced in early years as a first step to a scientific culture for all. Describes testing validity of a didactic strategy for developing the learning of concepts, which was based upon an experimental work approach using everyday life contexts. (Author)

  5. Strain, clone and species : comments on three basic concepts of bacteriology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ursing, BM; Ursing, JB

    2000-01-01

    Different aspects of the terms strain, clone and species are discussed. The term strain is commonly used to denote a pure culture - here called 'the strain in the taxonomic sense' - but does also refer to a natural concept closely related to the clone. The term clone on the other hand is used both i

  6. High School Students' Proficiency and Confidence Levels in Displaying Their Understanding of Basic Electrolysis Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sia, Ding Teng; Treagust, David F.; Chandrasegaran, A. L.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted with 330 Form 4 (grade 10) students (aged 15-16 years) who were involved in a course of instruction on electrolysis concepts. The main purposes of this study were (1) to assess high school chemistry students' understanding of 19 major principles of electrolysis using a recently developed 2-tier multiple-choice diagnostic…

  7. Computer Graphics for Use in the Classroom to Illustrate Basic Concepts and Spatial Distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alan D.

    The computer packages of PLOTALL, SYMAP, SURFACE II, QUSMO, QUSMO2, QUCRS, and QUTAB are commercially available plotting programs that provide aids for visualizing spatial distributed data and concepts. The incremental drum and line printer plots communicate often vast and difficult-to-interpret tabular data with or without geographic coordinates.…

  8. The Mediational Role of Psychological Basic Needs in the Relation Between Conception of God and Psychological Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Sebastiano; Gugliandolo, Maria C; Barberis, Nadia; Larcan, Rosalba

    2016-02-01

    Relatively few studies have examined the relationship between conception of God and psychological outcomes in a self-determination theory (SDT) framework. The aim of this study was to examine the role of basic psychological needs as a mediator of the association between conception of God and psychological outcomes. In a sample of 210 religious young adults, we found that the concept of a controlling God was positively associated with feelings of need frustration and depression, whilst the concept of an autonomy-supporting God was positively associated with feelings of need satisfaction and vitality. In turn, need satisfaction promoted feelings of vitality, whereas need frustration led to feelings of depression. The satisfaction of needs was a full mediator of the relationship between autonomy-supporting God and vitality, whilst the frustration of needs was a full mediator of the relationship between controlling God and depression. These findings are discussed in terms of SDT. We also discuss how future research may further increase our understanding of the dynamics involved in concepts of God and psychological outcomes. PMID:25316204

  9. Berimbau: A simple instrument for teaching basic concepts in the physics and psychoacoustics of music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilão, Rui C.; Melo, Santino L. S.

    2014-12-01

    We address the production of musical tones by a simple musical instrument of the Brazilian tradition: the berimbau-de-barriga. The vibration physics of the string and of the air mass inside the gourd are reviewed. Straightforward measurements of an actual berimbau, which illustrate the basic physical phenomena, are performed using a PC-based "soundcard oscilloscope." The inharmonicity of the string and the role of the gourd are discussed in the context of known results in the psychoacoustics of pitch definition.

  10. Submissions and future teachers’ association regarding the basic concepts of the sphere of physical culture and sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomenko O.A.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work is to determine the characteristics of concepts and associations in relation to the basic concepts of the sphere of physical culture and sports in the future teachers of physical culture. In a questionnaire survey was conducted among 323 students (203 girls and 120 boys aged 17 to 23 years. The possibilities of the formation of students' motives for self-improvement and professional sports and recreational activities. Shows the structure of the students' ideas about the main sphere of physical culture and sports. It was determined that the structure of the students' characterized by a broad spectrum. Found that 14 - 22% of the students physical education is associated with the learning object. Indicator definitions of physical exercise as a form of organization of movements in students of all courses is increasing from 24.4% in the first year to 27.1% in the fourth. Almost half of the respondents believe that training - this kind of activity. Found that a significant number of students do not have a clear understanding of the basic concepts of the theory of physical education.

  11. [Oncologic after-care--a patient-oriented concept. Basic diagnostic plan for pediatric oncology patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffner, U; Sauter, S; Bergsträsser, E; Brandis, M; Niemeyer, C

    1995-01-01

    With intensive treatment many children and young adults with cancer can be cured of their disease. Therefore, the recognition of late effects of therapy will become increasingly important. Future concepts of follow-up care in pediatric oncology will have to serve two purposes: First, to determine the status of the malignant disease with early diagnosis of relapse and second, to recognize relevant side effects of treatment. We present a comprehensive approach of follow-up care which is primarily based on the definition of risk criteria for the development of relevant organ toxicity after different treatment modalities. For each patient a standardized summary of therapy delivered is documented. According to the definition of the risk criteria an individualized schedule for follow-up is decided upon. We hope that this structured concept will result in appropriate patient care while keeping the diagnostic efforts and costs limited. PMID:7564151

  12. Basic concepts of computerized student-oriented system on language teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivleva, N. V.

    2015-10-01

    This article covers the main concepts of a computerized student- oriented system on language teaching which implies more thorough lesson plan design for students who need a strong language command in their professional area. The system analyses all input characteristics and screens lesson plans tailored to individual students which can be integrated into a language course. The designed course is going to be aimed at meeting students’ needs as soon as practicable.

  13. Recommendations for the basic concepts and dose limits in domestic safeguard regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main concepts and standards presented in ICRP recommendations on radiation protection have been analyzed, and they are compared with domestic radiation protection guides (RPG-76). Special attention is paid to the ALARA principle, stochastic and non-stochastic effect, hazard factor, maximum dose equivalent dose limits, effective dose equivalent. It is shown, that in the national legislation the former approach should be preserved, but partially modernized, taking into account new scientific data and ICRP recommendations

  14. Sustainable or Distributed Energy—or both? Clarifying the Basic Concepts of Reforming the Energy Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekka Peura

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper clarifies the concepts of Sustainable Energy (SE and Distributed Energy (DE including their related synonyms, by discussing, analyzing and presenting recommendations. This is important because these concepts are crucial in the on-going transformation from the fossil carbon based to renewable energy based societies, but still the use of the concepts has been confusing. SE consists of the integration of rational use of energy (energy saving, energy efficiency, use of renewable energy sources and sustainability management for anticipating, avoiding and reducing adverse impacts. The best consensus for defining DE is “facilities connected to the distribution network or on the customer side of the meter”. Devices using fossil fuels but otherwise falling under this umbrella cannot be excluded from DE. This paper explores definitions of wind power in relation to its grid connections via DE. SE is more comprehensive embracing the whole field of energy management, with the exception of distributed fossil generation. SE is valuable for understanding, planning and implementing energy strategies in the transition process of the energy sector. SE also includes centralized energy. It is useful for planning at national or sub-national geographic regions. The combination Sustainable Distributed Energy (SDE is excellent for regional contexts and for creating regional renewable energy self-sufficiency, integrated with society-wide energy saving and energy efficiency programs.

  15. Basic Concepts for Convection Parameterization in Weather Forecast and Climate Models: COST Action ES0905 Final Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun–Ichi Yano

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The research network “Basic Concepts for Convection Parameterization in Weather Forecast and Climate Models” was organized with European funding (COST Action ES0905 for the period of 2010–2014. Its extensive brainstorming suggests how the subgrid-scale parameterization problem in atmospheric modeling, especially for convection, can be examined and developed from the point of view of a robust theoretical basis. Our main cautions are current emphasis on massive observational data analyses and process studies. The closure and the entrainment–detrainment problems are identified as the two highest priorities for convection parameterization under the mass–flux formulation. The need for a drastic change of the current European research culture as concerns policies and funding in order not to further deplete the visions of the European researchers focusing on those basic issues is emphasized.

  16. The basic concepts of re-modifying the criminal procedure law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Weidong

    2006-01-01

    Re-modifying China's Criminal Procedure Law has become an important topic within theoretical circles.Many scholars discuss the question of how to modify Criminal Procedure Law.The author considers re-modifying Criminal Procedure Law based on basic scientific ideas;if these ideas contain paying equal attention to fighting crime and protecting human fights,initially setting up a procedural idea and a view of legal truthfulness,giving priority to justice with due consideration to efficiency,and obeying and consulting the international criminal judiciary justness guidelines that will be followed in re-modifying Criminal Procedure Law,then this re-modifying will be successful.

  17. Application of the basic concepts of dynamic materials accountancy to the Tokai spent fuel reprocessing facilityssing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During 1978 and 1979 individuals from the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, and the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute investigated the feasibility of applying the basic concepts of dynamic materials accountancy to PNC-Tokai reprocessing facility in Japan. The system developed for Tokai requires weekly in-process physical inventories for the process MBA, and allows 2-3 additional days for completion of measurements and for data reduction and evaluation. The study concluded that such a system would be feasible, and recommended that an actual field test should be conducted as soon as feasible. (author)

  18. Motivating medical students to learn basic science concepts using chronic myeloid leukemia as an integration theme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Teresinha Olalla Saad

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report on the use of chronic myeloid leukemia as a theme of basic clinical integration for first year medical students to motivate and enable in-depth understanding of the basic sciences of the future physician. Methods: During the past thirteen years we have reviewed and updated the curriculum of the medical school of the Universidade Estadual de Campinas. The main objective of the new curriculum is to teach the students how to learn to learn. Since then, a case of chronic myeloid leukemia has been introduced to first year medical students and discussed in horizontal integration with all themes taught during a molecular and cell biology course. Cell structure and components, protein, chromosomes, gene organization, proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, signaling and so on are all themes approached during this course. At the end of every topic approached, the students prepare in advance the corresponding topic of clinical cases chosen randomly during the class, which are then presented by them. During the final class, a paper regarding mutations in the abl gene that cause resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors is discussed. After each class, three tests are solved in an interactive evaluation. Results: The course has been successful since its beginning, 13 years ago. Great motivation of those who participated in the course was observed. There were less than 20% absences in the classes. At least three (and as many as nine students every year were interested in starting research training in the field of hematology. At the end of each class, an interactive evaluation was performed and more than 70% of the answers were correct in each evaluation. Moreover, for the final evaluation, the students summarized, in a written report, the molecular and therapeutic basis of chronic myeloid leukemia, with scores ranging from 0 to 10. Considering all 13 years, a median of 78% of the class scored above 5 (min 74%-max 85%, and a median of 67

  19. Concept for a Predeployment Assessment of Basic Military Fitness in the German Armed Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Ulrich; Sievert, Alexander; Rüther, Thomas; Witzki, Alexander; Leyk, Dieter

    2015-11-01

    Military fitness is defined as a hierarchical 4-level construct in the German armed forces: (a) "Fundamental/Baseline Fitness," (b) "Basic Military Fitness," (c) "Task Fitness," and (d) "Mission Fitness." "Fundamental/Baseline Fitness" is assessed with the "Basic Fitness Test." However, this test alone is not sufficient to assess readiness for the physical demands of deployments. The first part of the article describes the development of a tool mirroring the specific physiological requirements of military operations on a joint forces level. The "Basic Military Fitness Tool" (BMFT) combines 4 crucial military demands into one single timed test run performed with field uniform (5 kg), body armor (13.4 kg), and helmet (1.6 kg): (a) maneuver under fire: 130 m run with changes in direction, velocity, and body position, (b) casualty rescue: 40 m of dragging a 50 kg load, (c) load carrying: 100 m carrying of two 18 kg loads, and (d) load lifting: lifting a 24 kg load on to a 1.25 m high rack 5 times. The second part covers the first assessment of BMFT selectivity between high- and low-performing groups. Muscle mass and strength are important factors for working with loads. Thus, female soldiers are expected to need more time to complete BMFT because of their on average lower muscle mass. Eighteen female (age = 28.5 ± 6.6 years, lean body mass [LBM] = 45.0 ± 4.5 kg; mean ± SD) and 104 male soldiers (age = 30.0 ± 8.4, LBM = 64.3 ± 7.1) completed isometric strength testing (hand grip = 344.3 ± 51.4 N and 547.3 ± 79.1 N, elbow flexors = 118.9 ± 16.9 and 235.1 ± 42.0, knee extensors = 433.2 ± 87.4 and 631.4 ± 111.4) and BMFT (259.2 ± 44.0 and 150.0 ± 21.1 s). Except age, all variables differed significantly (p < 0.01) between groups.

  20. The RITME method: Basic principles and overview of the LOGARITME concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the basic principles of the RITME method of 3-dimensional reactor core flux and power calculations, and briefly describes the LOGARITME development environment for implementing and managing applications based on the RITME method. RITME is a nodal method for solving the neutron transport equation; it obtains an integral solution in which the fluxes are related to the source terms by precalculated Green functions. The mean flux value per mesh and point flux values are calculated using a library of Green functions computed once and for all by a reference transport code. The carrier and microscopic power distributions can be determined from these flux values. LOGARITME is a computerized environment based on software case (object-oriented analysis aid software utilities) and ADA language. It provides a consistent framework for applications using the RITME method. The general specifications of this environment are described, and potential applications are noted. (author). 3 refs, 1 tab

  1. An introduction to Computer Guided Implantology; literature review، historical background and basic concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikzad S

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available "nSurgical and prosthodontic implant complications are often the case of inadvertent improper diagnosis, planning, and placement. These complications always pose a significant challenge in implant dentistry. In this article, it is attempted to depict a new technique in which advanced software program along with newly developed CAD/CAM technology called rapid prototyping will be used. This technology permits graphic and complex 3D implant simulation and then fabrication of computer-generated surgical templates. The best position of implants planned at first by taking into consideration of encased bone density of each implants and then existing occlusion. In this paper, the evolution of Computer Guided Implantology and the many benefits achieved from this very sophisticated technology described as a literature review.

  2. Basic sculpturing methods as innovatory incentives in the development of aesthetic form concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bente Dahl

    2009-01-01

      Many project teams grapple for a long time with developing ideas to the form concept because of a lack of methods to solve the many form problems they face in sketching. They also have difficulty in translating the project requirements for product proportions or volumes to an aesthetic form...... or developed have proved to be ideal for attacking many of the early form problems and they also generate incentives for new forms in the development process itself. The methods require only simple tools such as wood blocks, wire, paper and graphite leads. The article identifies the substance of the methods...... seen from a design perspective while clarifying what kind of issues they are particularly suited to solve. Innovation is not only promoted by the incentives produced by some of the methods, but also by the frottages created in the process....

  3. A spiral wave front beacon for underwater navigation: basic concept and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefner, Brian T; Dzikowicz, Benjamin R

    2011-06-01

    A spiral wave front source produces an acoustic field that has a phase that is proportional to the azimuthal angle about the source. The concept of a spiral wave front beacon is developed by combining this source with a reference source that has a phase that is constant with the angle. The phase difference between these sources contains information about the receiver's azimuthal angle relative to the beacon and can be used for underwater navigation. To produce the spiral wave front, two sources are considered: a "physical-spiral" source, which produces the appropriate phase by physically deforming the active element of the source into a spiral, and a "phased-spiral" source, which uses an array of active elements, each driven with the appropriate phase, to produce the spiral wave front. Using finite element techniques, the fields produced by these sources are examined in the context of the spiral wave front beacon, and the advantages of each source are discussed.

  4. The type I interferons: Basic concepts and clinical relevance in immune-mediated inflammatory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López de Padilla, Consuelo M; Niewold, Timothy B

    2016-01-15

    There is increasing scientific and clinical interest in elucidating the biology of type I Interferons, which began approximately 60 years ago with the concept of "viral interference", a property that reduces the ability of a virus to infect cells. Although our understanding of the multiple cellular and molecular functions of interferons has advanced significantly, much remains to be learned and type I Interferons remain an active and fascinating area of inquiry. In this review, we cover some general aspects of type I interferon genes, with emphasis on interferon-alpha, and various aspects of molecular mechanisms triggered by type I interferons and toll-like receptor signaling by the Janus activated kinase/signal transducer activation of transcription (JAK-STAT) pathway and interferon regulatory factor pathway. We will also describe the role of type I interferons in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, and its potential use as therapeutic agent.

  5. Mapping biological ideas: Concept maps as knowledge integration tools for evolution education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendimann, Beat Adrian

    Many students leave school with a fragmented understanding of biology that does not allow them to connect their ideas to their everyday lives (Wandersee, 1989; Mintzes, Wandersee, & Novak, 1998; Mintzes, Wandersee, & Novak, 2000a). Understanding evolution ideas is seen as central to building an integrated knowledge of biology (Blackwell, Powell, & Dukes, 2003; Thagard & Findlay, 2010). However, the theory of evolution has been found difficult to understand as it incorporates a wide range of ideas from different areas (Bahar et al., 1999; Tsui & Treagust, 2003) and multiple interacting levels (Wilensky & Resnick, 1999; Duncan & Reiser, 2007; Hmelo-Silver et al., 2007). Research suggests that learners can hold a rich repertoire of co-existing alternative ideas of evolution (for example, Bishop & Anderson, 1990; Demastes, Good, & Peebles, 1996; Evans, 2008), especially of human evolution (for example, Nelson, 1986; Sinatra et al., 2003; Poling & Evans, 2004). Evolution ideas are difficult to understand because they often contradict existing alternative ideas (Mayr, 1982; Wolpert, 1994; Evans, 2008). Research suggests that understanding human evolution is a key to evolution education (for example, Blackwell et al., 2003; Besterman & Baggott la Velle, 2007). This dissertation research investigates how different concept mapping forms embedded in a collaborative technology-enhanced learning environment can support students' integration of evolution ideas using case studies of human evolution. Knowledge Integration (KI) (Linn et al., 2000; Linn et al., 2004) is used as the operational framework to explore concept maps as knowledge integration tools to elicit, add, critically distinguish, group, connect, and sort out alternative evolution ideas. Concept maps are a form of node-link diagram for organizing and representing connections between ideas as a semantic network (Novak & Gowin, 1984). This dissertation research describes the iterative development of a novel biology

  6. Using Hollywood Movies to Teach Basic Geological Concepts: A Comparison of Student Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowder, M. E.

    2008-12-01

    Throughout the history of cinema, events based in Earth Science have been the focus of many an action- disaster plot. From the most recent 2008 remake of Journey to the Center of the Earth, to 1965's Crack in the World, and all the way back to the 1925 silent film rendition of The Lost World, Hollywood's obsession with the geological sciences has been clear. These particular sub-genres of disaster films and science fiction present science that, from a Hollywood viewpoint, looks exciting and seems realistic. However, from a scientific viewpoint, the presentations of science are often shockingly incorrect and unfortunately serve to perpetuate common misconceptions. In 2003, Western Kentucky University began offering an elective non-majors science course, Geology and Cinema, to combat these misconceptions while using the framework of Hollywood films as a tool to appeal and connect to a broad student population. To see if this method is truly working, this study performs a student outcome comparison for basic geologic knowledge and general course perception between several sections of standard, lecture-based Introductory Geology courses and concurrent semester sections of Geology and Cinema. Preliminary results indicate that while performance data is similar between the courses, students have a more positive perception of the Cinema sections.

  7. keV Sterile Neutrino Dark Matter from Singlet Scalar Decays: Basic Concepts and Subtle Features

    CERN Document Server

    Merle, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    We perform a detailed and illustrative study of the production of keV sterile neutrino Dark Matter (DM) by decays of singlet scalars in the early Universe. In the current study we focus on providing a clear and general overview of this production mechanism. For the first time we study all regimes possible on the level of momentum distribution functions, which we obtain by solving a system of Boltzmann equations. These quantities contain the full information about the production process, which allows us to not only track the evolution of the DM generation but to also take into account all bounds related to the spectrum, such as constraints from structure formation or from avoiding too much dark radiation. In particular we show that this simple production mechanism can, depending on the regime, lead to strongly non-thermal DM spectra which may even feature more than one peak in the momentum distribution. These cases could have particularly interesting consequences for cosmological structure formation, as their ...

  8. The concept of music evolution in Herbert Spencer’s and Charles Darwin’s theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrov Ana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the discourses on music in Herbert Spencer’s and Charles Darwin’s theories of evolution. Even though both Spencer and Darwin construed music as a carrier of the expression of affects and a part of a ubiquitous evolutional process towards ever increasing progress of culture, these authors’ discourses differed from each other in the understanding of the origin and function of music. Darwin considered music as being one of the (natural means of making a selection during the process of evolution of the humans as a biological species. Notwithstanding certain similarities to Darwin, Spencer (as well as his followers discussed music as a part of a socio-cultural evolution, which entailed an approach to music as a historical and cultural phenomenon. I will here elaborate the position of the discourses on music in Spencer’s and Darwin’s general theories of evolution, point out to the relevant aspects of the concept of music evolution and mention the influence that these theories had on the 19th-century official discourses on music.

  9. The evolution of agroecology's concept as a science and a practice

    OpenAIRE

    Leao, Vitoria; Bonaudo, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Agroecology is a subject that has gained importance in the scientific domain since the last two decades. The use of the term agroecology in the scientific literature increased 60% in the last five years, comparing to its first citation in 1928 until 2007. In this bibliography our objective is to study the evolution of the concepts of agroecology taking into account these two dimensions: a science and a practice. As conclusion, we understand that the domain of agroecology concerns a lot more t...

  10. Basic concepts for designing renewable electricity support aiming at a full-scale transition by 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renewable electricity supply is a crucial factor in the realization of a low-carbon energy economy. The understanding is growing that a full turn-over of the electricity sectors by 2050 is an elementary condition for avoiding global average temperature increase beyond 2 C. This article adopts such full transition as Europe's target when designing renewable energy policy. An immediate corollary is that phasing-in unprecedented energy efficiency and renewable generation must be paralleled by phasing-out non-sustainable fossil fuel and nuclear power technologies. The double phasing programme assigns novel meaning to nearby target settings for renewable power as share of total power consumption. It requires organizing in the medium term EU-wide markets for green power, a highly demanding task in the present context of poorly functional markets in brown power. The EU Commission's 2007/2008 proposals of expanding tradable certificates markets were not based on solid analysis of past experiences and future necessities. The keystone of sound policies on renewable electricity development is a detailed scientific differentiation and qualification of renewable electricity sources and technologies, for measuring the huge diversity in the field. We provide but structuring concepts about such qualification, because implementation requires extensive research resources. Support for renewable electricity development is organized via feed-in prices or premiums, and via quota obligations connected to tradable green certificates. Green certificates are dependent on physical generated renewable power, but separable and no joint products. Contrary to conventional wisdom we argue their separation in cost analysis but firm linking during trade. A few graphs illustrate the importance of assigning qualities to different renewable power sources/technologies. Feed-in systems based on an acceptable qualification perform generally better than certificate markets imposing uniform approaches on a

  11. Evolution & Diversity in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Lorentz C.

    1988-01-01

    Summarizes recent findings that help in understanding how evolution has brought about the diversity of plant life that presently exists. Discusses basic concepts of evolution, diversity and classification, the three-line hypothesis of plant evolution, the origin of fungi, and the geologic time table. Included are 31 references. (CW)

  12. A Stratified Study of Students' Understanding of Basic Optics Concepts in Different Contexts Using Two-Tier Multiple-Choice Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hye-Eun; Treagust, David F.; Chandrasegaran, A. L.

    2009-01-01

    A large scale study involving 1786 year 7-10 Korean students from three school districts in Seoul was undertaken to evaluate their understanding of basic optics concepts using a two-tier multiple-choice diagnostic instrument consisting of four pairs of items, each of which evaluated the same concept in two different contexts. The instrument, which…

  13. AAPM/RSNA physics tutorial for residents. Topics in US: B-mode US: basic concepts and new technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hangiandreou, Nicholas J

    2003-01-01

    Ultrasonography (US) has been used in medical imaging for over half a century. Current US scanners are based largely on the same basic principles used in the initial devices for human imaging. Modern equipment uses a pulse-echo approach with a brightness-mode (B-mode) display. Fundamental aspects of the B-mode imaging process include basic ultrasound physics, interactions of ultrasound with tissue, ultrasound pulse formation, scanning the ultrasound beam, and echo detection and signal processing. Recent technical innovations that have been developed to improve the performance of modern US equipment include the following: tissue harmonic imaging, spatial compound imaging, extended field of view imaging, coded pulse excitation, electronic section focusing, three-dimensional and four-dimensional imaging, and the general trend toward equipment miniaturization. US is a relatively inexpensive, portable, safe, and real-time modality, all of which make it one of the most widely used imaging modalities in medicine. Although B-mode US is sometimes referred to as a mature technology, this modality continues to experience a significant evolution in capability with even more exciting developments on the horizon. PMID:12853678

  14. Implementing a “choose your own adventure” method in teaching basic concepts of sound to primary-school teacher candidate students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichteria Panjaitan, Regina

    2016-08-01

    The grasps of basic physics of sound of primary-school teacher candidates were examined. Ninety students of primary-school teacher candidate program participated in this study. The experimental group was introduced to the basic concept of sound teaching with “Choose Your Own Adventure” method using a daily-life story related to sound; and the control group received the same material with traditional lecture method. The result shows that the students taught with “Choose Your Own Adventure” method got better understanding on basic concepts of sound than students taught with traditional lecture method. The finding suggests that “Choose Your Own Adventure” method may be able to enhance students’ mastery on science especially on basic concepts of sound.

  15. The evolution of the break preclusion concept for nuclear power plants in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, H. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, Koeln (Germany)

    1997-04-01

    In the updating of the Guidelines for PWR`s of the {open_quotes}Reaktor-Sicherheitskommission{close_quotes} (RSK) in 1981 the requirements on the design have been changed with respect to the postulated leaks and breaks in the primary pressure boundary. The major change was a revision in the requirements for pipe whip protection. As a logical consequence of the {open_quotes}concept of basic safety{close_quotes} a guillotine type break or any other break type resulting in a large opening is not postulated any longer for the calculation of reaction and jet forces. As an upper limit for a leak an area of 0, 1 A (A = open cross section of the pipe) is postulated. This decision was based on a general assessment of the present PWR system design in Germany. Since then a number of piping systems have been requalified in the older nuclear power plants to comply with the break preclusion concept. Also a number of extensions of the concept have been developed to cover also leak-assumptions for branch pipes. Furthermore due considerations have been given to other aspects which could contribute to a leak development in the primary circuit, like vessel penetrations, manhole covers, flanges, etc. Now the break preclusion concept originally applied to the main piping has been developed into an integrated concept for the whole pressure boundary within the containment and will be applied also in the periodic safety review of present nuclear power plants.

  16. Triatominae biochemistry goes to school: evaluation of a novel tool for teaching basic biochemical concepts of Chagas disease vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Leonardo Rodrigues; Cudischevitch, Cecília de Oliveira; Carneiro, Alan Brito; Macedo, Gustavo Bartholomeu; Lannes, Denise; Silva-Neto, Mário Alberto Cardoso da

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate a new approach to teaching the basic biochemistry mechanisms that regulate the biology of Triatominae, major vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. We have designed and used a comic book, "Carlos Chagas: 100 years after a hero's discovery" containing scientific information obtained by seven distinguished contemporary Brazilian researchers working with Triatominaes. Students (22) in the seventh grade of a public elementary school received the comic book. The study was then followed up by the use of Concept Maps elaborated by the students. Six Concept Maps elaborated by the students before the introduction of the comic book received an average score of 7. Scores rose to an average of 45 after the introduction of the comic book. This result suggests that a more attractive content can greatly improve the knowledge and conceptual understanding among students not previously exposed to insect biochemistry. In conclusion, this study illustrates an alternative to current strategies of teaching about the transmission of neglected diseases. It also promotes the diffusion of the scientific knowledge produced by Brazilian researchers that may stimulate students to choose a scientific career.

  17. A Preliminary Investigation of an Early Intervention Program: Examining the Intervention Effectiveness of the "Bracken Concept Development Program" and the "Bracken Basic Concept Scale-Revised" with Head Start Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Patti

    2004-01-01

    This research study evaluated the efficacy of the "Bracken Basic Concept Scale-Revised" (BBCS-R; Bracken, 1998) and the "Bracken Concept Development Program" (BCDP; Bracken, 1986a) in a test-teach-test paradigm with students from a Head Start program. Prior to the intervention, 54 children were administered the BBCS-R and were divided into three…

  18. Psychodermatology: Basics Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafferany, Mohammad; Franca, Katlein

    2016-08-23

    Psychodermatology is a relatively new field of medicine. It encompasses the interaction of mind and skin. The role of psychoneuroimmunology in the causation of psychocutaneous disorders and psychosocial aspects of skin disease have gained momentum lately. The treatment of psychodermatological disorders focus on improving function, reducing physical distress, diagnosing and treating depression and anxiety associated with skin disease, managing social isolation and improving self esteem of the patient. Both pharmacological and psychological interventions are used in treating psychocutaneous disorders. The interest in Psychodermatology around the world is increasing and there are several organizations holding their regular meetings. PMID:27282585

  19. Critical groups - basic concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential exposure pathways from the land application site to man are presented. It is emphasised that the critical group is not necessary the population group closest to the source. It could be the group impact by the most significant pathways(s). Only by assessing the importance of each of these pathways and then combining them can a proper choice of critical group be made. It would be wrong to select a critical group on the basis that it seems the most probable one, before the pathways have been properly assessed. A calculation in Carter (1983) suggested that for the operating mine site, the annual doses to an Aboriginal person, a service worker and a local housewife, were all about the same and were in the range 0.1 to 0.2 mSv per year. Thus it may be that for the land application area, the critical group turns out to be non-Aboriginal rather than the expected Aboriginal group. 6 refs., 3 figs

  20. Consistency and Change: The (R)Evolution of the Basic Communication Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzano, Joseph M., III; Wallace, Samuel P.; Morreale, Sherwyn P.

    2014-01-01

    The basic communication course, with its roots in classical Greece and Rome, is frequently a required course in general education. The course often serves as our "front porch," welcoming new students to the Communication discipline. This essay first outlines early traditions in oral communication instruction and their influence on future…

  1. The basic postulates of the universal evolution model «Evolving matter»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazaluk Oleg

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The author reveals the features of construction of the universal evolution model, which he called «Evolving matter». According to the author, the material world, which is perceived in scales of the Earth and near space, consists of visually and empirically easily detectable states of matter, with different complexity of the internal organisation: inert, living and intelligent matter. The transition from one («parent» state of matter to another («daughter» state is caused by three main factors and two reasons of evolution. The author has carried the following factors of evolution as a complication: a Continuity of self-complication structures, types of interaction and environments of existence of any state of matter, which is supplemented by: – Block of continuous self-complication; – Principle of block of continuous self-complication of dominance; b Nonlinear complication of structure, types of interactions and environments of existence of any state of matter, which is specified by factors: – Hierarchical nonlinear complication; – Orientation of nonlinear hierarchical complication; c Complication isolation. The author carries complications to the evolution reasons: a Active principle, which is inherently the basis for the initial elements of any state of matter, and which forms a self-complication; b Natural selection as the environment influence.

  2. Reabilitation marketing: marketing concepts evolution in condition of the changes in the socioecological- economic state of society

    OpenAIRE

    Yu.A. Olefirenko; О.М. Olefirenko

    2010-01-01

    This article investigated the problem of changing concepts of marketing in the evolution of the global economy and changing technological structures. Suggested and theoretically described a hypothesis for further development of marketing concepts in line with the rehabilitation of marketing "as a logical reaction to the changes in the socio-ecological-economic state of society.

