WorldWideScience

Sample records for basic blue skies

  1. Blue Skies, Coffee Creamer, and Rayleigh Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebl, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The first physical explanation of Earths blue sky was fashioned in 1871 by Lord Rayleigh. Many discussions of Rayleigh scattering and approaches to studying it both in and out of the classroom are available. Rayleigh scattering accounts for the blue color of the sky and the orange/red color of the Sun near sunset and sunrise, and a number of…

  2. Blue Skies Research and the global economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braben, Donald W.

    2002-11-01

    Robert Solow's seminal work of the 1950s showed that science and technology are major sources of long-term global economic growth. But we have recently changed the ways that science and technology are managed. Industrial and academic research once thrived on individual freedom and flair. Progressively for the past three decades or so, however, research has been focused on short-term objectives selected by consensus. Global per-capita growth has steadily declined. Scientific enterprise is losing diversity. Blue Skies Research can help to restore diversity and to create the new technologies that can stimulate growth, but funding agencies nowadays rarely allow total freedom. A new coefficient of adventurousness is described. Its use, or other means, may help restore economic growth to its former levels.

  3. Blue Sky Birds Come to the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bura Sabiha Kelek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The New Supply System comes to all fields for logistics.Drone is an unmanned vehicle for loading and unloading packages.Perhaps we can imagine it as a ‘’blue sky bird’’. This new trend has three important impacts that are determined by technoligical capabilities, ,regularity pressure, and public acceptance so that it will be dealed within current powers and circumstances. This kind of vehicles are used in different capacities, such as multicopter,drone or robot.Logistics’ issues are interested in short-term delivery systems for customer satisfaction but all developments go through GPS so it is based on 21st century technological developments, which have been tested on a short-term basis and will be expected to be of use in 2 years. The purpose of this research is to give lead to researchers information about risk and the advantages of using the technology in this manner.Some advantages and disadvantages ,schedules’ problems in the system will be identifed.

  4. Bluetooth: Opening a Blue Sky for Healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. H. Wang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few years, there has been a blossoming of developing mobile healthcare programs. Bluetooth technology, which has the advantages of being low-power and inexpensive, whilst being able to transfer moderate amounts of data over a versatile, robust and secure radio link, has been widely applied in mobile healthcare as a replacement for cables. This paper discussed the applications of Bluetooth technology in healthcare. It started with the brief description of the history of Bluetooth technology, its technical characteristics, and the latest developments. Then the applications of Bluetooth technology in healthcare sector were reviewed. The applications are based on two basic types of links of Bluetooth technology: point-to-point link and point-to-multipoint link. The special requirements from healthcare and the challenges of successful application of Bluetooth in healthcare will be discussed. At last the future development of Bluetooth technology and its impacts on healthcare were envisioned.

  5. Blue Sky Funders Forum - Advancing Environmental Literacy through Funder Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Blue Sky Funders Forum inspires, deepens, and expands private funding and philanthropic leadership to promote learning opportunities that connect people and nature and promote environmental literacy. Being prepared for the future requires all of us to understand the consequences of how we live on where we live - the connection between people and nature. Learning about the true meaning of that connection is a process that starts in early childhood and lasts a lifetime. Blue Sky brings supporters of this work together to learn from one another and to strategize how to scale up the impact of the effective programs that transform how people interact with their surroundings. By making these essential learning opportunities more accessible in all communities, we broaden and strengthen the constituency that makes well-informed choices, balancing the needs of today with the needs of future generations.

  6. 40 CFR 1048.140 - What are the provisions for certifying Blue Sky Series engines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Blue Sky Series engines? 1048.140 Section 1048.140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Sky Series engines? This section defines voluntary standards for a recognized level of superior emission control for engines designated as “Blue Sky Series” engines. If you certify an engine family...

  7. Blue sky catastrophe as applied to modeling of cardiac rhythms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyzin, S. D.; Kolesov, A. Yu.; Rozov, N. Kh.

    2015-07-01

    A new mathematical model for the electrical activity of the heart is proposed. The model represents a special singularly perturbed three-dimensional system of ordinary differential equations with one fast and two slow variables. A characteristic feature of the system is that its solution performs nonclassical relaxation oscillations and simultaneously undergoes a blue sky catastrophe bifurcation. Both these factors make it possible to achieve a phenomenological proximity between the time dependence of the fast component in the model and an ECG of the human heart.

  8. BlueSky Cloud - rapid infrastructure capacity using Amazon's Cloud for wildfire emergency response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haderman, M.; Larkin, N. K.; Beach, M.; Cavallaro, A. M.; Stilley, J. C.; DeWinter, J. L.; Craig, K. J.; Raffuse, S. M.

    2013-12-01

    During peak fire season in the United States, many large wildfires often burn simultaneously across the country. Smoke from these fires can produce air quality emergencies. It is vital that incident commanders, air quality agencies, and public health officials have smoke impact information at their fingertips for evaluating where fires and smoke are and where the smoke will go next. To address the need for this kind of information, the U.S. Forest Service AirFire Team created the BlueSky Framework, a modeling system that predicts concentrations of particle pollution from wildfires. During emergency response, decision makers use BlueSky predictions to make public outreach and evacuation decisions. The models used in BlueSky predictions are computationally intensive, and the peak fire season requires significantly more computer resources than off-peak times. Purchasing enough hardware to run the number of BlueSky Framework runs that are needed during fire season is expensive and leaves idle servers running the majority of the year. The AirFire Team and STI developed BlueSky Cloud to take advantage of Amazon's virtual servers hosted in the cloud. With BlueSky Cloud, as demand increases and decreases, servers can be easily spun up and spun down at a minimal cost. Moving standard BlueSky Framework runs into the Amazon Cloud made it possible for the AirFire Team to rapidly increase the number of BlueSky Framework instances that could be run simultaneously without the costs associated with purchasing and managing servers. In this presentation, we provide an overview of the features of BlueSky Cloud, describe how the system uses Amazon Cloud, and discuss the costs and benefits of moving from privately hosted servers to a cloud-based infrastructure.

  9. In search of blue skies: science, ethics, and advances in technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, John

    2013-01-01

    This commentary examines relationships between bioethics, research, and advances in technology. It explores the role of bioethicists in promulgating 'blue skies' thinking which might well be crucial in challenging the 'received wisdom' on how the regulation of technologies should proceed.

  10. Blue Sky Catastrophe in Systems with Non-classical Relaxation Oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Glyzin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of a known blue-sky bifurcation in a class of three-dimensional singularly perturbed systems of ordinary differential equations with one fast and two slow variables is studied. A characteristic property of the considered systems is that they permit so-called nonclassic relaxation oscillations, that is, oscillations with slow components asymptotically close to time-discontinuous functions and a δ-like fast component. Cases when blue-sky bifurcation leads to a relaxation cycle or stable two-dimensional torus are analyzed. Also the question of homoclinic structure emergence is considered.

  11. 77 FR 38048 - Blue Sky East, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Blue Sky East, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Blue Sky East, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  12. Study on preparation and application performance of blue sky rare earth light storage and emission material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU; Shao-hui; NI; Hai-yong; HUANG; Zhao-hui; LI; Xu-bo; DING; Jian-hong; ZHANG; Zhen

    2005-01-01

    Under reduction atmosphere, a blue sky rare earth silicate light storage and emission material was prepared by high temperature solid phase synthesis. The best constituent ratio of this material was determined through orthogonal experiment, and its excitation and emission spectra and X-ray diffraction patterns were measured. And a comparative study was conducted on its application properties.

  13. Effect of Temperature and Ionic Concentration on Self-Assembled Films of Chicago Sky Blue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D. Dey; M.N. Islam; S.A. Hussain; D. Bhattacharjee

    2008-01-01

    We employ a layer-by-layer adsorption technique for deposition on solid substrates of polyionic films of Chicago Sky Blue. Film growth was significant with the increasing number of layers. Photochemical properties of these films are investigated for different ionic concentrations. A significant blue shift is observed with the increasing ionic strength of the solution, suggesting the formation of aggregation. Temperature effect studies show some preferable reorientation of molecules in the film during cooling process. Most remarkable observation is that the absorption intensity is the highest for a particular degree of inclination. Deposition time is fixed at 15 min because adsorption kinetics results show saturation after 15 min.

  14. Project on Biomass Gasification and Power Generation Wins BlueSky Award

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ After a strict scrutiny by an international jury, a . system for biomass gasification and power generation developed by the CAS Guanzhou Institute of Energy Conversion (IEC) has been chosen as one of the eight winners of the BlueSky Award in 2005. The event was jointly sponsored by the United Nations Industrial Development Organization and the International Technology Promotion Center for Sustainable Development in Shenzhen, in south China's Guangdong Province.

  15. Correcting the relationship between PRI and shadow fraction for the blue sky effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mõttus, Matti

    2016-04-01

    The Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) is defined as the normalized difference ratio of leaf reflectance at two specific wavelengths in the green spectral region. Its value depends on the status of leaf carotenoid content, and especially that of the xanthophyll cycle pigments. Due to the dependence on the xanthophyll cycle, when the photosynthetic apparatus of green leaves is close to the saturation limit, their PRI becomes dependent on light conditions. Therefore, by measuring the PRI of leaves in the same canopy under different local irradiance conditions on a sunny day, it should be possible to determine the saturation level of the leaves. In turn, this gives information on the light use efficiency (LUE) of the vegetation canopy. The average light conditions of visible foliage elements are often quantified with the shadow fraction -- the fraction of visible foliage not lit by direct sunlight. The dependence of PRI on the shadow fraction has been used to remotely measure canopy LUE on clear days. Variations in shadow fraction have been achieved with multiangular measurement. However, besides photosynthetic downregulation, the dependence of canopy PRI on shadow fraction is affected by the blue sky radiation caused by scattering in the atmosphere. To quantify this effect on remotely sensed PRI, we present the underlying definitions relating leaf and canopy PRI and perform the required calculations for typical midsummer conditions in Central Finland. We demonstrate that the effect of blue sky radiation on the variation of PRI with canopy shadow fraction is similar in shape and magnitude to that of LUE variations reported in literature. Next, we propose a new method to assess these PRI variations in structured vegetation. We investiagate this blue sky effect on the PRI -- shadow fraction relationship with high spatial (60 cm) and spectral (9.8 nm) resolution airborne imaging spectroscopy data from Hyytiälä, Finland. We evaluate the spectral irradiance in

  16. Highly efficient removal of basic blue 41 with nanoporous silica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoureh Zarezadeh-Mehrizi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption characteristics of basic blue 41 from aqueous solution were investigated using nanoporous silica (NPS. NPS with an average pore diameter of 2.4 nm and a surface area of 1030 m2/g was synthesized by using nonyl phenol ethoxylated decylether (NP-10 as structure directing agent (SDA and ethyl silicate 40% (ETS-40 under acidic condition. This adsorbent was analyzed by means of small-angle X-ray scattering, scanning electron microscopy, N2 adsorption–desorption isotherm and Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy. The kinetic data reveals that the adsorption process follows the linear form of the pseudo-second-order model. The adsorption isotherm was fitted well to the Langmuir data. The monolayer adsorption capacity of adsorbent was found to be 345 mg/g.

  17. Degradation of azo dye direct sky blue 5B by sonication combined with zero-valent iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bing; Wang, Xikui; Wang, Chen; Jiang, Wenqiang; Li, Shuping

    2011-09-01

    The degradation of azo dye direct sky blue 5B by sonication combined with zero-valent iron (US-Fe(0))was investigated and an evident synergistic effect was observed. The synergetic effect is mainly due to the increase of ()OH radical concentration from Fenton's reaction. The ()OH radical concentrations in sole sonication and US-Fe(0) process were detected by using terephthalic acid as a fluorescent probe and found that ()OH radicals were generated continuously during sonication and the production of ()OH radicals in US-Fe(0) process was much higher than that in sole sonication. The degradation of direct sky blue 5B followed a pseudo-first-order kinetics and the degradation rate constants were found to be 0.0206 and 0.169 min(-1) with sole sonication and US-Fe(0) process respectively. It was also found that the degradation ratio of direct sky blue 5B increased with the increase of zero-valent iron dosage and decrease of pH value of the dye aqueous solution. The degradation mechanism of direct sky blue 5B with US-Fe(0) process was discussed by the changes of UV-Vis spectrogram of the dye during degradation. The dramatic changes of UV spectra showed a disappearance of both azo and aromatic groups during the degradation.

  18. Photocatalytic degradation of Chicago Sky Blue 6B and Benzopurpurin 4B using titanium dioxide thin film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdul K. Mohammed; Katrina T. McKenzie

    2005-01-01

    Aqueous solutions of azo dyes undergo degradation to form harmless intermediates and colorless products following irradiation by visible light in the presence of titanium dioxide thin films. The dyes that were studied in this work are: Chicago Sky Blue 6B and Benzopurpurin 4B. Results obtained indicated that complete mineralization of the dyes took place under the experimental conditions. There was an increase in conductivity after the complete mineralization experiments possibly indicating the formation of ions such as NO3- and SO24- . Chemical oxygen demand(COD) measurements show a decrease in organic matter for both dyes following complete degradation. The effect of how changing experimental conditions such as pH, temperature and starting concentrations of dyes affected the rate of dye degradation was measured. There was an increase in the rate of disappearance of the dye color at lower pH. High concentrations of dye solutions required long degradation time.

  19. Can We Build an Open-Science Model to Fund Young, Risky, Blue-Sky Research? First Insights into Funding Geoscientists Via Thinkable.Org

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, B.

