WorldWideScience

Sample records for basic colour categories

  1. On Colour, Category Effects, and Alzheimer's Disease: A Critical Review of Studies and Further Longitudinal Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Martínez, F. Javier; Rodríguez-Rojo, Inmaculada C.

    2015-01-01

    The role of colour in object recognition is controversial; in this study, a critical review of previous studies, as well as a longitudinal study, was conducted. We examined whether colour benefits the ability of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and normal controls (NC) when naming items differing in colour diagnosticity: living things (LT) versus nonliving things (NLT). Eleven AD patients were evaluated twice with a temporal interval of 3 years; 26 NC were tested once. The participants performed a naming task (colour and greyscale photographs); the impact of nuisance variables (NVs) and potential ceiling effects were also controlled. Our results showed that (i) colour slightly favoured processing of items with higher colour diagnosticity (i.e., LT) in both groups; (ii) AD patients used colour information similarly to NC, retaining this ability over time; (iii) NVs played a significant role as naming predictors in all the participants, relegating domain to a minor plane; and (iv) category effects (better processing of NLT) were present in both groups. Finally, although patients underwent semantic longitudinal impairment, this was independent of colour deterioration. This finding provides better support to the view that colour is effective at the visual rather than at the semantic level of object processing. PMID:26074675

  2. Coloured Petri Nets: Basic Concepts, Analysis Methods and Practical Use. Vol. 1, Basic Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    This three-volume work presents a coherent description of the theoretical and practical aspects of coloured Petri nets. These CP-nets are shown to be a full-fledged language for the design, specification, simulation, validation and implementation of large software systems. The introductory first...

  3. Enhanced Recognition Memory in Grapheme-Colour Synaesthesia for Different Categories of Visual Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie eWard

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Memory has been shown to be enhanced in grapheme-colour synaesthesia, and this enhancement extends to certain visual stimuli (that don’t induce synaesthesia as well as stimuli comprised of graphemes (which do. Previous studies have used a variety of testing procedures to assess memory in synaesthesia (e.g. free recall, recognition, associative learning making it hard to know the extent to which memory benefits are attributable to the stimulus properties themselves, the testing method, participant strategies, or some combination of these factors. In the first experiment, we use the same testing procedure (recognition memory for a variety of stimuli (written words, nonwords, scenes, and fractals and also check which memorisation strategies were used. We demonstrate that grapheme-colour synaesthetes show enhanced memory across all these stimuli, but this is not found for a non-visual type of synaesthesia (lexical-gustatory. In the second experiment, the memory advantage for scenes is explored further by manipulating the properties of the old and new images (changing colour, orientation, or object presence. Again, grapheme-colour synaesthetes show a memory advantage for scenes across all manipulations. Although recognition memory is generally enhanced in this study, the largest effects were found for abstract visual images (fractals and scenes for which colour can be used to discriminate old/new status.

  4. The Impact of Colour, Spatial Resolution, and Presentation Speed on Category Naming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Keith R.; Hunter, Maria Z.

    2006-01-01

    Studies of neurological patients with category-specific agnosia have provided important contributions to our understanding of object recognition, although the meaning of such disorders is still hotly debated. One crucial line of research for our understanding of category effects, is through the examination of category biases in healthy normal…

  5. [Mari Uusküla. Basic colour terms in Finno-Ugric and Slavonic Languages] / Galina Paramei

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paramei, Galina

    2010-01-01

    Arvustus: Uusküla, Mari. Basic colour terms in Finno-ugric and Slavonic languages: myths and facts. Tartu : Tartu University Press, 2008. Dissertationes linguisticae Universitatis Tartuensis, 1406-5657 ; 9

  6. Basic level category structure emerges gradually across human ventral visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordan, Marius Cătălin; Greene, Michelle R; Beck, Diane M; Fei-Fei, Li

    2015-07-01

    Objects can be simultaneously categorized at multiple levels of specificity ranging from very broad ("natural object") to very distinct ("Mr. Woof"), with a mid-level of generality (basic level: "dog") often providing the most cognitively useful distinction between categories. It is unknown, however, how this hierarchical representation is achieved in the brain. Using multivoxel pattern analyses, we examined how well each taxonomic level (superordinate, basic, and subordinate) of real-world object categories is represented across occipitotemporal cortex. We found that, although in early visual cortex objects are best represented at the subordinate level (an effect mostly driven by low-level feature overlap between objects in the same category), this advantage diminishes compared to the basic level as we move up the visual hierarchy, disappearing in object-selective regions of occipitotemporal cortex. This pattern stems from a combined increase in within-category similarity (category cohesion) and between-category dissimilarity (category distinctiveness) of neural activity patterns at the basic level, relative to both subordinate and superordinate levels, suggesting that successive visual areas may be optimizing basic level representations.

  7. Analyzing the Nominal Aphasia by Using the Basic Level Category and Prototype Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋欣

    2014-01-01

    This paper begins with a brief description of the theoretical framework for prototype categorization,in which there lie two axes of words attributions,a vertical axis and a horizontal one.Verticaly,words differ in that we have the superordinate level categories,subordinate categories and the basic level categories.Horizontaly,we have the prototypes and the non-prototypes in reality.Elaborated with the varying data from neurolinguistics,this paper analyzes the reasons that drive nominal aphasias’ impairment in non-prototypes and non-basic level categories.Cognitive perception is the main drive,and besides,frequency of exposure,principle of economy and position in mental lexicon are also the causalities of the patients’ impairment in word recognition.

  8. On the Basic Problems of the Category of Aktionsart in the Russian Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildikó Pálosi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article summarizes the basic questions of aktionsart (the status, content, and borders of the category in the Russian language and describes the most relevant views on the problem. In the author’s opinion, the category of aktionsart is a semantic-word formation category, one that includes motivated verbs with formal markers of semantic change of the base verb, except for verbs of motion. Taking into consideration that word formation models are polysemic, the verb classes of aktionsart can be specified not by formal factors but by semantic ones. Consequently, the content of the category of aktionsart is determined by word formation and semantics together. Another key problem is the connection between the category of aktionsart and category of grammatical aspect and the sphere of word formation. The author joins the opinion of those linguists who consider aktionsart to be the lexical level of the macrocategory of aspect. The category of aktionsart is separated from the sphere of word formation by the regularity of verb formation. Regarding this criteria, as the author suggests, some verb formation models of low regularity should not be acknowledged as verb classes of aktionsart.

  9. Coloured Petri Nets: Basic Concepts, Analysis Methods and Practical Use. Vol. 2, Analysis Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    This three-volume work presents a coherent description of the theoretical and practical aspects of coloured Petri nets (CP-nets). The second volume contains a detailed presentation of the analysis methods for CP-nets. They allow the modeller to investigate dynamic properties of CP-nets. The main...

  10. Interactions between colour and synaesthetic colour: an effect of simultaneous colour contrast on synaesthetic colours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijboer, Tanja C W; Gebuis, Titia; te Pas, Susan F; van der Smagt, Maarten J

    2011-01-01

    We investigated whether simultaneous colour contrast affects the synaesthetic colour experience and normal colour percept in a similar manner. We simultaneously presented a target stimulus (i.e. grapheme) and a reference stimulus (i.e. hash). Either the grapheme or the hash was presented on a saturated background of the same or opposite colour category as the synaesthetic colour and the other stimulus on a grey background. In both conditions, grapheme-colour synaesthetes were asked to colour the hash in a colour similar to the synaesthetic colour of the grapheme. Controls that were pair-matched to the synaesthetes performed the same experiment, but for them, the grapheme was presented in the colour induced by the grapheme in synaesthetes. When graphemes were presented on a grey and the hash on a coloured background, a traditional simultaneous colour-contrast effect was found for controls as well as synaesthetes. When graphemes were presented on colour and the hash on grey, the controls again showed a traditional simultaneous colour-contrast effect, whereas the synaesthetes showed the opposite effect. Our results show that synaesthetic colour experiences differ from normal colour perception; both are susceptible to different surrounding colours, but not in a comparable manner.

  11. Beyond Discrete Categories: Studying Multiracial, Intersex, and Transgender Children Will Strengthen Basic Developmental Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Yarrow; Olson, Kristina R.

    2016-01-01

    Developmental research on social categorization has overwhelmingly focused on perceptions about and experiences of individuals who are clear or prototypical members of discrete and usually dichotomous social categories. For example, studies of social categorization, stereotyping, prejudice, and social identity have generally explored how children…

  12. Colour displays for categorical images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glasbey, C.; Heijden, van der G.W.A.M.; Toh, V.F.K.; Gray, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    We propose a method for identifying a set of colours for displaying 2D and 3D categorical images when the categories are unordered labels. The principle is to find maximally distinct sets of colours. We either generate colours sequentially, to maximize the dissimilarity or distance between a new col

  13. Is colour cognitive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorupski, Peter; Chittka, Lars

    2011-03-01

    In recent years, colour-vision abilities have been rather generously ascribed to various invertebrates and even bacteria. This uncertainty of when to diagnose colour vision stems in part from confusing what colour vision can do with what it is. What colour vision can do is discriminate wavelength independent of intensity. However, if we take this as a definition of what colour vision is, then we might be obliged to conclude that some plants and bacteria have colour vision. Moreover, there is a similar confusion of what are necessary and what are sufficient mechanisms and behavioural abilities for colour vision. To humans, seeing in colour means seeing an image in which objects/lights have chromatic attributes—in contrast to the sensation that we have when viewing monochrome movies, or our experience in dim light when only rod vision is possible. The necessary basic equipment for this is to have at least two types of photoreceptors that differ in spectral sensitivity, and at least one type of spectrally opponent cell to compare the signals from the photoreceptors. Clearly, however, a necessary additional prerequisite for colour vision is to have vision, which entails the identification of shapes, sizes and locations of objects in the world. Thus, if an animal has colour vision, it should see an image in which distinct objects/lights have colour attributes. This distinguishes colour vision from wavelength discrimination, but also from what has historically been called wavelength-specific behaviour: a type of behaviour triggered by fixed configurations of spectral receptor signals; however, we discuss difficulties in diagnosing wavelength-specific behaviour as an indicator of the absence of colour vision. Finally, we discuss whether colour vision, by definition, contains a cognitive dimension for ordering and classifying perceptual experience.

  14. Ultrasonic colour Doppler imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evans, David H; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann

    2011-01-01

    anatomy. The most common use of the technique is to image the movement of blood through the heart, arteries and veins, but it may also be used to image the motion of solid tissues such as the heart walls. Colour Doppler imaging is now provided on almost all commercial ultrasound machines, and has been......Ultrasonic colour Doppler is an imaging technique that combines anatomical information derived using ultrasonic pulse-echo techniques with velocity information derived using ultrasonic Doppler techniques to generate colour-coded maps of tissue velocity superimposed on grey-scale images of tissue...... vectors. This review briefly introduces the principles behind colour Doppler imaging and describes some clinical applications. It then describes the basic components of conventional colour Doppler systems and the methods used to derive velocity information from the ultrasound signal. Next, a number of new...

  15. Biases and regularities of grapheme-colour associations in Japanese nonsynaesthetic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Jun-ichi; Yokosawa, Kazuhiko; Asano, Michiko

    2016-01-01

    Associations between graphemes and colours in a nonsynaesthetic Japanese population were investigated. Participants chose the most suitable colour from 11 basic colour terms for each of 40 graphemes from the four categories of graphemes used in the Japanese language (kana characters, English alphabet letters, and Arabic and kanji numerals). This test was repeated after a three-week interval. In their responses, which were not as temporally consistent as those of grapheme-colour synaesthetes, participants showed biases and regularities that were comparable to those of synaesthetes reported in past studies. Although it has been believed that only synaesthetes, and not nonsynaesthetes, tended to associate graphemes with colours based on grapheme frequency, Berlin and Kay's colour typology, and colour word frequency, participants in this study tended in part to associate graphemes with colours based on the above factors. Moreover, participants that were nonsynaesthetes tended to associate different graphemes that shared sounds and/or meanings (e.g., Arabic and kanji numerals representing the same number) with the same colours, which was analogous to the findings in Japanese synaesthetes. These results support the view that grapheme-colour synaesthesia might have its origins in cross-modal association processes that are shared with the general population.

  16. Measuring Colour

    CERN Document Server

    Hunt, R W G

    2011-01-01

    The classic authority on colour measurement now fully revised and updated with the latest CIE recommendations The measurement of colour is of major importance in many commercial applications, such as the textile, paint, and foodstuff industries; as well as having a significant role in the lighting, paper, printing, cosmetic, plastics, glass, chemical, photographic, television, transport, and communication industries. Building upon the success of earlier editions, the 4th edition of Measuring Colour has been updated throughout with new chapters on colour rendering by light sources; colorimetry

  17. Categories of categories

    CERN Document Server

    Pisani, Claudio

    2007-01-01

    A certain amount of category theory is developed in an arbitrary finitely complete category with a factorization system on it, playing the role of the comprehensive factorization system on Cat. Those aspects related to the concepts of finality (in particular terminal objects), discreteness and components, representability, colimits and universal arrows, seem to be best expressed in this very general setting. Furthermore, at this level we are in fact doing not only (E,M)-category theory but, in a sense, also (E,M)-topology. Other axioms, regarding power objects, duality, exponentials and the arrow object, are considered.

  18. Colour schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, Theo

    2013-01-01

    This chapter presents a framework for analysing colour schemes based on a parametric approach that includes not only hue, value and saturation, but also purity, transparency, luminosity, luminescence, lustre, modulation and differentiation....

  19. Evolution of colour vision in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Gerald H

    2009-10-12

    Colour vision allows animals to reliably distinguish differences in the distributions of spectral energies reaching the eye. Although not universal, a capacity for colour vision is sufficiently widespread across the animal kingdom to provide prima facie evidence of its importance as a tool for analysing and interpreting the visual environment. The basic biological mechanisms on which vertebrate colour vision ultimately rests, the cone opsin genes and the photopigments they specify, are highly conserved. Within that constraint, however, the utilization of these basic elements varies in striking ways in that they appear, disappear and emerge in altered form during the course of evolution. These changes, along with other alterations in the visual system, have led to profound variations in the nature and salience of colour vision among the vertebrates. This article concerns the evolution of colour vision among the mammals, viewing that process in the context of relevant biological mechanisms, of variations in mammalian colour vision, and of the utility of colour vision.

  20. Finite mutation classes of coloured quivers

    CERN Document Server

    Torkildsen, Hermund André

    2010-01-01

    We consider the general notion of coloured quiver mutation and show that the mutation class of a coloured quiver $Q$, arising from an $m$-cluster tilting object associated with $H$, is finite if and only if $H$ is of finite or tame representation type, or it has at most 2 simples. This generalizes a result known for 1-cluster categories.

  1. Asthma Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Asthma Basics KidsHealth > For Parents > Asthma Basics A A ... Asthma Categories en español Asma: aspectos fundamentales About Asthma Asthma is a common lung condition in kids ...

  2. Pojmenování barev a jejich odstínů v Akademickém slovníku současné češtiny : Names of Colours and Colour Shades in the Academic Dictionary of Contemporary Czech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lišková, Michaela

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with processing the entries describing colours in the Academic Dictionary of Contemporary Czech (ASSČ, the priority being the explanation of basic meanings of primary colours and lexicalised colour shades. The definitions ought to include all semantic features, be clear and should reflect the present world and the experience of the user. Special attention is given to the explanations of adverbs and compound adjectives. The paper also follows the decision-making process leading to the list of entries within a given category, based on the frequency of the lemma in the SYN corpus, and discusses the problem of appropriate exemplification.

  3. Adhesive Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lack, Stephen; Sobocinski, Pawel

    2003-01-01

    We introduce adhesive categories, which are categories with structure ensuring that pushouts along monomorphisms are well-behaved. Many types of graphical structures used in computer science are shown to be examples of adhesive categories. Double-pushout graph rewriting generalises well...... to rewriting on arbitrary adhesive categories....

  4. Evolution of colour vision in mammals

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, Gerald H.

    2009-01-01

    Colour vision allows animals to reliably distinguish differences in the distributions of spectral energies reaching the eye. Although not universal, a capacity for colour vision is sufficiently widespread across the animal kingdom to provide prima facie evidence of its importance as a tool for analysing and interpreting the visual environment. The basic biological mechanisms on which vertebrate colour vision ultimately rests, the cone opsin genes and the photopigments they specify, are highly...

  5. 合同基本范畴之法哲学检讨%Jurisprudence-based Criticism on the Basic Conceptual Category of Law of Contract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佘发勤; 李斌

    2009-01-01

    传统合同法理论在合同基本范畴方面存在一些重要缺陷,进而导致悖论与一系列理论上的混淆.根据言语行为理论以及行为的法律判断模式,通过语言分析与文本分析,揭示了传统合同成立与生效理论缺陷的根源:由于对"合同"、"成立"、"有效"与"生效"等缺乏清晰的认识,不仅导致相互关系的混淆,也导致在法律要件认识上的错误;澄清了"合同"及其"成立"、"无效"、"有效"、"生效"的含义以及它们之间的内在关联,并在此基础上重构合同效力形态的内在逻辑关系.%It was found that there are theoretically material defects in the basic conceptual category of the conventional law of contract, thus resulting in a paradox with a series of confusion. According to the theory of linguistic act and the mode of legal judgment of an act, the root of the defects in the "entering into the contract" and "putting the contract into effect", which are conventionally used in various contracts, is revealed theoretically via linguistic and textual analyses. Because of lack of definitive cognition on the words or phrases such as "contract", "entering into the contract", "in effect" and "take effect", the mutual confusion between them and wrong cognition of juridical essentials both emerge. For these reasons, it is necessary to ascertain definitely the implications of those words and phrases and their interrelationships, thus restructuring the inherent logical relationship in the expressing form of the effect of contract.

  6. Adhesive Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lack, Stephen; Sobocinski, Pawel

    2004-01-01

    We introduce adhesive categories, which are categories with structure ensuring that pushouts along monomorphisms are well-behaved. Many types of graphical structures used in computer science are shown to be examples of adhesive categories. Double-pushout graph rewriting generalises well to rewrit...

  7. Colour Guided Colour Image Steganography

    CERN Document Server

    Amirtharajan, R; Swarup, Motamarri Abhilash; K, Mohamed Ashfaaq; Rayappan, John Bosco Balaguru

    2010-01-01

    Information security has become a cause of concern because of the electronic eavesdropping. Capacity, robustness and invisibility are important parameters in information hiding and are quite difficult to achieve in a single algorithm. This paper proposes a novel steganography technique for digital color image which achieves the purported targets. The professed methodology employs a complete random scheme for pixel selection and embedding of data. Of the three colour channels (Red, Green, Blue) in a given colour image, the least two significant bits of any one of the channels of the color image is used to channelize the embedding capacity of the remaining two channels. We have devised three approaches to achieve various levels of our desired targets. In the first approach, Red is the default guide but it results in localization of MSE in the remaining two channels, which makes it slightly vulnerable. In the second approach, user gets the liberty to select the guiding channel (Red, Green or Blue) to guide the r...

  8. Molecular tests for coat colours in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Stefan

    2009-12-01

    Colour phenotypes may have played a major role during early domestication events and initial selection among domestic animal species. As coat colours mostly follow a relatively simple mode of Mendelian inheritance, they have been among the first traits to be systematically analysed at the molecular level. As a result of the number of genetic tools developed during the past decade, horse coat colour tests have been designed and are now commercially available for some of the basic phenotypes. These tests enable breeders to verify segregation within particular pedigrees, to select specific colour phenotypes according to market demand or studbook policies and to avoid complex inherited diseases associated with some of the colour patterns. This paper reviews the relevance of the topic, describes all currently available tests for coat colours in horses and addresses also ongoing research in this field.

  9. Contested Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drawing on social science perspectives, Contested Categories presents a series of empirical studies that engage with the often shifting and day-to-day realities of life sciences categories. In doing so, it shows how such categories remain contested and dynamic, and that the boundaries they create...... to life science categories. With contributions from an international team of scholars, this book will be essential reading for anyone interested in the social, legal, policy and ethical implications of science and technology and the life sciences....

  10. Synaesthesia and colour constancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erskine, Holly; Mattingley, Jason B; Arnold, Derek H

    2013-04-01

    Grapheme-colour synaesthesia is an atypical condition characterized by the perception of colours when reading achromatic text. We investigated the level of colour processing responsible for these experiences. To do so, we tapped a central characteristic of colour perception. In different lighting conditions the same wavelength of light can prompt the perception of different colours. This helps humans recognize distinctive coloured objects despite changes in illumination. We wanted to see if synaesthetic colours were generated at a neural locus that was susceptible to colour constancy analyses. We used colour matching and naming tasks to examine interactions between simulated coloured illuminants and synaesthetic colours. Neither synaesthetic colour matching or naming was impacted. This contrasted with non-synaesthetic control participants, who performed the colour-matching task with graphemes physically coloured to mimic synaesthesia. Our data suggest that synaesthetic colour signals are not generated at lower-levels of colour processing, but are introduced at higher levels of analysis and are therefore not impacted by the processes responsible for perceptual constancy.

  11. Can colour be measured?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramanujam, P.S.

    Colour is a sensation. While wavelength can be measured with a spectrometer consisting of dispersive elements and colour insensitive detectors, detection of colour is accomplished by the eye, equipped with a lens, colour sensitive detectors, and a powerful processor in the form of brain. Sometimes...

  12. Tvorba konceptu category managementu

    OpenAIRE

    Lepař, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to define proces of creating the concept of category management and to apply the proces via existing assortment concept of certain retail company. The theoretical part covers basics of category management, merchandising and other related disciplines and its influence to creating concepts. Practical part includes detailed description of creating the concept, realized by retail company, selling Do it yourself products. Creation proces will start by anylysing current s...

  13. Colour appearance descriptors for image browsing and retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Aniza; Martinez, Kirk

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on the development of whole-scene colour appearance descriptors for classification to be used in browsing applications. The descriptors can classify a whole-scene image into various categories of semantically-based colour appearance. Colour appearance is an important feature and has been extensively used in image-analysis, retrieval and classification. By using pre-existing global CIELAB colour histograms, firstly, we try to develop metrics for whole-scene colour appearance: "colour strength", "high/low lightness" and "multicoloured". Secondly we propose methods using these metrics either alone or combined to classify whole-scene images into five categories of appearance: strong, pastel, dark, pale and multicoloured. Experiments show positive results and that the global colour histogram is actually useful and can be used for whole-scene colour appearance classification. We have also conducted a small-scale human evaluation test on whole-scene colour appearance. The results show, with suitable threshold settings, the proposed methods can describe the whole-scene colour appearance of images close to human classification. The descriptors were tested on thousands of images from various scenes: paintings, natural scenes, objects, photographs and documents. The colour appearance classifications are being integrated into an image browsing system which allows them to also be used to refine browsing.

  14. Using students' misconceptions of primary coloured lights to design a hands-on coloured light mixer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nopparatjamjomras, Suchai; Chitaree, Ratchapak

    2009-06-01

    A surface mount typed multi-coloured Light-Emitting Diode (LED) is used as a light source for the hands-on coloured light mixer. The LED consists of red, green and blue tiny sources but the mixer is designed to have four switches corresponding to red, green, blue and yellow light. These colours correspond to students' misconceptions of primary coloured lights; they realize that the primary colours and the rules for lights mixing are the same as those of paints. To generate a yellow light, a microcontroller placed between four input switches and the LED operates both a red and green tiny sources. In addition, the microcontroller is employed to eliminate some combinations of coloured light mixing to simplify the experiment (basic mode) for non advanced students. If the mixer is used with more advanced students, a number of combinations will increase and students need more analytical skills to find out the primary coloured lights (the coloured lights that can not be produced by the mixing of any other coloured lights). Therefore, the mixer is able to use with more advanced and non advanced students depending on the program in the microcontroller and some modifications of the circuit. Furthermore, to introduce students an idea that other hues or shades can be generated by mixing of these three primary coloured lights of different intensities, a tuning circuit is integrated to vary an intensity of the green light source.

  15. Recolouring-resistant colourings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A. S.; Rautenbach, D.

    2011-01-01

    We study colourings of graphs with the property that the number of used colours cannot be reduced by applying some recolouring operation. A well-studied example of such colourings are b-colourings, which were introduced by Irving and Manlove [R.W. Irving, D.F. Manlove, The la-chromatic number...... of a graph, Discrete Appl. Math. 91 (1999) 127-141]. Given a graph and a colouring, a recolouring operation specifies a set of vertices of the graph on which the colouring can be changed. We consider two such operations: One which allows the recolouring of all vertices within some given distance of some...

  16. Categorial Minimalist Grammar

    CERN Document Server

    Amblard, Maxime; Retoré, Christian

    2010-01-01

    We first recall some basic notions on minimalist grammars and on categorial grammars. Next we shortly introduce partially commutative linear logic, and our representation of minimalist grammars within this categorial system, the so-called categorial minimalist grammars. Thereafter we briefly present \\lambda\\mu-DRT (Discourse Representation Theory) an extension of \\lambda-DRT (compositional DRT) in the framework of \\lambda\\mu calculus: it avoids type raising and derives different readings from a single semantic representation, in a setting which follows discourse structure. We run a complete example which illustrates the various structures and rules that are needed to derive a semantic representation from the categorial view of a transformational syntactic analysis.

  17. Symplectic Categories

    CERN Document Server

    Weinstein, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Quantization problems suggest that the category of symplectic manifolds and symplectomorphisms be augmented by the inclusion of canonical relations as morphisms. These relations compose well when a transversality condition is satisfied, but the failure of the most general compositions to be smooth manifolds means that the canonical relations do not comprise the morphisms of a category. We discuss several existing and potential remedies to the nontransversality problem. Some of these involve restriction to classes of lagrangian submanifolds for which the transversality property automatically holds. Others involve allowing lagrangian "objects" more general than submanifolds.

  18. Quantization Selection of Colour Histogram Bins to Categorize the Colour Appearance of Landscape Paintings for Image Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniza Othman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the world of today, most images are digitized and kept in digital libraries for better organization and management. With the growth of information and communication technology, collection holders such as museums or cultural institutions have been increasingly interested in making their collections available anytime and anywhere for any Image Retrieval (IR activities such as browsing and searching. In a colour image retrieval application, images retrieved by users are accomplished according to their specifications on what they want or acquire, which could be based upon so many concepts. We suggest an  approach to categorize the colour appearances of whole scene landscape painting images based on human colour perception. The colour features in the image are represented using a colour histogram. We then find  the suitable quantization bins that can be used to generate optimum colour histograms for all categories of colour appearances, which is selected based on theHarmonic Mean of the precision and recall,  also known as F-Score percentage higher saturated value. Colour appearance attributes in the CIELab colour model (L-Lightness, a and b are colour-opponent dimension are used to generate colour appearance feature vectors namely the saturation metric, lightness metric and multicoloured metric. For the categorizations, we use the Nearest Neighbour (NN method to detect the classes by using the predefined colour appearance descriptor measures and the pre-set thresholds.  The experimental results show that the quantization of CIELab colour model into 11 uniformly bins for each component had achieved the optimum result for all colour appearances categories.

  19. THE WEALTH, THE MORALITY AND THE HAPPINESS AS A BASIC CATEGORIES OF THE NEW ECONOMY FORMATION: THE THEORETICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumyantseva E. E.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the article we have considered the new valuable reference points of the economy development of Russia characterized by such intrinsic categories as "wealth", "moral" and "happiness". On the subject of the conducted research, there is analyzed the moral position laid down in the Scriptures (in example the «Holy gospel», the works of A. Smith, K., Marx, J.C. Sismondi, J.B. Say, A. Marshall, J. Stiglitz. Such important contemporary Russian society problems are formulated, such as: the disclosure of the relationship of the national wealth with its spiritual and moral development as an property; the depreciation of the moral values in the unspiritual elite of the society; the purity, the clarity, the innocence origin of the wealth of the every citizen; the grounds for the origin of the inequality in the world and in Russia and scientific stratification; the misconceptions about the correlation of the spirituality and the wealth or the poverty, the expectations of the happiness from outside are identified, the author laws of the morality development in the economics are formulated. Another important issue is the access to the distribution of the natural resources of the country, the distribution between the different members of the society. The main conclusion of the article is that in the economics of the happiness should be set such rules, in accordance with which the individual could become rich through his labour in the process of the spiritual and moral growth. We have used the author's scientific approach of a criteria assessment of the economic development vectors on positive and negative, there are investigated the directions of the improvement of the modern Russian legislation

  20. Practical colour management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Susan

    2006-06-01

    Spectrophotometers have been successfully used for colour measurement. This paper addresses digital imaging as a complementary and alternative method of colour measurement and appearance and an effective communication tool as part of a practical colour management programme within the supply chain of a textile retailer. The specific needs—to measure and communicate textured dyed material and printed fabric—are discussed, as well as the colour specification and quality control (QC) of currently un-measurable fabrics and accessories. A unique method of using digital imaging for the assessment of colour fastness will also be discussed.

  1. Individual colour patches as multicomponent signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grether, Gregory F; Kolluru, Gita R; Nersissian, Karen

    2004-08-01

    Colour patches are complex traits, the components of which may evolve independently through a variety of mechanisms. Although usually treated as simple, two-dimensional characters and classified as either structural or pigmentary, in reality colour patches are complicated, three-dimensional structures that often contain multiple pigment types and structural features. The basic dermal chromatophore unit of fishes, reptiles and amphibians consists of three contiguous cell layers. Xanthophores and erythrophores in the outermost layer contain carotenoid and pteridine pigments that absorb short-wave light; iridophores in the middle layer contain crystalline platelets that reflect light back through the xanthophores; and melanophores in the basal layer contain melanins that absorb light across the spectrum. Changes in any one component of a chromatophore unit can drastically alter the reflectance spectrum produced, and for any given adaptive outcome (e.g. an increase in visibility), there may be multiple biochemical or cellular routes that evolution could take, allowing for divergent responses by different populations or species to similar selection regimes. All of the mechanisms of signal evolution that previously have been applied to single ornaments (including whole colour patches) could potentially be applied to the individual components of colour patches. To reach a complete understanding of colour patch evolution, however, it may be necessary to take an explicitly multi-trait approach. Here, we review multiple trait evolution theory and the basic mechanisms of colour production in fishes, reptiles and amphibians, and use a combination of computer simulations and empirical examples to show how multiple trait evolution theory can be applied to the components of single colour patches. This integrative perspective on animal colouration opens up a host of new questions and hypotheses. We offer specific, testable functional hypotheses for the most common pigmentary

  2. Representation of Colour Concepts in Bilingual Cognition: The Case of Japanese Blues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasopoulos, Panos; Damjanovic, Ljubica; Krajciova, Andrea; Sasaki, Miho

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrate that lexical coding of colour influences categorical perception of colour, such that participants are more likely to rate two colours to be more similar if they belong to the same linguistic category (Roberson et al., 2000, 2005). Recent work shows changes in Greek-English bilinguals' perception of within and…

  3. Influence of Language on Colour Perception: A Simulationist Explanation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loïc Paul Heurley

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available “How can perception be altered by language?” is the fundamental question of this article. Indeed, various studies have pointed out the influence of colour-related knowledge on object and colour perception, evoked by linguistic stimuli. Here the relevance of the simulationist approach is assumed in order to explain this influence, where the understanding of colour-related words or sentences involves a process of colour simulation that is supported by a neuronal network partially similar to the network involved in colour perception. Consequently, colour-related knowledge and colour perception can interact through a process of pattern interference. In support of this idea, studies are discussed showing priming effects between colour simulation and colour perception, but two limitations are also raised. Firstly, these works all used between-category colour discrimination tasks that allow the intervention of lexical processes that can also explain priming. Secondly, these works control the congruency link between prime and target at the level of ‘colour category’, and no demonstration is made of an influence at the level of specific hues. Consequently, the simulationist view of language/perception interactions seems an interesting way to thinking but more experimens are needed in order to overcome some limitations.

  4. Colour constancy in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittka, Lars; Faruq, Samia; Skorupski, Peter; Werner, Annette

    2014-06-01

    Colour constancy is the perceptual phenomenon that the colour of an object appears largely unchanged, even if the spectral composition of the illuminating light changes. Colour constancy has been found in all insect species so far tested. Especially the pollinating insects offer a remarkable opportunity to study the ecological significance of colour constancy since they spend much of their adult lives identifying and choosing between colour targets (flowers) under continuously changing ambient lighting conditions. In bees, whose colour vision is best studied among the insects, the compensation provided by colour constancy is only partial and its efficiency depends on the area of colour space. There is no evidence for complete 'discounting' of the illuminant in bees, and the spectral composition of the light can itself be used as adaptive information. In patchy illumination, bees adjust their spatial foraging to minimise transitions between variously illuminated zones. Modelling allows the quantification of the adaptive benefits of various colour constancy mechanisms in the economy of nature. We also discuss the neural mechanisms and cognitive operations that might underpin colour constancy in insects.

  5. A colour image reproduction framework for 3D colour printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Kaida; Sohiab, Ali; Sun, Pei-li; Yates, Julian M.; Li, Changjun; Wuerger, Sophie

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the current technologies in full colour 3D printing technology were introduced. A framework of colour image reproduction process for 3D colour printing is proposed. A special focus was put on colour management for 3D printed objects. Two approaches, colorimetric colour reproduction and spectral based colour reproduction are proposed in order to faithfully reproduce colours in 3D objects. Two key studies, colour reproduction for soft tissue prostheses and colour uniformity correction across different orientations are described subsequently. Results are clear shown that applying proposed colour image reproduction framework, performance of colour reproduction can be significantly enhanced. With post colour corrections, a further improvement in colour process are achieved for 3D printed objects.

  6. Topographical coloured plasmonic coins

    CERN Document Server

    Guay, Jean-Michel; Côté, Guillaume; Charron, Martin; Ramunno, Lora; Berini, Pierre; Weck, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    The use of metal nanostructures for colourization has attracted a great deal of interest with the recent developments in plasmonics. However, the current top-down colourization methods based on plasmonic concepts are tedious and time consuming, and thus unviable for large-scale industrial applications. Here we show a bottom-up approach where, upon picosecond laser exposure, a full colour palette independent of viewing angle can be created on noble metals. We show that colours are related to a single laser processing parameter, the total accumulated fluence, which makes this process suitable for high throughput industrial applications. Statistical image analyses of the laser irradiated surfaces reveal various distributions of nanoparticle sizes which control colour. Quantitative comparisons between experiments and large-scale finite-difference time-domain computations, demonstrate that colours are produced by selective absorption phenomena in heterogeneous nanoclusters. Plasmonic cluster resonances are thus fo...

  7. On the Basic Categories of the Theoretical System of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics%论中国特色社会主义理论体系的基本范畴

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄刚

    2011-01-01

    中国特色社会主义理论体系基本范畴是反映中国特色社会主义本质的整体性范畴,它们不是专属于某一特定理论形态而是统摄理论体系中的各个组成部分并贯穿于理论体系形成和发展始终的范畴。中国特色社会主义理论体系基本范畴并不直接在中国特色社会主义实践和特定思想文本中表现出来,我们需要根据一定的科学思维方法对其进行把握。中国特色社会主义理论体系基本范畴表现为十对对偶性范畴,即马克思主义基本原理与马克思主义中国化,四项基本原则与改革开放,人民主体与党的领导,社会主义基本制度与市场经济体制,政治体制改革与经济体制改革,物质文明与精神文明,公平与效率,独立自主与对外开放,改革、发展与稳定,党的建设与国家建设。%The basic categories of the theoretical system of socialism with Chinese characteristics are integral categories reflecting the essence of socialism with Chinese characteristics.They do not belong to a certain theoretical form exclusively,but command the components of theoretical systems and penetrate through the forming and development of theoretical systems.The basic categories of the theoretical system of socialism with Chinese characteristics are not directly reflected in the practice of socialism with Chinese characteristics or in some given theoretical texts;so we need to grasp them with the methods of scientific thinking.They are embodied in ten couples of antithesis categories,i.e.,the state power theory of Marxism and sinification of Marxism;the four basic principles and the reform and opening-up;the people's subjectivity and the CPC's leadership;the basic systems of socialism and the market economic system;the reform of political system and the reform of economic system;material civilization and spiritual civilization;equity and efficiency;self-dependence and opening-up;reform,development and

  8. Robert Grosseteste's colours

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2013-01-01

    Here I am proposing a translation and discussion of the De Colore, one of the short scientific treatises written by Robert Grosseteste. In this very short treatise of the mid-1220s, Grosseteste continued the discussion on light and colours he started in the De Iride. He describes two manners of counting colours: one gives an infinity of tones, the other counts seven colours. In both cases, colours are created by the purity or impurity of the transparent medium when light is passing through it. This medieval framework survived until Newton's experiments with prisms.

  9. Colourful FKS subtraction

    CERN Document Server

    Frixione, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    I formulate in a colour-friendly way the FKS method for the computation of QCD cross sections at the next-to-leading order accuracy. This is achieved through the definition of subtraction terms for squared matrix elements, constructed with single colour-dressed or pairs of colour-ordered amplitudes. The latter approach relies on the use of colour flows, is exact to all orders in $N$, and is thus particularly suited to being organized as a systematic expansion in 1/N.

  10. Organizational Categories as Viewing Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna

    This paper explores how two Danish rehabilitation organizations textual guidelines for assessment of clients' personality traits influence the actual evaluation of clients. The analysis will show how staff members produce institutional identities corresponding to organizational categories, which...... I elucidate how the two rehabilitation organizations local history, legislation, structural features of the present labour market and of social work result in a number of contradictions which make it difficult to deliver client-centred care. This exact goal is according to the staff one of the most...

  11. Feynman Categories

    CERN Document Server

    Kaufmann, Ralph M

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we give a new foundational categorical formulation for operations and relations and objects parameterizing them. This generalizes operads and all their cousins including but not limited to PROPs, modular operads, twisted (modular) operads as well as algebras over operads and an abundance of other related structures, such as FI--algebras. The usefulness of this approach is that it allows us to handle all the classical as well as more esoteric structures under a common framework and we can treat all the situations simultaneously. Many of the known constructions simply become Kan extensions. In this common framework, we also derive universal operations, such as those underlying Deligne's conjecture, construct Hopf algebras as well as perform resolutions, (co)bar transforms and Feynman transforms which are related to master equations. For these applications, we construct the relevant model category structures.

  12. Lessons from flower colour evolution on targets of selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessinger, Carolyn A; Rausher, Mark D

    2012-10-01

    The genetic basis of flower colour evolution provides a useful system to address the debate over the relative contribution of regulatory vs. functional mutations in evolution. The relative importance of these two categories depends on the type of flower colour transition and the genes involved in those transitions. These differences reflect differences in the degree of deleterious pleiotropy associated with functional inactivation of various anthocyanin pathway genes. Our findings illustrate how generalized statements regarding the contributions of regulatory and functional mutations to broad categories of traits, such as morphological vs. physiological, ignore differences among traits within categories and in doing so overlook important factors determining the relative importance of regulatory and functional mutations.

  13. The colours of CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    Would you move into an office painted in a colour you hate? As we all know, taste in colour is individual. Thanks to the establishment of a new Painting Charter, conflicting opinions will be unified.   The four new paint colours established in the Painting Charter. There were many reasons behind the creation of the Painting Charter by the GS SEM Department. Unlike many companies, CERN has not until now regulated which colours can be used inside buildings. With many nationalities passing through CERN, tastes tend to differ: northern countries usually prefer colder colours, while southern countries seem to prefer warm colours. It’s not hard to imagine how quickly we could make a rainbow! In addition, whenever an office needs to be repainted, it can be difficult to find exactly the same colour. This results in entire walls being repainted, which increases the cost. If – by chance – the original colour is found, it could be out of stock. While ...

  14. Graph colouring algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Husfeldt, Thore

    2015-01-01

    This chapter presents an introduction to graph colouring algorithms. The focus is on vertex-colouring algorithms that work for general classes of graphs with worst-case performance guarantees in a sequential model of computation. The presentation aims to demonstrate the breadth of available techniques and is organized by algorithmic paradigm.

  15. Graph Colouring Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husfeldt, Thore

    2015-01-01

    This chapter presents an introduction to graph colouring algorithms. The focus is on vertex-colouring algorithms that work for general classes of graphs with worst-case performance guarantees in a sequential model of computation. The presentation aims to demonstrate the breadth of available...

  16. Colour and Organization Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyes, Timon

    2016-01-01

    of colour as aesthetic force and medium of transformation, the essay presents a montage of scenes that set up encounters with what colour does: how it affects organization, and how it is affected by organization; how it organizes what is given to perception, knowledge and organization itself, and how...

  17. Ultrasonic colour Doppler imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evans, David H.; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonic colour Doppler is an imaging technique that combines anatomical information derived using ultrasonic pulse-echo techniques with velocity information derived using ultrasonic Doppler techniques to generate colour-coded maps of tissue velocity superimposed on grey-scale images of tissue ...

  18. Computational colour science using MATLAB

    CERN Document Server

    Westland, Stephen; Cheung, Vien

    2012-01-01

    Computational Colour Science Using MATLAB 2nd Edition offers a practical, problem-based approach to colour physics. The book focuses on the key issues encountered in modern colour engineering, including efficient representation of colour information, Fourier analysis of reflectance spectra and advanced colorimetric computation. Emphasis is placed on the practical applications rather than the techniques themselves, with material structured around key topics. These topics include colour calibration of visual displays, computer recipe prediction and models for colour-appearance prediction. Each t

  19. Plants and colour: Flowers and pollination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Renee; Owens, Simon J.; Rørslett, Bjørn

    2011-03-01

    While there is a range of colours found in plants the predominant colour is green. Pigments in plants have several roles e.g. photosynthesis and signalling. If colour is to be used as a signal then it must stand out from green. However, one should be aware that there are also coloured compounds where we have not yet fully investigated the role of colour in their functions—they may have roles in, for example, defence or heat exchange. In this paper, we will describe the basic chemistry of the major pigments found in plants and especially floral pigments. We will then discuss their locations in parts of the flower (such as sepals, petals, pollen and nectar), the cells in which they are found and their sub-cellular locations. Floral pigments have a large role to play in pollination of flowers by animals. They can and are modified in many ways during the development of flowers in nature, for example, at emergence and post-pollination. There are a range of biochemical mechanisms of colour change both within flowers and in isolated pigments. Some of the factors influencing colour are temperature, co-pigments, pH, metals, sugars, anthocyanin stacking and cell shape. There is a renewed interest in analysing floral pigments and how they are modified partly because of advances in recombinant DNA technologies, but also because of pollinators and their significance to biodiversity and for evolutionary studies. There is continued strong interest from the horticultural industry for the introduction of new colours e.g. the blue rose and for the exploitation of natural dyes. Funding in this area may impact future research in a potentially beneficial way but it must not deflect us from science-based conservation.

  20. Unconventional colour vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Justin; Arikawa, Kentaro

    2014-12-15

    Butterflies and stomatopods are certainly outliers in their unconventional colour sense and despite some similarities at first glance, in fact sample the world of colour very differently. In one way, butterflies are relatively conventional, possessing either tri-or tetrachromatic colour vision, then just adding one or several task-specific sub-mechanisms onto this. It is the stomatopods so far that have really pushed the boat out into a different colour vision mechanism. Over 400 million years of independent evolution they have arrived at a solution with more in common with the way a satellite sensor examines the colours of the earth than other animals. Remember, however, that unconventional colour vision is not just the realm of the serially polychromatic. Apparently waterfleas with four classes of spectral receptors living in ponds operate a task-specific spectral sense with no need, or indeed neural processing power, to construct a complex discriminatory mechanism. It seems they have the butterfly added-extra set without the more complex comparative chromatic mechanisms, although in truth, conclusive behavioural proof is lacking. Behavioural observation of colour vision in the ecological context of each animal is vital before making the distinction between conventional and unconventional. Just counting spectral sensitivities is never enough.

  1. Adaptive colouration in amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudh, Andreas; Qvarnström, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Amphibians, i.e. salamanders, frogs and caecilians show a wide range of bright colours in combination with contrasting patterns. There is variation among species, populations and also within species and populations. Furthermore, individuals often change colours during developmental stages or in response to environmental factors. This extraordinary variation means that there are excellent opportunities to test hypotheses of the adaptive significance of colours using amphibian species as models. We review the present view of functions of colouration in amphibians with the main focus on relatively unexplored topics. Variation in colouration has been found to play a role in thermoregulation, UV protection, predator avoidance and sexual signalling. However, many proposed cases of adaptive functions of colouration in amphibians remain virtually scientifically unexplored and surprisingly few genes influencing pigmentation or patterning have been detected. We would like to especially encourage more studies that take advantage of recent developments in measurement of visual properties of several possible signalling receivers (e.g. predators, competitors or mates). Future investigations on interactions between behaviour, ecology and vision have the potential to challenge our current view of the adaptive function of colouration in amphibians.

  2. Plasmonic colour laser printing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Xiaolong; Vannahme, Christoph; Højlund-Nielsen, Emil

    2016-01-01

    -beam lithography (EBL) or focused ion beam (FIB), both expensive and not scalable processes that are not suitable for post-processing customization. Here we show a method of colour printing on nanoimprinted plasmonic metasurfaces using laser post-writing. Laser pulses induce transient local heat generation...... that leads to melting and reshaping of the imprinted nanostructures. Depending on the laser pulse energy density, different surface morphologies that support different plasmonic resonances leading to different colour appearances can be created. Using this technique we can print all primary colours...

  3. Rigidification of quasi-categories

    CERN Document Server

    Dugger, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    We give a new construction for rigidifying a quasi-category into a simplicial category, and prove that it is weakly equivalent to the rigidification given by Lurie. Our construction comes from the use of necklaces, which are simplicial sets obtained by stringing simplices together. As an application of these methods, we use our model to reprove some basic facts from Lurie's "Higher Topos Theory" regarding the rigidification process.

  4. Game Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of game coloured Petri nets. This allows the modeler to explicitly model what parts of the model comprise the modeled system and what parts are the environment of the modeled system. We give the formal definition of game coloured Petri nets, a means of reachabilit......, and not controllable by the system itself, or they are part of the system itself and therefore we need not worry about them)....

  5. Eat by Colour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David Heber; 谢琼

    2004-01-01

    <正> COLOUR is the key to good nutrition. Yet what colour is an increasing number of people’s diet? Beige.As a physician who has studied nutrition and cancer prevention for more than 20 years, I believe that bland diets actually account for the most common diseases, including heart disease, cancer and what I call diabesity-a booming epidemic of obesity and diabetes.