  3. Why human evolution should be a basic science for medicine and psychology students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanza, Paola; Parmigiani, Stefano

    2016-06-20

    Based on our teaching experience in medicine and psychology degree programs, we examine different aspects of human evolution that can help students to understand how the human body and mind work and why they are vulnerable to certain diseases. Three main issues are discussed: 1) the necessity to consider not only the mechanisms, i.e. the "proximate causations", implicated in biological processes but also why these mechanisms have evolved, i.e. the "ultimate causations" or "adaptive significance", to understand the functioning and malfunctioning of human body and mind; 2) examples of how human vulnerabilities to disease are caused by phylogenetic constraints, evolutionary tradeoffs reflecting the combined actions of natural and sexual selection, and/or mismatch between past and present environment (i.e., evolution of the eye, teeth and diets, erect posture and their consequences); 3) human pair-bonding and parent-offspring relationships as the result of socio-sexual selection and evolutionary compromises between cooperation and conflict. These psychobiological mechanisms are interwoven with our brain developmental plasticity and the effects of culture in shaping our behavior and mind, and allow a better understanding of functional (normal) and dysfunctional (pathological) behaviors. Thus, because the study of human evolution offers a powerful framework for clinical practice and research, the curriculum studiorum of medical and psychology students should include evolutionary biology and human phylogeny. PMID:27101590

  4. Basic concepts on threat, vulnerability and risk associated to a process of massive use of gaseous fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The massive use of gaseous fuels, natural gas and liquefied gas of the oil or G.L.P., demands the implementation and complex technologies utilization in each one of the technical activities operative that transportation, distribution and consumption of these fuels requires, in order to accomplish each one of they in the form most efficient and possible insurance. Natural phenomena (earthquakes, landslides) and technical phenomena and caused by the man (terrorism, not appropriate designs of transportation and distribution net, wrong manipulation of the gas equipment) represent a latent danger for the distributors as well as for the users of the gas, generating a threat, of large proportions, for the normal development of the program of massive use of the gas, in any geographical environment where this is implemented. In this article are described the disaster concepts, threat, vulnerability and risk and the form as are related to the project of massive use of the gas, basically to transportation areas, distribution and final use

  5. An examination of conceptual change in undergraduate biology majors while learning science concepts including biological evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuaide, Glenn G.

    2006-12-01

    Without adequate understanding of science, we cannot make responsible personal, regional, national, or global decisions about any aspect of life dealing with science. Better understanding how we learn about science can contribute to improving the quality of our educational experiences. Promoting pathways leading to life-long learning and deep understanding in our world should be a goal for all educators. This dissertation project was a phenomenological investigation into undergraduate understanding and acceptance of scientific theories, including biological evolution. Specifically, student descriptions of conceptual change while learning science theory were recorded and analyzed. These qualitative investigations were preceded by a survey that provided a means of selecting students who had a firmer understanding of science theory. Background information and survey data were collected in an undergraduate biology class at a small, Southern Baptist-affiliated liberal arts school located in south central Kentucky. Responses to questions on the MATE (Rutledge and Warden, 1999) instrument were used to screen students for interviews, which investigated the way by which students came to understand and accept scientific theories. This study identifies some ways by which individuals learn complex science theories, including biological evolution. Initial understanding and acceptance often occurs by the conceptual change method described by Posner et al. (1982). Three principle ways by which an individual may reach a level of understanding and acceptance of science theory were documented in this study. They were conceptual change through application of logic and reasoning; conceptual change through modification of religious views; and conceptual change through acceptance of authoritative knowledge. Development of a deeper, richer understanding and acceptance of complex, multi-faceted concepts such as biological evolution occurs in some individuals by means of conceptual

  6. Els conceptes morfològics bàsics en l’ensenyament secundari: alternativa| The Basic Morphological Concepts in Secondary Education: Alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Martínez Fraile

    2015-05-01

    the duo finestr-a/carrer (feminine/masculine neither. In order to deal the duality pense/he pensat (or walked/will walk: «verb + time» against «time + verb», the article reflects on the three phases of languages formation (1st: nouns; 2nd: verbs and adjectives; 3rd: relational category, time, intensification of adjective and why in a specific moment languages need to change from cases to prepositions, from pensí to vaig pensar and from longer to més llarg. The proposal made allows to deal the evolution of the languages and it explains why there are languages with a lot of inflection, little and other without it, important factor to recover the universal conception of the linguistic theory.

  7. THE BASIC POSTULATES OF THE UNIVERSAL EVOLUTION MODEL «EVOLVING MATTER»

    OpenAIRE

    Bazaluk Oleg

    2015-01-01

    The author reveals the features of construction of the universal evolution model, which he called «Evolving matter». According to the author, the material world, which is perceived in scales of the Earth and near space, consists of visually and empirically easily detectable states of matter, with different complexity of the internal organisation: inert, living and intelligent matter. The transition from one («parent») state of matter to another («daughter») state is caused by three main f...

  8. Cultural Diversity as a Concept of Global Law: Origins, Evolution and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Burri

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available “Cultural diversity” has become one of the latest buzzwords on the international policymaking scene. It is employed in various contexts—sometimes as a term close to “biological diversity”, at other times as correlated to the “exception culturelle” and most often, as a generic concept that is mobilised to counter the perceived negative effects of economic globalisation. While no one has yet provided a precise definition of what cultural diversity is, what we can observe is the emergence of the notion of cultural diversity as incorporating a distinct set of policy objectives and choices at the global level. These decisions are not confined, as one might have expected, to cultural policymaking, but rather spill over to multiple governance domains because of the complex linkages inherent to the simultaneous pursuit of economic and other societal goals that cultural diversity encompasses and has effects on. Accounting for these intricate interdependencies, the present article clarifies the origins of the concept of cultural diversity as understood in global law and traces its evolution over time. Observing the dynamics of the concept and the surrounding political and legal developments in particular in the context of trade and culture, the article explores its justification and overall impact on the global legal regime, as well as its discrete effects on different domains of policymaking, such as media and intellectual property. While the analysis is legal in essence, the article is also meant to speak to a broader transdisciplinary public.

  9. Beyond Passive Learning: Problem-Based Learning and Concept Maps to Promote Basic and Higher-Order Thinking in Basic Skills Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Regina O.

    2014-01-01

    Research into the best practices for basic skills education, national bridge programs, the new GED® assessment, and accelerated developmental education indicated that contextualized instruction was most effective when preparing adult literacy students for college and work. Nevertheless, "remedial pedagogy" with a sole focus on the…

  10. Software-Defined Radio—Basics and Evolution to Cognitive Radio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jondral Friedrich K

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We provide a brief overview over the development of software-defined or reconfigurable radio systems. The need for software-defined radios is underlined and the most important notions used for such reconfigurable transceivers are thoroughly defined. The role of standards in radio development is emphasized and the usage of transmission mode parameters in the construction of software-defined radios is described. The software communications architecture is introduced as an example for a framework that allows an object-oriented development of software-defined radios. Cognitive radios are introduced as the next step in radio systems' evolution. The need for cognitive radios is exemplified by a comparison of present and advanced spectrum management strategies.

  11. Ipsative Subtest Pattern Stability of the Bracken Basic Concept Scale and the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children in a Preschool Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, Bruce A.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Ipsative subtest pattern stability was examined for 60 preschool children (31 males and 29 females) on the Bracken Basic Concept Scale and the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children over a 4-6 week test-retest interval. The moderate level of profile stability found warrants cautious use of the ipsative interpretation approach. (SLD)

  12. Opportunities to Learn in School and at Home: How can they predict students' understanding of basic science concepts and principles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Su; Liu, Xiufeng; Zhao, Yandong

    2012-09-01

    As the breadth and depth of economic reforms increase in China, growing attention is being paid to equalities in opportunities to learn science by students of various backgrounds. In early 2009, the Chinese Ministry of Education and Ministry of Science and Technology jointly sponsored a national survey of urban eighth-grade students' science literacy along with their family and school backgrounds. The present study focused on students' understanding of basic science concepts and principles (BSCP), a subset of science literacy. The sample analyzed included 3,031 students from 109 randomly selected classes/schools. Correlation analysis, one-way analysis of variance, and two-level linear regression were conducted. The results showed that having a refrigerator, internet, more books, parents purchasing books and magazines related to school work, higher father's education level, and parents' higher expectation of the education level of their child significantly predicted higher BSCP scores; having siblings at home, owning an apartment, and frequently contacting teachers about the child significantly predicted lower BSCP scores. At the school level, the results showed that being in the first-tier or key schools, having school libraries, science popularization galleries, computer labs, adequate equipment for teaching, special budget for teacher training, special budget for science equipment, and mutual trust between teachers and students significantly predicated higher BSCP scores; and having science and technology rooms, offering science and technology interest clubs, special budget for science curriculum development, and special budget for science social practice activities significantly predicted lower BSCP scores. The implications of the above findings are discussed.

  13. Evolution and Implementation of the NASA Robotic Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis Concept of Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Lauri K.; Frigm, Ryan C.; Duncan, Matthew G.; Hejduk, Matthew D.

    2014-01-01

    Reacting to potential on-orbit collision risk in an operational environment requires timely and accurate communication and exchange of data, information, and analysis to ensure informed decision-making for safety of flight and responsible use of the shared space environment. To accomplish this mission, it is imperative that all stakeholders effectively manage resources: devoting necessary and potentially intensive resource commitment to responding to high-risk conjunction events and preventing unnecessary expenditure of resources on events of low collision risk. After 10 years of operational experience, the NASA Robotic Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis (CARA) is modifying its Concept of Operations (CONOPS) to ensure this alignment of collision risk and resource management. This evolution manifests itself in the approach to characterizing, reporting, and refining of collision risk. Implementation of this updated CONOPS is expected to have a demonstrated improvement on the efficacy of JSpOC, CARA, and owner/operator resources.

  14. Case management: evolution of the concept in the 80's and 90's

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casarin Santina Nunes Alves

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Case Management is a term that is present in almost every American health care situation. It is mostly used to coordinate community services with satisfactory results for the patient within a certain period of time, with limited resources. Through time, it has been used for different purposes. The goal of this study was to show the historical evolution of case management as expressed by the American nursing literature, in the 80's and 90's, according to its use, meaning, and application, and following a theoretical framework for concept analysis. The data was extracted from two journals: "Nursing Management" and "Journal of Nursing Administration". The publications showed case management portrayed as a process that serves a common goal; where quality and cost of care were the prevalent and influential elements along time, and its practice focusing in a given population defined as of high risk and high cost for health care.

  15. History and evolution of the pharmacophore concept in computer-aided drug design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güner, Osman F

    2002-12-01

    With computer-aided drug design established as an integral part of the lead discovery and optimization process, pharmacophores have become a focal point for conceptualizing and understanding receptor-ligand interactions. In the structure-based design process, pharmacophores can be used to align molecules based on the three-dimensional arrangement of chemical features or to develop predictive models (e.g., 3D-QSAR) that correlate with the experimental activities of a given training set. Pharmacophores can be also used as search queries for retrieving potential leads from structural databases, for designing molecules with specific desired attributes, or as fingerprints for assessing similarity and diversity of molecules. This review article presents a historical perspective on the evolution and use of the pharmacophore concept in the pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and fragrances industry with published examples of how the technology has contributed and advanced the field. PMID:12470283

  16. Nature of science conceptions, attitudes towards evolution and global climate change, and course achievement in an introductory biology course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Benjamin Elijah

    Many researchers have studied student attitudes toward and knowledge of evolutionary science, attitudes towards global climate change (GCC), conceptions about the nature of science (NOS), and course success. However, at the time of this writing, no studies explicitly link these topics. It is overwhelmingly acknowledged by the scientific community that evolution and global climate change (GCC) are undeniably supported by physical evidence. And yet, both topics remain very politically contentious in the United States. Efforts to mitigate the disconnects between the scientific community and the general public on these issues are imperative to science education. Such undertakings need to examine students' conceptions of the nature of science (NOS), how evidence is treated, how theories are constructed, and how scientific consensus is reached, as these may be key factors in acceptance of evolution and GCC. If students have a more thorough understanding of the weight behind scientific consensus and better tools to discern scientific versus non-scientific arguments, they may become more likely to accept strongly supported scientific ideas. Our study explored this hypothesis guided by the following questions: Do changes in NOS conceptions correlate with changes in attitudes towards evolution or GCC? If there are correlations, are they similar for evolution and GCC? What demographic factors affect these correlations? Further, we asked whether attitudes towards evolution before the course began was a significant predictor of achievement in the course. Previously-developed tools were used to measure students' conceptions of the nature of science and attitudes towards evolution, while national public opinion poll questions were used to measure attitudes towards GCC. Demographic questions were produced to target factors thought to influence attitudes towards evolution or global climate change. Overall sample size was N=620. Principle Components Analysis was used to determine

  17. Molecular evolution of myelin basic protein, an abundant structural myelin component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Schanila; Schweitzer, Jörn; Jahn, Olaf; Werner, Hauke B

    2013-08-01

    Rapid nerve conduction in jawed vertebrates is facilitated by the myelination of axons, which evolved in ancient cartilaginous fish. We aim to understand the coevolution of myelin and the major myelin proteins. We found that myelin basic protein (MBP) derived from living cartilaginous fish (sharks and rays) associated with the plasma membrane of glial cells similar to the phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate (PIP₂)-binding marker PH-PLCδ1, and that ionomycin-induced PIP₂-hydrolysis led to its cellular redistribution. We identified two paralogous mbp genes in multiple teleost species, consistent with a genome duplication at the root of the teleost clade. Zebrafish mbpb is organized in a complex transcription unit together with the unrelated gene-of-the-oligodendrocyte-lineage (golli) while mbpa does not encode GOLLI. Moreover, the embryonic expression of mbpa and mbpb differed, indicating functional specialization after duplication. However, both mbpa and mbpb-mRNAs were detected in mature oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells, MBPa and MBPb were mass spectrometrically identified in zebrafish myelin, both associated with the plasma membrane via PIP₂, and the ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous nucleotide-substitution rates (Ka/Ks) was low. Together, this indicates selective pressure to conserve many aspects of the cellular expression and function of MBP across vertebrate species. We propose that the PIP₂-binding function of MBP is evolutionarily old and that its emergence in ancient gnathostomata provided glial cells with the competence to myelinate.

  18. The machine conception of the organism in development and evolution: a critical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Daniel J

    2014-12-01

    This article critically examines one of the most prevalent metaphors in contemporary biology, namely the machine conception of the organism (MCO). Although the fundamental differences between organisms and machines make the MCO an inadequate metaphor for conceptualizing living systems, many biologists and philosophers continue to draw upon the MCO or tacitly accept it as the standard model of the organism. The analysis presented here focuses on the specific difficulties that arise when the MCO is invoked in the contexts of development and evolution. In developmental biology the MCO underlies a logically incoherent model of ontogeny, the genetic program, which serves to legitimate three problematic theses about development: genetic animism, neo-preformationism, and developmental computability. In evolutionary biology the MCO is responsible for grounding unwarranted theoretical appeals to the concept of design as well as to the interpretation of natural selection as an engineer, which promote a distorted understanding of the process and products of evolutionary change. Overall, it is argued that, despite its heuristic value, the MCO today is impeding rather than enabling further progress in our comprehension of living systems.

  19. Basic Concepts of the Tusi System%土司制度基本概念辨析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李世愉

    2014-01-01

    本文通过对土官、土司、土职、土弁这些涉及土司制度基本概念的辨析,提出了规范使用这些概念的问题。关于土官与土司,文章指出:土官一词早已有之,土司制度建立后成为该制度的专用语,指由朝廷任命的少数民族世袭地方官。土司一词是土司制度建立过程中出现的,初指土官机构,后亦指土官,而且这一内涵逐渐成为土司的主要用法。就此而言,土司与土官是一样的。土司一词出现后,使用极为普遍,而土官一词反而用得不多了。建议在今后的研究中使用“土司”和“土司制度”。同时,本文还对土职与土弁的内涵进行了深入的探讨。%This paper gives an incisive analysis of some basic concepts and terms concerning the Tusi system like Tu official,Tusi,Tuzhi,Tubian,etc.It points out that Tu official emerged first,and was used after the establishment of the Tusi system to refer to those hereditary minority officials ap-pointed by the Central Imperial Courts.The word Tusi emerged in the process of the Tusi system and it first referred to the Tusi institution and later Tusi official.The paper advocates the use of “Tusi”and “Tusi system”in the future Tusi studies.

  20. Evolution of Unit Fraction Conceptions in Two Fifth-Graders with a Learning Disability: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Jessica Heather; Tzur, Ron; Westenskow, Arla

    2016-01-01

    The literature seems limited in what is known about conceptual processes that underlie evolution of students with learning disabilities (SLD) conceptions of fractions. This exploratory study examines how a foundational scheme of unit fractions (1/n) may evolve through the mathematical activity of two fifth grade girls. We analyze data segments…

  1. The Notion of Historical "Parallelism" Revisited: Historical Evolution and Students' Conception of the Order Relation on the Number Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomaidis, Yannis; Tzanakis, Constantinos

    2007-01-01

    This paper associates the findings of a historical study with those of an empirical one with 16 years-old students (1st year of the Greek Lyceum). It aims at examining critically the much-discussed and controversial relation between the historical evolution of mathematical concepts and the process of their teaching and learning. The paper deals…

  2. Environmental Epigenetics and a Unified Theory of the Molecular Aspects of Evolution: A Neo-Lamarckian Concept that Facilitates Neo-Darwinian Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Michael K

    2015-04-26

    Environment has a critical role in the natural selection process for Darwinian evolution. The primary molecular component currently considered for neo-Darwinian evolution involves genetic alterations and random mutations that generate the phenotypic variation required for natural selection to act. The vast majority of environmental factors cannot directly alter DNA sequence. Epigenetic mechanisms directly regulate genetic processes and can be dramatically altered by environmental factors. Therefore, environmental epigenetics provides a molecular mechanism to directly alter phenotypic variation generationally. Lamarck proposed in 1802 the concept that environment can directly alter phenotype in a heritable manner. Environmental epigenetics and epigenetic transgenerational inheritance provide molecular mechanisms for this process. Therefore, environment can on a molecular level influence the phenotypic variation directly. The ability of environmental epigenetics to alter phenotypic and genotypic variation directly can significantly impact natural selection. Neo-Lamarckian concept can facilitate neo-Darwinian evolution. A unified theory of evolution is presented to describe the integration of environmental epigenetic and genetic aspects of evolution.

  3. 离散数学课程基本概念教学方法研究%Discrete Mathematics Course Teaching Method to Study the Basic Concept

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周永权; 罗淇方; 黄留佳

    2012-01-01

    针对离散数学课程中基本概念,结合离散数学课程的特点及多年来的教学实践经验,从课程性质及其特点,基本概念性重要性入手,对离散数学课程中的基本概念教学方法总结和探讨,这些方法有助于提高离散数学课程的教学效果。%According to the basic concept of discrete mathematics course,combining the characteristics of the discrete mathematics course and the practical teaching experience for many years,from the curriculum properties and characteristics,basic conceptual importance,discrete mathematics course to the basic concepts of the teaching method was summarized and discussed,the method is helpful to improve the discrete mathematics course teaching effect.The method in this paper to other course concepts teaching is of high reference value.

  4. Skeletal muscle mass and quality: evolution of modern measurement concepts in the context of sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymsfield, Steven B; Gonzalez, M Cristina; Lu, Jianhua; Jia, Guang; Zheng, Jolene

    2015-11-01

    The first reports of accurate skeletal muscle mass measurement in human subjects appeared at about the same time as introduction of the sarcopenia concept in the late 1980s. Since then these methods, computed tomography and MRI, have been used to gain insights into older (i.e. anthropometry and urinary markers) and more recently developed and refined methods (ultrasound, bioimpedance analysis and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) of quantifying regional and total body skeletal muscle mass. The objective of this review is to describe the evolution of these methods and their continued development in the context of sarcopenia evaluation and treatment. Advances in these technologies are described with a focus on additional quantifiable measures that relate to muscle composition and 'quality'. The integration of these collective evaluations with strength and physical performance indices is highlighted with linkages to evaluation of sarcopenia and the spectrum of related disorders such as sarcopenic obesity, cachexia and frailty. Our findings show that currently available methods and those in development are capable of non-invasively extending measures from solely 'mass' to quality evaluations that promise to close the gaps now recognised between skeletal muscle mass and muscle function, morbidity and mortality. As the largest tissue compartment in most adults, skeletal muscle mass and aspects of muscle composition can now be evaluated by a wide array of technologies that provide important new research and clinical opportunities aligned with the growing interest in the spectrum of conditions associated with sarcopenia. PMID:25851205

  5. Skeletal muscle mass and quality: evolution of modern measurement concepts in the context of sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymsfield, Steven B; Gonzalez, M Cristina; Lu, Jianhua; Jia, Guang; Zheng, Jolene

    2015-11-01

    The first reports of accurate skeletal muscle mass measurement in human subjects appeared at about the same time as introduction of the sarcopenia concept in the late 1980s. Since then these methods, computed tomography and MRI, have been used to gain insights into older (i.e. anthropometry and urinary markers) and more recently developed and refined methods (ultrasound, bioimpedance analysis and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) of quantifying regional and total body skeletal muscle mass. The objective of this review is to describe the evolution of these methods and their continued development in the context of sarcopenia evaluation and treatment. Advances in these technologies are described with a focus on additional quantifiable measures that relate to muscle composition and 'quality'. The integration of these collective evaluations with strength and physical performance indices is highlighted with linkages to evaluation of sarcopenia and the spectrum of related disorders such as sarcopenic obesity, cachexia and frailty. Our findings show that currently available methods and those in development are capable of non-invasively extending measures from solely 'mass' to quality evaluations that promise to close the gaps now recognised between skeletal muscle mass and muscle function, morbidity and mortality. As the largest tissue compartment in most adults, skeletal muscle mass and aspects of muscle composition can now be evaluated by a wide array of technologies that provide important new research and clinical opportunities aligned with the growing interest in the spectrum of conditions associated with sarcopenia.

  6. The evolution of the concepts of growth, development and other related, during the last decades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek S. Jankiewicz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of such terms as growth, differentiation, development, morphogenesis etc. is discussed. It is proposed that the term (notion development should be understood to comprise "growth", "differentiation" and even "abscission, abortion and necrosis". The term "development" is already used in such a way by some authors. The relations among the phenomena denoted by the above terms are presented in a graphic form to show that they partly overlap. The concept that growth and development represent quantitative and qualitative aspects (respectively of plant augmentation is criticized. The newly introduced terms "development hormone" or "development regulator" seem more suitable than "growth hormone" and "growth regulator", however, these later ones are correct and may be used. The traditional term "phytohormone" and the newly introduced one "phytoregulator" seem convenient, but it must be kept in mind that such substances may transmit information both on a chemical basis as well as on a biophysical one. An example here can be auxin; a change in the wavy character of its transport may serve as information. In some cases a complex of two or more substances may play the role of a hormone, for instance ACC and ethylene, of which one is easily transportable but little active and the other is very active but exerts its action rather locally. Other combinations of activities may exist in other such pairs.

  7. Research on Some Basic Concepts in the Theory of Football Technique%足球技术理论中若干基本概念研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小敏

    2012-01-01

    Some basic concepts in the theory skill of football were reconsidered and redefined in this paper with methods of proof dialectical logic. The result shows that there exist logical error and fuzzy concept in football tech, nique theory concepts. Therefore, this paper makes definition on concept in the theory of football technique and the football techniquecan be divided into the single skill and combined skill, the basic skill and specific skill, and the essential skill and oractical skill.%运用辩证逻辑方法审视足球技术理论中的基本概念。发现足球技术理论中的概念存在逻辑错误及概念模糊。因此本文对足球运动技术理论中的概念进行重新定义及梳理,认为足球技术可分为基础技术、基本技术和比赛技术,并描述了足球技术的基本框架。

  8. Practical Nursing Education. A Guide for Teaching Basic Concepts and Skills in the Use of Drugs. Pamphlet Number 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Elizabeth M.

    Intended to assist teachers in either basic or continuing education programs to convey knowledge, techniques, and attitudes pertaining to drugs, the pamphlet outlines instruction which is estimated to require 70 to 100 hours of which 50 to 80 should be scheduled for classroom work and 20 hours for clinical work. Three units containing concepts…

  9. Basic Conceptual Systems (BCSs)--Tools for Analytic Coding, Thinking and Learning: A Concept Teaching Curriculum in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    The role of basic conceptual systems (for example, colour, shape, size, position, direction, number, pattern, etc.) as psychological tools for analytic coding, thinking, learning is emphasised, and a proposal for a teaching order of BCSs in kindergarten and primary school is introduced. The first part of this article explains briefly main aspects…

  10. Triatominae Biochemistry Goes to School: Evaluation of a Novel Tool for Teaching Basic Biochemical Concepts of Chagas Disease Vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Leonardo Rodrigues; de Oliveria Cudischevitch, Cecília; Carneiro, Alan Brito; Macedo, Gustavo Bartholomeu; Lannes, Denise; da Silva-Neto, Mário Alberto Cardoso

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate a new approach to teaching the basic biochemistry mechanisms that regulate the biology of Triatominae, major vectors of "Trypanosoma cruzi," the causative agent of Chagas disease. We have designed and used a comic book, "Carlos Chagas: 100 years after a hero's discovery" containing scientific information…

  11. The Use of Self-Learning Modules to Facilitate Learning of Basic Science Concepts in an Integrated Medical Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Mohammed K.; Nelson, Loren D.; Kibble, Jonathan D.

    2010-01-01

    This study used qualitative and quantitative approaches to evaluate the effectiveness of self-learning modules (SLMs) developed to facilitate and individualize students' learning of basic medical sciences. Twenty physiology and nineteen microanatomy SLMs were designed with interactive images, animations, narrations, and self-assessments. Of 41…

  12. Evidence-based neurosurgery. Basic concepts for the appraisal and application of scientific information to patient care (Part II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esene, Ignatius N; Baeesa, Saleh S; Ammar, Ahmed

    2016-07-01

    Medical evidence is obtainable from approaches, which might be descriptive, analytic and integrative and ranked into levels of evidence, graded according to quality and summarized into strengths of recommendation. Sources of evidence range from expert opinions through well-randomized control trials to meta-analyses. The conscientious, explicit, and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions related to the care of individual patients defines the concept of evidence-based neurosurgery (EBN). We reviewed reference books of clinical epidemiology, evidence-based practice and other previously related articles addressing principles of evidence-based practice in neurosurgery. Based on existing theories and models and our cumulative years of experience and expertise conducting research and promoting EBN, we have synthesized and presented a holistic overview of the concept of EBN. We have also underscored the importance of clinical research and its relationship to EBN. Useful electronic resources are provided. The concept of critical appraisal is introduced. PMID:27356649

  13. Interactive evolution concept for analyzing a rock salt cavern under cyclic thermo-mechanical loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Diethard; Mahmoudi, Elham; Khaledi, Kavan; von Blumenthal, Achim; Schanz, Tom

    2016-04-01

    The excess electricity produced by renewable energy sources available during off-peak periods of consumption can be used e.g. to produce and compress hydrogen or to compress air. Afterwards the pressurized gas is stored in the rock salt cavities. During this process, thermo-mechanical cyclic loading is applied to the rock salt surrounding the cavern. Compared to the operation of conventional storage caverns in rock salt the frequencies of filling and discharging cycles and therefore the thermo-mechanical loading cycles are much higher, e.g. daily or weekly compared to seasonally or yearly. The stress strain behavior of rock salt as well as the deformation behavior and the stability of caverns in rock salt under such loading conditions are unknown. To overcome this, existing experimental studies have to be supplemented by exploring the behavior of rock salt under combined thermo-mechanical cyclic loading. Existing constitutive relations have to be extended to cover degradation of rock salt under thermo-mechanical cyclic loading. At least the complex system of a cavern in rock salt under these loading conditions has to be analyzed by numerical modeling taking into account the uncertainties due to limited access in large depth to investigate material composition and properties. An interactive evolution concept is presented to link the different components of such a study - experimental modeling, constitutive modeling and numerical modeling. A triaxial experimental setup is designed to characterize the cyclic thermo-mechanical behavior of rock salt. The imposed boundary conditions in the experimental setup are assumed to be similar to the stress state obtained from a full-scale numerical simulation. The computational model relies primarily on the governing constitutive model for predicting the behavior of rock salt cavity. Hence, a sophisticated elasto-viscoplastic creep constitutive model is developed to take into account the dilatancy and damage progress, as well as

  14. What Works Clearinghouse Quick Review: "Academic Music: Music Instruction to Engage Third-Grade Students in Learning Basic Fraction Concepts"

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the effectiveness of an intervention designed to teach mathematical concepts through music. Specifically, it investigated the effect of the intervention on third-grade students' understanding of fractions. Sixty-seven students from one northern California elementary school participated in the study over a period of six weeks; of…

  15. A Study on Identifying the Misconceptions of Pre-Service and In-Service Teachers about Basic Astronomy Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanli, Uygar

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, the importance given to astronomy teaching in science and physics education has been gradually increasing. At the same time, teachers play an important role in remediating the misconceptions about astronomy concepts held by students. The present study aims to determine the misconceptions of pre-service physics teachers (n = 117),…

  16. Basic hydraulics

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, P D

    1982-01-01

    BASIC Hydraulics aims to help students both to become proficient in the BASIC programming language by actually using the language in an important field of engineering and to use computing as a means of mastering the subject of hydraulics. The book begins with a summary of the technique of computing in BASIC together with comments and listing of the main commands and statements. Subsequent chapters introduce the fundamental concepts and appropriate governing equations. Topics covered include principles of fluid mechanics; flow in pipes, pipe networks and open channels; hydraulic machinery;

  17. The role of rules in the evolution of the market system: Hayek’s concept of evolutionary epistemology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Miloš

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the concept of the Darwinian paradigm that, by using Darwin’s principles of variation, selection, and retention, all domains from biology to economic systems can be explained, the advocates of modern evolutionary epistemology have analyzed the role of thoughtful institutional design in the process of cultural evolution. In light of the issue of how human intention and evolutionary forces interact in socioeconomic processes, this paper examines the views of F. A. Hayek, the most famous follower of evolutionary epistemology, on the evolution of the market economy system. In this paper special attention will be devoted to Hayek’s concept of rational liberalism and his evolutionary epistemology. [Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179066: Improving the Competitiveness of the Public and Private Sectors by Networking Competences in the European Integration Process of Serbia

  18. Evolution of the Treatment Integrity Concept: Current Status and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresham, Frank M.