    2014-12-01

    Some of the biggest discoveries and advances in geoscience research have come from purely curiosity-driven, blue-sky research. Marine biologist Osamu Shimomura's discovery of Green-Fluorecent Protein (GFP) in the 1960s during his postdoc is just one example, which came about through his interest and pursuit of how certain jellyfish bioluminescence. His discovery would eventually revolutionise medicine, culminating in a Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2008. Despite the known importance of "blue-sky" research that doesn't have immediate commercial or social applications, it continues to struggle for funding from both government and industry. Success rates for young scientists also continue to decline within the government competitive granting models due to the importance of track records, yet history tells us that young scientists tend to come up with science's greatest discoveries. The digital age however, gives us a new opportunity to create an alternative and sustainable funding model for young, risky, blue-sky science that tends not to be supported by governments and industry anymore. Here I will discuss how new digital platforms empower researchers and organisations to showcase their research using video, allowing wider community engagment and funding that can be used to directly support young, risky, blue-sky research that is so important to the future of science. I will then talk about recent experience with this model from some ocean researchers who used a new platform called thinkable.org to showcase and raise funding via the public.

  20. Sky-Blue Organic Light Emitting Diode with 37% External Quantum Efficiency Using Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence from Spiroacridine-Triazine Hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ting-An; Chatterjee, Tanmay; Tsai, Wei-Lung; Lee, Wei-Kai; Wu, Meng-Jung; Jiao, Min; Pan, Kuan-Chung; Yi, Chih-Lung; Chung, Chin-Lung; Wong, Ken-Tsung; Wu, Chung-Chih

    2016-08-01

    Extremely efficient sky-blue organic electroluminescence with external quantum efficiency of ≈37% is achieved in a conventional planar device structure, using a highly efficient thermally activated delayed fluorescence emitter based on the spiroacridine-triazine hybrid and simultaneously possessing nearly unitary (100%) photoluminescence quantum yield, excellent thermal stability, and strongly horizontally oriented emitting dipoles (with a horizontal dipole ratio of 83%).

  1. The Nature of Faint Blue Stars in the PHL and Ton Catalogues based on Digital Sky Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Andernach, H; W., W Copo Cordova; Santiago-Bautista, I del C

    2015-01-01

    We determined accurate positions for 3000 of the "faint blue stars" in the PHL (Palomar-Haro-Luyten) and Ton/TonS catalogues. These were published from 1957 to 1962, and, aimed at finding new white dwarfs, provide approximate positions for about 10750 blue stellar objects. Some of these "stars" had become known as quasars, a type of objects unheard-of before 1963. We derived subarcsec positions from a comparison of published finding charts with images from the first-epoch Digitized Sky Survey. Numerous objects are now well known, but unfortunately neither their PHL or Ton numbers, nor their discoverers, are recognized in current databases. A comparison with modern radio, IR, UV and X-ray surveys leads us to suggest that the fraction of extragalactic objects in the PHL and Ton catalogues is at least 15 per cent. However, because we failed to locate the original PHL plates or finding charts, it may be impossible to correctly identify the remaining 7726 PHL objects.

  2. The antinociceptive effects of intracerebroventricular administration of Chicago sky blue 6B, a vesicular glutamate transporter inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Gang; Yi, Shoupu; Wang, Meiliang; Yan, Hui; Yan, Lingdi; Su, Ruibin; Gong, Zehui

    2013-12-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs), which control the storage and release of glutamate, may play a role in pain processing. Chicago sky blue 6B (CSB6B), which is structurally related to glutamate, is a competitive VGLUT inhibitor without affecting plasma membrane transporters. The present study was designed to investigate the antinociceptive effects of CSB6B in a number of pain models. The hot-plate test was used as an acute thermal pain test. Inflammatory pain was evaluated using acetic acid writhing, formalin, and complete Freund's adjuvant tests. Intracerebroventricular administration of CSB6B did not affect acute thermal pain responses in 50 or 55°C hot plate tests. However, CSB6B attenuated acetic acid-induced writhing in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. In addition, CSB6B reduced licking/biting behavior during the second phase, but not during the first phase, following an intraplantar injection of formalin. In the complete Freund's adjuvant test, a significant attenuation of thermal hyperalgesia was also observed in CSB6B-treated mice. At antinociceptive doses, CSB6B did not affect mice spontaneous locomotor activity. The present study shows that pharmacological inhibition of VGLUT activity was sufficient to attenuate experimental inflammatory pain and suggests that regulation of VGLUTs might be a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of pain.

  3. Excitatory neurotoxic properties of pontamine sky blue make it a useful tool for examining the functions of focal brain parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, Mayuko; Ashidate, Noriko; Yamamoto, Kayo; Ishimizu, Yohko; Saitoh, Sanae; Konishi, Yukiko; Koga, Tomoshige; Fukuda, Hiroyuki

    2004-02-01

    Pontamine sky blue (PSB) is used in brain studies to mark the position of microelectrode and micropipette tips. However, few studies have been made on the effects of PSB on neurons; therefore we examined these effects. When puffed on isolated sensory ganglion cells of rats, PSB increased membrane conductance, depolarized membrane potential, and reduced the amplitude of action potentials. When dripped on frog sympathetic ganglion, much like hexamethonium, PSB decreased the amplitude of compound action potentials of the postganglionic strand. A bath application of PSB to sartorius muscle fibers that had been treated with tetrodotoxin depolarized the membrane potential and increased the frequency and amplitude of miniature end-plate potentials. All these effects were reversible. When injected into the rat's pontine part corresponding to the location of the canine pontine defecation reflex center, PSB produced repetitive colorectal contractions and irreversibly abolished them in response to anal-canal stimulation. The excitatory and blocking effects of PSB and its staining ability make it a useful tool for examining the functions of focal brain parts.

  4. Blue skies for CLOUD

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Through the recently approved CLOUD experiment, CERN will soon be contributing to climate research. Tests are being performed on the first prototype of CLOUD, an experiment designed to assess cosmic radiation influence on cloud formation.

  5. Blue Sky Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Vannini, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    In this article we present a theoretical framework for an understanding of the relationship between the material design of mobilities technologies and the multisensorial human body. Situating our work in the emerging field of “mobilities design” within the broader so-called mobilities turn, we......, and end with a conclusion that offers a fl at ontological view of mobilities design. We argue that according the material design of mobilities technologies must be inscribed on equal terms with the sensing human subject if we are to claim that we have reached a better understanding of how mobility feels....

  6. Blue Sky Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Vannini, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    , and end with a conclusion that offers a fl at ontological view of mobilities design. We argue that according the material design of mobilities technologies must be inscribed on equal terms with the sensing human subject if we are to claim that we have reached a better understanding of how mobility feels....

  7. Removal of basic dye (methylene blue) from wastewaters utilizing beer brewery waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, W.-T. [Graduate Institute of Bioresources, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung 912, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: wttsai@mail.npust.edu.tw; Hsu, H.-C.; Su, T.-Y.; Lin, K.-Y.; Lin, C.-M. [Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan 717, Taiwan (China)

    2008-06-15

    In the work, the beer brewery waste has been shown to be a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of basic dye from the aqueous solution as compared to its precursor (i.e., diatomite) based on its physical and chemical characterizations including surface area, pore volume, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and non-mineral elemental analyses. The pore properties of this waste were significantly larger than those of its raw material, reflecting that the trapped organic matrices contained in the waste probably provided additional adsorption sites and/or adsorption area. The results of preliminary adsorption kinetics showed that the diatomite waste could be directly used as a potential adsorbent for removal of methylene blue on the basis of its adsorption-biosorption mechanisms. The adsorption parameters thus obtained from the pseudo-second-order model were in accordance with their pore properties. From the results of adsorption isotherm at 298 K and the applicability examinations in treating industrial wastewater containing basic dye, it was further found that the adsorption capacities of diatomite waste were superior to those of diatomite, which were also in good agreement with their corresponding physical properties. From the results mentioned above, it is feasible to utilize the food-processing waste for removing dye from the industrial dying wastewater.

  8. Kinetics of basic dye (methylene blue) biosorption by giant duckweed (Spirodela polyrrhiza).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waranusantigul, P; Pokethitiyook, P; Kruatrachue, M; Upatham, E S

    2003-01-01

    Wastewater containing pigments and/or dyes can cause serious water pollution problems in the form of reduced light penetration and photosynthesis, and the toxicity from heavy metals associated with pigments and/or dyes. Laboratory investigations, of the potential use of dried Spirodela polyrrhiza biomass as an adsorbent for the removal of the basic dye methylene blue from aqueous solution were conducted. A series of experiments were undertaken in an agitated batch adsorber to assess the effect of the system variables, i.e. sorbent dosage, pH, and contact time. The results showed that as the amount of the dried S. polyrrhiza increased, the percentage of dye sorption increased accordingly. At pH 2.0 the sorption of dye was not favorable, while the sorption at other pHs (3.0-11.0) was remarkable. There was no significant difference in the dye concentration remaining when the pH was increased from 3.0 to 11.0. The dye removal time was influenced by the initial dye concentration, and the process followed the first-order rate kinetics. The rate constants for intraparticle diffusion were 1.00 and 3.27 mg/g/min1/2 for 300 and 500 mg/l of dye, respectively.

  9. Scattering of light by colloidal aluminosilicate particles produces the unusual sky-blue color of Rio Celeste (Tenorio volcano complex, Costa Rica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Castellón

    Full Text Available Río Celeste (Sky-Blue River in Tenorio National Park (Costa Rica, a river that derives from the confluence and mixing of two colorless streams--Río Buenavista (Buenavista River and Quebrada Agria (Sour Creek--is renowned in Costa Rica because it presents an atypical intense sky-blue color. Although various explanations have been proposed for this unusual hue of Río Celeste, no exhaustive tests have been undertaken; the reasons hence remain unclear. To understand this color phenomenon, we examined the physico-chemical properties of Río Celeste and of the two streams from which it is derived. Chemical analysis of those streams with ion-exchange chromatography (IC and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES made us discard the hypothesis that the origin of the hue is due to colored chemical species. Our tests revealed that the origin of this coloration phenomenon is physical, due to suspended aluminosilicate particles (with diameters distributed around 566 nm according to a lognormal distribution that produce Mie scattering. The color originates after mixing of two colorless streams because of the enlargement (by aggregation of suspended aluminosilicate particles in the Río Buenavista stream due to a decrease of pH on mixing with the acidic Quebrada Agria. We postulate a chemical mechanism for this process, supported by experimental evidence of dynamic light scattering (DLS, zeta potential measurements, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM with energy-dispersive spectra (EDS. Theoretical modeling of the Mie scattering yielded a strong coincidence between the observed color and the simulated one.

  10. Bioremoval of Basic Violet 3 and Acid Blue 93 by Pseudomonas putida and its adsorption isotherms and kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunarani, A; Chandran, Preethy; Ranganathan, B V; Vasanthi, N S; Sudheer Khan, S

    2013-02-01

    Basic Violet 3 and Acid Blue 93 are the most important group of synthetic colourants extensively used in textile industries for dyeing cotton, wool, silk and nylon. Release of these dye pollutants in to the environment adversely affects the human health and aquatic organisms. The present study we used Pseudomonas putida MTCC 4910 for the adsorptive removal of Basic Violet 3 and Acid Blue 93 from the aqueous solutions. The pH (4-9) and NaCl concentrations (1mM-1M) did not influence the adsorption process. The equilibrium adsorption process fitted well to Freundlich model than Langmuir model. The kinetics of adsorption fitted well by pseudo-second-order. Thus in the present study an attempt has been made to exploit the dye removal capability of P. putida MTCC 4910, and it was found to be an efficient microbe that could be used for bio removal of dyes from textile effluents.

  11. A novel contrast stain for the rapid diagnosis of pityriasis versicolor: A comparison of Chicago Sky Blue 6B stain, potassium hydroxide mount and culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita Lodha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The mycological study of pityriasis versicolor is usually done by potassium hydroxide (KOH mount and culture. However, KOH mount lacks a color contrast and requires a trained eye to interpret, while culture is difficult to perform, time consuming and has low sensitivity. Chicago Sky Blue 6B (CSB is a new contrast stain that highlights the fungal hyphae and spores, blue against a purplish background. Aims and Objectives: This study was done to compare the utility of a novel contrast stain (CSB stain with KOH mount and culture. Materials and Methods: Skin scrapings from the lesions of 100 clinically diagnosed cases of P. versicolor were subjected to (1 KOH mount and CSB stain for direct microscopic examination and (2 culture using Sabouraud′s dextrose agar. The statistical analysis of CSB stain and culture was done using KOH mount as the reference method, as it is the most commonly performed and practical diagnostic test available for P. versicolor. An interrater reliability analysis using the Cohen′s Kappa statistic was performed to determine consistency (agreement among the different modalities. Observations and Results: Direct microscopy with CSB stain, KOH mount and mycological culture showed positive results in 98 (98%, 92 (92% and 56 (56% patients, respectively. Using KOH mount as the reference method, CSB stain had a sensitivity of 100% which was significantly higher than culture (60.9%. Statistically significant fair agreement was found between CSB stain and KOH mount (94% with κ=0.38, P < 0.001. Negligible agreement was found between CSB stain and culture (66%, κ=0.199, P = 0.001 as well as between KOH mount and culture (64%, κ=0.051, P = 0.107. Conclusion: CSB staining of skin scrapings is the most sensitive method for the diagnosis of pityriasis versicolor. Due to the distinct contrast provided by CSB, it is easy to perform, rapid and qualitatively superior to KOH mount.

  12. Study of the sonophotocatalytic degradation of basic blue 9 industrial textile dye over slurry titanium dioxide and influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Antonia Sandoval; Martínez, Susana Silva

    2008-09-01

    The sonophotocatalytic degradation of basic blue 9 industrial textile dye has been studied in the presence of ultrasound (20 kHz) over a TiO(2) slurry employing an UV lamp (15 W, 352 nm). It was observed that the color removal efficiency was influenced by the pH of the solution, initial dye concentration and TiO(2) amount. It was found that the dye degradation followed apparent first order kinetics. The rate constant increased by decreasing dye concentration and was affected by the pH of the solution with the highest degradation obtained at pH 7. The first order rate constants obtained with sonophotocatalysis were twofold and tenfold than those obtained under photocatalysis and sonolysis, respectively. The chemical oxygen demand was abated over 80%.