  6. Quotients of cluster categories

    OpenAIRE

    Jorgensen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Higher cluster categories were recently introduced as a generalization of cluster categories. This paper shows that in Dynkin types A and D, half of all higher cluster categories are actually just quotients of cluster categories. The other half can be obtained as quotients of 2-cluster categories, the "lowest" type of higher cluster categories. Hence, in Dynkin types A and D, all higher cluster phenomena are implicit in cluster categories and 2-cluster categories. In contrast, the same is not...

  7. A four-colour optical detector circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yohannes, Israel; Assaad, Maher

    2013-02-01

    In this article, a new architecture for a four-colour optical detector circuit is presented. The proposed detector uses a photodiode as its basic light transducing element and a mixed signal readout circuit for signal processing and decision making. The readout circuit requires only two comparators, two multiplexers and a few logic gates to produce a digital 4 bit output that represents the right colour detected. The proposed detector is advantageous because the number of required components is fixed even if the number of detected colours is increased. The feature of having a fixed number of elements while increasing the number of detected colours is important especially in component count (i.e. low cost) and low power consumption. The proposed detector can be used as an autonomous and portable real-time pH monitoring applications. The objective of this article is to present a validation of a novel four colour sensor architecture using simulation and experiment as a proof of concept for a future implementation as a CMOS integrated circuit using the Austria Microsystems 350 nm technology.

  8. Spoilage of light (PSE-like) and dark turkey meat under aerobic or modified atmosphere package: microbial indicators and their relationship with total volatile basic nitrogen

    OpenAIRE

    Fraqueza, Maria João Ramos; Ferreira, Marilia Catarina; Barreto, António Salvador

    2008-01-01

    Abstract 1. The aim of this work was to evaluate the shelf life of turkey meat from different colour categories (light (PSE-like), intermediate and dark), packaged under aerobic or modified atmosphere (MAP) conditions; also to establish a relationship between microbial quality and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), evaluating its capacity for shelf life determination. Breasts were selected according to Luminance (L*) and pH24: L ? 51 and pH < 5.8 for light colour, 43 < L < 51 f...

  9. Enriched model categories and diagram categories

    CERN Document Server

    Guillou, Bertrand

    2011-01-01

    We collect in one place a variety of known and folklore results in enriched model category theory and add a few new twists. One twist is a new perspective on equivariant model categories. A central theme is a general procedure for constructing a Quillen adjunction, often a Quillen equivalence, between a given V-model category and a category of diagrams in V, where V is any good enriching category. From this perspective, we rederive the result of Schwede and Shipley that reasonable stable model categories are Quillen equivalent to diagram categories of spectra (alias categories of module spectra). The general theory will be applied to G-spectra in a sequel, and for that we need quite a few technical improvements and modifications of general model categorical results. We collect those here. They are bound to have applications in a variety of other contexts.

  10. Accurate Colour Reproduction in Prepress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ákos Borbély

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The adjustment of colour to achieve an acceptable match between the displayed(soft copy and printed (hard copy document is an important task in prepress. In order toachieve such match colour management systems are used, these systems implementstandards established by the International Colour Consortium (ICC.A key step of the colour management process is the calibration of display and outputdevices, the definition of the relationship between the native colour space of the device anda standard device-independent colour space. In this work the usability of the ICC colourmanagement standard was investigated in case of flat panel LCD display calibration.

  11. NICE: A Computational Solution to Close the Gap from Colour Perception to Colour Categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parraga, C Alejandro; Akbarinia, Arash

    2016-01-01

    The segmentation of visible electromagnetic radiation into chromatic categories by the human visual system has been extensively studied from a perceptual point of view, resulting in several colour appearance models. However, there is currently a void when it comes to relate these results to the physiological mechanisms that are known to shape the pre-cortical and cortical visual pathway. This work intends to begin to fill this void by proposing a new physiologically plausible model of colour categorization based on Neural Isoresponsive Colour Ellipsoids (NICE) in the cone-contrast space defined by the main directions of the visual signals entering the visual cortex. The model was adjusted to fit psychophysical measures that concentrate on the categorical boundaries and are consistent with the ellipsoidal isoresponse surfaces of visual cortical neurons. By revealing the shape of such categorical colour regions, our measures allow for a more precise and parsimonious description, connecting well-known early visual processing mechanisms to the less understood phenomenon of colour categorization. To test the feasibility of our method we applied it to exemplary images and a popular ground-truth chart obtaining labelling results that are better than those of current state-of-the-art algorithms.

  12. A developmental study of the acquisition of Russian colour terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, I R; Corbett, G G; McGurk, H; MacDermid, C

    1998-06-01

    We report a study of the acquisition of colour terms by Russian children which had two main aims: first, to test Berlin & Kay's (1969) theory of colour universals using acquisition order as a measure of basicness; and secondly, to see if the two BLUE terms of Russian are genuinely basic. Two hundred children aged from three to six-years-old were tested on three colour-tasks--colour term listing, colour term production and colour term comprehension. To a reasonable approximation, the order of colour term acquisition was in accord with Berlin & Kay's theory, but the data are also consistent with the weaker claim that primary terms tend to be learned before derived terms. On balance the data were consistent with Russian exceptionally, having an extra term for the BLUE region. But, the two BLUE terms--goluboj 'light blue' and sinij 'dark blue'--were confused more often than other pairs of terms even by the five- to six-year-old sample.

  13. Colour Reconnection at LEPII

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P

    2001-01-01

    The preliminary results on the search of colour reconnection effects (CR) from the four experiments at LEP, Aleph, Delphi, L3 and Opal, are reviewed. Extreme models are excluded by studies of standard variables, and on going studies of a method first suggested by L3, the particle flow method, are yet inconclusive.

  14. Coloured Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. This book introduces the constructs of the CPN modelling language and presents the related analysis methods. It provides a comprehensive road map for the practical use of CPN.

  15. ATLAS Colouring Book

    CERN Multimedia

    Anthony, Katarina

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Experiment Colouring Book is a free-to-download educational book, ideal for kids aged 5-9. It aims to introduce children to the field of High-Energy Physics, as well as the work being carried out by the ATLAS Collaboration.

  16. Colour, vision and ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Cristina; da Silva, Fernando Moreira

    2012-01-01

    This paper is based on a research project - Visual Communication and Inclusive Design-Colour, Legibility and Aged Vision, developed at the Faculty of Architecture of Lisbon. The research has the aim of determining specific design principles to be applied to visual communication design (printed) objects, in order to be easily read and perceived by all. This study target group was composed by a selection of socially active individuals, between 55 and 80 years, and we used cultural events posters as objects of study and observation. The main objective is to overlap the study of areas such as colour, vision, older people's colour vision, ergonomics, chromatic contrasts, typography and legibility. In the end we will produce a manual with guidelines and information to apply scientific knowledge into the communication design projectual practice. Within the normal aging process, visual functions gradually decline; the quality of vision worsens, colour vision and contrast sensitivity are also affected. As people's needs change along with age, design should help people and communities, and improve life quality in the present. Applying principles of visually accessible design and ergonomics, the printed design objects, (or interior spaces, urban environments, products, signage and all kinds of visually information) will be effective, easier on everyone's eyes not only for visually impaired people but also for all of us as we age.

  17. Atomical Grothendieck categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Năstăsescu

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the study of Gabriel dimension of a Grothendieck category, we introduce the concept of atomical Grothendieck category, which has only two localizing subcategories, and we give a classification of this type of Grothendieck categories.

  18. The Metric of Colour Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    The space of colours is a fascinating space. It is a real vector space, but no matter what inner product you put on the space the resulting Euclidean distance does not correspond to human perception of difference between colours. In 1942 MacAdam performed the first experiments on colour matching ...

  19. FINANCIAL CONTROL AS A CATEGORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Yu. Volkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the basics of “financial control” as a category. The main attention is concentrated on the “control” itself (asa term, multiplicity of interpretation of“financial control” term and its juristic-practical matching. The duality of financial control category is detected. The identity of terms “financial control” and “state financial control” is justified. The article also offers ways of development of financial control juristical regulation.

  20. Supervised Object Class Colour Normalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riabchenko, Ekatarina; Lankinen, Jukka; Buch, Anders Glent;

    2013-01-01

    Colour is an important cue in many applications of computer vision and image processing, but robust usage often requires estimation of the unknown illuminant colour. Usually, to obtain images invariant to the illumination conditions under which they were taken, color normalisation is used....... In this work, we develop a such colour normalisation technique, where true colours are not important per se but where examples of same classes have photometrically consistent appearance. This is achieved by supervised estimation of a class specic canonical colour space where the examples have minimal variation...

  1. Annotating Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstrøm, Bo; Wells, Lisa Marie

    2002-01-01

    Coloured Petri nets (CP-nets) can be used for several fundamentally different purposes like functional analysis, performance analysis, and visualisation. To be able to use the corresponding tool extensions and libraries it is sometimes necessary to include extra auxiliary information in the CP-ne...... a certain use of the CP-net. We define the semantics of annotations by describing a translation from a CP-net and the corresponding annotation layers to another CP-net where the annotations are an integrated part of the CP-net....... a method which makes it possible to associate auxiliary information, called annotations, with tokens without modifying the colour sets of the CP-net. Annotations are pieces of information that are not essential for determining the behaviour of the system being modelled, but are rather added to support...

  2. The Colours of Smell

    OpenAIRE

    Moeran, Brian

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines perfume advertising within the overall context of theoretical approaches to the study of smell. Pointing out that smell is marked by a paucity of language, it proceeds to examine how smell is represented in perfume advertisements. Based on an analysis of more than 250 ads worldwide, the paper asks if there are any consistent relations between language, colours and smell materials, as well as between models’ poses, seasons, and classes of perfume (floral, oriental, woody, a...

  3. Near-infrared extinction with discretised stellar colours

    CERN Document Server

    Juvela, M

    2015-01-01

    Several methods exist to convert near-infrared (NIR) stellar observations into extinction maps. We present a new method based on NIR multiband observations. The method uses a discretised version of the distribution of intrinsic stellar colours. A number of variations of the basic method are tested, and the results are compared to NICER calculations. When photometric errors are large, the results are close to those of NICER method but some advantages can be seen when the distribution of intrinsic colours cannot be described well with a single covariance matrix. A priori information about relative column density variations at sub-beam scales can result in a significant increase in accuracy. The results may be further improved by considering the magnitude dependence of the intrinsic colours. Thus, the new methods are useful mostly when photometric errors are small, the distribution of intrinsic colours is well known, or one has prior knowledge of the small-scale structures.

  4. A Robust Skin Colour Segmentation Using Bivariate Pearson Type IIαα (Bivariate Beta) Mixture Model

    OpenAIRE

    B.N.Jagadesh; Srinivasa Rao, K.; Ch.Satyanarayana

    2012-01-01

    Probability distributions formulate the basic framework for developing several segmentation algorithms. Among the various segmentation algorithms, skin colour segmentation is one of the most important algorithms for human computer interaction. Due to various random factors influencing the colour space, there does not exist a unique algorithm which serve the purpose of all images. In this paper a novel and new skin colour segmentation algorithms is proposed based on bivariate Pearson type I...

  5. Nonrepetitive Colouring via Entropy Compression

    CERN Document Server

    Dujmović, Vida; Wood, David R

    2011-01-01

    A vertex colouring of a graph is \\emph{nonrepetitive} if there is no path whose first half receives the same sequence of colours as the second half. A graph is nonrepetitively $k$-choosable if given lists of at least $k$ colours at each vertex, there is a nonrepetitive colouring such that each vertex is coloured from its own list. It is known that every graph with maximum degree $\\Delta$ is $c\\Delta^2$-choosable, for some constant $c$. We prove this result with $c=4$. We then prove that every subdivision of a graph with sufficiently many division vertices per edge is nonrepetitively 6-choosable. The proofs of both these results are based on the Moser-Tardos entropy-compression method, and a recent extension by Grytczuk, Kozik and Micek for the nonrepetitive choosability of paths. Finally, we prove that every graph with pathwidth $k$ is nonrepetitively ($2k^2+6k+1$)-colourable.

  6. A developmental study of the acquisition of colour terms in Setswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, I; Corbett, G; McGurk, H; Jerrett, D

    1994-10-01

    We report a study of the acquisition of colour terms by speakers of Setswana, the language of Botswana in Southern Africa. This was carried out as a test of Berlin & Kay's theory of colour term universals, on a language with less than the maximum complement of eleven basic colour terms, and in order to document changes in Setswana under the impact of economic development. Seventy-seven five- to nine-year-olds were studied on two colour tasks: elicited lists and colour naming. In general the data were consistent with Berlin & Kay's theory: the rank order of frequency of correct use of colour terms was similar to the order of the Berlin & Kay hierarchy; and primary colour terms were offered more frequently and were more likely to be used correctly than secondary colour terms. The use of English colour terms was prevalent, especially amongst the younger groups, but they functioned as substitutes for Setswana terms, rather than as a means to fill the vacant basic colour term slots.

  7. Natural Blue Food Colour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roda-Serrat, Maria Cinta

    2017-01-01

    the presence of the chromophore phycocyanobilin (PCB), a covalently attached linear tetrapyrrole. The applications of phycocyanins as food colorants are however limited, as they show poor stability in certain conditions of pH, light and temperature. Cleavage of PCB from the protein followed by careful product...... decreased. PCB was also found to be more sensitive to pH than phycocyanin. Regarding the stability with time, PCB showed a similar stability at pH 3, and worse at pH 5 and pH 7. The change from blue to green colour in acid conditions was attributed to protonation of the chromophore. However, the effect...

  8. Theory of colours

    CERN Document Server

    Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von

    2006-01-01

    The wavelength theory of light and color had been firmly established by the time the great German poet published his Theory of Colours in 1810. Nevertheless, Goethe believed that the theory derived from a fundamental error, in which an incidental result was mistaken for a elemental principle. Far from affecting a knowledge of physics, he maintained that such a background would inhibit understanding. The conclusions Goethe draws here rest entirely upon his personal observations.This volume does not have to be studied to be appreciated. The author's subjective theory of colors permits him to spe

  9. THE ICONOGRAPHIC COLOUR SYMBOLISM IN BIBLICAL POEMS BY SERGEI YESENIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Vladimirovna Mikhalenko

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Biblical poems by Sergei Yesenin are full of pathos of theurgic reforms and creation of a new world. All components of these poems (images, spatial-temporal organization, colour symbolics stressed the importance of ongoing changes. The colours in small poems not only correspond to normal natural colours, but also bear a symbolic meaning, drawing the reader to the iconographic mysticism. The colourful preferences correspond to the tradition (of the Old or New Testaments, iconography or liturgy, as well as scenic tradition, which Yesenin follows in his poetry. Creating images of cosmic transformation, the poet turns to the traditional icon colour combinations and reinterprets the Old and New Testaments images. It puts the cases of prophet Sergei Yesenin in line with the acts of the biblical prophets. All poems in their colour scheme are consistent with iconographic tradition. In these poems three basic colours are used which repeat the colours of thematically close icons. So, Th e Coming is coloristically associated with the icon of the Nativity, The Transfiguration corresponds to the eponymous icon of Christ. The colours show the relationship and the parallelism of the processes occurring in earthly and heavenly worlds. It emphasizes the unity of the poetic world, the engagement of the Earth and the Heaven in the conversion process. The consideration of Yesenin’s revolutionary epic in line with biblical and iconographic symbolism allows analyzing in a more detailed and deep way originality of poetic recreation of the World and enables to reveal philosophical and esoteric content of the works.

  10. Categories from scratch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poss, R.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of category from mathematics happens to be useful to computer programmers in many ways. Unfortunately, all "good" explanations of categories so far have been designed by mathematicians, or at least theoreticians with a strong background in mathematics, and this makes categories especiall

  11. A colourful clock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hester C van Diepen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Circadian rhythms are an essential property of life on Earth. In mammals, these rhythms are coordinated by a small set of neurons, located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN. The environmental light/dark cycle synchronizes (entrains the SCN via a distinct pathway, originating in a subset of photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (pRGCs that utilize the photopigment melanopsin (OPN4. The pRGCs are also innervated by rods and cones and, so, are both endogenously and exogenously light sensitive. Accumulating evidence has shown that the circadian system is sensitive to ultraviolet (UV, blue, and green wavelengths of light. However, it was unclear whether colour perception itself can help entrain the SCN. By utilizing both behavioural and electrophysiological recording techniques, Walmsley and colleagues show that multiple photic channels interact and enhance the capacity of the SCN to synchronize to the environmental cycle. Thus, entrainment of the circadian system combines both environmental irradiance and colour information to ensure that internal and external time are appropriately aligned.

  12. A colourful clock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Diepen, Hester C; Foster, Russell G; Meijer, Johanna H

    2015-05-01

    Circadian rhythms are an essential property of life on Earth. In mammals, these rhythms are coordinated by a small set of neurons, located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN). The environmental light/dark cycle synchronizes (entrains) the SCN via a distinct pathway, originating in a subset of photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (pRGCs) that utilize the photopigment melanopsin (OPN4). The pRGCs are also innervated by rods and cones and, so, are both endogenously and exogenously light sensitive. Accumulating evidence has shown that the circadian system is sensitive to ultraviolet (UV), blue, and green wavelengths of light. However, it was unclear whether colour perception itself can help entrain the SCN. By utilizing both behavioural and electrophysiological recording techniques, Walmsley and colleagues show that multiple photic channels interact and enhance the capacity of the SCN to synchronize to the environmental cycle. Thus, entrainment of the circadian system combines both environmental irradiance and colour information to ensure that internal and external time are appropriately aligned.

  13. Across light: through colour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Isabel; Richardson, Martin; Bernardo, Luis Miguel

    2012-03-01

    The speed at which our world is changing is reflected in the shifting way artistic images are created and produced. Holography can be used as a medium to express the perception of space with light and colour and to make the material and the immaterial experiments with optical and digital holography. This paper intends to be a reflection on the final product of that process surrounding a debate of ideas for new experimental methodologies applied to holographic images. Holography is a time-based medium and the irretrievable linear flow of time is responsible for a drama, unique to traditional cinematography. If the viewers move to left or right, they see glimpses of the next scene or the previous one perceived a second ago. This interaction of synthetic space arises questions such as: can we see, in "reality", two forms in the same space? Trying to answer this question, a series of works has been created. These concepts are embryonic to a series of digital art holograms and lenticulars technique's titled "Across Light: Through Colour". They required some technical research and comparison between effects from different camera types, using Canon IS3 and Sony HDR CX105.

  14. Skew-closed categories

    CERN Document Server

    Street, Ross

    2012-01-01

    Spurred by the new examples found by Kornel Szlach\\'anyi of a form of lax monoidal category, the author felt the time ripe to publish a reworking of Eilenberg-Kelly's original paper on closed categories appropriate to the laxer context. The new examples are connected with bialgebroids. With Stephen Lack, we have also used the concept to give an alternative definition of quantum category and quantum groupoid. Szlach\\'anyi has called the lax notion {\\em skew monoidal}. This paper defines {\\em skew closed category}, proves Yoneda lemmas for categories enriched over such, and looks at closed cocompletion.

  15. Linguistic determinants of word colouring in grapheme-colour synaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simner, Julia; Glover, Louise; Mowat, Alice

    2006-02-01

    Previous studies of grapheme-colour synaesthesia have suggested that words tend to be coloured by their initial letter or initial vowel (e.g., Baron-Cohen et al., 1993; Ward et al., 2005). We examine this assumption in two ways. First, we show that letter position and syllable stress have been confounded, such that the initial letters of a word are often in stressed position (e.g., 'wo-man, 'ta-ble, 'ha-ppy). With participant JW, we separate these factors (e.g., with stress homographs such as 'con-vict vs. con-'vict) and show that the primary determinant of word colour is syllable stress, with only a secondary influence of letter position. We show that this effect derives from conceptual rather than perceptual stress, and that the effect is more prominent for synaesthetes whose words are coloured by vowels than by consonants. We examine, too, the time course of word colour generation. Slower colour naming occurs for spoken versus written stimuli, as we might expect from the additional requirement of grapheme conversion in the former. Reaction time data provide evidence, too, of incremental processing, since word colour is generated faster when the dominant grapheme is flagged early rather than late in the spoken word. Finally, we examine the role of non-dominant graphemes in word colouring and show faster colour naming when later graphemes match the dominant grapheme (e.g., ether) compared to when they do not (e.g., ethos). Taken together, our findings suggest that words are coloured incrementally by a process of competition between constituent graphemes, in which stressed graphemes and word-initial graphemes are disproportionately weighted.

  16. Reversible colour change in Arthropoda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbers, Kate D L; Fabricant, Scott A; Gawryszewski, Felipe M; Seago, Ainsley E; Herberstein, Marie E

    2014-11-01

    The mechanisms and functions of reversible colour change in arthropods are highly diverse despite, or perhaps due to, the presence of an exoskeleton. Physiological colour changes, which have been recorded in 90 arthropod species, are rapid and are the result of changes in the positioning of microstructures or pigments, or in the refractive index of layers in the integument. By contrast, morphological colour changes, documented in 31 species, involve the anabolism or catabolism of components (e.g. pigments) directly related to the observable colour. In this review we highlight the diversity of mechanisms by which reversible colour change occurs and the evolutionary context and diversity of arthropod taxa in which it has been observed. Further, we discuss the functions of reversible colour change so far proposed, review the limited behavioural and ecological data, and argue that the field requires phylogenetically controlled approaches to understanding the evolution of reversible colour change. Finally, we encourage biologists to explore new model systems for colour change and to engage scientists from other disciplines; continued cross-disciplinary collaboration is the most promising approach to this nexus of biology, physics, and chemistry.

  17. The brightness of colour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Corney

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The perception of brightness depends on spatial context: the same stimulus can appear light or dark depending on what surrounds it. A less well-known but equally important contextual phenomenon is that the colour of a stimulus can also alter its brightness. Specifically, stimuli that are more saturated (i.e. purer in colour appear brighter than stimuli that are less saturated at the same luminance. Similarly, stimuli that are red or blue appear brighter than equiluminant yellow and green stimuli. This non-linear relationship between stimulus intensity and brightness, called the Helmholtz-Kohlrausch (HK effect, was first described in the nineteenth century but has never been explained. Here, we take advantage of the relative simplicity of this 'illusion' to explain it and contextual effects more generally, by using a simple Bayesian ideal observer model of the human visual ecology. We also use fMRI brain scans to identify the neural correlates of brightness without changing the spatial context of the stimulus, which has complicated the interpretation of related fMRI studies. RESULTS: Rather than modelling human vision directly, we use a Bayesian ideal observer to model human visual ecology. We show that the HK effect is a result of encoding the non-linear statistical relationship between retinal images and natural scenes that would have been experienced by the human visual system in the past. We further show that the complexity of this relationship is due to the response functions of the cone photoreceptors, which themselves are thought to represent an efficient solution to encoding the statistics of images. Finally, we show that the locus of the response to the relationship between images and scenes lies in the primary visual cortex (V1, if not earlier in the visual system, since the brightness of colours (as opposed to their luminance accords with activity in V1 as measured with fMRI. CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that perceptions

  18. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. The development of such systems is particularly challenging because of inherent intricacies like possible nondeterminism...... and the immense number of possible execution sequences. In this textbook, Jensen and Kristensen introduce the constructs of the CPN modelling language and present the related analysis methods in detail. They also provide a comprehensive road map for the practical use of CPN by showcasing selected industrial case...... studies that illustrate the practical use of CPN modelling and validation for design, specification, simulation, verification and implementation in various application domains. Their presentation primarily aims at readers interested in the practical use of CPN. Thus all concepts and constructs are first...

  19. Genetics of colouration in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roulin, Alexandre; Ducrest, Anne-Lyse

    2013-01-01

    Establishing the links between phenotype and genotype is of great importance for resolving key questions about the evolution, maintenance and adaptive function of phenotypic variation. Bird colouration is one of the most studied systems to investigate the role of natural and sexual selection in the evolution of phenotypic diversity. Given the recent advances in molecular tools that allow discovering genetic polymorphisms and measuring gene and protein expression levels, it is timely to review the literature on the genetics of bird colouration. The present study shows that melanin-based colour phenotypes are often associated with mutations at melanogenic genes. Differences in melanin-based colouration are caused by switches of eumelanin to pheomelanin production or by changes in feather keratin structure, melanoblast migration and differentiation, as well as melanosome structure. Similar associations with other types of colourations are difficult to establish, because our knowledge about the molecular genetics of carotenoid-based and structural colouration is quasi inexistent. This discrepancy stems from the fact that only melanin-based colouration shows pronounced heritability estimates, i.e. the resemblance between related individuals is usually mainly explained by genetic factors. In contrast, the expression of carotenoid-based colouration is phenotypically plastic with a high sensitivity to variation in environmental conditions. It therefore appears that melanin-based colour traits are prime systems to understand the genetic basis of phenotypic variation. In this context, birds have a great potential to bring us to new frontiers where many exciting discoveries will be made on the genetics of phenotypic traits, such as colouration. In this context, a major goal of our review is to suggest a number of exciting future avenues.

  20. Genetic analyses of the human eye colours using a novel objective method for eye colour classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jeppe D.; Johansen, Peter; Harder, Stine;

    2013-01-01

    identified and extracted from high resolution digital images. DIAT was made user friendly with a graphical user interface. The software counted the number of blue and brown pixels in the iris image and calculated a Pixel Index of the Eye (PIE-score) that described the eye colour quantitatively. The PIE......-score ranged from −1 to 1 (brown to blue). The software eliminated the need for user based interpretation and qualitative eye colour categories. In 94% (570) of 605 analyzed eye images, the iris region was successfully extracted and a PIE-score was calculated. A very high correlation between the PIE......-score and the human perception of eye colour was observed. The correlations between the PIE-scores and the six IrisPlex SNPs (HERC2 rs12913832, OCA2 rs1800407, SLC24A4 rs12896399, TYR rs1393350, SLC45A2 rs16891982 and IRF4 rs12203592) were analyzed in 570 individuals. Significant differences (p PIE...

  1. Multi-coloured stereograms unveil two binocular colour mechanisms in human vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkelens, Casper J; van Ee, Raymond

    2002-04-01

    Two different colours, one presented to one eye and the other presented to the other eye, often create the impression of a third colour. This percept is known as binocular colour mixture. Here we use coloured stereograms to study binocular colour appearance. Vivid pastel colours are induced in monocular, achromatic patches, if these are placed in stereograms whose left and right images differ in colour. The build-up of the colours is slow and takes tens of seconds or even minutes in certain individuals. The induced colours remain visible during monocular viewing of the patch and decay gradually. The same colours are induced irrespective of whether the patches are placed in fusible or rivalrous stereograms. We show that these colour effects cannot be induced by monocular colour mechanisms, either alone or in combination with binocular colour mixing. We suggest that the colours are induced by a binocular feedback mechanism, which reduces colour differences between the colour appearances of two monocular images. Induced colours are not observed if the achromatic patches are binocular. However, induced colours are apparent if one switches to monocular viewing after prolonged binocular viewing of the binocular patches. This aftereffect suggests that binocular colour induction acts on the monocular representations of binocular images. We suggest that during binocular viewing the fast process of binocular colour mixing masks the changes in colour appearance produced by the much slower process of binocular colour induction.

  2. Colour reconnection in WW events

    CERN Document Server

    D'Hondt, J

    2003-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented for a measurement of the kappa parameter used in the JETSET SK-I model of colour reconnection in W /sup +/W/sup -/ to qq'qq' events at LEP2. An update on the investigation of colour reconnection effects in hadronic decays of W pairs, using the particle flow in DELPHI is presented. A second method is based on the observation that two different m/sub W/ estimators have different sensitivity to the parametrised colour reconnection effect. Hence the difference between them is an observable with information content about kappa. (6 refs).

  3. Colour anomia resulting from weakened short-term colour memory. A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidoff, J B; Ostergaard, A L

    1984-06-01

    A patient exhibited marked colour anomia without object anomia, but was able to point to named colours. Five experiments were conducted to investigate his immediate colour memory. It was concluded that his colour anomia was the result of an impaired short-term memory deficit specific to colour. Temporary activation of specific entries in the colour lexicon enabled pointing and even naming to take place. A general model incorporating all forms of colour anomia is presented.

  4. Categories of Fractions Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Fritz, Tobias

    2008-01-01

    The theory of categories of fractions as originally developed by Gabriel and Zisman is reviewed in a pedagogical manner giving detailed proofs of all statements. A weakening of the category of fractions axioms used by Higson is discussed and shown to be equivalent to the original axioms.

  5. Optimal colour quality of LED clusters based on memory colours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smet, Kevin; Ryckaert, Wouter R; Pointer, Michael R; Deconinck, Geert; Hanselaer, Peter

    2011-03-28

    The spectral power distributions of tri- and tetrachromatic clusters of Light-Emitting-Diodes, composed of simulated and commercially available LEDs, were optimized with a genetic algorithm to maximize the luminous efficacy of radiation and the colour quality as assessed by the memory colour quality metric developed by the authors. The trade-off of the colour quality as assessed by the memory colour metric and the luminous efficacy of radiation was investigated by calculating the Pareto optimal front using the NSGA-II genetic algorithm. Optimal peak wavelengths and spectral widths of the LEDs were derived, and over half of them were found to be close to Thornton's prime colours. The Pareto optimal fronts of real LED clusters were always found to be smaller than those of the simulated clusters. The effect of binning on designing a real LED cluster was investigated and was found to be quite large. Finally, a real LED cluster of commercially available AlGaInP, InGaN and phosphor white LEDs was optimized to obtain a higher score on memory colour quality scale than its corresponding CIE reference illuminant.

  6. Alternative to colour feature classification using colour contrast ocurrence matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, R. A.; Richard, N.; Fernandez, C.

    2015-04-01

    Texture discrimination was the second more important task studied after colour perception and characterization. Nevertheless, colour texture assessment and characterization was few studied and no vector processing was proposed to assess this important visual information. In this work we show the construction of a new vector that integrates fully the information of texture and color. This vector is based on Julesz psico-physics conjectures and the Haralick cooccurrence matrix. A colour texture image in the CIEL*a* b* colour space is characterizing in a 3D matrix, from which it is possible to visually some variations in chromaticity. The performance of this vector had evaluated in tasks of classification in front of other developments that mix the texture and colour information. The colour contrast occurrence matrix (C2O) has the best classification rates in three of the four image database evaluated as OUTEX, VISTEX, STEX and ALOT. C2O texture classification was evaluated in front of co-occurrence matrix (GLMC), run-length matrix (RLM) and local binary patterns (LBP) approaches.

  7. The Basic Level Category in Cognitive Psychology and Cognitive Linguistics%认知语言学与认知心理学中的基本层次范畴

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗良勤

    2012-01-01

      认知心理学和认知语言学的研究描述了民俗分类中基本层次范畴的首位原则。该原则认为,处于基本层次范畴的概念对人类的认知起着基础和重要的作用。通过对基本层次范畴的研究发现,基本层次范畴首位原则能给语言研究提供一个全新的视角。%  It is well accepted that terms on the basic level in folk taxonomy play a key and important role in human cognition;this principle is named the basic level primacy. Based on the study of this principle, the current study suggests a new approach to the research of language.

  8. A new universal colour image fidelity metric

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Lucassen, M.P.

    2003-01-01

    We extend a recently introduced universal grayscale image quality index to a newly developed perceptually decorrelated colour space. The resulting colour image fidelity metric quantifies the distortion of a processed colour image relative to its original version. We evaluated the new colour image fi

  9. BRIEF REPORT: The colour relaxation equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaofei, Zhang; Jiarong, Li

    1996-03-01

    Colour diffusion in quark - gluon plasma (QGP) is investigated from the transport equations of QGP. The pure non-Abelian collision term describing the colour diffusion in QGP is obtained, the expression for colour relaxation time is derived and the physical picture of the colour diffusion in QGP is shown.

  10. Colour Day: an innovative project

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    This year, the Children’s Day-Care Centre (EVE) and School works on the theme of colours. Every class has their own project revolving around this common theme. The class of Claire, Sandrine and Nadia, introduced a monthly “Colour Day”. The objective of this day is to offer children different activities (arts and crafts, baking, etc.) designed around a specific colour. The children get a chance to decorate their classroom and learn in many different ways inspired by the colours blue, red, and many others. The parents are also called to contribute and invited to dress their children in the colour of the day. In September, we discovered the colour blue, in October it was time for red, and in mid-November yellow will brighten up our structure. Everyone plays along, making this a very festive day for us all. On Tuesday, 20 September, we saw the whole School turn blue! We were all dressed in blue and we made blue paintings, too! We made beautiful artwork inspired by artists like Ma...

  11. Analysis of rare categories

    CERN Document Server

    He, Jingrui

    2012-01-01

    In many real-world problems, rare categories (minority classes) play essential roles despite their extreme scarcity. The discovery, characterization and prediction of rare categories of rare examples may protect us from fraudulent or malicious behavior, aid scientific discovery, and even save lives. This book focuses on rare category analysis, where the majority classes have smooth distributions, and the minority classes exhibit the compactness property. Furthermore, it focuses on the challenging cases where the support regions of the majority and minority classes overlap. The author has devel

  12. Consumer Product Category Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Chemical and Product Categories database (CPCat) catalogs the use of over 40,000 chemicals and their presence in different consumer products. The chemical use...

  13. Abstract sectional category

    CERN Document Server

    Diaz, F; Garcia, P; Murillo, A; Remedios, J

    2011-01-01

    We study, in an abstract axiomatic setting, the notion of sectional category of a morphism. From this, we unify and generalize known results about this invariant in different settings as well as we deduce new applications.

  14. Colour, Luminance and Crowding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BJ Jennings

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Three experiments were performed to assess the effect backgrounds have on object discrimination. Experiment 1 investigated the discrimination of foveally presented Gaborised objects and non-objects with and without a surrounding background. Thresholds were obtained by modulating the Gabor patches in 7 different directions, either isolating the L-M, S-(L+M and L+M geniculate mechanisms, or stimulating these mechanisms in combination. The spacing between background Gabor elements and the object contour was chosen so as to not cause crowding, on the basis of previously published work with luminance stimuli. No differences were found between the Michelson contrasts required for threshold with or without a background, except when signals in the S-(L+M and L+M were combined. The signals were combined at an elevation of 30° in DKL colour space, which resulted in a mixture with a proportionally strong chromatic signal. Experiment 2 investigated this finding further using three background conditions: no background, a sparse background and a densely populated background. Object vs. non-object discrimination thresholds were obtained for the L+M and S-(L+M isolating directions, along with two conditions that combined them at DKL luminance elevations of 30° and 60°. In the 60° combination, the proportion of the chromatic signal was lower than in the 30° combination. Thresholds were found to be largely stable across chromatic and luminance conditions and background class, again with the exception of the combination at 30° elevation. The final experiment examined Gabor orientation discrimination over the same conditions as experiment 2 using a classical crowding paradigm, with a peripheral target and a set of three target-flanker separations. Crowding was most pronounced in the 30° combination. We conclude that when S-(L+M signals above a certain level are combined with luminance signals, an increase in crowding results. This is likely to underlie the

  15. Colour Symbols in Mari Songs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Glukhova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a system of colour symbols in Mari folk songs based on the results of a multifold investigation. The research was carried out with the help of a complex technique applied to 2100 songs from different song collections. Mari colour symbols have never before been the object of research. The process of investigation included several steps. The most important of these was the semantic analysis that helped to discern 2000 mentions of four main spectre colours as well as white, black, silver, and golden. Quantitative data evaluation singled out a dominant group by a dichotomous method, applying the principle of simple majority employed in mathematical statistics. The same technique divided the other colour symbols into complementary, auxiliary, and insignificant groups. The results of an investigation into ethnic symbology are also shown graphically. The main reconstructed meanings of colour in the analysed songs denote such emotions as joy, wonder, astonishment, grief, melancholy, some aesthetic ideals, ethical vices, as well as people’s character and appearance.

  16. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1991-01-01

    use of CP-nets — because it means that the function representation and the translations (which are a bit mathematically complex) no longer are parts of the basic definition of CP-nets. Instead they are parts of the invariant method (which anyway demands considerable mathematical skills...... the different kinds of analysis. It has, however, turned out that it only is necessary to turn to functions when we deal with invariant analysis, and this means that we now use the expression representation for all purposes — except for the calculation of invariants. This change is important for the practical...

  17. Blue-Green Colour Categorisation in Mandarin-English Speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Joanne Hird

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Observers are faster to detect a target among a set of distracters if the targets and distracters come from different colour categories. This cross-boundary advantage seems to be limited to the right visual field, which is consistent with the dominance of the left hemisphere for language processing. Here we study whether a similiar visual field advantage is found in Mandarin, a language which uses a logographic system. Forty late Mandarin-English bilinguals performed a blue-green colour categorisation task, in a blocked design, in their first language (L1: Mandarin or second language (L2: English. Eleven colour singletons ranging from blue to green were presented for 160ms, randomly in the left visual field (LVF or in the right visual field (RVF. We find that reaction times at the colour boundary were on average about 100 ms shorter in the LVF compared to the RVF, but only when the task was preformed in Mandarin as opposed to English. The apparent discrepancy with previous findings is conceivably due to the script nature of two languages: Mandarin logographic characters are analysed visuo-orthographically in the right fusiform gyrus [Guo and Burgund 2010, Brain Lang 115].

  18. A convenient differential category

    CERN Document Server

    Blute, Richard; Tasson, Christine

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we show that the category of Mackey-complete, separated, topological convex bornological vector spaces and bornological linear maps is a differential category. Such spaces were introduced by Fr\\"olicher and Kriegl, where they were called convenient vector spaces. While much of the structure necessary to demonstrate this observation is already contained in Fr\\"olicher and Kriegl's book, we here give a new interpretation of the category of convenient vector spaces as a model of the differential linear logic of Ehrhard and Regnier. Rather than base our proof on the abstract categorical structure presented by Fr\\"olicher and Kriegl, we prefer to focus on the bornological structure of convenient vector spaces. We believe bornological structures will ultimately yield a wide variety of models of differential logics.

  19. Generalized trace and modified dimension functions on ribbon categories

    CERN Document Server

    Geer, Nathan; Patureau-Mirand, Bertrand

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we use topological techniques to construct generalized trace and modified dimension functions on ideals in certain ribbon categories. Examples of such ribbon categories naturally arise in representation theory where the usual trace and dimension functions are zero, but these generalized trace and modified dimension functions are non-zero. Such examples include categories of finite dimensional modules of certain Lie algebras and finite groups over a field of positive characteristic and categories of finite dimensional modules of basic Lie superalgebras over the complex numbers. These modified dimensions can be interpreted categorically and are closely related to some basic notions from representation theory.

  20. Genetic determinants of hair and eye colours in the Scottish and Danish populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morling Niels

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eye and hair colour is highly variable in the European population, and is largely genetically determined. Both linkage and association studies have previously been used to identify candidate genes underlying this variation. Many of the genes found were previously known as underlying mutant mouse phenotypes or human genetic disease, but others, previously unsuspected as pigmentation genes, have also been discovered. Results We assayed the hair of a population of individuals of Scottish origin using tristimulus colorimetry, in order to produce a quantitative measure of hair colour. Cluster analysis of this data defined two groups, with overlapping borders, which corresponded to visually assessed dark versus red/light hair colour. The Danish population was assigned into categorical hair colour groups. Both cohorts were also assessed for eye colour. DNA from the Scottish group was genotyped at SNPs in 33 candidate genes, using 384 SNPs identified by HapMap as representatives of each gene. Associations found between SNPs and colorimetric hair data and eye colour categories were replicated in a cohort of the Danish population. The Danish population was also genotyped with SNPs in 4 previously described pigmentation genes. We found replicable associations of hair colour with the KITLG and OCA2 genes. MC1R variation correlated, as expected, with the red dimension of colorimetric hair colour in Scots. The Danish analysis excluded those with red hair, and no associations were found with MC1R in this group, emphasising that MC1R regulates the colour rather than the intensity of pigmentation. A previously unreported association with the HPS3 gene was seen in the Scottish population. However, although this replicated in the smaller cohort of the Danish population, no association was seen when the whole study population was analysed. Conclusions We have found novel associations with SNPs in known pigmentation genes and colorimetrically

  1. Estimated Daily Intake and Safety of FD&C Food Colour Additives in the US Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastaki, Maria; Farrell, Thomas; Bhusari, Sachin; Bi, Xiaoyu; Scrafford, Carolyn

    2017-03-23

    A refined exposure assessment was undertaken to calculate the Estimated Daily Intake (EDI) of the seven FD&C straight colour additives and five FD&C colour lakes ("synthetic" food colours) approved in the United States (US). The EDIs were calculated for the US population as a whole and specific age groups, including children 2-5 y, children 6-12 y, adolescents 13-18 y, and adults 19+ y. Actual use data were collected from an industry survey of companies who are users of these colour additives in a variety of products, with additional input from food colour manufacturers. Food consumption data were obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The assessment was further refined by adjusting the intake to more realistic scenarios based on the fraction of products containing colour within specific food categories using data provided by the Mintel International Group LTD. The results of the analysis indicate that a) the use levels reported by industry are consistent with the concentrations measured analytically by the US Food and Drug Administration; b) exposure to food colour additives in the US by average and high intake consumers is well below the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) of each colour additive as published by the Joint WHO/FAO Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and allows wide margins of safety; and c) for children to reach the intake assumed in the Southampton study, they would have to consume at least 30 times more foods and beverages daily than the high consumers (95%) and the foods would have to contain four different colours at maximum use levels, a clearly unrealistic scenario. It is concluded that food colour use as currently practiced in the US is safe and does not result in excessive exposure to the population, even at conservative ranges of food consumption and levels of use.

  2. Digieye Application In Cotton Colour Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matusiak Małgorzata

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Colour is one of the most important properties of cotton raw materials. It helps in determining and classifying the quality of fibres according to the Universal Cotton Standards. Organoleptic and instrumental techniques are applied to assess the color of cotton. Worldwide, the colour parameters of cotton are measured by the High Volume Instrument (HVI, which provides information on reflectance (Rd and yellowness (+b that is specific for cotton, but are not the typical and globally recognized colour characteristics. Usually, worldwide, the colour of textile products and other goods is assessed utilizing the spectrophotometer, which provides the colour data that is widely recognized and accepted by the CIE L*a*b* colour space. This paper discusses utilizing the DigiEye system to measure the colour parameters of cotton samples and compares the results with the colour parameters from the HVI.

  3. Highest weight categories and recollements

    OpenAIRE

    Krause, Henning

    2015-01-01

    We provide several equivalent descriptions of a highest weight category using recollements of abelian categories. Also, we explain the connection between sequences of standard and exceptional objects.

  4. Colour reconnection at LEP2

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P

    2002-01-01

    The preliminary results on the search of colour reconnection effects (CR) from the four experiments at LEP, ALEPH, DELPHI, L3 and OPAL, are reviewed. Extreme models are excluded by studies of standard variables, and on going studies of a method first suggested by L3, the particle flow method (D. Duchesneau, (2001)), are yet inconclusive. (22 refs).

  5. Skills Underlying Coloured Progressive Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, J. R.; Das, J. P.

    1978-01-01

    Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices and a battery of ability tests were administered to a sample of 104 male fourth graders for purposes of investigating the relationships between 2 previously identified subscales of the Raven and the ability tests. Results indicated use of a spatial strategy and to a lesser extent, use of reasoning, indicating…

  6. Phenomenology of high colour fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lust, D.; Streng, K.H.; Papantonopoulos, E.; Zoupanos, G.

    1986-04-28

    We present the phenomenological consequences of a dynamical scenario for electroweak symmetry breaking and generation of fermion masses, involving the presence of fermions which transform under high colour representations. Particular emphasis is given to the predictions for rare processes and to the possible signals in present and future machines. (orig.).

  7. Chromomagnetic catalysis of colour superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Zhukovskij, V C; Klimenko, K G; Ehbert, D

    2001-01-01

    The effect of the chromomagnetic field on the phase structure of the Namby - Jona-Lasinio expanded model with two quarks aromas is studied. It is shown that certain types of the chromomagnetic fields induce spontaneous violation of the colour, chiral or both symmetries simultaneously, depending on the ratio between the quarks interaction constants in the q-barq- and qq-channels

  8. Search for Colour Singlet and Colour Reconnection Effects in Hadronic Z Decays at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Achard, P; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Bajo, A; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Baldew, S V; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, Sw; Barczyk, A; Barillère, R; Bartalini, P; Basile, M; Batalova, N; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Bellucci, L; Berbeco, R; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Biasini, M; Biglietti, M; Biland, A; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böhm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bottai, S; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brochu, F; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A M; Casaus, J; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada, M; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chang, Y H; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chiefari, G; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Clare, I; Clare, R; Coignet, G; Colino, N; Costantini, S; de la Cruz, B; Cucciarelli, S; van Dalen, J A; De Asmundis, R; Déglon, P L; Debreczeni, J; Degré, A; Dehmelt, K; Deiters, K; Della Volpe, D; Delmeire, E; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; De Salvo, A; Diemoz, M; Dierckxsens, M; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, M; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Duchesneau, D; Duda, M; Echenard, B; Eline, A; El-Hage, A; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Extermann, P; Falagán, M A; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, M; Ferguson, T; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, F; Fisher, P H; Fisher, W; Fisk, I; Forconi, G; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gataullin, M; Gentile, S; Giagu, S; Gong, Z F; Grenier, G; Grimm, O; Grünewald, M W; Guida, M; van Gulik, R; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Haas, D; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Hirschfelder, J; Hofer, H; Hohlmann, M; Holzner, G; Hou, S R; Hu, Y; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Käfer, D; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, J K; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Kopal, M; Koutsenko, V F; Kräber, M H; Krämer, R W; Krüger, A; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Laktineh, I; Landi, G; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Levtchenko, M; Levchenko, P M; Li, C; Likhoded, S; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lü, Y S; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mans, J; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Mazumdar, K; McNeil, R R; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Mihul, A; Milcent, H; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Mohanty, G B; Muanza, G S; Muijs, A J M; Musicar, B; Musy, M; Nagy, S; Natale, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Nisati, A; Novák, T; Nowak, H; Ofierzynski, R A; Organtini, G; Pal, I; Palomares, C; Paolucci, P; Paramatti, R; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Pedace, M; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Piccolo, D; Pierella, F; Pioppi, M; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Pothier, J; Prokofev, D; Prokofiev, D O; Quartieri, J; Rahal-Callot, G; Rahaman, M A; Raics, P; Raja, N; Ramelli, R; Rancoita, P G; Ranieri, R; Raspereza, A V; Razis, P A; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Riemann, S; Riles, K; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosca, A; Rosier-Lees, S; Roth, S; Rosenbleck, C; Rubio, J A; Ruggiero, G; Rykaczewski, H; Sakharov, A; Saremi, S; Sarkar, S; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Sciacca, C; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A V; Son, D; Souga, C; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Sushkov, S; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Szillási, Z; Tang, X W; Tarjan, P; Tauscher, Ludwig; Taylor, L; Tellili, B; Teyssier, D; Timmermans, C; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tung, K L; Ulbricht, J; Valente, E; Van de Walle, R T; Vásquez, R; Veszpremi, V; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Vicinanza, D; Viertel, Gert M; Villa, S; Vivargent, M; Vlachos, S; Vodopyanov, I; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Wadhwa, M; Wang, Q; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Weber, M; Wienemann, P; Wilkens, H; Wynhoff, S; Xia, L; Xu, Z Z; Yamamoto, J; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yang, H J; Yang, M; Yeh, S C; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, J; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zhuang, H L; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, B; Zöller, M

    2004-01-01

    A search is performed in symmetric 3-jet hadronic Z decay events for evidence of colour singlet production or colour reconnection effects. Asymmetries in the angular separation of particles are found to be sensitive indicators of such effects. Upper limits on the level of colour singlet production and colour reconnection effects are established for a variety of models.