    2009-01-01

    The concept of treatment integrity cuts across a diversity of fields involved with providing treatments or interventions to individuals. In medical treatments, the concept of "treatment compliance" or "treatment adherence" is an important and problematic issue. In the field of nutrition, the concept of "dietary adherence" is important for…

  19. Teaching the basic concepts of the Special Relativity in the secondary school in the framework of the Theory of Conceptual Fields of Vergnaud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rita Otero, Marıa; Arlego, Marcelo; Prodanoff, Fabiana

    2016-05-01

    In this work, we investigate the conceptualization of the basic aspects of Special Relativity (SR) at secondary school level. We have conducted our research along the lines of the Theory of Conceptual Fields (TCF) proposed by Vergnaud (Vergnaud G., Infancia y Aprendizaje, 36 (2013) 131). The investigation consisted in the design, implementation and evaluation of a didactic sequence specially elaborated to conceptualize the basic aspects of SR. The proposal is composed by eight situations, complemented with a set of exercises. It was carried out in two classrooms with students of the last year of secondary level (17years old, N = 43 . The conceptualization was analyzed in a classroom context, where the selected situations are essential to promote the emergence of the relevant concepts.

  20. Differences in the Concept of Fitness Between Artificial Evolution and Natural Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Adami, Christoph; Bryson, David M.; Ofria, Charles; Pennock, Robert T.; Lichocki, Pawel; Keller, Laurent; Floreano, Dario

    2012-01-01

    Evolutionary algorithms were proposed to automatically find solutions to computational problems, much like evolution discovers new adaptive traits. Lately, they have been used to address challenging questions about the evolution of modularity, the genetic code, communication, division of labor and cooperation. Evolutionary algorithms are increasingly popular in biological studies, because they give precise control over the experimental conditions and allow the study of evolution at unpreceden...

  1. Double-echo perfusion-weighted MR imaging: basic concepts and application in brain tumors for the assessment of tumor blood volume and vascular permeability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uematsu, Hidemasa [University of Fukui, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Fukui (Japan); Maeda, Masayuki [Mie University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Mie (Japan)

    2006-01-01

    Perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging using contrast agents plays a key role in characterizing tumors of the brain. We have shown that double-echo perfusion-weighted MR imaging (DEPWI) is potentially useful in assessing brain tumors. Quantitative indices, such as tumor blood volume, are obtained using DEPWI, which allows correction of underestimation of tumor blood volume due to leakage of contrast agents from tumor vessels, in addition to simultaneous acquisition of tumor vessel permeability. This article describes basic concepts of DEPWI and demonstrates clinical applications in brain tumors. (orig.)

  2. Astrophysical Concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Harwit, Martin

    2006-01-01

    This classic text, aimed at senior undergraduates and beginning graduate students in physics and astronomy, presents a wide range of astrophysical concepts in sufficient depth to give the reader a quantitative understanding of the subject. Emphasizing physical concepts, the book outlines cosmic events but does not portray them in detail: it provides a series of astrophysical sketches. For this fourth edition, nearly every part of the text has been reconsidered and rewritten, new sections have been added to cover recent developments, and others have been extensively revised and brought up to date. The book begins with an outline of the scope of modern astrophysics and enumerates some of the outstanding problems faced in the field today. The basic physics needed to tackle these questions are developed in the next few chapters using specific astronomical processes as examples. The second half of the book enlarges on these topics and shows how we can obtain quantitative insight into the structure and evolution of...

  3. Evolution and Implementation of the NASA Robotic Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis Concept of Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, L.; Hejduk, M.; Frigm, R.; Duncan, M.

    2014-09-01

    On-orbit collisions pose a significant mission risk to satellites operating in the space environment. Recognizing the likelihood and consequence of on-orbit collisions, NASA has taken several proactive measures to mitigate the risk of both a catastrophic loss of mission and the increase in the space debris population. In fall 2004, NASA GSFC established an Agency-wide, institutionalized process and service for identifying and reacting to predicted close approaches. The team responsible for executing this mission is the NASA Robotic Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis (CARA) team. By fall 2005, this process had resulted in the execution of the first collision avoidance maneuver by a NASA unmanned satellite. In February 2008, NASA adopted a policy, documented in NASA Procedural Requirement 8715.6a Process for Limiting Orbital Debris that directed maneuverable satellites to have such an on-orbit collision mitigation process. In 2009, NASA decided to require support for all operational satellites. By January 2014, the CARA team has processed nearly 500,000 close approach messages from the Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) and has assisted our mission customers with planning and executing over 75 collision avoidance maneuvers for unmanned satellites in LEO, GEO, and HEO orbital regimes. With the increase in number of operational missions supported; growth in the orbital debris environment due to events such as the intentional destruction of the Fengyun 1-C satellite in 2007 and collision between Iridium-33 and Cosmos-2251; and improvements to the United States Space Surveillance Network (SSN) and its ability to track, catalog, and screen against small debris objects, the demands on the CARA process have consequently required the CARA Concept of Operations (CONOPS) to evolve to manage those demands. This evolution is centered on the ability to effectively and efficiently manage JSpOC, CARA, and Mission Operations resources, applying operational and analytical

  4. Evolution/Creationism Controversy: Analysis of Past and Current Policies in Public Schools and the Practice of Allowing Students to Opt Out of Learning Evolution Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speake, Jacquelyn Hoffmann

    2011-07-01

    Recent anti-evolution legislation, in the form of Academic Freedom bills, has been introduced in many state legislatures over the last three years. The language in the proposed Academic Freedom bills may allow different interpretations of what can be taught in the science classrooms, and possibly spur parents to take advantage of their perceived parental rights to request their child be opted-out of class when the scientific theory of evolution is taught. Five research questions guided the analysis of participant responses to questions and perception statements focusing on secondary school administrators' actions, perceptions, and awareness as they relate to their decision to allow or not allow a student to opt out of academics, specifically evolution, through the collection of data using a web-based survey. Opt out policies are typically invoked to excuse students from activities to which they or their parents may have religious objections (Scott & Branch, 2008). Florida statutes allow parents to opt out their child from human sexuality and animal dissection. The population consisted of 281 Florida public secondary school administrators, who were divided into two subgroups based on whether they have allowed or would allow a student to opt out of evolution, or have not allowed or would not allow a student to opt out of class when the scientific theory of evolution is taught. Results found that over 70% of the administrators who completed the survey have allowed or would allow parents to opt out their child from learning about the scientific theory of evolution. There was a significant relationship between the decision to allow opt out and the following variables: (a) Free and Reduced Lunch population, (b) grade level served, (c) support for teaching evolution and alternative theories, and (d) the perception that parent rights supersede state statute requiring students to learn evolution. In Florida, any scientific concept that is based on empirical evidence is

  5. THE CONCEPT OF BUILDING THE MANAGER’S INFORMATIONAL COMPETENCY AS A BASIC COMPONENT OF PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Karpechenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a concept of building the future managers’ informational competency through an integrative course implemented in the educational process is presented. Here, importance and urgency of implementing such course is reasoned; described its goals and objectives, as well as cultural and professional competencies that will be built as a result of the study. The article describes the structure of the course, the main principles that serve as a basis for the program modeling and the course content, as well as the conditions of its organization, such as logistics support, methodical recommendations on how to organize the learning process, and modern and active training methods.

  6. Students conceptions of Basic General Education (14 – 15 years old about the nature and perception of color

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina M. Bravo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The ideas of a group of ninth grade Basic General Education students are analized. (14 – 15 years old. The mentioned ideas are related to nature and perception of colour. This was possible after having – the students – participated in didactic proposals that approached the referred theme, once they achieved the entrance to Second Cycle. These ideas are characterized according to underlying ontological, conceptual and epistemological principles, as well as in relation to reasoning schemes associated with them. The consistence and coherence of the responses given by these students to a multiple choice test, and a questionnaire containing open problems, are evaluated. Most of the students present ideas about colour coherent with science, being able to develop explanations that relate an important number of variables, properly.

  7. Conceptualizing the aesthetic experience: using the influence matrix to show causal relationships between basic concepts in aesthetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Rué, Emma; Mrotzek, Maximilian

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that using tools from systems science for teaching and learning in the Humanities offers innovative insights that can prove helpful for both students and lecturers. Our contention here is that a method used in systems science, namely the influence matrix, can be a suitable tool to facilitate the understanding of elementary notions in Aesthetics by means of systematizing this process. As we will demonstrate in the upcoming sections, the influence matrix can help us to understand the nature and function of the basic elements that take part in the aesthetic experience and their evolving relevance in the history of Aesthetics. The implementation of these elements to an influence matrix will contribute to a more detailed understanding of (i) the nature of each element, (ii) the interrelation between them and (iii) the influence each element has on all the others.

  8. Medical Students’ View about the Effects of Practical Courses on Learning the General Theoretical Concepts of Basic Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Roshangar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The basic medical sciences section requires 2.5 years in the medical education curriculum. Practical courses complement theoretical knowledge in this period to improve their appreciation. Despite spending lots of disbursement and time, this period’s efficacy is not clearly known. Methods: One hundred thirty-three General Practitioner (GP students have been included in this descriptive cross-sectional study and were asked by questionnaire about the positive impact of practical courses on learning theoretical knowledge. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics. Result: The agreement in “Practical Head and Neck Anatomy” was 40.91% ± 29.45, in “Practical Trunk Anatomy” was 63.62% ± 2.32 and in “Practical Anatomy of Extremities” was 56.16% ± 2.57. In “Practical Histology”, agreement was 69.50%±2.19; “Practical Biophysics” was 45.97%±2.25, “Practical Physiology” 61.75%±2.17; “Practical Biochemistry” 36.28%±2.42; “Practical Pathology” 59.80%±2.53; “Practical Immunology” 56.25%±26.40; “Practical Microbiology and Virology” 60.39%±2.27 and “Practical Mycology and Parasitology” 68.2%± 2.16.Conclusion: GP students in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences are not optimistic about the applicability of practical courses of basic medical sciences lessons.

  9. Evolution of the liquid metal reactor: The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept has been under development at Argonne National Laboratory since 1984. A key feature of the IFR concept is the metallic fuel. Metallic fuel was the original choice in early liquid metal reactor development. Solid technical accomplishments have been accumulating year after year in all aspects of the IFR development program. But as we make technical progress, the ultimate potential offered by the IFR concept as a next generation advanced reactor becomes clearer and clearer. The IFR concept can meet all three fundamental requirements needed in a next generation reactor. This document discusses these requirements: breeding, safety, and waste management. 5 refs., 4 figs

  10. Wavelet basics

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, Y T

    1995-01-01

    Since the study of wavelets is a relatively new area, much of the research coming from mathematicians, most of the literature uses terminology, concepts and proofs that may, at times, be difficult and intimidating for the engineer. Wavelet Basics has therefore been written as an introductory book for scientists and engineers. The mathematical presentation has been kept simple, the concepts being presented in elaborate detail in a terminology that engineers will find familiar. Difficult ideas are illustrated with examples which will also aid in the development of an intuitive insight. Chapter 1 reviews the basics of signal transformation and discusses the concepts of duals and frames. Chapter 2 introduces the wavelet transform, contrasts it with the short-time Fourier transform and clarifies the names of the different types of wavelet transforms. Chapter 3 links multiresolution analysis, orthonormal wavelets and the design of digital filters. Chapter 4 gives a tour d'horizon of topics of current interest: wave...

  11. Tentativa de integração entre algumas concepções básicas da psicanálise e da neurociência Essay on integration of some basic psychoanalytic concepts with basic concepts of neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusaku Soussumi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O autor aborda a falta de uma visão integrativa do ser humano que existe no estudo da neurociência e da psicanálise, em face da educação e da cultura fundamentadas sobre o paradigma da fragmentação. Essa visão fragmentada leva os estudiosos a desconsiderar a unidade sobre a qual se desdobraram os fatos e os fenômenos subseqüentes no processo de desenvolvimento e evolução dos seres vivos. O autor toma o instinto de sobrevivência, que é inerente à própria vida e a todo ser vivo, como a unidade que está na base de todos os fenômenos orgânicos e mentais e tenta estudar suas expressões, integrando fenômenos neurobiológicos e psicológicos, que são indissociáveis, de acordo com a visão de auto-regulação concebida por Freud.The author has reported his own apprehensions about the lack of integrative vision in the study of neurosciences and psychoanalysis, related to the fact that our education and culture are based on the paradigm of fragmentation. The consequence of this fragmented vision is that the specialist can not capture the unity of the facts and the subsequent phenomena within the process of development and evolution. The author has taken the survival instinct that is inherent to life itself and to all live beings as a basis that is common to all organic and mental phenomena and tries to study their expressions, integrating neurobiological and psychological phenomena, which are inseparable, within the vision of self-regulation conceived by Freud.

  12. Control of multiscale systems with constraints. 1. Basic principles of the concept of evolution of systems with varying constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Adamenko, S; Novikov, V

    2013-01-01

    Physical fundamentals of the self-organizing theory for the system with varying constraints are considered. A variation principle, specifically the principle of dynamic harmonization as a generalization of the Gauss-Hertz principle for the systems with varying internal structure is formulated. In compliance with this principle the system evolves through dynamics of the processes leading to harmonization of the internal multiscale structure of the system and its connections with external actions as a result of minimizing the dynamic harmonization function. Main principles of the shell model of self-organization under the action of the dominating entropic disturbance are formulated.

  13. Learning support of the basic concepts of mathematical logic by using e-learning materials in the teaching of expert systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Bakó

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decades, the importance of e-learning constantly increased. We believe that the most important property of the e-learning is: it is a user-centered system, which means that the student may proceed at its own place in the curriculum. It allows students to try things out, participate in courses, tests and simulations like never before, and get more out of learning than before.Teaching expert systems I realized that I can’t teach Prolog and Clips programming language because our students have no adequate knowledge of mathematical logic. In expert systems to describe it, even thousands statement-parameters should be used, therefore, the knowledge of basic concepts of mathematical logic is essential. In this article, an e-learning environment is presented, which enables agro-informatics students to learn or recall the basic concepts of mathematical logic necessary for the course Expert systems. According to the questionnaire the students like the e-learning materials, and would like to use it at other subjects, too. They don’t want to replace the standard lectures with e-learning materials; they would use them as additional material to lectures and practices.

  14. 市民社会与现代法律的基本理念%Civil Society and Basic Concepts of Modern Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张德琴

    2014-01-01

    从总体上看,保护财产私有权、契约自由权、公民平等权这三大现代法律制度的基本原则,是现代法律的基本理念的具体体现和主要内容。私法与市民社会有一种与生俱来的内在亲和关系,现代法律的基本理念源于市民社会,又表达了市民社会的内在要求,因而现代法的精神实质上就是私法的精神。在法制现代化的过程中,国家和市民社会是其内在的双重推动力。%This paper brielfy analyzed the civil society and then explores the basic concept of modern law, civil society and the spirit of western private law. Generally speaking, protecting ownership to private property, freedom of contract and civil right of equality is the concrete embodiment of modern law. Private law and civil society have an innate afifnity. The basic concept of modern law originated from civil society and expresses the demands of civil society. Therefore, the spiritual essence of modern law is the spirit of private law.

  15. Aquecimento em forno de microondas / desenvolvimento de alguns conceitos fundamentais Heating in microwave ovens/ developing of basic concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia R. N. Barboza

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The microwave oven became a common domestic equipment, due mainly to the short time spent to heat foods. One of the most interesting characteristics of the microwave oven is the selective heating. Different from the conventional oven, where the heating is not selective, the heating by microwave depends on the chemical nature of the matter. Many Students of Chemistry have no knowledge of the principles involved in this selective heating, in spite of the daily microwave oven use. The heating by microwave is feasible for chemistry courses. In discussions about the microwave absorption by the matter it is possible to explore chemical properties like: heat capacity, chemical bound, molecular structure, dipole moments, polarization and dielectric constant. This paper presents the basic principles involved in the microwave heating. It is proposed a simple and inexpensive experiment that could be developed in general chemistry courses, to illustrate the relationship between heating and the chemical properties of some solvents. Experiments to check the power of the microwave oven are also proposed.

  16. Study on computerized presentation of emergency procedures of a nuclear plant. Step-1 thoughts on basic concept and specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Only presentation of raw documented emergency procedure is not considered to be effective for nuclear plants' operators during an accident. It is necessary to present the re-formatted one. In this paper, the basic methodology and specification for presenting emergency procedures on Graphic User Interface (GUI) as a basis for the presentation on plant CRT is treated. In the first chapter, the trend of emergency procedures in nuclear plants in the world is mentioned. The possible support for nuclear plants' operators by the computerized emergency procedure is also referred in this chapter. In the next chapter, the problems to be considered in the work for the emergency computerization are discussed in detail. They are as follows: (1) The access to the adequate emergency procedure and the step to be done (What is called Navigation), (2) Re-formatting technology for presentation, (3) How to monitor progress of operation, (4) What kind of HELP function should be installed, (5) How to link plant process. The simplified mock-up of the presentation of the emergency procedure assuming automatic activation of safety injection is mentioned in the subsequent chapters. These results can be applied to the presentation of emergency procedures in real plants. (author)

  17. The concept of music evolution in Herbert Spencer’s and Charles Darwin’s theories

    OpenAIRE

    Petrov Ana

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the discourses on music in Herbert Spencer’s and Charles Darwin’s theories of evolution. Even though both Spencer and Darwin construed music as a carrier of the expression of affects and a part of a ubiquitous evolutional process towards ever increasing progress of culture, these authors’ discourses differed from each other in the understanding of the origin and function of music. Darwin considered music as being one of the (natural) means of making a selection dur...

  18. A re-examination of basic conception of psychology resilience%对心理弹性概念的重新审视

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤鹏程; 周秋红

    2012-01-01

      The research of resilience is now capturing high interest around the world.However,there are still some issues on the basic conception of psychology resilience which is worth of discussing.This paper provides an overview of the historical development of the resilience concept and conclude the identified criticism regarding the concept of resilience.Through these processes,resilience is defined as the phenomenon of showing healthy psychology even under pressure within different contexts at a time.Moreover,the assessment of resilience is discussed in order to promote theoretic and practical researches in the aspect of psychology resilience.%  心理弹性研究正受到来自各方的积极关注,然而围绕心理弹性的基本概念仍存在着一些值得探讨的问题。对心理弹性的研究历程,心理弹性概念的争论进行综述,认为心理弹性是个体在一定时间内在不同的情境下受到压力后仍然表现出健康心理的现象。并对心理弹性的测量进行了探讨,以促进这方面理论与实践的研究。

  19. 对柔力球运动基本概念的探讨%Discussion on Basic Concept of Rouli Ball Sport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李恩荆

    2012-01-01

    By using the method of literature, logic analysis and concept definition method, this paper probed into the basic concept and sport features of the Rouli ball so as to provide theoretic references of the development and connotation exploration of Rouli ball. And it further proposes the innovative concept of the main feature of this ex ercise, that is, concessional buffering curving or circular exercise of the ball controlled by the handheld racket. The research provides important theoretical reference for promoting the Rouli ball sport.%采用文献资料和专家访谈、通过逻辑分析和概念定义法探讨柔力球运动的基本概念和运动特征,旨在为今后柔力球运动的发展和内涵挖掘研究提供一定理论依据。并提出了“柔力球运动是指练习者手持柔力球拍,以球在球拍上做缓冲退让性的弧线或圆的运动为主要技术特征的一项民族体育项目”这一全新的概念。

  20. Relationship of beliefs, epistemology, and alternate conceptions to college student understanding of evolution and common descent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joyce Catherine

    Quantitative and qualitative methodologies were combined to explore the relationships between an understanding of evolution and 4 epistemology factors: (a) control of learning, (b) speed of learning , (c) stability of knowledge, and (d) belief in evolution/creationism. A 17-item instrument was developed that reliably measured a belief in creationism and subtle differences between this belief and an acceptance of evolution. The subjects were 45 students enrolled in a biology course at a 2-year community college. Evolution was taught in a traditional format, and common descent was taught in an inquiry-based laboratory session consisting of: (a) a comparison of hemoglobin DNA sequences of the human, chimpanzee, and gorilla; and (b) a comparison of 8 primate skull casts, including the modern human, chimpanzee, gorilla, and five prehistoric fossils. Prior to instruction the students completed an epistemology questionnaire and a knowledge test about evolution. Five weeks after instruction, the students completed a posttest. A t-test revealed no differences between the pretest and the posttest. However, the group of students that scored higher on the posttest than on the pretest was found to have a stronger belief in the uncertainty of knowledge. Pearson r was computed to check for relationships between the 4 epistemological factors and the understanding of evolution. There was a significant relationship between a belief in creationism and a lessor understanding of evolution as measured on both the pretest and the posttest (ps humans evolved from the chimpanzee. Additionally, students grouped the 8 primate skulls into just 2 categories: human and animals. Other misconceptions included a nonevolutionary use of the term, related, and the use of naive organizers leading to incorrect conclusions about the relatedness of certain organisms, such as a connection between fish and whales. These organizers included: (a) similarity of traits, (b) environment, (c) relative size, (d

  1. "Basic Medical Skills" - Evaluation of a primary care oriented course concept within the new medical curriculum in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer, Thomas

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: To increase the practical orientation of medical student education in Germany, we have introduced a new mandatory course into the 3rd study year. This course combines doctor-patient communication training sessions with practical skills such as taking blood, changing dressings, etc. The primary care point of view to these topics was emphasized. The study describes the course and an evaluation of its effects on basic medical skills.Methods: Learning progress was measured using an anonymous self-evaluation questionnaire. Students graded their own competence in each individual course element using a 1-6 point scale (1='excellent' to 6='insufficient'. To objectify the learning process with regards to both practical skills and communicative competence we performed an "Objective Structured Clinical Examination" (OSCE.Results: Complete data are available from 154 of the 193 students participating in the course (average age 23.7 ±2.7 years. With regards to their competence in taking a case history, participants rated themselves with an average score of 3.99 before the course and an improved average score of 2.42 afterwards (P<0.0001. Students gave themselves credit for definite improvement in practical skills as well. Neither gender, age nor earlier medical training had any effect of the self-evaluation. Results of self-reported questionnaires corresponded well with the test results of the OSCE (N=193. Female students had significantly better results in the global rating in the communicative sections of the OSCE test than their male counterparts. Overall, the general evaluation of the course (grade 1.93 and its value for later medical competence (1.97 were very high in comparison to the average values for medical seminars at this university.Conclusion: We found high effects on clinical competence both in self-reported evaluations of the course and in the OSCE. A longitudinal study is under way in order to investigate to what

  2. Evolution of systems concepts for a 100 kWe class Space Nuclear Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katucki, R.; Josloff, A.; Kirpich, A.; Florio, F.

    1985-01-01

    Conceptual designs for the SP-100 Space Nuclear Power System have been prepared that meet baseline, backup and growth program scenarios. Near-term advancement in technology was considered in the design of the Baseline Concept. An improved silicon-germanium thermoelectric technique is used to convert the heat from a fast-spectrum, liquid lithium cooled reactor. This system produces a net power of 100 kWe with a 10-year end of life, under the specific constraints of area and volume. Output of the Backup Concept is estimated to be 60 kWe for a 10-year end of life. This system differs from the Baseline Concept because currently available thermoelectric conversion is used from energy supplied by a liquid sodium cooled reactor. The Growth Concept uses Stirling engine conversion to produce 100 kWe within the constraints of mass and volume. The Growth Concept can be scaled up to produce a 1 MWe output that uses the same type reactor developed for the Baseline Concept. Assessments made for each of the program scenarios indicate the key development efforts needed to initiate detailed design and hardware program phases. Development plans were prepared for each scenario that detail the work elements and show the program activities leading to a state of flight readiness.

  3. US long distance fiber optic networks: Technology, evolution and advanced concepts. Volume 3: Advanced networks and economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    This study projects until 2000 the evolution of long distance fiber optic networks in the U.S. Volume 1 is the executive Summary. Volume 2 focuses on fiber optic components and systems that are directly related to the operation of long-haul networks. Optimistic, pessimistic and most likely scenarios of technology development are presented. The activities of national and regional companies implementing fiber long haul networks are also highlighted, along with an analysis of the market and regulatory forces affecting network evolution. Volume 3 presents advanced fiber optic network concept definitions. Inter-LATA traffic is quantified and forms the basis for the construction of 11-, 15-, 17-, and 23-node networks. Using the technology projections from Volume 2, a financial model identifies cost drivers and determines circuit mile costs between any two LATAs. A comparison of fiber optics with alternative transmission concludes the report.

  4. US long distance fiber optic networks: Technology, evolution and advanced concepts. Volume 2: Fiber optic technology and long distance networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    The study projects until 2000 the evolution of long distance fiber optic networks in the U.S. Volume 1 is the Executive Summary. Volume 2 focuses on fiber optic components and systems that are directly related to the operation of long-haul networks. Optimistic, pessimistic and most likely scenarios of technology development are presented. The activities of national and regional companies implementing fiber long haul networks are also highlighted, along with an analysis of the market and regulatory forces affecting network evolution. Volume 3 presents advanced fiber optic network concept definitions. Inter-LATA traffic is quantified and forms the basis for the construction of 11-, 15-, 17-, and 23-node networks. Using the technology projections from Volume 2, a financial model identifies cost drivers and determines circuit mile costs between any two LATAs. A comparison of fiber optics with alternative transmission concludes the report.

  5. 创意扩散理论基本概念解析与概念模型%Basic Concepts and Model of Creative Diffusion Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙光磊; 鞠晓峰

    2011-01-01

    根据创意扩散理论的影响变量,可以把影响创意扩散的因素划分到创意特征变量、创意者特征变量、环境因素等分类中,而这样的划分只能从技术层面反映一些特点,反之,通过“反思”的方法,则可以找到其中起基础作用的根源概念进行分析.真正影响创意扩散进展的应该从时间和空间两个基本因素来分析,其中时间又占主导地位,这是因为创意扩散的整个过程是在时间中行进.通过对“时间”因素的研究,指出时间在创意扩散中起到基础性的影响作用.综合时空因素并结合数学上描述扩散传播过程的小波变换理论,建立了创意扩散的基本概念模型.在对创意扩散的基本概念进行明确的过程中,保证了基本理念不会偏离方向,并实现了创意扩散过程的理论描述.%According to the creativity diffusion theory' s influence variable, it may divide the influence creativity proliferation factor creativity classifications and characteristic variable, creativity characteristic variable, environmental factor, but such division can only reflect some characteristics from the technical stratification plane. Otherwise, we adopt "the resonsideration" method and might find the foundation function root concept to carry on the analysis. The true influence creativity proliferation progress should analyze the time and the spatial two fundamental factors. The time occupies the dominant position, because the creativity proliferation' s entire process marches forward in the time. Through right "time" factor research, it is pointed out that time plays the foundational influencing role in the creativity proliferation. The comprehensive space and time factor and unifies in mathematics to describe the proliferation spreading process wavelet transform theory, establishing the creativity proliferation basic concept model. In carries on the explicit process to the creativity proliferation' s basic concept

  6. Magnetic exchange between metal ions with unquenched orbital angular momenta: basic concepts and relevance to molecular magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palii, Andrei; Tsukerblat, Boris; Clemente-Juan, Juan Modesto; Coronado, Eugenio

    This review article is a first attempt to give a systematic and comprehensive description (in the framework of the unified theoretical approach) of the exchange interactions in polynuclear systems based on orbitally degenerate metal ions in the context of their relevance to the modern molecular magnetism. Interest in these systems is related to the fundamental problems of magnetism and at the same time steered by a number of impressive potential applications of molecular magnets, like high-density memory storage units, nanoscale qubits, spintronics and photoswitchable devices. In the presence of orbital degeneracy, the conventional spin Hamiltonian (Heisenberg-Dirac-van Vleck model) becomes inapplicable even as an approximation. The central component of this review article constitutes the concept of orbitally-dependent exchange interaction between metal ions possessing unquenched orbital angular momenta. We present a rigorous procedure of derivation of the kinetic exchange Hamiltonian for a pair of orbitally degenerate transition metal ions that is expressed in terms of the orbital matrices and spin operators. The microscopic background reveals the interrelations between the parameters of the Hamiltonian and the internal parameters of the system including all relevant transfer integrals and fundamental intracenter interactions. The developed formalism integrated with the irreducible tensor operator (ITO) technique makes it possible to describe the exchange coupling and all relevant interactions (crystal fields, spin-orbit (SO) and Zeeman couplings) in terms of the ITOs of the full spherical group, and in this way to develop anunified and efficient computational tool. The orbitally-dependent exchange was shown to lead to an anomalously strong magnetic anisotropy that can be considered as a main physical manifestation of the unquenched orbital angular momentum in metal clusters of orbitally-degenerate ions. The theoretical background is illustrated by the following

  7. The Evolution of the LRE Concept for Students with Severe Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nietupski, John A.

    1995-01-01

    The history of the least restrictive environment concept is reviewed as it relates to students with severe disabilities (moderate, severe, or profound retardation; autism; multiple disabilities; or deaf-blindness). Stages in the evolutionary process and future prospects are analyzed, with attention to physical, functional, and social inclusion.…

  8. A synthesis of the theories and concepts of early human evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Maslin, M. A.; Shultz, S.; Trauth, M. H.

    2015-01-01

    Current evidence suggests that many of the major events in hominin evolution occurred in East Africa. Hence, over the past two decades, there has been intensive work undertaken to understand African palaeoclimate and tectonics in order to put together a coherent picture of how the environment of Africa has varied over the past 10 Myr. A new consensus is emerging that suggests the unusual geology and climate of East Africa created a complex, environmentally very variable setting. This new unde...

  9. The historical evolution of the concept of apoptosis in rheumatic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.F. Gensini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The concept of “apoptosis” can be found in chapter 35 of Hippocrates’ Mochlicon (V-IV century B.C., a treatise concerning the reduction of dislocations, in which the gangrene resulting from the treatment of fractures by means of bandages is reported and described (1,2. The idea of apoptosis was consequently already implied by Hippocrates to indicate what today is considered the physiological destruction of cells and tissues. Areteus of Cappadocia in the I century A.D. and Galen of Pergamus in the II gave ulterior and better elaboration to the concept of “necrosis”, and the term was fully defined by Rudolph Virchow, the great German pathologist, in the XIX century (3....

  10. Towards Sustainable Agricultural Stewardship: Evolution and Future Directions of the Permaculture Concept

    OpenAIRE

    Jungho Suh

    2014-01-01

    This paper traces the origins of the concept of permaculture and discusses the sustainability of permaculture itself as a form of alternative agriculture. The principles of permaculture are shown to have many views and perspectives in common with Taoism and with Buddhist ecology and economics. The amalgamation of these Oriental traditions can be translated into the Kaya equation and beyond. It is argued that future permaculture movements should focus on revitalising the communitarian spirit o...

  11. Neuroglia at the crossroads of homoeostasis, metabolism and signalling: evolution of the concept

    OpenAIRE

    Alexei Verkhratsky; Vladimir Parpura

    2012-01-01

    Ever since Rudolf Virchow in 1858 publicly announced his apprehension of neuroglia being a true connective substance, this concept has been evolving to encompass a heterogeneous population of cells with various forms and functions. We briefly compare the 19th–20th century perspectives on neuroglia with the up-to-date view of these cells as an integral, and possibly integrating, component of brain metabolism and signalling in heath and disease. We conclude that the unifying property of ...