  13. Photocatalytic degradation of bromothymol blue with Ruthenium(II) bipyridyl complex in aqueous basic solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fui, Mark Lee Wun; Hang, Ng Kim; Arifin, Khuzaimah; Minggu, Lorna Jeffery; Kassim, Mohammad Bin

    2016-11-01

    Ru(II) bipyridyl photocatalyst with the formula, [Ru(bpy)2(o-CH3-bzpypz)](PF6)2] (Ru01) and [Ru(bpy)2(o-Cl-bzpypz)](PF6)2] (Ru02), where bpy = 2,2'-bipyridyl, o-CH3-bzpypz = (3-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)(o-tolyl)methanone and o-Cl-bzpypz = (2-chlorophenyl)(3-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)methanone, has been successfully synthesized and characterized on the basis of C, H, N elemental analysis, IR, UV-Vis and NMR spectroscopy. Both Ru(II) complexes showed Infrared stretching frequencies at 1742-1736 cm-1 v(C=O), 1605 cm-1 v(C=N) and 842-837 cm-1 v(PF). Full geometry optimization of the complex structures were carried out using DFT method with B3LYP exchange-correlation functional and 6-31G (d,p) basis-set for H, C, N, O and Cl; and LAN2LDZ basis set as effective core potential for the ruthenium centre. The highest-occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy levels of Ru01 and Ru02 are -5.63 and -5.55 eV, respectively. The photocatalytic properties of the Ru(II) complexes were evaluated by studying the degradation of aqueous bromothymol blue (BTB) under light illumination. The mechanisms are presented and discussed to highlight the role of the ruthenium complex in the degradation process.

  14. Validation of spectral sky radiance derived from all-sky camera images – a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Tohsing

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spectral sky radiance (380–760 nm is derived from measurements with a Hemispherical Sky Imager (HSI system. The HSI consists of a commercial compact CCD (charge coupled device camera equipped with a fish-eye lens and provides hemispherical sky images in three reference bands such as red, green and blue. To obtain the spectral sky radiance from these images non-linear regression functions for various sky conditions have been derived. The camera-based spectral sky radiance was validated by spectral sky radiance measured with a CCD spectroradiometer. The spectral sky radiance for complete distribution over the hemisphere between both instruments deviates by less than 20% at 500 nm for all sky conditions and for zenith angles less than 80°. The reconstructed spectra of the wavelength 380 nm to 760 nm between both instruments at various directions deviate by less then 20% for all sky conditions.

  15. Validation of spectral sky radiance derived from all-sky camera images – a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Tohsing

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Spectral sky radiance (380–760 nm is derived from measurements with a hemispherical sky imager (HSI system. The HSI consists of a commercial compact CCD (charge coupled device camera equipped with a fish-eye lens and provides hemispherical sky images in three reference bands such as red, green and blue. To obtain the spectral sky radiance from these images, non-linear regression functions for various sky conditions have been derived. The camera-based spectral sky radiance was validated using spectral sky radiance measured with a CCD spectroradiometer. The spectral sky radiance for complete distribution over the hemisphere between both instruments deviates by less than 20% at 500 nm for all sky conditions and for zenith angles less than 80°. The reconstructed spectra of the wavelengths 380–760 nm between both instruments at various directions deviate by less than 20% for all sky conditions.

  16. SKY WATCHER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China’s largest optical telescope will soon come online to benefit the country and the world The limits of human sight have been expanding ever since Galileo pointed his telescope to the sky 400 years ago. And now, LAMOST, the Chinese-built Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber

  17. Between Earth and Sky

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    to rescue architecture from the sterile impasse of late-modernism. In his works the basic elements of lived space become present: the earth, the sky and the `between` of human existence." Jørn Utzon's architecture ranges from the modest to the monumental; from the Kingo courtyard houses, the finest...

  18. Highly Efficient Sky-Blue Fluorescent Organic Light Emitting Diode Based on Mixed Cohost System for Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence Emitter (2CzPN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jin Won; Kim, Kwon-Hyeon; Moon, Chang-Ki; Lee, Jeong-Hwan; Kim, Jang-Joo

    2016-04-20

    The mixed cohosts of 1,3-bis(N-carbazolyl)benzene and 2,8-bis(diphenylphosphoryl)dibenzothiophene have been developed for a highly efficient blue fluorescent oragnic light emitting diode (OLED) doped with a thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) emitter [4,5-di (9H-carbazol-9-yl) phthalonitrile (2CzPN)]. We have demonstrated one of the highest external quantum efficiency of 21.8% in blue fluorescent OLEDs, which is identical to the theoretically achievable maximum electroluminescence efficiency using the emitter. Interestingly, the efficiency roll-off is large even under the excellent charge balance in the device and almost the same as the single host based devices, indicating that the efficiency roll-off in 2CzPN based TADF host is related to the material characteristics, such as low reverse intesystem crossing rate rather than charge imbalance.

  19. The Rainbow Sky

    CERN Document Server

    Buick, Tony

    2010-01-01

    The world is full of color, from the blue ocean and the yellow daffodils and sunflowers in green carpeted meadows to the majestic purple mountains in the distance and brightly hued coral reefs off the edges of tropical coasts. But what is color, exactly? Why do we see things in different colors? Do we all see the same colors? Like the surface of our planet, the sky above us offers us an endless palette of color, a visual feast for the eyes. Besides atmospheric phenomena such as sunsets and rainbows, there are the many varied worlds of the Solar System, which we can spy through our telescopes, with their subtle colorings of beige and blue and green. Faraway star systems have suns that come in shades ranging from red and yellow to blue and white. Scientists even often use "false colors" to enhance the features of images they take of structures, such as the rings of Saturn and Jupiter’s clouds. This book, with its clear explanations of what makes the sky such a colorful place and in its great wealth of picture...

  20. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a ... blues" from time to time. In contrast, major depression is a serious disorder that lasts for weeks. ...

  1. Photocatalytic degradation of basic blue 9 by CoS nanoparticles supported on AlMCM-41 material as a catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabnezhad, Sh; Pourahmad, A; Radaee, E

    2009-10-15

    In this investigation photocatalytic degradation of basic blue 9 or methylene blue (MB) as color pollutants was studied. Cobalt sulfide was supported on AlMCM-41 material using ion-exchange method. The results show that CoS/AlMCM-41 is an active photocatalyst. The catalyst is characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) UV-vis diffused reflectance spectra (UV-vis DRS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The maximum effect of photodegradation was observed at 7 wt% CoS/AlMCM-41. Pseudo-first order reaction with k=0.032 was observed for the photocatalytic degradation reaction. The effect of some parameters such as pH, amount of photocatalyst and initial concentration of dye were also examined. The effect of dosage of photocatalyst was studied in the range 0.04-1.2g/L. It was seen that 0.8 g/L of photocatalyst is an optimum value for the dosage of photocatalyst. In the best conditions, the degradation efficiency was obtained 0.32 ppm for MB dye.

  2. Studying longterm effects of micro gravity on basic immune functions - The development of an application based on the measuring of phagocytosis activity of Blue Mussel hemocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unruh, Eckehardt

    The immunsystem of astronauts exposed to microgravity is declining. Whether this effect is caused by microgravity or in combination with cosmic radiation is so far not clear. The immune system of vertebrates has several defence strategies but the basic immune response (Phagocytosis) is present as well in invertebrates. Phagocytotic cells are drawn by chemotaxis to the origin of an infection. By adhesion, ingestion and phagosome formation foreign particles, bacteria etc are transported inside of a cell were they are destroyed by native powerful biocides. Related to this biocide production is the formation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). ROS can be measured by luminescence. The effects of microgravity will be simultaneously tested by exposure of phagocytotic hemocytes on orbit under microgravity, artificial gravity and, on ground under natural gravity. To address this purpose defined pools of Blue Mussel (Mytilus edulis) hemocytes will be launched frozen to the ISS. References for all batches will stay on ground. Shortly after arrival and then in three-month intervals batches of the same pool will be thawed and reconstituted. The phagocytosis related production of ROS will be stimulated with opsonized Zymosan. Luminescence will be measured and the data will be sent to ground. The experiment is scheduled for the Columbus Biolab early 2009. In preparation of this flight experiments the following procedures were investigated and the results will be presented: - a protocol for the cryoconservation and reconstituton of blue mussel hemocytes. - preliminary results of phagocytosis activity by reconstituted hemocytes after cryo-conservation and hemocytes without cryo-conservation treatment. The TRIPLELUX-B Experiment contributes to risk assessment concerning longterm immunotoxicity under space flight conditions. The immune system of invertebrates has not been studied so far in space. The choice of the phagocytes from invertebrates is justified by the claim to study the

  3. Bluetooth: Opening a Blue Sky for Healthcare

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, X. H.; Iqbal, M.

    2006-01-01

    Over the last few years, there has been a blossoming of developing mobile healthcare programs. Bluetooth technology, which has the advantages of being low-power and inexpensive, whilst being able to transfer moderate amounts of data over a versatile, robust and secure radio link, has been widely applied in mobile healthcare as a replacement for cables. This paper discussed the applications of Bluetooth technology in healthcare. It started with the brief description of the history of Bluetooth...

  4. Electrically Assisted Photocatalytic Degrada tion of Direct Sky Blue Aqueous Solution with Three-Dimensional Electrodes%三维电极电助光催化降解直接湖蓝水溶液的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安太成; 何春; 朱锡海; 顾浩飞; 陈卫国; 熊亚

    2001-01-01

    Present st udy was to report electrically assisted photocatalyticdegradation of direct sky blue aqueous solution by three-phase three-dimensional electrodes. By illumin ating with 500 W high pressure mercury lamp and initiating with 30 voltage direc t current, a decolorization ratio of higher than 96.8% and COD concentration redu ction of about 66.7% were observed during a period of 30 min in the presence of both photocatalyst and filler electrodes. Compared with these values, the lower decol orization ratios and COD removal obtained by a single application of photochem ical (77.3% and 50.6%) and electrochemical process (88.6% and 62.3%), respective ly. Variety of operating conditions, such as conductivity, cell voltage, pH valu e , initial concentration of substrate, air-flow and concentration of photocataly st, was discussed in detail to ascertain their respective effect on the treatme nt e fficiency. The reaction mechanism also was discussed in the system of electrical ly assisted photocatalytic degradation with three-dimensional electrodes.%以500W高压汞灯为光源,在TiO2光催化剂和电催化剂同时存在下,联合多相三维电极技术与光催化技术,对直接湖蓝5B水溶液进行了电助光催化降解的研究.实验结果表明,浓度为0.5mmol/L的直接湖蓝5B水溶液经30min的光电催化降解,其大环结构可迅速破坏,颜色可迅速褪去,色度去除率高达96.8%,COD去除率可达66.7%.考察了空气流速、光催化剂加入量、底物的初始浓度、电解槽电压、pH值、电导率、以及曝气量等因素对直接湖蓝5B脱色率及COD去除率的影响.

  5. Adsorption Properties for Direct Sky Blue 5B by n-alkylamines-intercalated Layered Tetratitanate%有机胺插层四钛酸对直接湖蓝5B的吸附性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国辉; 孔春梅; 唐永明; 杨文忠

    2012-01-01

    在微波辅助下对四钛酸进行了有机胺插层,获得了正辛胺、正十二胺、正十六胺插层四钛酸材料,研究了3种层状物质作为吸附剂,pH、震荡时间、吸附剂用量等因素对直接湖蓝5B偶氮染料吸附的影响,确定了3种材料吸附的最佳条件.研究表明:微波有机胺插层四钛酸材料具有优良的吸附性能,pH=1.0时,正辛胺插层四钛酸用量为0.8 g/L、振荡时间40min,正十二胺插层材料和正十六插层材料用量为0.4 g/L、振荡时间分别30 min和50 min时,吸附脱色效果最好.随染料浓度增大,温度升高,插层四钛酸材料会发生板层分离,表现为常规的物理吸附过程.在50℃时,正辛胺、正十二胺、正十六插层四钛酸对直接湖蓝5B染料的吸附量分别达到636 mg/g、3 349 mg/g、2 856 mg/g.%Organic titanate acid was obtained by intercalation of n-CnH2n+1NH2(n=8,12,16)under microwave irradiation. The adsorption properties under various conditions such as pH value, adsorbent time and adsorbent dosage were investigated and the optimal experimental conditions were obtained. Results indicated that the grafted aminated tetratitanate acid had a higher adsorption capacity and adsorption speed for removing dyes from dye wastewater. The optimal adsorption conditions were presented for n-octylamines -intercalated layered tetratitanate at pH 1, adsorption time 40min and dosage 0.8 g/L; for n-dodecylamines -intercalated n -hexadecylamines -intercalated layered tetratitanate at pH 1.0, adsorption time 50 min and dosage 0.4 g/L. With the increase in dye concentration and temperature, the layers of n-alkylamines-intercalated tetratitanate will be separated with performance for regular physical adsorption process. The maximum adsorption capacities of direct sky blue 5B over n-CnH2n+1NH2(n=8,12,16)pillared tetratitanate were 636 mg/g, 3 349 mg/g and 2 856 mg/g at 50 ℃ respectively.