  9. Retail beer market. Opportunities for beer category

    OpenAIRE

    Caldová, Marie

    2015-01-01

    My bachelors thesis deals with design of better utilization of sales space in traditional retail formats. I focus on the beer category . I describe the basic principles of retailing. I imagine the food retailing division according to the company Pilsner Urquell. I mention all the legal requirements for the labeling of beer products. I mention the beer category share in total sales in the retail market . I describe the main beer producers who are active on the Czech market. The main topic is t...

  10. -Colour even Self-Inverse Compositions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yu-hong Guo

    2010-02-01

    An -colour even self-inverse composition is defined as an -colour self-inverse composition with even parts. In this paper, we get generating functions, explicit formulas and recurrence formulas for -colour even self-inverse compositions. One new binomial identity is also obtained.

  11. Colour Vision Deficiency and Physics Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maule, Louise; Featonby, David

    2016-01-01

    1 in 12 males suffer from some form of colour vision deficiency (CVD) which in the present colour dominated world of education presentation can be a severe disadvantage. Although aware of "colourblindness" most teachers make little or no adjustment for these pupils for whom tasks may be more difficult. This article examines colour vision…

  12. Biological Components of Colour Preference in Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Anna; Bevis, Laura; Ling, Yazhu; Hurlbert, Anya

    2010-01-01

    Adult colour preference has been summarized quantitatively in terms of weights on the two fundamental neural processes that underlie early colour encoding: the S-(L+M) ("blue-yellow") and L-M ("red-green") cone-opponent contrast channels ( Ling, Hurlbert & Robinson, 2006; Hurlbert & Ling, 2007). Here, we investigate whether colour preference in…

  13. Colour in the eyes of insects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavenga, D.G.

    2002-01-01

    Many insect species have darkly coloured eyes, but distinct colours or patterns are frequently featured. A number of exemplary cases of flies and butterflies are discussed to illustrate our present knowledge of the physical basis of eye colours, their functional background, and the implications for

  14. Categories and Commutative Algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Salmon, P

    2011-01-01

    L. Badescu: Sur certaines singularites des varietes algebriques.- D.A. Buchsbaum: Homological and commutative algebra.- S. Greco: Anelli Henseliani.- C. Lair: Morphismes et structures algebriques.- B.A. Mitchell: Introduction to category theory and homological algebra.- R. Rivet: Anneaux de series formelles et anneaux henseliens.- P. Salmon: Applicazioni della K-teoria all'algebra commutativa.- M. Tierney: Axiomatic sheaf theory: some constructions and applications.- C.B. Winters: An elementary lecture on algebraic spaces.

  15. Basic Color Terms in Estonian Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollman, Liivi; Sutrop, Urmas

    2011-01-01

    The article is written in the tradition of Brent Berlin and Paul Kay's theory of basic color terms. According to this theory there is a universal inventory of eleven basic color categories from which the basic color terms of any given language are always drawn. The number of basic color terms varies from 2 to 11 and in a language having a fully…

  16. On the flexibility of phonetic categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Alexander L.; Nusbaum, Howard C.

    2002-05-01

    Research on phonetic category acquisition suggests that over the course of development children shift the relative weight given to various acoustic cues to particular phonetic categories [S. Nittrouer, J. Phon. 20, 1-32 (1992)]. Adults also show flexibility in acquiring second language categories and learning to recognize synthetic speech. In both cases listeners must shift attention among some acoustic cues and change the weighting and mapping of others. Recent research demonstrated that category-level feedback can induce adult listeners to shift attention between conflicting cues to native stop-consonant categories. Subsequent research showed that adult listeners also reorganize the distribution of their attention to acoustic cues in learning to better understand synthetic speech. Moreover, research on learning foreign phonetic contrasts suggests that listeners can learn to direct attention to unfamiliar acoustic cues. These results suggest that phonetic categories are flexible in terms of the nature and quality of the acoustic cues that define them. We argue that this flexibility is a consequence of the basic nature of the general mechanism that mediates speech perception: In order to resolve the problem of context-conditioned variability, listeners must dynamically modify attention to the acoustic signal in a context-dependent manner.

  17. Synaesthetic Colours Can Behave More like Recalled Colours, as Opposed to Physical Colours that Can Be Seen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek H. Arnold

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Grapheme-color synaesthesia is an atypical condition characterized by coloured sensations when reading achromatic text. Different forms have been characterized, but this is somewhat controversial. In associative grapheme-colour synaesthesia, written graphemes can automatically trigger a sensation of colour in the ‘mind's eye’, but hearing the name of a grapheme does not. This allowed us explore the precision with which synaesthetes match triggered synaesthetic colours across separate presentations, versus the precision for recalled experiences cued by spoken graphemes. We recorded CIE coordinates, and found that matches for triggered sensations were equally variable relative to recalled experiences. To ensure this was not due to insensitivity of our apparatus, we next had synaesthetes and age-matched controls either match the colour of a circular patch while they could see it, or from memory after it had disappeared. Both synaesthetes and controls were more variable when matching from memory, and synaesthetes were more precise when matching colour hue, but not brightness. Interestingly, the variance of synaesthetes' recalled matches in this experiment matched that associated with synaesthetic colours in the first experiment. Overall, our data suggests that, for associative grapheme-colour synaesthetes, synaesthetic colours behave more like recalled colours, as opposed to physical colours that can be seen.

  18. How do Category Managers Manage?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Kim Sundtoft; Sigurbjornsson, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research is to explore the managerial role of category managers in purchasing. A network management perspective is adopted. A case based research methodology is applied, and three category managers managing a diverse set of component and service categories in a global production...... of the role of the category manager in purchasing....

  19. Whittaker categories and strongly typical Whittaker modules for Lie superalgebras

    CERN Document Server

    Bagci, Irfan; Wiesner, Emilie

    2012-01-01

    Following analogous constructions for Lie algebras, we define Whittaker modules and Whittaker categories for finite-dimensional simple Lie superalgebras. Results include a decomposition of Whittaker categories for a Lie superalgebra according to the action of an appropriate sub-superalgebra; and, for basic classical Lie superalgebras of type I, a description of the strongly typical simple Whittaker modules.

  20. Assessing the colour quality of LED sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jost-Boissard, S.; Avouac, P.; Fontoynont, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The CIE General Colour Rendering Index is currently the criterion used to describe and measure the colour-rendering properties of light sources. But over the past years, there has been increasing evidence of its limitations particularly its ability to predict the perceived colour quality of light...... sources and especially some LEDs. In this paper, several aspects of perceived colour quality are investigated using a side-by-side paired comparison method, and the following criteria: naturalness of fruits and vegetables, colourfulness of the Macbeth Color Checker chart, visual appreciation...

  1. The colour of architecture. Past and present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Maria Zybaczynski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Colour has accompanied man throughout time since the beginnings, the primitive man used colour to paint drawings in caves, so the relationship between man and colour was, and still is, one of the closest. In architecture, colour swung between the magic, ritualic role and aesthetics, between outside and inside, scoring or reinterpreting in every step new facets and meanings. This article is a brief overview of the main aspects of this evolution, from the prehistoric times to the present with an emphasis on the relationship between the colour and the architectural composition.

  2. A STANDARDIZED LANTERN FOR TESTING COLOUR VISION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, L C

    1939-01-01

    A Lantern for lesting Colour-Vision is arranged to show test colours in pairs as in the Board of Trade Lantern. It is adapted to use electric light, and is standardized by stringent testing. The paper discusses the experiments and considerations which led to the formulation of the allowable tolerances in the transmission and colour co-ordinate specifications of the filters, the colour temperature of the lamps and so on. The results of tests on normal and colour-defective subjects are described.

  3. Characterisation of the n-colour printing process using the spot colour overprint model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Kiran; Green, Phil; Pointer, Michael R

    2014-12-29

    This paper is aimed at reproducing the solid spot colours using the n-colour separation. A simplified numerical method, called as the spot colour overprint (SCOP) model, was used for characterising the n-colour printing process. This model was originally developed for estimating the spot colour overprints. It was extended to be used as a generic forward characterisation model for the n-colour printing process. The inverse printer model based on the look-up table was implemented to obtain the colour separation for n-colour printing process. Finally the real-world spot colours were reproduced using 7-colour separation on lithographic offset printing process. The colours printed with 7 inks were compared against the original spot colours to evaluate the accuracy. The results show good accuracy with the mean CIEDE2000 value between the target colours and the printed colours of 2.06. The proposed method can be used successfully to reproduce the spot colours, which can potentially save significant time and cost in the printing and packaging industry.

  4. Printing colour at the optical diffraction limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Karthik; Duan, Huigao; Hegde, Ravi S; Koh, Samuel C W; Wei, Jennifer N; Yang, Joel K W

    2012-09-01

    The highest possible resolution for printed colour images is determined by the diffraction limit of visible light. To achieve this limit, individual colour elements (or pixels) with a pitch of 250 nm are required, translating into printed images at a resolution of ∼100,000 dots per inch (d.p.i.). However, methods for dispensing multiple colourants or fabricating structural colour through plasmonic structures have insufficient resolution and limited scalability. Here, we present a non-colourant method that achieves bright-field colour prints with resolutions up to the optical diffraction limit. Colour information is encoded in the dimensional parameters of metal nanostructures, so that tuning their plasmon resonance determines the colours of the individual pixels. Our colour-mapping strategy produces images with both sharp colour changes and fine tonal variations, is amenable to large-volume colour printing via nanoimprint lithography, and could be useful in making microimages for security, steganography, nanoscale optical filters and high-density spectrally encoded optical data storage.

  5. LIBERTARISMO & ERROR CATEGORIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos G. Patarroyo G.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se ofrece una defensa del libertarismo frente a dos acusaciones según las cuales éste comete un error categorial. Para ello, se utiliza la filosofía de Gilbert Ryle como herramienta para explicar las razones que fundamentan estas acusaciones y para mostrar por qué, pese a que ciertas versiones del libertarismo que acuden a la causalidad de agentes o al dualismo cartesiano cometen estos errores, un libertarismo que busque en el indeterminismo fisicalista la base de la posibilidad de la libertad humana no necesariamente puede ser acusado de incurrir en ellos.

  6. -Colour Self-Inverse Compositions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Geetika Narang; A K Agarwal

    2006-08-01

    MacMahon’s definition of self-inverse composition is extended to -colour self-inverse composition. This introduces four new sequences which satisfy the same recurrence relation with different initial conditions like the famous Fibonacci and Lucas sequences. For these new sequences explicit formulas, recurrence relations, generating functions and a summation formula are obtained. Two new binomial identities with combinatorial meaning are also given.

  7. Colour Reconnection - Models and Tests

    CERN Document Server

    Christiansen, Jesper R

    2015-01-01

    Recent progress on colour reconnection within the Pythia framework is presented. A new model is introduced, based on the SU(3) structure of QCD and a minimization of the potential string energy. The inclusion of the epsilon structure of SU(3) gives a new baryon production mechanism and makes it possible simultaneously to describe hyperon production at both $e^+e^-$ and pp colliders. Finally, predictions for $e^+e^-$ colliders, both past and potential future ones, are presented.

  8. Category Variability Effect in Category Learning with Auditory Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee-Xieng eYang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The category variability effect refers to that people tend to classify the midpoint item between two categories as the category more variable. This effect is regarded as evidence against the exemplar model, such as GCM (Generalized Context Model and favoring the rule model, such as GRT (i.e., the decision bound model. Although this effect has been found in conceptual category learning, it is not often observed in perceptual category learning. To figure out why the category variability effect is seldom reported in the past studies, we propose two hypotheses. First, due to sequence effect, the midpoint item would be classified as different categories, when following different items. When we combine these inconsistent responses for the midpoint item, no category variability effect occurs. Second, instead of the combination of sequence effect in different categorization conditions, the combination of different categorization strategies conceals the category variability effect. One experiment is conducted with single tones of different frequencies as stimuli. The collected data reveal sequence effect. However, the modeling results with the MAC model and the decision bound model support that the existence of individual differences is the reason for why no category variability effect occurs. Three groups are identified by their categorization strategy. Group 1 is rule user, placing the category boundary close to the low-variability category, hence inducing category variability effect. Group 2 takes the MAC strategy and classifies the midpoint item as different categories, depending on its preceding item. Group 3 classifies the midpoint item as the low-variability category, which is consistent with the prediction of the decision bound model as well as GCM. Nonetheless, our conclusion is that category variability effect can be found in perceptual category learning, but might be concealed by the averaged data.

  9. Monitoring the change in colour of meat: A comparison of traditional and kernel-based orthogonal transformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Asger Nyman; Carstensen, Jens Michael; Møller, Flemming;

    2012-01-01

    Currently, no objective method exists for estimating the rate of change in the colour of meat. Consequently, the purpose of this work is to develop a procedure capable of monitoring the change in colour of meat over time, environment and ingredients. This provides a useful tool to determine which...... storage environments and ingredients a manufacturer should add to meat to reduce the rate of change in colour. The procedure consists of taking multi-spectral images of a piece of meat as a function of time, clustering the pixels of these images into categories, including several types of meat...

  10. Colours sometimes count: awareness and bidirectionality in grapheme-colour synaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Addie; Jepma, Marieke; de Jong, Ritske

    2007-10-01

    Three experiments were conducted with 10 grapheme-colour synaesthetes and 10 matched controls to investigate (a) whether awareness of the inducer grapheme is necessary for synaesthetic colour induction and (b) whether grapheme-colour synaesthesia may be bidirectional in the sense that not only do graphemes induce colours, but that colours influence the processing of graphemes. Using attentional blink and Stroop paradigms with digit targets, we found that some synaesthetes did report "seeing" synaesthetic colours even when they were not able to report the inducing digit. Moreover, congruency effects (effects of matching the colour of digit presentation with the synaesthetic colour associated with that digit) suggested that grapheme-colour synaesthesia can be bidirectional, at least for some synaesthetes.

  11. From recollement of triangulated categories to recollement of abelian categories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In this paper,we prove that if a triangulated category D admits a recollement relative to triangulated categories D’ and D″,then the abelian category D/T admits a recollement relative to abelian categories D’/i(T) and D″/j(T) where T is a cluster tilting subcategory of D and satisfies i i (T)  T,j j (T) T.

  12. Measurement and prediction of pork colour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oeckel, M J; Warnants, N; Boucqué, C V

    1999-08-01

    The extent to which instrumental colour determinations by FOPu (light scattering), Göfo (reflectance) and Labscan II (CIE L*, CIE a* and CIE b*, hue and chroma) are related to the Japanese colour grades was studied. Additionally, four on-line methods: pH1, FOP1, PQM1 (conductivity) and DDLT (Double Density Light Transmission, analogous to Capteur Gras/Maigre), were evaluated for their ability to predict subjectively and objectively colour. One hundred and twenty samples of m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum, from animals of different genotypes, were analysed. Of the instrumental colour determinations, CIE L* (r=-0.82), FOPu (r=-0.70) and Göfo (r=0.70) were best correlated with the Japanese colour scores. The Japanese colour grades could be predicted by the on-line instruments, pH1, FOP1, PQM1 and DDLT, with determination coefficients between 15 and 28%. Ultimate meat colour, determined by Japanese colour standards, FOPu, Göfo and CIE L*, was better predicted by DDLT than by the classic on-line instruments: FOP1, pH1 and PQM1, although the standard error of the estimate was similar for all instruments. This means that DDLT, although originally designed for estimating lean meat percentage, can additionally give information about meat quality, in particular colour. However, it must be stressed that the colour estimate by DDLT refers to a population of animals, rather than to individual pigs, because of the number of erroneously assigned samples.

  13. Colorimetry and prime colours--a theorem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornaes, Hans Petter; Wold, Jan Henrik; Farup, Ivar

    2005-08-01

    Human colour vision is the result of a complex process involving topics ranging from physics of light to perception. Whereas the diversity of light entering the eye in principle span an infinite-dimensional vector space in terms of the spectral power distributions, the space of human colour perceptions is three dimensional. One important consequence of this is that a variety of colours can be visually matched by a mixture of only three adequately chosen reference lights. It has been observed that there exists one particular set of monochromatic reference lights that, according to a certain definition, is optimal for producing colour matches. These reference lights are commonly denoted prime colours. In the present paper, we intend to rigorously show that the existence of prime colours is not particular to the human visual system as sometimes stated, but rather an algebraic consequence of the manner in which a kind of colorimetric functions called colour-matching functions are defined and transformed. The solution is based on maximisation of a determinant determining the gamut size of the colour space spanned by the prime colours. Cramer's rule for solving a set of linear equations is an essential part of the proof. By means of examples, it is shown that mathematically the optimal set of reference lights is not unique in general, and that the existence of a maximum determinant is not a necessary condition for the existence of prime colours.

  14. True and false memory for colour names versus actual colours: support for the visual distinctiveness heuristic in memory for colour information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslick, Andrea N; Kostic, Bogdan; Cleary, Anne M

    2010-06-01

    In a colour variation of the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) false memory paradigm, participants studied lists of words critically related to a nonstudied colour name (e.g., "blood, cherry, scarlet, rouge ... "); they later showed false memory for the critical colour name (e.g., "red"). Two additional experiments suggest that participants generate colour imagery in response to such colour-related DRM lists. First, participants claim to experience colour imagery more often following colour-related than standard non-colour-related DRM lists; they also rate their colour imagery as more vivid following colour-related lists. Second, participants exhibit facilitative priming for critical colours in a dot selection task that follows words in the colour-related DRM list, suggesting that colour-related DRM lists prime participants for the actual critical colours themselves. Despite these findings, false memory for critical colour names does not extend to the actual colours themselves (font colours). Rather than leading to source confusion about which colours were self-generated and which were studied, presenting the study lists in varied font colours actually worked to reduce false memory overall. Results are interpreted within the framework of the visual distinctiveness hypothesis.

  15. Fruit over sunbed: carotenoid skin colouration is found more attractive than melanin colouration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefevre, Carmen E; Perrett, David I

    2015-01-01

    Skin colouration appears to play a pivotal part in facial attractiveness. Skin yellowness contributes to an attractive appearance and is influenced both by dietary carotenoids and by melanin. While both increased carotenoid colouration and increased melanin colouration enhance apparent health in Caucasian faces by increasing skin yellowness, it remains unclear, firstly, whether both pigments contribute to attractiveness judgements, secondly, whether one pigment is clearly preferred over the other, and thirdly, whether these effects depend on the sex of the face. Here, in three studies, we examine these questions using controlled facial stimuli transformed to be either high or low in (a) carotenoid colouration, or (b) melanin colouration. We show, firstly, that both increased carotenoid colouration and increased melanin colouration are found attractive compared to lower levels of these pigments. Secondly, we show that carotenoid colouration is consistently preferred over melanin colouration when levels of colouration are matched. In addition, we find an effect of the sex of stimuli with stronger preferences for carotenoids over melanin in female compared to male faces, irrespective of the sex of the observer. These results are interpreted as reflecting preferences for sex-typical skin colouration: men have darker skin than women and high melanization in male faces may further enhance this masculine trait, thus carotenoid colouration is not less desirable, but melanin colouration is relatively more desirable in males compared to females. Taken together, our findings provide further support for a carotenoid-linked health-signalling system that is highly important in mate choice.

  16. Localization on Certain Grothendieck Categories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F.CASTANO-IGLESIAS; N.CHIFAN; C.NASTASESCU

    2009-01-01

    Using categorical techniques we obtain some results on localization and colocalization theory in Grothendieck categories with a set of small projective generators. In particular,we give a sufficient condition for such category to be semiartinian. For semiartinian Grothendieck categories where every simple object has a projective cover,we obtain that every localizing subcategory is a TTF-class. In addition,some applications to semiperfect categories are obtained.

  17. Colour-grapheme synaesthesia affects binocular vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris L.E. Paffen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In colour-grapheme synaesthesia, non-coloured graphemes are perceived as being inherently coloured. In recent years, it has become evident that synaesthesia-inducing graphemes can affect visual processing in a manner comparable to real, physical colours. Here, we exploit the phenomenon of binocular rivalry in which incompatible images presented dichoptically compete for conscious expression. Importantly, the competition only arises if the two images are sufficiently different; if the difference between the images is small, the images will fuse into a single mixed percept. We show that achromatic graphemes that induce synaesthetic colour percepts evoke binocular rivalry, while without the synaesthetic percept, they do not. That is, compared to achromatically perceived graphemes, synaesthesia-inducing graphemes increase the predominance of binocular rivalry over binocular fusion. This finding shows that the synaesthetic colour experience can provide the conditions for evoking binocular rivalry, much like stimulus features that induce rivalry in normal vision.

  18. Colour-independent partition functions in coloured vertex models

    CERN Document Server

    Foda, O

    2013-01-01

    We study lattice configurations related to S_n, the scalar product of an off-shell state and an on-shell state in rational A_n integrable vertex models, n = {1, 2}. The lattice lines are colourless and oriented. The state variables are n conserved colours that flow along the line orientations, but do not necessarily cover every bond in the lattice. Choosing boundary conditions such that the positions where the colours flow into the lattice are fixed, and where they flow out are summed over, we show that the partition functions of these configurations, with these boundary conditions, are n-independent. Our results extend to trigonometric A_n models, and to all n. This n-independence explains, in vertex-model terms, results from recent studies of S_2 [1, 2]. Namely, 1. S_2 which depends on two sets of Bethe roots, b_1 and b_2, and cannot (as far as we know) be expressed in single determinant form, degenerates in the limit b_1 -> infinity, and/or b_2 -> infinity, into a product of determinants, 2. Each of the la...

  19. Colour-independent partition functions in coloured vertex models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foda, O., E-mail: omar.foda@unimelb.edu.au [Dept. of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010 (Australia); Wheeler, M., E-mail: mwheeler@lpthe.jussieu.fr [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique et Hautes Energies, CNRS UMR 7589 (France); Université Pierre et Marie Curie – Paris 6, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris cedex 05 (France)

    2013-06-11

    We study lattice configurations related to S{sub n}, the scalar product of an off-shell state and an on-shell state in rational A{sub n} integrable vertex models, n∈{1,2}. The lattice lines are colourless and oriented. The state variables are n conserved colours that flow along the line orientations, but do not necessarily cover every bond in the lattice. Choosing boundary conditions such that the positions where the colours flow into the lattice are fixed, and where they flow out are summed over, we show that the partition functions of these configurations, with these boundary conditions, are n-independent. Our results extend to trigonometric A{sub n} models, and to all n. This n-independence explains, in vertex-model terms, results from recent studies of S{sub 2} (Caetano and Vieira, 2012, [1], Wheeler, (arXiv:1204.2089), [2]). Namely, 1.S{sub 2}, which depends on two sets of Bethe roots, {b_1} and {b_2}, and cannot (as far as we know) be expressed in single determinant form, degenerates in the limit {b_1}→∞, and/or {b_2}→∞, into a product of determinants, 2. Each of the latter determinants is an A{sub 1} vertex-model partition function.

  20. Colour in visualisation for computational fluid dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Colour is used in computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations in two key ways. First it is used to visualise the geometry and allow the engineers to be confident that the model constructed is a good representation of the engineering situation. Once an analysis has been completed, colour is used in post-processing the data from the simulations to illustrate the complex fluid mechanic phenomena under investigation. This paper describes these two uses of colour and provides some examples to il...

  1. Colour Vision Impairment in Young Alcohol Consumers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alódia Brasil

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption among young adults is widely accepted in modern society and may be the starting point for abusive use of alcohol at later stages of life. Chronic alcohol exposure can lead to visual function impairment. In the present study, we investigated the spatial luminance contrast sensitivity, colour arrangement ability, and colour discrimination thresholds on young adults that weekly consume alcoholic beverages without clinical concerns. Twenty-four young adults were evaluated by an ophthalmologist and performed three psychophysical tests to evaluate their vision functions. We estimated the spatial luminance contrast sensitivity function at 11 spatial frequencies ranging from 0.1 to 30 cycles/degree. No difference in contrast sensitivity was observed comparing alcohol consumers and control subjects. For the evaluation of colour vision, we used the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test (FM 100 test to test subject's ability to perform a colour arrangement task and the Mollon-Reffin test (MR test to measure subject's colour discrimination thresholds. Alcohol consumers made more mistakes than controls in the FM100 test, and their mistakes were diffusely distributed in the FM colour space without any colour axis preference. Alcohol consumers also performed worse than controls in the MR test and had higher colour discrimination thresholds compared to controls around three different reference points of a perceptually homogeneous colour space, the CIE 1976 chromaticity diagram. There was no colour axis preference in the threshold elevation observed among alcoholic subjects. Young adult weekly alcohol consumers showed subclinical colour vision losses with preservation of spatial luminance contrast sensitivity. Adolescence and young adult age are periods of important neurological development and alcohol exposure during this period of life might be responsible for deficits in visual functions, especially colour vision that is very sensitive to

  2. Identification of Colour Reconnection using Factorial Correlator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Jing-Hua; LIU Lian-Shou

    2000-01-01

    A new signal is proposed for the colour reconnection in the hadronic decay of W+ W- in e+e- collisions. Using Pythia Monte Carlo it is shown that factorial correlators for W+ and W- without colour reconnection are almost identical to unity, while those for the cases with colour reconnection fall down approximately linearly in the log log plot. This signal, being based on the factorial correlator, is more sensitive than the ones using only averaged quantities.

  3. Colour vision deficiency and physics teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maule, Louise; Featonby, David

    2016-05-01

    1 in 12 males suffer from some form of colour vision deficiency (CVD) which in the present colour dominated world of education presentation can be a severe disadvantage. Although aware of ‘colourblindness’ most teachers make little or no adjustment for these pupils for whom tasks may be more difficult. This article examines colour vision deficiency and looks at ways in which we can help the many students who have this problem.

  4. Colour Metallography of Cast Iron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Jiyang; Liu Jincheng

    2011-01-01

    White Cast Iron (Ⅰ) White cast iron or ‘white iron' refers to the type of cast iron in which all of the carbon exists as carbide;there is no graphite in the as-cast structure and the fractured surface shows a white colour.White cast iron can be divided in three classes:· Normal white cast iron — this iron contains only C,Si,Mn,P and S,with no other alloying elements.· Low-alloy white cast iron — the total mass fraction of alloying elements is less than 5%.

  5. Hadronisation Models and Colour Reconnection

    CERN Document Server

    Bierlich, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced production of hadrons with $s$-quark content has been observed in $pp$ collisions at LHC, and earlier in collisions of heavy nuclei. We review the string hadronisation formalism and correc- tions from rope hadronisation and colour reconnection, corrections that takes place in such dense environments, and are able to correctly describe data. Since such corrections are very sensitive to the modelling of transverse proton structure, we investigate two such models, and compare to final states. Finally we describe how such corrections can also give a possible explanation to collective phenomena observed in small systems.

  6. Colour assortative pairing in a colour polymorphic lizard is independent of population morph diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez i de Lanuza, Guillem; Font, Enrique; Carretero, Miguel Ángel

    2016-10-01

    Previous work with a colour polymorphic population of Podarcis muralis (Lacertidae) revealed that lizards pair by ventral colour, favouring the same colour (i.e. homomorphic) pairs. Such assortative pairing, which probably results in colour assortative mating, can have consequences for the genetic structure of the population and potentially promote speciation. The population previously studied, located in the Pyrenees, encompasses white, yellow and orange animals, as well as intermediate white-orange and yellow-orange morphs. However, other Pyrenean populations of P. muralis have less ventral colour morphs. Our aim in this study is to test the generality of the assortative colour pairing system, extending our previous analyses to populations with different morph compositions and frequencies. The results show that the assortative pattern of pairing is similar in all the populations analysed and, hence, independent of morph composition and not restricted to pentamorphic populations. This suggests that assortative pairing by colour is a general phenomenon for colour polymorphic populations of P. muralis.

  7. Classifying Natural Waters with the Forel-Ule Colour Index System: Results, Applications, Correlations and Crowdsourcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shungudzemwoyo P. Garaba

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Societal awareness of changes in the environment and climate has grown rapidly, and there is a need to engage citizens in gathering relevant scientific information to monitor environmental changes due to recognition that citizens are a potential source of critical information. The apparent colour of natural waters is one aspect of our aquatic environment that is easy to detect and an essential complementary optical water quality indicator. Here we present the results and explore the utility of the Forel-Ule colour index (FUI scale as a proxy for different properties of natural waters. A FUI scale is used to distinguish the apparent colours of different natural surface water masses. Correlation analysis was completed in an effort to determine the constituents of natural waters related to FUI. Strong correlations with turbidity, Secchi-disk depth, and coloured dissolved organic material suggest the FUI is a good indicator of changes related to other constituents of water. The increase in the number of tools capable of determining the FUI colours, (i ocean colour remote sensing products; (ii a handheld scale; and (iii a mobile device app, make it a versatile relative measure of water quality. It has the potential to provide higher spatial and temporal resolution of data for a modernized classification of optical water quality. This FUI colour system has been favoured by several scientists in the last century because it is affordable and easy to use and provides indicative information about the colour of water and the water constituents producing that colour. It is therefore within the scope of a growing interest in the application and usefulness of basic measurement methodologies with the potential to provide timely benchmark information about the environment to the public, scientists and policymakers.

  8. Shell Colour Polymorphism in Bulla ampulla

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cedhagen, Tomas

    1999-01-01

    Colour patterns of Bulla ampulla shells collected from Africa eastward to Pacific Islands were studied. 1\\vo common colour morphs were found. The typical morph is commonest. It is closely and finely mottled or all over with pinkish-gray on a creamy or flesh~tinted ground, with darker clouds......, irregular, V-shaped, or as longitudinal bands. The colouration of the other common morph is more uniform. It is lacking the darker clouds or bands and the colour is more greyish. The entire shell surface is densely mottled all over with small brown spots on a grey or beige background. Both morphs seem...

  9. Clique colouring of binomial random graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Mcdiarmid, Colin; Mitsche, Dieter; Pralat, Pawel

    2016-01-01

    A clique colouring of a graph is a colouring of the vertices so that no maximal clique is monochromatic (ignoring isolated vertices). The smallest number of colours in such a colouring is the clique chromatic number. In this paper, we study the asymptotic behaviour of the clique chromatic number of the random graph G(n,p) for a wide range of edge-probabilities p=p(n). We see that the typical clique chromatic number, as a function of the average degree, forms an intriguing step function.

  10. Chaos in Binary Category Computation

    CERN Document Server

    Gonçalves, Carlos Pedro

    2010-01-01

    Category computation theory deals with a web-based systemic processing that underlies the morphic webs, which constitute the basis of categorial logical calculus. It is proven that, for these structures, algorithmically incompressible binary patterns can be morphically compressed, with respect to the local connectivities, in a binary morphic program. From the local connectivites, there emerges a global morphic connection that can be characterized by a low length binary string, leading to the identification of chaotic categorial dynamics, underlying the algorithmically random pattern. The work focuses on infinite binary chains of C2, which is a category that implements an X-OR-based categorial logical calculus.

  11. Basic electrotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Ashen, R A

    2013-01-01

    BASIC Electrotechnology discusses the applications of Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC) in engineering, particularly in solving electrotechnology-related problems. The book is comprised of six chapters that cover several topics relevant to BASIC and electrotechnology. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to BASIC, and Chapter 2 talks about the use of complex numbers in a.c. circuit analysis. Chapter 3 covers linear circuit analysis with d.c. and sinusoidal a.c. supplies. The book also discusses the elementary magnetic circuit theory. The theory and performance of two windi

  12. Colours sometimes count : Awareness and bidirectionality in grapheme-colour synaesthesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, Addie; Jepma, Marieke; de Jong, Ritske

    2007-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted with 10 grapheme-colour synaesthetes and 10 matched controls to investigate (a) whether awareness of the inducer grapheme is necessary for synaesthetic colour induction and (b) whether grapheme-colour synaesthesia may be bidirectional in the sense that not only do gr

  13. An example of applied colour vision research: the conspicuity of airplane colour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, M.P.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the application of the combined knowledge on colorimetry, colour imaging (visualization) and colour perception in an aviation related research project. It involves the optimisation of the conspicuity of the colour scheme of an airplane, with the purpose of minimizing the changes

  14. What are we looking at when we say magenta? Quantitative measurements of RGB and CMYK colours with a homemade spectrophotometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosi, Tommaso; Malgieri, Massimiliano; Onorato, Pasquale; Oss, Stefano

    2016-11-01

    We address some issues in colour theory, which are of relevance from an educational perspective. Spectra of emitted RGB and of transmitted CMYK colours are quantitatively processed and analysed with quite inexpensive homemade instruments, making use of smartphones as affordable digital cameras. LCD monitors and paper sheets with pigments coming from a laser printer are used to point out the basic differences between additive and subtractive colour formation. As an especially relevant aspect, we point out how it is possible to construct a simple model to explain the subtractive mixing process in terms of convolution of primary colour filters. The analysis presented in this work is particularly suited for enhancing the need for a proper understanding of the physiology of human eye-brain action in light acquisition and perception of colours.

  15. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Basics will introduce you to some of this science, such as: How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic structure of the brain How different parts of the brain communicate and work with each other How changes in the brain ...

  16. Monitoring the North Atlantic using ocean colour data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Yaco, C.; Caverhill, C.; Maass, H.; Porter, C.; White, GN, III

    2016-04-01

    The Remote Sensing Unit (RSU) at the Bedford Institute of Oceanography (BIO) has been monitoring the North Atlantic using ocean colour products for decades. Optical sensors used include CZCS, POLDER, SeaWiFS, MODIS/Aqua and MERIS. The monitoring area is defined by the Atlantic Zone Monitoring Program (AZMP) but certain products extend into Arctic waters, and all-Canadian waters which include the Pacific coast. RSU provides Level 3 images for various products in several formats and a range of temporal and spatial resolutions. Basic statistics for pre-defined areas of interest are compiled for each product. Climatologies and anomaly maps are also routinely produced, and custom products are delivered by request. RSU is involved in the generation of Level 4 products, such as characterizing the phenology of spring and fall phytoplankton blooms, computing primary production, using ocean colour to aid in EBSA (Ecologically and Biologically Significant Area) definition and developing habitat suitability maps. Upcoming operational products include maps of diatom distribution, biogeochemical province boundaries, and products from sensors such as VIIRS (Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite), OLCI (Ocean Land Colour Instrument), and PACE (Pre-Aerosol, Clouds and ocean Ecosystem) hyperspectral microsatellite mission.

  17. Instrumental colour classification of veal carcasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsegge, B.; Engel, B.; Buist, W.; Merkus, G.S.M.; Klont, R.E.

    2001-01-01

    Three experiments, involving over 56 000 veal carcasses, were carried out to develop a method for instrumental colour classification of veal carcasses at 45 min post mortem with the Minolta CR300. The method should produce results similar to those of the 10-point colour-system, which is currently in

  18. Colour measurement and white blood cell recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Gelsema, E S

    1972-01-01

    As a part of a collaboration with NEMCH aimed at the automation of the differential white blood cell count, studies have been made of the different possibilities for using colour to help in the recognition process. Results are presented comparing data obtained with a microspectrophotometer and with a simulated three-colour scanner.

  19. Quantum theory of colour discrimination of dichromats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, M.A.; Walraven, P.L.

    1962-01-01

    The hypothesis of de Vries and Rose has been applied to colour discrimination of dichromates. The hypothesis states that a brightness difference ΔB is just beyond threshold, when ΔB just exceeds the statistical fluctuations in background brightness B, which are proportional to B 1 2. The colour diff

  20. Spoilage of light (PSE-like) and dark turkey meat under aerobic or modified atmosphere package: microbial indicators and their relationship with total volatile basic nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraqueza, M J; Ferreira, M C; Barreto, A S

    2008-01-01

    1. The aim of this work was to evaluate the shelf life of turkey meat from different colour categories (Pale, Soft and Exudative (PSE)-like), intermediate and dark), packaged under aerobic or modified atmosphere (MAP) conditions; also to establish a relationship between microbial quality and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), evaluating its capacity for shelf life determination. 2. Breasts were selected according to luminance (L*) and pH(24): L >/= 51 and pH 5.8 for dark colour. Sliced meat was packaged under aerobic or MAP conditions with 50% N(2) and 50% CO(2), then stored in the dark at 0 +/- 1 degrees C for periods of 12 or 25 d. Meat under aerobic conditions was evaluated for microbiological characteristics and TVB-N on d 0, 5 and 12. This evaluation was extended to include d 19 and 25 when samples were under MAP conditions. 3. The dark meat group after 12 d of storage in aerobiosis presented significantly higher plate counts of aerobic mesophilic, psychrotrophic micro-organisms and higher TVB-N than other meat colour categories. The shelf life of turkey meat under MAP was one week longer for intermediate and light colour meat (20 d) than for dark meat. TVB-N values of 20 to 30 mg NH(3)/100 g turkey meat correspond to advanced spoilage stages. We proposed 14 mg NH(3)/100 g as the limit of freshness acceptability for turkey meat. 4. TVB-N was an indicator of turkey meat microbial spoilage but was not a suitable early predictor for microbial spoilage and in particular for turkey meat stored under MAP conditions because counts of micro-organisms were moderately correlated (Pseudomonas spp. and Enterobacteriaceae) with this index, as they were inhibited by MAP gas mixture and storage temperature used in the present study.

  1. Worldwide patterns of bird colouration on islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doutrelant, Claire; Paquet, Matthieu; Renoult, Julien P; Grégoire, Arnaud; Crochet, Pierre-André; Covas, Rita

    2016-05-01

    Island environments share distinctive characteristics that offer unique opportunities to investigate parallel evolution. Previous research has produced evidence of an island syndrome for morphological traits, life-history strategies and ecological niches, but little is known about the response to insularity of other important traits such as animal signals. Here, we tested whether birds' plumage colouration is part of the island syndrome. We analysed with spectrophotometry the colouration of 116 species endemic to islands and their 116 closest mainland relatives. We found a pattern of reduced brightness and colour intensity for both sexes on islands. In addition, we found a decrease in the number of colour patches on islands that, in males, was associated with a decrease in the number of same-family sympatric species. These results demonstrate a worldwide pattern of parallel colour changes on islands and suggest that a relaxation of selection on species recognition may be one of the mechanisms involved.

  2. Colour-grapheme synesthesia affects binocular vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paffen, Chris L E; van der Smagt, Maarten J; Nijboer, Tanja C W

    2011-01-01

    In colour-grapheme synesthesia, non-coloured graphemes are perceived as being inherently coloured. In recent years, it is debated whether visual processing of synesthesia-inducing achromatic graphemes is similar to that of chromatic graphemes. Here, we exploit the phenomenon of binocular rivalry in which incompatible images presented dichoptically compete for conscious expression. Importantly, the competition only arises if the two images are sufficiently different; if the difference between the images is small, the images will fuse into a single mixed percept. We show that achromatic digits that induce synesthetic colour percepts increase the incidence of binocular rivalry compared to achromatic non-digits that do not evoke such percepts. That is, compared to achromatically perceived non-digits, synesthesia-inducing digits increase the predominance of binocular rivalry over binocular fusion. This finding shows that the synesthetic colour experience can provide the conditions for promoting binocular rivalry, much like stimulus features that induce rivalry in normal vision.

  3. Improved colour matching technique for fused nighttime imagery with daytime colours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogervorst, Maarten A.; Toet, Alexander

    2016-10-01

    Previously, we presented a method for applying daytime colours to fused nighttime (e.g., intensified and LWIR) imagery (Toet and Hogervorst, Opt.Eng. 51(1), 2012). Our colour mapping not only imparts a natural daylight appearance to multiband nighttime images but also enhances the contrast and visibility of otherwise obscured details. As a result, this colourizing method leads to increased ease of interpretation, better discrimination and identification of materials, faster reaction times and ultimately improved situational awareness (Toet e.a., Opt.Eng.53(4), 2014). A crucial step in this colouring process is the choice of a suitable colour mapping scheme. When daytime colour images and multiband sensor images of the same scene are available the colour mapping can be derived from matching image samples (i.e., by relating colour values to sensor signal intensities). When no exact matching reference images are available the colour transformation can be derived from the first-order statistical properties of the reference image and the multiband sensor image (Toet, Info. Fus. 4(3), 2003). In the current study we investigated new colour fusion schemes that combine the advantages of the both methods, using the correspondence between multiband sensor values and daytime colours (1st method) in a smooth transformation (2nd method). We designed and evaluated three new fusion schemes that focus on: i) a closer match with the daytime luminances, ii) improved saliency of hot targets and iii) improved discriminability of materials

  4. Basic hydraulics

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, P D

    1982-01-01

    BASIC Hydraulics aims to help students both to become proficient in the BASIC programming language by actually using the language in an important field of engineering and to use computing as a means of mastering the subject of hydraulics. The book begins with a summary of the technique of computing in BASIC together with comments and listing of the main commands and statements. Subsequent chapters introduce the fundamental concepts and appropriate governing equations. Topics covered include principles of fluid mechanics; flow in pipes, pipe networks and open channels; hydraulic machinery;

  5. DG categories and exceptional collections

    CERN Document Server

    Bodzenta-Skibińska, Agnieszka

    2012-01-01

    Bondal and Kapranov describe how to assign to a full exceptional collection on a variety X a DG category C such that the bounded derived category of coherent sheaves on X is equivalent to the bounded derived category of C. In this paper we show that the category C has finite dimensional spaces of morphisms. We describe how it behaves under mutations and present an algorithm allowing to calculate it for full exceptional collections with vanishing Ext^k groups for k > 1. Finally, we use it to describe an example of a non-commutative deformation of certain rational surfaces.

  6. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit of ... but sometimes give rise to disabilities or diseases. neural circuit —A network of neurons and their interconnections. ...

  7. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a ... blues" from time to time. In contrast, major depression is a serious disorder that lasts for weeks. ...

  8. Schizophrenia Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I know with schizophrenia? For More Information Share Schizophrenia Basics Download PDF Download ePub Order a free hardcopy What is schizophrenia? Schizophrenia is a serious mental disorder that affects ...

  9. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  10. Brain Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  11. Fluoridation Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Page Basic Information About Fluoride Benefits: Strong Teeth History of Fluoride in Water Cost: Saves Money, Saves Teeth Fluoride in the Water Today The mineral fluoride occurs naturally on earth and is released from rocks into the soil, ...

  12. Basic Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittek, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    A discussion of the basic measures of corporate financial strength, and the sources of the information is reported. Considered are: balance sheet, income statement, funds and cash flow, and financial ratios.

  13. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... science, such as: How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic ... that with brain development in people mental disorders. Genes and environmental cues both help to direct this ...

  14. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot effectively coordinate the billions ... the basic working unit of the brain and nervous system. These cells are highly specialized for the function ...

  15. Introduction to Categories and Categorical Logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramsky, S.; Tzevelekos, N.

    The aim of these notes is to provide a succinct, accessible introduction to some of the basic ideas of category theory and categorical logic. The notes are based on a lecture course given at Oxford over the past few years. They contain numerous exercises, and hopefully will prove useful for self-study by those seeking a first introduction to the subject, with fairly minimal prerequisites. The coverage is by no means comprehensive, but should provide a good basis for further study; a guide to further reading is included.

  16. Near-infrared extinction with discretised stellar colours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvela, M.; Montillaud, J.

    2016-01-01

    Context. Near-infrared (NIR) extinction remains one of the most reliable methods of measuring the column density of dense interstellar clouds. Extinction can be estimated using the reddening of the light of background stars. Several methods exist (e.g., NICE, NICER, NICEST, GNICER) to combine observations of several NIR bands into extinction maps. Aims: We present a new method of estimating extinction based on NIR multiband observations and examine its performance. Methods: Our basic method uses a discretised version of the distribution of intrinsic stellar colours directly. The extinction of individual stars and the average over a resolution element are estimated with Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods. Several variations of the basic method are tested, and the results are compared to NICER calculations. Results: In idealised settings or when photometric errors are large, the results of the new method are very close to those of NICER. Clear advantages can be seen when the distribution of intrinsic colours cannot be described well with a single covariance matrix. The MCMC framework makes it easy to consider additional effects such as those of completeness limits and contamination by galaxies or foreground stars. A priori information about relative column density variations at sub-beam scales can result in a significant increase in accuracy. For observations of high photometric precision, the results could be further improved by considering the magnitude dependence of the intrinsic colours. Conclusions: The MCMC computations are time-consuming, but the calculation of large extinction maps is already practical. The same methods can be used with direct optimisation, with significantly less computational work. Faster methods, like NICER, perform very well in many cases even when the basic assumptions no longer hold. The new methods are useful mostly when photometric errors are small, the distribution of intrinsic colours is well known, or one has prior knowledge

  17. How categories come to matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cohn, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    In a study of users' interactions with Siri, the iPhone personal assistant application, we noticed the emergence of overlaps and blurrings between explanatory categories such as "human" and "machine". We found that users work to purify these categories, thus resolving the tensions related...

  18. Categories with envelopes and imprints

    CERN Document Server

    Akbarov, Sergei

    2011-01-01

    An envelope in a category is a construction generalizing operations of "exterior completion", like completion of a locally convex space. Dually, an imprint generalizes operations of "interior enrichment", like saturation of a locally convex space. We give abstract definition for envelopes and imprints, prove existence of these objects in the categories of stereotype spaces and of stereotype algebras, and give some examples.

  19. Categorical Perception of Colour in the Left and Right Visual Field Is Verbally Mediated: Evidence from Korean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, Debi; Pak, Hyensou; Hanley, J. Richard

    2008-01-01

    In this study we demonstrate that Korean (but not English) speakers show Categorical perception (CP) on a visual search task for a boundary between two Korean colour categories that is not marked in English. These effects were observed regardless of whether target items were presented to the left or right visual field. Because this boundary is…

  20. The meaning of colours in nutrition labelling in the context of expert and consumer criteria of evaluating food product healthfulness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wąsowicz, Grażyna; Styśko-Kunkowska, Małgorzata; Grunert, Klaus G

    2015-01-01

    associate certain colours with product healthfulness. Yellow, blue, green and red were found to be evocative of health. Heather, pink and celadon suggested an artificial thus unhealthful product. The impact of labels on healthfulness assessment was observed only in the unhealthful category. The findings...... show the complexity of psychological processes in the perception of food healthfulness....