  12. Basic Concepts in Cyber Warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lior Tabansky

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Developments in computers have made possible far reaching changes in all areas of life, and the rapid progress in computing, communications, and software has led to a dramatic reduction in the cost of producing, processing, and disseminating information. Information technologies continue to develop at an accelerated pace, and a new era has arisen in the information revolution. The rapid growth in the fields of computing and communications and the ongoing improvement in the performance of computerized systems have created a new space in the world. Cyberspace, a space created not in nature but by human beings. The interface between a new topic that enables unprecedented capabilities, a technical field that demands professional understanding, and mass media that compete for the consumer creates – perhaps predictably – the potential for obfuscation. National security has also been affected by the information revolution and the cyberspace phenomenon. Smart use of new technologies allows previously unknown capabilities, which together with new methods have generated a qualitative change in the military field. However, a public discussion on the issue of cyber security, as of other new hi-tech fields, is lacking in Israel. This essay focuses on the question of national security in light of the cyberspace phenomenon. It aims to survey the field and create a common language for a fruitful public discussion of the developing issue of cyber security, proposing operative definitions for the issues that can be applied in a discussion of Israel’s national security. The essay first addresses the properties of cyberspace, its inherent vulnerabilities, and possible threats within its realm, and then proceeds to related issues of defense, attack, and deterrence in cyberspace.

  13. Basic concepts in modern mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Hafstrom, John Edward

    2013-01-01

    In-depth overview, geared toward undergraduates of all backgrounds, covers natural numbers; sets, variables, and statement forms; mappings and operations; groups; relations and partitions; integers; and rational and real numbers. 1961 edition.

  14. Islam: Basic Terms and Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wires, Richard

    1983-01-01

    The news media constantly uses words and references that require specific knowledge and understanding if the public is to grasp the substance and implications of events and developments concerning the Islamic religion. Most frequently encountered Islamic terms and ideas are explained. (RM)

  15. The historical evolution of the concept of apoptosis in rheumatic diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Gensini, G F; D. Lippi; A.A.Conti

    2011-01-01

    The concept of “apoptosis” can be found in chapter 35 of Hippocrates’ Mochlicon (V-IV century B.C.), a treatise concerning the reduction of dislocations, in which the gangrene resulting from the treatment of fractures by means of bandages is reported and described (1,2). The idea of apoptosis was consequently already implied by Hippocrates to indicate what today is considered the physiological destruction of cells and tissues. Areteus of Cappadocia in the I century A.D. and Galen of Pergamus ...

  16. Cultural Diversity as a Concept of Global Law: Origins, Evolution and Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Mira Burri

    2010-01-01

    “Cultural diversity” has become one of the latest buzzwords on the international policymaking scene. It is employed in various contexts—sometimes as a term close to “biological diversity”, at other times as correlated to the “exception culturelle” and most often, as a generic concept that is mobilised to counter the perceived negative effects of economic globalisation. While no one has yet provided a precise definition of what cultural diversity is, what we can observe is the emergence of the...

  17. Cultural Diversity as a Concept of Global Law : Origins, Evolution and Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Burri, Mira

    2010-01-01

    “Cultural diversity” has become one of the latest buzzwords on the international policymaking scene. It is employed in various contexts – sometimes as a term close to “biological diversity”, at other times as correlated to the “exception culturelle” and most often, as a generic concept that is mobilised to counter the perceived negative effects of economic globalisation. While no one has yet provided a precise definition of what cultural diversity is, what we can observe is the emergence of t...

  18. Neuroglia at the crossroads of homoeostasis, metabolism and signalling: evolution of the concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei Verkhratsky

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Ever since Rudolf Virchow in 1858 publicly announced his apprehension of neuroglia being a true connective substance, this concept has been evolving to encompass a heterogeneous population of cells with various forms and functions. We briefly compare the 19th–20th century perspectives on neuroglia with the up-to-date view of these cells as an integral, and possibly integrating, component of brain metabolism and signalling in heath and disease. We conclude that the unifying property of otherwise diverse functions of various neuroglial cell sub-types is to maintain brain homoeostasis at different levels, from whole organ to molecular.

  19. A synthesis of the theories and concepts of early human evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslin, Mark A; Shultz, Susanne; Trauth, Martin H

    2015-03-01

    Current evidence suggests that many of the major events in hominin evolution occurred in East Africa. Hence, over the past two decades, there has been intensive work undertaken to understand African palaeoclimate and tectonics in order to put together a coherent picture of how the environment of Africa has varied over the past 10 Myr. A new consensus is emerging that suggests the unusual geology and climate of East Africa created a complex, environmentally very variable setting. This new understanding of East African climate has led to the pulsed climate variability hypothesis that suggests the long-term drying trend in East Africa was punctuated by episodes of short alternating periods of extreme humidity and aridity which may have driven hominin speciation, encephalization and dispersals out of Africa. This hypothesis is unique as it provides a conceptual framework within which other evolutionary theories can be examined: first, at macro-scale comparing phylogenetic gradualism and punctuated equilibrium; second, at a more focused level of human evolution comparing allopatric speciation, aridity hypothesis, turnover pulse hypothesis, variability selection hypothesis, Red Queen hypothesis and sympatric speciation based on sexual selection. It is proposed that each one of these mechanisms may have been acting on hominins during these short periods of climate variability, which then produce a range of different traits that led to the emergence of new species. In the case of Homo erectus (sensu lato), it is not just brain size that changes but life history (shortened inter-birth intervals, delayed development), body size and dimorphism, shoulder morphology to allow thrown projectiles, adaptation to long-distance running, ecological flexibility and social behaviour. The future of evolutionary research should be to create evidence-based meta-narratives, which encompass multiple mechanisms that select for different traits leading ultimately to speciation. PMID:25602068

  20. [Common paths of psychiatry and forensic medicine--history and evolution of insanity defense concept from antiquity to modern times].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolechała, Filip

    2009-01-01

    Forensic psychiatry and psychology were in their beginnings inseparably associated with the forensic medicine, constituting one of its related branches of knowledge. Progress and development of these disciplines, education and the practical application for the purposes of the law were a contribution of a several generations of forensic pathologists in the 19th and 20th centuries. One of the major issues of common interest was opinionating on the sanity of offenders. However, the problem of criminal responsibility of the mentally ill perpetrators dates back to much earlier times and has its roots in the distant beginnings of human civilization. In this paper, the history and evolution of the insanity concept (as a circumstance excluding the guilt of the offender) were presented, from the oldest theories to ideas underlying modern codifications.

  1. Industrialization and City Change; the Concept and Historical Evolution of Urban Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Mehdipour

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study is essentially motivated by the increasing number of problems caused by industrial diversity in urban areas. Environmental degradation, Social decay and economic decline as ultimate outcomes of the Industrialization period forced dramatic changes in the process of urbanization, particularly in the developed countries where the population growth rapidly transformed the textures of cities. Hence, several cities were compelled to reconsider and encourage the practice of sustainable urban regeneration as a momentous process to revitalize these declined urban fabrics. This study first aims to trigger a brief discussion about the Industrialization period and how this trend contributed to transformation of cities. Subsequently, the concept and objectives of urban regeneration process will be extensively explained.

  2. The Evolution of the Nondiscrimination Concept in the European Labor Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Răzvan Popescu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Most states have incorporated all the grounds of discrimination included in the two Directives their national antidiscrimination legislation. The most pressing issue is the proper application of national anti discrimination laws and the active enforcement of rights. In general, protection against discrimination on any of the grounds of the Directives in the states is not conditional on nationality, citizenship or residence status. In the majority of states, both natural and legal persons are protected against discrimination. complex and remedies often inadequate. Further work is needed to ensure the credibility and admissibility of methods of proof such as statistical evidence. When a decision is rendered by courts or equality bodies, sanctions are not always observed by respondents, and recommendations are not always followed by authorities. We think this article is a small step in the disclosure of the problem nondiscrimination concept.

  3. In vivo tissue engineering of heart valves: evolution of a novel concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleicher, Martina; Wendel, Hans Peter; Fritze, Olaf; Stock, Ulrich A

    2009-07-01

    Current tissue-engineering principles of heart valves include tissue- or stem cell-derived cells with subsequent in vitro incubation on various scaffolds prior to implantation. Limitations of this approach include a long in vitro culture, an accompanied risk of infection and sophisticated, cost-intensive infrastructures. An 'off-the-shelf' heart valve with in vivo endothelialization and tissue-regeneration potential would overcome these limitations. Additionally, the development of a heart valve with growth potential would be a huge improvement for pediatric patients. This article discusses different starter matrices, homing and immobilization strategies of host cells and masking approaches of inflammatory structures for in vivo surface and tissue engineering of heart valves. Novel concepts will be presented based on highly specific DNA-aptamers immobilized on the heart valve surface as capture molecules for endothelial progenitor cells circulating in the bloodstream.

  4. Management of patient education in US hospitals: evolution of a concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giloth, B E

    1990-04-01

    While patient education has been an integral part of health care for centuries, the management of this process is a relatively new concept for US hospitals. Beginning in the late 1960s, documentation of patient education coordinator positions, policies, committee mandates, and other management structures began to appear. National surveys and projects documented the growth of these structures and provided some evidence that their existence positively impacted the number of programs and their effectiveness. Financial pressures on hospitals including the advent of the prospective pricing system, other actions by government and business to control health care costs, and changes in technology have resulted in budget cuts, staff reductions, and reorganizations that have posed new challenges for the development of patient education management. This paper discusses these developments and their impact on management of patient education programs in hospitals.

  5. Concepts, Instruments, and Model Systems that Enabled the Rapid Evolution of Surface Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somorjai, Gabor A.; Park, Jeong Y.

    2009-01-10

    Over the past forty years, surface science has evolved to become both an atomic scale and a molecular scale science. Gerhard Ertl's group has made major contributions in the field of molecular scale surface science, focusing on vacuum studies of adsorption chemistry on single crystal surfaces. In this review, we outline three important aspects which have led to recent advances in surface chemistry: the development of new concepts, in situ instruments for molecular scale surface studies at buried interfaces (solid-gas and solid-liquid), and new model nanoparticle surface systems, in addition to single crystals. Combined molecular beam surface scattering and low energy electron diffraction (LEED)- surface structure studies on metal single crystal surfaces revealed concepts, including adsorbate-induced surface restructuring and the unique activity of defects, atomic steps, and kinks on metal surfaces. We have combined high pressure catalytic reaction studies with ultra high vacuum (UHV) surface characterization techniques using a UHV chamber equipped with a high pressure reaction cell. New instruments, such as high pressure sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) which permit molecular-level surface studies have been developed. Tools that access broad ranges of pressures can be used for both the in situ characterization of solid-gas and solid-liquid buried interfaces and the study of catalytic reaction intermediates. The model systems for the study of molecular surface chemistry have evolved from single crystals to nanoparticles in the 1-10 nm size range, which are currently the preferred media in catalytic reaction studies.

  6. Learning method and teaching strategies for basic concepts in junior high school chemistry%初中化学基本概念的学习方法与教学策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林峰

    2012-01-01

    The teaching of the basic concepts plays an very important role in junior high school chemistry,therefore,it is the key issue to strengthen the teaching of the basic concepts to improve the quality of chemistry teaching.%化学基本概念在教学中有着极其重要的地位,因此重视和加强化学基本概念的教学是提高化学教学质量的关键.

  7. Circulating tumour cells: the evolving concept and the inadequacy of their enrichment by EpCAM-based methodology for basic and clinical cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, P K; Cummins, A G; Price, T J; Roberts-Thomson, I C; Hardingham, J E

    2014-08-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that circulating tumour cells (CTCs) are responsible for metastatic relapse and this has fuelled interest in their detection and quantification. Although numerous methods have been developed for the enrichment and detection of CTCs, none has yet reached the 'gold' standard. Since epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM)-based enrichment of CTCs offers several advantages, it is one of the most commonly used and has been adapted for high-throughput technology. However, emerging evidence suggests that CTCs are highly heterogeneous: they consist of epithelial tumour cells, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) cells, hybrid (epithelial/EMT(+)) tumour cells, irreversible EMT(+) tumour cells, and circulating tumour stem cells (CTSCs). The EpCAM-based approach does not detect CTCs expressing low levels of EpCAM and non-epithelial phenotypes such as CTSCs and those that have undergone EMT and no longer express EpCAM. Thus, the approach may lead to underestimation of the significance of CTCs, in general, and CTSCs and EMT(+) tumour cells, in particular, in cancer dissemination. Here, we provide a critical review of research literature on the evolving concept of CTCs and the inadequacy of their enrichment by EpCAM-based technology for basic and clinical cancer research. The review also outlines future perspectives in the field.

  8. The basic concept of library crisis management and content analysis%图书馆危机管理的基本概念及内容分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李荣

    2014-01-01

    the library crisis means of library system security threat and destruction, so that the library into a state of high volatility. The emergence of library crisis management is to prevent the crisis after crisis has the correct effectively solve the corresponding strategy and so on the basic concept and content of library crisis management is necessary to in-depth study.%图书馆危机指的是对图书馆系统安全造成威胁和破坏从而使图书馆进入高度震荡的状态。图书馆危机管理就是为了防范危机的出现概率,出现危机后能有正确有效的对应解决策略,所以对图书馆危机管理的基本概念以及内容进行深入研究是非常有必要的。

  9. Determination of Basic Structure-Property Relations for Processing and Modeling in Advanced Nuclear Fuel: Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project objective is to study structure-property relations in solid solutions of nitrides and oxides with surrogate elements to simulate the behavior of fuels of inert matrix fuels of interest to the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), with emphasis in zirconium-based materials. Work with actual fuels will be carried out in parallel in collaboration with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Three key aspects will be explored: microstructure characterization through measurement of global texture evolution and local crystallographic variations using Electron Backscattering Diffraction (EBSD); determination of mechanical properties, including fracture toughness, quasi-static compression strength, and hardness, as functions of load and temperature, and, finally, development of structure-property relations to describe mechanical behavior of the fuels based on experimental data. Materials tested will be characterized to identify the mechanisms of deformation and fracture and their relationship to microstructure and its evolution. New aspects of this research are the inclusion of crystallographic information into the evaluation of fuel performance and the incorporation of statistical variations of microstructural variables into simplified models of mechanical behavior of fuels that account explicitly for these variations. The work is expected to provide insight into processing conditions leading to better fuel performance and structural reliability during manufacturing and service, as well as providing a simplified testing model for future fuel production

  10. Numerical simulation analysis system for basic concepts of material mechanics%材料力学概念数值模拟分析系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙连春; 刘海宏; 杨庆生

    2013-01-01

    力学课程设置的实验数量有限,需要更多实验和创新学习活动,数值实验可作为实体实验的补充。数值实验将力学问题用图像或动画形象地表示出来,达到研究或演示的目的,这将改善传统教学模式,提升学习兴趣与主动性,并且有很好的经济性。商用有限元分析软件具有良好的分析计算功能和可视化的前后处理功能,其可视化的计算结果对理解材料力学的一些基本概念很有帮助。该实验系统用VB开发简便的前处理界面,封装调用ANSYS有限元分析软件,学生无需了解ANSYS软件的使用方法即可利用其分析结果演示一些材料力学的基本概念。系统具有方便简捷的Windows交互界面,通过VB参数化输入界面,用参数化设计语言(APDL)编写模型计算程序,使用ANSYS的前后处理功能和计算功能,对材料力学中的一些问题和基本概念进行有限元求解,显示的结果可加深学生对材料力学概念的理解,有助于激发学生学习的热情和积极性,更快速、牢固地掌握材料力学的基本概念和基础知识。%Since there are short of traditional experiments in the contemporary material mechanics course , numerical simulation experiments act as complement of traditional ones to activate students ’ interests and creativities .Numerical simulation experiments show great advantages over traditional ones in the ways of illustration through images and animations to study and display the mechanical process .Moreover it is more economic than entity experiments .The commercial used finite element analysis software provides visualized pre-post processing ,analysis and computing solver to help students to understand basic concepts of material mechanics .The numerical simulation experiment system with convenient developed interface and encapsulation of ANSYS ,makes users who have no idea about using ANSYS simulate the important

  11. [Evolution of the climate change concept and its impact in the public health of Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Zavaleta, Carlos A

    2016-03-01

    The term "climate change" is not a new concept but its impact on public health is under constant review. We know that climate has already changed and will continue to change for centuries with the rise in average global temperature, and the associated rise in sea level. This fact makes mitigation efforts relevant only in the very long term and for generations of humans whose parents have not yet been born. When we talk about public health in the context of climate change, we are talking about adaptation. In the present, countries that are currently the most affected by climate change are precisely countries like Peru, without a significant carbon footprint at the global level but that are highly sensitive to the effects of climate. Without reliable climate projections, the health impact of climate change can be uncertain and complicated. Nevertheless, at the local level, every district can identify its vulnerabilities and define priorities to protect the health of its population. There are, and it can also be developed, environmental health indicators that can help monitor how well we are adapting and how prepared we are for changes in the climate. Adaptation to climate change implies improving living conditions, enhancing epidemiological surveillance systems and extending access to healthcare. The fight against the effects of climate change in public health is a fight against poverty and inequality, and that is nothing new in Peru. PMID:27384632

  12. From bladder to systemic syndrome: concept and treatment evolution of interstitial cystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinis S

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sara Dinis,1,2 Joana Tavares de Oliveira,3,4 Rui Pinto,1,5 Francisco Cruz,1,5 CA Tony Buffington,6 Paulo Dinis1,5 1Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hospital de São João, Porto, 3Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, ULHT, Lisbon, 4Institute of Molecular Pathology and Immunology (IPATIMUP, University of Porto, 5Department of Urology, Hospital de São João, Porto, Portugal; 6Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, OH, USA Abstract: Interstitial cystitis, presently known as bladder pain syndrome, has been recognized for over a century but is still far from being understood. Its etiology is unknown and the syndrome probably harbors different diseases. Autoimmune dysfunction, urothelial leakage, infection, central and peripheral nervous system dysfunction, genetic disease, childhood trauma/abuse, and subsequent stress response system dysregulation might be implicated. Management is slowly evolving from a solo act by the end-organ specialist to a team approach based on new typing and phenotyping of the disease. However, oral and invasive treatments are still largely aimed at the bladder and are based on currently proposed pathophysiologic mechanisms. Future research will better define the disease, permitting individualization of treatment. Keywords: bladder pain syndrome, concept, treatment

  13. Evolution of biomarker guided therapy for heart failure: current concepts and trial evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruett, Amanda E; Lee, Amanda K; Patterson, J Herbert; Schwartz, Todd A; Glotzer, Jana M; Adams, Kirkwood F

    2015-01-01

    Optimizing management of patients with heart failure remains quite challenging despite many significant advances in drug and device therapy for this syndrome. Although a large body of evidence from robust clinical trials supports multiple therapies, utilization of these well-established treatments remains inconsistent and outcomes suboptimal in "real-world" patients with heart failure. Disease management programs may be effective, but are difficult to implement due to cost and logistical issues. Another approach to optimizing therapy is to utilize biomarkers to guide therapeutic choices. Natriuretic peptides provide additional information of significant clinical value in the diagnosis and estimation of risk inpatients with heart failure. Ongoing research suggests a potential important added role for natriuretic peptides in heart failure. Guiding therapy based on serial changes in these biomarkers may be an effective strategy to optimize treatment and achieve better outcomes in this syndrome. Initial, innovative, proof-of-concept studies have provided encouraging results and important insights into key aspects of this strategy, but well designed, large-scale, multicenter, randomized, outcome trials are needed to definitively establish this novel approach to management. Given the immense and growing public health burden of heart failure, identification of cost-effective ways to decrease the morbidity and mortality due to this syndrome is critical. PMID:24251462

  14. [Evolution of the climate change concept and its impact in the public health of Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Zavaleta, Carlos A

    2016-03-01

    The term "climate change" is not a new concept but its impact on public health is under constant review. We know that climate has already changed and will continue to change for centuries with the rise in average global temperature, and the associated rise in sea level. This fact makes mitigation efforts relevant only in the very long term and for generations of humans whose parents have not yet been born. When we talk about public health in the context of climate change, we are talking about adaptation. In the present, countries that are currently the most affected by climate change are precisely countries like Peru, without a significant carbon footprint at the global level but that are highly sensitive to the effects of climate. Without reliable climate projections, the health impact of climate change can be uncertain and complicated. Nevertheless, at the local level, every district can identify its vulnerabilities and define priorities to protect the health of its population. There are, and it can also be developed, environmental health indicators that can help monitor how well we are adapting and how prepared we are for changes in the climate. Adaptation to climate change implies improving living conditions, enhancing epidemiological surveillance systems and extending access to healthcare. The fight against the effects of climate change in public health is a fight against poverty and inequality, and that is nothing new in Peru.

  15. A new concept for paleohydrological evolution of the Younger Dryas in NE Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouimetarhan, Ilham; Prange, Matthias; Gonzalez, Catalina; Dupont, Lydie

    2016-04-01

    The late deglacial interval from approximately 13 to 11 kyr BP contains some of the best documented abrupt climate changes in the Past, the Younger Dryas (YD). It is also an interval when the bipolar climatic signature of millennial-scale changes in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) is well expressed. Here we present a high-resolution palynological record from core GeoB16205-4 (1°21.11'N, 43°05.80'W), retrieved off the Parnaíba River mouth, southeast of the Amazon River (~1955 m water depth). Pollen and organic-walled dinoflagellate cyst assemblages indicate a predominantly wet climate during the YD in the nowadays semi-arid Nordeste, whereby a second phase between ~12.3 and 11.7 kyr BP is wetter than the period before. This is recorded by a strong increase in the concentrations of river plume dinoflagellate cyst assemblages indicative of a stratified surface water column and reduced salinity environments, as well as a drop in grass pollen and microcharcoal particle concentrations along with strong fluctuations in the representation of rain forest, gallery forest and tree ferns suggesting year-round humid conditions. This shift from a relatively wet first phase to a much wetter second phase is in agreement with the transient TRACE-21k coupled climate model simulation which shows a first pluvial Parnaíba stage from ~12.8 to 12.3 kyr BP and a second stronger pluvial stage between ~12.3 and 11.7 kyr BP to be related to a very weak AMOC due to meltwater pulses in the North Atlantic. The AMOC variation induces a steep temperature gradient between the Southern and the Northern Hemisphere which forces a southward shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and its associated rainfall. The two-step hydroclimatic and environmental evolution during the Younger Dryas has not been documented previously in this region.

  16. Ubiquitous geospatial concept in evolution of the macro and micro spatial planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are many examples of GIS application in planning such as urban land-use planning, cultural heritage conservation, coastal zone management, and the design of structure plans for sustainable economic development. All these applications are dealing with systems in which natural and human factors are interconnected. But an issue that should be addressed is to what extent the current information technology is able to connect all these parts together? Contemporary improvement in information technology made the computer so imbedded in our everyday practices that we use it without having to think about it. Thus, computing is becoming truly ubiquitous and is available anywhere anytime. Advances in the internet facilities and devices, such as high speed wireless networks, mobile middleware, and smart technologies, has pushed the concept of ubiquitous computing to the forefront of GIS research and development. There are developments in this regards, these are such as GeoWeb 2.0, voluntarily geographic Information (VGI), and Mashups, whereby the application of cloud computing was possible in visualizing urban air pollution and emergency responses to ensure the safety and security. These advancements therefore, have changed the conventional facet of macro and micro spatial planning. Every possible information system such as residential, medical, business, environmental, governmental, and the like can be linked through ubiquitous computing technologies and acts as a virtually one system which works for society. However, the journey to achieve a true ubiquitous GIS is not without challenges. Despite the current potentials there are many issues and obstacles need to be addressed before GIS can to be truly ubiquitous in planning context. Perhaps four criteria as explained by Goodchild et al (1997) can be applied to ubiquitous GIS in planning very well: the system must be distributed (data storage, processing and user interaction can occur at locations that are potentially

  17. Ubiquitous geospatial concept in evolution of the macro and micro spatial planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabri, S.; Ludin, A. N. M.; Majid, M. R.

    2014-02-01

    There are many examples of GIS application in planning such as urban land-use planning, cultural heritage conservation, coastal zone management, and the design of structure plans for sustainable economic development. All these applications are dealing with systems in which natural and human factors are interconnected. But an issue that should be addressed is to what extent the current information technology is able to connect all these parts together? Contemporary improvement in information technology made the computer so imbedded in our everyday practices that we use it without having to think about it. Thus, computing is becoming truly ubiquitous and is available anywhere anytime. Advances in the internet facilities and devices, such as high speed wireless networks, mobile middleware, and smart technologies, has pushed the concept of ubiquitous computing to the forefront of GIS research and development. There are developments in this regards, these are such as GeoWeb 2.0, voluntarily geographic Information (VGI), and Mashups, whereby the application of cloud computing was possible in visualizing urban air pollution and emergency responses to ensure the safety and security. These advancements therefore, have changed the conventional facet of macro and micro spatial planning. Every possible information system such as residential, medical, business, environmental, governmental, and the like can be linked through ubiquitous computing technologies and acts as a virtually one system which works for society. However, the journey to achieve a true ubiquitous GIS is not without challenges. Despite the current potentials there are many issues and obstacles need to be addressed before GIS can to be truly ubiquitous in planning context. Perhaps four criteria as explained by Goodchild et al (1997) can be applied to ubiquitous GIS in planning very well: the system must be distributed (data storage, processing and user interaction can occur at locations that are potentially

  18. Aromaticidade: evolução histórica do conceito e critérios quantitativos Aromaticity: historical evolution of the concept and quantitative criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Finoto Caramori

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the evolution of the concept of aromaticity is discussed. It considers not only historical aspects of the aromaticity concept but also the different criteria (theoretical and experimental that have appeared to explain the properties of the aromatic compounds. The topics range from the isolation of benzene by Faraday (1825 until the modern criteria based on geometries, magnetic properties, resonance energy (RE, aromatic stabilization energy (ASE, topological analyses, and others. A chronological separation of issues concerning aromaticity was made, splitting the definitions before and after the appearance of the quantum chemistry. This work reviews the concept of aromaticity.

  19. Analysis of a Group of Basic Concepts Laying a Foundation for Research and Design of Software Architectures%解析奠定软件体系结构研究与设计基础的一组基本概念

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿技; 周明天; 秦志光

    2001-01-01

    A group of basic concepts and their interrelations are analyzed in this paper. This group of basic concepts includes Software Structure, Software Structural Style, Software Structural View and Software Structural Level. They jointly lay a foundation for research and design of software architec-ture. So ,it is important for people working in software architecture field to clearly understand meanings and interrelations of these basic concepts.

  20. Historical evolution of the concept of anorexia nervosa and relationships with orthorexia nervosa, autism, and obsessive-compulsive spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dell'Osso L

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Liliana Dell’Osso,1 Marianna Abelli,1 Barbara Carpita,1 Stefano Pini,1 Giovanni Castellini,2 Claudia Carmassi,1 Valdo Ricca2 1Psychiatry Section, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa, 2Department of Neuroscience, Psychology, Drug Research and Child Health (NEUROFARBA, University of Florence, Florence, Italy Abstract: Eating disorders have been defined as “characterized by persistence disturbance of eating or eating-related behavior that results in the altered consumption or absorption of food and that significantly impairs health or psychosocial functioning”. The psychopathology of eating disorders changed across time under the influence of environmental factors, determining the emergence of new phenotypes. Some of these conditions are still under investigation and are not clearly identified as independent diagnostic entities. In this review, the historic evolution of the eating disorder concept up to the recent Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, has been evaluated. We also examined literature supporting the inclusion of new emergent eating behaviors within the eating disorder spectrum, and their relationship with anorexia, autism, and obsessive–compulsive disorder. In particular, we focused on what is known about the symptoms, epidemiology, assessment, and diagnostic boundaries of a new problematic eating pattern called orthorexia nervosa that could be accepted as a new psychological syndrome, as emphasized by an increasing number of scientific articles in the last few years. Keywords: anorexia nervosa, autism spectrum disorders, eating disorders spectrum, obsessive–compulsive spectrum, orthorexia nervosa, DSM-5

  1. Historical evolution of the concept of anorexia nervosa and relationships with orthorexia nervosa, autism, and obsessive-compulsive spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Osso, Liliana; Abelli, Marianna; Carpita, Barbara; Pini, Stefano; Castellini, Giovanni; Carmassi, Claudia; Ricca, Valdo

    2016-01-01

    Eating disorders have been defined as "characterized by persistence disturbance of eating or eating-related behavior that results in the altered consumption or absorption of food and that significantly impairs health or psychosocial functioning". The psychopathology of eating disorders changed across time under the influence of environmental factors, determining the emergence of new phenotypes. Some of these conditions are still under investigation and are not clearly identified as independent diagnostic entities. In this review, the historic evolution of the eating disorder concept up to the recent Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, has been evaluated. We also examined literature supporting the inclusion of new emergent eating behaviors within the eating disorder spectrum, and their relationship with anorexia, autism, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. In particular, we focused on what is known about the symptoms, epidemiology, assessment, and diagnostic boundaries of a new problematic eating pattern called orthorexia nervosa that could be accepted as a new psychological syndrome, as emphasized by an increasing number of scientific articles in the last few years.

  2. Historical evolution of the concept of anorexia nervosa and relationships with orthorexia nervosa, autism, and obsessive–compulsive spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell’Osso, Liliana; Abelli, Marianna; Carpita, Barbara; Pini, Stefano; Castellini, Giovanni; Carmassi, Claudia; Ricca, Valdo

    2016-01-01

    Eating disorders have been defined as “characterized by persistence disturbance of eating or eating-related behavior that results in the altered consumption or absorption of food and that significantly impairs health or psychosocial functioning”. The psychopathology of eating disorders changed across time under the influence of environmental factors, determining the emergence of new phenotypes. Some of these conditions are still under investigation and are not clearly identified as independent diagnostic entities. In this review, the historic evolution of the eating disorder concept up to the recent Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, has been evaluated. We also examined literature supporting the inclusion of new emergent eating behaviors within the eating disorder spectrum, and their relationship with anorexia, autism, and obsessive–compulsive disorder. In particular, we focused on what is known about the symptoms, epidemiology, assessment, and diagnostic boundaries of a new problematic eating pattern called orthorexia nervosa that could be accepted as a new psychological syndrome, as emphasized by an increasing number of scientific articles in the last few years. PMID:27462158

  3. Historical evolution of the concept of anorexia nervosa and relationships with orthorexia nervosa, autism, and obsessive-compulsive spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Osso, Liliana; Abelli, Marianna; Carpita, Barbara; Pini, Stefano; Castellini, Giovanni; Carmassi, Claudia; Ricca, Valdo

    2016-01-01

    Eating disorders have been defined as "characterized by persistence disturbance of eating or eating-related behavior that results in the altered consumption or absorption of food and that significantly impairs health or psychosocial functioning". The psychopathology of eating disorders changed across time under the influence of environmental factors, determining the emergence of new phenotypes. Some of these conditions are still under investigation and are not clearly identified as independent diagnostic entities. In this review, the historic evolution of the eating disorder concept up to the recent Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, has been evaluated. We also examined literature supporting the inclusion of new emergent eating behaviors within the eating disorder spectrum, and their relationship with anorexia, autism, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. In particular, we focused on what is known about the symptoms, epidemiology, assessment, and diagnostic boundaries of a new problematic eating pattern called orthorexia nervosa that could be accepted as a new psychological syndrome, as emphasized by an increasing number of scientific articles in the last few years. PMID:27462158

  4. The evolution of concepts of vestibular peripheral information processing: toward the dynamic, adaptive, parallel processing macular model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Muriel D.