  6. Blue moons and Martian sunsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Kurt; Chakrabarty, Rajan; Moosmüller, Hans

    2014-03-20

    The familiar yellow or orange disks of the moon and sun, especially when they are low in the sky, and brilliant red sunsets are a result of the selective extinction (scattering plus absorption) of blue light by atmospheric gas molecules and small aerosols, a phenomenon explainable using the Rayleigh scattering approximation. On rare occasions, dust or smoke aerosols can cause the extinction of red light to exceed that for blue, resulting in the disks of the sun and moon to appear as blue. Unlike Earth, the atmosphere of Mars is dominated by micron-size dust aerosols, and the sky during sunset takes on a bluish glow. Here we investigate the role of dust aerosols in the blue Martian sunsets and the occasional blue moons and suns on Earth. We use the Mie theory and the Debye series to calculate the wavelength-dependent optical properties of dust aerosols most commonly found on Mars. Our findings show that while wavelength selective extinction can cause the sun's disk to appear blue, the color of the glow surrounding the sun as observed from Mars is due to the dominance of near-forward scattering of blue light by dust particles and cannot be explained by a simple, Rayleigh-like selective extinction explanation.

  7. Electrochemical degradation of Acid Blue and Basic Brown dyes on Pb/PbO2 electrode in the presence of different conductive electrolyte and effect of various operating factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, H S; Galwa, N Abo

    2005-12-01

    Electrocatalytic degradation of Acid Blue and Basic Brown dyes from simulated wastewater on lead dioxide anode was investigated in different conductive electrolytes. It was shown that complete degradation of these dyes is dependent primarily on type and concentration of the conductive electrolyte. The highest electrocatalytic activity was achieved in the presence of NaCl (2g/l) and could be attributed to indirect oxidation of the investigated dyes by the electrogenerated hypochlorite ions formed from the chloride oxidation. In addition, contribution from direct oxidation could also be possible via reaction of these organic compounds with the electrogenerated hydroxyl radicals adsorbed on the lead dioxide surface. In the presence of NaOH, the electrocatalytic activity of the employed anode was not comparable to that in NaCl due primarily to the absence of chloride. This indicates that dyes degradation in NaOH occurs exclusively via direct electrochemical process. However, in H2SO4, the electrode performance was poor due partially to the absence of chloride from the conductive solution. The possibility of electrode poisoning as a result of growth of adherent film on the anode surface or production of stable intermediates not easily further oxidized by direct electrolysis in H2SO4 might also be accountable for the poor performance observed in this conductive electrolyte. Optimizing the conditions that ensure effective electrochemical degradation of Acid Blue and Basic Brown dyes on lead dioxide electrode necessitates the control of all the operating factors.

  8. Sky monitoring with LOBSTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudec, R.; Tichy, V.

    2014-12-01

    The X--ray sky monitoring represents valuable energy spectral extension to optical sky monitoring. Lobster--Eye all--sky monitors are able to provide relatively high sensitivity and good time resolution in the soft X--ray energy range up to 10 keV. The fine time resolution can be used to alert optical robotic telescopes for follow--up and multispectral analyzes in the visible light.

  9. Video Screen Capture Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This article is an introduction to video screen capture. Basic information of two software programs, QuickTime for Mac and BlueBerry Flashback Express for PC, are also discussed. Practical applications for video screen capture are given.

  10. PSM: Planck Sky Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashdown, Mark; Aumont, Jonathan; Baccigalupi, Carlo; Banday, Anthony; Basak, Soumen; Bernard, Jean-Philippe; Betoule, Marc; Bouchet, François; Castex, Guillaume; Clements, Dave; Da Silva, Antonio; De Zotti, Gianfranco; Delabrouille, Jacques; Dickinson, Clive; Dodu, Fabrice; Dolag, Klaus; Elsner, Franz; Fauvet, Lauranne; Faÿ, Gilles; Giardino, Giovanna; Gonzalez-Nuevo, Joaquin; le Jeune, Maude; Leach, Samuel; Lesgourgues, Julien; Liguori, Michele; Macias, Juan; Massardi, Marcella; Matarrese, Sabino; Mazzotta, Pasquale; Melin, Jean-Baptiste; Miville-Deschênes, Marc-Antoine; Montier, Ludovic; Mottet, Sylvain; Paladini, Roberta; Partridge, Bruce; Piffaretti, Rocco; Prézeau, Gary; Prunet, Simon; Ricciardi, Sara; Roman, Matthieu; Schaefer, Bjorn; Toffolatti, Luigi

    2012-08-01

    The Planck Sky Model (PSM) is a global representation of the multi-component sky at frequencies ranging from a few GHz to a few THz. It summarizes in a synthetic way as much of our present knowledge as possible of the GHz sky. PSM is a complete and versatile set of programs and data that can be used for the simulation or the prediction of sky emission in the frequency range of typical CMB experiments, and in particular of the Planck sky mission. It was originally developed as part of the activities of Planck component separation Working Group (or "Working Group 2" - WG2), and of the ADAMIS team at APC. PSM gives users the opportunity to investigate the model in some depth: look at its parameters, visualize its predictions for all individual components in various formats, simulate sky emission compatible with a given parameter set, and observe the modeled sky with a synthetic instrument. In particular, it makes possible the simulation of sky emission maps as could be plausibly observed by Planck or other CMB experiments that can be used as inputs for the development and testing of data processing and analysis techniques.

  11. Pre-Dawn Martian Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    On Sol 39 there were wispy blue clouds in the pre-dawn sky of Mars, as seen by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP). The color image was made by taking blue, green, and red images and then combining them into a single color image. The clouds appear to have a bluish side and a greenish side because they moved (in the wind from the northeast) between images. This picture was made an hour and twenty minutes before sunrise -- the sun is not shining directly on the water ice clouds, but they are illuminated by the dawn twilight.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  12. 2014 Australasian sky guide

    CERN Document Server

    Lomb, Nick

    2013-01-01

    Compact, easy to use and reliable, this popular guide contains everything you need to know about the southern night sky with monthly astronomy maps, viewing tips and highlights, and details of all the year's exciting celestial events. Wherever you are in Australia or New Zealand, easy calculations allow you to estimate local rise and set times for the Sun, Moon and planets. The 2014 Australasian Sky Guide also provides information on the solar system, updated with the latest findings from space probes. Published annually since 1991, the Sky Guide continues to be a favourite with photographers,

  13. Colors of the Sky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohren, Craig F.; Fraser, Alistair B.

    1985-01-01

    Explains the physical principles which result in various colors of the sky. Topics addressed include: blueness, mystical properties of water vapor, ozone, fluctuation theory of scattering, variation of purity and brightness, and red sunsets and sunrises. (DH)

  14. 电视文艺晚会灯光艺术探析--以2013“蓝天下的至爱”慈善晚会为例%Analysis about Lighting Design Art of TV Evening Party-Taking the Party "Love Under the Blue Sky" for Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪力行; 刘翔

    2014-01-01

    电视文艺晚会的灯光设计,不仅要考虑光型、光色以及由此形成的节奏,还要注重人物情绪和情感的内心表达,把灯光艺术的意蕴展现出来。本文以“蓝天下的至爱”晚会为例,阐述电视文艺晚会灯光设计对舞台灯光手法的借鉴,并总结分析了运用中应注意的问题。%While designing the lighting of TV gala, the designers should express the meaning of lighting art. They need to consider not only the lighting shape, lighting color and rhythm, but also the emotions and expression of characters. Taking the "love under the blue sky" charity party for example, it was expounded that stage lighting technique was used for reference of TV evening party lighting design, and attention to some problems in use was analyzed and summarized in this paper.

  15. Simplified Night Sky Display System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Timothy P.

    2010-01-01

    A document describes a simple night sky display system that is portable, lightweight, and includes, at most, four components in its simplest configuration. The total volume of this system is no more than 10(sup 6) cm(sup 3) in a disassembled state, and weighs no more than 20 kilograms. The four basic components are a computer, a projector, a spherical light-reflecting first surface and mount, and a spherical second surface for display. The computer has temporary or permanent memory that contains at least one signal representing one or more images of a portion of the sky when viewed from an arbitrary position, and at a selected time. The first surface reflector is spherical and receives and reflects the image from the projector onto the second surface, which is shaped like a hemisphere. This system may be used to simulate selected portions of the night sky, preserving the appearance and kinesthetic sense of the celestial sphere surrounding the Earth or any other point in space. These points will then show motions of planets, stars, galaxies, nebulae, and comets that are visible from that position. The images may be motionless, or move with the passage of time. The array of images presented, and vantage points in space, are limited only by the computer software that is available, or can be developed. An optional approach is to have the screen (second surface) self-inflate by means of gas within the enclosed volume, and then self-regulate that gas in order to support itself without any other mechanical support.

  16. Kind of Blue - Europa Blues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Tore; Kirkegaard, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Bidraget reflekterer over sammenhænge mellem to værker fra det musikalske og litterære område. Det drejer sig om Miles Davis' Kind of Blue fra 1959 og Arne Dahls krimi, Europa Blues fra 2001. Den grundlæggende indfaldsvinkel er det performative, den frie, men samtidigt disciplinerede musikalske...

  17. Sky color near the horizon during a total solar eclipse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedzelman, S D

    1975-12-01

    A theory for the color of the sky near the horizon for an observer in the umbral region of a total solar eclipse is presented. The model uses a Rayleigh scattering atmosphere, and the light reaching the observer is a beam of singly scattered sunlight, which, in turn, has suffered depletion by scattering in its passage from outside the shadow region. The model predicts both the red color observed in the lowest 8 degrees of the sky for the total solar eclipse of 30 June 1973 and the enriched blue color of the sky at any elevation angle greater than the solar elevation angle. The model is also adapted to explain the reddening of the horizon sky observed during such times as when a dark cloud passes overhead or when the light from a large city is seen from the distance at night.

  18. Dark-Skies Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Constance E.

    2009-05-01

    The arc of the Milky Way seen from a truly dark location is part of our planet's natural heritage. More than one fifth of the world population, two thirds of the United States population and one half of the European Union population have already lost naked eye visibility of the Milky Way. This loss, caused by light pollution, is a serious and growing issue that impacts astronomical research, the economy, ecology, energy conservation, human health, public safety and our shared ability to see the night sky. For this reason, "Dark Skies” is a cornerstone project of the International Year of Astronomy. Its goal is to raise public awareness of the impact of artificial lighting on local environments by getting people worldwide involved in a variety of programs that: 1. Teach about dark skies using new technology (e.g., an activity-based planetarium show on DVD, podcasting, social networking on Facebook and MySpace, a Second Life presence) 2. Provide thematic events on light pollution at star parties and observatory open houses (Dark Skies Discovery Sites, Nights in the (National) Parks, Sidewalk Astronomy) 3. Organize events in the arts (e.g., a photography contest) 4. Involve citizen-scientists in naked-eye and digital-meter star hunting programs (e.g., GLOBE at Night, "How Many Stars?", the Great World Wide Star Count and the radio frequency interference equivalent: "Quiet Skies") and 5. Raise awareness about the link between light pollution and public health, economic issues, ecological consequences, energy conservation, safety and security, and astronomy (e.g., The Starlight Initiative, World Night in Defense of Starlight, International Dark Sky Week, International Dark-Sky Communities, Earth Hour, The Great Switch Out, a traveling exhibit, downloadable posters and brochures). The presentation will provide an update, describe how people can become involved and take a look ahead at the program's sustainability. For more information, visit www.darkskiesawareness.org.

  19. 2013 Australasian sky guide

    CERN Document Server

    Lomb, Nick

    2012-01-01

    Compact, easy to use and reliable, this popular guide contains everything you need to know about the southern night sky with monthly star maps, diagrams and details of all the year's exciting celestial events. Wherever you are in Australia or New Zealand, easy calculations allow you to determine when the Sun, Moon and planets will rise and set throughout the year. Also included is information on the latest astronomical findings from space probes and telescopes around the world. The Sky guide has been published annually by the Powerhouse Museum, Sydney, since 1991. It is recommended for photogr

  20. BATSE Sky Exposure

    CERN Document Server

    Hakkila, J; Pendleton, G N; Henze, W; McCollough, M L; Kommers, J M; Briggs, M S; Hakkila, Jon; Meegan, Charles A.; Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Henze, William; Collough, Michael Mc; Kommers, Jefferson M.; Briggs, Michael S.

    1997-01-01

    Angular sky exposure is presented for a number of published BATSE gamma-ray burst catalogs. A new algorithm was required due to telemetry gaps resulting from onboard tape recorder failures; the new algorithm improves the 1B Catalog exposure calculation. The most influential effects limiting BATSE's exposure are (1) deadtime due to triggering, (2) sky blockage by the Earth, and (3) trigger disabling when the spacecraft is in the SAA and over other specific Earth locations. Exposure has improved during the CGRO mission as a result of decreased Solar flares and magnetospheric particle events.

  1. Blue Laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    HOLLOW CATHODE LASER FABRICATION 13 4. EXPERIENCE WITH THE BLUE LASER 18 4.1 Operational and Processing Experience 18 4.2 Performance Testing 20 5...34 -. - . •. SECTION 3 BLUE HOLLOW CATHODE LASER FABRICATION This section presents an overview of the steps taken in creating a HCL. There is...to the laser assembly. These steps can actually be considered as the final steps in laser fabrication because some of them involve adding various

  2. The Big Sky inside

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Earle; Ward, Tony J.; Vanek, Diana; Marra, Nancy; Hester, Carolyn; Knuth, Randy; Spangler, Todd; Jones, David; Henthorn, Melissa; Hammill, Brock; Smith, Paul; Salisbury, Rob; Reckin, Gene; Boulafentis, Johna

    2009-01-01

    The University of Montana (UM)-Missoula has implemented a problem-based program in which students perform scientific research focused on indoor air pollution. The Air Toxics Under the Big Sky program (Jones et al. 2007; Adams et al. 2008; Ward et al. 2008) provides a community-based framework for understanding the complex relationship between poor…

  3. Electricity in the Sky

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宇清

    1995-01-01

    Without any warning, the stormy sky flashes ghostly white. Jagged branches connect the earth and clouds in an eerie electric web,then disappear.Seconds later a resounding thunderclap warns you that the storm’s center is just a few miles away.