  1. Introduction to Categories and Categorical Logic

    CERN Document Server

    Abramsky, Samson

    2011-01-01

    The aim of these notes is to provide a succinct, accessible introduction to some of the basic ideas of category theory and categorical logic. The notes are based on a lecture course given at Oxford over the past few years. They contain numerous exercises, and hopefully will prove useful for self-study by those seeking a first introduction to the subject, with fairly minimal prerequisites. The coverage is by no means comprehensive, but should provide a good basis for further study; a guide to further reading is included. The main prerequisite is a basic familiarity with the elements of discrete mathematics: sets, relations and functions. An Appendix contains a summary of what we will need, and it may be useful to review this first. In addition, some prior exposure to abstract algebra - vector spaces and linear maps, or groups and group homomorphisms - would be helpful.

  2. Colour and lighting in hospital design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalke, Hilary; Little, Jenny; Niemann, Elga; Camgoz, Nilgun; Steadman, Guillaume; Hill, Sarah; Stott, Laura

    2006-06-01

    Little information or guidance has been available to assist the development of a hospital's visual environment. A report on lighting and colour design schemes, accessible to non professionals with responsibility for refurbishment strategies, was required by NHS Estates. Firstly, 20 hospitals were audited to establish a picture of current practice and to identify key issues where colour design could broadly enhance the environment for patients, staff and visitors. Critical areas were outlined in this report, where colour design can be utilised and applied, for the benefit of all users, from ambience to essential legal requirements such as colour contrast for the visually impaired. Provision of staff relaxation rooms that are different in terms of colour and lux levels from immediate work spaces, or thoughtfully designed areas for patients awaiting intensive treatment, have been shown to have some beneficial effects on a sense of well being. Colour and design have not been established as a definite cure for sickness and ill health, but certainly monotony and poor conditions in premises that have not been refurbished with any care, have had a detrimental affect on recovery rates and staff morale. The realisation that a well balanced and attractive environment is of major importance to patients' health is, in no way new; Florence Nightingale observed that 'a variety of form and brilliance of colour in the objects presented to patients are an actual means of recovery'.

  3. Physicochemical and physiological basis of dichromatic colour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreft, Samo; Kreft, Marko

    2007-11-01

    Out of three perceptual characteristics of the colour of any substance, the hue depends mostly on the spectral properties of a substance, while the brightness and saturation depend also on the concentration of a substance and its thickness. Here, we report that evident change of the hue of the colour (i.e., from green to red) is due to a change in concentration or the thickness of a layer in some exceptional substances such as pumpkin seed oil or an aqueous solution of bromophenol blue. In some regions of Central Europe, salad dressing is made preferably with the pumpkin seed oil, which has a strong characteristic nut-like taste and remarkable properties of the colour: it appears red in a bottle, but green when served as a salad dressing. The colour of the pumpkin seed oil was previously described as brownish yellow, dark green, dark green to red ochre or dark reddish brown to light yellow green. We elucidated the physicochemical and physiological basis of such dichromatism by Beer-Lambert law and by the characteristics of human colour perception. Our concept was corroborated by the outcome of calculations of colour from spectral properties using colour matching functions. We found that dichromatism is observed if the absorption spectrum of any substance has at least two local minima: one wide but shallow and one narrow but deep local minimum.

  4. Most and Least Preferred Colours Differ According to Object Context: New Insights from an Unrestricted Colour Range.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domicele Jonauskaite

    Full Text Available Humans like some colours and dislike others, but which particular colours and why remains to be understood. Empirical studies on colour preferences generally targeted most preferred colours, but rarely least preferred (disliked colours. In addition, findings are often based on general colour preferences leaving open the question whether results generalise to specific objects. Here, 88 participants selected the colours they preferred most and least for three context conditions (general, interior walls, t-shirt using a high-precision colour picker. Participants also indicated whether they associated their colour choice to a valenced object or concept. The chosen colours varied widely between individuals and contexts and so did the reasons for their choices. Consistent patterns also emerged, as most preferred colours in general were more chromatic, while for walls they were lighter and for t-shirts they were darker and less chromatic compared to least preferred colours. This meant that general colour preferences could not explain object specific colour preferences. Measures of the selection process further revealed that, compared to most preferred colours, least preferred colours were chosen more quickly and were less often linked to valenced objects or concepts. The high intra- and inter-individual variability in this and previous reports furthers our understanding that colour preferences are determined by subjective experiences and that most and least preferred colours are not processed equally.

  5. Kansei Colour Concepts to Improve Effective Colour Selection in Designing Human Computer Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tharangie K G D

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Colours have a major impact on Human Computer Interaction. Although there is a very thin line between appropriate and inappropriate use of colours, if used properly, colours can be a powerful tool to improve the usefulness of a computer interface in a wide variety of areas. Many designers mostly consider the physical aspect of the colour and tend to forget that psychological aspect of colour exists. However the findings of this study confirm that the psychological aspect or the affective dimension of colour also plays an important role in colour Interface design towards user satisfaction. Using Kansei Engineering principles the study explores the affective variability of colours and how it can be manipulated to provide better design guidance and solutions. A group of twenty adults from Sri Lanka, age ranging from 30 to 40 took part in the study. Survey was conducted using a Kansei colour questionnaire in normal atmospheric conditions. The results reveal that the affective variability of colours plays an important role in human computer interaction as an influential factor in drawing the user towards or withdrawing from the Interface. Thereby improving or degrading the user satisfaction.

  6. Abelian categories in dimension 2

    CERN Document Server

    Dupont, Mathieu

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to define a 2-dimensional version of abelian categories, where symmetric 2-groups play the role that abelian groups played in 1-dimensional algebra. Abelian and 2-abelian groupoid enriched categories are defined and it is proved that homology can be developed in them, including the existence of a long exact sequence of homology corresponding to an extension of chain complexes. This generalises known results for symmetric 2-groups. The examples include, in addition to symmetric 2-groups, the 2-modules on a 2-ring, which form a 2-abelian groupoid enriched category. Moreover, internal groupoids, functors and natural transformations in an abelian category C (in particular, Baez-Crans 2-vector spaces) form a 2-abelian groupoid enriched category if and only if the axiom of choice holds in C.

  7. Functional categories in comparative linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    in the process of verbal communication (in the tradition of the Prague School). I will argue that (a) functional categorization is methodologically prior to formal and semantic categorization (functional categories include semantic and formal categories) and (b) functional categories give better cross...... in their attempt to account for cross-linguistic ordering tendencies (Rijkhoff 2009a).       Recent proposals to employ ‘concepts’ as the basis for cross-linguistic comparison (apparently conflating linguistic/semantic and non-linguistic/cognitive categories) have also met with considerable skepticism (Levinson......, Roger M. 1979. Linguistic knowledge and cultural knowledge: some doubts and speculation. American Anthropologist 81-1, 14-36. Levinson, Stephen C. 1997. From outer to inner space: linguistic categories and non-linguistic thinking. In J. Nuyts and E. Pederson (eds.), Language and Conceptualization, 13...

  8. The colour wheels of art, perception, science and physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, Nick

    2006-06-01

    Colour is not the domain of any one discipline be it art, philosophy, psychology or science. Each discipline has its own colour wheel and this presentation examines the origins and philosophies behind the colour circles of Art, Perception, Science and Physiology (after image) with reference to Aristotle, Robert Boyle, Leonardo da Vinci, Goethe, Ewald Hering and Albert Munsell. The paper analyses and discusses the differences between the four colour wheels using the Natural Colour System® notation as the reference for hue (the position of colours within each of the colour wheels). Examination of the colour wheels shows the dominance of blue in the wheels of art, science and physiology particularly at the expense of green. This paper does not consider the three-dimensionality of colour space its goal was to review the hue of a colour with regard to its position on the respective colour wheels.

  9. Internet Adaptation for Colour-Blind Persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rytė Žiūrienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Of all human race about 8% of males and 0,5% of females are colour-blind. It is estimated that in 2011 or 2012 there will be around 2 billion Internet users worldwide, so the number of colour-blind Internet users can reach about 200 million. Authors of this publication analyse issues that arise for colour-blind persons on the Internet and deliver the ways to make the Internet more comfortable. The special software is proposed as one of the ways together with comparison of its advantages.

  10. Natural ingredients for colouring and styling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dweck, A C

    2002-10-01

    This paper examines some of the existing methods for colouring the hair and skin using natural material (such as henna) and proposes a parallel technology that exists in the dyeing of wool and fabrics to extend the colour range. Many of the listed plants and their derivatives are not found in Annex IV of the Cosmetic Directive and may not be used as colours; however, they do have other properties which may justify their inclusion into a product, for example, as astringent or anti-inflammatory agents. The paper concludes with some reported antigreying and hair styling preparations cited in the literature.

  11. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrook, Harold D

    1971-01-01

    Basic Electronics is an elementary text designed for basic instruction in electricity and electronics. It gives emphasis on electronic emission and the vacuum tube and shows transistor circuits in parallel with electron tube circuits. This book also demonstrates how the transistor merely replaces the tube, with proper change of circuit constants as required. Many problems are presented at the end of each chapter. This book is comprised of 17 chapters and opens with an overview of electron theory, followed by a discussion on resistance, inductance, and capacitance, along with their effects on t

  12. Why colour in subterranean vertebrates? Exploring the evolution of colour patterns in caecilian amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollenberg, K C; Measey, C John

    2009-05-01

    The proximate functions of animal skin colour are difficult to assign as they can result from natural selection, sexual selection or neutral evolution under genetic drift. Most often colour patterns are thought to signal visual stimuli; so,their presence in subterranean taxa is perplexing. We evaluate the adaptive nature of colour patterns in nearly a third of all known species of caecilians, an order of amphibians most of which live in tropical soils and leaf litter. We found that certain colour pattern elements in caecilians can be explained based on characteristics concerning above-ground movement. Our study implies that certain caecilian colour patterns have convergently evolved under selection and we hypothesize their function most likely to be a synergy of aposematism and crypsis, related to periods when individuals move overground. In a wider context, our results suggest that very little exposure to daylight is required to evolve and maintain a varied array of colour patterns in animal skin.

  13. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): Galaxy colour gradients versus colour, structure and luminosity

    CERN Document Server

    Kennedy, Rebecca; Häußler, Boris; Brough, Sarah; Holwerda, Benne; Hopkins, Andrew M; Vika, Marina; Vulcani, Benedetta

    2016-01-01

    Using single-component fits to SDSS/UKIDSS images of galaxies in the G09 region of the GAMA survey we study radial colour gradients across the galaxy population. We use the multiwavelength information provided by MegaMorph analysis of galaxy light profiles to calculate intrinsic colour gradients, and divide into six subsamples split by overall S\\'{e}rsic index ($n$) and galaxy colour. We find a bimodality in the colour gradients of high- and low-$n$ galaxies in all wavebands, which varies with overall galaxy luminosity. Global trends in colour gradients therefore result from combining the contrasting behaviour of a number of different galaxy populations. The ubiquity of strong negative colour gradients supports the picture of inside-out growth through gas accretion for blue, low-$n$ galaxies, and through dry minor mergers for red, high-$n$ galaxies. An exception is the blue high-n population, with properties indicative of dissipative major mergers.

  14. Metacognitive control of categorial neurobehavioral decision systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Robert Foxall

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The competing neuro-behavioral decision systems (CNDS model proposes that the degree to which an individual discounts the future is a function of the relative hyperactivity of an impulsive system based on the limbic and paralimbic brain regions and the relative hypoactivity of an executive system based in prefrontal cortex (PFC. The model depicts the relationship between these categorial systems in terms of the antipodal neurophysiological, behavioral, and decision (cognitive functions that engender classes normal and addictive responding. However, a case may be made for construing several components of the impulsive and executive systems depicted in the model as categories (elements of additional systems that are concerned with the metacognitive control of behavior. Hence, this paper proposes a category-based structure for understanding the effects on behavior of CNDS, which includes not only the impulsive and executive systems of the basic model but, a superordinate level of reflective or rational decision-making. Following recent developments in the modeling of cognitive control which contrasts Type 1 (rapid, autonomous, parallel processing with Type 2 (slower, computationally-demanding, sequential processing, the proposed model incorporates an arena in which the potentially conflicting imperatives of impulsive and executive systems are examined and from which a more appropriate behavioral response than impulsive choice emerges. This configuration suggests a forum in which the interaction of picoeconomic interests, which provide a cognitive dimension for CNDS, can be conceptualized. This proposition is examined in light of the resolution of conflict by means of bundling.

  15. Metacognitive Control of Categorial Neurobehavioral Decision Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxall, Gordon R

    2016-01-01

    The competing neuro-behavioral decision systems (CNDS) model proposes that the degree to which an individual discounts the future is a function of the relative hyperactivity of an impulsive system based on the limbic and paralimbic brain regions and the relative hypoactivity of an executive system based in prefrontal cortex (PFC). The model depicts the relationship between these categorial systems in terms of the antipodal neurophysiological, behavioral, and decision (cognitive) functions that engender normal and addictive responding. However, a case may be made for construing several components of the impulsive and executive systems depicted in the model as categories (elements) of additional systems that are concerned with the metacognitive control of behavior. Hence, this paper proposes a category-based structure for understanding the effects on behavior of CNDS, which includes not only the impulsive and executive systems of the basic model but a superordinate level of reflective or rational decision-making. Following recent developments in the modeling of cognitive control which contrasts Type 1 (rapid, autonomous, parallel) processing with Type 2 (slower, computationally demanding, sequential) processing, the proposed model incorporates an arena in which the potentially conflicting imperatives of impulsive and executive systems are examined and from which a more appropriate behavioral response than impulsive choice emerges. This configuration suggests a forum in which the interaction of picoeconomic interests, which provide a cognitive dimension for CNDS, can be conceptualized. This proposition is examined in light of the resolution of conflict by means of bundling.

  16. Poseidon's paintbox : historical archives of ocean colour in global-change perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernand, M. R.

    2011-11-01

    In the thesis introduction issues are discussed on the historical background of marine optics and on marine optical devices that were used over the past centuries to observe and measure; as in all sciences, in marine optics we can see a steady development: that of ‘measuring’, beginning many centuries ago, to 'knowing' and since less than a century to the understanding of the phenomenon. Hereafter, six themes are treated successively. The first theme, ‘Ocean optics from 1600 (Hudson) to 1930 (Raman), shift in interpretation of natural water colouring’, addresses the question of why it took so long a time to explain the phenomenon ‘the colouring of the sea’, especially the blue colour, despite the age-long interest of sailors, for practical purposes of navigation and detection of fish - of which more later. The second theme ‘On the history of the Secchi disc’, describes the search to establish methods for the determination of (sea) water clarity concerning purposes of navigation (near coast colour changes) just mentioned to detect shoals, and for a more basic purpose, tracing lost objects. The search to determine the clarity of lakes and seas culminated in the invention of the Secchi disc, used since the late 19th century. The third theme, ‘Spectral analysis of the Forel-Ule ocean colour comparator scale’, addresses the accuracy of a colour scale proposed, used in limnology and oceanography. Scale observations are put into perspective with contemporary measurements on the colour of the sea. The fourth theme, ‘Ocean colour changes in the North Pacific since 1930’, handles the question whether long-term ocean colour changes using historic Forel-Ule observations, in this part of the ocean made very frequently over time, can be determined in relation to global change. In principal global warming may cause a gradual change in ocean colour due to the effect of biological, chemical and physical aspects of the ocean-surface. The fifth theme,

  17. STEGANALYSIS USING COLOUR MODEL CONVERSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Thiyagarajan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The major threat in cyber crime for digital forensic examiner is to identify, analyze and interpret theconcealed information inside digital medium such as image, audio and video. There are strong indicationsthat hiding information inside digital medium has been used for planning criminal activities. In this way, itis important to develop a steganalysis technique which detects the existence of hidden messages insidedigital medium. This paper focuses on universal image steganalysis method which uses RGB to HSI colourmodel conversion. Any Universal Steganalysis algorithm developed should be tested with various stegoimagesto prove its efficiency. The developed Universal Steganalysis algorithm is tested in stego-imagedatabase which is obtained by implementing various RGB Least Significant Bit Steganographic algorithms.Though there are many stego-image sources available on the internet it lacks in the information such ashow many rows has been infected by the steganography algorithms, how many bits have been modified andwhich channel has been affected. These parameters are important for Steganalysis algorithms and it helpsto rate its efficiency. Proposed Steganalysis using Colour Model has been tested with our Image Databaseand the results were affirmative.

  18. Steganalysis Using Colour Model Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Thiyagarajan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The major threat in cyber crime for digital forensic examiner is to identify, analyze and interpret theconcealed information inside digital medium such as image, audio and video. There are strong indicationsthat hiding information inside digital medium has been used for planning criminal activities. In this way, itis important to develop a steganalysis technique which detects the existence of hidden messages insidedigital medium. This paper focuses on universal image steganalysis method which uses RGB to HSI colourmodel conversion. Any Universal Steganalysis algorithm developed should be tested with various stegoimagesto prove its efficiency. The developed Universal Steganalysis algorithm is tested in stego-imagedatabase which is obtained by implementing various RGB Least Significant Bit Steganographic algorithms.Though there are many stego-image sources available on the internet it lacks in the information such ashow many rows has been infected by the steganography algorithms, how many bits have been modified andwhich channel has been affected. These parameters are important for Steganalysis algorithms and it helpsto rate its efficiency. Proposed Steganalysis using Colour Model has been tested with our Image Databaseand the results were affirmative.

  19. SATISFIABILITY METHODS FOR COLOURING GRAPHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munmun Dey

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The graph colouring problem can be solved using methods based on Satisfiability (SAT. An instance of the problem is defined by a Boolean expression written using Boolean variables and the logical connectives AND, OR and NOT. It has to be determined whether there is an assignment of TRUE and FALSE values to the variables that makes the entire expression true.A SAT problem is syntactically and semantically quite simple. Many Constraint Satisfaction Problems (CSPsin AI and OR can be formulated in SAT. These make use of two kinds of searchalgorithms: Deterministic and Randomized.It has been found that deterministic methods when run on hard CSP instances are frequently very slow in execution.A deterministic method always outputs a solution in the end, but it can take an enormous amount of time to do so.This has led to the development of randomized search algorithms like GSAT, which are typically based on local (i.e., neighbourhood search. Such methodshave been applied very successfully to find good solutions to hard decision problems

  20. How to pass higher English colour

    CERN Document Server

    Bridges, Ann

    2009-01-01

    How to Pass is the Number 1 revision series for Scottish qualifications across the three examination levels of Standard Grade, Intermediate and Higher! Second editions of the books present all of the material in full colour for the first time.

  1. Ethanol Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-01-30

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  2. Body Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more about how the body works, what basic human anatomy is, and what happens when parts of the body don't function properly. Blood Bones, Muscles, and Joints Brain and Nervous System Digestive System Endocrine System Eyes Female Reproductive System Heart and Circulatory System Immune ...

  3. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit ... final destination. Chemical signals from other cells guide neurons in forming various brain structures. Neighboring neurons make connections with each other ...

  4. Insulin Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ≡ Are You At Risk? Diabetes Basics Living with Diabetes Food & Fitness In My ... Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy ...

  5. Colour Management as a Precondition of Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Brues

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Colour management technology has reached a high level of maturity. Only ten years after it first appeared on the market, ICC colour profiles have become indispensable in modern premedia. It can be said without exaggeration that colour management has revolutionised digital proof printing. A whole range of newcomers in the print industry supplier community offer an intelligent combination of a PostScript RIP with integral colour management functions. The quality of these low-priced proofing systems has now reached such a high level that even discerning customers accept such digital proofs as contract proofs. Modular proofing solutions are regularly to be found among the leaders in the digital proofer tests.Working with colour profiles and profiled workflows is still a major problem area. It is no mere chance that notably digital proofing is the field in which users work with colour profiles in virtually all systems, since applications here are locally limited.An important step for the widespread use of colour management technology is the now very extensive implementation of ICC mechanisms in application programs such as Adobe Photoshop. Version 7 is regarded as a model of well thought-out ICC-based colour management implementation. As Microsoft has neglected the ICC standard in recent years, Adobe has created its own colour management interface, called ACE. Based on the ICC standard, it is regarded by many experts as a reference implementation. Adobe products, which are so important for the graphic arts industry, now contain a standard colour management platform across all supported operating systems. Incompatibilities at system level can now be virtually ruled out, at least across the Adobe product line, including the important interfaces with PostScript and PDF.Modern prepress technology is set to move ever further away from exclusive print production for standardised offset print. Multiple use of production data is still at an early stage

  6. Salience of Primary and Secondary Colours in Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Anna; Pitchford, Nicola; Hart, Lynsey; Davies, Ian R. L.; Clausse, Samantha; Jennings, Siobhan

    2008-01-01

    Primary colour terms ("black", "white", "red", "green", "yellow", and "blue") are more fundamental in colour language than secondary colour terms ("pink", "purple", "orange", "brown", and "grey"). Here, we assess whether this distinction exists in the absence of language, by investigating whether primary colours attract and sustain preverbal…

  7. THE COLOUR GLASS CONDENSATE: AN INTRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IANCU,E.; LEONIDOV,A.; MCLERRAN,L.

    2001-08-06

    In these lectures, the authors develop the theory of the Colour Glass Condensate. This is the matter made of gluons in the high density environment characteristic of deep inelastic scattering or hadron-hadron collisions at very high energy. The lectures are self contained and comprehensive. They start with a phenomenological introduction, develop the theory of classical gluon fields appropriate for the Colour Glass, and end with a derivation and discussion of the renormalization group equations which determine this effective theory.

  8. Rockpool gobies change colour for camouflage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Stevens

    Full Text Available Camouflage is found in a wide range of species living in numerous habitat types, offering protection from visually guided predators. This includes many species from the intertidal zone, which must cope with background types diverse in appearance and with multiple predator groups foraging at high and low tide. Many animals are capable of either relatively slow (hours, days, weeks or rapid (seconds and minutes colour change in order to better resemble the background against which they are found, but most work has been restricted to a few species or taxa. It is often suggested that many small intertidal fish are capable of colour change for camouflage, yet little experimental work has addressed this. Here, we test rock gobies (Gobius paganellus for colour change abilities, and whether they can tune their appearance to match the background. In two experiments, we place gobies on backgrounds of different brightness (black or white, and of different colours (red and blue and use digital image analysis and modelling of predator (avian vision to quantify colour and luminance (perceived lightness changes and camouflage. We find that gobies are capable of rapid colour change (occurring within one minute, and that they can change their luminance on lighter or darker backgrounds. When presented on backgrounds of different colours, gobies also change their colour (hue and saturation while keeping luminance the same. These changes lead to predicted improvements in camouflage match to the background. Our study shows that small rockpool fish are capable of rapid visual change for concealment, and that this may be an important mechanism in many species to avoid predation, especially in complex heterogeneous environments.

  9. Colour hard-copy from workstation screens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, C. A.

    It is possible to produce a colour print on the DEC LJ250 inkjet printer of either the entire screen or a portion of the screen from VAXstations, DECstations, SUN workstations and the IKON image display. This document describes how to achieve this with each of the above workstations. The IKONPAINT software which is used to produce colour hard-copy from the IKON screen on the inkjet printer is fully documented in SUN/71 and is not described here.

  10. The Application of Happening Colour in Modern Fabric Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Chun-yu

    2006-01-01

    To expand the past and present colour concept and reinvent fabric design methods, happening colour is used as a kind of new colour concept and form to design and analyse the resource of colour. With the aid of sophisticated computer software and advanced digital printing machines, happening colour allows images of considerable complication and intricacy to be designed and produced in modern fabric design by various arrangement of printing colours, which also allows further shifts of colour emphasis of the different visual and psychogenic recept.

  11. A mutation in the MATP gene causes the cream coat colour in the horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guérin Gérard

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In horses, basic colours such as bay or chestnut may be partially diluted to buckskin and palomino, or extremely diluted to cream, a nearly white colour with pink skin and blue eyes. This dilution is expected to be controlled by one gene and we used both candidate gene and positional cloning strategies to identify the "cream mutation". A horse panel including reference colours was established and typed for different markers within or in the neighbourhood of two candidate genes. Our data suggest that the causal mutation, a G to A transition, is localised in exon 2 of the MATP gene leading to an aspartic acid to asparagine substitution in the encoded protein. This conserved mutation was also described in mice and humans, but not in medaka.

  12. Data categories for marine planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightsom, Frances L.; Cicchetti, Giancarlo; Wahle, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. National Ocean Policy calls for a science- and ecosystem-based approach to comprehensive planning and management of human activities and their impacts on America’s oceans. The Ocean Community in Data.gov is an outcome of 2010–2011 work by an interagency working group charged with designing a national information management system to support ocean planning. Within the working group, a smaller team developed a list of the data categories specifically relevant to marine planning. This set of categories is an important consensus statement of the breadth of information types required for ocean planning from a national, multidisciplinary perspective. Although the categories were described in a working document in 2011, they have not yet been fully implemented explicitly in online services or geospatial metadata, in part because authoritative definitions were not created formally. This document describes the purpose of the data categories, provides definitions, and identifies relations among the categories and between the categories and external standards. It is intended to be used by ocean data providers, managers, and users in order to provide a transparent and consistent framework for organizing and describing complex information about marine ecosystems and their connections to humans.

  13. Wavelet basics

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, Y T

    1995-01-01

    Since the study of wavelets is a relatively new area, much of the research coming from mathematicians, most of the literature uses terminology, concepts and proofs that may, at times, be difficult and intimidating for the engineer. Wavelet Basics has therefore been written as an introductory book for scientists and engineers. The mathematical presentation has been kept simple, the concepts being presented in elaborate detail in a terminology that engineers will find familiar. Difficult ideas are illustrated with examples which will also aid in the development of an intuitive insight. Chapter 1 reviews the basics of signal transformation and discusses the concepts of duals and frames. Chapter 2 introduces the wavelet transform, contrasts it with the short-time Fourier transform and clarifies the names of the different types of wavelet transforms. Chapter 3 links multiresolution analysis, orthonormal wavelets and the design of digital filters. Chapter 4 gives a tour d'horizon of topics of current interest: wave...

  14. Military personnel recognition system using texture, colour, and SURF features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irhebhude, Martins E.; Edirisinghe, Eran A.

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents an automatic, machine vision based, military personnel identification and classification system. Classification is done using a Support Vector Machine (SVM) on sets of Army, Air Force and Navy camouflage uniform personnel datasets. In the proposed system, the arm of service of personnel is recognised by the camouflage of a persons uniform, type of cap and the type of badge/logo. The detailed analysis done include; camouflage cap and plain cap differentiation using gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) texture feature; classification on Army, Air Force and Navy camouflaged uniforms using GLCM texture and colour histogram bin features; plain cap badge classification into Army, Air Force and Navy using Speed Up Robust Feature (SURF). The proposed method recognised camouflage personnel arm of service on sets of data retrieved from google images and selected military websites. Correlation-based Feature Selection (CFS) was used to improve recognition and reduce dimensionality, thereby speeding the classification process. With this method success rates recorded during the analysis include 93.8% for camouflage appearance category, 100%, 90% and 100% rates of plain cap and camouflage cap categories for Army, Air Force and Navy categories, respectively. Accurate recognition was recorded using SURF for the plain cap badge category. Substantial analysis has been carried out and results prove that the proposed method can correctly classify military personnel into various arms of service. We show that the proposed method can be integrated into a face recognition system, which will recognise personnel in addition to determining the arm of service which the personnel belong. Such a system can be used to enhance the security of a military base or facility.

  15. Seasonal Changes in Colour: A Comparison of Structural, Melanin- and Carotenoid-Based Plumage Colours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delhey, Kaspar; Burger, Claudia; Fiedler, Wolfgang; Peters, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Background Plumage coloration is important for bird communication, most notably in sexual signalling. Colour is often considered a good quality indicator, and the expression of exaggerated colours may depend on individual condition during moult. After moult, plumage coloration has been deemed fixed due to the fact that feathers are dead structures. Still, many plumage colours change after moult, although whether this affects signalling has not been sufficiently assessed. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied changes in coloration after moult in four passerine birds (robin, Erithacus rubecula; blackbird, Turdus merula; blue tit, Cyanistes caeruleus; and great tit, Parus major) displaying various coloration types (melanin-, carotenoid-based and structural). Birds were caught regularly during three years to measure plumage reflectance. We used models of avian colour vision to derive two variables, one describing chromatic and the other achromatic variation over the year that can be compared in magnitude among different colour types. All studied plumage patches but one (yellow breast of the blue tit) showed significant chromatic changes over the year, although these were smaller than for a typical dynamic trait (bill colour). Overall, structural colours showed a reduction in relative reflectance at shorter wavelengths, carotenoid-based colours the opposite pattern, while no general pattern was found for melanin-based colours. Achromatic changes were also common, but there were no consistent patterns of change for the different types of colours. Conclusions/Significance Changes of plumage coloration independent of moult are probably widespread; they should be perceivable by birds and have the potential to affect colour signalling. PMID:20644723

  16. Flower colour and cytochromes P450.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Brugliera, Filippa

    2013-02-19

    Cytochromes P450 play important roles in biosynthesis of flavonoids and their coloured class of compounds, anthocyanins, both of which are major floral pigments. The number of hydroxyl groups on the B-ring of anthocyanidins (the chromophores and precursors of anthocyanins) impact the anthocyanin colour, the more the bluer. The hydroxylation pattern is determined by two cytochromes P450, flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) and flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) and thus they play a crucial role in the determination of flower colour. F3'H and F3'5'H mostly belong to CYP75B and CYP75A, respectively, except for the F3'5'Hs in Compositae that were derived from gene duplication of CYP75B and neofunctionalization. Roses and carnations lack blue/violet flower colours owing to the deficiency of F3'5'H and therefore lack the B-ring-trihydroxylated anthocyanins based upon delphinidin. Successful redirection of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway to delphinidin was achieved by expressing F3'5'H coding regions resulting in carnations and roses with novel blue hues that have been commercialized. Suppression of F3'5'H and F3'H in delphinidin-producing plants reduced the number of hydroxyl groups on the anthocyanidin B-ring resulting in the production of monohydroxylated anthocyanins based on pelargonidin with a shift in flower colour to orange/red. Pelargonidin biosynthesis is enhanced by additional expression of a dihydroflavonol 4-reductase that can use the monohydroxylated dihydrokaempferol (the pelargonidin precursor). Flavone synthase II (FNSII)-catalysing flavone biosynthesis from flavanones is also a P450 (CYP93B) and contributes to flower colour, because flavones act as co-pigments to anthocyanins and can cause blueing and darkening of colour. However, transgenic plants expression of a FNSII gene yielded paler flowers owing to a reduction of anthocyanins because flavanones are precursors of anthocyanins and flavones.

  17. Genetic analyses of the human eye colours using a novel objective method for eye colour classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jeppe D.; Johansen, Peter; Harder, Stine

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we present a new objective method for measuring the eye colour on a continuous scale that allows researchers to associate genetic markers with different shades of eye colour. With the use of the custom designed software Digital Iris Analysis Tool (DIAT), the iris was automatically ...

  18. Going global Management of colour-measuring instrumentation is the key to successful colour management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter Rachel.

    2007-01-01

    @@ It is no secret in the industry that even the best spectrophotometers exhibit colour drift with time. Software solutions are now available that can eliminate this drift and also use different manufacturers'drivers to calibrate literally all of the instruments involved in the colour process.

  19. Genetic analyses of the human eye colours using a novel objective method for eye colour classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jeppe D.; Johansen, Peter; Harder, Stine;

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we present a new objective method for measuring the eye colour on a continuous scale that allows researchers to associate genetic markers with different shades of eye colour. With the use of the custom designed software Digital Iris Analysis Tool (DIAT), the iris was automatically...... and TYR rs1393350) on the eye colour. We evaluated the two published prediction models for eye colour (IrisPlex [1] and Snipper[2]) and compared the predictions with the PIE-scores. We found good concordance with the prediction from individuals typed as HERC2 rs12913832 G. However, both methods had...... by different studies and to perform large meta-studies that may reveal loci with small effects on the eye colour....

  20. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Tayal, DC

    2010-01-01

    The second edition of this book incorporates the comments and suggestions of my friends and students who have critically studied the first edition. In this edition the changes and additions have been made and subject matter has been rearranged at some places. The purpose of this text is to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date study of the principles of operation of solid state devices, their basic circuits and application of these circuits to various electronic systems, so that it can serve as a standard text not only for universities and colleges but also for technical institutes. This book

  1. Regression Basics

    CERN Document Server

    Kahane, Leo H

    2007-01-01

    Using a friendly, nontechnical approach, the Second Edition of Regression Basics introduces readers to the fundamentals of regression. Accessible to anyone with an introductory statistics background, this book builds from a simple two-variable model to a model of greater complexity. Author Leo H. Kahane weaves four engaging examples throughout the text to illustrate not only the techniques of regression but also how this empirical tool can be applied in creative ways to consider a broad array of topics. New to the Second Edition Offers greater coverage of simple panel-data estimation:

  2. Influence of the Substrate Properties on the Offset Printing ink Colour Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Blayo

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The printing industry has been using computerised ink colour matching for a long time. The problem of ink formulation is to match a given standard colour with only three or four inks from a basis of about twelve inks.This is generally achieved by calculations based on the well-known Kubelka-Munk turbid media theory, which gives excellent results in many industrial situations. However, some hypotheses are necessary to apply the Kubelka-Munk model and corrections to the measured reflectance are often required (Saunderson’s correction coefficients, for example.One limitation in the resolution of this method of formulation may arise from the fact that the characterisation of the basic inks is made on one standard substrate, which may differ a lot from the real printing substrate.The aim of this work is precisely to study the contribution of the substrate to the colour matching procedure. The properties of the substrate which intervene in the process are physical properties (thickness, absorbency… and optical properties (brightness and gloss. Five different papers were chosen to make the characterisations of the basic offset inks. The reflectance measurements were performed with spectrophotometer X-Rite with the D/0° geometry, specular excluded or included, coupled with a coloured matching software (X-Rite Inkmaster. A special emphasis was put on the influence on the calculation of the ink film thickness, estimated for the different substrates, and on the choice of the correction coefficients for the Kubelka-Munk theory.

  3. Category O for quantum groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henning Haahr; Mazorchuk, Volodymyr

    2015-01-01

    We study the BGG-categories O_q associated to quantum groups. We prove that many properties of the ordinary BGG-category O for a semisimple complex Lie algebra carry over to the quantum case. Of particular interest is the case when q is a complex root of unity. Here we prove a tensor decomposition...... for simple modules, projective modules, and indecomposable tilting modules. Using the known Kazhdan–Lusztig conjectures for O and for finite-dimensional U_q-modules we are able to determine all irreducible characters as well as the characters of all indecomposable tilting modules in O_q . As a consequence......, we also recover the known result that the generic quantum case behaves like the classical category O....

  4. Application of Wine Pomace seeds as finning agent during production of red wines and its effects over colour parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    m Hatice Kalkan Yıldırı

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During production of wines are used different fining agents with animal origin for preventing later presipitation and reducing harshenss of wines. Even these positive properties they may cause some allergic reactions in consumers with allergic predispositons. Due to health concern wine pomace seeds could be a new alternative as fining agent with plant origin. In this study were evaluated preliminary effects of seeds over wine qulity expecially wine colour. As the next stage will be considered thier health effects. Grapes of Vitis vinifera L. cvs. “Cabernet Sauvignon” were manually harvested at optimum maturity (25∘Brix and transported to the Experimental Winery at the Department of Food Engineering, Ege University, Izmir, Turkey. Wine production were done according to the accepted wine production procedures with exeption of SO2 (it was not added. Obtained grape seeds flour (drying and milling were used as fining agent with different values (2/4/6/8/10 gram/100 ml. In all wines basic wine chemical parameters and some spesific colour parameters were determined %D280, %D420, %D520, %D620, CD: Colour density, CI: Colour intensity, T: Tint value, dA %: Proportion of red colour produced by flavylium cations , %Y: Proportion of yellow colour, % R: Proportion of red colour and % B: Proportion of blue colour. The results demonstrated the possibility of using wine pomace grape seeds as fining agent. Concidering colour parametrs of obtianed wines the best results were deterrmined with 8 g/100 ml application. Futher studies are needed in order to evaluate other wine parameters.

  5. Improved colour to greyscale via integrability correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Mark S.; Connah, David; Finlayson, Graham D.; Bloj, Marina

    2009-02-01

    The classical approach to converting colour to greyscale is to code the luminance signal as a grey value image. However, the problem with this approach is that the detail at equiluminant edges vanishes, and in the worst case the greyscale reproduction of an equiluminant image is a single uniform grey value. The solution to this problem, adopted by all algorithms in the field, is to try to code colour difference (or contrast) in the greyscale image. In this paper we reconsider the Socolinsky and Wolff algorithm for colour to greyscale conversion. This algorithm, which is the most mathematically elegant, often scores well in preference experiments but can introduce artefacts which spoil the appearance of the final image. These artefacts are intrinsic to the method and stem from the underlying approach which computes a greyscale image by a) calculating approximate luminance-type derivatives for the colour image and b) re-integrating these to obtain a greyscale image. Unfortunately, the sign of the derivative vector is sometimes unknown on an equiluminant edge and, in the current theory, is set arbitrarily. However, choosing the wrong sign can lead to unnatural contrast gradients (not apparent in the colour original). Our contribution is to show how this sign problem can be ameliorated using a generalised definition of luminance and a Markov relaxation.

  6. Sensory evaluation of meat colour using photographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluigi Destefanis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Five m. longissimus thoracis steaks from different breeds, purchased at retail, were cut into samples and simultaneously photographed under standard shooting conditions. The first photo was taken on samples just arrived at the laboratory, the second one on a freshly cut surface after blooming. Two consumer panels evaluated beef colour using respectively photo 1 and photo 2. Each consumer was asked to rank samples in order of preference. Rank sums were evaluated with Fridman’s test. Immediately after taking the photos, colour was measured with a colorimeter. Regarding photo 1, consumers were able to discriminate one sample, the worst, from all the others. Concerning photo 2, consumers discriminated the worst sample, as in photo 1, but also the best one. Therefore a more accurate colour evaluation can be obtained if the assessment is carried out on a fresh cut surface after blooming. In general consumers preferred samples with high lightness and a relatively high yellowness. The sensory evaluation of meat colour using photographs is a promising tool to overcome the difficulties when the meat is directly evaluated. But it is very important to standardize the shooting conditions to obtain a true reproduction of the meat. For this purpose the use of a colour target is useful to check the validity of the adopted parameters.

  7. A Morphism Double Category and Monoidal Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saikat Chatterjee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We provide a recipe for “fattening” a category that leads to the construction of a double category. Motivated by an example where the underlying category has vector spaces as objects, we show how a monoidal category leads to a law of composition, satisfying certain coherence properties, on the object set of the fattened category.

  8. On the Category of Partial Bijections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Schwab

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Categories of partial functions have become increasingly important principally because of their applications in theoretical computer science. In this note we prove that the category of partial bijections between sets as an inverse-Baer*-category with closed projections and in which the idempotents split is an exact category. Finally the Noether isomorphism theorems are given for this exact category.

  9. A comparison of colour micrographs obtained with a charged couple devise (CCD) camera and a 35-mm camera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads Møller; Smedegaard, Jesper; Jensen, Peter Koch

    2005-01-01

    ophthalmology, colour CCD camera, colour film, digital imaging, resolution, micrographs, histopathology, light microscopy......ophthalmology, colour CCD camera, colour film, digital imaging, resolution, micrographs, histopathology, light microscopy...

  10. Are all the coloured galaxias the same?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo-Gámez, A. M.; Miranda-Pérez, B. E.; Vega-Acevedo, I.; Castañeda, H.; Saviane, I.

    2016-06-01

    The coloured galaxies were recently discovered in the data-base of the SDSS. They are all compact and show unsual colours in the gri composite image. The most studied so far are those called "green peas" because of their green colour but there are bright blue, purple, red, orange, grey and pink. The green, purple and blue also share a large equivalent width in the oxygen forbbiden line [OIII]5007, larger than 200 Å, being more intense than Hα. This is quite unsual even for star forming galaxies. Although some authors have concluded that all three are the same kind of galaxies, we have studied them carefully and found out that there are important differences among the properties, including the scaling relations.

  11. Adaptive Marginal Median Filter for Colour Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almanzor Sapena

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a new filter for impulse noise reduction in colour images which is aimed at improving the noise reduction capability of the classical vector median filter. The filter is inspired by the application of a vector marginal median filtering process over a selected group of pixels in each filtering window. This selection, which is based on the vector median, along with the application of the marginal median operation constitutes an adaptive process that leads to a more robust filter design. Also, the proposed method is able to process colour images without introducing colour artifacts. Experimental results show that the images filtered with the proposed method contain less noisy pixels than those obtained through the vector median filter.

  12. International Conference on Category Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Pedicchio, Maria; Rosolini, Guiseppe

    1991-01-01

    With one exception, these papers are original and fully refereed research articles on various applications of Category Theory to Algebraic Topology, Logic and Computer Science. The exception is an outstanding and lengthy survey paper by Joyal/Street (80 pp) on a growing subject: it gives an account of classical Tannaka duality in such a way as to be accessible to the general mathematical reader, and to provide a key for entry to more recent developments and quantum groups. No expertise in either representation theory or category theory is assumed. Topics such as the Fourier cotransform, Tannaka duality for homogeneous spaces, braided tensor categories, Yang-Baxter operators, Knot invariants and quantum groups are introduced and studies. From the Contents: P.J. Freyd: Algebraically complete categories.- J.M.E. Hyland: First steps in synthetic domain theory.- G. Janelidze, W. Tholen: How algebraic is the change-of-base functor?.- A. Joyal, R. Street: An introduction to Tannaka duality and quantum groups.- A. Jo...

  13. Relative Mal'tsev categories

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    We define relative regular Mal’tsev categories and give an overview of conditions which are equivalent to the relative Mal’tsev axiom. These include conditions on relations as well as conditions on simplicial objects. We also give various examples and counterexamples.

  14. A category of its own?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Jørgen; Roberts, Nigel S.

    1996-01-01

    At first sight, the electoral systems in Denmark, Germany, South Africa and Sweden may seem different and attaempt to categorize them together odd. All four, however, belong to the same category, which Arend Lijphart calls 'proportional representation two-tier districting systems', and the effect...

  15. Causal Categories: Relativistically Interacting Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coecke, Bob; Lal, Raymond

    2013-04-01

    A symmetric monoidal category naturally arises as the mathematical structure that organizes physical systems, processes, and composition thereof, both sequentially and in parallel. This structure admits a purely graphical calculus. This paper is concerned with the encoding of a fixed causal structure within a symmetric monoidal category: causal dependencies will correspond to topological connectedness in the graphical language. We show that correlations, either classical or quantum, force terminality of the tensor unit. We also show that well-definedness of the concept of a global state forces the monoidal product to be only partially defined, which in turn results in a relativistic covariance theorem. Except for these assumptions, at no stage do we assume anything more than purely compositional symmetric-monoidal categorical structure. We cast these two structural results in terms of a mathematical entity, which we call a causal category. We provide methods of constructing causal categories, and we study the consequences of these methods for the general framework of categorical quantum mechanics.

  16. Mosquito and Blackfly Category Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, James S.; And Others

    This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. Section one is concerned with the morphology, life cycle and breeding areas of mosquitoes and the diseases resulting from their presence. The second section covers similar categories in relation to the black fly population. Calculation methods and…

  17. Pitfalls in colour photography of choroidal tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalenbourg, A; Zografos, L

    2013-02-01

    Colour imaging of fundus tumours has been transformed by the development of digital and confocal scanning laser photography. These advances provide numerous benefits, such as panoramic images, increased contrast, non-contact wide-angle imaging, non-mydriatic photography, and simultaneous angiography. False tumour colour representation can, however, cause serious diagnostic errors. Large choroidal tumours can be totally invisible on angiography. Pseudogrowth can occur because of artefacts caused by different methods of fundus illumination, movement of reference blood vessels, and flattening of Bruch's membrane and sclera when tumour regression occurs. Awareness of these pitfalls should prevent the clinician from misdiagnosing tumours and wrongfully concluding that a tumour has grown.

  18. Pitfalls in colour photography of choroidal tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalenbourg, A; Zografos, L

    2013-01-01

    Colour imaging of fundus tumours has been transformed by the development of digital and confocal scanning laser photography. These advances provide numerous benefits, such as panoramic images, increased contrast, non-contact wide-angle imaging, non-mydriatic photography, and simultaneous angiography. False tumour colour representation can, however, cause serious diagnostic errors. Large choroidal tumours can be totally invisible on angiography. Pseudogrowth can occur because of artefacts caused by different methods of fundus illumination, movement of reference blood vessels, and flattening of Bruch's membrane and sclera when tumour regression occurs. Awareness of these pitfalls should prevent the clinician from misdiagnosing tumours and wrongfully concluding that a tumour has grown. PMID:23238442

  19. Colour and stellar population gradients in galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Tortora, C; Cardone, V F; Capaccioli, M; Jetzer, P; Molinaro, R

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the colour, age and metallicity gradients in a wide sample of local SDSS early- and late-type galaxies. From the fitting of stellar population models we find that metallicity is the main driver of colour gradients and the age in the central regions is a dominant parameter which rules the scatter in both metallicity and age gradients. We find a consistency with independent observations and a set of simulations. From the comparison with simulations and theoretical considerations we are able to depict a general picture of a formation scenario.

  20. High-colour and mass hierarchies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luest, D. (Muenchen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Sektion Physik); Papantonopoulos, E.; Zoupanos, G. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland))

    1985-08-01

    We present a model based on the gauge group G=Gsub(HC).Gsub(S).SU(2)sub(L).U(1), where the hypercolour gauge group Gsub(HC) is responsible for the dynamical breaking of the strong group Gsub(S) to SU(3)sub(C) of QCD. Chiral symmetry breaking of high-colour representations produces dynamical breaking of the electroweak SU(2)sub(L).U(1) gauge group. Fermion masses and flavour mixing are dynamically generated from the condensations of high-colour representations. A phenomenological analysis of the model is also presented.

  1. Colour and stellar population gradients in galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortora, C.; Napolitano, N. R.; Cardone, V. F.; Capaccioli, M.; Jetzer, P.; Molinaro, R.