    2003-01-01

    In a letter to Robert Hooke, written on 5 February, 1675, Isaac Newton wrote "If I have seen further than certain other men it is by standing upon the shoulders of giants." In his context, Newton was referring to the work of Galileo and Kepler, who preceded him. However, every field has its own giants, those men and women who went before us and, often with few tools at their disposal, uncovered the facts that enabled later researchers to advance knowledge in a particular area. This review traces the history of the evolution of views from early giants in the field of vestibular research to modern concepts of vestibular organ organization and function. Emphasis will be placed on the mammalian maculae as peripheral processors of linear accelerations acting on the head. This review shows that early, correct findings were sometimes unfortunately disregarded, impeding later investigations into the structure and function of the vestibular organs. The central themes are that the macular organs are highly complex, dynamic, adaptive, distributed parallel processors of information, and that historical references can help us to understand our own place in advancing knowledge about their complicated structure and functions.

  5. Based on the Concept of "Ability Standard" Curriculum Construction of Basic Music Theory%基于能力本位观的《基本乐理》课程建设研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙江江; 郎启训

    2016-01-01

    There are different methods for the teaching of Basic Music Theory in our country, so it is difficult to decide on which one is better. Meanwhile, there is short of qualified teachers in the teaching of Basic Music Theory. This paper carries out a constructive study on the course of Basic Music Theory from three aspects, the implementation of curriculum concept of Basic Music Theory, the training and education of teachers and academic research, under the guidance of ability standard concept so that it hopes to be able to achieve the purpose of promoting the benign development of the teaching of Basic Music Theory.%我国《基本乐理》课程教材版本众多无法抉择,并且该课程师资力量匮乏,文章以能力本位观为指导,从基本乐理课程理念的落实、师资力量的培育以及教材建设等方面来对《基本乐理》的课程建设展开研究,从而希望能达到促进基本乐理课程教学良性发展的目的。

  6. Revisiting the crustal evolution of the Pyrenees and the Cantabrian Mountains: inferences from new concepts and data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixell, Antonio; Labaume, Pierre; Lagabrielle, Yves

    2016-04-01

    The evolution of the Pyrenean-Cantabrian orogenic system at the crustal scale is currently reformulated in the light of new concepts of continental hyperextension and mantle exhumation applied to the preorogenic stages. Major advances are being obtained in the frame of programs as TOPOIBERIA, TOPOEUROPE, GDR Marge, PYRAMID, PYROPE and BRGM-RGF. Crustal models developed in the 80's and 90's after the ECORS reflection profiles depicted a precursor Mesozoic rift basin floored by a strongly thinned, but entirely continental substratum, using Airy isostasy. In the past years, a restatement of the significance of the Pyrenean peridotites and the application of concepts from passive continental margins has led to scenarios of extreme crustal attenuation and mantle exhumation during mid-Cretaceous times. New paleothermometrical databases show a generalized high heat flow during the mid and late Cretaceous that accounts for thermal isostasy and explains the apparent disequilibrium between extreme crustal thinning and not so great synrift sedimentary thickness and paleobathymetry. Models for the evolution of the Pyrenean orogeny must consider feedbacks between the Cretaceous hyperextension and the late Cretaceous to Cenozoic inversion. A key challenge is to identify the ancient continental margins of the European and Iberian plates and their suture. New sequential restorations of the compressional structure to selected steps allow a reassessment of the style of convergence through time. In preorogenic reconstructions, end-member models show a tilted-block structure vs. smoothly thinned (boudinaged) margins, overlain by a sedimentary lid detached in the Triassic evaporites. As for the Pyrenees, different models agree that the early stages of convergence involved the subduction of the peridotite "ocean", which was followed by early collision of the thinned continental margins until the crust regained thickness. Late collision involved northward subduction of decoupled lower

  7. Species as the basic units in evolution and biodiversity: How to define and delimit larger foraminiferal species in respect to paleogeography and biostratigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenegger, J.

    2012-04-01

    Many concepts have been developed for the base of taxonomy, the biological species. Still there is confusion in these concepts between the 'substance' of a species, e.g. which factors makes a species (definition) and how to detect or recognize a species (delimitation). Concepts like morphospecies and chronospecies (= palaeospecies) that are mainly used for fossil specimens, and all methods based on molecular genetic methods belong to the group of concepts for delimitating species. The species can be defined as a pool of contemporarily interconnected genotypes. This pool can be homogeneous or be divided into geographically separated sub-pools. Interconnectivity within such pools is given by the potential to transfer complete genomes or exchange genome parts through asexual or sexual reproduction. A change in genotype frequencies over successive generations is caused by preferred or restricted genome transfer due to evolutionary factors. After establishment of new adaptive zones, evolutionary factors leads to species differentiation. Depending on number, duration of the onset and the further role of the new adaptive zones (stable or continuously changing), various methods of speciation - grouped into split off and split up speciation - can be established. True speciation is characterized by a complete loss of the potential to transfer genomes between the new species without the possibility to fuse (hybridise) when their adaptive zones come in contact or overlap. In case of a broad geographical distribution, the area might be differentiated into several adaptive zones, where transferability between subgroups is restricted or even lost. Temporarily disconnected adaptive zones can again become combined, reinstalling transferability between sub-pools of genotypes. Genotypically and morphologically different subgroups preserving transferability are thus not species; taxonomically, these structurally distinct subgroups can be treated as subspecies. Due to this uncertainty

  8. The Correlation Study of Interest at Physics and Knowledge of Mathematics Basic Concepts towards the Ability to Solve Physics Problems of 7th Grade Students at Junior High School in Ambon Maluku Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izaak Hendrik Wenno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to determine the relation between interest at Physics and knowledge of Mathematics basic concepts with the ability to solve Physics problems. The populations are all students in the 7th grade at the junior high school in Ambon, Maluku, Indonesia. The used sample schools are Junior High Schools 8, 9, and 10 during 2013/2014 academic year with 44 students per school. Two independent variables and one dependent variable are studied. The independent variables are the interest at Physics (X1 and the knowledge of Mathematics basic concepts (X2, while the dependent variable is the ability to solve Physics problems (Y. Data collection technique for X1 is an interview with questionnaire instrument, while for the X2 and Y is using the test technique with test items instrument. The obtained data from the measurements were analyzed with descriptive analysis and inferential analysis. The results show that there is a positive relation between interest at Physics and knowledge of Mathematics basic concepts with students’ ability to solve Physics problems.

  9. 台湾本土体育概念的演进研究%Investigation into the Evolution of the Concept of Taiwanese Sports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓陆

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the evolution course of sports concepts in Taiwan and to build a diachronic trajectory of sports. It is concluded that the concept of sports regards gymnastics as markers, and it has been used since the recovery period. Although the name has been changed, the evolution of the concept connotation becomes diverse with the emergence of different events. The changes of the concept have been induced from the point of history. Thus sports concept covers multiple factors such as leisure, athletics, health and education and becomes a comprehensive grand concept.%探讨体育概念在台湾的演变历程,旨在架构体育一词的历时性变化轨迹。研究结论认为:体育概念以体操为标记,在光复年间称为"体育"沿用至今。名称虽有变化,但概念内涵的演进,却随不同事件的出现而更丰富多元。从历史痕迹来看,引发概念变化的力量。体育概念的内容因而涵盖休闲、竞技、健康与教育等多元面向,成为一个无所不包的宏大概念。

  10. Basic principals, objectives and tasks of the conception for rehabilitation of population and areas affected as a result of the accident on Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Main principles of rehabilitation of the contaminated areas are given. The goals of the rehabilitation are defined as a process to improve living standards for population and conducting economic activities on the territory of radioactive fallout in order to create clean produce and furthermore to reduce dose burden for population. Basic ways to apply the future finances within rehabilitation process are clearly defined (author)

  11. The Notion of Capitalist Evolution in Werner Sombart in the light of the Modern Critiques of the Evolutionary Conceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Sandro Segre

    2015-01-01

    This essay reconstructs Sombart’s evolutionary conception of modern capitalism, focuses on the different stages of capitalist development which Sombart has conceptualized, and evaluates this conception in the light of the current debate on the fruitfulness of the evolutionary accounts of social change. A perusal of Sombart’s oeuvre has shown that Sombart’s conception of the capitalist social and historical change anticipates modernization theories, while avoiding the fallacies of Merton’s and...

  12. Definitions and Basic Concepts of Supply and Demand Analysis Used to Determine Market Equilibrium. Principles of Economics II (Microeconomics), Lesson Plan No. 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu-Irion, Vicky

    Developed as part of a 37.5-hour microeconomics course, this lesson plan focuses on the concepts of supply and demand analysis used to determine market equilibrium. The objectives of the 50-minute lesson are to enable the student to: (1) explain how a demand schedule is derived from raw data; (2) graph a demand curve from the demand schedule; (3)…

  13. Badminton--Teaching Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Marilyn J.

    1988-01-01

    Teaching four basic badminton concepts along with the usual basic skill shots allows players to develop game strategy awareness as well as mechanical skills. These four basic concepts are: (1) ready position, (2) flight trajectory, (3) early shuttle contact, and (4) camouflage. (IAH)

  14. A rhodium/silicon co-electrocatalyst design concept to surpass platinum hydrogen evolution activity at high overpotentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lili; Lin, Haiping; Li, Youyong; Liao, Fan; Lifshitz, Yeshayahu; Sheng, Minqi; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Shao, Mingwang

    2016-01-01

    Currently, platinum-based electrocatalysts show the best performance for hydrogen evolution. All hydrogen evolution reaction catalysts should however obey Sabatier's principle, that is, the adsorption energy of hydrogen to the catalyst surface should be neither too high nor too low to balance between hydrogen adsorption and desorption. To overcome the limitation of this principle, here we choose a composite (rhodium/silicon nanowire) catalyst, in which hydrogen adsorption occurs on rhodium with a large adsorption energy while hydrogen evolution occurs on silicon with a small adsorption energy. We show that the composite is stable with better hydrogen evolution activity than rhodium nanoparticles and even exceeding those of commercial platinum/carbon at high overpotentials. The results reveal that silicon plays a key role in the electrocatalysis. This work may thus open the door for the design and fabrication of electrocatalysts for high-efficiency electric energy to hydrogen energy conversion. PMID:27447292

  15. Segurança e Defesa Nacionais: conceitos básicos para uma análise National Security and Defense: basic concepts for an analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunther Rudzit

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available No artigo se busca uma delimitação de conceitos e abrangência dos níveis de cada política da área de defesa e participação de civis e militares.The aim of the paper is to delimit the definition of both concepts and levels of coverage of each policy in the Defense area and civil and military participation.

  16. Basic aspects of the concept of reactor compartment (including damaged compartments) management during utilization of nuclear powered submarines -- High priority R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large-scale decommissioning of Russian nuclear-powered submarines (NPS) and their utilization prospects gave rise to numerous complicated scientific and technical, as well as economic, problems. Problems of handling of radioactive equipment from the reactor compartments (RC) are among the vital ones, arousing a growing concern with the public. Without solution of the problems the processes of NPS utilization can not be considered completed. It involves potential hazard, for the environment both from NPS being paid up (temporal on-float storage) with unloaded spent nuclear fuel (SNF), and RC, cut from submarine hull, containing highly radioactive equipment and materials but no SNF. Diverse variations of the concept of reactor compartment handling of NPS subject to, utilization are possible, but, in principle, there are essentially two variants: (1) RC utilization directly in the course of NPS utilization, envisaging removal of radioactive equipment from the reactor compartment and its cutting; (2) RC utilization after preliminary long-term storage of radioactive equipment of nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) in the standard sites within RC, when radioactivity of SGF equipment and materials as a result of natural decay of radionuclides is reduced to the values permitting RC cutting without employment of special means. When analyzing this or that variant of the concept, various factors are to be allowed for. First and foremost, the technology of RC handling is to provide: (1) minimum amount of radioactive wastes; (2) minimum radiation burden to the environment and personnel; (3) minimum material and financial expenditures; and (4) maximum radiation and ecological safety. RDIPE in cooperation with the leading enterprises of RF Minatom, Goskomoboronprom and Ministry of Defense has developed a concept of handling radioactive equipment in NPS reactor compartments, and its principle concepts are presented here

  17. Astronomy4Kids: Utilizing online video forums to teach basic planetary concepts to children (pre-K to 2nd-grade)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Richard L.

    2016-10-01

    We have developed Astronomy4Kids to help cultivate the next generation of scientists by using technology to reach every interested child in both formal and informal learning environments. This online video series fills the void of effective STEM education tools for children under the age of 8. Our first collection of videos discuss many planetary topics, including the following: planet and moon formation theories, solar and lunar eclipses, and the seasonal effect of the Earth's tilt. As education and outreach become a larger focus of groups such as AAS and NASA, it is imperative to include programs such as Astronomy4Kids to extend these initiatives to younger age groups.Traditionally, this age group has been viewed as too young to be introduced to physics and astronomy concepts. However, child development research is consistently demonstrating the amazing plasticity of a young child's mind: the younger one is introduced to a complex concept, the easier it is to grasp later on. Following the philosophies of Fred Rogers, we present children with a real, relatable, instructor allowing them to focus on the concepts being presented.The format of Astronomy4Kids includes short instruction video clips that usually include a hands-on activity that is easily reproduced at home or in the classroom. This permits flexibility in how the video series is utilized. Within formal classroom or after-school situations, teachers and instructors can lead the discussion and activity with help from the video and supplemental materials (e.g. worksheets, concept outlines, etc.). Informal environments permit the viewer to complete the tasks on their own or simply enjoy the presentation. The video series can be found on YouTube (under "Astronomy 4 Kids") or Facebook (at www.facebook.com/astronomy4kids); we have also expanded to Instagram (www.instragram.com/astronomy4kids) and Pinterest (www.pinterest.com/astronomy4kids).

  18. The general practice of Judo in the formation of self-concept, self-esteem and school performance in children of the first cycle of basic education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Alexandre da Silva Batista

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to relate the practice of Judo with the formation of self-concept, self-esteem and school performance in students from lower primary.The sample has been composed of 531 Portuguese students of which 295 (55.6% are children and 236 (44.4% children, with an average of 9.13 years. From this sample, 394 subjects (74% practiced at least one formal exercise extra-curricular character, and 96 students (24% practiced Judo, with an experience of 9 months to 5 years, and graduations between white belt and green belt.As data collection instrument was used Self-Concept Scale Susan Harter validated for the Portuguese population (Martins, Peixoto, Mata, & Monteiro, 1995. Focus groups were developed with Judo coaches and officials education with the intention of evaluating opinions about the practice of Judo and its importance and relationship to the variables studied. The results show that the practice of judo promotes positive developments in the formation of self-concept and self-esteem, also improving school performance.

  19. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit of the brain ... specialized for the function of conducting messages. A neuron has three basic parts: Cell body which includes ...

  20. Asthma Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Asthma Basics KidsHealth > For Parents > Asthma Basics Print A ... Asthma Categories en español Asma: aspectos fundamentales About Asthma Asthma is a common lung condition in kids ...

  1. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Basics will introduce you to some of this science, such as: How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic structure of the brain How different parts of ...

  2. Backpack Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Backpack Basics KidsHealth > For Teens > Backpack Basics Print A ... it can cause back problems or even injury. Backpacks Are Best Backpacks can't be beat for ...

  3. The analysis and perspectives of studying basic and special types of self-determination according to A.L. Zhuravlev’s and A.B. Kupreichenko’s concept.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorobieva, A.E.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of Russian and foreign ways of understanding the phenomenon of self-determination has been performed. It has been found that the concept of individual and group self-determination by A.L. Zhuravlev and A.B. Kupreichenko is the most developed in modern Russian psychological science. Using the concept as a basis, the conceptual schemes (made by A.E. Vorobieva and A.A. Akbarova of studies of personal, moral, social and economic self-determination were considered as the examples of the basic and special types of self-determination. Moral self-determination was studied with questions about ideas of morality, moral strategies and personality orientation, attitude toward unethical phenomena, ability for self-regulation and emotional intellect. Social and economic self-determination were studied with questions that show one’s social level, satisfaction with economic and social status and their dynamics, a valuation of favorable circumstances for an increase of status and economic activity. Value and anti-value, spheres and forms of showing of social and living personality’s activity were also determined. Fundamental differences (variability, success criteria, implementation in behavior, a level of ability to control a process, the role of external factors and similarities (successfulness, a formation level, a range, dynamics, conceptions, strategy, values, factors between the components of the conceptual schemes of these types of selfdetermination were identified. The principles of studying (proportion of basic and specific types of self-determination, a display of resultative, procedural and formal-dynamic characteristics, consideration of factors of different levels of basic and special types of self-determination were suggested.

  4. Concept theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2009-01-01

      Concept theory is an extremely broad, interdisciplinary and complex field of research related to many deep fields with very long historical traditions without much consensus. However, information science and knowledge organization cannot avoid relating to theories of concepts. Knowledge...... organizing systems (e.g. classification systems, thesauri and ontologies) should be understood as systems basically organizing concepts and their semantic relations. The same is the case with information retrieval systems. Different theories of concepts have different implications for how to construe......). It is also argued that the historicist and pragmatist understandings of concepts are the most fruitful views and that this understanding may be part of a broader paradigm shift that is also beginning to take place in information science.  The importance of historicist and pragmatic theories of concepts...

  5. The general practice of Judo in the formation of self-concept, self-esteem and school performance in children of the first cycle of basic education

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Alexandre da Silva Batista; Sixto Cubo Cubo Delgado

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to relate the practice of Judo with the formation of self-concept, self-esteem and school performance in students from lower primary.The sample has been composed of 531 Portuguese students of which 295 (55.6%) are children and 236 (44.4%) children, with an average of 9.13 years. From this sample, 394 subjects (74%) practiced at least one formal exercise extra-curricular character, and 96 students (24%) practiced Judo, with an experience of 9 months to 5 years, and graduations ...

  6. Proposal on experience learning of a nuclear reactor for children in future. A basic concept on a nuclear reactor facility for demonstration and education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Science Council of Japan indicates in a proposal on R and D on nuclear energy forward the 21st Century that it is important to expand the educational object on nuclear energy from colleges and gradual schools to elementary, middle high schools. And, the Committee of Japan Nuclear Energy Industries also proposed that as an effort forward security of reliability and popularization of knowledge, completeness of learning chance on energy and nuclear energy in education such as usage of general learning time, concept on establishment of educational reactor for demonstration and experience, is essential. Here was described on a concept on establishment of nuclear reactor for demonstration and experience at objectives of common national peoples, which was based on results of searches and investigations carried out by authors and aimed to supply to a field to grow up a literary adequately and widely capable of judging various information on the peoples by focusing to effectiveness of empirical learning as a method of promoting corrective understanding of common citizens on high class technical system and by establishment of the reactor aiming at general education on nuclear energy at a place easily accessible by common citizens, such as large city. (G.K.)

  7. Quantum electronics basic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Fain, V M; Sanders, J H

    1969-01-01

    Quantum Electronics, Volume 1: Basic Theory is a condensed and generalized description of the many research and rapid progress done on the subject. It is translated from the Russian language. The volume describes the basic theory of quantum electronics, and shows how the concepts and equations followed in quantum electronics arise from the basic principles of theoretical physics. The book then briefly discusses the interaction of an electromagnetic field with matter. The text also covers the quantum theory of relaxation process when a quantum system approaches an equilibrium state, and explai

  8. Basic stress analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Iremonger, M J

    1982-01-01

    BASIC Stress Analysis aims to help students to become proficient at BASIC programming by actually using it in an important engineering subject. It also enables the student to use computing as a means of learning stress analysis because writing a program is analogous to teaching-it is necessary to understand the subject matter. The book begins by introducing the BASIC approach and the concept of stress analysis at first- and second-year undergraduate level. Subsequent chapters contain a summary of relevant theory, worked examples containing computer programs, and a set of problems. Topics c

  9. An Introduction to the Evolution of Single and Binary Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Benacquista, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    An Introduction to the Evolution of Single and Binary Stars provides physicists with an understanding of binary and single star evolution, beginning with a background and introduction of basic astronomical concepts. Although a general treatment of stellar structure and evolution is included, the text stresses the physical processes that lead to stellar mass compact object binaries that may be sources of observable gravitational radiation. Basic concepts of astronomy, stellar structure and atmospheres, single star evolution, binary systems and mass transfer, compact objects, and dynamical systems are covered in the text. Readers will understand the astrophysics behind the populations of compact object binary systems and have sufficient background to delve deeper into specific areas of interest. In addition, derivations of important concepts and worked examples are included. No previous knowledge of astronomy is assumed, although a familiarity with undergraduate quantum mechanics, classical mechanics, and therm...

  10. A Dialectic Study of the Structure and Basic Concepts of Traditional Chinese Law and an Analysis of the Relationship Between li (ceremony) and fa (law)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Xianyi; MA Xiaohong

    2006-01-01

    In the course of history,the meaning offa (a Chinese character with an approximate meaning of "law") has not been invariable,and its connotation in modem times has been enriched constantly,so as to incorporate many elements of ancient li (ceremony).If the modem concept of law,already changed and still changing,is to be used to mechanically compare and interpret traditional Chinese law,misunderstandings might arise.Actually,li and fa are indispensable components of traditional Chinese law,and the lack of necessary study of the li will prevent us from understanding and explaining the spirit of traditional Chinese law.In traditional Chinese law,"fa" usually refers to an institutional dimension,especially after Qin and Han dynasties,whereas li,especially li yi (moral basis for rites and ceremonies),is where the value and spirit of traditional Chinese law can be found.

  11. “智能”学科建设的基本概念问题%Basic Concept Problems of Academics Construction of "Intelligence"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏世泽

    2011-01-01

    与智能相关的学会联合召开专题会议,研讨智能学科(专业)建设问题,实属当务之急。但“智能”概念的内涵、外延如何定位、划分?这仍是一个悬而未决的问题。通过此次研讨,若能使“智能”的定义更明确、学科定位更准确,乃是全国智能科教工作者的愿望。本文是从智能概念的由来、发展与学科定位等基本问题的一个书面发言。%The intelligence related academic association, the consociation convenes a special subject meeting, study and discuss the construction problem of the intelligence academics(profession), in really urgent matter of the moment.But the content of "intelligence" concept, outside postpone how to position, demarcation?This is still a pending problem.Pass this time study and discuss, if can make the definition of "intelligence" explicit, academics fixed position more accurate, is the wishes that the national intelligence section teaches a worker.This text can be regarded as from the intelligence concept of since, development and academics position to talk about of a writing form speech.

  12. Adaptation as Rewriting: Evolution of a Concept L’Adaptation comme réécriture : Évolution d’un concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne Lhermitte

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Cet article retrace l’évolution du genre « adaptation » à partir du Moyen âge jusqu’au XXIe siècle et met en lumière des corrélations intéressantes entre les processus de traduction et d’adaptation. Jusqu’au XVIIIe siècle, l’adaptation était considérée comme un sous-genre de la traduction, souvent utilisé par les traducteurs et écrivains pour mettre en valeur leur créativité et affiner leur talent littéraire. L’adaptation était vue comme un moyen d’enrichir la littérature. Or, de nos jours, la terminologie employée par certains critiques ressemble trop souvent au jargon utilisé dans un tribunal. Des termes tels que violation, viol, tromperie, infidélité, trahison, tricherie, duperie, vol, sont fréquemment usités pour décrire les adaptations littéraires au lieu de mettre l’accent sur leurs contributions artistiques. Etant donné que les traductions et adaptations suggèrent l’existence de textes primaires, elles sont rarement examinées pour leurs propres mérites esthétiques mais opposées aux « œuvres originales sacrées.» Il en résulte que l’adaptation et la traduction sont souvent considérées comme des formes de création inférieures et n’échappent pas à ce que Barbara Folkart nomme « l’effet d’entropie » ou lente dégradation d’une œuvre originale et, en conséquence, sont rarement évaluées en termes de créativité et d’originalité. Cet article explore les raisons à l’origine de l’évolution des mentalités et souligne l’importance de la rupture épistémologique qui a eu lieu au XVIIIe siècle, modifiant à jamais notre conception de l’adaptation littéraire.

  13. The Basic Concepts and Practical Application of Training Transfer%训练迁移的基本原理和现实应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡艳; 胡斐; 张仁祥; 金洋; 马继政

    2015-01-01

    During different sports preparation, training transfer has been not only regarded as an important realis-tic problem in daily training need to face but also consid-ered as a key problem for the basic theory of training. Training transfer determines whether training methods se-lected will help to improve athletic performance. In the as-pect of transfer of technical skills, the development and application of biological technology and artificial environ-ment makes the experimental research into practical appli-cations;In the aspect of training transfer of motor abili-ties,the interaction between sports practice and basic re-search promotes training transfer toward fine direction. At present, with the sports practice, technology and experi-mental research development, to develop evidence-based raining transfer is the development trend of the current training theory.%在各种运动项目的准备方面,训练迁移是日常训练需要面对的一个重要的现实问题,也是训练基础理论中的一个关键的问题。训练迁移决定选择练习手段是否有助于提高运动成绩。在技术迁移方面,生物技术和人工环境发展和应用,推动了实验研究向实践应用方面的转化。在运动能力训练迁移方面,运动实践和基础研究相互作用,推动了训练迁移朝向精细化方向发展。当前,随着运动实践、技术和实验研究不断深入发展,制定以实证为基础的训练迁移是当前训练理论的发展趋势。

  14. Evolution of different dual-use concepts in international and national law and its implications on research ethics and governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Johannes; Ischi, Monique; Perkins, Dana

    2014-09-01

    This paper provides an overview of the various dual-use concepts applied in national and international non-proliferation and anti-terrorism legislation, such as the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention, the Chemical Weapons Convention and United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540, and national export control legislation and in relevant codes of conduct. While there is a vast literature covering dual-use concepts in particular with regard to life sciences, this is the first paper that incorporates into such discussion the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540. In addition, recent developments such as the extension of dual-use export control legislation in the area of human rights protection are also identified and reviewed. The discussion of dual-use concepts is hereby undertaken in the context of human- and/or national-security-based approaches to security. This paper discusses four main concepts of dual use as applied today in international and national law: civilian versus military, peaceful versus non-peaceful, legitimate versus illegitimate and benevolent versus malevolent. In addition, the usage of the term to describe positive technology spin-offs between civilian and military applications is also briefly addressed. Attention is also given to the roles civil society and research ethics may play in the governance of dual-use sciences and technologies.

  15. Chosen Concepts of Human Resources Management

    OpenAIRE

    Marcin W. Staniewski

    2007-01-01

    The article is a trial of clarifying and making order of terminology that is used in area of human resources management. This is an overview of basic definitions, conceptions and models of people management, that emerged from the beginning (XIX/XX century) to nowadays. The article is a kind of presentation of human resources management evolution. It comprises a descriptions of broad range of human resources management models beginning from classic models (Harvard and Michigan models) and fini...

  16. Basic electrotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Ashen, R A

    2013-01-01

    BASIC Electrotechnology discusses the applications of Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC) in engineering, particularly in solving electrotechnology-related problems. The book is comprised of six chapters that cover several topics relevant to BASIC and electrotechnology. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to BASIC, and Chapter 2 talks about the use of complex numbers in a.c. circuit analysis. Chapter 3 covers linear circuit analysis with d.c. and sinusoidal a.c. supplies. The book also discusses the elementary magnetic circuit theory. The theory and performance of two windi

  17. 卫生法学的概念及基本范畴辨析%The Basic Framework of the Concept of Health Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李筱永

    2011-01-01

    Health Law is a legal science that study the health law (normative law ),and the phenomenon of the law (law of life )and its related issues. Through the phenomenon of the health law ,we can find that pursuing human health is the best interest of the health law, the essence of the health law views social welfare as the legal interest, and its essence is to make health service more equitable. Building the basic law that regards the health right as the core is the top priority of health law.%卫生法学是研究卫生法、卫生法的现象及其与卫生法相关问题的一门法律科学.透过卫生法现象不难发现,卫生法以追求人的生命健康为最大利益,卫生法的本质是以社会公益为法益的法律,其实质就是让卫生服务更加公平.制定以健康权为核心的卫生基本法是卫生法学的重中之重.

  18. Fundamental concepts of geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Meserve, Bruce E

    1983-01-01

    Demonstrates relationships between different types of geometry. Provides excellent overview of the foundations and historical evolution of geometrical concepts. Exercises (no solutions). Includes 98 illustrations.

  19. Revisiting the Clinal Concept of Evolution and Dispersal for the Tick-Borne Flaviviruses by Using Phylogenetic and Biogeographic Analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Heinze, D. M.; Gould, E A; Forrester, N. L.

    2012-01-01

    Tick-borne flaviviruses (TBF) are widely dispersed across Africa, Europe, Asia, Oceania, and North America, and some present a significant threat to human health. Seminal studies on tick-borne encephalitis viruses (TBEV), based on partial envelope gene sequences, predicted a westward clinal pattern of evolution and dispersal across northern Eurasia, terminating in the British Isles. We tested this hypothesis using all available full-length open reading frame (ORF) TBF sequences. Phylogenetic ...

  20. Basic physics for all

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, B N

    2012-01-01

    This is a simple, concise book for both student and non-physics students, presenting basic facts in straightforward form and conveying fundamental principles and theories of physics. This book will be helpful as a supplement to class teaching and to aid those who have difficulty in mastering concepts and principles.

  1. Experimental study of an air-source heat pump for simultaneous heating and cooling - Part 1: Basic concepts and performance verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents the concepts of an air-source heat pump for simultaneous heating and cooling (HPS) designed for hotels and smaller residential, commercial and office buildings in which simultaneous needs in heating and cooling are frequent. The main advantage of the HPS is to carry out simultaneously space heating and space cooling with the same energy input. Ambient air is used as a balancing source to run a heating or a cooling mode. The second advantage is that, during winter, energy recovered by the subcooling of the refrigerant is stored at first in a water tank and used subsequently as a cold source at the water evaporator to improve the average performance and to carry out defrosting of the air evaporator using a two-phase thermosiphon. Unlike conventional air-source heat pumps, defrosting is carried out without stopping the heat production. A R407C HPS prototype was built and tested. Its performance on defined operating conditions corresponds to the data given by the selection software of the compressor manufacturer. The operation of the high pressure control system, the transitions between heating, cooling and simultaneous modes and the defrosting sequence were validated experimentally and are presented in the second part of this article .

  2. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Brain Basics in Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah ... having trouble coping with the stresses in her life. She began to think of suicide because she ...

  3. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Basics in Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a middle-aged woman who seemed to have it all. She was happily married and successful in business. Then, after a serious setback at work, she lost interest ...

  4. Nature value: the evolution of this concept Valor da natureza: a evolução desse conceito

    OpenAIRE

    Sabrina Soares da Silva; Ricardo Pereira Reis; Patrícia Aparecida Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    More attention has been paid to environmental matters in recent years, mainly due to the current scenario of accentuated environmental degradation. The economic valuation of nature goods can contribute to the decision-making process in environment management, generating a more comprehensive informational base. This paper aims to present, in a historic perspective, the different concepts attributed to nature goods and were related to the current predominant perspectives of nature analyses. For...