  4. A night sky model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erpylev, N. P.; Smirnov, M. A.; Bagrov, A. V.

    A night sky model is proposed. It includes different components of light polution, such as solar twilight, moon scattered light, zodiacal light, Milky Way, air glow and artificial light pollution. The model is designed for calculating the efficiency of astronomical installations.

  5. The New Progress of the Starry Sky Project of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohua

    2015-08-01

    Since the 28th General Assembly of IAU, the SSPC team made new progress:1. Enhanced the function of the SSPC team-- Established the contact with IAU C50, IUCN Dark Skies Advisory Group, AWB and IDA,and undertakes the work of the IDA Beijing Chapter.-- Got supports from China’s National Astronomical Observatories, Beijing Planetarium, and Shanghai Science and Technology Museum.-- Signed cooperation agreements with Lighting Research Center, English Education Group and law Firm; formed the team force.2. Put forward a proposal to national top institutionThe SSPC submitted the first proposal about dark sky protection to the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference.3. Introduced the Criteria and Guideline of dark sky protectionThe SSPC team translated 8 documents of IDA, and provided a reference basis for Chinese dark sky protection.4. Actively establish dark sky places-- Plan a Dark Sky Reserve around Ali astronomical observatory (5,100m elevation) in Tibet. China’s Xinhua News Agency released the news.-- Combining with Hangcuo Lake, a National Natural Reserve and Scenic in Tibet, to plan and establish the Dark Sky Park.-- Cooperated with Shandong Longgang Tourism Group to construct the Dream Sky Theme Park in the suburbs of Jinan city.In the IYL 2015, the SSPC is getting further development:First, make dark sky protection enter National Ecological Strategy of “Beautiful China”. We call on: “Beautiful China” needs “Beautiful Night Sky” China should care the shared starry sky, and left this resource and heritage for children.Second, hold “Cosmic Light” exhibition in Shanghai Science and Technology Museum on August.Third, continue to establish Dark Sky Reserve, Park and Theme Park. We want to make these places become the bases of dark sky protection, astronomical education and ecological tourism, and develop into new cultural industry.Fourth, actively join international cooperation.Now, “Blue Sky, White Cloud and Starry Sky “have become

  6. Color Variations in the Sky at Sunset

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This image of the martian sunset from Sol 24 shows much more color variation than had previously been seen. The blue color near the Sun is not caused by clouds of water ice, but by the martian dust itself. The dust in the atmosphere absorbs blue light, giving the sky its red color, but it also scatters some of the blue light into the area just around the Sun because of its size. The blue color only becomes apparent near sunrise and sunset, when the light has to pass through the largest amount of dust. This image was taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  7. All Sky Camera instrument for night sky monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Mandat, Dusan; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Schovanek, Petr; Palatka, Miroslav; Travnicek, Petr; Prouza, Michael; Ebr, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The All Sky Camera (ASC) was developed as an universal device for a monitoring of the night sky quality and night sky background measurement. ASC system consists of an astronomical CCD camera, a fish eye lens, a control computer and associated electronics. The measurement is carried out during astronomical twilight. The analysis results are the cloud fraction (the percentage of the sky covered by clouds), night sky brightness (in mag/arcsec2) and light background in the field of view of the camera. The analysis of the cloud fraction is based on the astrometry (comparison to catalogue positions) of the observed stars.

  8. Dark Skies Rangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Rosa

    2015-08-01

    Creating awareness about the importance of the protection of our dark skies is the main goal of the Dark Skies Rangers project, a joint effort from the NOAO and the Galileo Teacher Training Program. Hundreds of schools and thousands of students have been reached by this program. We will focus in particular on the experience being developed in Portugal where several municipalities have now received street light auditing produced by students with suggestions on how to enhance the energy efficiency of illumination of specific urban areas. In the International Year of Light we are investing our efforts in exporting the successful Portuguese experience to other countries. The recipe is simple: train teachers, engage students, foster the participation of local community and involve local authorities in the process. In this symposium we hope to draft the cookbook for the near future.

  9. Sacred Sky and Cyberspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clynes, F.

    2011-06-01

    The concept of the sacred world beyond the stars found expression in the works of Plato, into Gnosticism and was incorporated into Christianity where medieval images of the cosmos pictured the heavenly domain as beyond the stars. Today cyberspace literature abounds with descriptions of a transmundane space, a great Beyond. This talk looks at current views of cyberspace and asks if they are a re-packaging of the age-old concept of a sacred sky in a secular and technological format?

  10. 2012 Australasian sky guide

    CERN Document Server

    Lomb, Nick

    2011-01-01

    Compact, easy to use and reliable, this popular guide contains everything you need to know about the southern night sky with monthly star maps, diagrams and details of all the year's exciting celestial events. Wherever you are in Australia or New Zealand, easy calculations allow you to determine when the Sun, Moon and planets will rise and set throughout the year. Also included is information on the latest astronomical findings from space probes and telescopes around the world.

  11. Curiosities of the sky

    CERN Document Server

    Serviss, Garrett P

    2015-01-01

    Curiosities of the Sky is a newly annotated edition of the 1909 popular astronomy classic. All of the original text, photographs and diagrams are preserved, and new text added providing updates in the progress of astronomy since the book was first published. Garrett Serviss wrote with a firm understanding of the science of the period. He was also graced with a delightful imagination and unequaled power of poetic expression in describing the wonders and mysteries of the universe.

  12. The Dynamic Infrared Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasliwal, Mansi M.; SPIRITS (Spitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey) Team

    2017-01-01

    The dynamic infrared sky is hitherto largely unexplored. I will present the SPitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey (SPIRITS) --- a systematic search of 194 nearby galaxies within 30 Mpc, on timescales ranging between a week to a year, to a depth of 20 mag with Spitzer's IRAC camera. SPIRITS has already uncovered over 95 explosive transients and over 1200 strong variables. Of these, 37 infrared transients are especially interesting as they have no optical counterparts whatsoever even with deep limits from Keck and HST. Interpretation of these new discoveries may include (i) the birth of massive binaries that drive shocks in their molecular cloud, (ii) stellar mergers with dusty winds, (iii) 8--10 solar mass stars experiencing e-capture induced collapse in their cores, (iv) enshrouded supernovae, or (v) formation of stellar mass black holes. SPIRITS reveals that the infrared sky is not just as dynamic as the optical sky; it also provides access to unique, elusive signatures in stellar astrophysics.

  13. The Sky at Night

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    For more than 50 years now Sir Patrick Moore has presented the BBC Television series Sky at Night; not a month has been missed – a record for any television series, and a record which may never be broken. Every three years or so a book is published covering the main events in both astronomy and space research. This is the 13th volume, not only a record of the programmes but also of the great advances and discoveries during the period covered - eclipses, comets, and the strange chemical lakes of Titan, for instance, but also anniversaries such as the fifteenth “birthday” of the Hubble Space Telescope, and not forgetting the programme celebrating the Sky at Night’s 50th year, attended by astronaut Piers Sellars and many others who appeared on the programme over the years. All the chapters are self-contained, and fully illustrated. In this new Sky at Night book you will find much to entertain you. It will appeal to amateurs and professionals alike.

  14. Google Sky: A Digital View of the Night Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, A. Scranton, R.; Ornduff, T.

    2008-11-01

    From its inception Astronomy has been a visual science, from careful observations of the sky using the naked eye, to the use of telescopes and photographs to map the distribution of stars and galaxies, to the current era of digital cameras that can image the sky over many decades of the electromagnetic spectrum. Sky in Google Earth (http://earth.google.com) and Google Sky (http://www.google.com/sky) continue this tradition, providing an intuitive visual interface to some of the largest astronomical imaging surveys of the sky. Streaming multi-color imagery, catalogs, time domain data, as well as annotating interesting astronomical sources and events with placemarks, podcasts and videos, Sky provides a panchromatic view of the universe accessible to anyone with a computer. Beyond a simple exploration of the sky Google Sky enables users to create and share content with others around the world. With an open interface available on Linux, Mac OS X and Windows, and translations of the content into over 20 different languages we present Sky as the embodiment of a virtual telescope for discovery and sharing the excitement of astronomy and science as a whole.

  15. Rayleigh scattering: blue sky thinking for future CMB observations

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Antony

    2013-01-01

    Rayleigh scattering from neutral hydrogen during and shortly after recombination causes the CMB anisotropies to be significantly frequency dependent at high frequencies. This may be detectable with Planck, and would be a strong signal at in any future space-based CMB missions. The later peak of the Rayleigh visibility compared to Thomson scattering gives an increased large-scale CMB polarization signal that is a greater than 4% effect for observed frequencies greater than 500GHz. There is a similar magnitude suppression on small scales from additional damping. Due to strong correlation between the Rayleigh and primary signal, measurement of the Rayleigh component is limited by noise and foregrounds, not cosmic variance of the primary CMB, and should observable over a wide range of angular scales at frequencies between roughly 200GHz and 800GHz. I give new numerical calculations of the temperature and polarization power spectra, and show that future CMB missions could measure the temperature Rayleigh cross-spe...

  16. Game design from blue sky to green light

    CERN Document Server

    Todd, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    Just Cause, Avalanche Studios, Just Cause, March 2007 pulled off a remarkable feat: she's produced a book that's both inspirational and practical. Listen to her and the other video game industry experts she interviews, and save yourself years of forehead-slapping."""" -Corey Bridges, Multiverse, Multiverse, March 2007 Chapter 3: The Yin and Yang of Brainstorming """"Every good brainstorming session starts with a 15-minute discussion of Star Trek."""" - Noah Falstein , quoting Ron Gilbert -Game Career Guide, February 2007 """"Next-Gen.Biz Podcast Episode 22: Deborah Todd, author of the book Ga

  17. Static Filtered Sky Color Constancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Alkhalifah

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In Computer Vision, the sky color is used for lighting correction, image color enhancement, horizon alignment, image indexing, and outdoor image classification and in many other applications. In this article, for robust color based sky segmentation and detection, usage of lighting correction for sky color detection is investigated. As such, the impact of color constancy on sky color detection algorithms is evaluated and investigated. The color correction (constancy algorithms used includes Gray-Edge (GE, Gray-World (GW, Max-RGB (MRGB and Shades-of-Gray (SG. The algorithms GE, GW, MRGB, and SG, are tested on the static filtered sky modeling. The static filter is developed in the LAB color space. This evaluation and analysis is essential for detection scenarios, especially, color based object detection in outdoor scenes. From the results, it is concluded that the color constancy before sky color detection using LAB static filters has the potential of improving sky color detection performance. However, the application of the color constancy can impart adverse effects on the detection results. For images, the color constancy algorithms depict a compact and stable representative of the sky chroma loci, however, the sky color locus might have a shifting and deviation in a particular color representation. Since the sky static filters are using the static chromatic values, different results can be obtained by applying color constancy algorithms on various datasets.

  18. Mining the Blazar Sky

    CERN Document Server

    Padovani, P; Padovani, Paolo; Giommi, Paolo

    2000-01-01

    We present the results of our methods to "mine" the blazar sky, i.e., select blazar candidates with very high efficiency. These are based on the cross-correlation between public radio and X-ray catalogs and have resulted in two surveys, the Deep X-ray Radio Blazar Survey (DXRBS) and the "Sedentary" BL Lac survey. We show that data mining is vital to select sizeable, deep samples of these rare active galactic nuclei and we touch upon the identification problems which deeper surveys will face.

  19. "Clothed in triple blues": sorting out the Italian blues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimler, David; Uusküla, Mari

    2014-04-01

    Cross-cultural comparisons of color perception and cognition often feature versions of the "similarity sorting" procedure. By interpreting the assignment of two color samples to different groups as an indication that the dissimilarity between them exceeds some threshold, sorting data can be regarded as low-resolution similarity judgments. Here we analyze sorting data from speakers of Italian, Russian, and English, applying multidimensional scaling to delineate the boundaries between perceptual categories while highlighting differences between the three populations. Stimuli were 55 color swatches, predominantly from the blue region. Results suggest that at least two Italian words for "blue" are basic, a similar situation to Russian, in contrast to English where a single "blue" term is basic.

  20. Change in NO2 reveals Parade Blue is cleaner than APEC Blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haoran; Liu, Cheng; Xie, Zhouqing; Xie, Pinhua; Xing, Chengzhi; Xu, Jin; Liu, Jianguo

    2016-04-01

    The spectacular Parade Blue (blue sky), and APEC Blue (blue sky) were renowned worldwide caused by the limiting discharge policy of the Chinese government. For evaluating the reduction of these two events, we analyzed the variation of NO2 columns Beijing by looking at a long-term monitoring using Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) satellite observations from August 2014 to November 2015, covering Grand Military Parade (GMP, September 2015) and APEC (November 2014) period. We found that the NO2 columns abruptly decreased both GMP and APEC. However, change in the MAX-DOAS and the OMI NO2 during GMP was larger than during APEC via comparison with the same period in 2014, indicating Parade Blue is cleaner than APEC Blue. The spatial distribution of NO2 and backward trajectories together with meterological parameters suggested that GMP Blue may be due to the regional significant decreasing discharge in peripheral cities. No weekend effect during GMP further confirmed the role of controlling discharge. This study provides direct evidence that it is possible to clean air in China.