    We discuss the colour, age and metallicity gradients in a wide sample of local SDSS early- and late-type galaxies. From the fitting of stellar population models we find that metallicity is the main driver of colour gradients and the age in the central regions is a dominant parameter which rules the scatter in both metallicity and age gradients. We find a consistency with independent observations and a set of simulations. From the comparison with simulations and theoretical considerations we are able to depict a general picture of a formation scenario.

  2. Flower colour and cytochromes P450†

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Brugliera, Filippa

    2013-01-01

    Cytochromes P450 play important roles in biosynthesis of flavonoids and their coloured class of compounds, anthocyanins, both of which are major floral pigments. The number of hydroxyl groups on the B-ring of anthocyanidins (the chromophores and precursors of anthocyanins) impact the anthocyanin colour, the more the bluer. The hydroxylation pattern is determined by two cytochromes P450, flavonoid 3′-hydroxylase (F3′H) and flavonoid 3′,5′-hydroxylase (F3′5′H) and thus they play a crucial role ...

  3. Basic Social Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser, PhD, Hon. PhD

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of grounded theory is to generate a theory that accounts for a pattern of behavior that is relevant and problematic for those involved. The goal is not voluminous description, nor clever verification. As with all grounded theory, the generation of a basic social process (BSP theory occurs around a core category. While a core category is always present in a grounded research study, a BSP may not be.BSPs are ideally suited to generation by grounded theory from qualitative research because qualitative research can pick up process through fieldwork that continues over a period of time. BSPs are a delight to discover and formulate since they give so much movement and scope to the analyst’s perception of the data. BSPs such as cultivating, defaulting, centering, highlighting or becoming, give the feeling of process, change and movement over time. They also have clear, amazing general implications; so much so, that it is hard to contain them within the confines of a single substantive study. The tendency is to refer to them as a formal theory without the necessary comparative development of formal theory. They are labeled by a “gerund”(“ing” which both stimulates their generation and the tendency to over-generalize them.

  4. Nonrepetitive Colourings of Planar Graphs with $O(\\log n)$ Colours

    CERN Document Server

    Dujmović, Vida; Joret, Gwenaël; Wood, David R

    2012-01-01

    A vertex colouring of a graph is \\emph{nonrepetitive} if there is no path for which the first half of the path is assigned the same sequence of colours as the second half. The \\emph{nonrepetitive chromatic number} of a graph $G$ is the minimum integer $k$ such that $G$ has a nonrepetitive $k$-colouring. Whether planar graphs have bounded nonrepetitive chromatic number is one of the most important open problems in the field. Despite this, the best known upper bound is $O(\\sqrt{n})$ for $n$-vertex planar graphs. We prove a $O(\\log n)$ upper bound.

  5. Inflation Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Dan [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2014-03-01

    inflation since metrical fluctuations, both scalar and tensor, are also produced in inflationary models. Thus, the time appears to be appropriate for a very basic and simple exposition of the inflationary model written from a particle physics perspective. Only the simplest scalar model will be explored because it is easy to understand and contains all the basic elements of the inflationary model.

  6. Inflation Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Dan [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2014-03-01

    inflation since metrical fluctuations, both scalar and tensor, are also produced in inflationary models. Thus, the time appears to be appropriate for a very basic and simple exposition of the inflationary model written from a particle physics perspective. Only the simplest scalar model will be explored because it is easy to understand and contains all the basic elements of the inflationary model.

  7. ERT basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butters, M. [MBC Energy and Environment, Ottawa, ON (Canada)]|[National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    ERT is an economic instrument which helps power companies achieve emission reduction compliance cost-effectively. This paper presents the basics of ERT with reference to trading concepts, types of systems and types of emissions. The paper also describes the state of the Canadian energy market regarding greenhouse gases (GHG), nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide and volatile organic compounds. The association between ERT and district energy is also explained. By 2010, the global market for GHG trading is expected to be worth $10 billion to $3 trillion U.S. Canada has committed to reducing its GHG to 6 per cent below 1990 levels by 2012, but currently emits 705 Mt per year. This is expected to increase to 770 Mt by 2010. Therefore, in order to meet its commitment, GHGs will have to be reduced 200 Mt per year. Canada is currently considering ratifying the Kyoto agreement and a trading system is being developed. There are several abatement technologies currently under consideration for district energy systems, including adding scrubbers, improving efficiency, and fuel switching. The marginal cost of abatement was also discussed. tabs., figs.

  8. Application of Modern Colour Measurement Dervices in Coloration Industries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHUNG Y.S.; XIN John H.; SIN K.M.

    2002-01-01

    In colour measurement ralated industry, reflectance spectrophotometer is the one of the popular measuring machine for measutring colour and quality control. Colour communications is frequently confusing. This is because the colour appearance is subject to the influence of at least three different phenomena: the light source, the object and the visual system. The variation in either the radiant quantity or the spectral distribution of the source can alter the observed colour. Because of this reason,the objective quantitative tool, colour measurement equipment and communication method; become more important in evaluating of the colour. In fact, based on the advanced in computer system and electronic device,the colour measurement becomes more and more accuracy, especiany in spectrophotometer measurement.In this paper, we will focus on the review of modern spectrophotometers in coloration industries.

  9. High Volume Colour Image Processing with Massively Parallel Embedded Processors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, Jan W.M.; Bond, W.; Pouls, R.; Smit, Gerard J.M.; Joubert, G.R.; Peters, F.J.; Tirado, P.; Nagel, W.E.; Plata, O.; Zapata, E.

    2006-01-01

    Currently Oce uses FPGA technology for implementing colour image processing for their high volume colour printers. Although FPGA technology provides enough performance it, however, has a rather tedious development process. This paper describes the research conducted on an alternative implementation

  10. Testing the AUDI2000 colour-difference formula for solid colours using some visual datasets with usefulness to automotive industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-García, Juan; Melgosa, Manuel; Gómez-Robledo, Luis; Li, Changjun; Huang, Min; Liu, Haoxue; Cui, Guihua; Luo, M. Ronnier; Dauser, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    Colour-difference formulas are tools employed in colour industries for objective pass/fail decisions of manufactured products. These objective decisions are based on instrumental colour measurements which must reliably predict the subjective colour-difference evaluations performed by observers' panels. In a previous paper we have tested the performance of different colour-difference formulas using the datasets employed at the development of the last CIErecommended colour-difference formula CIEDE2000, and we found that the AUDI2000 colour-difference formula for solid (homogeneous) colours performed reasonably well, despite the colour pairs in these datasets were not similar to those typically employed in the automotive industry (CIE Publication x038:2013, 465-469). Here we have tested again AUDI2000 together with 11 advanced colour-difference formulas (CIELUV, CIELAB, CMC, BFD, CIE94, CIEDE2000, CAM02-UCS, CAM02-SCD, DIN99d, DIN99b, OSA-GP-Euclidean) for three visual datasets we may consider particularly useful to the automotive industry because of different reasons: 1) 828 metallic colour pairs used to develop the highly reliable RIT-DuPont dataset (Color Res. Appl. 35, 274-283, 2010); 2) printed samples conforming 893 colour pairs with threshold colour differences (J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, 883-891, 2012); 3) 150 colour pairs in a tolerance dataset proposed by AUDI. To measure the relative merits of the different tested colour-difference formulas, we employed the STRESS index (J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1823-1829, 2007), assuming a 95% confidence level. For datasets 1) and 2), AUDI2000 was in the group of the best colour-difference formulas with no significant differences with respect to CIE94, CIEDE2000, CAM02-UCS, DIN99b and DIN99d formulas. For dataset 3) AUDI2000 provided the best results, being statistically significantly better than all other tested colour-difference formulas.

  11. A Formal Calculus for Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cáccamo, Mario José

    This dissertation studies the logic underlying category theory. In particular we present a formal calculus for reasoning about universal properties. The aim is to systematise judgements about functoriality and naturality central to categorical reasoning. The calculus is based on a language which...... extends the typed lambda calculus with new binders to represent universal constructions. The types of the languages are interpreted as locally small categories and the expressions represent functors. The logic supports a syntactic treatment of universality and duality. Contravariance requires a definition...... of universality generous enough to deal with functors of mixed variance. Ends generalise limits to cover these kinds of functors and moreover provide the basis for a very convenient algebraic manipulation of expressions. The equational theory of the lambda calculus is extended with new rules for the definitions...

  12. Different Categories of Business Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana-Veronica ALEXA

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Every business organisation involves some elements of risk. Unmitigated risks can result in lost opportunity, financial losses, loss of reputation, or loss of the right to operate in a jurisdiction. Like any other risk type, understanding business risks is quite important for every business to garner profits instead of facing losses. A business risk is a universal risk type; this means that every business in the world faces business risks. Therefore, it is imperative to understand the different categories of business risk in order creating the appropriate strategies. The aim of this paper is to describe the most important categories of business risks and to demonstrate that every type of risk has to receive equal treatment and consideration.

  13. Different Categories of Business Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona-Valeria TOMA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Every business organisation involves some element of risk. Unmitigated risks can result in lost opportunity, financial losses, loss of reputation, or loss of the right to operate in a jurisdiction. Like any other risk type, understanding business risks is quite important for every business to garner profits instead of facing losses. A business risk is a universal risk type; this means that every business in the world faces business risks. Therefore, it is imperative to understand the different categories of business risk in order to create the appropriate strategies. The aim of this paper is to describe the most important categories of business risks and to make sure that every type of risk receives equal treatment and consideration.

  14. Structural Colour in Colourimetric Sensors and Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-11

    these structures is readily done using silane chemistry, imparting a degree of specicity to the responses. These mate- rials were shown to be...particular absorber makes the initial and nal apparent colours more sensitive to fabrication variations and harder to reproduce. There are several simple

  15. Demonstration of the Colour Range of Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, G. T.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the construction of a box that is filled with indicator of a particular concentration. A little acid is added to one side and a little alkali to the other so that the complete colour range of the indicator is observable. (GS)

  16. Jottings on protective colour in animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beaufort, de L.F.

    1964-01-01

    I have often been puzzled about the remarkable change of colour in the roedeer, a species that I can watch almost daily from my house. In the winter the greyish brown coat can hardly be distinguished against the dull, brownish shrubby wood, at the border of which they come to feed. The only visible

  17. Size of colour singlets in QCD jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolini, S.; Marchesini, G.

    1982-11-01

    By using the jet calculus technique, the size of the colour singlet clusters of emitted partons of mass Q0 is estimated. For α(Q20)/πapplications of preconfinement in pertubbative QCD. This result is very sensitive to the correct treatment of infrared singularities. Permanent address: Istituto di Fisica, Università di Parma, Parma, Italy.

  18. Performance evaluation of local colour invariants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burghouts, G.J.; Geusebroek, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we compare local colour descriptors to grey-value descriptors. We adopt the evaluation framework of Mikolayzcyk and Schmid. We modify the framework in several ways. We decompose the evaluation framework to the level of local grey-value invariants on which common region descriptors are

  19. A Brief Introduction to Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1997-01-01

    Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets or CPN) is a graphical oriented language for design, specification, simulation and verification of systems. It is in particular well- suited for systems in which communication, synchronisation and resource sharing are important. Typical examples of application areas a...

  20. Recommended Colours for Use on Airborne Displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    generation of military aircraft will also utilise such devices. There are a number of types of colour CRTs but the penetron and shadow mask devices are...towards 610 nm also typifies penetron displays. When these boundaries are superimposed on repre- sentative source (Fig 21) and surface (Fig 22) plots it

  1. Please pass me the skin coloured crayon!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann, Martina; Levisen, Carsten; Beck, Thorhalla Gudmundsdottir

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the cultural semantics of colour words in the four urban, European communities of Munich, Berne, Aarhus, and Reykjavik, focussing on hautfarben (German), hutfarb (Bernese Swiss German), hudfarvet (Danish), and húðlitur (Icelandic), all of which can be translated as ‘skin colou...

  2. Central Limit Theorem for Coloured Hard Dimers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Simonetta Bernabei

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the central limit theorem for a class of coloured graphs. This means that we investigate the limit behavior of certain random variables whose values are combinatorial parameters associated to these graphs. The techniques used at arriving this result comprise combinatorics, generating functions, and conditional expectations.

  3. Dissociation coloured quarks and inclusive scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Bartelski, J

    1974-01-01

    A simple parton model of the nucleon built up of three-triplet quarks dissociated into the Gell-Mann-Zweig quarks and 'coloured' gluons is considered. It is shown that the model is consistent with SLAC-MIT and CERN data for inclusive scattering. (21 refs).

  4. Fusion categories and homotopy theory

    CERN Document Server

    Etingof, Pavel; Ostrik, Victor

    2009-01-01

    We apply the yoga of classical homotopy theory to classification problems of G-extensions of fusion and braided fusion categories, where G is a finite group. Namely, we reduce such problems to classification (up to homotopy) of maps from BG to classifiying spaces of certain higher groupoids. In particular, to every fusion category C we attach the 3-groupoid BrPic(C) of invertible C-bimodule categories, called the Brauer-Picard groupoid of C, such that equivalence classes of G-extensions of C are in bijection with homotopy classes of maps from BG to the classifying space of BrPic(C). This gives rise to an explicit description of both the obstructions to existence of extensions and the data parametrizing them; we work these out both topologically and algebraically. One of the central results of the paper is that the 2-truncation of BrPic(C) is canonically the 2-groupoid of braided autoequivalences of the Drinfeld center Z(C) of C. In particular, this implies that the Brauer-Picard group BrPic(C) (i.e., the grou...

  5. Displaying Photographic Images On Computer Monitors With Limited Colour Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFall, John D.; Mitchell, Joan L.; Pennebaker, William B.

    1989-04-01

    In this paper we address the problem of displaying continuous tone photographic colour images on CRT monitors on which only a limited number of colours can be displayed simultaneously. An algorithm is presented which generates a palette of a limited number of colours, and a method is given for the actual display of a full colour image using such a palette and its associated tables.

  6. Equivalences between Categories of Modules and Categories of Comodules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joost VERCRUYSSE

    2008-01-01

    We show the close connection between apparently different Galois theories for comodules introduced recently in [J.Gómez-Torrecillas and J.Vercruysse,Comatrix corings and Galois Comodules over firm rings,Algebr.Represent.Theory,10 (2007),271-306]and [Wisbauer,On Galois comodules, Comm.Algebra 34 (2006),2683-2711].Furthermore we study equivalences between categories of comodules over a coring and modules over a firm ring.We show that these equivalences are related to Galois theory for comodules.

  7. Highest Weight Categories For Number Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Pilkington, Annette

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the concept of a stratified exact category in the context of number rings and corresponding Galois groups. BGG reciprocity and duality are proven for these categories making them highest weight categories. The strong connections between the structure of the category and ramification in the ring are explored.

  8. Teaching the Absorption of Light Colours Using an Artificial Rainbow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurumezoglu, Kemal; Isik, Hakan; Arikan, Gizem; Kabay, Gozde

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental activity based on the absorption of light colours by pigments. The activity is constructed using a stepwise design and offers an opportunity for students and teachers to compare and generalize the interactions between light and pigment colours. The light colours composing an artificial rainbow produced in the…

  9. Colour picking: the pecking order of form and function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nack, F.-M.; Manniesing, A.S.K.; Hardman, L.

    2003-01-01

    Multimedia presentation generation has to be able to balance the functional aspects of a presentation that address the information needs of the user, and its aesthetic form. We demonstrate our approach using automatic colour design for which we integrate relevant aspects of colour theory. Colour sel

  10. On the colour-colour properties of the Extremely Red Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Bergstrom, S; Bergstrom, Stefan; Wiklind, Tommy

    2004-01-01

    The colours of the galaxy class known as Extremely Red Objects (EROs; R-K>5) are considered to be consistent with two distinct galaxy populations at high redshift: evolved ellipticals or young dusty starbursts. In this paper the properties of EROs, spanned by the five photometric bands RIJHK, are investigated as to the possibility to distinguish between these two galaxy populations using only broad band photometry. The broad band colours of elliptical and starburst galaxies at redshifts up to 5 are computed from synthetic spectra obtained using the spectral evolution synthesis programme PEGASE.2. Two initial mass functions and a range of metallicities and extinctions are used. In order to be extremely red in the redshift range considered, the evolution of the R-K colour sets the requirement that ellipticals have to be less than 7-8 Gyr old, and that the starbursts must have colour excesses of E(B-V)>1, as derived from the nebular emission lines. In investigating the overlap in the different colour-colour plan...

  11. Counting with Colours? Effect of Colours on the Numerical Abilities of House Crows (Corvus splendens) and Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis)

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Nor Amira Abdul; Ali, Zalila; Zuharah, Wan Fatma; Nik FADZLY

    2016-01-01

    We conducted several aviary experiments to investigate the influence of colours in quantity judgments of two species of birds; house crow (Corvus splendens) and common myna (Acridotheres tristis). Different quantity (in seven different food proportions) of mealworms were presented nonsequentially to all birds using artificially coloured red mealworms, for experiment 1, and using artificially coloured green mealworms, for experiment 2. Both red and green coloured mealworms have no significant ...

  12. Mapping spaces in Quasi-categories

    CERN Document Server

    Dugger, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    We apply the Dwyer-Kan theory of homotopy function complexes in model categories to the study of mapping spaces in quasi-categories. Using this, together with our work on rigidification from [DS1], we give a streamlined proof of the Quillen equivalence between quasi-categories and simplicial categories. Some useful material about relative mapping spaces in quasi-categories is developed along the way.

  13. Basic research for environmental restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the midst of a major environmental restoration effort to reduce the health and environmental risks resulting from past waste management and disposal practices at DOE sites. This report describes research needs in environmental restoration and complements a previously published document, DOE/ER-0419, Evaluation of Mid-to-Long Term Basic Research for Environmental Restoration. Basic research needs have been grouped into five major categories patterned after those identified in DOE/ER-0419: (1) environmental transport and transformations; (2) advanced sampling, characterization, and monitoring methods; (3) new remediation technologies; (4) performance assessment; and (5) health and environmental effects. In addition to basic research, this document deals with education and training needs for environmental restoration. 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. Evaluation of Colour Lexemes and its Actualization in the Slavic Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kezina S. V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses patterns of evaluation semantics development in colour lexemes, primarily basic color terms, such as red, white, black, yellow, etc. The most typical tendencies of secondary meanings developement connected with the estimation semantics are revealed on the material of dialectal varieties and literary sources of Russian and other Slavic languages. It was found that in the history of the language colour semantics was generated later than evaluative, sometimes it “merged” with evaluative semantics so firmly and organically that this created the impression that the colour determined the quality of the object. Color lexemes coherently implement polar evaluation (positive and negative that are “selected” by the language, thus the law of word semantic gene pool realization probability appears. In accordance with the law components of the semantic structure of the word (semes, that have naturally developed in the course of its evolution, probabilistically realize themselves in one or in different languages, which implies a natural “turning on” (dominance and “off” (recessiveness of semes in a given period of language development. According to this law colour lexemes actualize evaluative meanings differently in a history of different languages. It is supposed that evaluation passed through several stages of development: significant objects of the real world were evaluated at thirst and became the latest standards for colour designations, then colour of significant object were transferred on humans for nominating their qualities (Russian dial. Bogatie “fire smoldering under the ashes” – bagryany “colour of fire smoldering under the ashes” – bagryanitsa “precious fabric of crimson colour, clothes from such fabric” – bagryanorodny “royal blood person”, Russian dial. zel', zelye “edible herb” – zeleny “grass colour” – zeleny “inexperienced, immature”. Comparison of examples from

  15. Fukaya categories of the torus and Dehn surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekili, Yanki; Perutz, Timothy

    2011-05-17

    This paper is a companion to the authors' forthcoming work extending Heegaard Floer theory from closed 3-manifolds to compact 3-manifolds with two boundary components via quilted Floer cohomology. We describe the first interesting case of this theory: the invariants of 3-manifolds bounding S(2) [symbol: see text] T(2), regarded as modules over the Fukaya category of the punctured 2-torus. We extract a short proof of exactness of the Dehn surgery triangle in Heegaard Floer homology. We show that A(∞)-structures on the graded algebra A formed by the cohomology of two basic objects in the Fukaya category of the punctured 2-torus are governed by just two parameters (m(6), m(8)), extracted from the Hochschild cohomology of A. For the Fukaya category itself, m(6) ≠ 0.

  16. Interpreting the colour of an estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, D. G.; Evans, D.; Thomas, D. N.; Ellis, K.; Williams, P. J. le B.

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores the possibility of using water colour to quantify the concentration of coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM), and through it, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and salinity in a turbid estuary in which suspended sediments also influence water colour. The motivation of the work is that the method could be applied to water colour measurements made remotely from an aircraft (or, in larger estuaries, a satellite) enabling near-synoptic mapping of surface salinity and DOC distributions. The paper describes observations at 29 stations distributed along the salinity gradient of the Conwy estuary in North Wales. At each station, surface water samples were collected and analysed for salinity, concentrations of DOC, chlorophyll and suspended particles and absorption spectra of CDOM, or yellow substance. Profiles were made of both upwelling and downwelling irradiance in four narrow band channels, and these were used to calculate irradiance reflection and attenuation coefficients. Results show that spectrally averaged light absorption in the estuary is caused principally and equally by mineral suspended solids and yellow substance, with water and chlorophyll in third and fourth place. The CDOM is strongly correlated ( R2=0.99) in a negative sense with salinity, and more weakly correlated with DOC. There is a linear relationship between CDOM and the ratio of reflection coefficients in the red (670 nm) and blue-green (490 nm) parts of the spectrum, which could be applied to remote sensing; the slope and intercept of the relationship are however different to those found in less turbid water bodies. It is shown that the change in slope and intercept are consistent with the presence, in the Conwy estuary, of suspended particles which influence the water colour. A method is described and tested for inverting water colour measurements in a turbid estuary to give estimates of CDOM in the presence of suspended particles. The solution, which has not been adjusted to

  17. The Symbolism of Colour in the Modern German Youth Slang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Shavlovska

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of one of the most interesting for the research group of words – colour definitions – in the modern German youth slang. Different peoples created definite symbols of colours, still existing nowadays. Even at present time the problem of colour symbolism is one of the most significant while studying the interrelation between the colour and the psychic of a person. Youth is the most progressive, emotional and creative group of the society, that is why the study of such phenomenon as colour symbolism as the example of youth slang – is especially important for the modern linguocultural study and social linguistics.

  18. Colour Fading of Textile Fabric by Plasma Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. Cheung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Colour fading of a reactive dye (C.I. Reactive Blue 19 dyed textile fabric was performed by atmospheric pressure plasma (APP treatment with the use of plasma jet. Under the APP treatment condition of treatment time = 5 sec/mm; ignition power = 160 W; oxygen concentration = 1%; jet distance = 3 mm, significant colour-fading effect was achieved. For comparison purpose, the reactive dye dyed textile fabric was subjected to conventional enzymatic colour-fading process. Experimental results revealed that the APP-induced colour-fading effect was comparable with conventional enzymatic colour-fading process.

  19. Uropygial gland and bib colouration in the house sparrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorio Moreno-Rueda

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Birds frequently signal different qualities by plumage colouration, mainly during mating. However, plumage colouration is determined during the moult, and therefore it would indicate the quality of individual birds during the moult, not its current quality. Recent studies, however, suggest that birds could modify plumage colouration by using cosmetic preen oil produced by the uropygial gland. In this study, I show that bib colouration is related to uropygial gland size and body condition in male house sparrows (Passer domesticus. Moreover, I conducted an experiment in which a group of sparrows were inoculated with an antigen, mimicking an illness. In control birds, short-term changes in bib colouration were related to both body condition and change in uropygial gland size. Therefore, birds that reduced uropygial gland size showed a greater colouration change. However, bib colouration did not change with the change in uropygial gland size in experimental birds inoculated with the antigen. Given that the experiment did not affect preen oil production or consumption, this finding tentatively suggests that the immune challenge provoked a change in the composition of preen oil, affecting its cosmetic properties. In short, the results of this study suggest that (1 male house sparrows produce cosmetic preen oil that alters the colouration of their bibs; (2 the more change in uropygial gland size, the more change in bib colouration; and (3 in this way, bib colouration has the potential to signal current health status, since less healthy birds showed less capacity to change bib colouration.

  20. Uropygial gland and bib colouration in the house sparrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Rueda, Gregorio

    2016-01-01

    Birds frequently signal different qualities by plumage colouration, mainly during mating. However, plumage colouration is determined during the moult, and therefore it would indicate the quality of individual birds during the moult, not its current quality. Recent studies, however, suggest that birds could modify plumage colouration by using cosmetic preen oil produced by the uropygial gland. In this study, I show that bib colouration is related to uropygial gland size and body condition in male house sparrows (Passer domesticus). Moreover, I conducted an experiment in which a group of sparrows were inoculated with an antigen, mimicking an illness. In control birds, short-term changes in bib colouration were related to both body condition and change in uropygial gland size. Therefore, birds that reduced uropygial gland size showed a greater colouration change. However, bib colouration did not change with the change in uropygial gland size in experimental birds inoculated with the antigen. Given that the experiment did not affect preen oil production or consumption, this finding tentatively suggests that the immune challenge provoked a change in the composition of preen oil, affecting its cosmetic properties. In short, the results of this study suggest that (1) male house sparrows produce cosmetic preen oil that alters the colouration of their bibs; (2) the more change in uropygial gland size, the more change in bib colouration; and (3) in this way, bib colouration has the potential to signal current health status, since less healthy birds showed less capacity to change bib colouration.

  1. Colour From the Perspective of Hadith: an Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainan Nazri Mohd Khairul Nizam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Colour is mentioned a few times in the Prophetic Traditions, signifying its values and symbolic representation for the people. The Prophet PBUH highlighted the significance of certain colours by describing his preferred colours for his clothing and he also approved or discouraged the usage of certain colours. Among the colours that are specifically mentioned and found in the hadith are white, red, green, black and yellow. These colours give different connotations as they were used in the Prophet’s attires during battles and other occasions; and some bring about specific understanding, as stated by the Prophet PBUH. Interestingly, the use of certain colours as found in the hadith corresponds to that mentioned in the Qur’an. Thus, this paper will observe the discussion among Muhaddithin regarding to the topic of colours in terms of its definition, function, significance and impact on the human life. The variety of meaning and understanding of colours according to different perspectives and cultures will also be discussed. The implications of using specific colours psychologically and scientifically will also be exposed in order to discover the connection between colours in the Prophetic Traditions and in our contemporary life.

  2. Colour how we see it and sow we use it

    CERN Document Server

    Woolfson, Michael Mark

    2016-01-01

    Colour makes our lives more interesting how dull it would be in a black-and-white world! It pleases us aesthetically, entertains us and is useful to us. This unique book aims to describe the scientific nature of colour and light, and how we see it, in an accessible and easily understandable style. The evolution of the eye, science of colour and technical visual systems are all broken down into readable chapters, with clear images and illustrations provided for reference. The book then goes on to discuss the innate tendency of humankind to produce artistic works as conceived, realised and augmented through the use of colour. Focussing on broad forms of artistic entertainment painting with pigments and dyes, colour and light in photography and cinematography, light displays and colour in television this book then delivers a comprehensive review of what colour means and has meant in the creative arts.

  3. The colour of domestication and the designer chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppy, Andrew

    2011-03-01

    Colour is an important feature of most living organisms. In the wild, colour has great significance affecting the survival and reproductive success of the species. The environmental constraints which lead to the specific colours of birds and animals are very strong and individuals of novel colours tend not to survive. Under domestication, mankind has transformed all the species involved which have thus been freed from environmental pressures to a large extent. Early colour variants were mostly selected for utility reasons or religious practices. In more recent centuries colour varieties have been created purely for ornament and pleasure, fashion playing a surprisingly large part in their development. A bewildering array of colours and patterns can now be found in all our commensal species, especially the Domestic Fowl ( Gallus gallus domesticus).

  4. Colour gradients in the optical and near-IR

    CERN Document Server

    De Jong, R S

    1995-01-01

    For many years broadband colours have been used to obtain insight into the contents of galaxies, in particular to estimate stellar and dust content. Broadband colours are easy to obtain for large samples of objects, making them ideal for statistical studies. In this paper I use the radial distribution of the colours in galaxies, which gives more insight into the local processes driving the global colour differences than integrated colours. Almost all galaxies in my sample of 86 face-on galaxies become systematically bluer with increasing radius. The radial photometry is compared to new dust extinction models and stellar population synthesis models. This comparison shows that the colour gradients in face-on galaxies are best explained by age and metallicity gradients in the stellar populations and that dust reddening plays a minor role. The colour gradients imply M/L gradients, making the `missing light' problem as derived from rotation curve fitting even worse.

  5. Testing of Nonlinear Filters For Coloured Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macek, Wieslaw M.; Redaelli, Stefano; Plewczynski, Dariusz

    We focus on nonlinearity and deterministic behaviour of classical model systems cor- rupted by white or coloured noise. Therefore, we use nonlinear filters to give a faith- ful representation of nonlinear behaviour of the systems. We also analyse time series of a real system, namely, we study velocities of of the solar wind plasma including Alfvénic fluctuations measured in situ by the Helios spacecraft in the inner helio- sphere. We demonstrate that the influence of white and coloured noise in the data records can be efficiently reduced by a nonlinear filter. We show that due to this non- linear noise reduction we get with much reliability estimates of the largest Lyapunov exponent and the Kolmogorov entropy.

  6. Colour dosemeters for high level radiation dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schönbacher, H.; Coninckx, F.; Miller, A.;

    1990-01-01

    interpretation or a dose measurement with a simple instrument such as a portable reflecting densitometer in the range of 10(3) to 10(6) Gy. Two projects were investigated: (1) a thin plastic film with a self adhesive tape containing a radiochromic dye which induces a colour change when exposed to ionising...... radiation; and (2) a paint containing a base substance with a pigment. The paint dosemeter remained unaffected by irradiation up to 3 x 10(4) Gy while the film dosemeter showed a measurable colour change from 10(4) Gy to 5 x 10(5) Gy. Above 10(6) Gy the film dosemeter is destroyed by radiation. Samples...

  7. Mushroom Processing Retaining Colour Without Losing Weight

    OpenAIRE

    Gormley, T. R. (Thomas Ronan); Walshe, P.E.

    1986-01-01

    Processed mushrooms must be blanched so that they will retain an acceptable white colour. However,. This can lead to a weight loss of between 20 and 30 per cent, which is bad economy for the processor. Research at Kinsealy Research Centre has come up with some solution for this problem. Breading of unblanched mushrooms prior to freezing is one. Another successful technique is to treat mushrooms with xanthan gum prior to blanching in the case of frozen or canned mushrooms.

  8. Colour-Charged Quark Matter in Astrophysics?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Cong-Xin; XU Ren-Xin

    2006-01-01

    Colour confinement is only a supposition, which has not yet been proven in QCD. Here we propose that macroscopic quark-gluon plasma in astrophysics could hardly maintain colourless because of causality. It is expected that the existence of chromatic strange quark stars as well as chromatic strangelets preserved from the QCD phase transition in the early Universe could be unavoidable if their colourless correspondents do exist.

  9. Constraining RRc candidates using SDSS colours

    CERN Document Server

    Bányai, E; Molnár, L; Dobos, L; Szabó, R

    2016-01-01

    The light variations of first-overtone RR Lyrae stars and contact eclipsing binaries can be difficult to distinguish. The Catalina Periodic Variable Star catalog contains several misclassified objects, despite the classification efforts by Drake et al. (2014). They used metallicity and surface gravity derived from spectroscopic data (from the SDSS database) to rule out binaries. Our aim is to further constrain the catalog using SDSS colours to estimate physical parameters for stars that did not have spectroscopic data.

  10. Proton Spin from General Colour Symmetry Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Xiao-Fu; LI Ying-Chuan; WEN Xin-Min

    2001-01-01

    The quark wavefunction in a proton has been calculated by using the global colour symmetry model. We find that the property of this wavefunction is closely related to the nonperturbative vacuum configuration. Using the wavefunction we make the calculation of the matrix element of the axial vector current of the quarks in the proton ground state. Its value is found to be 0.17, which is perfectly consistent with 0.23(+6).

  11. Light colour preference of growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Szendrő

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the light colour preference of growing rabbits placed in a free-choice cage. The experiment was carried out on 128 Pannon White growing rabbits weaned at the age of 5 weeks and placed into blocks (2m2 of four cages. The rabbits could move freely among the four cages (0.5m2 each through swing doors. The cages differed only in the colour of the light applied (white, yellow, green or blue. The lighting schedule was 16L: 8D. From 6 until 10 weeks of age, infrared video recording was performed once a week (24 hours. The number of rabbits in each cage was counted every 15 minutes. Feed consumption was measured weekly. Between 6 and 10 weeks of age the rabbits significantly preferred white light (28.0%. The preference order was the following: yellow (26.3%, blue (23.4% and green (22.3% (P<0.001. No significant differences were recorded in the feed consumption among the cages. In conclusion, the cage preference of the rabbits was slightly affected by the light colour.

  12. COLOUR IMAGE REPRESENTION OF MULTISPECTRAL IMAGE FUSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preema Mole

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The availability of imaging sensors operating in multiple spectral bands has led to the requirement of image fusion algorithms that would combine the image from these sensors in an efficient way to give an image that is more perceptible to human eye. Multispectral Image fusion is the process of combining images optically acquired in more than one spectral band. In this paper, we present a pixel-level image fusion that combines four images from four different spectral bands namely near infrared(0.76-0.90um, mid infrared(1.55-1.75um,thermal- infrared(10.4-12.5um and mid infrared(2.08-2.35um to give a composite colour image. The work coalesces a fusion technique that involves linear transformation based on Cholesky decomposition of the covariance matrix of source data that converts multispectral source images which are in grayscale into colour image. This work is composed of different segments that includes estimation of covariance matrix of images, cholesky decomposition and transformation ones. Finally, the fused colour image is compared with the fused image obtained by PCA transformation.

  13. The evolution of colour pattern complexity: selection for conspicuousness favours contrasting within-body colour combinations in lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez I de Lanuza, G; Font, E

    2016-05-01

    Many animals display complex colour patterns that comprise several adjacent, often contrasting colour patches. Combining patches of complementary colours increases the overall conspicuousness of the complex pattern, enhancing signal detection. Therefore, selection for conspicuousness may act not only on the design of single colour patches, but also on their combination. Contrasting long- and short-wavelength colour patches are located on the ventral and lateral surfaces of many lacertid lizards. As the combination of long- and short-wavelength-based colours generates local chromatic contrast, we hypothesized that selection may favour the co-occurrence of lateral and ventral contrasting patches, resulting in complex colour patterns that maximize the overall conspicuousness of the signal. To test this hypothesis, we performed a comparative phylogenetic study using a categorical colour classification based on spectral data and descriptive information on lacertid coloration collected from the literature. Our results demonstrate that conspicuous ventral (long-wavelength-based) and lateral (short-wavelength-based) colour patches co-occur throughout the lacertid phylogeny more often than expected by chance, especially in the subfamily Lacertini. These results suggest that selection promotes the evolution of the complex pattern rather than the acquisition of a single conspicuous colour patch, possibly due to the increased conspicuousness caused by the combination of colours with contrasting spectral properties.

  14. A universal ultraviolet-optical colour-colour-magnitude relation of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Chilingarian, Igor

    2011-01-01

    Although the optical colour-magnitude diagram of galaxies allows one to select red sequence objects, neither can it be used for galaxy classification without additional observational data such as spectra or high-resolution images, nor to identify blue galaxies at unknown redshifts. We show that adding the near ultraviolet colour to the optical CMD reveals a tight relation in the three-dimensional colour-colour-magnitude space smoothly continuing from the "blue cloud" to the "red sequence". We found that 98 per cent of 225,000 low-redshift (Z<0.27) galaxies follow a smooth surface g-r=F(M,NUV-r) with a standard deviation of 0.03-0.07 mag making it the tightest known galaxy photometric relation. There is a strong correlation between morphological types and integrated NUV-r colours. Rare galaxy classes such as E+A or tidally stripped systems become outliers that occupy distinct regions in the 3D parameter space. Using stellar population models for galaxies with different SFHs, we show that (a) the (NUV-r, g-r...

  15. Interior Operators and Topological Categories

    CERN Document Server

    Luna-Torres, Joaquin

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of the categorical notion of closure operators has unified various important notions and has led to interesting examples and applications in diverse areas of mathematics (see for example, Dikranjan and Tholen (\\cite{DT})). For a topological space it is well-known that the associated closure and interior operators provide equivalent descriptions of the topology, but this is not true in general. So, it makes sense to define and study the notion of interior operators $I$ in the context of a category $\\mathfrak C$ and a fixed class $\\mathcal M$ of monomorphisms in $\\mathfrak C$ closed under composition in such a way that $\\mathfrak C$ is finitely $\\mathcal M$-complete and the inverse images of morphisms have both left and right adjoint, which is the purpose of this paper.

  16. Virtue Ethics: The Misleading Category

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Nussbaum

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Virtue ethics is frequently considered to be a single category of ethical theory, and a rival to Kantianismand Utilitarianism. I argue that this approach is a mistake, because both Kantians and Utilitarians can, and do, have an interest in the virtues and the forrnation of character. But even if we focus on the group of ethical theorists who are most commonly called "virtue theorists" because they reject the guidance of both Kantianism and Utilitarianism, and derive inspiration from ancient Greek ethics, there is little unity to this group. Although there is a thin common ground that links all the group's members - a focus on the formation of character, on the nature of the passions, and on choice over the whole course of life - there are also crucial differences among them.

  17. Color Categories as Fuzzy Sets. Working Papers of the Language Behavior Research Laboratory. No. 44.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Paul; McDaniel, Chad K.

    Since Berlin and Kay's proposal in 1969 of two universals concerning the meanings of basic color words, three kinds of information have become available to help in understanding the encoding sequence, that is, the temporal order in which the basic color categories are accorded lexical status. McDaniel (1972, 1974, forthcoming) demonstrates that…

  18. BGP reflection functors in root categories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Jie; ZHANG Guanglian; ZHU Bin

    2005-01-01

    We define the BGP-reflection functors in the derived categories and the root categories. By Ringel's Hall algebra approach, the BGP-reflection functor is applicable to obtain the classical Weyl group action on the Lie algebra.

  19. A 60-year ocean colour data set from the continuous plankton recorder

    KAUST Repository

    Raitsos, Dionysios E.

    2012-11-20

    The phytoplankton colour index (PCI) of the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) survey is an in situ measure of ocean colour, which is considered a proxy of the phytoplankton biomass. PCI has been extensively used to describe the major spatiotemporal patterns of phytoplankton in the North Atlantic Ocean and North Sea since 1931. Regardless of its wide application, the lack of an adequate evaluation to test the PCI\\'s quantitative nature is an important limitation. To address this concern, a field trial over the main production season has been undertaken to assess the numerical values assigned by previous investigations for each category of the greenness of the PCI. CPRs were towed across the English Channel from Roscoff to Plymouth consecutively for each of 8 months producing 76 standard CPR samples, each representing 10 nautical miles of tow. The results of this experiment test and update the PCI methodology, and confirm the validity of this long-term in situ ocean colour data set. In addition, using a 60-year time series of the PCI of the western English Channel, a comparison is made between the previous and the current revised experimental calculations of PCI. © 2012 The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  20. A simplified method for generation of pseudo natural colours from colour infrared aerial photos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Thomas; Olsen, Brian Pilemann

    In spite of their high potential for automated discrimination between vegetation and human made objects, colour-infrared (CIR) aerial photos have not been in widespread use for traditional photogrammetric mapping. This is probably due to their awkward colour representation invalidating the visual...... analytical experience of the stereo analysts doing the actual registration of the topographical data. In this paper, we present a method for generating pseudo natural colour (PNC) representations from CIR photos. This enables the combination of automated vegetation discrimination with traditional manual...... mapping methods. The method presented is a dramatic simplification of a recently published method, going from a 7 step to a 2 step procedure. The first step is a classification of the input image into 4 domains, based on simple thresholding of a vegetation index and a saturation measure for each pixel...

  1. Minimum Perceptible Differences in the Colour Reproduction of Photographic Prints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Carol Ann

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Electronic simulations of the Macbeth Color Checker Chart were prepared such that each of the eighteen colour patches could be varied independently from the rest of the chart. The output was in the form of photographic colour prints which comprised a ring-around set of 168 prints for each of the colour patches, where each print was a colour perturbation from a standard print. Twelve observers, with normal colour vision, judged the prints in each set to be perceptibly different or not perceptibly different from the standard print, for each patch. The experimental results, in the form of hue-orientated and non hue-orientated ellipses, were compared with MacAdam type ellipses, CIELAB unit ellipses and ellipses derived from the CMC(1:c) colour difference formula: the comparisons were made in the 1976 CIELAB colour space. Colour reproduction indices were calculated for the end points of the semi-major and semi-minor axes of the CMC ellipses, for each of the eighteen colour patches. The coefficient of variation was very small for the combined hue index, the combined chroma index and the overall combined index, indicating that the mean values for these indices could be assigned to any of the ellipses as a measure of the minimum perceptible difference in terms of colour appearance.

  2. A convenient category for directed homotopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fajstrup, Lisbeth; Rosický, J.

    We propose a convenient category for directed homotopy consisting of preordered topological spaces generated by cubes. Its main advantage is that, like the category of topological spaces generated by simplices suggested by J. H. Smith, it is locally presentable.......We propose a convenient category for directed homotopy consisting of preordered topological spaces generated by cubes. Its main advantage is that, like the category of topological spaces generated by simplices suggested by J. H. Smith, it is locally presentable....

  3. A convenient category for directed homotopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fajstrup, Lisbeth; Rosický, J.

    2008-01-01

    We propose a convenient category for directed homotopy consisting of "directed" topological spaces generated by "directed" cubes. Its main advantage is that, like the category of topological spaces generated by simplices suggested by J. H. Smith, it is locally presentable.......We propose a convenient category for directed homotopy consisting of "directed" topological spaces generated by "directed" cubes. Its main advantage is that, like the category of topological spaces generated by simplices suggested by J. H. Smith, it is locally presentable....

  4. Category of Generalized Intuitionistic Fuzzy Sets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGWan-cai; LIXiao-shen

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, category GIFS of generalized intuitionistic fuzzy sets(GIF) is built up. Topoi properties of category GIFS axe studied. Firstly, it is proved that the category GIFS has all topoi properties except that it has no subobject classifiers, Secondly, it is proved that the category GIFS has middle object and consequently GIFS is a weak topos.Thirdly, by the use of theory of weak topos GIFS,the power object of an object in GIFS is studied.

  5. Can Grapheme-Colour Synaesthesia be Induced by Hypnosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazel Patricia Anderson

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Grapheme-colour synaesthesia is a perceptual experience where graphemes, letters or words evoke a specific colour, which are experienced either as spatially coincident with the grapheme inducer (projector sub-type or elsewhere, perhaps without a definite spatial location (associator sub-type. Here, we address the question of whether synaesthesia can be rapidly produced using a hypnotic colour suggestion to examine the possibility of ‘hypnotic synaesthesia’, i.e. subjectively experienced colour hallucinations similar to those experienced by projector synaesthetes. We assess the efficacy of this intervention using an embedded figures test, in which participants are required to detect a shape (e.g., a square composed of local graphemic elements. For grapheme-colour synaesthetes, better performance on the task has been linked to a higher proportion of graphemes perceived as coloured. We found no performance benefits on this test when using a hypnotic suggestion, as compared to a no-suggestion control condition. The same result was found when participants were separated according to the degree to which they were susceptible to the suggestion (number of coloured trials perceived. However, we found a relationship between accuracy and subjective reports of colour in those participants who reported a large proportion of coloured trials: trials in which the embedded figure was accurately recognised (relative to trials in which it was not were associated with reports of more intense colours occupying a greater spatial extent. Collectively, this implies that hypnotic colour was only perceived after shape detection rather than aiding in shape detection via colour-based perceptual grouping. The results suggest that hypnotically induced colours are not directly comparable to synaesthetic ones.

  6. The Colourful Space of Pure Form. The Problem of Colour in Theory and Practice in the Work of Stanisław Ignacy Witkiewicz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Żakiewicz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Colour was a very important problem in the whole work of Stanisław Ignacy Witkiewicz. Not only a whole chapter of his basic theoretical work Nowe formy w malarstwie (New Forms in Painting, published 1919 was devoted to that but the artist also examined his theory in practice executing many paintings presenting his ideas (e.g. Self-portrait, 1913, Portrait of Feliks Lewiński, 1917, Portrait of Maria Witkiewiczowa, 1918 and many others. A base for that was a harmony of complementary colours: green and red, blue and orange, violet and yellow. Many theorists before Witkacy were interested in that: Wolfgang Goethe, Philip Otto Runge, Wassili Kandinsky. The artist didn’t mention them in his deliberations but a psychologist, Hermann Ebinghaus (Grundzüge der Psychologie, 1897 and other artists only: Paul Gauguin and Pablo Picasso. Witkacy even copied one of Gauguin’s paintings, Te Arii Vahine and described it in his writings as the best example of Pure Form. Witkacy enthusiastically described Picasso’s paintings in his first novel 622 upadki Bunga (622 Downfalls of Bungo, written ca. 1910, first published 1972 and mentioned many times in his theoretical works. The artist appreciated also Georges Seurat’s paintings and his thoughts on colours. Witkacy himself created a detailed systempresenting the best colour schemes and described many compositions corresponding to that. In 1938 the artist wrote an article O istocie malarstwa (On the Essence of Painting, which was an opposition to his earlier thoughts. In the end of his life the artist decided that the most important was imagination instead of theoretical rules.

  7. The Basics of Basic Education: Reflections on the Review and Updating of Basic Education Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Coll

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This lecture presents a reflection on the fundamental content of the basic education curriculum. The arguments set forth within the Spanish educational context may be divided into three main categories. The first refers to the contradictions in the decision making processes regarding what should be taught and what should be learned in basic education, and in which the requirement to attend to the needs of new social, economic and technological scenarios call for the incorporation of new content in the curriculum, but the accumulation of curricular contents makes it practically impossible for them to be taught and learned. Secondly, the author ponders some aspects or dimensions that acquire a special relevance in the new perspective of the basic education curriculum and in which concepts of content such as “indispensable basic” and “desirable basic” are discussed as criteria for decision making. Finally, in the third category, a succinct diagram is presented as an example based on the concepts of literacy, competency and knowledge associated with the acquisition and development of the capacities that illustrate this new perspective.