  5. Establishment and evolution of the radiation risk concept for the man and human population in the 20th century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of radiation risk (RR) is the main basis for human protection from the harmful effect of ionizing radiation. It concerns the expected unfavorable health effects upon the irradiated person and probably upon his/her progeny. The early period of the history of RR evaluation was grounded on the assessment of acute skin reactions (erythema, epilation, dermatitis, ulceration) and on the measures (erythema dose) taken to diminish them. The second period covers the appraisal, based on estimation of different somatic effects and expected heredity ( genetic effects). They could be avoided if irradiation does not exceed the maximum permissible dose - the concept of zero RR. The current (third) period estimates both irradiation effects: deterministic effects that have a dose-related threshold and stochastic non-threshold effects. The ultimate goal of radiation protection is to exclude all deterministic effects and to diminish probability of stochastic effects (carcinogenesis and heredity effects) down to an acceptable level. Seven postulates describe the modern concept of RR for the man and human population: globalization irreversibility, accumulation, non-threshold harm, stochastic, non-specificity and acceptance of the risk

  6. A systematic understanding of the evolution of Hindu deities in the development of the concept of avatara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Sukdaven

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Within the primary and secondary Hindu scriptures, especially the Vedas, Epics and Puranas, many gods are mentioned. At times a hierarchy of deities is distinguishable, and at other times these deities assume each others’ names and functions. Then there are some deities that manifest themselves in other forms such as a bird, an animal, a human, or both animal and human. These manifestations are at times clearly construed as avataras. To determine the transformation (metamorphosis, progression and/or regression of Hindu deities from the Vedas through to the Puranas, the researcher applied the systematic literature review methodology. He argued that this evolution of Hindu deities is the result of changes in the specific needs of the community in their quest for immortality. Accompanying this metamorphosis of Hindu deities is the notion of avatara which gained significant prominence in the Bhagavad Gita and the Puranas, although there are indications that the notion of avatara can be read into the Vedas. Considering these complexities, the researcher defined the term avatara and traced the origins and evolution of these Hindu deities through the various Hindu scriptures. This study consolidated this process systematically, resulting in sufficient proof that there was a decline in certain Vedic deities, a rise to prominence of other ‘unimportant’ deities and the appearance of other deities not mentioned in the Vedas.

  7. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot effectively coordinate the billions ... basic working unit of the brain and nervous system. These cells are highly specialized for the function ...

  8. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  9. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Trials — Participants Statistics Help for Mental Illnesses Outreach Research Priorities Funding Labs at NIMH News About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The ...

  10. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Basics will introduce you to some of this science, such as: How the brain develops How ... cell, and responds to signals from the environment; this all helps the cell maintain its balance with ...

  11. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic structure of the ... inside contents of the cell from its surrounding environment and controls what enters and leaves the cell, ...

  12. Brain Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  13. Cancer Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer? Breast Cancer Colon/Rectum Cancer Lung Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Show All Cancer Types News and Features Cancer Glossary ACS Bookstore Cancer Information Cancer Basics Cancer Prevention & Detection Signs & Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects ...

  14. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses are disorders of the brain, ... learning more about how the brain grows and works in healthy people, and how normal brain development ...

  15. Basic Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittek, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    A discussion of the basic measures of corporate financial strength, and the sources of the information is reported. Considered are: balance sheet, income statement, funds and cash flow, and financial ratios.

  16. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses are disorders of the brain, ... others live with symptoms of mental illness every day. They can be moderate, or serious and cause ...

  17. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the function of conducting messages. A neuron has three basic parts: Cell body which includes the nucleus, ... Plan in 2016 August 31, 2016, 2:00-3:00 PM ET Recovery Month September 2016 National ...

  18. Blood Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Group Links Advocacy Toolkit Home For Patients Blood Basics Blood is a specialized body fluid. It ... about 9 pints. Jump To: The Components of Blood and Their Importance Many people have undergone blood ...

  19. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for the function of conducting messages. A neuron has three basic parts: Cell body which includes the ... disorder (ADHD) . Glutamate —the most common neurotransmitter, glutamate has many roles throughout the brain and nervous system. ...

  20. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... interconnections. neuron —A nerve cell that is the basic, working unit of the brain and nervous system, which processes and transmits information. neurotransmitter —A chemical produced by ...

  1. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit of the ... distant nerve cells (via axons) to form brain circuits. These circuits control specific body functions such as ...

  2. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... science, such as: How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic ... that with brain development in people mental disorders. Genes and environmental cues both help to direct this ...

  3. Body Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about how the body works, what basic human anatomy is, and what happens when parts of the body don't function properly. Blood Bones, Muscles, and Joints Brain and Nervous System Digestive System Endocrine System Eyes Female Reproductive System ...

  4. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a ... blues" from time to time. In contrast, major depression is a serious disorder that lasts for weeks. ...

  5. A simple method for estimating the structure temperatures and the cesium revaporization inside the reactor pressure vessel. 1. Basic concepts and model descriptions for the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a simple approach for estimating the structure temperatures including the uncovered reactor core inside the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and the release rates of fission products deposited in the RPV to the reactor building (R/B) at a certain time after the occurrence of a severe accident at a nuclear power plant (NPP). First, basic concepts are presented and then, a simplified steady-state heat balance model is proposed for estimating the temperatures of the uncovered reactor core and the upper structure in the RPV as well as the temperature of the RPV wall. In addition, models for estimating the revaporization rate of cesium hydroxide (CsOH) in the RPV and the leak rate of CsOH to the R/B via the drywell are also presented. The proposed approach is anticipated to be applicable to the damaged Units 1-3 of the Fukushima Daiichi NPP. (author)

  6. The Analysis of Concept Maps Research Evolution Based on Knowledge Mapping%概念图研究演进的知识图谱分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    寇继虹; 楼雯

    2012-01-01

    以ISlWebofknowledge收录的文献题录作为数据样本,利用可视化动态网络分析工具——CiteSpaceⅡ对所采集的数据进行文献共引分析和聚类分析,绘制出概念图研究发展演进的知识图谱,揭示了概念图研究的三个不同时期,得出各个时期的代表人物和代表文献;展现了概念图研究和应用的热点领域,以科研评价、教育教学、生物医学和企业知识学习为代表;呈现出以概念图的定量化分析、知识管理、三维概念图、概念图的网络实时协作构建以及新概念图模型和软件为代表的前沿研究领域。%Based on the bibliography references included in ISI Web of Knowledge, and by use of visualization network analysis tool-CiteSpace II to conduct co-citation and cluster analysis of collected data, this paper renders knowledge mapping on the devel- oprnent and evolution of concept mapping research, reveals three different periods of concept mapping research, and identifies repre- sentative scientists as well as relevant literatures in each period. Meanwhile, this paper demonstrates the hot research fields repre- sented by scientific research evaluation, education, biomedical and enterprise knowledge learning areas, and further presents the frontiers represented by quantitative study of concept maps, knowledge management, three-dimensional concept maps, network collaborative and real-time concept mapping and the new concept maps model and software.

  7. Concept - or no concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Uffe

    1999-01-01

    Discussion about concept in industrial companies. A method for mapping of managerial concept in specific area is shown......Discussion about concept in industrial companies. A method for mapping of managerial concept in specific area is shown...

  8. Some basic aspects of knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abhary, K; Adriansen, H K; Begovac, F;

    2009-01-01

    of some basic epistemological, ontological and didactic concepts significantly contribute to the ambiguities and other impediments in knowledge processing. Examples of such misconceptions are presented and a mitigation strategy discussed. Interaction between computerised media and humans such as the rise...

  9. Physics, Formation and Evolution of Rotating Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Maeder, André

    2009-01-01

    Rotation is ubiquitous at each step of stellar evolution, from star formation to the final stages, and it affects the course of evolution, the timescales and nucleosynthesis. Stellar rotation is also an essential prerequisite for the occurrence of Gamma-Ray Bursts. In this book the author thoroughly examines the basic mechanical and thermal effects of rotation, their influence on mass loss by stellar winds, the effects of differential rotation and its associated instabilities, the relation with magnetic fields and the evolution of the internal and surface rotation. Further, he discusses the numerous observational signatures of rotational effects obtained from spectroscopy and interferometric observations, as well as from chemical abundance determinations, helioseismology and asteroseismology, etc. On an introductory level, this book presents in a didactical way the basic concepts of stellar structure and evolution in "track 1" chapters. The other more specialized chapters form an advanced course on the gradua...

  10. Analysis of the Evolution of Astronomical Concepts Presented by Teachers of Some Schools (Mauá, Ribeirão Pires and Rio Grande da Serra)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzaga, E. P.

    2009-12-01

    The reason for the development of this work is based on knowing many Basic Education's teachers (EB) don't deal concepts related to astronomy and when they do, followed didactic books which contain many conceptual errors, it also know that astronomy is one of the contents that it being taught in the EB and do part of what is proposed by the Education Ministry and Education Department São Paulo State and also, that several researchers point out many mistakes in the teaching of Astronomy. It's purpose of minimizing some deficiencies, which was drawed an University Extension Course for Teachers of Diretoria de Ensino Regional (Mauá, Ribeirão Pires and Rio Grande da Serra) with the following objectives: to raise alternative conceptions; to subsidize teachers by means of lectures, discussions and workshops, and to check the learning after the course. Therefore, sixteen questions were applied before and after the course, so it was established that 100% of the teachers knew the names of the phases of the moon, 97.0% understood that the Solar System is composed by eight planets, 78.1% explained as occured "Lunar Eclipse", "Solar Eclipse" and "Solstice", 72.7% knew to explain the occurrence of the seasons of the year; 64.5% explained the occurrence of the equinox correctly, 89.7% were able to define properly "comet"; 63.6% defined "Asteroid", 54.5% defined "meteor"; 58.1% defined "galaxy", and 42.4% defined "planet".

  11. Influence of Evolution Theory on the Conceptions of Society and Science%进化论对社会和科学发展的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江海平; 廖映枌

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses the continuous development of and biological foundation of evolution theory, and points out that since its appearance, the evolution theory has been making great influences on the conceptions of both society and science based on the analyses of its positive and negative application evidences. It mainly expounds the similarities of the competition mechanisms in natural selection and economic marketing. It discusses that the competition mechanism is the best way to solve many complicated problems raised from resource distribution, surviving and socio-economic and civilization development. Finally, this paper concludes that mans potential abilities in competition may be a result of evolution and the competition mechanism may be a revelation of nature.%本文概述了进化论的发展和其现代生物学依据,指出进化论对社会、科学发展的重大影响;重点论证了自然选择条件下的竞争机制的生物学意义及其与市场条件下的竞争机制之间的相似性;指出竞争机制是解决资源的有效分配及生存和发展的最好机制;指出采用竞争机制是我国二十多年来经济腾飞的决定性因素之一,竞争机制是大自然的启示,是必由之路.

  12. A brief description of the evolution of the concepts of the television media in China%简述中国电视观念的沿革

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白阳

    2014-01-01

    In the course of the half-century development , the concepts of the television media has been in the great e-volution in China .TV media people TV media people have experienced the gradual shift from the-producer-age, to the-pro-duction-manager age, then to the-creative-director-age, which brought along the program change , from sole program, to TV columns, then to TV channels.Meanwhile, audiences changed their initiative .In sum, these lively concepts are on their way of leading the TV media to operate and develop .%中国电视在半个世纪的发展过程中,观念历经变革。电视本体从制作人时代到制片人时代再到策划人时代的步步演进,推动了电视节目形式单个节目-栏目化-频道化的步步递进,受众的地位也由被动转为主动。这些生动鲜活的观念,指导着电视实践的推进和发展。

  13. Studies of Basic Electronic Properties of CdTe-Based Solar Cells and Their Evolution During Processing and Stress: Final Technical Report, 16 October 2001 - 31 August 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaydanov, V. I.; Ohno, T. R.

    2007-02-01

    This report describes basic issues behind CdTe/CdS cell performance and stability, such as the nature and electronic properties of impurities and defects that control the majority carrier concentration, mechanisms of dopant compensation, recombination processes, their nature and properties, migration and transformation of defects under various processing, stress, and operating conditions. We believe that a better basic understanding of the specific influence of grain boundaries, especially for fine-grain materials such as those making up CdTe-based cells, is now one of the most important issues we must address. We need to clarify the role of grain boundaries in forming the film electronic properties, as well as those of the p-n junction.

  14. Air quality in the Metropolitan zone of the Mexico City and recommendations to improve It considering basic concepts of environmental engineering; La calidad del aire en la zona Metropolitana de la Ciudad de Mexico y recomendaciones para mejorarla considerando conceptos basicos de ingenieria ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo Alvarez, H.; Sosa Hecheverria, R.; Sanchez Alvarez, P.; Jaimes Palomera, M. [Centro de ciencias de la atmosfera, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2002-12-01

    The atmospheric pollution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Zone (MCMZ), was detected during the 1960's and presents nowadays considerable dimensions. The atmospheric pollution problem evolution in the MCMZ is presented in this paper, considering criteria pollutants as particles and ozone, and hazardous air pollutants as benzene. Successful an unsuccessful experiences looking for improve the air quality in the MCMZ are evaluated. These experiences should be account for in other Mexican cities, as well as in developing countries. The MCMZ air quality evolution is an important case where implemented strategies in order to reduce sulphur dioxide and lead, resulted an increase in levels, frequency and duration of ozone concentrations in the atmosphere. Basic concepts of environmental engineering: prevention, minimization and control, as well as pollution control in the source, must be considered. [Spanish] La contaminacion atmosferica en la Zona Metropolitana de la Ciudad de Mexico (ZMCM), se hizo evidente en la decada de los a s sesenta y, a la fecha, ha alcanzado dimensiones considerables. En este trabajo se presenta la evolucion del problema de contaminacion atmosferica en la ZMCM, enfocandolo a contaminantes criterio como particulas y ozono, y contaminantes toxicos como el benceno. Asimismo, se exponen experiencias exitosas y las que han fracasado en busca de una mejor calidad del aire para la ZMCM; es recomendable que dichas experiencias sean consideradas en otras ciudades de nuestro pais, asi como en otros paises en vias de desarrollo, ofreciendoles la importancia debida. Deben considerarse los conceptos basicos de la ingenieria ambiental como son la prevencion, la minimizacion y el control de la contaminacion en la fuente, ya que mandatos del ejecutivo tendientes a reducir niveles de bioxido de azufre y de plomo en la atmosfera metropolitana trajeron, por falta de la infraestructura necesaria, un drastico incremento en los niveles, frecuencia y duracion de

  15. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrook, Harold D

    1971-01-01

    Basic Electronics is an elementary text designed for basic instruction in electricity and electronics. It gives emphasis on electronic emission and the vacuum tube and shows transistor circuits in parallel with electron tube circuits. This book also demonstrates how the transistor merely replaces the tube, with proper change of circuit constants as required. Many problems are presented at the end of each chapter. This book is comprised of 17 chapters and opens with an overview of electron theory, followed by a discussion on resistance, inductance, and capacitance, along with their effects on t

  16. Nature value: the evolution of this concept Valor da natureza: a evolução desse conceito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Soares da Silva

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available More attention has been paid to environmental matters in recent years, mainly due to the current scenario of accentuated environmental degradation. The economic valuation of nature goods can contribute to the decision-making process in environment management, generating a more comprehensive informational base. This paper aims to present, in a historic perspective, the different concepts attributed to nature goods and were related to the current predominant perspectives of nature analyses. For this purpose, this paper presents the different concepts attributed to value since the pre-classical period, when nature were viewed as inert and passive providers of goods and services, this view legitimized nature's exploration without concern over the preservation and conservation of nature. The capacity of nature to absorb the impact of human action appears to be reaching its limit, considering the irreversibility, the irreproducibility and the possibility of collapse. The appropriate method for valuing natural resources is not known, but more important than the method is to respect and incorporate the particular characteristics of the nature goods into this process. These characteristics must be valuated in order to arrive at a more consistence approach to nature value and promote sustainability.Nos últimos anos, mais atenção tem sido dada às questões ambientais, principalmente decorrente do atual cenário de acentuada degradação. A avaliação econômica dos recursos naturais pode contribuir com o processo de tomada de decisão na gestão ambiental, gerando uma importante base de informações. Neste artigo, buscou-se apresentar, em uma perspectiva histórica, os diferentes conceitos atribuídos ao valor dos recursos naturais e como eles se relacionam às perspectivas atuais de análise ambiental. Com essa finalidade, foram apresentados os conceitos atribuídos ao valor desde o período pré-clássico, quando a natureza era vista como

  17. Basic Backwardness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingartner, Charles

    This paper argues that the "back to basics" movement is regressive and that regression is the characteristic mode of fear-ridden personalities. It is argued that many people in American society today have lost their ability to laugh and do not have the sense of humor which is crucial to a healthy mental state. Such topics as necrophilia, mental…

  18. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a middle-aged woman ... new memories. hypothalmic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis —A brain-body ... stress. impulse —An electrical communication signal sent between neurons ...

  19. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Welcome. Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses are disorders of the brain, ... highly developed area at the front of the brain that, in humans, plays a role in executive functions such as ...

  20. Ethanol Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-01-30

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  1. Basic Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luparelli, Augustus N.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    These four articles focus on developing basic reading, science, and job search skills: "Reading Program for Vocational Classes" by Augustus Luparelli; "Why Teach Employability Skills?" by Larry Siefferman; "Improving Vocabulary and Reading Skills" by Edythe Conway; and "Science in Everyday Life" by Virginia Eleazer and George Carney. (SK)

  2. A Socratic Method for Surveying Students' Readiness to Study Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfield, William D.

    2013-01-01

    Before beginning a series of presentations on evolution, it would be prudent to survey the general level of students' understanding of prerequisite basic concepts of reproduction, heredity, ontology, and phenotypic diversity so that teachers can avoid devoting time to well-known subjects of general knowledge and can spend more time on subjects…

  3. Path Analysis: basic concepts and examples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Rosas, Javier

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This methodological paper examines the conceptual and statistical basis of path analysis (PA, a multivariate method that allows the verification of causal models adjustment and the identification of direct and indirect contribution of independent variables that explain the variability of dependent variables. Furthermore, this article describes the main operations required for the development of PA using AMOS, one of the most popular software in our context. Moreover, this study examines some investigations in educational psychology that used PA with the objective to contrast explicative theoretical models about reading comprehension and writing abilities, two key academic skills. Finally, we discuss the most important advantages and limitations of PA.

  4. Luminescence basic concepts, applications and instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Virk, Hardev Singh

    2014-01-01

    The word luminescence was first used by a German physicist, Eilhardt Wiedemann, in 1888. He also classified luminescence into six kinds according to the method of excitation. No better basis of classification is available today. He recognized photoluminescence, thermoluminescence, electroluminescence, crystalloluminescence, triboluminescence, and chemiluminescence. The designations are obvious, characterized by the prefix. This Volume consists of 9 Chapters, including 8 Review Papers and one Case Study. The first two papers are based on OLEDs. Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) have been th

  5. Geophysical worldwide networks: basic concepts and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The detection of nuclear explosions around the globe requires the setting up of networks of sensors on a worldwide basis. Such equipment should be able to transmit on-line data in real-time or pseudo real-time to a center or processing centers. The high level of demanded reliability for the data (generally better than 99 %) also has an impact on the accuracy and precision of the sensors and the communications technology, as well as the systems used for on-line checking. In the light of these requirements, DAM has developed a data gathering network based on the principle of VSTA duplex links which ensures the on-line transmission of data and operational parameters towards the Processing Centre via a hub. In the other direction, the Centre can act on a number of parameters in order to correct them if necessary, or notify the local maintenance team. To optimize the reliability of the main components of this system, the detection stations as well as their associated beacons have low consumption and can be supplied by solar panels, thus facilitating the installation of the networks. The seismic network on the French national territory is composed of 40 stations built on the principles outlined above. In order to gather data from stations established outside France, DAM is planning to use an analogue system to transmit data in on-line as well as off-line mode. (authors)

  6. Basic concepts and definitions of clinical management

    OpenAIRE

    Angélica Román

    2012-01-01

    Management is leading, administering resources, and achieving the goals and objectives that have been set. In the Chilean health care system, management can be subdivided in three main levels – macro-management, meso-management and micro-management. Managing health care is also about epidemiological changes, information and technology innovations, patient groups demanding better services, but mostly about a huge escalation in costs that is not necessarily substantiated by evidence on more eff...

  7. Basic Concepts of Magnetic Water Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Mosin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This review article outlines an overview of new trends and modern approaches for practical implementation of magnetic water treatment to eliminate scaling salts (carbonate, chloride and sulfate salts of Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+ and Fe3+ cations in power heat-exchanger devices and pipe lines. The principles of physical effects of the magnetic field on H2O molecules as well as the parameters of physico-chemical processes occurring in water and the behavior of the dissolved in water scaling salts subjected to the magnetic treatment are discussed. It is demonstrated that the effect of the magnetic field on water is a complex multifactorial phenomenon resulted in changes of the structure of hydrated ions as well as the physico-chemical properties and behavior of dissolved inorganic salts, changes in the rate of electrochemical coagulation and aggregate stability (clumping and consolidation, formation of multiple nucleation sites on the particles of fine dispersed precipitate consisting of crystals of substantially uniform size. There are also submitted data on constructive features of various magnetic water treatment devices produced by domestic industry, based on the permanent magnets and electromagnets (solenoids, such as hydro magnetic systems (HMS, magnetic transducers (MT and magnetic activators (MA of water. It was estimated the efficiency of using the various magnetic water treatment devices in water treatment technologies.

  8. Basic concepts and definitions of clinical management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Román

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Management is leading, administering resources, and achieving the goals and objectives that have been set. In the Chilean health care system, management can be subdivided in three main levels – macro-management, meso-management and micro-management. Managing health care is also about epidemiological changes, information and technology innovations, patient groups demanding better services, but mostly about a huge escalation in costs that is not necessarily substantiated by evidence on more efficiency in health outcomes.Clinical management is more than a management tool. It is a cultural change that will provide new values to professional practice and to the organization as a whole. However, clinical management demands more commitment on behalf of the human teams that need to learn how to lead and to be led. These teams will be called upon to help in the decision-making process for the betterment of the institution.

  9. [Chronic diseases. Definition and basic concept].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspe, H

    2011-01-01

    The baroque deity Chronos symbolizes much of what we intuitively connect with "chronic", but it must not obscure our view of the diversity of chronic diseases. Common to all forms is a prognostic implication: a chronic disease and all associated burden will accompany the patient for the rest of his/her life. Chronic diseases are in general multifocal disorders simultaneously affecting biological, psychic, and social equilibria. This requires systematic problem-screening and -assessment, including possible comorbidities. Comorbidity in a strict sense should be distinguished from risk factors, implications, complications, and consequences of the index disorder of interest. The assessment is usually followed by the shared identification of therapeutic goals and indications. In chronic disorders, a wide spectrum of diagnostic and therapeutic approaches, methods, and professions becomes relevant. PMID:21246322

  10. Overview of IMRT - definitions and basic concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed advanced outline of the title topic is presented. Summary is formulated as follows: (i) Conventional MLC, developed for block replacement, require corrections and careful QA when when used for IMRT; (ii) There are both advantages and disadvantages of static or dynamic MLC delivery; (iii) Tomotherapy uses binary MLC systems specifically designed for IMRT; (iv) There are two types of optimization, grid of beamlets and direct aperture methods; (v) Optimization is controlled by objective functions. (P.A.)

  11. Basics of Computer Networking

    CERN Document Server

    Robertazzi, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Springer Brief Basics of Computer Networking provides a non-mathematical introduction to the world of networks. This book covers both technology for wired and wireless networks. Coverage includes transmission media, local area networks, wide area networks, and network security. Written in a very accessible style for the interested layman by the author of a widely used textbook with many years of experience explaining concepts to the beginner.

  12. Evolução do conceito e controvérsias atuais sobre o transtorno bipolar do humor Bipolar disorder: evolution of the concept and current controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Del Porto

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available O autor revê o conceito de transtorno bipolar como um processo em evolução. Suas raízes podem ser encontradas no trabalho de Araeteus da Capadócia, que assumia serem a melancolia e a mania duas formas da mesma doença. A compreensão atual da doença bipolar começou na França, através dos trabalhos de Falret (1851 e Baillarguer (1854. Os conceitos fundamentais de Kraepelin mudaram as bases da nosologia psiquiátrica, e o conceito unitário de Kraepelin sobre a insanidade maníaco-depressiva passou a ser amplamente aceito. Depois de Kraepelin, no entanto, as idéias de Kleist e Leonhard, na Alemanha, e o trabalho subseqüente de Angst, Perris e Winokur enfatizaram a distinção entre as formas monopolares e bipolares da depressão. Mais recentemente a ênfase mudou novamente para o espectro bipolar, que em suas formas leves expande-se às bordas dos temperamentos normais. Finalizando, o autor sumariza os aspectos polêmicos da nosologia da doença bipolar e seus limites com as esquizofrenias, a doença esquizoafetiva e as psicoses ciclóides.The author reviews the evolution of the concept of bipolar disorder as an ongoing process. Its roots can be found in the work of Araeteus of Capadocia, who assumed that melancholia and mania were two forms of the same disease. The modern understanding of bipolar disorder began in France, through the work of Falret (1851 and Baillarger (1854. The pivotal concepts of Emil Kraepelin changed the basis of psychiatric nosology, and Kraepelin's unitary concept of manic-depressive insanity was largely accepted. Kraepelin and Weigandt's ideas on mixed states were the cornerstone of this unitary concept. After Kraepelin, however, the ideas of Kleist and Leonhard, in Germany, as well as the work of Angst, Perris and Winokur, emphasized the distinction between unipolar and bipolar forms of depression. More recently, the emphasis has shifted again to the bipolar spectrum, which, in its mild forms, expanded to the

  13. The Importance of History and Philosophy of Science in Correcting Distorted Views of "Amount of Substance" and "Mole" Concepts in Chemistry Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Kira; Furio-Mas, Carles

    2008-01-01

    The knowledge of historical facts can help teachers and students to correctly appreciate a variety of scientific theories. It is important to be aware of the evolution of the basic concepts, particularly the ones our students find very abstract and therefore difficult to understand. Historical knowledge of chemical concepts will allow us to…

  14. The history of hepatitis C virus (HCV): Basic research reveals unique features in phylogeny, evolution and the viral life cycle with new perspectives for epidemic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukh, Jens

    2016-10-01

    The discovery of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in 1989 permitted basic research to unravel critical components of a complex life cycle for this important human pathogen. HCV is a highly divergent group of viruses classified in 7 major genotypes and a great number of subtypes, and circulating in infected individuals as a continuously evolving quasispecies destined to escape host immune responses and applied antivirals. Despite the inability to culture patient viruses directly in the laboratory, efforts to define the infectious genome of HCV resulted in development of experimental recombinant in vivo and in vitro systems, including replicons and infectious cultures in human hepatoma cell lines. And HCV has become a model virus defining new paradigms in virology, immunology and biology. For example, HCV research discovered that a virus could be completely dependent on microRNA for its replication since microRNA-122 is critical for the HCV life cycle. A number of other host molecules critical for HCV entry and replication have been identified. Thus, basic HCV research revealed important molecules for development of host targeting agents (HTA). The identification and characterization of HCV encoded proteins and their functional units contributed to the development of highly effective direct acting antivirals (DAA) against the NS3 protease, NS5A and the NS5B polymerase. In combination, these inhibitors have since 2014 permitted interferon-free therapy with cure rates above 90% among patients with chronic HCV infection; however, viral resistance represents a challenge. Worldwide control of HCV will most likely require the development of a prophylactic vaccine, and numerous candidates have been pursued. Research characterizing features critical for antibody-based virus neutralization and T cell based virus elimination from infected cells is essential for this effort. If the world community promotes an ambitious approach by applying current DAA broadly, continues to develop

  15. The history of hepatitis C virus (HCV): Basic research reveals unique features in phylogeny, evolution and the viral life cycle with new perspectives for epidemic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukh, Jens

    2016-10-01

    The discovery of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in 1989 permitted basic research to unravel critical components of a complex life cycle for this important human pathogen. HCV is a highly divergent group of viruses classified in 7 major genotypes and a great number of subtypes, and circulating in infected individuals as a continuously evolving quasispecies destined to escape host immune responses and applied antivirals. Despite the inability to culture patient viruses directly in the laboratory, efforts to define the infectious genome of HCV resulted in development of experimental recombinant in vivo and in vitro systems, including replicons and infectious cultures in human hepatoma cell lines. And HCV has become a model virus defining new paradigms in virology, immunology and biology. For example, HCV research discovered that a virus could be completely dependent on microRNA for its replication since microRNA-122 is critical for the HCV life cycle. A number of other host molecules critical for HCV entry and replication have been identified. Thus, basic HCV research revealed important molecules for development of host targeting agents (HTA). The identification and characterization of HCV encoded proteins and their functional units contributed to the development of highly effective direct acting antivirals (DAA) against the NS3 protease, NS5A and the NS5B polymerase. In combination, these inhibitors have since 2014 permitted interferon-free therapy with cure rates above 90% among patients with chronic HCV infection; however, viral resistance represents a challenge. Worldwide control of HCV will most likely require the development of a prophylactic vaccine, and numerous candidates have been pursued. Research characterizing features critical for antibody-based virus neutralization and T cell based virus elimination from infected cells is essential for this effort. If the world community promotes an ambitious approach by applying current DAA broadly, continues to develop

  16. Evolution Born of Moisture: Analogies and Parallels Between Anaximander's Ideas on Origin of Life and Man and Later Pre-Darwinian and Darwinian Evolutionary Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kočandrle, Radim; Kleisner, Karel

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on the origin of life as presented in the thought of Anaximander of Miletus but also points to some parallel motifs found in much later conceptions of both the pre-Darwinian German romantic science and post-Darwinian biology. According to Anaximander, life originated in the moisture associated with earth (mud). This moist environment hosted the first living creatures that later populated the dry land. In these descriptions, one can trace the earliest hints of the notion of environmental adaptation. The origin of humans was seen as connected in some way with fish: ancient humans were supposed to have developed inside fish-like animals. Anaximander took into account changes in the development of living creatures (adaptations) and speculated on the origins of humans. Similar ideas are found also in the writings of much later, eighteenth and nineteenth century authors who were close to the tradition of German romantic science. We do not argue that these later concepts are in any way directly linked with those of the pre-Socratics, but they show surprising parallels in, e.g., the hypothesis that life originated in a moist environment or the supposition that human developed from fish-like ancestors. These transformations are seen as a consequence of timeless logic rather than as evolution in historical terms. Despite the accent on the origin of living things, both Anaximander and the later Naturphilosophen lack in their notions the element most characteristic of Darwin's thought, that is, the emphasis on historicity and uniqueness of all that comes into being.