  1. The Sixth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Adelman-McCarthy, Jennifer K; Agüeros, Marcel A; Allam, Sahar S; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Anderson,Kurt S J; Anderson, Scott F; Annis, James; Bahcall, Neta A; Bailer-Jones, C A L; Baldry, Ivan K; Barentine, J C; Bassett, Bruce A; Becker, Andrew C; Beers, Timothy C; Bell, Eric F; Berlind, Andreas A; Bernardi, Mariangela; Blanton, Michael R; Bochanski, John J; Boroski, William N; Brinchmann, Jarle; Brinkmann, J; Brunner, Robert J; Budavi, Tamas; Carliles, Samuel; Carr, Michael A; Castander, Francisco J; Cinabro, David; Cool, R J; Covey, Kevin R; Csabai, Istvan; Cunha, Carlos E; Davenport, James R A; Dilday, Ben; Doi, Mamoru; Eisenstein, Daniel J; Evans, Michael L; Fan, Xiaohui; Finkbeiner, Douglas P; Friedman, Scott D; Frieman, Joshua A; Fukugita, Masataka; Gansicke, Boris T; Gates, Evalyn; Gillespie, Bruce; Glazebrook, Karl; Gray, Jim; Grebel, Eva K; Gunn, James E; Gurbani, Vijay K; Hall, Patrick B; Harding, Paul; Harvanek, Michael; Hawley, Suzanne L; Hayes, Jeffrey; Heckman, Timothy M; Hendry, John S; Hindsley, Robert B; Hirata, Christopher M; Hogan, Craig J; Hogg, David W; Hyde, Joseph B; Ichikawa, Shin-ichi; Ivezic, Zeljko; Jester, Sebastian; Johnson, Jennifer A; Jorgensen, Anders M; Juric, Mario; Kent, Stephen M; Kessler, R; Kleinman, S J; Knapp, G R; Kron, Richard G; Kuropatkin, Nikolay; Lamb, Donald Q; Lampeitl, Hubert; Lebedeva, Svetlana; Lee, Young Sun; Leger, R French; Lepine, Sebastien; Lima, Marcos; Lin, Huan; Long, Daniel C; Loomis, Craig P; Loveday, Jon; Lupton, Robert H; Malanushenko, Olena; Malanushenko,Viktor; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Margon, Bruce; Marriner, John P; Martinez-Delgado, David; Matsubara, Takahiko; McGehee, Peregrine M; McKay, Timothy A; Meiksin, Avery; Morrison, Heather L; Munn, Jeffrey A; Nakajima, Reiko; Neilsen, Eric H; Newberg,Heidi Jo; Nichol, Robert C; Nicinski, Tom; Nieto-Santisteban, Maria; Nitta, Atsuko; Okamura, Sadanori; Owen, Russell; Oyaizu, Hiroaki; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Pan, Kaike; Park, Changbom; Peoples, John Jr; Pier, Jeffrey R; Pope, Adrian C; Purger, Norbert; Raddick, M Jordan; Re Fiorentin, Paola; Richards, Gordon T; Richmond, Michael W; Riess, Adam G; Rix, Hans-Walter; Rockosi, Constance M; Sako, Masao; Schlegel, David J; Schneider, Donald P; Schreiber, Matthias R; Schwope, Axel D; Seljak, Uros; Sesar, Branimir; Sheldon, Erin; Shimasaku, Kazu; Sivarani, Thirupathi; Smith, J Allyn; Snedden, Stephanie A; Steinmetz, Matthias; Strauss, Michael A; SubbaRao, Mark; Suto, Yasushi; Szalay, Alexander S; Szapudi, Istvan; Szkody, Paula; Tegmark, Max; Thakar, Aniruddha R; Tremonti, Christy A; Tucker, Douglas L; Uomoto, Alan; Vanden Berk, Daniel E; Vidrih, S; Vogeley, Michael S; Vogt, Nicole P; Wadadekar, Yogesh; Weinberg, David H; West, Andrew A; White, Simon D M; Wilhite, Brian C; Wilhite, Brian; Yocum, D R; York, Donald G; Zehavi, Idit; Zucker, Daniel B

    2007-01-01

    With the Sixth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, the imaging of the Northern Galactic Cap is now complete. The survey contains images and parameters of roughly 287 million objects over 9583 deg^2, and 1.27 million spectra of stars, galaxies, quasars and blank sky (for sky subtraction) selected over 7425 deg^2. This release includes much more extensive stellar spectroscopy than previously, and also includes detailed estimates of stellar temperatures, gravities, and metallicities. The results of improved photometric calibration are now available, with uncertainties of roughly 1% in g, r, i, and z, and 2% in u, substantially better than the uncertainties in previous data releases. The spectra in this data release have improved wavelength and flux calibration, especially in the extreme blue and extreme red, leading to the qualitatively better determination of stellar types and radial velocities. The spectrophotometric fluxes are now tied to point spread function magnitudes of stars rather than fiber m...

  2. Sun, Earth and Sky

    CERN Document Server

    Lang, Kenneth R

    2006-01-01

    This Second Edition of Sun, Earth and Sky updates the popular text by providing comprehensive accounts of the most recent discoveries made by five modern solar spacecraft during the past decade. Their instruments have used sound waves to peer deep into the Sun’s inner regions and measure the temperature of its central nuclear reactor, and extended our gaze far from the visible Sun to record energetic outbursts that threaten Earth. Breakthrough observations with the underground Sudbury Neutrino Observatory are also included, which explain the new physics of ghostly neutrinos and solve the problematic mismatch between the predicted and observed amounts of solar neutrinos. This new edition of Sun, Earth and Sky also describes our recent understanding of how the Sun’s outer atmosphere is heated to a million degrees, and just where the Sun’s continuous winds come from. As humans we are more intimately linked with our life-sustaining Sun than with any other astronomical object, and the new edition therefore p...

  3. Mauna Kea Sky Transparency from CFHT SkyProbe Data

    CERN Document Server

    Steinbring, Eric; Magnier, Eugene

    2008-01-01

    Nighttime sky transparency statistics on Mauna Kea are reported based on data from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope SkyProbe monitor. We focus on the period beginning with the start of MegaCam wide-field optical imager operations in 2003, and continuing for almost three years. Skies were clear enough to observe on 76% of those nights; attenuations were less than 0.2 magnitudes up to 60% of the time. An empirical model of cloud attenuation and duration is presented allowing us to further characterize the photometric conditions. This is a good fit tothe SkyProbe data, and indicates that Mauna Kea skies are truly photometric (without cloud) an average of 56% of the time, with moderate seasonal variation. Continuous monitoring of transparency during the night is necessary to overcome fluctuations in attenuation due to thin cloud.

  4. Posthuman blues

    CERN Document Server

    Tonnies, Mac

    2013-01-01

    Posthuman Blues, Vol. I is first volume of the edited version of the popular weblog maintained by author Mac Tonnies from 2003 until his tragic death in 2009. Tonnies' blog was a pastiche of his original fiction, reflections on his day-to-day life, trenchant observations of current events, and thoughts on an eclectic range of material he culled from the Internet. What resulted was a remarkably broad portrait of a thoughtful man and the complex times in which he lived, rendered with intellige...

  5. Design of a Device for Sky Light Polarization Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujie Wang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available ky polarization patterns can be used both as indicators of atmospheric turbidity and as a sun compass for navigation. The objective of this study is to improve the precision of sky light polarization measurements by optimal design of the device used. The central part of the system is composed of a Charge Coupled Device (CCD camera; a fish-eye lens and a linear polarizer. Algorithms for estimating parameters of the polarized light based on three images are derived and the optimal alignments of the polarizer are analyzed. The least-squares estimation is introduced for sky light polarization pattern measurement. The polarization patterns of sky light are obtained using the designed system and they follow almost the same patterns of the single-scattering Rayleigh model. Deviations of polarization angles between observation and the theory are analyzed. The largest deviations occur near the sun and anti-sun directions. Ninety percent of the deviations are less than 5° and 40% percent of them are less than 1°. The deviations decrease evidently as the degree of polarization increases. It also shows that the polarization pattern of the cloudy sky is almost identical as in the blue sky.

  6. Training for Blue Collar Blues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Roger L.

    1974-01-01

    Questions the basic economic and political assumptions behind the push for vocationalism and career education, and presents an overview of the issues considered essential in making viable the relationship between the schoolplace and the workplace. (Editor)

  7. Close to the Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    Today, a new ALMA outreach and educational book was publicly presented to city officials of San Pedro de Atacama in Chile, as part of the celebrations of the anniversary of the Andean village. ESO PR Photo 50a/07 ESO PR Photo 50a/07 A Useful Tool for Schools Entitled "Close to the sky: Biological heritage in the ALMA area", and edited in English and Spanish by ESO in Chile, the book collects unique on-site observations of the flora and fauna of the ALMA region performed by experts commissioned to investigate it and to provide key initiatives to protect it. "I thank the ALMA project for providing us a book that will surely be a good support for the education of children and youngsters of San Pedro de Atacama. Thanks to this publication, we expect our rich flora and fauna to be better known. I invite teachers and students to take advantage of this educational resource, which will be available in our schools", commented Ms. Sandra Berna, the Mayor of San Pedro de Atacama, who was given the book by representatives of the ALMA global collaboration project. Copies of the book 'Close to the sky' will be donated to all schools in the area, as a contribution to the education of students and young people in northern Chile. "From the very beginning of the project, ALMA construction has had a firm commitment to environment and local culture, protecting unique flora and fauna species and preserving old estancias belonging to the Likan Antai culture," said Jacques Lassalle, who represented ALMA at the hand-over. "Animals like the llama, the fox or the condor do not only live in the region where ALMA is now being built, but they are also key elements of the ancient Andean constellations. In this sense they are part of the same sky that will be explored by ALMA in the near future." ESO PR Photo 50c/07 ESO PR Photo 50c/07 Presentation of the ALMA book The ALMA Project is a giant, international observatory currently under construction on the high-altitude Chajnantor site in Chile

  8. Spatiotemporal change of sky polarization during the total solar eclipse on 29 March 2006 in Turkey: polarization patterns of the eclipsed sky observed by full-sky imaging polarimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipocz, Brigitta; Hegedüs, Ramón; Kriska, György; Horváth, Gábor

    2008-12-01

    Using 180 degrees field-of-view (full-sky) imaging polarimetry, we measured the spatiotemporal change of the polarization of skylight during the total solar eclipse on 29 March 2006 in Turkey. We present our observations here on the temporal variation of the celestial patterns of the degree p and angle alpha of linear polarization of the eclipsed sky measured in the red (650 nm), green (550 nm), and blue (450 nm) parts of the spectrum. We also report on the temporal and spectral change of the positions of neutral (unpolarized, p = 0) points, and points with local minima or maxima of p of the eclipsed sky. Our results are compared with the observations performed by the same polarimetric technique during the total solar eclipse on 11 August 1999 in Hungary. Practically the same characteristics of celestial polarization were encountered during both eclipses. This shows that the observed polarization phenomena of the eclipsed sky may be general.

  9. Digital all-sky polarization imaging of partly cloudy skies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pust, Nathan J; Shaw, Joseph A

    2008-12-01

    Clouds reduce the degree of linear polarization (DOLP) of skylight relative to that of a clear sky. Even thin subvisual clouds in the "twilight zone" between clouds and aerosols produce a drop in skylight DOLP long before clouds become visible in the sky. In contrast, the angle of polarization (AOP) of light scattered by a cloud in a partly cloudy sky remains the same as in the clear sky for most cases. In unique instances, though, select clouds display AOP signatures that are oriented 90 degrees from the clear-sky AOP. For these clouds, scattered light oriented parallel to the scattering plane dominates the perpendicularly polarized Rayleigh-scattered light between the instrument and the cloud. For liquid clouds, this effect may assist cloud particle size identification because it occurs only over a relatively limited range of particle radii that will scatter parallel polarized light. Images are shown from a digital all-sky-polarization imager to illustrate these effects. Images are also shown that provide validation of previously published theories for weak (approximately 2%) polarization parallel to the scattering plane for a 22 degrees halo.

  10. Color vision: retinal blues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Jamie; Esposti, Federico; Lagnado, Leon

    2012-08-21

    Two complementary studies have resolved the circuitry underlying green-blue color discrimination in the retina. A blue-sensitive interneuron provides the inhibitory signal required for computing green-blue color opponency.

  11. Mira Soars Through the Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1Figure 2 New ultraviolet images from NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer shows a speeding star that is leaving an enormous trail of 'seeds' for new solar systems. The star, named Mira (pronounced my-rah) after the latin word for 'wonderful,' is shedding material that will be recycled into new stars, planets and possibly even life as it hurls through our galaxy. In figure 1, the upper panel shows Mira's full, comet-like tail as seen only in shorter, or 'far' ultraviolet wavelengths, while the lower panel is a combined view showing both far and longer, or 'near' ultraviolet wavelengths. The close-up picture at bottom gives a better look at Mira itself, which appears as a pinkish dot, and is moving from left to right in this view. Shed material appears in light blue. The dots in the picture are stars and distant galaxies. The large blue dot on the left side of the upper panel, and the large yellow dot in the lower panel, are both stars that are closer to us than Mira. The Galaxy Evolution Explorer discovered the strange tail during part of its routine survey of the entire sky at ultraviolet wavelengths. When astronomers first saw the picture, they were shocked because Mira has been studied for over 400 years yet nothing like this has ever been documented before. Mira's comet-like tail stretches a startling 13 light-years across the sky. For comparison, the nearest star to our sun, Proxima Centauri, is only about 4 light-years away. Mira's tail also tells a tale of its history -- the material making it up has been slowly blown off over time, with the oldest material at the end of the tail being released about 30,000 years ago (figure 2). Mira is a highly evolved, 'red giant' star near the end of its life. Technically, it is called an asymptotic giant branch star. It is red in color and bloated; for example, if a red giant were to replace our sun, it would engulf

  12. Sky cover from MFRSR observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kassianov

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The diffuse all-sky surface irradiances measured at two nearby wavelengths in the visible spectral range and their modeled clear-sky counterparts are the main components of a new method for estimating the fractional sky cover of different cloud types, including cumuli. The performance of this method is illustrated using 1-min resolution data from a ground-based Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR. The MFRSR data are collected at the US Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF Southern Great Plains (SGP site during the summer of 2007 and represent 13 days with cumuli. Good agreement is obtained between estimated values of the fractional sky cover and those provided by a well-established independent method based on broadband observations.