  8. Cascade category-aware visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shiliang; Tian, Qi; Huang, Qingming; Gao, Wen; Rui, Yong

    2014-06-01

    Incorporating image classification into image retrieval system brings many attractive advantages. For instance, the search space can be narrowed down by rejecting images in irrelevant categories of the query. The retrieved images can be more consistent in semantics by indexing and returning images in the relevant categories together. However, due to their different goals on recognition accuracy and retrieval scalability, it is hard to efficiently incorporate most image classification works into large-scale image search. To study this problem, we propose cascade category-aware visual search, which utilizes weak category clue to achieve better retrieval accuracy, efficiency, and memory consumption. To capture the category and visual clues of an image, we first learn category-visual words, which are discriminative and repeatable local features labeled with categories. By identifying category-visual words in database images, we are able to discard noisy local features and extract image visual and category clues, which are hence recorded in a hierarchical index structure. Our retrieval system narrows down the search space by: 1) filtering the noisy local features in query; 2) rejecting irrelevant categories in database; and 3) preforming discriminative visual search in relevant categories. The proposed algorithm is tested on object search, landmark search, and large-scale similar image search on the large-scale LSVRC10 data set. Although the category clue introduced is weak, our algorithm still shows substantial advantages in retrieval accuracy, efficiency, and memory consumption than the state-of-the-art.

  9. Weakly exact categories and the snake lemma

    CERN Document Server

    Jafari, Amir

    2009-01-01

    We generalize the notion of an exact category and introduce weakly exact categories. A proof of the snake lemma in this general setting is given. Some applications are given to illustrate how one can do homological algebra in a weakly exact category.

  10. French Basic Course: Supplementary Material. Song Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This song book is presented as supplementary material for the French Basic Course. It provides the words to 36 French songs. The songs are divided into five categories: (1) military songs, (2) sea songs, (3) drinking songs, (4) folklore songs, and (5) Christmas carols. (AMH)

  11. Colour-rendition properties of solid-state lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žukauskas, A.; Vaicekauskas, R.; Shur, M. S.

    2010-09-01

    The applicability of colour-quality metrics to solid-state light sources is validated and the results of the assessment of colour-rendition characteristics of various lamps are presented. The standard colour-rendering index metric or a refined colour-quality scale metric fails to distinguish between two principle colour-rendition properties of illumination: the ability to render object colours with high fidelity and the ability to increase chromatic contrast, especially when the spectra of light sources contain a few narrow-band electroluminescence components. Supplementing these metrics by the known figures of merit that measure the gamut area of a small number of test colour samples does not completely resolve this issue. In contrast, the statistical approach, which is based on sorting a very large number of test colour samples in respect of just-perceivable colour distortions of several kinds, offers a comprehensive assessment of colour-rendition properties of solid-state light sources. In particular, two statistical indices, colour-fidelity index (CFI) and colour-saturation index (CSI), which are the relative numbers of object colours rendered with high fidelity and increased saturation, respectively, are sufficient to reveal and assess three distinct types of solid-state light sources. These are (i) high-fidelity lamps, which cover the entire spectrum with the spectral components present in the wavelength ranges of both 530-610 nm and beyond 610 nm (e.g. trichromatic warm white phosphor-converted (pc) light-emitting diodes (LEDs), red-amber-green-blue LED clusters, complementary clusters of white and coloured LEDs); (ii) colour-saturating lamps, which lack power in the 530-610 nm wavelength range (e.g. red-green-blue or red-cyan-blue LED clusters) and (iii) colour-dulling lamps, which lack power for wavelengths longer than 610 nm (dichromatic daylight pc LEDs and amber-green-blue LED clusters). Owing to a single statistical format, CSI and CFI can be used for

  12. Coat colour changes associated with cabergoline administration in bitches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobello, C; Castex, G; Broglia, G; Corrada, Y

    2003-08-01

    Cabergoline or bromocriptine were administered orally to 60 bitches at doses of 5 microg/kg and 15 microg/kg daily, respectively, for two to 45 days for the treatment of pseudopregnancy or for oestrus induction. Seven of the dogs which received cabergoline for more than 14 days developed coat colour changes from the second week of administration to the next coat shedding. Of these, fawn-coloured bitches developed a yellowish coat colour while Argentine boar hounds became black spotted, mainly on their extremities. In previous untreated oestrous periods, these bitches had shown no coat colour changes. It is concluded that a colour shift in certain haircoats of particular breeds could be mediated through the inhibition of the secretion of melanocyte-stimulating hormone by the administration of the dopaminergic agonist cabergoline for more than two weeks. Transient coat colour changes should be considered a possible side effect when planning long-term treatment with dopaminergic agonists in dogs.

  13. Human eye colour and HERC2, OCA2 and MATP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mengel-From, Jonas; Børsting, Claus; Sanchez, Juan J.

    2010-01-01

    Prediction of human eye colour by forensic genetic methods is of great value in certain crime investigations. Strong associations between blue/brown eye colour and the SNP loci rs1129038 and rs12913832 in the HERC2 gene were recently described. Weaker associations between eye colour and other...... value of typing either the HERC2 SNPs rs1129038 and/or rs12913832 that are in strong linkage disequilibrium was observed when eye colour was divided into two groups, (1) blue, grey and green (light) and (2) brown and hazel (dark). Sequence variations in rs11636232 and rs7170852 in HERC2, rs1800407...... in OCA2 and rs16891982 in MATP showed additional association with eye colours in addition to the effect of HERC2 rs1129038. Diplotype analysis of three sequence variations in HERC2 and one sequence variation in OCA2 showed the best discrimination between light and dark eye colours with a likelihood ratio...

  14. Research on reality map colour design computer model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘书楼; 陈宝雯; 刘天舒; 施祖辉; 卢峰; 韩培军; 刘冰

    1995-01-01

    Through the crucial techniques and technical difficulties of the research on reality map colour design computer model (RMCDCM), based on the principle of chromatics and the experimental analysis, a new model about the transformation between CMY ink printing and RGB screen colours and RMCDCM is set up In the chromatics, there is a general concept that the range of RGB screen colours is larger than that of printing colours. The concept is exactly explained. It not only accounts for the erroneous phenomena from the theory which are produced when CRT monitor, PAL and NTSC models reproduce printing colour standards, but also solves the technical problems from the methodology which long exist in the research for screen reproduction and printing restoration of printing colour standards. A theoretical basis is provided.

  15. A history of chorological categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattorini, S

    2016-09-01

    One of the purposes of the research program referred to as "systematic biogeography" is the use of species distributions to identify regions and reconstruct biotic area relationships. The reverse, i.e. to group species according to the areas that they live in, leads to the recognition of chorological categories. Biogeographers, working under these two different approaches, have proposed several terms to refer to groups of species that have similar distributions, such as "element", "chorotype" and "component". A historical reconstruction, including semantic observations and philosophical implications, shows that these terms have been used in a variety of senses. The word "component" should not be used in biogeography. The word "element" has been used to identify both a group of species defined according to the biogeographic areas they occupy and a group of species with an assumed shared biogeographic history. It is especially because of the influence of the dispersalist paradigm, which dominated evolutionary thought until the mid-twentieth century, that the second definition has been frequently adopted. The term "element" is therefore ambiguous and its use should always be associated with an explicit definition. The word "chorotype" should be used to define groups of species with similar ranges when no causal assumption is made. The concept of "chorotype," finally, should not be confounded with other concepts such as distributional pattern, cenocron, horofauna, biota, endemic area, area of endemism, biotic element, and generalized track, which are also discussed in this paper.

  16. Learning Category-Specific Dictionary and Shared Dictionary for Fine-Grained Image Categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shenghua; Tsang, Ivor Wai-Hung; Ma, Yi

    2014-02-01

    This paper targets fine-grained image categorization by learning a category-specific dictionary for each category and a shared dictionary for all the categories. Such category-specific dictionaries encode subtle visual differences among different categories, while the shared dictionary encodes common visual patterns among all the categories. To this end, we impose incoherence constraints among the different dictionaries in the objective of feature coding. In addition, to make the learnt dictionary stable, we also impose the constraint that each dictionary should be self-incoherent. Our proposed dictionary learning formulation not only applies to fine-grained classification, but also improves conventional basic-level object categorization and other tasks such as event recognition. Experimental results on five data sets show that our method can outperform the state-of-the-art fine-grained image categorization frameworks as well as sparse coding based dictionary learning frameworks. All these results demonstrate the effectiveness of our method.

  17. FIR colours and SEDs of nearby galaxies observed with Herschel

    OpenAIRE

    Boselli, A.; Bock, J.; Bradford, M; Fadda, D.; Levenson, L.; Lu, N.; Schulz, B.; Wright, G.

    2010-01-01

    We present infrared colours (in the 25−500 μm spectral range) and UV to radio continuum spectral energy distributions of a sample of 51 nearby galaxies observed with SPIRE on Herschel. The observed sample includes all morphological classes, from quiescent ellipticals to active starbursts. Active galaxies have warmer colour temperatures than normal spirals. In ellipticals hosting a radio galaxy, the far-infrared (FIR) emission is dominated by the synchrotron nuclear emission. The colour temper...

  18. Perceptual organization in colour perception: Inverting the gamut expansion effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekroll, Vebjørn; Faul, Franz

    2013-01-01

    In the well-known gamut expansion effect, uniformly coloured target patches are perceived as more colourful when they are embedded in a uniform grey surround than when they are embedded in a variegated one. Here, we provide a demonstration showing that this effect can be inverted when the uniformly coloured target patches are replaced by variegated ones. This observation suggests that the gamut expansion effect is due to mechanisms of transparency perception rather than due to contrast adaptation.

  19. Perceptual Organization in Colour Perception: Inverting the Gamut Expansion Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vebjørn Ekroll

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In the well-known gamut expansion effect, uniformly coloured target patches are perceived as more colourful when they are embedded in a uniform grey surround than when they are embedded in a variegated one. Here, we provide a demonstration showing that this effect can be inverted when the uniformly coloured target patches are replaced by variegated ones. This observation suggests that the gamut expansion effect is due to mechanisms of transparency perception rather than due to contrast adaptation.

  20. FIR colours and SEDs of nearby galaxies observed with Herschel

    OpenAIRE

    Boselli, A.; Ciesla, L.; Buat, V.; Cortese, L.; Auld, R.; Baes, Maarten; Bendo, GJ; S. Bianchi; Bock, J.; Bomans, DJ; Bradford, M; Castro-Rodriguez, N.; Chanial, P.; Charlot, S.; Clemens, M.

    2010-01-01

    We present infrared colours (in the 25-500 mu m spectral range) and UV to radio continuum spectral energy distributions of a sample of 51 nearby galaxies observed with SPIRE on Herschel. The observed sample includes all morphological classes, from quiescent ellipticals to active starbursts. Active galaxies have warmer colour temperatures than normal spirals. In ellipticals hosting a radio galaxy, the far-infrared (FIR) emission is dominated by the synchrotron nuclear emission. The colour temp...

  1. Colour characteristics of winter wheat grits of different grain size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horváth Zs. H.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, wheat has spread all over the world due to its extensive usability. The colour of wheat grits is very important for the milling and baking industry because it determines the colour of the products made from it. The instrumental colour measuring is used, first of all, for durum wheat. We investigated the relationship between colour characteristics and grain size in the case of different hard aestivum wheats. We determined the colour using the CIE (Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage 1976 L*, a*, b* colour system measured by MINOLTA CR-300 tristimulus colorimeter. After screening the colour of the wheat fractions of different grain size, grits was measured wet and dry. We determined the L*, a*, b* colour co-ordinates and the whiteness index, too. To evaluate the values we had obtained, we used analysis of variance and regression analysis. We pointed out that the colour of wheat grits of different grain size is dependent on the hardness index of wheat. The lightness co-ordinate (L* of grits of the harder wheat is smaller, while a* and b* co-ordinates are higher. We also found that while grain size rises, the L* co-ordinate decreases and a*, b* values increase in the case of every type of wheat. The colour of grits is determined by the colour of fractions of 250-400 μm in size, independently from the average grain size. The whiteness index and the L* colour co-ordinate have a linear relation (R2 = 0.9151; so, the determination of whiteness index is not necessary. The L* value right characterizes the whiteness of grits.

  2. Genetics and evolution of colour patterns in reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Mats; Stuart-Fox, Devi; Ballen, Cissy

    2013-01-01

    The study of coloration in the polyphyletic reptilians has flourished in the last two decades, in particular with respect to the underlying genetics of colour traits, the function of colours in social interactions, and ongoing selection on these traits in the wild. The taxonomic bias, however, is profound: at this level of resolution almost all available information is for diurnal lizards. Therefore, we focus on case studies, for which there are as complete causal sequences of colour evolution as possible, from phenotypic expression of variation in colour, to ongoing selection in the wild. For work prior to 1992 and for a broader coverage of reptilian coloration we refer the readers to Cooper and Greenburg's (Biology of the Reptilia, 1992) review. There are seven major conclusions we would like to emphasise: (a) visual systems in diurnal lizards are broadly conserved but among the wider range of reptiles in general, there is functionally important variation in the number and type of photoreceptors, spectral tuning of photopigments and optical properties of the eye; (b) coloration in reptiles is a function of complex interactions between structural and pigmentary components, with implications for both proximate control and condition dependence of colour expression; (c) studies of colour-variable species have enabled estimates of heritability of colour and colour patterns, which often show a simple Mendelian pattern of inheritance; (d) colour-polymorphic lizard species sometimes, but not always, show striking differences in genetically encoded reproductive tactics and provide useful models for studying the evolution and maintenance of polymorphism; (e) both male and female colours are sometimes, but not always, a significant component of socio-sexual signalling, often based on multiple traits; (f) evidence for effects of hormones and condition on colour expression, and trade-offs with immunocompetence and parasite load, is variable; (g) lizards show fading of colours

  3. Colour particle states behaviour in the QCD vacuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuvshinov V.I.

    2016-01-01

    The behaviour of squeezed and entangled quantum states, the interaction of colour superpositions and multiparticle states with stochastic QCD vacuum is described. It is shown that it leads to a fully mixed quantum state with equal probabilities for different colours. Decoherence rate is found to be proportional to the product of the distance between colour charges and the time during which this interaction has taken place. I.e. such an interaction seems to lead naturally to confinement of quarks.

  4. Multicolour interphase cytogenetics: 24 chromosome probes, 6 colours, 4 layers

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    From the late 1980s onwards, the use of DNA probes to visualise sequences on individual chromosomes (fluorescent in-situ hybridisation - FISH) revolutionised the study of cytogenetics. Following single colour experiments, more fluorochromes were added, culminating in a 24 colour assay that could distinguish all human chromosomes. Interphase cytogenetics (the detection of chromosome copy number in interphase nuclei) soon followed, however 24 colour experiments are hampered for this application...

  5. COLOUR TERMS IN MODERN LINGUISTICS: SEMANTIC AND SEMIOTIC ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. SAPIGA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of colour terms in modern linguistics, and in particular its semantic and semiotic aspects. The aim of the article is to identify the lexical-semantic features of colour terms in the definition of national cultural identity of linguistic and speech means. Special attention is paid to semantic diversity of colour symbolism, which is closely related to psychological perception and has numerous crosscultural differences in relation to the events in people's lives. The article analyzes the so-called colour vocabulary, namely, the colour -indication, describing shades of colour that have a narrative structure and are in direct and additional value. In particular, we take into account the metaphorical reconsiderations of the peripheral color-namings and color terms, which include, for example, borrowed and terminological adjectives, neologisms, archaisms, nonce words etc. From the point of view of belonging the colorindication to different parts of speech, a significant group is made by adjectives , suffixal formation, etc. The lexico-semantic field of colour has a high degree of organization. Modern researches of determining the nature of lexical-semantic field of colour terms confirm the presence of about ten pigment genes, which are individual for each person. A defined set of pigment genes allows a person to perceive colour and its shades in different ways. Observations of colour perception in people of different cultures discover the dependence and the relationship between concepts and words in various systems, which explain the differences in the reactions to colour and the absence of a specific hue in different cultures. The analysis revealed the close relationship of colour symbolism with a mental and psychological component that reflects the moods, the reality and situation-specific nature of the occurring phenomena.

  6. Age differences on Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panek, P E; Stoner, S B

    1980-06-01

    Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices was administered to 150 subjects (75 males, 75 females) ranging in age from 20 to 86 yr. Subjects were placed into one of three age groups: adult (M age = 27.04 yr.), middle-age (M age = 53.36 yr.), old (M age = 73.78 yr.), with 25 males and 25 females in each age group. Significant differences between age groups on the matrices were obtained after partialing out the effects of educational level, while sex of subject was not significant.

  7. Factor structure of Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices

    OpenAIRE

    Muniz, Monalisa; Gomes, Cristiano Mauro Assis; Pasian, Sonia Regina

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study's objective was to verify the factor structure of Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (CPM). The database used included the responses of 1,279 children, 50.2% of which were males with an average age of 8.48 years old and a standard deviation of 1.49 yrs. Confirmatory factor analyses were run to test seven models based on CPM theory and on a Brazilian study addressing the test's structure. The results did not confirm the CPM theoretical proposition concerning the scales b...

  8. Silting mutation in triangulated categories

    CERN Document Server

    Aihara, Takuma

    2010-01-01

    In representation theory of algebras the notion of `mutation' often plays important roles, and two cases are well known, i.e. `cluster tilting mutation' and `exceptional mutation'. In this paper we focus on `tilting mutation', which has a disadvantage that it is often impossible, i.e. some of summands of a tilting object can not be replaced to get a new tilting object. The aim of this paper is to take away this disadvantage by introducing `silting mutation' for silting objects as a generalization of `tilting mutation'. We shall develope a basic theory of silting mutation. In particular, we introduce a partial order on the set of silting objects and establish the relationship with `silting mutation' by generalizing the theory of Riedmann-Schofield and Happel-Unger. We show that iterated silting mutation act transitively on the set of silting objects for local, hereditary or canonical algebras. Finally we give a bijection between silting subcategories and certain t-structures.

  9. Analysis of organic colouring and binding components in colour layer of art works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuckova, S; Nemec, I; Hynek, R; Hradilova, J; Grygar, T

    2005-05-01

    Two methods of analysis of organic components of colour layers of art works have been tested: IR microspectroscopy of indigo, Cu-phthalocyanine, and Prussian blue, and MALDI-TOF-MS of proteinaceous binders and a protein-containing red dye. The IR spectra distortion common for smooth outer surfaces and polished cross sections of colour layer of art works is suppressed by reflectance measurement of microtome slices. The detection limit of the three blue pigments examined is approximately 0.3 wt% in reference colour layers in linseed oil binder with calcite as extender and lead white as a drying agent. The sensitivity has been sufficient to identify Prussian blue in repaints on a Gothic painting. MALDI-TOF-MS has been used to identify proteinaceous binders in two historical paintings, namely isinglass (fish glue) and rabbit glue. MALDI-TOF-MS has also been proposed for identification of an insect red dye, cochineal carmine, according to its specific protein component. The enzymatic cleavage with trypsin before MALDI-TOF-MS seems to be a very gentle and specific way of dissolution of the colour layers highly polymerised due to very long aging of old, e.g. medieval, samples.

  10. Spatio-temporal colour correction of strongly degraded movies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, A. B. M. Tariqul; Farup, Ivar

    2011-01-01

    The archives of motion pictures represent an important part of precious cultural heritage. Unfortunately, these cinematography collections are vulnerable to different distortions such as colour fading which is beyond the capability of photochemical restoration process. Spatial colour algorithms-Retinex and ACE provide helpful tool in restoring strongly degraded colour films but, there are some challenges associated with these algorithms. We present an automatic colour correction technique for digital colour restoration of strongly degraded movie material. The method is based upon the existing STRESS algorithm. In order to cope with the problem of highly correlated colour channels, we implemented a preprocessing step in which saturation enhancement is performed in a PCA space. Spatial colour algorithms tend to emphasize all details in the images, including dust and scratches. Surprisingly, we found that the presence of these defects does not affect the behaviour of the colour correction algorithm. Although the STRESS algorithm is already in itself more efficient than traditional spatial colour algorithms, it is still computationally expensive. To speed it up further, we went beyond the spatial domain of the frames and extended the algorithm to the temporal domain. This way, we were able to achieve an 80 percent reduction of the computational time compared to processing every single frame individually. We performed two user experiments and found that the visual quality of the resulting frames was significantly better than with existing methods. Thus, our method outperforms the existing ones in terms of both visual quality and computational efficiency.

  11. Feature-Based versus Category-Based Induction with Uncertain Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Oren; Hayes, Brett K.; Newell, Ben R.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that when feature inferences have to be made about an instance whose category membership is uncertain, feature-based inductive reasoning is used to the exclusion of category-based induction. These results contrast with the observation that people can and do use category-based induction when category membership is…

  12. Stem Cell Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tips Info Center Research Topics Federal Policy Glossary Stem Cell Information General Information Clinical Trials Funding Information Current ... Basics » Stem Cell Basics I. Back to top Stem Cell Basics I. Introduction: What are stem cells, and ...

  13. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Donate Experts \\ The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Topics Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 Spinal ... Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Preventing ...

  14. The SAURON Project - XX. The Spitzer [3.6] - [4.5] colour in early-type galaxies: colours, colour gradients and inverted scaling relations

    CERN Document Server

    Peletier, Reynier F; van der Wolk, Guido; Falcon-Barroso, Jesus; Bacon, Roland; Bureau, Martin; Cappellari, Michele; Davies, Roger L; de Zeeuw, P Tim; Emsellem, Eric; Krajnovic, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard M; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Shapiro, Kristen L; Bosch, Remco C E van den; van de Ven, Glenn

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the [3.6] - [4.5] Spitzer-IRAC colour behaviour of the early-type galaxies of the SAURON survey, a representative sample of 48 nearby ellipticals and lenticulars. We investigate how this colour, which is unaffected by dust extinction, can be used to constrain the stellar populations in these galaxies. We find a tight relation between the [3.6]-[4.5] colour and effective velocity dispersion, a good mass-indicator in early-type galaxies. Contrary to other colours in the optical and near-infrared, we find that the colours become bluer for larger galaxies. The relations are tighter when using the colour inside r_e, rather than the much smaller r_e/8 aperture, due to the presence of young populations in the central regions. We also obtain strong correlations between the [3.6]-[4.5] colour and 3 strong absorption lines (H beta, Mg b and Fe 5015). Comparing our data with the models of Marigo et al., which show that more metal rich galaxies are bluer, we can explain our results in a way consistent with...

  15. The colour of galaxies in distant groups

    CERN Document Server

    Balogh, Michael L; Wilman, Dave; Bower, Richard G; Hau, George; Morris, Simon L; Mulchaey, J S; Oemler, A; Parker, Laura; Gwyn, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    (Abridged) We present new optical and near-infrared imaging for a sample of 98 spectroscopically-selected galaxy groups at 0.25colours for group members and the surrounding field population, statistically complete above a stellar mass limit of M=1E10 Msun. The overall colour distribution is bimodal in both the field and group samples; but at fixed luminosity the fraction of group galaxies populating the red peak is larger, by 20+/-7 per cent, than that of the field. In particular, group members with early-type morphologies, as identified in HST imaging, exhibit a tight red sequence, similar to that seen for more massive clusters. We show that approximately 20-30 per cent of galaxies on the red sequence may be dust-reddened galaxies with non-negligible star formation and early-spiral morphologies. This is true of both the field and group sample, and shows little dependence on near infrared luminosity. Thus, the fraction of bright group members with no sign of star formation o...

  16. Hair colouring, permanent styling and hair structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, S; Sinclair, R

    2003-07-01

    Hair is an important component of body image and has immense psychological importance for both men and women. Women, in particular, over the ages have modified their appearance through changing their hair colour or style. Hair can be straight, wavy or curly, blonde, black, brown or red. These natural variations are an important part of our identity that can be manipulated according to the dictates of fashion, culture or society. Different types of hair have varying affinity for the different colouring and waving methods. Damaged hair also has a different affinity for hair products than normal healthy hair. The hair shaft is remarkably strong and resistant to the extremes of nature. Hair cosmetics are widely available and manipulate the structural properties of hair. Whilst most procedures are safe, there is considerable potential for damage to the hair and hair problems of acute onset, including hair breakage, hair loss and loss of condition, are frequently blamed on the last product used on the hair. Hair problems are particularly prevalent among people who repeatedly alter the natural style of their hair.

  17. Chemical Deinking Flotation Efficiency Of Coloured Toner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeljka Barbaric-Mikocevic

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Recycling of paper printed with colour laser printer xerox phaser 7700 has been investigated in this work. The recycling was performed by chemical deinking with double stage flotation with the usage of anion surfactant. Froths collected by flotation were re-floated in purpose to increase the usage of fibers. The efficiency of first flotation of magenta particles (98.3%, cyan (96.9% and carbon ones (91.5% was calculated from results of the image analysis method. The same method was not effective for the identification of the yellow toner particles. The particle size is important characteristic for flotation efficiency. The efficiency of the first flotation is the best for smallest particles (magenta and for them the second flotation is unnecessary, while for bigger toner particles (cyan, carbon second flotation is desirable. The efficiency of second (abf flotation as a function of each colour (cyan 78.0%, magenta 58.6% and carbon 61.4% of particle number detected by image analysis method has shown that double stage flotation is successful method of improving the usage of fibres in recycling process.

  18. Chemical Deinking Flotation Efficiency Of Coloured Toner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Višnja Mikac Dadić

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Recycling of paper printed with colour laser printer xerox phaser 7700 has been investigated in this work. The recycling was performed by chemical deinking with double stage flotation with the usage of anion surfactant. Froths collected by flotation were re-floated in purpose to increase the usage of fibers. The efficiency of first flotation of magenta particles (98.3%, cyan (96.9% and carbon ones (91.5% was calculated from results of the image analysis method. The same method was not effective for the identification of the yellow toner particles. The particle size is important characteristic for flotation efficiency. The efficiency of the first flotation is the best for smallest particles (magenta and for them the second flotation is unnecessary, while for bigger toner particles (cyan, carbon second flotation is desirable. The efficiency of second (abf flotation as a function of each colour (cyan 78.0%, magenta 58.6% and carbon 61.4% of particle number detected by image analysis method has shown that double stage flotation is successful method of improving the usage of fibers in recycling process.

  19. Fusion of colour and monochromatic images with edge emphasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rade M. Pavlović

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel method to fuse true colour images with monochromatic non-visible range images that seeks to encode important structural information from monochromatic images efficiently but also preserve the natural appearance of the available true chromacity information. We utilise the β colour opponency channel of the lαβ colour as the domain to fuse information from the monochromatic input into the colour input by the way of robust grayscale fusion. This is followed by an effective gradient structure visualisation step that enhances the visibility of monochromatic information in the final colour fused image. Images fused using this method preserve their natural appearance and chromacity better than conventional methods while at the same time clearly encode structural information from the monochormatic input. This is demonstrated on a number of well-known true colour fusion examples and confirmed by the results of subjective trials on the data from several colour fusion scenarios. Introduction The goal of image fusion can be broadly defined as: the representation of visual information contained in a number of input images into a single fused image without distortion or loss of information. In practice, however, a representation of all available information from multiple inputs in a single image is almost impossible and fusion is generally a data reduction task.  One of the sensors usually provides a true colour image that by definition has all of its data dimensions already populated by the spatial and chromatic information. Fusing such images with information from monochromatic inputs in a conventional manner can severely affect natural appearance of the fused image. This is a difficult problem and partly the reason why colour fusion received only a fraction of the attention than better behaved grayscale fusion even long after colour sensors became widespread. Fusion method Humans tend to see colours as contrasts between opponent

  20. PRECEDENCE AS A PSYCHOLINGUISTIC CATEGORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panarina Nadezhda Sergeevna

    2015-06-01

    . In summary, any speech act assumes particular correlation and content of meaning components. Presence of culturological component in meaning structure represents specific nature of speech activity structural elements. Therefore, precedence is a psycholinguistic category, which must be considered taking into account structural features of a particular speech activity.

  1. Tracing the Man in the Middle in Monoidal Categories

    CERN Document Server

    Pavlovic, Dusko

    2012-01-01

    Man-in-the-Middle (MM) is not only a ubiquitous attack pattern in security, but also an important paradigm of network computation and economics. Recognizing ongoing MM-attacks is an important security task; modeling MM-interactions is an interesting task for semantics of computation. Traced monoidal categories are a natural framework for MM-modelling, as the trace structure provides a tool to hide what happens *in the middle*. An effective analysis of what has been traced out seems to require an additional property of traces, called *normality*. We describe a modest model of network computation, based on partially ordered multisets (pomsets), where basic network interactions arise from the monoidal trace structure, and a normal trace structure arises from an iterative, i.e. coalgebraic structure over terms and messages used in computation and communication. The correspondence is established using a convenient monadic description of normally traced monoidal categories.

  2. Symplectic structures from topological Fukaya categories

    OpenAIRE

    Shende, Vivek; Takeda, Alex

    2016-01-01

    The topological Fukaya category is the global sections of a certain sheaf of categories on a Lagrangian skeleton. Nadler has given a combinatorial description of this sheaf in the case of generic singularities. We show here that restriction to the boundary of this sheaf of categories determines a shifted Lagrangian morphism on the corresponding moduli spaces. Examples of such moduli spaces include wild character varieties, certain cluster varieties, multiplicative Nakajima varieties, and the ...

  3. Deconstructibility and Hill lemma in Grothendieck categories

    CERN Document Server

    Stovicek, Jan

    2010-01-01

    A full subcategory of a Grothendieck category is called deconstructible if it consists of all transfinite extensions of some set of objects. This concept provides a handy framework for structure theory and construction of approximations for subcategories of Grothendieck categories. It also allows to construct model structures and t-structures on categories of complexes over a Grothendieck category. In this paper we aim to establish fundamental results on deconstructible classes and outline how to apply these in the areas mentioned above. This is related to recent work of Gillespie, Enochs, Estrada, Guil Asensio, Murfet, Neeman, Prest, Trlifaj and others.

  4. Some remarks on groupoids and small categories

    CERN Document Server

    Ng, Chi-Keung

    2007-01-01

    This unpublished note contains some materials taken from my old study note on groupoids and small categories. It contains a proof for the fact that any groupoid is a group bundle over an equivalence relation. Moreover, the action of a category $G$ on a category $H$ as well as the resulting semi-direct product category $H\\times_\\alpha G$ will be defined (when either $G$ is a groupoid or $H^{(0)} = G^{(0)}$). If both $G$ and $H$ are groupoids, then $H\\times_\\alpha G$ is also a groupoid. The reason of producing this note is for people who want to check some details in a recent work of Li.

  5. Colour, pleasantness, and consumption behaviour within a meal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piqueras Fiszman, B.; Spence, C.

    2014-01-01

    It is often claimed that colour (e.g., in a meal) affects consumption behaviour. However, just how strong is the evidence in support of this claim, and what are the underlying mechanisms? It has been shown that not only the colour itself, but also the variety and the arrangement of the differently-c

  6. Children's Models about Colours in Nahuatl-Speaking Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos-Cázares, Leticia; Flores-Camacho, Fernando; Calderón-Canales, Elena; Perrusquía-Máximo, Elvia; García-Rivera, Beatriz

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents the development and structure of indigenous children's ideas about mixing colours as well as their ideas about each colour, derived from their traditions. The children were interviewed both at school and outside it, and an educational proposal was implemented. Ideas expressed in the school context were analysed using the partial possible model, which states that the inferences and explanations used to describe a subject consist of constricting ideas, rules of correspondence, and a set of phenomenological inferences about processes. After identifying these components in the children's ideas, we developed models to describe their conceptions about mixing colours. We employed a different approach to analyse children's ideas related to their cultural context. The results showed that children change from a conception that focuses on colours as entities that do not change and as properties of objects (model 1) to the idea that colour represents a quality of substances or objects that can be modified by mixing colours (model 2). Cultural context analysis showed that stories are independent from one another and that they are not connected to colour mixing processes, only to the actions of colour on people. We concluded that students generate independent constructions between school and cultural knowledge.

  7. Field-portable pixel super-resolution colour microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Alon; Akbari, Najva; Feizi, Alborz; Luo, Wei; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2013-01-01

    Based on partially-coherent digital in-line holography, we report a field-portable microscope that can render lensfree colour images over a wide field-of-view of e.g., >20 mm(2). This computational holographic microscope weighs less than 145 grams with dimensions smaller than 17×6×5 cm, making it especially suitable for field settings and point-of-care use. In this lensfree imaging design, we merged a colorization algorithm with a source shifting based multi-height pixel super-resolution technique to mitigate 'rainbow' like colour artefacts that are typical in holographic imaging. This image processing scheme is based on transforming the colour components of an RGB image into YUV colour space, which separates colour information from brightness component of an image. The resolution of our super-resolution colour microscope was characterized using a USAF test chart to confirm sub-micron spatial resolution, even for reconstructions that employ multi-height phase recovery to handle dense and connected objects. To further demonstrate the performance of this colour microscope Papanicolaou (Pap) smears were also successfully imaged. This field-portable and wide-field computational colour microscope could be useful for tele-medicine applications in resource poor settings.

  8. Field-portable pixel super-resolution colour microscope.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alon Greenbaum

    Full Text Available Based on partially-coherent digital in-line holography, we report a field-portable microscope that can render lensfree colour images over a wide field-of-view of e.g., >20 mm(2. This computational holographic microscope weighs less than 145 grams with dimensions smaller than 17×6×5 cm, making it especially suitable for field settings and point-of-care use. In this lensfree imaging design, we merged a colorization algorithm with a source shifting based multi-height pixel super-resolution technique to mitigate 'rainbow' like colour artefacts that are typical in holographic imaging. This image processing scheme is based on transforming the colour components of an RGB image into YUV colour space, which separates colour information from brightness component of an image. The resolution of our super-resolution colour microscope was characterized using a USAF test chart to confirm sub-micron spatial resolution, even for reconstructions that employ multi-height phase recovery to handle dense and connected objects. To further demonstrate the performance of this colour microscope Papanicolaou (Pap smears were also successfully imaged. This field-portable and wide-field computational colour microscope could be useful for tele-medicine applications in resource poor settings.

  9. Colour measurements of surfaces to evaluate the restoration materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Monaco, Angela; Marabelli, Maurizio; Pelosi, Claudia; Picchio, Rodolfo

    2011-06-01

    In this paper two case studies on the application of colour measurements for the evaluation of some restoration materials are discussed. The materials related to the research are: watercolours employed in restoration of wall paintings and preservative/consolidants for wood artifacts. Commercial watercolours, supplied by Maimeri, Windsor&Newton and Talens factories have been tested. Colour measurements have been performed by means of a reflectance spectrophotometer (RS) before and after accelerated ageing of watercolours at 92% relative humidity (RH) and in a Solar Box chamber. The experimental results show that watercolours based on natural earths and artificial ultramarine undergo the main colour changes, expressed as L*, a* and b* variations and total colour difference (▵E*). In the other cases colour differences depend on both watercolour typology and suppliers. The other example concerns the evaluation of colour change due to surface treatment of Poplar (Populus sp.) and chestnut (Castanea sativa L.) wood samples. The wooden samples have been treated with a novel organic preservative/consolidant product that has been tested also in a real case as comparison. The treated samples have been artificially aged in Solar Box chamber equipped with a 280 nm UV filter. Colour has been measured before and after the artificial ageing by means of a RS. Colour changes have been determined also for the main door of an historical mansion in Viterbo, made of chestnut wood, and exposed outdoors.

  10. Facial Identification in Observers with Colour-Grapheme Synaesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik

    2013-01-01

    Synaesthesia between colours and graphemes is often reported as one of the most common forms cross modal perception [Colizolo et al, 2012, PLoS ONE, 7(6), e39799]. In this particular synesthetic sub-type the perception of a letterform is followed by an additional experience of a colour quality...

  11. Colour mimicry and sexual deception by Tongue orchids (Cryptostylis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskett, A C; Herberstein, M E

    2010-01-01

    Typically, floral colour attracts pollinators by advertising rewards such as nectar, but how does colour function when pollinators are deceived, unrewarded, and may even suffer fitness costs? Sexually deceptive orchids are pollinated only by male insects fooled into mating with orchid flowers and inadvertently transferring orchid pollinia. Over long distances, sexually deceptive orchids lure pollinators with counterfeit insect sex pheromones, but close-range deception with colour mimicry is a tantalising possibility. Here, for the first time, we analyse the colours of four sexually deceptive Cryptostylis orchid species and the female wasp they mimic (Lissopimpla excelsa, Ichneumonidae), from the perspective of the orchids' single, shared pollinator, male Lissopimpla excelsa. Despite appearing different to humans, the colours of the orchids and female wasps were effectively identical when mapped into a hymenopteran hexagonal colour space. The orchids and wasps reflected predominantly red-orange wavelengths, but UV was also reflected by raised bumps on two orchid species and by female wasp wings. The orchids' bright yellow pollinia contrasted significantly with their overall red colour. Orchid deception may therefore involve accurate and species-specific mimicry of wavelengths reflected by female wasps, and potentially, exploitation of insects' innate attraction to UV and yellow wavelengths. In general, mimicry may be facilitated by exploiting visual vulnerabilities and evolve more readily at the peripheries of sensory perception. Many sexually deceptive orchids are predominantly red, green or white: colours that are all potentially difficult for hymenoptera to detect or distinguish from the background.

  12. Colour gamuts in polychromatic dielectric elastomer artificial chromatophores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossiter, Jonathan; Conn, Andrew; Cerruto, Antonio; Winters, Amy; Roke, Calum

    2014-03-01

    Chromatophores are the colour changing organelles in the skins of animals including fish and cephalopods. The ability of cephalopods in particular to rapidly change their colouration in response to environmental changes, for example to camouflage against a new background, and in social situations, for example to attract a mate or repel a rival, is extremely attractive for engineering, medical, active clothing and biomimetic robotic applications. The rapid response of these chromatophores is possible by the direct coupling of fast acting muscle and pigmented saccules. In artificial chromatophores we are able to mimic this structure using electroactive polymer artificial muscles. In contrast to prior research which has demonstrated monochromatic artificial chromatophores, here we consider a novel multi-colour, multi-layer, artificial chromatophore structure inspired by the complex dermal chromatophore unit in nature and which exploits dielectric elastomer artificial muscles as the electroactive actuation mechanism. We investigate the optical properties of this chromatophore unit and explore the range of colours and effects that a single unit and a matrix of chromatophores can produce. The colour gamut of the multi-colour chromatophore is analysed and shows its suitability for practical display and camouflage applications. It is demonstrated how, by varying actuator strain and chromatophore base colour, the gamut can be shifted through colour space, thereby tuning the artificial chromatophore to a specific environment or application.

  13. Optical and Colour Stability of Graphic Paperboards and Prints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjeta Cernic Letnar

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available In the study we investigated the influence of surface treatment on permanence and stability of various graphic paperboard types - board for books, brochures, business cards, calendars, protection package - under the conditions of accelerated ageing with increased temperature and relative humidity in the absence of light according to ISO/5630/3, and as specified for material on paper/board of permanent value by EN/ISO 9706 (8. Paperboards were coated with various coating colours, and subsequently lab printed in offset technique. The effect of artificial ageing on surface properties as well as on image optical and colour stability was monitored.The changes observed in surface characteristics such as smoothness, roughness, air permeability, absorptivity before and after the accelerated ageing process revealed a strong influence of coating components (pigments, binders and surface treatment type. Increase in roughness, alteration of board absorption behaviour and change in optical and colour parameters - decrease in brightness, increase in yellowness, colour shift with samples containing higher amount of optical brightening agents - were the most pronounced results.Measured differences in printing colour (dE and optical density values indicated that colour stability of offset image approached the limit values, which are set for an image of still acceptable quality. Black (K exhibited the highest stability among CMYK colours. Image colour stability significantly depends on surface and optical board characteristics, especially on gloss and optical brightener agent, as well as on board fibre composition and coating pigments.

  14. Colour Picking - the Pecking Order of Form and Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nack, F.-M.; Manniesing, A.S.K.; Hardman, L.

    2003-01-01

    Multimedia presentation generation has to be able to balance the functional aspects of a presentation that address the information needs of the user and its aesthetic form. We demonstrate our approach using automatic colour design for which we integrate relevant aspects of colour theory. We do not p

  15. Correlation between dichromatic colour vision and jumping performance in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaas, Julie; Helsen, Werner F; Adriaenssens, Maurits; Broeckx, Sarah; Duchateau, Luc; Spaas, Jan H

    2014-10-01

    There is general agreement that horses have dichromatic colour vision with similar capabilities to human beings with red-green colour deficiencies. However, whether colour perception has an impact on equine jumping performance and how pronounced the colour stimulus might be for a horse is unknown. The present study investigated the relationship between the colour of the fences (blue or green) and the show jumping performance of 20 horses ridden by two riders using an indoor and outdoor set of green and blue fences. In the indoor arena, significantly more touches and faults were made on blue fences in comparison to green fences (median difference of 2.5 bars). When only touched bars were included, a significant median difference of one bar was found. Mares (n = 4) demonstrated more faults and had a significantly greater difference in touches and faults between the two colours than male horses (n = 16). Repeating the same experiment with eight horses in an outdoor grass arena revealed no significant differences between the two colours. In order to draw any definite conclusions, more research concerning the colour perception, influence of contrast with the arena surface and sex of horse is required.

  16. Colour mimicry and sexual deception by Tongue orchids ( Cryptostylis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskett, A. C.; Herberstein, M. E.

    2010-01-01

    Typically, floral colour attracts pollinators by advertising rewards such as nectar, but how does colour function when pollinators are deceived, unrewarded, and may even suffer fitness costs? Sexually deceptive orchids are pollinated only by male insects fooled into mating with orchid flowers and inadvertently transferring orchid pollinia. Over long distances, sexually deceptive orchids lure pollinators with counterfeit insect sex pheromones, but close-range deception with colour mimicry is a tantalising possibility. Here, for the first time, we analyse the colours of four sexually deceptive Cryptostylis orchid species and the female wasp they mimic ( Lissopimpla excelsa, Ichneumonidae), from the perspective of the orchids’ single, shared pollinator, male Lissopimpla excelsa. Despite appearing different to humans, the colours of the orchids and female wasps were effectively identical when mapped into a hymenopteran hexagonal colour space. The orchids and wasps reflected predominantly red-orange wavelengths, but UV was also reflected by raised bumps on two orchid species and by female wasp wings. The orchids’ bright yellow pollinia contrasted significantly with their overall red colour. Orchid deception may therefore involve accurate and species-specific mimicry of wavelengths reflected by female wasps, and potentially, exploitation of insects’ innate attraction to UV and yellow wavelengths. In general, mimicry may be facilitated by exploiting visual vulnerabilities and evolve more readily at the peripheries of sensory perception. Many sexually deceptive orchids are predominantly red, green or white: colours that are all potentially difficult for hymenoptera to detect or distinguish from the background.

  17. Luminous flux and colour maintenance investigation of integrated LED lamps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corell, Dennis Dan; Thorseth, Anders; Dam-Hansen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    This article will present an investigation of the luminous flux and colour maintenance of white LED based retrofit lamps. The study includes 23 different types of integrated LED lamps, covering 18 directional and 5 non-directional. Luminous flux and colour data for operation up to 20000 h has been...

  18. Children's Models about Colours in Nahuatl-Speaking Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos-Cázares, Leticia; Flores-Camacho, Fernando; Calderón-Canales, Elena; Perrusquía-Máximo, Elvia; García-Rivera, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the development and structure of indigenous children's ideas about mixing colours as well as their ideas about each colour, derived from their traditions. The children were interviewed both at school and outside it, and an educational proposal was implemented. Ideas expressed in the school context were analysed using the…

  19. The absolute threshold of colour vision in the horse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina S V Roth

    Full Text Available Arrhythmic mammals are active both during day and night if they are allowed. The arrhythmic horses are in possession of one of the largest terrestrial animal eyes and the purpose of this study is to reveal whether their eye is sensitive enough to see colours at night. During the day horses are known to have dichromatic colour vision. To disclose whether they can discriminate colours in dim light a behavioural dual choice experiment was performed. We started the training and testing at daylight intensities and the horses continued to choose correctly at a high frequency down to light intensities corresponding to moonlight. One Shetland pony mare, was able to discriminate colours at 0.08 cd/m(2, while a half blood gelding, still discriminated colours at 0.02 cd/m(2. For comparison, the colour vision limit for several human subjects tested in the very same experiment was also 0.02 cd/m(2. Hence, the threshold of colour vision for the horse that performed best was similar to that of the humans. The behavioural results are in line with calculations of the sensitivity of cone vision where the horse eye and human eye again are similar. The advantage of the large eye of the horse lies not in colour vision at night, but probably instead in achromatic tasks where presumably signal summation enhances sensitivity.

  20. Colour Metallography of Cast Iron Chapter 1 Introduction (Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Jiyang; Liu Jincheng

    2009-01-01

    @@ 1.5 Colour metallography technique of cast iron Colour metallography possesses better differentiation ability and is more sensitive to segregation, grain orientation and stress state than black-white metallography. It adds functions to traditional metallography and displays wide application perspectives.

  1. Counting with Colours? Effect of Colours on the Numerical Abilities of House Crows (Corvus splendens) and Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Nor Amira Abdul; Ali, Zalila; Zuharah, Wan Fatma; Fadzly, Nik

    2016-01-01

    We conducted several aviary experiments to investigate the influence of colours in quantity judgments of two species of birds; house crow (Corvus splendens) and common myna (Acridotheres tristis). Different quantity (in seven different food proportions) of mealworms were presented nonsequentially to all birds using artificially coloured red mealworms, for experiment 1, and using artificially coloured green mealworms, for experiment 2. Both red and green coloured mealworms have no significant effect on house crow’s quantity judgments (red: ANOVA: F6,30 = 1.748, p = 0.144; and green: ANOVA: F6,30= 1.085, p = 0.394). Common myna, however, showed a strong influence of red colour in their quantity judgment (ANOVA: F6,30 = 2.922, p = 0.023) as they succeeded in choosing the largest amount of food between two cups, but not when offered food using green coloured mealworms (ANOVA: F6,30 = 1.183, p = 0.342). In the next experiment, we hypothesised that both house crow and common myna will prefer red coloured food items over green coloured food items, when factors such as the amount of food is equal. We chose to test red and green colours because both colours play an important role in most avian food selections. Results showed that there were no significant differences in the selection of red or green coloured mealworms for both house crows (ANOVA: F6,30 = 2.310, p = 0.06) and common myna (ANOVA: F6,30 = 0.823, p = 0.561). PMID:27688847

  2. Implementation and characterization of a fibre-optic colour sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajić, Jovan S.; Stupar, Dragan Z.; Dakić, Bojan M.; Manojlović, Lazo M.; Slankamenac, Miloš P.; Živanov, Miloš B.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper the implementation of a fibre-optic sensor for colour detection based on reflective colour sensing is proposed. The sensor consists of three plastic optical fibres emitting red, green and blue components and one optical fibre collecting light reflected from the object. Red, green and blue LEDs are excited at different frequencies. In this way detection of the reflected signal is achieved with only one photodetector and three bandpass filters. Bandpass filters are implemented as digital IIR (infinite impulse response) filters on the microcontroller. Results obtained from the proposed sensor are compared with commercial available colour sensors and the results are satisfactory. Analyses of the sensor performance both in RGB and HSV colour space are done. The proposed solution shows that in specific applications by using the HSV model the sensor can be used both as a colour and distance sensor.