  17. 宪法发展与刑法理念的更新——国权刑法向民权刑法的嬗变%Constitutional Development and the Updating of the Concept of Criminal Law -- The Evolution o~ Country Rights Criminal Law to the Civil Rights Criminal Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛波

    2012-01-01

    As the enforcement of the constitution, criminal Law directly inherited the basic spirit of the constitution. Evolution on value, spirit and concept of the constitution will have a direct impact on the transmutation of the value, spirit and concept of criminal law. The transmutation can be reflected from country rights criminal law to the civil rights criminal law. Regulations about human rights protection and non - public economy in the constitution promote the evolution of country rights criminal law to the civil rights criminal law.%刑法作为宪法的实施法,直接传承着宪法中所蕴涵的基础精神。宪法的价值、精神、理念的嬗变会直接影响到刑法价值、精神及理念的嬗变,这种嬗变可体现为国权刑法向民权刑法的嬗变。宪法关于人权保障的规范和关于非公有制经济的规范直接推动国权刑法向民权刑法的嬗变。

  18. Estrabismo y ambliopía, conceptos básicos para el médico de atención primaria. Estrabismo and amblyopia, basic concepts to the physician in primary attention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Serrano Camacho, MD*

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El estrabismo y la ambliopía son patologías relativamente frecuentes en la población general. La ambliopía constituye la causa principal de disminución de visión unilateral. Existen diferentes tipos de estrabismo mientras que la ambliopía se debe únicamente a tres mecanismos fisiopatológicos. El objetivo de este artículo es brindar al médico de atención primaria y al estudiante de medicina una revisión completa y actualizada sobre estos dos temas. Para esto revisamos libros de texto reconocidos y utilizando MEDLINE, artículos representativos relacionados con el tema y mostramos un panorama general que incluye aspectos básicos de anatomía de los músculos extraoculares, nomenclatura y terminología empleada en estrabismo, aspectos de fisiología motora, pruebas clínicas utilizadas para el diagnóstico, generalidades sobre los principales tipos de estrabismo y manejo. [Serrano J, Gaviria M. Estrabismo y ambliopía, conceptos básicos para el médico de atención primaria. MedUNAB 2011;14:108-120]. _____________________________________________________________________________________Strabismus and amblyopia are seen quite frecuently in the general population. Amblyopia is responsable for more unilaterally reduced vision of childhood onset than all other causes combined. There are severeal causes of strabismus while amblyopia is caused by three phisiopathologic states. We pretend to provide the primary care physician a general and up date review on this subject. In this article we reviewed recognized textbooks and, using MEDLINE some representative articles on this subject. We provide an overview of anatomical concepts, abbreviated designations for types of strabismus, some aspects on motor physiology, diagnostic techniques for strabismus and amblyopia, general concepts on various endodeviations and exodeviations and the management of each type. [Serrano J, Gaviria M. Estrabismo and amblyopia, basic concepts to the physician in

  19. On the Historical Evolution of Civil Society Concept in the West%西方公民社会概念的历史演变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾成敏

    2011-01-01

    The concept of civil society has experienced a long process of evolution in the west. In ancient Greek and Roman times, civil society usually refers to the political community or the citystate. With the corresponding is human natural (or savage) state. The modern concept of civil society has reflected in the separation of neoteric European political states from civil societies , which involves all fields of social life except for political countries. It is a scientific concept which has been put forward on the basis of absorbing numerous thinkers'theoretical achievements by Hegel and has been improved by Marx. While,the contemporary civil society theorists believe that the economic sphere has been detached from the civil society and advocate the trichotomy of the civil society - economy country and the civil society should be primarily constituted by the social and cultural fields.%公民社会概念在西方经历了漫长的演变过程。在古希腊罗马时代,公民社会通常是指政治共同体或城邦国家,与之相对应的是人类的自然(或野蛮)状态。现代公民社会概念的出现是近代欧洲政治国家与公民社会相分离的反映,它包括了政治国家之外的社会生活的一切领域。它是由黑格尔在吸收了众多思想家理论成果的基础上提出并由马克思予以完善的科学概念。当代公民社会理论认为经济领域已从公民社会中分离出去,主张采取公民社会-经济-国家的三分法,指出公民社会应该主要由社会和文化领域构成。当代西方公民社会概念可以说是古希腊罗马以及17、18世纪英国人和法国人代表的古典公民社会概念与黑格尔和马克思等人代表的现代公民社会概念在当代的融合及发展。

  20. Regression Basics

    CERN Document Server

    Kahane, Leo H

    2007-01-01

    Using a friendly, nontechnical approach, the Second Edition of Regression Basics introduces readers to the fundamentals of regression. Accessible to anyone with an introductory statistics background, this book builds from a simple two-variable model to a model of greater complexity. Author Leo H. Kahane weaves four engaging examples throughout the text to illustrate not only the techniques of regression but also how this empirical tool can be applied in creative ways to consider a broad array of topics. New to the Second Edition Offers greater coverage of simple panel-data estimation:

  1. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Tayal, DC

    2010-01-01

    The second edition of this book incorporates the comments and suggestions of my friends and students who have critically studied the first edition. In this edition the changes and additions have been made and subject matter has been rearranged at some places. The purpose of this text is to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date study of the principles of operation of solid state devices, their basic circuits and application of these circuits to various electronic systems, so that it can serve as a standard text not only for universities and colleges but also for technical institutes. This book

  2. Key concepts in energy

    CERN Document Server

    Madureira, Nuno Luis

    2014-01-01

    Highlights how key energy concepts surfaced, tracing their evolution throughout history to encompasses four economic concepts and four technological-engineering concepts developed through their history to conclude with current economic and environmental sciences Considers the process of energy-substitutions through complementary usages, hybridization and technological mixes Combines a conceptual approach with key theoretical concepts from engineering, geological and economic sciences providing cross disciplinary overview of energy fundamentals in a short and focused reading

  3. La medición de la sintaxis: evolución de un concepto (Measurement of syntax: evolution of a concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Crespo Allende

    2011-12-01

    1100600, the objective of this article is to give an account of the evolution of the concept of syntax and the procedures to study empirically this phenomenon. For this purpose, the main linguistic theories are revisited as well as the way in which these have assessed syntactical development. Traditional theories which assume that syntactic maturity implies larger number of elements per sentence are reviewed. Later on, Hunt’s (1965, 1970 proposal, which helps measure terminal minimal units (Unit-T and is influenced by generativism, is presented. Finally, Beman’s "clause packaging", a unit of analysis that functions as an interface between syntax and discourse (Katzenberger, 2003; Berman, 2004; Nir and Berman, 2010 is presented. Findings help to see an evolution map that addresses from an isolated view of this phenomenon to an integrated view of syntax in discourse.

  4. Radiological Dispersion Devices and Basic Radiation Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevelacqua, Joseph John

    2010-01-01

    Introductory physics courses present the basic concepts of radioactivity and an overview of nuclear physics that emphasizes the basic decay relationship and the various types of emitted radiation. Although this presentation provides insight into radiological science, it often fails to interest students to explore these concepts in a more rigorous…

  5. The Extended Enterprise concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Bjørn; Vesterager, Johan; Gobbi, Chiara

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the work that has been done regarding the Extended Enterprise concept in the Common Concept team of Globeman 21 including references to results deliverables concerning the development of the Extended Enterprise concept. The first section presents the basic concept...... picture from Globeman21, which illustrates the Globeman21 way of realising the Extended Enterprise concept. The second section presents the Globeman21 EE concept in a life cycle perspective, which to a large extent is based on the thoughts and ideas behind GERAM (ISO/DIS 15704)....

  6. Giant Radio Sources in View of the Dynamical Evolution of FRII-type Population. I. The Observational Data, and Basic Physical Parameters of Sources Derived from the Analytical Model

    CERN Document Server

    Machalski, J; Jamrozy, M

    2004-01-01

    The time evolution of giant lobe-dominated radio galaxies (with projected linear size D>1 Mpc if H_{0}=50 km/s/Mpc and q_{0}=0.5 is analysed on the basis of dynamical evolution of the entire FRII-type population. Two basic physical parameters, namely the jet power Q_{0} and central density of the galaxy nucleus rho0 are derived for a sample of giants with synchrotron ages reliably determined, and compared with the relevant parameters in a comparison sample of normal-size sources consisting of 3C, B2, and other sources. Having the apparent radio luminosity P and linear size D of each sample source, Q_{0} and rho_{0} are obtained by fitting the dynamical model of Kaiser et al. (1997). We find that: (i) there is not a unique factor governing the source size; they are old sources with temperate jet power (Q_{0}) evolved in a relatively low-density environment (rho_{0}). The size is dependent, in order of decreasing partial correlation coefficients, on age; then on Q_{0}; next on rho_{0}. (ii) A self-similar expan...

  7. Measuring Student Teachers' Basic Psychological Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Marjan; Castelijns, Jos; Kools, Quinta; Koster, Bob

    2012-01-01

    In Self-Determination Theory, basic psychological needs for relatedness, autonomy and competence are distinguished. Basic psychological need-fulfilment is considered to be critical for human development and intrinsic motivation. In the Netherlands, the concept of basic psychological need-fulfilment is introduced in the curricula of many teacher…

  8. Measuring student teachers' basic psychological needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Marjan; Castelijns, Jos; Kools, Quinta; Koster, Bob

    2012-01-01

    In the Self-Determination Theory (SDT) basic psychological needs for relatedness, autonomy and competence are distinguished. Basic psychological need fulfilment is considered to be critical for human development and intrinsic motivation. In the Netherlands, the concept of basic psychological need fu

  9. Basic Concepts of Astronomy: a Methodological Proposal. (Spanish Title: Conceptos Básicos de Astronomía: Una Propuesta Metodológica.) Conceitos Básicos de Astronomia: Uma Proposta Metodológica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darroz, Luiz Marcelo; Heineck, Renato; Samudio Pérez, Carlos Ariel

    2011-12-01

    In this report, the development of a methodological proposal which approaches basic concepts of astronomy-grounded pedagogically on Meaningful Learning is described. The proposal, which consists of four meetings, was developed by teachers and academics of the course of Professor in Physics of the University of Passo Fundo (UPF), through an extension course to a group of highschool students of a public school of the town of Passo Fundo, RS. The work was focused into basic concepts of astronomy. The signs of Meaningful Learning have been obtained by means of research and evaluation tools that were applied at the end of each meeting. The evaluation of the proposal has been conducted by means of a final questionnaire which was answered by the participants at the end ofthe development of activities. By means of the results obtained from the different instruments, and the comments made by the participants during the activities and by means of the high rates of approval obtained in the final questionnaire, we think that the proposal reached the established goals and it may be repeated with the certainty of success. En este relato se describe una propuesta de desarrollo metodológico que aborda conceptos básicos de astronomía fundamentada pedagógicamente en el Aprendizaje Significativo. La propuesta que comprende cuatro encuentros, fue desarrollada por profesores y académicos del curso de Licenciatura en Física de la Universidad de Passo Fundo (UPF), a través de un curso de extensión para un grupo de Liceo del 6º año de una Escuela Pública de la ciudad de Passo Fundo/RS. El trabajo tuvo como eje principal los "conceptos básicos de astronomía". Los indicios de Aprendizaje Significativo fueron obtenidos por instrumentos de pesquisa y evaluación, siempre aplicados después de cada encuentro. La evaluación de la propuesta fue hecha a través de un cuestionario final y contestado por los participantes al finalizar el desarrollo de actividades. Por los resultados

  10. Basic electronic circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Buckley, P M

    1980-01-01

    In the past, the teaching of electricity and electronics has more often than not been carried out from a theoretical and often highly academic standpoint. Fundamentals and basic concepts have often been presented with no indication of their practical appli­ cations, and all too frequently they have been illustrated by artificially contrived laboratory experiments bearing little relationship to the outside world. The course comes in the form of fourteen fairly open-ended constructional experiments or projects. Each experiment has associated with it a construction exercise and an explanation. The basic idea behind this dual presentation is that the student can embark on each circuit following only the briefest possible instructions and that an open-ended approach is thereby not prejudiced by an initial lengthy encounter with the theory behind the project; this being a sure way to dampen enthusiasm at the outset. As the investigation progresses, questions inevitably arise. Descriptions of the phenomena encounte...

  11. The Basic Conception of the Subway Culture Construction--For example Homgzhon Metro%地铁文化建设的基本内涵--以杭州地铁为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴伟强; 彭江; 吴安琪

    2013-01-01

      Subway is a key node running through the developmental history of a city. Subway culture can extend and enhance the culture of a city. And thus the spirit to erect a subway culture is to reflect the civilization of the city. This paper discusses the basic conception of the subway culture construction in three dimensions: passenger, administrator and infrastructure. Only when we completely get rid of egoism, try hard to arouse passengers ’ public awareness, transform administrators’ opinion of regulation to the kindness to passengers, and pursue the value of aesthetic value instead of instrumentalism, can we truly show the deep meaning of the subway culture.%  地铁是城市发展历史中的一个结点,地铁文化可以延伸和提升城市文化。地铁文化建设的灵魂是承载和体现城市文明。从乘客、管理者、基础设施三个维度论述地铁文化建设的基本内涵。当我们彻底摆脱了自我中心主义,努力培育出乘客的公共意识,将管理者的规制意识转变为对乘客的平等关爱,并放弃工具主义思想转而追求地铁的美学价值,地铁的文化内涵才能真正得以展现。

  12. Definition and Explanation of Three Basic Concepts in the Studies of Racial Issues%种族问题研究中三个基本概念的界定与阐释

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪诗明

    2015-01-01

    “Indigenous People”,“Aborigine”,“the First People/the First Nations”are three basic concepts in the study of racial issues.Indigenous People are the earliest known ethnic group who are residing within some area;Aborigines are origi-nally the title of local residents by western colonists,but now generally refers to indigenous peoples too;the First People are o-riginally the title of ethnic groups in Canada,its meaning is just as the indian’s,refer to indigenous peoples and their descend-ants of Northern America within the boundaries of Canada nowadays,later refer to indigenous peoples who aim to stress their historical origin,unique culture and status in other states.%“原住民”、“土著”和“第一民族”是种族问题研究中常常遇到的三个基本概念。原住民是指最早定居在某地方的族群;土著最初是西方殖民者对当地原住民的称谓,而现在也泛指原住民;第一民族原来是加拿大的一个种族称谓,与印第安人同义,指的是在当今加拿大境内的北美洲原住民及其后裔,后来也可指代其他国家的意在凸显其历史渊源、独特文化和地位的原住民。

  13. Inflation Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Dan [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2014-03-01

    inflation since metrical fluctuations, both scalar and tensor, are also produced in inflationary models. Thus, the time appears to be appropriate for a very basic and simple exposition of the inflationary model written from a particle physics perspective. Only the simplest scalar model will be explored because it is easy to understand and contains all the basic elements of the inflationary model.

  14. Key Concepts in Informatics: Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szlávi, Péter; Zsakó, László

    2014-01-01

    "The system of key concepts contains the most important key concepts related to the development tasks of knowledge areas and their vertical hierarchy as well as the links of basic key concepts of different knowledge areas." (Vass 2011) One of the most important of these concepts is the algorithm. In everyday life, when learning or…

  15. A roadmap for bridging basic and applied research in forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomberlin, J K; Mohr, R; Benbow, M E; Tarone, A M; VanLaerhoven, S

    2011-01-01

    The National Research Council issued a report in 2009 that heavily criticized the forensic sciences. The report made several recommendations that if addressed would allow the forensic sciences to develop a stronger scientific foundation. We suggest a roadmap for decomposition ecology and forensic entomology hinging on a framework built on basic research concepts in ecology, evolution, and genetics. Unifying both basic and applied research fields under a common umbrella of terminology and structure would facilitate communication in the field and the production of scientific results. It would also help to identify novel research areas leading to a better understanding of principal underpinnings governing ecosystem structure, function, and evolution while increasing the accuracy of and ability to interpret entomological evidence collected from crime scenes. By following the proposed roadmap, a bridge can be built between basic and applied decomposition ecology research, culminating in science that could withstand the rigors of emerging legal and cultural expectations.

  16. 炎性肠病外科百年发展历程%Historical evolution and current concepts of surgical treatment for inflammatory bowel diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    练磊; 吴小剑; 谢明颢; 兰平

    2016-01-01

    外科治疗是炎性肠病(IBD)出现肠道并发症或内科治疗失败时重要的治疗手段. 对于有手术适应证的患者应及时选择合适的术式进行外科治疗. 随着外科手术操作的不断优化和手术方式的不断创新,IBD 外科治疗的理念和手术方式在一个多世纪的发展期间已发生了翻天覆地的变化. 了解各种治疗理念和手术方式的发展历程, 对深入理解及熟练掌握各类术式的适应证和手术技巧具有十分积极的意义.随着生物制剂、腹腔镜、多学科合作等新的技术和理念的发展,IBD外科医师及时更新知识体系是顺应时代进步的必然要求.%Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) may require surgical intervention for refractory disease or complications. Prompt surgery and appropriate surgical procedures are critical when surgery is indicatedd. With continuous optimization and innovation of surgical procedures, there have been significant changes in the concepts and operations of IBD in the past century. Learning the evolution of surgical treatment for IBD could help us understand the rationale, indications, and pertinent techniques of surgical procedures. Innovations are emerging in IBD management including the advent of biological agents, laparoscopy, and multi-disciplinary team approach, it is imperative for IBD specialist to learn the state-of-the-art knowledge.

  17. Basic statistics for social research

    CERN Document Server

    Hanneman, Robert A; Riddle, Mark D

    2012-01-01

    A core statistics text that emphasizes logical inquiry, notmath Basic Statistics for Social Research teaches core generalstatistical concepts and methods that all social science majorsmust master to understand (and do) social research. Its use ofmathematics and theory are deliberately limited, as the authorsfocus on the use of concepts and tools of statistics in theanalysis of social science data, rather than on the mathematicaland computational aspects. Research questions and applications aretaken from a wide variety of subfields in sociology, and eachchapter is organized arou

  18. History evolution and contemporary enlightenment of China's administrative ethics concept%中国行政伦理观的历史演进及当代启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何东铭

    2011-01-01

    行政伦理观是公共行政主体和国家公务员在公共行政领域中关于行政伦理价值追求的总体观念,从行政伦理观的历史演变的角度出发,采用了理论研究方法,分析了不同历史时期行政伦理观的传承与变迁,针对不同历史时期行政伦理观的价值观念转变,归纳当代行政伦理观建设的启示。%Administrative ethics concept is the overall concept of public administrative subjects and civ-il servants about administrative ethics value pursuit in public field.Based on the historical evolution of administrative ethics concept and corresponding theory,analyses were made of the inheritance and changes of administrative ethics concept in different historical periods.Based on the value concept changes of administrative ethics concept in different historical periods,the contemporary enlightenment on the construction of administrative ethics concept are summed up.

  19. Chosen Concepts of Human Resources Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin W. Staniewski

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The article is a trial of clarifying and making order of terminology that is used in area of human resources management. This is an overview of basic definitions, conceptions and models of people management, that emerged from the beginning (XIX/XX century to nowadays. The article is a kind of presentation of human resources management evolution. It comprises a descriptions of broad range of human resources management models beginning from classic models (Harvard and Michigan models and finishing on strategic human resources models (orthodox model and human resources architecture, proposed by R.G. Klimecki S. A. Litz and D.P. Lepak S.A. Snell.

  20. Data Transmission Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, Chris

    1995-01-01

    Introduces some basic concepts related to the transmission of data from a computer to its peripherals to help distance educators make decisions regarding computer equipment purchases for their institutions. The following data transmission concepts are described: cables, serial and parallel, synchronous and asynchronous, bandwidth, and analog and…

  1. Contribution to the study of 233U production with MOX-ThPu fuel in PWR reactor. Transition scenarios towards Th/233U iso-generating concepts in thermal spectrum. Development of the MURE fuel evolution code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If nuclear power is to provide a significant fraction of the growing world energy demand, only through the breeding concept can the development of sustainable nuclear energy become a reality. The study of such a transition, from present-day nuclear technologies to future breeding concepts is therefore pertinent. Among these future concepts, those using the thorium cycle Th/U-233 in a thermal neutron spectrum are of particular interest; molten-salt type thermal reactors would allow for breeding while requiring comparatively low initial inventories of U-233. The upstream production of U-233 can be obtained through the use of thorium-plutonium mixed oxide fuel in present-day light water reactors. This work presents, firstly, the development of the MURE evolution code system, a C++ object-oriented code that allows the study, through Monte Carlo (M.C.) simulation, of nuclear reactors and the evolution of their fuel under neutron irradiation. The M.C. methods are well-suited for the study of any reactor, whether it'd be an existing reactor using a new kind of fuel or a future concept altogether, the simulation is only dependent on nuclear data. Exact and complex geometries can be simulated and continuous energy particle transport is performed. MURE is an interface with MCNP, the well-known and validated transport code, that allows, among other functionalities, to simulate constant power and constant reactivity evolutions. Secondly, the study of MOX ThPu fuel in a conventional light water reactor (REP) is presented; it explores different plutonium concentrations and isotopic qualities in order to evaluate their safety characteristics. Simulation of their evolution allows us to quantify the production of U-233 at the end of burnup. Last, different french scenarios validating a possible transition towards a park of thermal Th/U-233 breeders, are presented. In these scenarios, U-233 is produced in ThPu moxed light water reactors. (author)

  2. E-Basics: Online Basic Training in Program Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silliman, Ben

    2016-01-01

    E-Basics is an online training in program evaluation concepts and skills designed for youth development professionals, especially those working in nonformal science education. Ten hours of online training in seven modules is designed to prepare participants for mentoring and applied practice, mastery, and/or team leadership in program evaluation.…

  3. Ludwig von Bertalanffy's organismic view on the theory of evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drack, Manfred

    2015-03-01

    Ludwig von Bertalanffy was a key figure in the advancement of theoretical biology. His early considerations already led him to recognize the necessity of considering the organism as a system, as an organization of parts and processes. He termed the resulting research program organismic biology, which he extended to all basic questions of biology and almost all areas of biology, hence also to the theory of evolution. This article begins by outlining the rather unknown (because often written in German) research of Bertalanffy in the field of theoretical biology. The basics of the organismic approach are then described. This is followed by Bertalanffy's considerations on the theory of evolution, in which he used methods from theoretical biology and then introduced his own, organismic, view on evolution, leading to the demand for finding laws of evolution. Finally, his view on the concept of homology is presented.

  4. 生态规划及其相关概念演变和关系辨析%Evolution and discrimination of ecological planning and its related conceptions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何璇; 毛惠萍; 牛冬杰; 包存宽

    2013-01-01

    Ecological planning is one of the most important tools in realizing city's sustainable development.The ecological planning in China was started in the 1980s,and on the basis of assimilating the existing theoretical and practical experiences from western countries,basically formed a theoretical system in accordance with the Chinese characteristics and acquired a series of practical results.This paper reviewed the research and development processes of China' s ecological planning.It is considered that the study of our ecological planning was derived from the geographical principles of land resources ecological utilization,the ecological principles of complex ecological system theory,and the combination of these two principles.The ecological planning has experienced three research stages,i.e.,single-disciplinary exploration,multi-disciplinary and multi-perspective study (including landscape ecology,ecology and urban planning),and interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary collaboration research.The ecological planning and the related conceptions,primary principles,main academic points,and representatives at each research stage were summarized,and through the discrimination of the basic conceptions of ecological planning and other related plans,it was pointed out that ecological planning is an general conception which includes land ecological planning,urban ecological planning,and eco-city planning,and the principles and theories of ecological planning should be integrated into,led and restricted the present planning system to promote the city's and regional sustainable development.%生态规划是实现城市可持续发展的重要工具之一.我国生态规划起步于20世纪80年代,在吸收和借鉴欧美生态规划理论成果与实践经验的基础上,至今已经基本形成了符合中国特色的生态规划理论体系,并取得了一些实践经验.本文首先回顾了近30年来我国生态规划的研究与发展历程,认为我国生态规划的研

  5. Evolution of Substrate Specificity within a Diverse Family of [beta/alpha]-Barrel-fold Basic Amino Acid Decarboxylases X-ray Structure Determination of Enzymes with Specificity for L-Arginine and Carboxynorspermidine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Xiaoyi; Lee, Jeongmi; Michael, Anthony J.; Tomchick, Diana R.; Goldsmith, Elizabeth J.; Phillips, Margaret A. (Sungkyunkwan); (UTSMC)

    2010-08-26

    Pyridoxal 5{prime}-phosphate (PLP)-dependent basic amino acid decarboxylases from the {beta}/{alpha}-barrel-fold class (group IV) exist in most organisms and catalyze the decarboxylation of diverse substrates, essential for polyamine and lysine biosynthesis. Herein we describe the first x-ray structure determination of bacterial biosynthetic arginine decarboxylase (ADC) and carboxynorspermidine decarboxylase (CANSDC) to 2.3- and 2.0-{angstrom} resolution, solved as product complexes with agmatine and norspermidine. Despite low overall sequence identity, the monomeric and dimeric structures are similar to other enzymes in the family, with the active sites formed between the {beta}/{alpha}-barrel domain of one subunit and the {beta}-barrel of the other. ADC contains both a unique interdomain insertion (4-helical bundle) and a C-terminal extension (3-helical bundle) and it packs as a tetramer in the asymmetric unit with the insertions forming part of the dimer and tetramer interfaces. Analytical ultracentrifugation studies confirmed that the ADC solution structure is a tetramer. Specificity for different basic amino acids appears to arise primarily from changes in the position of, and amino acid replacements in, a helix in the {beta}-barrel domain we refer to as the 'specificity helix.' Additionally, in CANSDC a key acidic residue that interacts with the distal amino group of other substrates is replaced by Leu{sup 314}, which interacts with the aliphatic portion of norspermidine. Neither product, agmatine in ADC nor norspermidine in CANSDC, form a Schiff base to pyridoxal 5{prime}-phosphate, suggesting that the product complexes may promote product release by slowing the back reaction. These studies provide insight into the structural basis for the evolution of novel function within a common structural-fold.

  6. System engineering concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The system engineering concept is founded on the principles of ownership and responsibility. Basically, by developing a sense of ownership for an assigned system, the engieer takes personal pride in that system's performance and assumes the responsibility to ensure that his/her assigned system is the best that it can be. The purpose of this paper is to describe the basic concepts behind the system engineer approach and to provide some results from an operating boiling water reactor (Carolina Power Light's Brunswick plant) using this concept

  7. Concepções e concepções alternativas de média: Um estudo comparativo entre professores e alunos do Ensino Fundamental Conception and alternative conception of mean: a comparative study among teachers and students from basic school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Magina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo analisa concepções de estudantes e professores sobre média, tanto aquelas válidas quanto as alternativas, com validade para alguns casos. Um teste, em lápis e papel, composto de 3 questões foi elaborado e aplicado com 287 estudantes e professores brasileiros, dos quais: 54 eram alunos da 4ª série e 47 eram da 5ª série do ensino fundamental, 61 eram estudantes iniciantes e 82 eram estudantes concluintes do curso de pedagogia, e 43 eram professores das séries iniciais do ensino fundamental. O teste foi aplicado de forma coletiva, em sala de aula. Excetuando-se o grupo de professores, todos os grupos tendem a confundir média com adição dos valores ou com o valor máximo. Os resultados mostram que, apesar da evolução no entendimento do conceito de média em relação ao nível de escolaridade, algumas confusões ainda são identificadas entre o grupo de professores.The present study aims to analyze students and teachers conceptions and misconceptions of average. A paper and pencil test, comprised of three questions, was designed. 287 Brazilian students and teachers undertook the test. They were: 54 pupils from 4th grade, 47 from 5th grade, 61 students beginning undergraduation on Pedagogy, 82 students finishing their undergraduation on Pedagogy and 43 elementary school teachers. The test was undertaken in a collective way. Excepting to the teachers group, all the groups tend to confuse average to addition of the values, or to the maximum value. The result points that, in spite of an evolution on the understanding of the concept of average according to the educational level of the groups, some misconceptions are found within the teachers' group.

  8. Ultrastructure, macromolecules, and evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Dillon, Lawrence S

    1981-01-01

    Thus far in the history of biology, two, and only two, fundamental principles have come to light that pervade and unify the entire science-the cell theory and the concept of evolution. While it is true that recently opened fields of inves­ tigation have given rise to several generalizations of wide impact, such as the universality of DNA and the energetic dynamics of ecology, closer inspection reveals them to be part and parcel of either of the first two mentioned. Because in the final analysis energy can act upon an organism solely at the cellular level, its effects may be perceived basically to represent one facet of cell me­ tabolism. Similarly, because the DNA theory centers upon the means by which cells build proteins and reproduce themselves, it too proves to be only one more, even though an exciting, aspect of the cell theory. In fact, if the matter is given closer scrutiny, evolution itself can be viewed as being a fundamental portion of the cell concept, for its effects arise only as a consequence ...

  9. Operation safety of complex industrial systems. Main concepts; Surete de fonctionnement des systemes industriels complexes. Principaux concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwingelstein, G

    2009-06-15

    Operation safety consists in knowing, evaluating, foreseeing, measuring and mastering the technological system and human failures in order to avoid their impacts on health and people's safety, on productivity, and on the environment, and to preserve the Earth's resources. This article recalls the main concepts of operation safety: 1 - evolutions in the domain; 2 - failures, missions and functions of a system and of its components: functional failure, missions and functions, industrial processes, notions of probability; 3 - basic concepts and operation safety: reliability, unreliability, failure density, failure rate, relations between them, availability, maintainability, safety. (J.S.)

  10. Coloured Petri Nets: Basic Concepts, Analysis Methods and Practical Use. Vol. 1, Basic Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    This three-volume work presents a coherent description of the theoretical and practical aspects of coloured Petri nets. These CP-nets are shown to be a full-fledged language for the design, specification, simulation, validation and implementation of large software systems. The introductory first ...

  11. Evolution of concepts of cultivated land quality and recognition%耕地质量观的演变与再认识

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜国明; 刘彦随; 于凤荣; 刘美; 郑惠玉

    2016-01-01

    耕地质量对农业效益、粮食安全、耕地资源可持续利用能力具有重要影响。明确耕地质量概念、构成、特点和影响因素,对于加强耕地质量基础理论研究、推动土地整治与高标准农田建设、开展耕地质量管理实践工作具有重要意义。该文在梳理当前3种主要耕地质量观、剖析质量与土地质量内涵的基础上,阐述了新的耕地质量观。主要结论如下:1)当前主要存在基于耕地自然属性、自然-经济双重属性和多重属性的3种耕地质量观,他们既存在先后演化关系,又同时并存、互有区别;2)质量是产品一组固有特性满足要求的程度,土地质量是土地满足某种利用类型特定要求的能力和程度;3)耕地质量是耕地本身的特性满足农业生产并获取经济利润,以及满足人类福祉的程度,包括地力质量、工程质量、空间质量、生态环境质量、美学与文化质量;4)耕地质量具有生产性、内在性、综合性、空间性和时间性,耕地质量受到自然要素、工程要素和社会因素及其组合特征的影响。在耕地质量的理论研究与管理实践中,应充分考虑耕地质量的综合性,防止以偏概全;应将耕地质量的客观性与耕地质量需求的主观性有机统一;应根据耕地评价目的、监测的空间尺度和时间频率,科学构建耕地质量指标及评价指标体系,以科学合理地评价耕地质量状况。%Cultivated land quality has important implications for agricultural benefit, food security, and sustainable utilization ability of cultivated land resources. To understand concept, composition, characteristics and influencing factors of cultivated land quality is important for strengthening basic research in cultivated land quality, promoting land remediation and high-standard basic farmland construction, and launching cultivated land quality management practice work

  12. Fifty years of co-evolution and beyond: integrating co-evolution from molecules to species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, Diego; Fitzpatrick, Connor R; Johnson, Marc T J

    2015-11-01

    Fifty years after Ehrlich and Raven's seminal paper, the idea of co-evolution continues to grow as a key concept in our understanding of organic evolution. This concept has not only provided a compelling synthesis between evolutionary biology and community ecology, but has also inspired research that extends beyond its original scope. In this article, we identify unresolved questions about the co-evolutionary process and advocate for the integration of co-evolutionary research from molecular to interspecific interactions. We address two basic questions: (i) What is co-evolution and how common is it? (ii) What is the unit of co-evolution? Both questions aim to explore the heart of the co-evolutionary process. Despite the claim that co-evolution is ubiquitous, we argue that there is in fact little evidence to support the view that reciprocal natural selection and coadaptation are common in nature. We also challenge the traditional view that co-evolution only occurs between traits of interacting species. Co-evolution has the potential to explain evolutionary processes and patterns that result from intra- and intermolecular biochemical interactions within cells, intergenomic interactions (e.g. nuclear-cytoplasmic) within species, as well as intergenomic interactions mediated by phenotypic traits between species. Research that bridges across these levels of organization will help to advance our understanding of the importance of the co-evolutionary processes in shaping the diversity of life on Earth.