  13. Curiosities of the sky

    CERN Document Server

    Serviss, Garrett P

    2012-01-01

    Long before figures like Carl Sagan and Neil deGrasse Tyson simplified astronomy for popular consumption, Garrett P. Serviss was traveling the United States with an early version of a PowerPoint presentation to teach people about eclipses, the orbit of the planets, and other celestial concepts. This basic introduction to the subject is simple and enjoyable enough to ensure that science-phobes or young readers won't be turned off.

  14. Armenian Names of Sky Constellations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickaelian, A. M.; Farmanyan, S. V.; Mikayelyan, A. A.

    2016-12-01

    The work is devoted to the correction and recovery of the Armenian names of the sky constellations, as they were forgotten or distorted during the Soviet years, mainly due to the translation from Russian. A total of 34 constellation names have been corrected. A brief overview of the history of the division of the sky into constellations and their naming is also given. At the end, the list of all 88 constellations is given with the names in Latin, English, Russian and Armenian.

  15. Treasures of the Southern Sky

    CERN Document Server

    Gendler, Robert; Malin, David

    2011-01-01

    In these pages, the reader can follow the engaging saga of astronomical exploration in the southern hemisphere, in a modern merger of aesthetics, science, and a story of human endeavor. This book is truly a celebration of southern skies.  Jerry Bonnell, Editor - Astronomy Picture of the Day The southern sky became accessible to scientific scrutiny only a few centuries ago, after the first European explorers ventured south of the equator. Modern observing and imaging techniques have since revealed what seems like a new Universe, previously hidden below the horizon, a fresh astronomical bounty of beauty and knowledge uniquely different from the northern sky. The authors have crafted a book that brings this hidden Universe to all, regardless of location or latitude. Treasures of the Southern Sky celebrates the remarkable beauty and richness of the southern sky in words and with world-class imagery. In part, a photographic anthology of deep sky wonders south of the celestial equator, this book also celebrates th...

  16. Dark Sky Protection and Education - Izera Dark Sky Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlicki, Arkadiusz; Kolomanski, Sylwester; Mrozek, Tomasz; Zakowicz, Grzegorz

    2015-08-01

    Darkness of the night sky is a natural component of our environment and should be protected against negative effects of human activities. The night darkness is necessary for balanced life of plants, animals and people. Unfortunately, development of human civilization and technology has led to the substantial increase of the night-sky brightness and to situation where nights are no more dark in many areas of the World. This phenomenon is called "light pollution" and it can be rank among such problems as chemical pollution of air, water and soil. Besides the environment, the light pollution can also affect e.g. the scientific activities of astronomers - many observatories built in the past began to be located within the glow of city lights making the night observations difficult, or even impossible.In order to protect the natural darkness of nights many so-called "dark sky parks" were established, where the darkness is preserved, similar to typical nature reserves. The role of these parks is not only conservation but also education, supporting to make society aware of how serious the problem of the light pollution is.History of the dark sky areas in Europe began on November 4, 2009 in Jizerka - a small village situated in the Izera Mountains, when Izera Dark Sky Park (IDSP) was established - it was the first transboundary dark sky park in the World. The idea of establishing that dark sky park in the Izera Mountains originated from a need to give to the society in Poland and Czech Republic the knowledge about the light pollution. Izera Dark Sky Park is a part of the astro-tourism project "Astro Izery" that combines tourist attraction of Izera Valley and astronomical education under the wonderful starry Izera sky. Besides the IDSP, the project Astro Izery consists of the set of simple astronomical instruments (gnomon, sundial), natural educational trail "Solar System Model", and astronomical events for the public. In addition, twice a year we organize a 3-4 days

  17. A simple formula for determining globally clear skies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, C.N.; George, A.T.; Mace, G.G. [Penn State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    Surface measurements to serve as {open_quotes}ground truth{close_quotes} are of primary importance in the development of retrieval algorithms using satellite measurements to predict surface irradiance. The most basic algorithms of this type deal with clear sky (i.e., cloudless) top-to-surface shortwave (SW) transfer, serving as a necessary prerequisite towards treating both clear and cloudy conditions. Recently, atmosphere SW cloud forcing to infer the possibility of excess atmospheric absorption (compared with model results) in cloudy atmospheres. The surface component of this ratio relies on inferring the expected clear sky SW irradiance to determine the effects of clouds on the SW energy budget. Solar renewable energy applications make use of clear and cloud fraction climatologies to assess solar radiation resources. All of the above depend to some extent on the identification of globally clear sky conditions and the attendant measurements of downwelling SW irradiance.

  18. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the blues" from time to time. In contrast, major depression is a serious disorder that lasts for weeks. ... her current mood. The psychiatrist diagnosed Sarah with major depression and gave her a prescription for a type ...

  19. Rapid approach to the quantitative determination of nocturnal ground irradiance in populated territories: a clear-sky case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocifaj, Miroslav; Petržala, Jaromír

    2016-11-01

    A zero-order approach to the solving of the radiative transfer equation and a method for obtaining the horizontal diffuse irradiance at night-time are both developed and intended for wide use in numerical predictions of nocturnal ground irradiance in populated territories. Downward diffuse radiative fluxes are computed with a two-stream approximation, and the data products obtained are useful for scientists who require rapid estimations of illumination levels during the night. The rapid technique presented here is especially important when the entire set of calculations is to be repeated for different lighting technologies and/or radiant intensity distributions with the aim of identifying high-level illuminance/irradiance, the spectral composition of scattered light or other optical properties of diffuse light at the ground level. The model allows for the computation of diffuse horizontal irradiance due to light emissions from ground-based sources with arbitrary spectral compositions. The optical response of a night sky is investigated using the ratio of downward to upward irradiance, R⊥, λ(0). We show that R⊥, λ(0) generally peaks at short wavelengths, thus suggesting that, e.g., the blue light of an LED lamp would make the sky even more bluish. However, this effect can be largely suppressed or even removed with the spectral sensitivity function of the average human eye superimposed on to the lamp spectrum. Basically, blue light scattering dominates at short optical distances, while red light is transmitted for longer distances and illuminates distant places. Computations are performed for unshielded as well as fully shielded lights, while the spectral function R⊥, λ(0) is tabulated to make possible the modelling of various artificial lights, including those not presented here.

  20. Exmoor - Europe's first International Dark Sky Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, S.

    2011-12-01

    On 2011 October 9 Exmoor National Park in the southwest of England was designated as Europe's first International Dark Sky Reserve by the International Dark Skies Association. This is a huge achievement, and follows three years of work by park authorities, local astronomers, lighting engineers and the resident community. Exmoor Dark Sky Reserve follows in the footsteps of Galloway Forest Dark Sky Park, set up in 2009, and Sark Dark Sky Island, established in January 2011.

  1. Dark Skies are a Universal Resource. So are Quiet Skies!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddalena, Ronald J.; Heatherly, S.

    2008-05-01

    You've just purchased your first telescope. But where to set it up? Certainly not a WalMart parking lot. Too much light pollution! In the same way that man-made light obscures our night sky and blinds ground-based optical telescopes, man-made radio signals blind radio telescopes as well. NRAO developed the Quiet Skies project to increase awareness of radio frequency interference (RFI) and radio astronomy in general by engaging students in local studies of RFI. To do that we created a sensitive detector which measures RFI. We produced 20 of these, and assembled kits containing detectors and supplementary materials for loan to schools. Students conduct experiments to measure the properties of RFI in their area, and input their measurements into a web-based data base. The Quiet Skies project is a perfect complement to the IYA Dark Skies Awareness initiative. We hope to place 500 Quiet Skies detectors into the field through outreach to museums and schools around the world. Should we be successful, we will sustain this global initiative via a continuing loan program. One day we hope to have a publicly generated image of the Earth which shows RFI much as the Earth at Night image illustrates light pollution. The poster will present the components of the project in detail, including our plans for IYA, and various low-cost alternative strategies for introducing RFI and radio astronomy to the public. We will share the results of some of the experiments already being performed by high school students. Development of the Quiet Skies project was funded by a NASA IDEAS grant. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  2. Exploring the Variable Sky with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    0015, Japan. 8 Department of Astronomy,Graduate School of Science,University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo , Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan. 9 Institute...Survey (Pojmański 2002) mon- itors the entire southern and part of the northern sky ( < 25) to a limit of V ¼ 15. 5. OGLE (OGLE II; Udalski et al...lists photometric data for 215 million unique objects observed in 8000deg2 of sky as part of the ‘‘SDSS-I’’ phase that ran through 2005 June

  3. Dark Skies, Bright Kids Year 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittle, Lauren E.; Wenger, Trey; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Angell, Dylan; Burkhardt, Andrew; Davis, Blair; Firebaugh, Ariel; Hancock, Danielle; Richardson, Whitney; Rochford Hayes, Christian; Linden, Sean; Liss, Sandra; Matthews, Allison; McNair, Shunlante; Prager, Brian; Pryal, Matthew; Troup, Nicholas William

    2017-01-01

    We present activities from the eighth year of Dark Skies Bright Kids (DSBK), an entirely volunteer-run outreach organization based out of the Department of Astronomy at the University of Virginia. Our core mission is to enhance elementary science education and literacy in Central Virginia through fun, hands-on activities that introduce basic Astronomy concepts. Over the past seven years, our primary focus has been hosting an 8-10 week after-school astronomy club at underserved elementary and middle schools, and over the past several years, we have partnered with local businesses to host our Annual Central Virginia Star Party, a free event open to the community featuring star-gazing and planetarium shows. This past summer we expanded our reach through a new initiative to bring week-long summer day camps to south and southwest Virginia, home to some of the most underserved communities in the commonwealth.

  4. Asthma Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Asthma Basics KidsHealth > For Parents > Asthma Basics A A ... Asthma Categories en español Asma: aspectos fundamentales About Asthma Asthma is a common lung condition in kids ...

  5. Dark sky enters the lexicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-01-01

    “Basketbrawl,” “cloud music,” “humblebrag,” and “occupy Wall Street.” These are some of the catchwords and phrases that lexicographer Grant Barrett included in a year-end newspaper column, “Which words will live on?,” in the New York Times on 31 December 2011. Among the couple dozen examples of new language was “dark sky.” Barrett wrote that it “designates a place free of nighttime light pollution. For example, the island of Sark in the English Channel is a dark-sky island.”

  6. Deep-Sky Video Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Massey, Steve

    2009-01-01

    A guide to using modern integrating video cameras for deep-sky viewing and imaging with the kinds of modest telescopes available commercially to amateur astronomers. It includes an introduction and a brief history of the technology and camera types. It examines the pros and cons of this unrefrigerated yet highly efficient technology

  7. Sky Observations by the Book

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Sackes, Mesut

    2008-01-01

    The "National Science Education Standards (NSES)" state that students in grades K-4 are expected to understand that astronomical objects in the sky, including the Sun, Moon, and stars--have properties, locations, and patterns of movement that can be observed and described. They further suggest using an inquiry-based approach to teach…

  8. Discovery of Prehistoric Skies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurshtein, A. A.

    1995-12-01

    It was Charles Francois Dupui, of France, who two centuries ago in his twelve-volume "Origine de tous les cults" (1795) worked out a proposition that all the different religious customs, stories, and dogmas will be found upon examination to have a cradle as one or another aspect of the natural, mainly, astronomical phenomena. It is absolutely correct but he and his spirited followers failed to develop a basic scientific quantitative argument focused on astronomy - chronological distribution of events. It is the first time that a combination of the up-to-date knowledge in archaic symbology and the professional astronomical data for precession and other regular astronomical events constitutes conditions for an absolutely new approach. An astronomical reconstruction of the evolution of the Zodiacal constellations was made, based on the Indo-european and Sumero-Akkadian religio-cultural data, including artifacts such as cult statuettes, cuneiform tablets, cylinder seals and boundary stones. It was argued that the development of 12 houses of the Zodiac in 3 groups of 4 over some six millennia was dictated by the changes made by precession in the positions of the vernal and autumnal equinoxes and the summer and winter solstices. The first quartet of the Zodiacal constellations (Gemini, Virgo, Sagittarius, Pisces) was recognized by the first agriculturists from the Fertile Crescent to learn the four most important Sun positions and to predict the ongoing seasons; it was done as far back as 5,600 B.C. (with a formal error of this determination about +/- 150 years). The second one (Taurus, Leo, Scorpio, Aquarius) was introduced in 2,700 +/- 250 years B.C. by Egyptians with their own animal symbolism that was the etymological root for the term the Zodiac (a circle of animals). This event was followed with the acquaintance of the new calendar and erection of the great pyramids as an eternal sanctuary for their mental triumph. In the first half of 14 century B.C. the Egyptian

  9. Blue cures blue but be cautious

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranav Sikka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Methemoglobinemia is a disorder characterized by the presence of >1% methemoglobin (metHb in the blood. Spontaneous formation of methemoglobin is normally counteracted by protective enzyme systems, for example, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH methemoglobin reductase. Methemoglobinemia is treated with supplemental oxygen and methylene blue (1-2 mg/kg administered slow intravenously, which acts by providing an artificial electron acceptor for NADPH methemoglobin reductase. But known or suspected glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency is a relative contraindication to the use of methylene blue because G6PD is the key enzyme in the formation of NADPH through pentose phosphate pathway and G6PD-deficient individuals generate insufficient NADPH to efficiently reduce methylene blue to leukomethylene blue, which is necessary for the activation of the NADPH-dependent methemoglobin reductase system. So, we should be careful using methylene blue in methemoglobinemia patient before G6PD levels.