  3. Galaxy Zoo: the independence of morphology and colour

    CERN Document Server

    Bamford, Steven P; Baldry, Ivan K; Land, Kate; Lintott, Chris J; Schawinski, Kevin; Slosar, Anze; Szalay, Alexander S; Thomas, Daniel; Torki, Mehri; Andreescu, Dan; Edmondson, Edward M; Miller, Christopher J; Murray, Phil; Raddick, M Jordan; Vandenberg, Jan

    2008-01-01

    We analyse the relationships between galaxy morphology, colour, environment and stellar mass using data for 130352 objects from Galaxy Zoo. The majority of the morphology-density relation is driven by variation in morphological fraction with environment at fixed stellar mass, rather than by the environmental dependence of the stellar mass function. We conclusively show that the colour and morphology bimodalities are largely independent functions of environment. Galaxies with high stellar masses are mostly red, in all environments. Low stellar-mass galaxies are mostly blue in low-density environments and mostly red in high-density environments. While galaxies with early-type morphology do always have higher red fractions, this is sub-dominant compared to the dependence of red fraction on stellar mass and environment. Only a small part of the colour-density relation thus results from the morphology-density relation. The colour-density relation is primarily driven by variations in colour fractions at fixed morph...

  4. There's more to taste in a coloured bowl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrar, Vanessa; Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina; Spence, Charles

    2011-01-01

    The flavour and pleasantness of food and drinks are affected by their colour, their texture or crunch, and even by the shape and weight of the plate or glass. But, can the colour of the bowl also affect the taste of the food it contains? To answer this question we served popcorn in four different coloured bowls, and participants rated sweetness, saltiness, and overall liking. The sweet popcorn, in addition to being sweet, was perceived as saltier when eaten out of a coloured (as compared to a white) bowl, and vice versa for the salty popcorn. These results demonstrate that colour in bowl design can be used to elicit perceptions of sweetness and saltiness in real foods.

  5. Non-Commutative Geometry, Categories and Quantum Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Bertozzini, Paolo; Lewkeeratiyutkul, Wicharn

    2008-01-01

    After an introduction to some basic issues in non-commutative geometry (Gel'fand duality, spectral triples), we present a "panoramic view" of the status of our current research program on the use of categorical methods in the setting of A.Connes' non-commutative geometry: morphisms/categories of spectral triples, categorification of Gel'fand duality. We conclude with a summary of the expected applications of "categorical non-commutative geometry" to structural questions in relativistic quantum physics: (hyper)covariance, quantum space-time, (algebraic) quantum gravity.

  6. “The primary colour of delight”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østermark-Johansen, Lene

    2016-01-01

    threads of Venetian painting relate in a complex manner to J.A.M. Whistler’s controversial Nocturne in Black and Gold: The Falling Rocket and to the influence of Byzantine art on Venetian painting. Gold figures as mass, as line, as surface covering, as composite sculptural material, as an intriguing...... reference to the material reflects a range of highly topical late Victorian issues, whether the latest archaeological discoveries, the latest art controversies or the late Victorian interest in myth. Pater’s golden writings, themselves distilled through endless revision and polishing, thus serve...... with the polychrome sculpture of Antiquity and spoke of Homer’s language as “chryselefantine”. He thus addressed the controversial issue of colour in ancient sculpture, while linking sculpture and language by means of the adjective “chryselefantine”. In his novel Marius the Epicurean (1885) Apuleius’ The Golden Ass...

  7. PUNGENT AND COLOUR COMPOUNDS OF RED PEPPERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çetin KADAKAL

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The capcaicinoid amount of red peppers from Solanacea family is used for the evaluation of quality and classification in many countries. Capsaicin is the major pungent principle (69 % of capsaicinoids. The others are dihidrocapsaicin (22 %, nordihidrocapsaicin (7 %, homocapsaicin (1 % and homodihidrocapsaicin (1 %. As in most foods, the carotenoids of red peppers are also important compounds. Carotenoids are typical colour pigments and some of them have vitamin A activity. Major carotenoids of ripe fruit of red peppers are capsanthin, capsorubin, ß-carotene and zeaxanthin. Capcaicinoid and carotenoid contents of red peppers grown in many different regions of the world, their properties and roles on the human health were given in this review.

  8. Mouse Simulation Using Two Coloured Tapes

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Vikram; Mahe, Swapnil; Vyawahare, Swapnil; 10.5121/ijist.2012.2206

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel approach for Human Computer Interaction (HCI) where, we control cursor movement using a real-time camera. Current methods involve changing mouse parts such as adding more buttons or changing the position of the tracking ball. Instead, our method is to use a camera and computer vision technology, such as image segmentation and gesture recognition, to control mouse tasks (left and right clicking, double-clicking, and scrolling) and we show how it can perform everything as current mouse devices can. The software will be developed in JAVA language. Recognition and pose estimation in this system are user independent and robust as we will be using colour tapes on our finger to perform actions. The software can be used as an intuitive input interface to applications that require multi-dimensional control e.g. computer games etc.

  9. Quarkonium suppression: Gluonic dissociation vs. colour screening

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Binoy Krishna Patra; Dinesh Kumar Srivastava

    2003-05-01

    We evaluate the suppression of / production in an equilibrating quark gluon plasma for two competing mechanisms: Debye screening of colour interaction and dissociation due to energetic gluons. Results are obtained for S + S and Au + Au collisions at RHIC and LHC energies. At RHIC energies the gluonic dissociation of the charmonium is found to be equally important for both the systems while the screening of the interaction plays a significant role only for the larger systems. At LHC energies the Debye mechanism is found to dominate both the systems. While considering the suppression of directly produced $\\Upsilon$ at LHC energies, we find that only the gluonic dissociation mechanism comes into play for the initial conditions taken from the self screened parton cascade model in these studies.

  10. Performance Analysis using Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wells, Lisa Marie

    in a very limited and predictable manner, and it is easy to enable and disable the auxiliary information. The fourth paper is a case study in which the performance of a web server was analysed using coloured Petri nets. This case study has shown that it is relatively easy to analyse the performance......Performance is often a central issue in the design, development, and configuration of systems. It is not always enough to know that systems work properly, they must also work effectively. There are numerous studies, e.g. in the areas of computer and telecommunication systems, manufacturing......, military, health care, and transportation, that have shown that time, money, and even lives can be saved if the performance of a system is improved. Performance analysis studies are conducted to evaluate existing or planned systems, to compare alternative configurations, or to find an optimal configuration...

  11. The role of meaning in grapheme-colour synaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Mike J; Smilek, Daniel; Duffy, Patricia L; Zanna, Mark P; Merikle, Philip M

    2006-02-01

    When the synaesthete, J, is shown black graphemes, in addition to perceiving the black digits or letters she also experiences highly specific colours that overlay the graphemes (e.g., 5 is pink, S is green). We used ambiguous graphemes in a Stroop-type task to show that the exact same forms (e.g., 5) can elicit different synaesthetic colours depending on whether they are interpreted as digits or letters. J was shown strings of black digits (e.g., 3 4 5 6 7) or words (e.g., M U S I C for 1 sec. All but one of the graphemes then disappeared and the remaining grapheme changed to a colour that J had to name as quickly as possible. The key trials involved coloured graphemes that were ambiguous (e.g., the 5 in the strings above could be interpreted either as a digit or as a letter). On congruent trials, the colour of the ambiguous target grapheme was the same as J's photism for the digit or letter interpretations of the grapheme. On incongruent trials, the colours of the ambiguous target graphemes were different than the colours of J's photisms for the digit or letter interpretations of the graphemes. On digit-context incongruent trials, the ambiguous graphemes were presented in J's colour for the letter-interpretations of the graphemes, whereas on letter-context incongruent trials, the ambiguous graphemes were presented in J's colours for the digit-interpretations of the graphemes. Thus the same ambiguous grapheme (e.g., a pink 5) served as a congruent stimulus in one context and an incongruent stimulus in another context. J's response times showed that ambiguous graphemes elicited different photisms depending on whether they were interpreted as digits or letters. This finding suggests that it is not the form but the meaning of graphemes (whether they are interpreted as digits or letters) that determines the colours of synaesthetic photisms.

  12. Coloured Petri Nets: Basic Concepts, Analysis Methods and Practical Use. Vol. 3, Practical Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    of this book. Redundancies with the material of the other volumes have been removed, e.g., the explanation of what a hierarchical CP-net is and how the CPN tools work. The typography has been modified to match that used for the other parts of the book. More detailed explanations have been added, e.g., of some...

  13. Shaping communicative colour signals over evolutionary time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyola Morales, José R.; Vital-García, Cuauhcihuatl; Hews, Diana K.; Martins, Emília P.

    2016-01-01

    Many evolutionary forces can shape the evolution of communicative signals, and the long-term impact of each force may depend on relative timing and magnitude. We use a phylogenetic analysis to infer the history of blue belly patches of Sceloporus lizards, and a detailed spectrophotometric analysis of four species to explore the specific forces shaping evolutionary change. We find that the ancestor of Sceloporus had blue patches. We then focus on four species; the first evolutionary shift (captured by comparison of S. merriami and S. siniferus) represents an ancient loss of the belly patch by S. siniferus, and the second evolutionary shift, bounded by S. undulatus and S. virgatus, represents a more recent loss of blue belly patch by S. virgatus. Conspicuousness measurements suggest that the species with the recent loss (S. virgatus) is the least conspicuous. Results for two other species (S. siniferus and S. merriami) suggest that over longer periods of evolutionary time, new signal colours have arisen which minimize absolute contrast with the habitat while maximizing conspicuousness to a lizard receiver. Specifically, males of the species representing an ancient loss of blue patch (S. siniferus) are more conspicuous than are females in the UV, whereas S. merriami males have evolved a green element that makes their belly patches highly sexually dimorphic but no more conspicuous than the white bellies of S. merriami females. Thus, our results suggest that natural selection may act more immediately to reduce conspicuousness, whereas sexual selection may have a more complex impact on communicative signals through the introduction of new colours. PMID:28018661

  14. Spectrophotometric Evaluation of Colour Stability of Nano Hybrid Composite Resin in Commonly Used Food Colourants in Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjan, Girija S; Varma Kanumuri, Madhu

    2017-01-01

    Introduction There is growing interest in colour stability of aesthetic restorations. So far few studies have been reported. Aim This study was designed to investigate the effects of different common food colourants i.e., Turmeric and Carmoisine (orange red dye) consumed by patients in Asian countries on a recent nano hybrid composite resin. Materials and Methods A total of sixty disk shaped specimens measuring 10 mm in diameter and 2 mm in thickness were prepared. The samples were divided into two groups {Z 100 (Dental restorative composite) Filtek Z 250 XT (Nano hybrid universal restorative)}. Baseline colour measurement of all specimens were made using reflectance spectrophotometer with CIE L*a*b* system. Specimens were immersed in artificial saliva and different experimental solutions containing food colourants (carmoisine solution and turmeric solution) for three hours per day at 37°C. Colour measurements were made after 15 days. Colour difference (ΔE*) was calculated. Mean values were compared by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Multiple range test by Tukey Post-hoc test procedure was employed to identify the significant groups at 5% level. Results Z 100 showed minimum staining capacity when compared to Z 250 XT in both the colourant solutions. Conclusion The nanohybrid composite resin containing TEGDMA showed significant colour change when compared to that of microhybrid composite resin as a result of staining in turmeric and carmoisine solution. PMID:28274047

  15. The genetics of eye colours in an Italian population measured with an objective method for eye colour quantification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pietroni, C.; Andersen, J.D.; Johansen, P.

    2013-01-01

    Brown and blue eye colours are primarily explained by the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) HERC2 rs12913832. However, the genetics of eye colours that appear to be neither blue nor brown are not well understood. In this study, 230 unrelated Italian individuals were typed for 32 SNP loci in pi...

  16. Spans in 2-Categories: A monoidal tricategory

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffnung, Alexander E

    2011-01-01

    We present Trimble's definition of a tetracategory and prove that the spans in (strict) 2-categories with certain limits have the structure of a monoidal tricategory, defined as a one-object tetracategory. We recall some notions of limits in 2-categories for use in the construction of the monoidal tricategory of spans.

  17. Parsing with Structure-Preserving Categorial Grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capelletti, M.

    2007-01-01

    This book is a study of the logical and computational properties of structure-preserving categorial grammars. The first part of the book presents chart-parsers for non-associative categorial grammars in the style of Ajdukiewicz and Bar-Hillel. These are proposed in Chapter 3 as deductive parsers, th

  18. Category-Specificity in Visual Object Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Are all categories of objects recognized in the same manner visually? Evidence from neuropsychology suggests they are not: some brain damaged patients are more impaired in recognizing natural objects than artefacts whereas others show the opposite impairment. Category-effects have also been demonstrated in neurologically intact subjects, but the…

  19. Quantum subgroups of the Haagerup fusion categories

    CERN Document Server

    Grossman, Pinhas

    2011-01-01

    We answer three related questions concerning the Haagerup subfactor and its even parts, the Haagerup fusion categories. Namely we find all simple module categories over each of the Haagerup fusion categories (in other words, we find the `"quantum subgroups" in the sense of Ocneanu), we find all subfactors whose principal even part is one of the Haagerup fusion categories, and we compute the Brauer-Picard groupoid of Morita equivalences of the Haagerup fusion categories. In addition to the two even parts of the Haagerup subfactor, there is exactly one more fusion category which is Morita equivalent to each of them. This third fusion category has six simple objects and the same fusion rules as one of the even parts of the Haagerup subfactor, but has not previously appeared in the literature. We also find the full lattice of intermediate subfactors for every subfactor whose even part is one of these three fusion categories, and we discuss how our results generalize to Izumi subfactors.

  20. Biased allocation of faces to social categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dotsch, R.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.; Knippenberg, A.F.M. van

    2011-01-01

    Three studies show that social categorization is biased at the level of category allocation. In all studies, participants categorized faces. In Studies 1 and 2, participants overallocated faces with criminal features-a stereotypical negative trait-to the stigmatized Moroccan category, especially if

  1. The Grothendieck Construction and Gradings for Enriched Categories

    CERN Document Server

    Tamaki, Dai

    2009-01-01

    The Grothendieck construction is a process to form a single category from a diagram of small categories. In this paper, we extend the definition of the Grothendieck construction to diagrams of small categories enriched over a symmetric monoidal category satisfying certain conditions. Symmetric monoidal categories satisfying the conditions in this paper include the category of $k$-modules over a commutative ring $k$, the category of chain complexes, the category of simplicial sets, the category of topological spaces, and the category of modern spectra. In particular, we obtain a generalization of the orbit category construction in [math/0312214]. We also extend the notion of graded categories and show that the Grothendieck construction takes values in the category of graded categories. Our definition of graded category does not require any coproduct decompositions and generalizes $k$-linear graded categories indexed by small categories defined by Lowen. There are two popular ways to construct functors from the...

  2. Can height categories replace weight categories in striking martial arts competitions? A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubnov-Raz, Gal; Mashiach-Arazi, Yael; Nouriel, Ariella; Raz, Raanan; Constantini, Naama W

    2015-09-29

    In most combat sports and martial arts, athletes compete within weight categories. Disordered eating behaviors and intentional pre-competition rapid weight loss are commonly seen in this population, attributed to weight categorization. We examined if height categories can be used as an alternative to weight categories for competition, in order to protect the health of athletes. Height and weight of 169 child and adolescent competitive karate athletes were measured. Participants were divided into eleven hypothetical weight categories of 5 kg increments, and eleven hypothetical height categories of 5 cm increments. We calculated the coefficient of variation of height and weight by each division method. We also calculated how many participants fit into corresponding categories of both height and weight, and how many would shift a category if divided by height. There was a high correlation between height and weight (r = 0.91, p<0.001). The mean range of heights seen within current weight categories was reduced by 83% when participants were divided by height. When allocating athletes by height categories, 74% of athletes would shift up or down one weight category at most, compared with the current categorization method. We conclude that dividing young karate athletes by height categories significantly reduced the range of heights of competitors within the category. Such categorization would not cause athletes to compete against much heavier opponents in most cases. Using height categories as a means to reduce eating disorders in combat sports should be further examined.

  3. Diagnostic Categories in Autobiographical Accounts of Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    Working within frameworks drawn from the writings of Immanuel Kant, Alfred Schutz, and Kenneth Burke, this article examines the role that diagnostic categories play in autobiographical accounts of illness, with a special focus on chronic disease. Four lay diagnostic categories, each with different connections to formal medical diagnostic categories, serve as typifications to make sense of the way the lifeworld changes over the course of chronic illness. These diagnostic categories are used in conjunction with another set of typifications: lay epidemiologies, lay etiologies, lay prognostics, and lay therapeutics. Together these serve to construct and reconstruct the self at the center of the lifeworld. Embedded within the lay diagnostic categories are narratives of progression, regression, or stability, forms of typification derived from literary and storytelling genres. These narratives are developed by the self in autobiographical accounts of illness.

  4. Whitney categories and the Tangle Hypothesis

    CERN Document Server

    Smyth, Conor

    2011-01-01

    We propose a new notion of `n-category with duals', which we call a Whitney n-category. There are two motivations. The first is that Baez and Dolan's Tangle Hypothesis is (almost) tautological when interpreted as a statement about Whitney categories. The second is that we can functorially construct `fundamental Whitney n-categories' from each smooth stratified space X. These are obtained by considering the homotopy theory of smooth maps into X which are transversal to all strata. This makes concrete another idea of Baez and Dolan's which is that a suitable version of homotopy theory for stratified spaces should allow one to generalise the relationship between spaces and groupoids to one between stratified spaces and categories with duals.

  5. In the absence of animacy: superordinate category structure affects subordinate label verification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivera Ilic

    Full Text Available Theoretical accounts as well as behavioral studies reporting animacy effects offer inconsistent and sometimes contradictory results. A possible explanation for these inconsistencies may be inadvertent biases in the stimuli selected for test - with category-specific effects driven by characteristics of test stimuli other than animacy per se. In this study, we pit animacy against feature structure (intra-item variability, in a picture-word matching task. For unimpaired adults, regardless of whether objects were from animate (mammals; insects or inanimate (clothes; musical instruments superordinate categories, participants were faster to match basic level labels with objects from categories with low intra-item variability (mammals; clothes than from categories with high intra-item variability (insects; instruments. Thus, pitting animacy against variability allowed us to clarify that observable differences in processing speed between animals and instruments are systematically driven by the intra-item variability of the superordinate categories, and not by animacy itself.

  6. Dynamic Colour Possibilities and Functional Properties of Thermochromic Printing Inks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahela Kulcar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Thermochromic printing inks change their colour regarding the change in temperature and they are one of the major groups of colour-changing inks. One of the most frequently used thermochromic material in printing inks are leuco dyes. The colour of thermochromic prints is dynamic, it is not just temperature-dependent, but it also depends on thermal history. The effect is described by colour hysteresis. This paper aims at discussing general aspects of thermochromic inks, dynamic colorimetric properties of leuco dye-based thermochromic inks, their stability and principle of variable-temperature colour measurement. Thermochromic material is protected in round-shaped capsules. They are much larger than pigments in conventional inks. The polymer envelopes of pigment capsules are more stable against oxidation than the binder. If these envelopes are damaged, the dynamic colour is irreversibly lost. Our aim is to analyse the colorimetric properties of several reversible screen-printed UV-curing leuco dye thermochromic inks with different activation temperatures printed on paper. A small analysis of irreversible thermochromic inks will be presented for comparison with reversible thermochromic inks. Moreover, so as to show interesting possibilities, a combination of different inks was made, an irreversible thermochromic ink was printed on top of the red and blue reversible thermochromic inks. Special attention was given to the characterization of colour hysteresis and the meaning of activation temperature.

  7. Influence of Texture and Colour in Breast TMA Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Carrobles, M. Milagro; Bueno, Gloria; Déniz, Oscar; Salido, Jesús; García-Rojo, Marcial; González-López, Lucía

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer diagnosis is still done by observation of biopsies under the microscope. The development of automated methods for breast TMA classification would reduce diagnostic time. This paper is a step towards the solution for this problem and shows a complete study of breast TMA classification based on colour models and texture descriptors. The TMA images were divided into four classes: i) benign stromal tissue with cellularity, ii) adipose tissue, iii) benign and benign anomalous structures, and iv) ductal and lobular carcinomas. A relevant set of features was obtained on eight different colour models from first and second order Haralick statistical descriptors obtained from the intensity image, Fourier, Wavelets, Multiresolution Gabor, M-LBP and textons descriptors. Furthermore, four types of classification experiments were performed using six different classifiers: (1) classification per colour model individually, (2) classification by combination of colour models, (3) classification by combination of colour models and descriptors, and (4) classification by combination of colour models and descriptors with a previous feature set reduction. The best result shows an average of 99.05% accuracy and 98.34% positive predictive value. These results have been obtained by means of a bagging tree classifier with combination of six colour models and the use of 1719 non-correlated (correlation threshold of 97%) textural features based on Statistical, M-LBP, Gabor and Spatial textons descriptors. PMID:26513238

  8. Colour preferences of UK garden birds at supplementary seed feeders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothery, Luke; Scott, Graham W.

    2017-01-01

    Supplementary feeding of garden birds generally has benefits for both bird populations and human wellbeing. Birds have excellent colour vision, and show preferences for food items of particular colours, but research into colour preferences associated with artificial feeders is limited to hummingbirds. Here, we investigated the colour preferences of common UK garden birds foraging at seed-dispensing artificial feeders containing identical food. We presented birds simultaneously with an array of eight differently coloured feeders, and recorded the number of visits made to each colour over 370 30-minute observation periods in the winter of 2014/15. In addition, we surveyed visitors to a garden centre and science festival to determine the colour preferences of likely purchasers of seed feeders. Our results suggest that silver and green feeders were visited by higher numbers of individuals of several common garden bird species, while red and yellow feeders received fewer visits. In contrast, people preferred red, yellow, blue and green feeders. We suggest that green feeders may be simultaneously marketable and attractive to foraging birds. PMID:28212435

  9. Colour constancy across the life span: evidence for compensatory mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuerger, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that the peripheral visual system declines with age: the yellowing of the lens causes a selective reduction of short-wavelength light and sensitivity losses occur in the cone receptor mechanisms. At the same time, our subjective experience of colour does not change with age. The main purpose of this large-scale study (n = 185) covering a wide age range of colour-normal observers (18-75 years of age) was to assess the extent to which the human visual system is able to compensate for the changes in the optical media and at which level of processing this compensation is likely to occur. We report two main results: (1) Supra-threshold parafoveal colour perception remains largely unaffected by the age-related changes in the optical media (yellowing of the lens) whereas our ability to discriminate between small colour differences is compromised with an increase in age. (2) Significant changes in colour appearance are only found for unique green settings under daylight viewing condition which is consistent with the idea that the yellow-blue mechanism is most affected by an increase in age due to selective attenuation of short-wavelength light. The data on the invariance of hue perception, in conjunction with the age-related decline in chromatic sensitivity, provides evidence for compensatory mechanisms that enable colour-normal human observers a large degree of colour constancy across the life span. These compensatory mechanisms are likely to originate at cortical sites.

  10. Colour changes by laser irradiation of reddish building limestones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, C. M.; Benavente, D.

    2016-10-01

    We have used X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) as a novel method to investigate the causes of colour changes in a reddish limestone under irradiation by a Q-switched Nd:YAG 1064 nm laser. We irradiated clean dry and wet surfaces of Pidramuelle Roja, a building stone frequently used in the Asturian heritage, at fluences ranging from 0.12 to 1.47 J cm-2. We measured the colour coordinates and undertook XPS analysis of the state of oxidation of iron both before and after irradiation. Visible colour changes and potential aesthetic damage occurred on dry surfaces from a fluence of 0.31 J cm-2, with the stone showing a greening effect and very intense darkening. The colour change on dry surfaces was considerably higher than on wet surfaces, which at the highest fluence (1.47 J cm-2) was also above the human visual detection threshold. The use of XPS demonstrated that the change in colour (chroma and hue) is associated with a reduction in the iron oxidation state on dry surfaces during laser irradiation. This points out to a potential routinary use of XPS to analyse causes of colour changes during laser cleaning in other types of coloured building stones.

  11. Can height categories replace weight categories in striking martial arts competitions? A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubnov-Raz Gal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In most combat sports and martial arts, athletes compete within weight categories. Disordered eating behaviors and intentional pre-competition rapid weight loss are commonly seen in this population, attributed to weight categorization. We examined if height categories can be used as an alternative to weight categories for competition, in order to protect the health of athletes.

  12. Opening up a Colourful Cosmic Jewel Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    The combination of images taken by three exceptional telescopes, the ESO Very Large Telescope on Cerro Paranal , the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla observatory and the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, has allowed the stunning Jewel Box star cluster to be seen in a whole new light. Star clusters are among the most visually alluring and astrophysically fascinating objects in the sky. One of the most spectacular nestles deep in the southern skies near the Southern Cross in the constellation of Crux. The Kappa Crucis Cluster, also known as NGC 4755 or simply the "Jewel Box" is just bright enough to be seen with the unaided eye. It was given its nickname by the English astronomer John Herschel in the 1830s because the striking colour contrasts of its pale blue and orange stars seen through a telescope reminded Herschel of a piece of exotic jewellery. Open clusters [1] such as NGC 4755 typically contain anything from a few to thousands of stars that are loosely bound together by gravity. Because the stars all formed together from the same cloud of gas and dust their ages and chemical makeup are similar, which makes them ideal laboratories for studying how stars evolve. The position of the cluster amongst the rich star fields and dust clouds of the southern Milky Way is shown in the very wide field view generated from the Digitized Sky Survey 2 data. This image also includes one of the stars of the Southern Cross as well as part of the huge dark cloud of the Coal Sack [2]. A new image taken with the Wide Field Imager (WFI) on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile shows the cluster and its rich surroundings in all their multicoloured glory. The large field of view of the WFI shows a vast number of stars. Many are located behind the dusty clouds of the Milky Way and therefore appear red [3]. The FORS1 instrument on the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) allows a much closer look at the cluster itself. The telescope's huge mirror

  13. The Impact of Effective Colour Management for Textile Coloration: An Instrumental Way Towards Perfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Khatri

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The colour produced by the application of either dyes or pigments on textiles must be close matched with reference (standard provided by buyer. Meeting stringent requirement from Buyer that demands right colour on right time is not a simple task to achieve. The process of colour matching is a lengthy process and needs many trials to get close match. The colour quantification through instruments helps to cut most of the lead time, however, there is a serious need to manage colour during colour approval stage and coloration process. We adopted four different routes for colour approval and compared with the conventional one. The study revealed that out of four instrumental options, the 4th option had shortest route and minimum lead time. We also concluded that by using spectrophotometer, K/S (Colour Strength and colorimetic values are very good to not only communicate colour numerically but also controlling colour during colour approval process.

  14. Brilliant Star in a Colourful Neighbourhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    A spectacular new image from ESO's Wide Field Imager at the La Silla Observatory in Chile shows the brilliant and unusual star WR 22 and its colourful surroundings. WR 22 is a very hot and bright star that is shedding its atmosphere into space at a rate many millions of times faster than the Sun. It lies in the outer part of the dramatic Carina Nebula from which it formed. Very massive stars live fast and die young. Some of these stellar beacons have such intense radiation passing through their thick atmospheres late in their lives that they shed material into space many millions of times more quickly than relatively sedate stars such as the Sun. These rare, very hot and massive objects are known as Wolf-Rayet stars [1], after the two French astronomers who first identified them in the mid-nineteenth century, and one of the most massive ones yet measured is known as WR 22. It appears at the centre of this picture, which was created from images taken through red, green and blue filters with the Wide Field Imager on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile. WR 22 is a member of a double star system and has been measured to have a mass at least 70 times that of the Sun. WR 22 lies in the southern constellation of Carina, the keel of Jason's ship Argo in Greek mythology. Although the star lies over 5000 light-years from the Earth it is so bright that it can just be faintly seen with the unaided eye under good conditions. WR 22 is one of many exceptionally brilliant stars associated with the beautiful Carina Nebula (also known as NGC 3372) and the outer part of this huge region of star formation in the southern Milky Way forms the colourful backdrop to this image. The subtle colours of the rich background tapestry are a result of the interactions between the intense ultraviolet radiation coming from hot massive stars, including WR 22, and the vast gas clouds, mostly hydrogen, from which they formed. The central part of this enormous complex

  15. Affinization of category O for quantum groups

    CERN Document Server

    Young, C A S

    2012-01-01

    Let g be a simple Lie algebra. We consider the category O-hat of those modules over the affine quantum group Uq(g-hat) whose Uq(g)-weights have finite multiplicity and lie in a finite union of cones generated by negative roots. We show that many properties of the category of the finite-dimensional representations naturally extend to the category O-hat. In particular, we develop the theory of q-characters and define the minimal affinizations of parabolic Verma modules. In types ABCFG we classify these minimal affinizations and conjecture a Weyl denominator type formula for their characters.

  16. Shape configuration and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, I; Paulson, Olaf B.

    2006-01-01

    in difficult object decision tasks, which is also found in the present experiments with outlines, is reversed when the stimuli are fragmented. This interaction between category (natural versus artefacts) and stimulus type (outlines versus fragmented forms) is in accordance with predictions derived from...... a recent account of category-specificity and lends support to the notion that category-specific impairments can occur for both natural objects and artefacts following damage to pre-semantic stages in visual object recognition. The implications of the present findings are discussed in relation to theories...

  17. A Higher-Order Calculus for Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cáccamo, Mario José; Winskel, Glynn

    2001-01-01

    A calculus for a fragment of category theory is presented. The types in the language denote categories and the expressions functors. The judgements of the calculus systematise categorical arguments such as: an expression is functorial in its free variables; two expressions are naturally isomorphic...... in their free variables. There are special binders for limits and more general ends. The rules for limits and ends support an algebraic manipulation of universal constructions as opposed to a more traditional diagrammatic approach. Duality within the calculus and applications in proving continuity are discussed...... with examples. The calculus gives a basis for mechanising a theory of categories in a generic theorem prover like Isabelle....

  18. Fusion rules of equivariantizations of fusion categories

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    We determine the fusion rules of the equivariantization of a fusion category $\\mathcal{C}$ under the action of a finite group $G$ in terms of the fusion rules of $\\mathcal{C}$ and group-theoretical data associated to the group action. As an application we obtain a formula for the fusion rules in an equivariantization of a pointed fusion category in terms of group-theoretical data. This entails a description of the fusion rules in any braided group-theoretical fusion category.

  19. Pseudo natural colour aerial imagery for urban and suburban mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Due to their near-infrared data channel, digital airborne four-channel imagers provide a potentially good discrimination between vegetation and human-made materials, which is very useful in automated mapping. Due to their red, green and blue data channels, they also provide natural colour images...... the quality of the generated (pseudo) natural colour images are fully acceptable for manual mapping. This brings the combined availability of near-infrared and (pseudo) natural colours within reach for mapping projects based on traditional photogrammetry, which is valuable since traditional analytical cameras...

  20. Basic Research Firing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Basic Research Firing Facility is an indoor ballistic test facility that has recently transitioned from a customer-based facility to a dedicated basic research...

  1. Comparing two K-category assignments by a K-category correlation coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorodkin, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Predicted assignments of biological sequences are often evaluated by Matthews correlation coefficient. However, Matthews correlation coefficient applies only to cases where the assignments belong to two categories, and cases with more than two categories are often artificially forced into two...... categories by considering what belongs and what does not belong to one of the categories, leading to the loss of information. Here, an extended correlation coefficient that applies to K-categories is proposed, and this measure is shown to be highly applicable for evaluating prediction of RNA secondary...

  2. Grapheme-colour synaesthesia improves detection of embedded shapes, but without pre-attentive 'pop-out' of synaesthetic colour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Jamie; Jonas, Clare; Dienes, Zoltan; Seth, Anil

    2010-04-07

    For people with synaesthesia letters and numbers may evoke experiences of colour. It has been previously demonstrated that these synaesthetes may be better at detecting a triangle made of 2s among a background of 5s if they perceive 5 and 2 as having different synaesthetic colours. However, other studies using this task (or tasks based on the same principle) have failed to replicate the effect or have suggested alternative explanations of the effect. In this study, we repeat the original study on a larger group of synaesthetes (n = 36) and include, for the first time, an assessment of their self-reported colour experiences. We show that synaesthetes do have a general advantage over controls on this task. However, many synaesthetes report no colour experiences at all during the task. Synaesthetes who do report colour typically experience around one third of the graphemes in the display as coloured. This is more consistent with theories of synaesthesia in which spatial attention needs to be deployed to graphemes for conscious colour experiences to emerge than the interpretation based on 'pop-out'.

  3. Comparing two K-category assignments by a K-category correlation coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorodkin, J

    2004-12-01

    Predicted assignments of biological sequences are often evaluated by Matthews correlation coefficient. However, Matthews correlation coefficient applies only to cases where the assignments belong to two categories, and cases with more than two categories are often artificially forced into two categories by considering what belongs and what does not belong to one of the categories, leading to the loss of information. Here, an extended correlation coefficient that applies to K-categories is proposed, and this measure is shown to be highly applicable for evaluating prediction of RNA secondary structure in cases where some predicted pairs go into the category "unknown" due to lack of reliability in predicted pairs or unpaired residues. Hence, predicting base pairs of RNA secondary structure can be a three-category problem. The measure is further shown to be well in agreement with existing performance measures used for ranking protein secondary structure predictions. Server and software is available at http://rk.kvl.dk/.

  4. Body Basics Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness About the Body Basics Library KidsHealth > For Teens > About the Body Basics Library A A A Did you ever wonder what ... system, part, and process works. Use this medical library to find out about basic human anatomy, how ...

  5. Body Basics Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness About the Body Basics Library KidsHealth > For Teens > About the Body Basics Library Print A A A Did you ever wonder ... system, part, and process works. Use this medical library to find out about basic human anatomy, how ...

  6. Basic Cake Decorating Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdany, Mel

    Included in this student workbook for basic cake decorating are the following: (1) Drawings of steps in a basic way to ice a layer cake, how to make a paper cone, various sizes of flower nails, various sizes and types of tin pastry tubes, and special rose tubes; (2) recipes for basic decorating icings (buttercream, rose paste, and royal icing);…

  7. On Gauging Symmetry of Modular Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Shawn X.; Galindo, César; Plavnik, Julia Yael; Wang, Zhenghan

    2016-05-01

    Topological order of a topological phase of matter in two spacial dimensions is encoded by a unitary modular (tensor) category (UMC). A group symmetry of the topological phase induces a group symmetry of its corresponding UMC. Gauging is a well-known theoretical tool to promote a global symmetry to a local gauge symmetry. We give a mathematical formulation of gauging in terms of higher category formalism. Roughly, given a UMC with a symmetry group G, gauging is a 2-step process: first extend the UMC to a G-crossed braided fusion category and then take the equivariantization of the resulting category. Gauging can tell whether or not two enriched topological phases of matter are different, and also provides a way to construct new UMCs out of old ones. We derive a formula for the {H^4} -obstruction, prove some properties of gauging, and carry out gauging for two concrete examples.

  8. Category-specificity in visual object recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Are all categories of objects recognized in the same manner visually? Evidence from neuropsychology suggests they are not: some brain damaged patients are more impaired in recognizing natural objects than artefacts whereas others show the opposite impairment. Category-effects have also been...... demonstrated in neurologically intact subjects, but the findings are contradictory and there is no agreement as to why category-effects arise. This article presents a Pre-semantic Account of Category Effects (PACE) in visual object recognition. PACE assumes two processing stages: shape configuration (the...... binding of shape elements into elaborate shape descriptions) and selection (among competing representations in visual long-term memory), which are held to be differentially affected by the structural similarity between objects. Drawing on evidence from clinical studies, experimental studies...

  9. Topoi the categorial analysis of logic

    CERN Document Server

    Goldblatt, Robert

    2013-01-01

    A classic exposition of a branch of mathematical logic that uses category theory, this text is suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students and accessible to both philosophically and mathematically oriented readers.

  10. On Gauging Symmetry of Modular Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Shawn X.; Galindo, César; Plavnik, Julia Yael; Wang, Zhenghan

    2016-12-01

    Topological order of a topological phase of matter in two spacial dimensions is encoded by a unitary modular (tensor) category (UMC). A group symmetry of the topological phase induces a group symmetry of its corresponding UMC. Gauging is a well-known theoretical tool to promote a global symmetry to a local gauge symmetry. We give a mathematical formulation of gauging in terms of higher category formalism. Roughly, given a UMC with a symmetry group G, gauging is a 2-step process: first extend the UMC to a G-crossed braided fusion category and then take the equivariantization of the resulting category. Gauging can tell whether or not two enriched topological phases of matter are different, and also provides a way to construct new UMCs out of old ones. We derive a formula for the {H^4}-obstruction, prove some properties of gauging, and carry out gauging for two concrete examples.

  11. The Mid-Infrared Colours of Galactic Bulge, Disk and Magellanic Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Phillips, J P; 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2009.14846.x

    2009-01-01

    We present mid-infrared (MIR) photometry for 367 Galactic disk, bulge and Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) planetary nebulae, determined using GLIMPSE II and SAGE data acquired using the Spitzer Space Telescope. This has permitted us to make a comparison between the luminosity functions of bulge and LMC planetary nebulae, and between the MIR colours of all three categories of source. It is determined that whilst the 3.6 microns luminosity function of the LMC and bulge sources are likely to be closely similar, the [3.6]-[5.8] and [5.8]-[8-0] indices of LMC nebulae are different from those of their disk and bulge counterparts. This may arise because of enhanced 6.2 microns PAH emission within the LMC sources, and/or as a result of differences between the spectra of LMC PNe and those of their Galactic counterparts. We also determine that the more evolved disk sources listed in the MASH catalogues of Parker et al. and Miszalski et al. (2008) have similar colours to those of the less evolved (and higher surface bright...

  12. Defining an m-cluster category

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Hugh

    2006-01-01

    We show that a certain orbit category considerd by Keller encodes the combinatorics of the $m$-clusters of Fomin and Reading in a fashion similar to the way the cluster category of Buan, Marsh, Reineke, Reiten, and Todorov encodes the combinatorics of the clusters of Fomin and Zelevinsky. This allows us to give type-uniform proofs of certain results of Fomin and Reading in the simply laced cases.

  13. Rapid object category adaptation during unlabelled classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadas, David; Intrator, Nathan; Yovel, Galit

    2010-01-01

    Recent reports from electrophysiological and psychophysical experiments provide evidence that repeated exposure to an ordered sequence of morphed stimuli may over time adapt a prelearned object category such that the category may generalise the entire sequence as belonging to the same object. Here, a new protocol that includes a single exposure to a morphing sequence is presented. Subjects exposed to the new protocol replaced a prelearned face with an entirely different face within just 3 days, significantly faster than in previous reports.

  14. Experiences with the ISOcat Data Category Registry

    OpenAIRE

    Broeder, Daan; Schuurman, Ineke; Windhouwer, Menzo; Chair), Nicoletta Calzolari (Conference; Choukri, Khalid; Declerck, Thierry; Loftsson, Hrafn; Maegaard, Bente; Mariani, Joseph; Moreno, Asuncion; Odijk, Jan; Piperidis, Stelios

    2014-01-01

    The ISOcat Data Category Registry has been a joint project of both ISO TC 37 and the European CLARIN infrastructure. In this paper the experiences of using ISOcat in CLARIN are described and evaluated. This evaluation clarifies the requirements of CLARIN with regard to a semantic registry to support its semantic interoperability needs. A simpler model based on concepts instead of data categories and a simpler workflow based on community recommendations will address these needs better and offe...

  15. Experiences with the ISOcat Data Category Registry

    OpenAIRE

    Broeder, Daan; Schuurman, Ineke; Windhouwer, Menzo

    2014-01-01

    The ISOcat Data Category Registry has been a joint project of both ISO TC 37 and the European CLARIN infrastructure. In this paper the experiences of using ISOcat in CLARIN are described and evaluated. This evaluation clarifies the requirements of CLARIN with regard to a semantic registry to support its semantic interoperability needs. A simpler model based on concepts instead of data cate-gories and a simpler workflow based on community recommendations will address these needs better and off...

  16. Mixed quantum states in higher categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Heunen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There are two ways to describe the interaction between classical and quantum information categorically: one based on completely positive maps between Frobenius algebras, the other using symmetric monoidal 2-categories. This paper makes a first step towards combining the two. The integrated approach allows a unified description of quantum teleportation and classical encryption in a single 2-category, as well as a universal security proof applicable simultaneously to both scenarios.

  17. When Colour Matters: Policing and Hate Crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berit Wigerfelt

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to the image of Sweden as a tolerant, colour-blind and non-racial country, which is based on the narrative of a country for instance associated with solidarity with the so-called Third World; in this article we argue that racial attributes, e.g. visible differences, account for people’s different life possibilities and circumstances in Swedish society. This article explores and discusses whether, and if so why, people who belong to the group that is categorised as “non-white”, with an emphasis on Afroswedes, and depicted as racially different, experience being targets of diverse variations of bias-based policing, harassment and hate crime. Theories relating to colonial stereotypes, racism, doing difference, the geography of hate, race/ethnicity profiling and intersectionality are used to analyse our material. Based on individual and focus group interviews with “non-whites”, this article discusses how visible differences are highlighted in different kinds of social contexts. The interview results show that people with dark skin are often targets of different kinds of private and public policing based on race- and ethnicity profiling that often occurs on or near borders/boundaries. When those who are targets of racial harassment and exclusion resist such treatment, e.g. by crossing borders/boundaries, they are at risk of becoming victims of hate crime.

  18. Colouring cryo-cooled crystals: online microspectrophotometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGeehan, John [EMBL, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); Biophysics Laboratories, School of Biological Sciences, Institute of Biomedical and Biomolecular Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 2DY (United Kingdom); Ravelli, Raimond B. G., E-mail: ravelli@lumc.nl [EMBL, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); Section Electron Microscopy, Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Leiden University Medical Center (LUMC), PO Box 9600, 2300RC Leiden (Netherlands); Murray, James W. [Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics, Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QU (United Kingdom); Imperial College, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Owen, Robin Leslie [Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics, Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QU (United Kingdom); Cipriani, Florent [EMBL, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); McSweeney, Sean [ESRF, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38043 Grenoble (France); Weik, Martin [Laboratoire de Biophysique Moléculaire, Institut de Biologie Structurale, Jean Pierre EBEL, 41 rue Jules Horowitz, 38027 Grenoble Cedex 1 (France); Garman, Elspeth F., E-mail: ravelli@lumc.nl [Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics, Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QU (United Kingdom)

    2009-03-01

    A portable and readily aligned online microspectrophotometer that can be easily installed on macromolecular crystallography beamlines is described. It allows measurement of the spectral characteristics of macromolecular crystals prior, during, and after the X-ray diffraction experiment. X-rays can produce a high concentration of radicals within cryo-cooled macromolecular crystals. Some radicals have large extinction coefficients in the visible (VIS) range of the electromagnetic spectrum, and can be observed optically and spectrally. An online microspectrophotometer with high temporal resolution has been constructed that is capable of measuring UV/VIS absorption spectra (200–1100 nm) during X-ray data collection. The typical X-ray-induced blue colour that is characteristic of a wide range of cryo-conditions has been identified as trapped solvated electrons. Disulphide-containing proteins are shown to form disulphide radicals at millimolar concentrations, with absorption maxima around 400 nm. The solvated electrons and the disulphide radicals seem to have a lifetime in the range of seconds up to minutes at 100 K. The temperature dependence of the kinetics of X-ray-induced radical formation is different for the solvated electrons compared with the disulphide radicals. The online microspectrophotometer provides a technique complementary to X-ray diffraction for analysing and characterizing intermediates and redox states of proteins and enzymes.

  19. Learning, retention, and generalization of haptic categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Phuong T.

    This dissertation explored how haptic concepts are learned, retained, and generalized to the same or different modality. Participants learned to classify objects into three categories either visually or haptically via different training procedures, followed by an immediate or delayed transfer test. Experiment I involved visual versus haptic learning and transfer. Intermodal matching between vision and haptics was investigated in Experiment II. Experiments III and IV examined intersensory conflict in within- and between-category bimodal situations to determine the degree of perceptual dominance between sight and touch. Experiment V explored the intramodal relationship between similarity and categorization in a psychological space, as revealed by MDS analysis of similarity judgments. Major findings were: (1) visual examination resulted in relatively higher performance accuracy than haptic learning; (2) systematic training produced better category learning of haptic concepts across all modality conditions; (3) the category prototypes were rated newer than any transfer stimulus followed learning both immediately and after a week delay; and, (4) although they converged at the apex of two transformational trajectories, the category prototypes became more central to their respective categories and increasingly structured as a function of learning. Implications for theories of multimodal similarity and categorization behavior are discussed in terms of discrimination learning, sensory integration, and dominance relation.

  20. COLOUR CULTURE AND IDENTITY: INFLUENCE OF COLOURS ON KERALA MURAL ART

    OpenAIRE

    Ravi, Sandhya

    2015-01-01

    The word ‘mural’ is derived from the Latin word ‘murus’, meaning ‘wall’. Murals refer to paintings embellished on visual components like the wall, ceiling, or other huge lasting surfaces. The murals of Kerala unfathomably stand out for their prominence in beauty, clarity and symmetry with unmatchable linear accuracy. The tradition of mural painting in Kerala is unique in the world, and it is extremely rich with symbolism. Made only with natural mineral pigments, the colours represent the qual...

  1. Defects of colour vision: A review of congenital and acquired colour vision deficiencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabeela Hasrod

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Colour vision deficiencies (CVDs can be categorised as being congenital or acquired. Some CVDs are already present at birth, as inherited conditions that are the result of changes at the photo-pigment level and are non-pathological, incurable and do not change over time. Examples are red-green defects which are inherited as an X-linked recessive trait. Acquired CVD develops secondary to ocular and systemic conditions or as a side effect of certain medications or sometimes toxic effects of chemicals, and trauma and ageing can also be important in some CVDs.