  13. CURRENT CONCEPTS IN ACL RECONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddie H. Fu

    2008-09-01

    's most experienced surgeons to produce a so called "Bible of ACL". The most current concepts not only for the clinical approach but the latest knowledge in basic sciences which the clinical concepts are based on also reviewed including biology, biomechanics, and kinematics. Advances in the diagnostic measures mainly MR imaging are also included. "Current Concepts in ACL Reconstruction" is a complete and the most up-to-date review providing the latest techniques for the treatment of ACL injuries in details, including the perspectives of the most experienced ACL surgeons of the world. Rich illustrations and an accompanying video CD-ROM comprehensively demonstrates the procedures and the techniques described in the book. The differences between single and double-bundle techniques, the technical details in different grafts choices, the technique and approach in the revision surgery are described in detail and explained in the anatomical basis. Pearls, technical pitfalls, personal experience and advices of the most experienced ACL surgeons not only from USA but also from the other pioneer countries of the world in ACL surgery may be the most welcomed parts of the book even by the highly experienced ACL surgeons especially for technically demanding procedures like double-bundle reconstruction. Postoperative rehabilitation described in phases provides the current rehabilitation concept after ACL reconstruction. Outcome measures to assess success after surgery are also reviewed and aspects for future are recommended. Principles and experiences in the navigation technologies in ACL reconstruction are providing the reader new perspectives for future possibilities in diagnosis and treatment. Review of basic sciences, advances in technology and clinical approach from history to future also clearly demonstrates the evolution "where are we and the way to go" and future aspects in the treatment of a thorn ACL

  14. Schumpeter's Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Esben Sloth

    reworking of his basic theory of economic evolution in Development from 1934, and this reworking was continued in Cycles from 1939. Here Schumpeter also tried to handle the statistical and historical evidence on the waveform evolution of the capitalist economy. Capitalism from 1942 modified the model...... originally developed his evolutionary research programme in Wesen from 1908 by studying the inherent limitations of Neoclassical Economics. He presented core results on economic evolution and sketched an extension evolutionary analysis to all social sciences in Entwicklung from 1912. He made a partial...... of economic evolution and added evolutionary contributions to other social sciences. History, which was published by his widow, was based on his evolutionary theory of the history of economic analysis. This sequential analysis of Schumpeter's six books demonstrates the progress he within his research...

  15. 高职经管类微积分基本概念蕴含的思想方法%On the Thinking Methods Embodied in the Basic Con-cepts of Calculus for Higher Vocational Economic Man-agement Majors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺金兰

    2015-01-01

    本文阐述高职经管类微积分中函数、极限、导数、定积分四个基本概念蕴含的思想方法。%This paper elaborates the thinking methods embodied in the four basic concepts of calculus for higher vocational eco-nomic management majors, including function, limit, derivative and definite integral.

  16. Magnetism basics and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Stefanita, Carmen-Gabriela

    2012-01-01

    This textbook is aimed at engineering students who are likely to come across magnetics applications in their professional practice. Whether designing lithography equipment containing ferromagnetic brushes, or detecting defects in aeronautics, some basic knowledge of 21st century magnetism is needed. From the magnetic tape on the pocket credit card to the read head in a personal computer, people run into magnetism in many products. Furthermore, in a variety of disciplines tools of the trade exploit magnetic principles, and many interdisciplinary laboratory research areas cross paths with magnetic phenomena that may seem mysterious to the untrained mind. Therefore, this course offers a broad coverage of magnetism topics encountered more often in this millenium, revealing key concepts on which many practical applications rest. Some traditional subjects in magnetism are discussed in the first half of the book, followed by areas likely to spark the curiosity of those more interested in today’s technological achi...

  17. Astrophysics and the evolution of the universe

    CERN Document Server

    Kisslinger, Leonard S

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this book is to teach undergraduate college or university students the basic physics concepts needed to understand the mathematics which describes the evolution of the universe, and based on this to teach the astrophysical theories behind evolution from very early times to the present. The book does not require students to have extensive knowledge of mathematics, like calculus, and includes material that explains concepts such as velocity, acceleration, and force. Based on this, fascinating topics such as Dark Matter, measuring Dark Energy via supernovae velocities, and the creation of mass via the Higgs mechanism are explained. All college students with an interest in science, especially astronomy, without extensive mathematical backgrounds should be able to use and learn from this book. Adults interested in topics like dark energy and the Higgs boson, which are in the news, can make use of this book as well.

  18. Teachers' Conceptions of Tangent Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paez Murillo, Rosa Elvira; Vivier, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the conceptions, and their evolutions, of the tangent line to a curve an updating workshop which took place in Mexico was designed for upper secondary school teachers. This workshop was planned using the methodology of cooperative learning, scientific debate and auto reflection (ACODESA) and the conception-knowing-concept model…

  19. Evolution and current situation of the quality and industrial safety. Concepts, laws and regulations; Evolucion y situacion actual de la calidad y seguridad industrial. Conceptos, leyes y reglamentos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz, A.

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this article is to show the difference between the concepts of quality and industrial safety and how in the legislation of products and industrial installation there is a very close relationship between both concepts. So, that Spanish companies could place in the market not only safe products but also reliable ones that meet the society's demand regarding quality. (Author)

  20. 武术概念演进过程的逻辑分析%The Logic Analysis in the Process of Evolution of Wushu Concept

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢群喜

    2015-01-01

    武术概念是我们认识和研究武术的理论基础,从逻辑学角度讲,概念是构成判断和推理的基本要素,作为事物研究的起点,对武术概念进一步研究是非常有必要的。文章运用文献资料法和逻辑分析法对武术概念研究现状进行梳理和分析,通过逻辑学基本原理阐述概念界定的条件及如何判断概念合理性,以此为理论支点,推理与演绎出武术概念的内涵、外延以及武术概念的逻辑依据。为武术概念的界定提供参考,同时,为武术理论体系的进一步完善提供理论基础。%The concept of Wushu is the basis of contacting and researching Wushu. Logically, the concept is the basis of judgment and speculation.As the beginning of research, it is indispensable to take further research on Wushus. The article analyzes the concept of Wushu’s status quo by literature and the logical analysis. By judging the rationality of the conception of logic foundation, and illustrating the condition of concept definition, by which to infer and derive the concept of Wushu’s connotation, extension and logical argument. At the same time, the research of the concept of Wushu can offer theories to refine and define Wushu’s concept.

  1. From Aplysia to the constitution: evolution of concepts in behavior analysis / Da Aplysia à constituição: evolução de conceitos na análise do comportamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Claudio Todorov

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the evolution of concepts in behavior analysis, especially in the writings of Skinner, from the definition of operant behavior and reinforcement contingency to processes of selection by consequences, following the development of a conceptual language that covers both the behavior of molluscs and the metacontingencies included in the constitution of a country. Skinner's first papers used the terminology developed by Pavlov in his studies of conditioned reflexes to deal with behavior in general. From Skinner's doctoral dissertation to the papers published in the 80's there was an evolution, followed by the field of behavior analysis, which today uses the same, sophisticated language to deal with complex issues like cultural practices and the survival of cultures.

  2. Back to the Basics: Kansas City, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Lawrence R.; Lockwood, Catherine M.; Handley, Nathan

    2004-01-01

    "Back to the Basics" is an innovation of the WETMAAP Program (Wetland Education Through Maps and Aerial Photography) which offers a series of workshops that provide training in basics ecological concepts, technological skills, and methods of interpretation necessary for assessing geography and earth science topics. The precept of the series is to…

  3. Basics of Solar Heating & Hot Water Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Inst. of Architects, Washington, DC.

    In presenting the basics of solar heating and hot water systems, this publication is organized from the general to the specific. It begins by presenting functional and operational descriptions of solar heating and domestic hot water systems, outlining the basic concepts and terminology. This is followed by a description of solar energy utilization…

  4. Basic science research in urology training

    OpenAIRE

    Eberli, D.; Atala, A

    2009-01-01

    The role of basic science exposure during urology training is a timely topic that is relevant to urologic health and to the training of new physician scientists. Today, researchers are needed for the advancement of this specialty, and involvement in basic research will foster understanding of basic scientific concepts and the development of critical thinking skills, which will, in turn, improve clinical performance. If research education is not included in urology training, future urologists ...

  5. Exploring the evolution of protein function in Archaea

    OpenAIRE

    Goncearenco Alexander; Berezovsky Igor N

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Despite recent progress in studies of the evolution of protein function, the questions what were the first functional protein domains and what were their basic building blocks remain unresolved. Previously, we introduced the concept of elementary functional loops (EFLs), which are the functional units of enzymes that provide elementary reactions in biochemical transformations. They are presumably descendants of primordial catalytic peptides. Results We analyzed distant evo...

  6. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Experts \\ The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Topics Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 Spinal Cord Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation The Basics ...

  7. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Experts \\ The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Topics Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 Spinal Cord Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation The Basics of Spinal Cord ...

  8. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Experts \\ The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Topics Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 Spinal Cord Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation The Basics of ...

  9. Stem Cell Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Stem Cell Basics Stem Cell Basics: Introduction Stem Cell Information General Information Clinical Trials Funding Information Current Research Policy Glossary Site Map Stem Cell Basics Introduction: What are stem cells, and why ...

  10. The concept of hypothetical flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В.М. Буйвол

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available  The basic statements of the concept of hypothetical flow have been formulated. This concept transforms task about free surface motion to solution of system of nonlinear differential equations relatively modes of surface's deformations. This concept transforms task about free surface motion to solution of system of nonlinear differential equations relatively modes of surface's deformations. This concept may be used for investigation of motion of both thin cavities and vacuities in medium with properties of real medium.

  11. Auf dem Weg zu einem neuen Weltcurriculum? Zum Grundbildungskonzept von PISA und der Aufgabenzuweisung an die Schule (Towards a World Curriculum? -- The Concept of Basic Education (Literacy) underlying PISA and the tasks allocated to Schooling).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Hans-Werner

    2003-01-01

    Recognizes that the debate on the Program for International Student Assessment 2000 (PISA) has been dominated by comparisons of the ranks achieved and by the question of the consequences to be drawn from the results. Discusses the educational concept forming the basis for the investigation and aims of PISA. (CAJ)

  12. Integrating the Carbon and Water Footprints’ Costs in the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC Full Water Cost Recovery Concept: Basic Principles Towards Their Reliable Calculation and Socially Just Allocation

    OpenAIRE

    Anastasia Papadopoulou; Stavroula Tsitsifli; Vasilis Kanakoudis

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the basic principles for the integration of the water and carbon footprints cost into the resource and environmental costs respectively, taking the suggestions set by the Water Framework Directive (WFD) 2000/60/EC one step forward. WFD states that full water cost recovery (FWCR) should be based on the estimation of the three sub-costs related: direct; environmental; and resource cost. It also strongly suggests the EU Member States develop and apply effective water pricing ...

  13. Fundamental concepts of mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Goodstein, R L

    Fundamental Concepts of Mathematics, 2nd Edition provides an account of some basic concepts in modern mathematics. The book is primarily intended for mathematics teachers and lay people who wants to improve their skills in mathematics. Among the concepts and problems presented in the book include the determination of which integral polynomials have integral solutions; sentence logic and informal set theory; and why four colors is enough to color a map. Unlike in the first edition, the second edition provides detailed solutions to exercises contained in the text. Mathematics teachers and people

  14. A Review of the Concept of Knowledge in Basic Education Curricular Reform in the Past Decade%10年来我国基础教育课程改革之知识观研究述评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永祥; 李炜

    2012-01-01

    The concept of knowledge in curricular reform is an important theoretical issue that is rudimentary and prerequisite.Since the New Curricular Reform was enforced,people have explored this issue in varied dimensions,mainly:research based on philosophical epistemology;research from the pedagogical perspective;research from knowledge sociology and research from the psychological perspective,etc.Varied dimensions of research deepened people's understanding of the concept of knowledge in curricular reform.However,we still need to clarify the research domain of this issue,making a shift from the ontological explanation that is simply a reflection over the concept of knowledge,to meaningful explanation of knowledge to man in education.In the meantime,we need to pay attention to the concept of knowledge that is already existent in education practice.%课程改革的知识观问题是一个具有根基性、前提性的重要理论问题。新课改以来人们对此问题作了多维透视,主要表现为基于哲学知识论的研究、教育学视角的研究、知识社会学视角的研究及心理学视角的研究等。不同研究视野加深了人们对课程改革知识观的认识。对此问题还需要更加明确研究的问题域,从单纯思考知识观的本体论解答转向教育中知识之于人的"意义阐释"。同时,也要充分关注教育实践中本真存在的知识观问题。

  15. The Evolution and Development of the Concept of Countr y Park%郊野公园概念的演变与发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉钧; 张力圆; 张玏

    2013-01-01

    Based on reviewing the concepts of country park from the studies from home and abroad, this article found that different places have different focuses on the concept of country park. In order to make an overal summary of country park, this paper considered three main relative problems on country park: the location, the connection with other types of green spaces, and the relationship with urban development and ecological protection. Basing on the above discussion, six indexes, which are location, resources, recreation, design, serve object and urban function, were concluded to define the concept of country park clearer. At the end, the authors concluded their own understanding of the concept description of country park according to the six indexes.%通过评述国内外研究中有关郊野公园的概念,发现不同地区对概念界定的重点不同。为了比较全面地概括郊野公园的典型特点,对郊野公园相关的3个主要问题进行了讨论:区位、与其他绿地类型的联系、与城市发展和城市生态保护的关系,在此基础上提出了郊野公园概念界定的6大指标:区位、资源、游憩内容、设计理念与手法、服务对象、城市功能,并紧扣这6项指标,给出了此次研究的郊野公园概念的答案。

  16. Evolution and Significance of Self-concept in Psychotherapy%心理治疗中自我概念的嬗变及其意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘如平

    2012-01-01

    Self-concept has its own special meaning and significance in different psychotherapy theories.Freud views self as the only part to exercise the cognitive function in one's personality,and as a primary reason for psychological problems;Byrne considered self to be the main character of personality.He divided it further into the parents self,the adult self,and the child self,and proposed that mental health depends on the relationship between the three concepts;Rogers emphasized the core status of self on one's subjective experience of the world,advocating that the spontaneous-free-self is the healthy-self;Pierce introduced the concept of psychological-borders and ability of self-awareness,which added the connotation of consciousness to the concept of healthy-self.%在不同的心理治疗理论中,自我概念具有各自特殊的含义和意义。弗洛伊德将自我视作人格中唯一能行使认识功能的部分,也是心理问题的主要责任者;伯恩将自我视作人格的主体,并将其分为父母自我、成人自我、儿童自我三部分,提出三者关系状况决定了心理健康的状况;罗杰斯将自我放在人的主观经验世界的核心地位,提出自发、自由的自我是健康的自我;皮尔斯提出了心理界限和自我觉察力概念,为健康自我增加了自觉之内涵。

  17. 从围棋的历史演变看中西方体育的不同观念%On Different Concepts between Chinese and Western Sports from the Evolution of Go

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周荣彬

    2015-01-01

    With method of literature and from the perspective of go culture,the paper explores differences between western and Chinese sports concepts according to the evolution of go in China and western countries.The paper suggests that from the perspective of self -cultivation of go and health cultivation,the Chinese sports concept of standing at the height of being moderate and pursuing harmonious development differs from the western concept of emphasizing competition,competitiveness and duel.%本文采用文献资料法,以围棋文化为视角点,根据围棋在中西方国家不同的历史发展演变历程,对中西方体育观念的差异进行了探讨。认为:从围棋的修身养性、养生的视角来看,我国体育观念是站在贵和中庸和谐发展的高度,区别于西方的竞争、竞技与决斗观念。

  18. 凯洛夫和赞科夫学生发展理念对我国基础教育的启示%The Enlightenment of Zankefu and Kairov’s Students Development Concept on China’s Basic Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨超

    2012-01-01

    Zankefu and Kairov’s students development concept is very famous.This paper expounds the connotation,purpose and task of the two educators’ students development concept,and aiming at the reality of basic education in our country,puts forward some rational enlightenments.%赞科夫与凯洛夫的学生发展理念都是非常著名的。论文通过对二位教育家的学生发展理念的内涵、目的与任务的完整阐释,针对我国基础教育的现实状况提出了合理启示。

  19. Translating orthopaedic basic science into clinical relevance

    OpenAIRE

    Madry, Henning

    2014-01-01

    In orthopaedic and trauma surgery, the rapid evolution of biomedical research has fundamentally changed the perception of the musculoskeletal system. Here, the rigor of basic science and the art of musculoskeletal surgery have come together to create a new discipline -experimental orthopaedics- that holds great promise for the causative cure of many orthopaedic conditions. The Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics intends to bridge the gap between orthopaedic basic science and clinical relevan...

  20. Soundscapes/Artabilitation - Evolution of a Hybrid Human Performance Concept, Method & Apparatus Where Digital Interactive Media, The Arts, & Entertainment are Combined

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, A. L.

    'SoundScapes' is a body of empirical research that for almost two decades has focused upon investigating noninvasive gesture control of multi-sensory stimuli and potential uses in therapy and the arts. In this context noninvasive gesture refers to motion in invisible activity zones of a system input device utilizing technology outside of human vision. Especially targeted are disabled people of all ages, and special focus has been on the profoundly impaired who especially have limited opportunities for creative self-articulation and playful interaction. The concept has been explored in various situations including: - live stage performances; interactive room installations for museums, workshops, and festivals; and in health-care sessions at hospitals, institutes and special schools. Multifaceted aspects continuously cross-inform in a systemic manner, and each situation where the motion-sensitive environment is applied is considered as a hybrid system. Whilst simplistic in concept, i.e. learning by playful and creative doings, inherent are complexities of optimizing the interactive system to user-experience and evaluation of same. This chapter presents the system in context to its conceived-for-target community; it also presents the parallel practice-led investigations in performance art. Reciprocal design and reflective cross-analysis of the activities has resulted such that performance informs design and strategies of intervention and evaluation with impaired users, and vice versa.

  1. Twenty Years of Basic Vocational Education Provision in Spain: Changes and Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Marhuenda, Fernando; Salvà, Francesca; Navas Saurin, Almudena A.; Abiétar López, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Our contribution attempts to review basic vocational education  programmes in Spain over the past 25 years. We intend to compare the evolution of these programmes in terms of conception and  conditions of delivery in order to find out how different they are as skill-formation and remedial systems, as well as  analysing how different political views have an impact upon such provision. We will focus on the current programmes in two regions in Spain where tourism is the main economic strength an...

  2. Basic Research Firing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Basic Research Firing Facility is an indoor ballistic test facility that has recently transitioned from a customer-based facility to a dedicated basic research...

  3. Health Insurance Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Health Insurance Basics KidsHealth > For Teens > Health Insurance Basics Print ... advanced calculus was confusing. What Exactly Is Health Insurance? Health insurance is a plan that people buy ...

  4. Climate Change: Basic Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are here: EPA Home Climate Change Basic Information Climate Change: Basic Information On This Page Climate change ... We can make a difference How is the climate changing in the U.S.? Observations across the United ...

  5. Evolution and the nature of the Concept of Value%价值概念的演化及其本质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢永侠

    2015-01-01

    Marx's early commodity value concept is "how much it can be sold, then how much it can only be worth":It is the exchange value. Whether Plato and Aristotle from Pre-classical and later mercantilists, or Ricardo who is considered as Marxism's important source and other labor value, the same is true of new classical scholars. Marxism and other commodity value concept is the source of traditional values, measure and determinants of varieties, and it is the so-called intrinsic value that determines the value of things, not the value itself. However, even the exchange value is misused. Some people believe that the value is equal to the price, but the price is simply a measure of value.%马克思前期的商品价值概念就是商品“能卖出多大价钱,它就只能值多少”,是交换价值,无论是前古典的柏拉图、亚里士多德以及后来的重商主义,还是被人们认为是马克思重要来源的李嘉图及其他劳动价值论者,新古典学者同样如此。马克思以及其他的商品价值概念多是传统价值的来源、衡量或决定因素的变种,就是所谓的内在价值,是决定价值的东西,不是价值本身。不过,即使是交换价值现在也有人在混用,把价值等同于价格,但价格只不过是价值的衡量尺度。

  6. Body Basics Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Friend Who Cuts? About the Body Basics Library KidsHealth > For Teens > About the Body Basics Library Print A A A Text Size Did you ... system, part, and process works. Use this medical library to find out about basic human anatomy, how ...

  7. Basic Cake Decorating Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdany, Mel

    Included in this student workbook for basic cake decorating are the following: (1) Drawings of steps in a basic way to ice a layer cake, how to make a paper cone, various sizes of flower nails, various sizes and types of tin pastry tubes, and special rose tubes; (2) recipes for basic decorating icings (buttercream, rose paste, and royal icing);…

  8. Modularity in developmental biology and artificial organs: a missing concept in tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenas, Petros; Luyten, Frank P; Doblare, Manuel; Nicodemou-Lena, Eleni; Lanzara, Andreina Elena

    2011-06-01

    Tissue engineering is reviving itself, adopting the concept of biomimetics of in vivo tissue development. A basic concept of developmental biology is the modularity of the tissue architecture according to which intermediates in tissue development constitute semiautonomous entities. Both engineering and nature have chosen the modular architecture to optimize the product or organism development and evolution. Bioartificial tissues do not have a modular architecture. On the contrary, artificial organs of modular architecture have been already developed in the field of artificial organs. Therefore the conceptual support of tissue engineering by the field of artificial organs becomes critical in its new endeavor of recapitulating in vitro the in vivo tissue development.

  9. Nuclear medicine physics the basics

    CERN Document Server

    Chandra, Ramesh

    2012-01-01

    For decades this classic reference has been the book to review to master the complexities of nuclear-medicine physics. Part of the renowned The Basics series of medical physics books, Nuclear Medicine Physics has become an essential resource for radiology residents and practitioners, nuclear cardiologists, medical physicists, and radiologic technologists. This thoroughly revised Seventh Edition retains all the features that have made The Basics series a reliable and trusted partner for board review and reference. This handy manual contains key points at the end of each chapter that help to underscore principal concepts. You'll also find review questions at the end of each chapter—with detailed answers at the end of the book—to help you master the material. This edition includes useful appendices that elaborate on specific topics, such as physical characteristics of radionuclides and CGS and SI Units.

  10. Evolution for Young Victorians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightman, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Evolution was a difficult topic to tackle when writing books for the young in the wake of the controversies over Darwin's "Origin of Species." Authors who wrote about evolution for the young experimented with different ways of making the complex concepts of evolutionary theory accessible and less controversial. Many authors depicted presented…

  11. Integrating the Carbon and Water Footprints’ Costs in the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC Full Water Cost Recovery Concept: Basic Principles Towards Their Reliable Calculation and Socially Just Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Papadopoulou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the basic principles for the integration of the water and carbon footprints cost into the resource and environmental costs respectively, taking the suggestions set by the Water Framework Directive (WFD 2000/60/EC one step forward. WFD states that full water cost recovery (FWCR should be based on the estimation of the three sub-costs related: direct; environmental; and resource cost. It also strongly suggests the EU Member States develop and apply effective water pricing policies to achieve FWCR. These policies must be socially just to avoid any social injustice phenomena. This is a very delicate task to handle, especially within the fragile economic conditions that the EU is facing today. Water losses play a crucial role for the FWC estimation. Water losses should not be neglected since they are one of the major “water uses” in any water supply network. A methodology is suggested to reduce water losses and the related Non Revenue Water (NRW index. An Expert Decision Support System is proposed to assess the FWC incorporating the Water and Carbon Footprint costs.

  12. Basic statistics an introduction with R

    CERN Document Server

    Raykov, Tenko

    2012-01-01

    Basic Statistics provides an accessible and comprehensive introduction to statistics using the free, state-of-the-art, powerful software program R. This book is designed to both introduce students to key concepts in statistics and to provide simple instructions for using R.Teaches essential concepts in statistics, assuming little background knowledge on the part of the readerIntroduces students to R with as few sub-commands as possible for ease of useProvides practical examples from the educational, behavioral, and social sciencesBasic Statistics will appeal to students and professionals acros

  13. 报纸的馆藏模式及服务理念的嬗变%The Evolution of Newspaper Holdings and Newspaper service Concept

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋秋水; 秦丽; 郑雪萍

    2012-01-01

    目前,报纸的馆藏大体说来包括4种类型:纸质馆藏,缩微胶卷馆藏,光盘数据馆藏,网络、硬盘数据库馆藏等。报纸的对外借阅服务,相应地可以分为实物借阅、多媒体借阅与信息需求等。报纸的服务理念经历了从以物为本、无偿服务,到以物为本、有偿服务,再到以人为本、平等、开放、免费服务的嬗变。%So far,the newspaper collections in general include four types: paper collection,microfilm collection,and the CD data collection,network,hard disk database collection,etc.The newspaper foreign borrowing services,accordingly can be divided into real lending,multimedia lending and information demand and so on.The service idea of the newspaper experience from the content is this,the free service to the content is this,the paid service to the people-oriented,equality,open,free service evolution.

  14. Security basics for computer architects

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Ruby B

    2013-01-01

    Design for security is an essential aspect of the design of future computers. However, security is not well understood by the computer architecture community. Many important security aspects have evolved over the last several decades in the cryptography, operating systems, and networking communities. This book attempts to introduce the computer architecture student, researcher, or practitioner to the basic concepts of security and threat-based design. Past work in different security communities can inform our thinking and provide a rich set of technologies for building architectural support fo

  15. Basic radiotherapy physics and biology

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, David S; Das, Indra J; Mendonca, Marc S; Dynlacht, Joseph R

    2014-01-01

    This book is a concise and well-illustrated review of the physics and biology of radiation therapy intended for radiation oncology residents, radiation therapists, dosimetrists, and physicists. It presents topics that are included on the Radiation Therapy Physics and Biology examinations and is designed with the intent of presenting information in an easily digestible format with maximum retention in mind. The inclusion of mnemonics, rules of thumb, and reader-friendly illustrations throughout the book help to make difficult concepts easier to grasp. Basic Radiotherapy Physics and Biology is a

  16. Basic Elements of Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin W. Staniewski

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is a review of basic knowledge management terminology. It presents such a description as: knowledge resources levels (data, information, knowledge, and wisdom, knowledge sources (internal, external, and knowledge typology (implicit, tacit or individual, social. Moreover the article characterizes knowledge management process, knowledge management system and main knowledge management strategies (codification, personalization. At the end of the article there is mentioned the knowledge creating process (the concept of knowledge creation spiral and the role of Intelligence Technology (IT and organizational culture as main elements supporting knowledge management implementation in organizations.

  17. OPERA超光速中微子与人类对时空观的认识历程%OPERA Superluminal Neutrinos and Evolutions of Spacetime Concepts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵立晶; 马伯强

    2011-01-01

    The understanding of space and time is the most important aspect of theoretical physics, and the current foundation of modern physics is based upon Einstein's relativistic spacetime. However, OPERA collaboration recently published their finding that muon neutrinos might travel faster than light, if proved, which will present a big revolution of Einstein's spacetime concepts. In this paper, we discuss OPERA superluminal neutrinos from experimental discoveries, possible theoretical interpretations, its relationship to the concepts of spacetime, and possible directions for experimental and theoretical researches. Since the understanding of spacetime is extremely important, we expect further experimental evidence to support or falsify OPERA result, and improve our knowledge of spacetime.%物理学对于时间与空间的理解,是推动其发展的重要因素。而现代物理学的根基,则是建立在爱因斯坦的相对论时空观上的。最近,OPERA合作研究组却发现了存在超光速中微子的可能性.倘若其被证实,将是对相对论时空观的一次重大挑战。本文从实验发现,可能的理论解释,人们对于时空观的认识等方面入手,较为客观地讨论了OPERA的实验结果,指出了其可能的实验与理论的研究方向。由于对于时空观的认识是个极其重要的过程,所以我们期待更多的实验来证实或者证伪OPERA超光速中微子的结果,从而推动物理学对于时空观的认识。

  18. The concept of poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, P

    1992-06-01

    Although poverty is one of the most familiar and enduring conditions known to humanity, it is an extremely complicated concept to understand. Some researchers view it as a reaction to the stress of being poor, whereas others perceive it as a process of adapting to the condition of poverty. Historical definitions are numerous, but can be classified as relating to either lack of financial income or lower social status. Numerous factors contribute to the concept of poverty, including political, economic, social, and cultural forces. The one that has consistently had the greatest effect on the evolving concept is the passage of time, which encompasses all these forces in a very intricate manner. This author explored the evolution of the concept of poverty to identify relevant themes for consideration in the public health nursing domain. PMID:1508832

  19. Digital storytelling teaching robotics basics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Scandola

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital Storytelling (DST is a powerful tool for teaching complex concepts. DSTs are typically used in the humanities but several papers have shown that they are also a wonderful tool for the sciences because they are more involving, contextualized and can easily lead to deeper understanding. In the classical use of DST the story is thecontent, while the digital medium is the way of telling it. Our approach is slightly different: the story is not the content but a glue for the main contents, while the digital medium remains the way to tell the story. We propose the use of DST as a means to teach surgeons the basics of robotic surgery, by using a story that should be involving forthem, i.e. a surgical operation, within which we will illustrate specific concepts onrobotics in surgery.

  20. Concept Search

    OpenAIRE

    Giunchiglia, Fausto; Kharkevich, Uladzimir; Zaihrayeu, Ilya

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel approach, called Concept Search, which extends syntactic search, i.e., search based on the computation of string similarity between words, with semantic search, i.e., search based on the computation of semantic relations between concepts. The key idea of Concept Search is to operate on complex concepts and to maximally exploit the semantic information available, reducing to syntactic search only when necessary, i.e., when no semantic information is available. ...