  2. Effect of the diameter and colour of colorimeter aperture reducing templates on colour coordinate measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robador, M. D.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The colour coordinate values measured with the colorimeters presently on the market are the mean of the readings obtained for the surface area covered by the light projection tube. When the colour of the surface measured is not uniform, such as in the case of stone, the larger the tube aperture the more representative is the colour measurement, for a larger area is involved. While this is often an advantage, when the area studied is smaller than the aperture of the colorimeter used, the values obtained include unwanted information. One possible way to deal with this drawback is by using templates to reduce the measurement area. Templates adapted to a Minolta CR-210 colorimeter were tested in the present study. The conclusion drawn was that in addition to being convenient to use, they ensured that the readings matched the original colour of the surface, i.e., the value that would have been obtained without the templates.En los colorímetros que existen en el mercado, la luz se recoge mediante un tubo de cierto diámetro y los valores de las coordenadas cromáticas que da el medidor son una media de las obtenidas en dicha superficie. Cuando la superficie a medir no tiene un color uniforme, como ocurre en el caso de los materiales pétreos, la medida de color es más representativa cuanto mayor es la apertura del tubo de medida ya que la superficie medida es mayor. Este hecho, que en ocasiones supone una ventaja, presenta el inconveniente de que cuando la superficie objeto de estudio es inferior a la apertura del tubo de proyección del colorímetro utilizado, los valores obtenidos integran zonas no deseadas. Una posible solución a este inconveniente es la utilización de plantillas que reduzcan el área de medida. En este trabajo se ensayan plantillas adaptadoras del tubo de medida de un colorímetro Minolta CR-210, y se llega a la conclusión de que su uso, además de fácil, permite obtener el color original de la superficie medida, es decir

  3. The colour of plant reproduction: A macroecological perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin C. Burns

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Flowers and fruits are often vividly coloured. An obvious explanation for fruit and flower pigmentation is that it serves to attract animal mutualists. However, decades of research has produced surprising little support for this hypothesis. Exciting new research into geographic variation in flower colours suggests an alternative explanation - flower pigments protect gametes against the damaging effects of solar radiation. Here, I present several new analyses suggesting that a similar explanation might apply to Rubus spectabilis, a much studied but poorly understood bird-dispersed fruit species. These and other recent results provide a new perspective on the colour of plant reproduction. In addition to signalling to animals, fruit and flower colours might often play vital roles in protecting plants against the harmful effects of solar radiation.

  4. The Language of Colour: Neurology and the Ineffable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Unwin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available It is often claimed, following Joseph Levine, that there is an ‘explanatory gap’ between ordinary physical facts and the way we perceive things, so that it is impossible to explain, among other things, why colours actually look the way they do. C.L. Hardin, by contrast, argues that there are sufficient asymmetries between colours to traverse this gap. This paper argues that the terms we use to characterize colours, such as ‘warm’ and ‘cool’, are not well understood, and that we need to understand the neurological basis for such associations if we are even to understand what is fully meant by saying, for example, that red is a warm colour. This paper also speculates on how Hardin’s strategy can be generalized.

  5. Methods for Determining Organic Matter and Colour in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramunė Albrektienė

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The article examines different methods for determining organic matter and colour in water. Most of organic compounds in water have a humic substance. These substances frequently form complexes with iron. Humic matter gives water a yellow-brownish colour. Water filtration through conventional sand filters does not remove colour and organic compounds, and therefore complicated water treatment methods shall be applied. The methods utilized for organic matter determination in water included research on total organic carbon, permanganate index and the bichromate number of UV absorption of 254 nm wave length. The obtained results showed the greatest dependence between water colour and permanganate index. However, UV adsorption could be used for organic matter determination during the operation of a water treatment plant and the start-up of plants as easy and fast methods.Article in Lithuanian

  6. FIR colours and SEDs of nearby galaxies observed with Herschel

    CERN Document Server

    Boselli, A; Buat, V; Cortese, L; Auld, R; Baes, M; Bendo, G J; Bianchi, S; Bock, J; Bomans, D J; Bradford, M; Castro-Rodriguez, N; Chanial, P; Charlot, S; Clemens, M; Clements, D; Corbelli, E; Cooray, A; Cormier, D; Dariush, A; Davies, J; De Looze, I; Alighieri, S di Serego; Dwek, E; Eales, S; Elbaz, D; Fadda, D; Fritz, J; Galametz, M; Galliano, F; Garcia-Appadoo, D A; Gavazzi, G; Gear, W; Giovanardi, C; Glenn, J; Gomez, H; Griffin, M; Grossi, M; Hony, S; Hughes, T M; Hunt, L; Isaak, K; Jones, A; Levenson, L; Lu, N; Madden, S C; O'Halloran, B; Okumura, K; Oliver, S; Page, M; Panuzzo, P; Papageorgiou, A; Parkin, T; Perez-Fournon, I; Pierini, D; Pohlen, M; Rangwala, N; Rigby, E; Roussel, H; Rykala, A; Sabatini, S; Sacchi, N; Sauvage, M; Schulz, B; Schirm, M; Smith, M W L; Spinoglio, L; Stevens, J; Sundar, S; Symeonidis, M; Trichas, M; Vaccari, M; Verstappen, J; Vigroux, L; Vlahakis, C; Wilson, C; Wozniak, H; Wright, G; Xilouris, E M; Zeilinger, W; Zibetti, S

    2010-01-01

    We present infrared colours (in the 25-500 mic spectral range) and UV to radio continuum spectral energy distributions of a sample of 51 nearby galaxies observed with SPIRE on Herschel. The observed sample includes all morphological classes, from quiescent ellipticals to active starbursts. Active galaxies have warmer colour temperatures than normal spirals. In ellipticals hosting a radio galaxy, the far-infrared (FIR) emission is dominated bynthe synchrotron nuclear emission. The colour temperature of the cold dust is higher in quiescent E-S0a than in star-forming systems probably because of the different nature of their dust heating sources (evolved stellar populations, X-ray, fast electrons) and dust grain properties. In contrast to the colour temperature of the warm dust, the f350/f500 index sensitive to the cold dust decreases with star formation and increases with metallicity, suggesting an overabundance of cold dust or an emissivity parameter beta<2 in low metallicity, active systems.

  7. Multiple Illuminant Colour Estimation via Statistical Inference on Factor Graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutimbu, Lawrence; Robles-Kelly, Antonio

    2016-08-31

    This paper presents a method to recover a spatially varying illuminant colour estimate from scenes lit by multiple light sources. Starting with the image formation process, we formulate the illuminant recovery problem in a statistically datadriven setting. To do this, we use a factor graph defined across the scale space of the input image. In the graph, we utilise a set of illuminant prototypes computed using a data driven approach. As a result, our method delivers a pixelwise illuminant colour estimate being devoid of libraries or user input. The use of a factor graph also allows for the illuminant estimates to be recovered making use of a maximum a posteriori (MAP) inference process. Moreover, we compute the probability marginals by performing a Delaunay triangulation on our factor graph. We illustrate the utility of our method for pixelwise illuminant colour recovery on widely available datasets and compare against a number of alternatives. We also show sample colour correction results on real-world images.

  8. Warmth perception in association with colour and material

    OpenAIRE

    Ulusoy, Begüm

    2016-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of article. Thesis (Ph.D.): Bilkent University, Department of Interior Architecture and Environmental Design, İhsan Doğramacı Bilkent University, 2016. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 168-178). Warmth perception is physical, emotional, semantic, and sensorial bond between people and their environments. Warmth is a prominent characteristic of interior architecture and is related to colours and materials. Although the effects of single colours and...

  9. Molecular characterisation of colour formation in the prawn Fenneropenaeus merguiensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole G Ertl

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Body colouration in animals can have a range of functions, with predator protection an important aspect of colour in crustaceans. Colour determination is associated with the carotenoid astaxanthin, which is taken up through the diet and stabilised in the tissues by the protein crustacyanin. As a variety of genes are found to play a role in colour formation in other systems, a holistic approach was employed in this study to determine the factors involved in Fenneropenaeus merguiensis colouration. RESULTS: Full length F. merguiensis crustacyanin subunit A and C sequences were isolated. Crustacyanin subunit A and C were found in the F. merguiensis transcriptomes of the muscle/cuticle tissue, hepatopancreas, eye stalk and nervous system, using 454 next generation sequencing technology. Custom microarray analysis of albino, light and dark F. merguiensis cuticle tissue showed genes encoding actin, sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein and arginine kinase to be 4-fold or greater differentially expressed (p<0.05 and down-regulated in albinos when compared to light and dark samples. QPCR expression analysis of crustacyanin and total astaxanthin pigment extraction revealed significantly (p<0.05 lower crustacyanin subunit A and C gene transcript copy numbers and total astaxanthin levels in albinos than in the light and dark samples. Additionally, crustacyanin subunit A and C expression levels correlated positively with each other. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified gene products putatively involved in crustacean colouration, such as crustacyanin, sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein and forms of actin, and investigated differences in gene expression and astaxanthin levels between albino, light and dark coloured prawns. These genes open a path to enhance our understanding of the biology and regulation of colour formation.

  10. Does avian conspicuous colouration increase or reduce predation risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Rodríguez, M; Avilés, J M; Cuervo, J J; Parejo, D; Ruano, F; Zamora-Muñoz, C; Sergio, F; López-Jiménez, L; Tanferna, A; Martín-Vivaldi, M

    2013-09-01

    Animals often announce their unprofitability to predators through conspicuous coloured signals. Here we tested whether the apparently conspicuous colour designs of the four European Coraciiformes and Upupiformes species may have evolved as aposematic signals, or whether instead they imply a cost in terms of predation risk. Because previous studies suggested that these species are unpalatable, we hypothesized that predators could avoid targeting them based on their colours. An experiment was performed where two artificial models of each bird species were exposed simultaneously to raptor predators, one painted so as to resemble the real colour design of these birds, and the other one painted using cryptic colours. Additionally, we used field data on the black kite's diet to compare the selection of these four species to that of other avian prey. Conspicuous models were attacked in equal or higher proportions than their cryptic counterparts, and the attack rate on the four species increased with their respective degree of contrast against natural backgrounds. The analysis of the predator's diet revealed that the two least attacked species were negatively selected in nature despite their abundance. Both conspicuous and cryptic models of one of the studied species (the hoopoe) received fewer attacks than cryptic models of the other three species, suggesting that predators may avoid this species for characteristics other than colour. Globally, our results suggest that the colour of coraciiforms and upupiforms does not function as an aposematic signal that advises predators of their unprofitability, but also that conspicuous colours may increase predation risk in some species, supporting thus the handicap hypothesis.

  11. Investigation of a 2-Colour Undulator FEL Using Puffin

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, L T; Reiche, S

    2013-01-01

    Initial studies of a 2-colour FEL amplifier using one monoenergetic electron beam are presented. The interaction is modelled using the unaveraged, broadband FEL code Puffin. A series of undulator modules are tuned to generate two resonant frequencies along the FEL interaction and a self-consistent 2-colour FEL interaction at widely spaced non-harmonic wavelengths at 1nm and 2.4nm is demonstrated.

  12. Predicting Visible Image Degradation by Colour Image Difference Formulae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eriko Bando; Jon Y. Hardeberg; David Connah; Ivar Farup

    2004-01-01

    It carried out a CRT monitor based psychophysical experiment to investigate the quality of three colour image difference metrics, the CIEAE ab equation, the iCAM and the S-CIELAB metrics. Six original images were reproduced through six gamut mapping algorithms for the observer experiment. The result indicates that the colour image difference calculated by each metric does not directly relate to perceived image difference.

  13. The SAURON project - XX. The Spitzer [3.6] - [4.5] colour in early-type galaxies: colours, colour gradients and inverted scaling relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peletier, Reynier F.; Kutdemir, Elif; van der Wolk, Guido; Falcón-Barroso, Jesús; Bacon, Roland; Bureau, Martin; Cappellari, Michele; Davies, Roger L.; de Zeeuw, P. Tim; Emsellem, Eric; Krajnović, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard M.; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Shapiro, Kristen L.; van den Bosch, Remco C. E.; van de Ven, Glenn

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the [3.6]-[4.5] Spitzer-IRAC colour behaviour of the early-type galaxies of the SAURON survey, a representative sample of 48 nearby ellipticals and lenticulars. We investigate how this colour, which is unaffected by dust extinction, can be used to constrain the stellar populations in these galaxies. We find a tight relation between the [3.6]-[4.5] colour and effective velocity dispersion, a good mass indicator in early-type galaxies: ([3.6]-[4.5])e = (-0.109 ? 0.007)?+ (0.154 ? 0.016). Contrary to other colours in the optical and near-infrared, we find that the colours become bluer for larger galaxies. The relations are tighter when using the colour inside re (scatter 0.013 mag), rather than the much smaller re/8 aperture (scatter 0.023 mag), due to the presence of young populations in the central regions. We also obtain strong correlations between the [3.6]-[4.5] colour and three strong absorption lines (H?, Mgb and Fe 5015). Comparing our data with the models of Marigo et al., which show that more metal rich galaxies are bluer, we can explain our results in a way consistent with results from the optical, by stating that larger galaxies are more metal rich. The blueing is caused by a strong CO absorption band, whose line strength increases strongly with decreasing temperature and which covers a considerable fraction of the 4.5-?m filter. In galaxies that contain a compact radio source, the [3.6]-[4.5] colour is generally slightly redder (by 0.015 ? 0.007 mag using the re/8 aperture) than in the other galaxies, indicating small amounts of either hot dust, non-thermal emission, or young stars near the centre. We find that the large majority of the galaxies show redder colours with increasing radius. Removing the regions with evidence for young stellar populations (from the H? absorption line) and interpreting the colour gradients as metallicity gradients, we find that our galaxies are more metal poor going outwards. The radial [3.6]-[4.5] gradients

  14. Ruby coloured lead glasses by generation of silver nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, C. [Fundacion Centro Nacional del Vidrio, Pocillo, 1, 40100 La Granja de San Ildefonso (Segovia) (Spain); Villegas, M.A. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas (CENIM), Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), Avda. Gregorio del Amo, 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: mavillegas@cenim.csic.es

    2004-11-15

    Both yellow and red superficial ruby lead crystal glasses have been obtained by Ag{sup +} ion-exchange. For red ruby colouring lead glass substrates were previously doped with reducing oxides (arsenic, antimony, cerium and tin). The best experimental conditions for silver ion-exchange were determined. The optical absorption behaviour of the samples was studied to point out the influence of the parameters involved in the ion-exchange process. Moreover, other parameters affecting the final colouring of the glasses (kind of dopant, dopant concentration, etc.) were also analysed. The dopant percentage added to the lead crystal glass is the most important factor for developing superficial red ruby colouring. Antimony oxide doped lead glass ion-exchanged with silver showed the most intense red ruby colouring, even for a doping concentration lower than those of arsenic oxide doped samples able to enhance similar colour. Spectral saturation appeared for the highest doping concentration and for the most severe ion-exchange conditions. Chromatic coordinates were calculated from the corresponding transmission visible spectra. The colour purity showed by the samples obtained satisfies the ornamental requirements that motivated this research.

  15. Plant scents modify innate colour preference in foraging swallowtail butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Mina; Itoh, Yuki; Ômura, Hisashi; Arikawa, Kentaro; Kinoshita, Michiyo

    2015-01-01

    Flower-visiting insects exhibit innate preferences for particular colours. A previous study demonstrated that naive Papilio xuthus females prefer yellow and red, whereas males are more attracted to blue. Here, we demonstrate that the innate colour preference can be modified by olfactory stimuli in a sexually dimorphic manner. Naive P. xuthus were presented with four coloured discs: blue, green, yellow and red. The innate colour preference (i.e. the colour first landed on) of the majority of individuals was blue. When scent from essential oils of either orange flower or lily was introduced to the room, females’ tendency to select the red disc increased. Scents of lavender and flowering potted Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, however, were less effective. Interestingly, the odour of the non-flowering larval host plant, Citrus unshiu, shifted the preference to green in females. In males, however, all plant scents were less effective than in females, such that blue was always the most favoured colour. These observations indicate that interactions between visual and olfactory cues play a more prominent role in females. PMID:26179802

  16. Colourface - coloured facades for solar heating systems and building insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, T.; Wagner, W.; Hausner, R. [AEE INTEC, Gleisdorf (Austria); Koehl, M.; Herkel, S. [Fraunhofer ISE, Freiburg (Germany); Orel, B. [National Inst. of Chemistry, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Hoefler, K. [TB fuer Bauphysik, Graz (Austria)

    2004-07-01

    Coloured absorbers are a major demand of architects for the design of facade integrated solar thermal collectors. But coloured absorbers have shown an inferior thermal performance compared to selective coatings of state-of-the-art collectors so far. Within the project Colourface selective colour coatings have been developed and ageing tests of the coatings have been performed. Four colours have been chosen as absorber coatings for test collectors. The colours were blue, green, auburn and grey. The efficiency of these test collectors was measured using the dynamic collector test method according to EN 12975-2. The blue and green coloured absorbers have shown thermal performances comparable to black solar varnish coated absorbers. The auburn coating showed less absorptivity but also less emissivity than blue and green resulting in a slightly lower efficiency curve. The efficiency of the grey coated absorber was the lowest of all tested collectors as it was expected. Seven wall constructions that are commonly used in Austria and Germany have been investigated to find out whether the direct integration of collectors into the wall is possible without harming the building materials or. Finally, two pilot systems - a newly constructed two-family house and a retrofit building - have been realised with facade collectors. Temperatures and relative humidities in the collector and inside the wall construction have been monitored and analysed. The results of the project are presented in this paper. (orig.)

  17. The sensitivity of RpA to colour recombination effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapp, Korinna Christina; Milhano, Guilherme; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2016-12-01

    In hadronization models with colour recombination, partons are allowed to regroup into colour singlet structures that are different from those determined by the perturbative parton shower. This aims at modeling the possibility that soft interactions of partons with the underlying event can change colour connections. If such an effect is at play in proton-proton collisions, it may be expected to be enhanced in proton-nucleus collisions due to the higher colour charge density in the underlying event. Here, we provide a qualitative argument that colour recombination effects could lead to a multiplicity dependent hardening of single inclusive hadron spectra that dies out very weakly (∝ 1 /p⊥) with increasing transverse momentum. We present results of a (conservative) model implementation in the cluster hadronization model of the SHERPA event generator. In this model, we find that colour recombination effects harden indeed the single inclusive hadron spectra without affecting the jet spectra, but that this effect does not depend significantly on underlying event activity. We explain this model feature and we argue why, in general, data on proton-nucleus collisions can help to constrain hadronization models used in proton-proton event generators.

  18. Colour asymmetry between galaxies with clockwise and counterclockwise handedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamir, Lior

    2017-02-01

    Recent studies have shown that SDSS galaxies with clockwise patterns are photometrically different from galaxies with anti-clockwise patterns. The purpose of this study is to identify possible differences between the colour of galaxies with clockwise handedness and the colour of galaxies with anti-clockwise handedness. A dataset of 162,514 SDSS galaxies was separated into clockwise and counterclockwise galaxies, and the colours of spiral galaxies with clockwise handedness were compared to the colour of spiral galaxies with anti-clockwise handedness. The results show that the i-r colour in clockwise galaxies in SDSS is significantly higher compared to anti-clockwise SDSS galaxies. The colour difference is strongest between the right ascension of 30° and 60°, while the RA range of 180° to 210° shows a much smaller difference. Similarly, comparing other photometric measurements in clockwise and anti-clockwise galaxies exhibit statistically significant difference, showing the SDSS pipeline is sensitive to the handedness of the galaxy.

  19. Dichromatic colour vision in an Australian marsupial, the tammar wallaby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmi, J M

    1999-12-01

    Despite earlier assertions that most mammals are colour blind, colour vision has in recent years been demonstrated in a variety of eutherian mammals from a wide range of different orders. This paper presents the first behavioural evidence from colour discrimination experiments, that an Australian marsupial, the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii), has dichromatic colour vision. In addition, the experiments show that the wallabies readily learn the relationship between the presented colours rather than the absolute hues. This provides a sensitive method to measure the location of the neutral-point, which is the wavelength of monochromatic light that is indistinguishable from white. This point is a diagnostic feature for dichromats. The spectral sensitivity of the wallabies' middle-wavelength-sensitive photoreceptor is known (peak: 539 nm) and the behavioural results imply that the sensitivity of the short-wavelength-sensitive receptor must be near 420 nm. These spectral sensitivities are similar to those found in eutherian mammals, supporting the view that the earliest mammals had dichromatic colour vision.

  20. Transitions in a genotype selection model driven by coloured noises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Can-Jun; Mei Dong-Cheng

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates a genotype selection model subjected to both a multiplicative coloured noise and an additive coloured noise with different correlation time T1 and T2 by means of the numerical technique.By directly simulating the Langevin Equation,the following results are obtained.(1) The multiplicative coloured noise dominates,however,the effect of the additive coloured noise is not neglected in the practical gene selection process.The selection rate μ decides that the selection is propitious to gene A haploid or gene B haploid.(2) The additive coloured noise intensity α and the correlation time T2 play opposite roles.It is noted that α and T2 can not separate the single peak,while αcan make the peak disappear and T2 can make the peak be sharp.(3) The multiplicative coloured noise intensity D and the correlation time T1 can induce phase transition,at the same time they play opposite roles and the reentrance phenomenon appears.In this case,it is easy to select one type haploid from the group with increasing D and decreasing T1.

  1. Towards Video Quality Metrics Based on Colour Fractal Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Noël

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vision is a complex process that integrates multiple aspects of an image: spatial frequencies, topology and colour. Unfortunately, so far, all these elements were independently took into consideration for the development of image and video quality metrics, therefore we propose an approach that blends together all of them. Our approach allows for the analysis of the complexity of colour images in the RGB colour space, based on the probabilistic algorithm for calculating the fractal dimension and lacunarity. Given that all the existing fractal approaches are defined only for gray-scale images, we extend them to the colour domain. We show how these two colour fractal features capture the multiple aspects that characterize the degradation of the video signal, based on the hypothesis that the quality degradation perceived by the user is directly proportional to the modification of the fractal complexity. We claim that the two colour fractal measures can objectively assess the quality of the video signal and they can be used as metrics for the user-perceived video quality degradation and we validated them through experimental results obtained for an MPEG-4 video streaming application; finally, the results are compared against the ones given by unanimously-accepted metrics and subjective tests.

  2. The Visual Basis of Category Effects in Object Identification: Evidence from the Visual Hemifield Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lag, Torstein; Hveem, Kari; Ruud, Kristin P. E.; Laeng, Bruno

    2006-01-01

    The basis for the category specific living things advantage in object recognition (i.e., faster and more accurate identification of living compared to nonliving things) was investigated in two experiments. It was hypothesised that the global shape of living things on average provides more information about their basic level identity than the…

  3. Analogical and Category-Based Inference: A Theoretical Integration with Bayesian Causal Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holyoak, Keith J.; Lee, Hee Seung; Lu, Hongjing

    2010-01-01

    A fundamental issue for theories of human induction is to specify constraints on potential inferences. For inferences based on shared category membership, an analogy, and/or a relational schema, it appears that the basic goal of induction is to make accurate and goal-relevant inferences that are sensitive to uncertainty. People can use source…

  4. Body size, carcass and meat quality of three commercial beef categories of 'Serrana de Teruel' breed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ripoll, G.; Albertí, P.; Alvarez-Rodríguez, J.; Blasco, I.; Sanz, A.

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse three commercial beef categories of the 'Serrana de Teruel breed' to define the appropriate commercial option. Twenty 'Serrana de Teruel' male calves at 9 months were assigned to the commercial beef categories (young bulls, bulls and steers), slaughtered at 12, 22 and 22 months of age, respectively. The in vivo ultrasound backfat thickness was greater than the dorsal fat thickness, and the young bulls and steers had a similar fat thickness, that was greater than the bulls in both areas. The slaughter weight and cold carcass weight were significantly different between the commercial categories. However, the differences were not sufficient to modify the dressing percentage, carcass conformation and fatness degree between the young bulls and bulls. The maximum stress of the muscle at 7 d of ageing was lower in the steers than in the young bulls and bulls. In general, the lightness of the meat in the bulls was lower than that in the young bulls and steers. The subcutaneous fat of the bull carcasses had a vivid colour and stored more carotenoids than that of the young bulls and steers. Hence, bulls produced heavier and better conformed carcasses with more edible meat and less fat than the other categories. However, steers are recommended to produce large carcasses with more trim and cover fat than the other categories. Finally, it seems that bulls are the most suitable commercial category to 'Serrana de Teruel' breed. (Author)

  5. Buck effect on rabbit oestrous: vulva colour, vaginal lumen cells and ovarian follicle populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idowu Ola

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the response to combinations of male stimuli in the oestrous doe in terms of changes in vulva colour, exfoliated cells in the vaginal lumen and the ovarian histology. Twelve oestrous heterogeneous rabbits does (6 multiparous and 6 nulliparous were allotted equally to 3 experimental treatments: VIC – Male exposure with visual contact; NVC – Male exposure without visual contact and; NOC – Females completely isolated and not allowed any contact with the male. The does were placed under these treatments for 30 consecutive days during which vulvar colour was checked and vaginal smears were taken daily for each animal. All animals were sacrificed on the thirtieth day and their ovaries processed for histological examination following H & E staining. Does with NVC and VIC exposure displayed either red or pink vulva in 95 and 90%  of cases, respectively, the remaining cases being rose coloured but never a whitish vulva (P<0.05, whereas does with NOC exposure displayed rose vulva on 80% of the days checked and another 11.7% cases with white vulvae but never a reddish vulva (P<0.05. The proportions of superficial, intermediate and parabasal epithelial cells in the vagina smears showed that superficial cells usually contribute less than 16% of the total and are also less abundant (P<0.05 irrespective of the doe’s exposure type or vulva colour, except in male-isolated does with purple vulva. All categories of follicles were seen on ovarian sections from NVC and VIC does, but corpora lutea were also present on the sections from VIC does, whereas only follicles below 0.5 mm diameter were seen on the sections from NOC does. In conclusion, these results suggest that the rabbit does require some form of stimulus from the male to remain sexually attractive. Moreover, ovulation appeared to have been induced in the does with visual contact with the male, probably in conjunction with auditory and olfactory, but without

  6. An "almost" full embedding of the category of graphs into the category of abelian groups

    CERN Document Server

    Przezdziecki, Adam J

    2011-01-01

    We construct an embedding G of the category of graphs into the category of abelian groups such that for graphs X and Y we have Hom(GX,GY)=Z[Hom(X,Y)], the free abelian group whose basis is the set Hom(X,Y). The isomorphism is functorial in X and Y. The existence of such an embedding implies that, contrary to a common belief, the category of abelian groups is as complex and comprehensive as any other concrete category. We use this embedding to settle an old problem of Isbell whether every full subcategory of the category of abelian groups, which is closed under limits, is reflective. A positive answer turns out to be equivalent to weak Vopenka's principle, a large cardinal axiom which is not provable but believed to be consistent with standard set theory. Several known constructions in the category of abelian groups are obtained as quick applications of the embedding.

  7. Basics of Bayesian Learning - Basically Bayes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan

    Tutorial presented at the IEEE Machine Learning for Signal Processing Workshop 2006, Maynooth, Ireland, September 8, 2006. The tutorial focuses on the basic elements of Bayesian learning and its relation to classical learning paradigms. This includes a critical discussion of the pros and cons...

  8. Nonassociative geometry in quasi-Hopf representation categories I: Bimodules and their internal homomorphisms

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, Gwendolyn E; Szabo, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    We systematically study noncommutative and nonassociative algebras A and their bimodules as algebras and bimodules internal to the representation category of a quasitriangular quasi-Hopf algebra. We enlarge the morphisms of the monoidal category of A-bimodules by internal homomorphisms, and describe explicitly their evaluation and composition morphisms. For braided commutative algebras A the full subcategory of symmetric A-bimodule objects is a braided closed monoidal category, from which we obtain an internal tensor product operation on internal homomorphisms. We describe how these structures deform under cochain twisting of the quasi-Hopf algebra, and apply the formalism to the example of deformation quantization of equivariant vector bundles over a smooth manifold. Our constructions set up the basic ingredients for the systematic development of differential geometry internal to the quasi-Hopf representation category, which will be tackled in the sequels to this paper, together with applications to models o...

  9. Basic molecular spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Gorry, PA

    1985-01-01

    BASIC Molecular Spectroscopy discusses the utilization of the Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC) programming language in molecular spectroscopy. The book is comprised of five chapters that provide an introduction to molecular spectroscopy through programs written in BASIC. The coverage of the text includes rotational spectra, vibrational spectra, and Raman and electronic spectra. The book will be of great use to students who are currently taking a course in molecular spectroscopy.

  10. Basic digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Lockhart, Gordon B

    1985-01-01

    Basic Digital Signal Processing describes the principles of digital signal processing and experiments with BASIC programs involving the fast Fourier theorem (FFT). The book reviews the fundamentals of the BASIC program, continuous and discrete time signals including analog signals, Fourier analysis, discrete Fourier transform, signal energy, power. The text also explains digital signal processing involving digital filters, linear time-variant systems, discrete time unit impulse, discrete-time convolution, and the alternative structure for second order infinite impulse response (IIR) sections.

  11. [Validity of assessment of schizophrenic basic symptoms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mass, R; Hitschfeld, K; Wall, E; Wagner, H B

    1997-03-01

    A study on the concept and measurement of the basic disorders of schizophrenia is presented. A total of 151 male adult psychiatric inpatients (51 with a dual diagnosis of schizophrenia and alcoholism, 50 schizophrenics and 50 alcoholics) were included. The aims of this study were: (1) the replication of the previous finding that the Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire (FBF) contains items that discriminate between schizophrenia and alcoholism; (2) an empirical comparison between FBF and the Bonn Scale for the Assessment of Basic Symptoms (BSABS); (3) testing the relationship between basic and negative versus positive symptoms, as measured by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Regarding (1), the former result was replicated. Regarding (2), FBF subscales and BSABS categories were shown to be significantly but weakly related, even if identical symptoms were included in the inquiry. Regarding (3), FBF and BSABS were found to be more closely related to negative than to positive PANSS items. Theoretical implications and consequences for further research are discussed.

  12. Grammatical category dissociation in multilingual aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen; Waked, Arifi N

    2010-03-01

    Word retrieval deficits for specific grammatical categories, such as verbs versus nouns, occur as a consequence of brain damage. Such deficits are informative about the nature of lexical organization in the human brain. This study examined retrieval of grammatical categories across three languages in a trilingual person with aphasia who spoke Arabic, French, and English. In order to delineate the nature of word production difficulty, comprehension was tested, and a variety of concomitant lexical-semantic variables were analysed. The patient demonstrated a consistent noun-verb dissociation in picture naming and narrative speech, with severely impaired production of verbs across all three languages. The cross-linguistically similar noun-verb dissociation, coupled with little evidence of semantic impairment, suggests that (a) the patient has a true "nonsemantic" grammatical category specific deficit, and (b) lexical organization in multilingual speakers shares grammatical class information between languages. The findings of this study contribute to our understanding of the architecture of lexical organization in bilinguals.

  13. Categories of difference in science and policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Martin Bak

    2012-01-01

    Categories of difference have a crucial position in academic research as well as policymaking. They serve to distinguish and differentiate between groups in society. They can appear in the shape of crude dichotomies or in complex and sophisticated forms resting on constructivist and intersectiona......Categories of difference have a crucial position in academic research as well as policymaking. They serve to distinguish and differentiate between groups in society. They can appear in the shape of crude dichotomies or in complex and sophisticated forms resting on constructivist...... and policy discourse. By looking at different approaches used by qualitative and quantitative researchers, as well as at how specific concepts enter policy-making and legislation, I want to address a number of questions about how we as researchers understand and work with categories of differences...

  14. From Perceptual Categories to Concepts: What Develops?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloutsky, Vladimir M

    2010-09-01

    People are remarkably smart: they use language, possess complex motor skills, make non-trivial inferences, develop and use scientific theories, make laws, and adapt to complex dynamic environments. Much of this knowledge requires concepts and this paper focuses on how people acquire concepts. It is argued that conceptual development progresses from simple perceptual grouping to highly abstract scientific concepts. This proposal of conceptual development has four parts. First, it is argued that categories in the world have different structure. Second, there might be different learning systems (sub-served by different brain mechanisms) that evolved to learn categories of differing structures. Third, these systems exhibit differential maturational course, which affects how categories of different structures are learned in the course of development. And finally, an interaction of these components may result in the developmental transition from perceptual groupings to more abstract concepts. This paper reviews a large body of empirical evidence supporting this proposal.

  15. Symmetric centres of braided monoidal categories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper introduces the concept of‘symmetric centres' of braided monoidal categories. Let H be a Hopf algebra with bijective antipode over a field k. We address the symmetric centre of the Yetter-Drinfel'd module category HH(yD) and show that a left Yetter-Drinfel'd module M belongs to the symmetric centre of HH(yD) if and only if M is trivial. We also study the symmetric centres of categories of representations of quasitriangular Hopf algebras and give a sufficient and necessary condition for the braid of H(M) to induce the braid of (H(H)(A),(○)A,A,φ,l,r), or equivalently, the braid of (A#H(H),(○)A,A,φ,l,r), where A is a quantum commutative H-module algebra.

  16. Multimedia category preferences of working engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baukal, Charles E.; Ausburn, Lynna J.

    2016-09-01

    Many have argued for the importance of continuing engineering education (CEE), but relatively few recommendations were found in the literature for how to use multimedia technologies to deliver it most effectively. The study reported here addressed this gap by investigating the multimedia category preferences of working engineers. Four categories of multimedia, with two types in each category, were studied: verbal (text and narration), static graphics (drawing and photograph), dynamic non-interactive graphics (animation and video), and dynamic interactive graphics (simulated virtual reality (VR) and photo-real VR). The results showed that working engineers strongly preferred text over narration and somewhat preferred drawing over photograph, animation over video, and simulated VR over photo-real VR. These results suggest that a variety of multimedia types should be used in the instructional design of CEE content.

  17. Structural similarity and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, Ian; Paulson, Olaf B

    2004-01-01

    It has been suggested that category-specific recognition disorders for natural objects may reflect that natural objects are more structurally (visually) similar than artefacts and therefore more difficult to recognize following brain damage. On this account one might expect a positive relationship...... between blood flow and structural similarity in areas involved in visual object recognition. Contrary to this expectation we report a negative relationship in that identification of articles of clothing cause more extensive activation than identification of vegetables/fruit and animals even though items...... from the categories of animals and vegetables/fruit are rated as more structurally similar than items from the category of articles of clothing. Given that this pattern cannot be explained in terms of a tradeoff between activation and accuracy, we interpret these findings within a model where...

  18. Assessing the Exceptionality of Coloured Motifs in Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacroix Vincent

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Various methods have been recently employed to characterise the structure of biological networks. In particular, the concept of network motif and the related one of coloured motif have proven useful to model the notion of a functional/evolutionary building block. However, algorithms that enumerate all the motifs of a network may produce a very large output, and methods to decide which motifs should be selected for downstream analysis are needed. A widely used method is to assess if the motif is exceptional, that is, over- or under-represented with respect to a null hypothesis. Much effort has been put in the last thirty years to derive -values for the frequencies of topological motifs, that is, fixed subgraphs. They rely either on (compound Poisson and Gaussian approximations for the motif count distribution in Erdös-Rényi random graphs or on simulations in other models. We focus on a different definition of graph motifs that corresponds to coloured motifs. A coloured motif is a connected subgraph with fixed vertex colours but unspecified topology. Our work is the first analytical attempt to assess the exceptionality of coloured motifs in networks without any simulation. We first establish analytical formulae for the mean and the variance of the count of a coloured motif in an Erdös-Rényi random graph model. Using simulations under this model, we further show that a Pólya-Aeppli distribution better approximates the distribution of the motif count compared to Gaussian or Poisson distributions. The Pólya-Aeppli distribution, and more generally the compound Poisson distributions, are indeed well designed to model counts of clumping events. Altogether, these results enable to derive a -value for a coloured motif, without spending time on simulations.

  19. Category number impacts rule-based and information-integration category learning: a reassessment of evidence for dissociable category-learning systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Roger D; Nosofsky, Robert M

    2013-07-01

    Researchers have proposed that an explicit reasoning system is responsible for learning rule-based category structures and that a separate implicit, procedural-learning system is responsible for learning information-integration category structures. As evidence for this multiple-system hypothesis, researchers report a dissociation based on category-number manipulations in which rule-based category learning is worse when the category is composed of 4, rather than 2, response categories; however, information-integration category learning is unaffected by category-number manipulations. We argue that within the reported category-number manipulations, there exists a critical confound: Perceptual clusters used to construct the categories are spread apart in the 4-category condition relative to the 2-category one. The present research shows that when this confound is eliminated, performance on information-integration category learning is worse for 4 categories than for 2 categories, and this finding is demonstrated across 2 different information-integration category structures. Furthermore, model-based analyses indicate that a single-system learning model accounts well for both the original findings and the updated experimental findings reported here.

  20. Coherence for Skew-Monoidal Categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarmo Uustalu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available I motivate a variation (due to K. Szlachányi of monoidal categories called skew-monoidal categories where the unital and associativity laws are not required to be isomorphisms, only natural transformations. Coherence has to be formulated differently than in the well-known monoidal case. In my (to my knowledge new version, it becomes a statement of uniqueness of normalizing rewrites. I present a proof of this coherence theorem and also formalize it fully in the dependently typed programming language Agda.

  1. Shape configuration and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, Ian; Paulson, Olaf B

    2006-01-01

    and fragmented drawings. We also examined whether fragmentation had different impact on the recognition of natural objects and artefacts and found that recognition of artefacts was more affected by fragmentation than recognition of natural objects. Thus, the usual finding of an advantage for artefacts...... a recent account of category-specificity and lends support to the notion that category-specific impairments can occur for both natural objects and artefacts following damage to pre-semantic stages in visual object recognition. The implications of the present findings are discussed in relation to theories...

  2. Accretion Discs Show Their True Colours

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Quasars are the brilliant cores of remote galaxies, at the hearts of which lie supermassive black holes that can generate enough power to outshine the Sun a trillion times. These mighty power sources are fuelled by interstellar gas, thought to be sucked into the hole from a surrounding 'accretion disc'. A paper in this week's issue of the journal Nature, partly based on observations collected with ESO's Very Large Telescope, verifies a long-standing prediction about the intensely luminous radiation emitted by these accretion discs. Uncovering the disc ESO PR Photo 21/08 Uncovering the inner disc "Astronomers were puzzled by the fact that the best models of these discs couldn't quite be reconciled with some of the observations, in particular, with the fact that these discs did not appear as blue as they should be," explains lead-author Makoto Kishimoto. Such a discrepancy could be the signal that there was something very wrong with the models. With his colleagues, he investigated this discrepancy by studying the polarised light from six quasars. This enabled them to demonstrate that the disc spectrum is as blue as predicted. "The crucial observational difficulty here has been that the disc is surrounded by a much larger torus containing hot dust, whose light partly outshines that of the disc," says Kishimoto. "Because the light coming from the disc is scattered in the disc vicinity and thus polarised, by observing only polarised light from the quasars, one can uncover the buried light from the disc." In a similar way that a fisherman would wear polarised sunglasses to help get rid of the glare from the water surface and allow him to see more clearly under the water, the filter on the telescope allowed the astronomers to see beyond surrounding clouds of dust and gas to the blue colour of the disc in infrared light. The observations were done with the FORS and ISAAC instruments on one of the 8.2-m Unit Telescopes of ESO's Very Large Telescope, located in the Atacama

  3. Categories, concepts, and conditioning: how humans generalize fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunsmoor, Joseph E; Murphy, Gregory L

    2015-02-01

    During the past century, Pavlovian conditioning has served as the predominant experimental paradigm and theoretical framework to understand how humans learn to fear and avoid real or perceived dangers. Animal models for translational research offer insight into basic behavioral and neurophysiological factors mediating the acquisition, expression, inhibition, and generalization of fear. However, it is important to consider the limits of traditional animal models when applied to humans. Here, we focus on the question of how humans generalize fear. We propose that to understand fear generalization in humans requires taking into account research on higher-level cognition such as category-based induction, inferential reasoning, and representation of conceptual knowledge. Doing so will open the door for productive avenues of new research.

  4. Hypostases of THEM category in mass media communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanysheva Zulfira Zakievna

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the reflection of the US/THEM category in mass media communication in conditions of sharp confrontation of ideological opponents. It is aimed at revealing the potential of lingvocultural signs to be used as units of generating desirable senses in leading English periodical issues. The alien culture is shown to possess three basic hypostases with xenocultural axiological semantic space taking the lead. The article proves that intercultural massmedia communication is marked by reciprocal influence of semantic spaces and subjective evaluation of information. Xenoprecedent phenomena are viewed as supporting clamps in the process of semantic transformations of national and cultural signs designed to exert a manipulative effect on the target reader.

  5. Basic Research Objectives Reaffirmed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Haiyan; Zhao Baohua

    2002-01-01

    @@ As a national institution for scientific research and a component of the national innovation system, CAS should and must make key contributions to the great national rejuvenation of the country. Keeping this in mind, CAS has developed four developmental targets for its basic research. This was revealed at a CAS conference on basic research held June 11-12 in Beijing.

  6. Cycles in basic innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de E.A. (Bert); Franses, P.H.P.H.

    2005-01-01

    Basic innovations are often believed to be the drivers of economic growth. It has been widely documented that economic growth follows cyclical patterns of varying length. In this paper we examine if such patterns are also present in basic innovations. For an annual time series of count data covering

  7. Basic Science Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummel, Clete

    These six learning modules were developed for Lake Michigan College's Basic Science Training Program, a workshop to develop good study skills while reviewing basic science. The first module, which was designed to provide students with the necessary skills to study efficiently, covers the following topics: time management; an overview of a study…

  8. Basic principle of superconductivity

    OpenAIRE

    De Cao, Tian

    2007-01-01

    The basic principle of superconductivity is suggested in this paper. There have been two vital wrong suggestions on the basic principle, one is the relation between superconductivity and the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC), and another is the relation between superconductivity and pseudogap.

  9. Reliability of Multi-Category Rating Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Richard I.; Vannest, Kimberly J.; Davis, John L.

    2013-01-01

    The use of multi-category scales is increasing for the monitoring of IEP goals, classroom and school rules, and Behavior Improvement Plans (BIPs). Although they require greater inference than traditional data counting, little is known about the inter-rater reliability of these scales. This simulation study examined the performance of nine…

  10. Empire: An Analytical Category for Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coloma, Roland Sintos

    2013-01-01

    In this article Roland Sintos Coloma argues for the relevance of empire as an analytical category in educational research. He points out the silence in mainstream studies of education on the subject of empire, the various interpretive approaches to deploying empire as an analytic, and the importance of indigeneity in research on empire and…

  11. Language specific bootstraps for UG categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kampen, N.J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper argues that the universal categories N/V are not applied to content words before the grammatical markings for reference D(eterminers) and predication I(nflection) have been acquired (van Kampen, 1997, contra Pinker, 1984). Child grammar starts as proto-grammar with language-specific opera

  12. Gorensteinness and Tate Cohomology in Exact Categories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhi-cheng

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by the classical Gorenstein homological theory and structure of Tate cohomology, we develop a theory of Gorenstein projective objects and Tate cohomology in an exact category A with enough projectives. We study some properties of Gorenstein projective objects and establish Tate cohomology of objects with finite Gorenstein projective dimension.

  13. Social categories are shaped by social experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxman, Sandra R

    2012-11-01

    A new study by Rhodes and colleagues offers insight into the development of social essentialism - the belief that members of social categories share essential properties (e.g., attitudes, psychological capacities). The challenge now is to consider these issues in children raised in the more diverse social environments that constitute the range of human experience.

  14. Multimedia Category Preferences of Working Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baukal, Charles E., Jr.; Ausburn, Lynna J.

    2016-01-01

    Many have argued for the importance of continuing engineering education (CEE), but relatively few recommendations were found in the literature for how to use multimedia technologies to deliver it most effectively. The study reported here addressed this gap by investigating the multimedia category preferences of working engineers. Four categories…

  15. Toward theory-based diagnostic categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, M

    1990-01-01

    As a social institution, nursing has a responsibility to society for the development of knowledge in the areas described by nursing diagnoses. This article focuses on the need for developing the theoretical basis of each diagnostic category. Diagnoses are viewed as summarizations of underlying conceptual models for interpreting observations, and as such, they provide a perspective for understanding and thinking about a set of clinical observations. At present many diagnostic concepts do not meet this standard and suggest primitive, pretheoretical ideas with a minimal knowledge base. The importance of having valid and reliable diagnostic categories for use in making clinical judgements and as a focus for care planning is discussed. A cycle of development is outlined in three phases: diagnostic concept identification, concept analysis-model development, and construction/reconstruction of diagnostic categories. It is suggested that a useful category captures the conceptual understanding and state of knowledge development about a phenomena in its (a) name, (b) definition, and (c) cluster of defining characteristics.

  16. Commutativity and ideals in category crossed products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öinert, Per Johan; Lundström, Patrik

    2010-01-01

    In order to simultaneously generalize matrix rings and group graded crossed products, we introduce category crossed products. For such algebras we describe the centre and the commutant of the coefficient ring. We also investigate the connection between on the one hand maximal commutativity of the...

  17. Reasoning with Polarity in Categorial Type Logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernardi, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis follows the parsing as deduction approach to lin- guistics. We use the tools of Categorial Type Logic (CTL) to study the interface of natural language syntax and semantics. Our aim is to investigate the mathematical structure of CTL and explore the possibilities

  18. Ontological semantics in modified categorial grammar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szymczak, Bartlomiej Antoni

    2009-01-01

    Categorial Grammar is a well established tool for describing natural language semantics. In the current paper we discuss some of its drawbacks and how it could be extended to overcome them. We use the extended version for deriving ontological semantics from text. A proof-of-concept implementation...

  19. Measuring Category Intuitiveness in Unconstrained Categorization Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothos, Emmanuel M.; Perlman, Amotz; Bailey, Todd M.; Kurtz, Ken; Edwards, Darren J.; Hines, Peter; McDonnell, John V.

    2011-01-01

    What makes a category seem natural or intuitive? In this paper, an unsupervised categorization task was employed to examine observer agreement concerning the categorization of nine different stimulus sets. The stimulus sets were designed to capture different intuitions about classification structure. The main empirical index of category…

  20. The Schetic Categories of the Tlingit Verb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leer, Jeffry A.

    An analysis of verbs in Tlingit, a U.S. Northwest Coast Indian language, begins with an overview of its situation and usage and of previous research. The second chapter sketches its phonological and syntactic characteristics. Subsequent chapters deal specifically with the verb. An analysis of verb categories distinguishes two groups: argumental…