  10. Basic electrotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Ashen, R A

    2013-01-01

    BASIC Electrotechnology discusses the applications of Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC) in engineering, particularly in solving electrotechnology-related problems. The book is comprised of six chapters that cover several topics relevant to BASIC and electrotechnology. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to BASIC, and Chapter 2 talks about the use of complex numbers in a.c. circuit analysis. Chapter 3 covers linear circuit analysis with d.c. and sinusoidal a.c. supplies. The book also discusses the elementary magnetic circuit theory. The theory and performance of two windi

  11. Effects Of Aerosol And Multiple Scattering On The Polarization Of The Twilight Sky

    CERN Document Server

    Ugolnikov, O S; Maslov, I A

    2003-01-01

    The paper contains the review of a number of wide-angle polarization CCD-measurements of the twilight sky in V and R color bands with effective wavelengths equal to 550 and 700 nm. The basic factors effecting (usually decreasing) on the polarization of the twilight sky are the atmospheric aerosol scattering and multiple scattering. The method of multiple scattering separation is being considered. The results are compared with the data of numerical simulation of radiation transfer in the atmosphere for different aerosol models. The whole twilight period is divided on the different stages with different mechanisms forming the twilight sky polarization properties.

  12. On-sky tests of sky-subtraction methods for fiber-fed spectrographs

    CERN Document Server

    Rodrigues, Myriam; Hammer, Francois; Royer, Frederic; Evans, C J; Puech, Mathieu; Flores, Hector; Guinouard, Isabelle; Causi, Gianluca Li; Disseau, Karen; Yang, Yanbin

    2016-01-01

    We present preliminary results on on-sky test of sky subtraction methods for fiber-fed spectrograph. Using dedicated observation with FLAMES/VLT in I-band, we have tested the accuracy of the sky subtraction for 4 sky subtraction methods: mean sky, closest sky, dual stare and cross-beam switching. The cross beam-switching and dual stare method reach accuracy and precision of the sky subtraction under 1%. In contrast to the commonly held view in the literature, this result points out that fiber-fed spectrographs are adapted for the observations of faint targets.

  13. Session 21.1 - Observations, Advances in LED Technology, and Dark Sky Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duriscoe, Dan M.

    2016-10-01

    The importance of dark sky protection, potential threats to further degradation from LED technology, the announcement of a new world atlas of artificial night sky brightness, and the use of color images from the orbiting International Space Station for monitoring potential sources of light pollution were discussed in the six talks of this session. It was clear from the presentations that the work of professional astronomy depends upon continued restraint in the use of outdoor lighting, especially new LED technology, which relies upon blue-rich sources to support the advantages of high luminous efficacy and resulting energy savings.

  14. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Basics will introduce you to some of this science, such as: How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic structure of the brain How different parts of the brain communicate and work with each other How changes in the brain ...

  15. The Alphabet and the Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebeuf, A.

    2011-06-01

    Since the beginning of the 17th century the letters of the Greek alphabet are used to identify the stars of constellation by order of magnitude. This was simply a practical means of astronomical classification. In several instances the Bible uses such metaphors as "The sky rolled up like a scroll". The idea of associating letters of different alphabets with stars, constellations and the sky in general can be found to day in the marginal subculture. The persistence of such an association of writing with astronomy or cosmology is at least of interest for cultural reasons, but the problem might be of good interest as well for the history of astronomy and cosmology. I present here two examples of this tradition in works of art. The first a painted representation of the Revelation of Saint John in the Orthodox church tradition, and the other in the construction of the late bronze age sacred well at Santa Cristina in Sardinia, Italy.

  16. Monitoring Variability of the Sky

    CERN Document Server

    Paczynski, B

    2001-01-01

    Variability in the sky has been known for centuries, even millennia, but our knowledge of it is very incomplete even at the bright end. Current technology makes it possible to built small, robotic optical instruments, to record images and to process data in real time, and to archive them on-line, all at a low cost. In addition to obtaining complete catalogs of all kinds of variable objects, spectacular discoveries can be made, like the optical flash associated with GRB 990123 and a planetary transit in front of HD 209458. While prototypes of such robotic instruments have been in operation for several years, it is not possible to purchase a complete system at this time. I expect (hope) that complete systems will become available `off the shelf' in the near future, as monitoring bright sky for variability has a great scientific, educational and public outreach potential.

  17. Dark Skies, Bright Kids: Year 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlberg, Joleen K.; Johnson, K.; Lynch, R.; Walker, L.; Beaton, R.; Corby, J.; de Messieres, G.; Drosback, M.; Gugliucci, N.; Jackson, L.; Kingery, A.; Layman, S.; Murphy, E.; Richardson, W.; Ries, P.; Romero, C.; Sivakoff, G.; Sokal, K.; Trammell, G.; Whelan, D.; Yang, A.; Zasowski, G.

    2011-01-01

    The Dark Skies, Bright Kids (DSBK) outreach program brings astronomy education into local elementary schools in central Virginia's Southern Albemarle County through an after-school club. Taking advantage of the unusually dark night skies in the rural countryside, DSBK targets economically disadvantaged schools that tend to be underserved due to their rural locale. The goals of DSBK are to foster children's natural curiosity, demonstrate that science is a fun and creative process, challenge students' conceptions of what a scientist is and does, and teach some basic astronomy. Furthermore, DSBK works to assimilate families into students' education by holding family observing nights at the school. Now in its third semester, DSBK has successfully run programs at two schools with very diverse student populations. Working with these students has helped us to revise our activities and to create new ones. A by-product of our work has been the development of lesson plans, complete with learning goals and detailed instructions, that we make publically available on our website. This year we are expanding our repertoire with our new planetarium, which allows us to visualize topics in novel ways and supplements family observing on cloudy nights. The DSBK volunteers have also created a bilingual astronomy artbook --- designed, written, and illustrated by UVa students --- that we will publish and distribute to elementary schools in Virginia. Our book debuted at the last AAS winter meeting, and since then it has been extensively revised and updated with input from many individuals, including parents, professional educators, and a children's book author. Because the club is currently limited to serving a few elementary schools, this book will be part of our efforts to broaden our impact by bringing astronomy to schools we cannot go to ourselves and reaching out to Spanish-speaking communities at the same time.

  18. The ADS All Sky Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Alyssa

    We will create the first interactive sky map of astronomers' understanding of the Universe over time. We will accomplish this goal by turning the NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS), widely known for its unrivaled value as a literature resource, into a data resource. GIS and GPS systems have made it commonplace to see and explore information about goings-on on Earth in the context of maps and timelines. Our proposal shows an example of a program that lets a user explore which countries have been mentioned in the New York Times, on what dates, and in what kinds of articles. By analogy, the goal of our project is to enable this kind of exploration-on the sky-for the full corpus of astrophysical literature available through ADS. Our group's expertise and collaborations uniquely position us to create this interactive sky map of the literature, which we call the "ADS All-Sky Survey." To create this survey, here are the principal steps we need to follow. First, by analogy to "geotagging," we will "astrotag," the ADS literature. Many "astrotags" effectively already exist, thanks to curation efforts at both CDS and NED. These efforts have created links to "source" positions on the sky associated with each of the millions of articles in the ADS. Our collaboration with ADS and CDS will let us automatically extract astrotags for all existing and future ADS holdings. The new ADS Labs, which our group helps to develop, includes the ability for researchers to filter article search results using a variety of "facets" (e.g. sources, keywords, authors, observatories, etc.). Using only extracted astrotags and facets, we can create functionality like what is described in the Times example above: we can offer a map of the density of positions' "mentions" on the sky, filterable by the properties of those mentions. Using this map, researchers will be able to interactively, visually, discover what regions have been studied for what reasons, at what times, and by whom. Second, where

  19. What's Up in the Atmosphere? Exploring How Aerosols Impact Sky Color Through Hands-on Activities with Elementary GLOBE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damadeo, K.; Taylor, J.

    2015-12-01

    What color is the sky today? The GLOBE Kids - Anita, Simon, and Dennis want to know why the sky isn't always the same shade of blue and sometimes isn't even blue. Through the new Elementary GLOBE Aerosols Storybook and Learning Activities, the GLOBE Kids learn that there's a lot more than air in the atmosphere, which can affect the colors we see in the sky. There are four hands-on activities in this unit: 1) Sky Observers - Students make observations of the sky, record their findings and share their observation reports with their peers. The activity promotes active observation and recording skills to help students observe sky color, and recognize that sky color changes; 2) Why (Not) So Blue? - Students make predictions about how drops of milk will affect color and visibility in cups of water representing the atmosphere to help them understand that aerosols in the atmosphere have an effect on sky conditions, including sky color and visibility. The activity also introduces the classification categories for daytime sky color and visibility; 3) See the Light - Students use prisms and glue sticks to explore the properties of light. The activity demonstrates that white light is made up of seven colors that represent different wavelengths, and illustrates why the sky is blue during the day and red at sunset; 4) Up in the Air - Students work in groups to make an aerosol sampler, a simple adhesive tool that allows students to collect data and estimate the extent of aerosols present at their school, understanding that, in fact, there are particles in the air we breathe. NGSS Alignment includes: Disciplinary Core Ideas- ESS2.D: Weather and Climate, ESS3.C: Human Impacts on Earth Systems, PS4.B: Electromagnetic Radiation, ESS3.A: Natural Resources; Science and Engineering Practices- Asking Questions and Defining Problems, Planning and Carrying Out an Investigation, Analyzing and Interpreting Data, Engaging in Argument from Evidence, Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating

  20. T's and Blues. Specialized Information Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do It Now Foundation, Phoenix, AZ.

    This compilation of journal articles provides basic information on abuse of Talwin, a mild prescription painkiller (T's), and Pyribenzamine, a nonprescription antihistimine (Blues). These two drugs, taken in combination, produce an effect similar to that produced by heroin. Stories from "Drug Survival News,""Emergency…

  1. Estimation of aerosol optical properties from all-sky imagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazantzidis, Andreas; Tzoumanikas, Panagiotis; Salamalikis, Vasilios; Wilbert, Stefan; Prahl, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    Aerosols are one of the most important constituents in the atmosphere that affect the incoming solar radiation, either directly through absorbing and scattering processes or indirectly by changing the optical properties and lifetime of clouds. Under clear skies, aerosols become the dominant factor that affect the intensity of solar irradiance reaching the ground. It has been shown that the variability in direct normal irradiance (DNI) due to aerosols is more important than the one induced in global horizontal irradiance (GHI), while the uncertainty in its calculation is dominated by uncertainties in the aerosol optical properties. In recent years, all-sky imagers are used for the detection of cloud coverage, type and velocity in a bouquet of applications including solar irradiance resource and forecasting. However, information about the optical properties of aerosols could be derived with the same instrumentation. In this study, the aerosol optical properties are estimated with the synergetic use of all-sky images, complementary data from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) and calculations from a radiative transfer model. The area of interest is Plataforma Solar de Almería (PSA), Tabernas, Spain and data from a 5 month period are analyzed. The proposed methodology includes look-up-tables (LUTs) of diffuse sky radiance of Red (R), Green (G) and Blue (B) channels at several zenith and azimuth angles and for different atmospheric conditions (Angström α and β, single scattering albedo, precipitable water, solar zenith angle). Based on the LUTS, results from the CIMEL photometer at PSA were used to estimate the RGB radiances for the actual conditions at this site. The methodology is accompanied by a detailed evaluation of its robustness, the development and evaluation of the inversion algorithm (derive aerosol optical properties from RGB image values) and a sensitivity analysis about how the pre-mentioned atmospheric parameters affect the results.

  2. Basic hydraulics

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, P D

    1982-01-01

    BASIC Hydraulics aims to help students both to become proficient in the BASIC programming language by actually using the language in an important field of engineering and to use computing as a means of mastering the subject of hydraulics. The book begins with a summary of the technique of computing in BASIC together with comments and listing of the main commands and statements. Subsequent chapters introduce the fundamental concepts and appropriate governing equations. Topics covered include principles of fluid mechanics; flow in pipes, pipe networks and open channels; hydraulic machinery;

  3. Measuring the color and brightness of artificial sky glow from cities using an all-sky imaging system calibrated with astronomical methods in the Johnson-Cousins B and V photometric systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipkin, Ashley; Duriscoe, Dan M.; Lughinbuhl, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Artificial light at night, when observed at some distance from a city, results in a dome of sky glow, brightest at the horizon. The spectral power distribution of electric light utilized will determine its color of the light dome and the amount of light will determine its brightness. Recent outdoor lighting technologies have included blue-rich light emitting diode (LED) sources that may increase the relative amount of blue to green light in sky glow compared to typical high pressure sodium (HPS) sources with warmer spectra. Measuring and monitoring this effect is important to the preservation of night sky visual quality as seen from undeveloped areas outside the city, such as parks or other protected areas, since the dark-adapted human eye is more sensitive to blue and green. We present a method using a wide field CCD camera which images the entire sky in both Johnson V and B photometric bands. Standard stars within the images are used for calibration. The resulting all-sky brightness maps, and a derived B-V color index map, provide a means to assess and track the impact of specific outdoor lighting practices. We also present example data from several cities, including Las Vegas, Nevada, Flagstaff, Arizona, and Cheyenne, Wyoming.

  4. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit of ... but sometimes give rise to disabilities or diseases. neural circuit —A network of neurons and their interconnections. ...

  5. Schizophrenia Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I know with schizophrenia? For More Information Share Schizophrenia Basics Download PDF Download ePub Order a free hardcopy What is schizophrenia? Schizophrenia is a serious mental disorder that affects ...

  6. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  7. Brain Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  8. Fluoridation Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Page Basic Information About Fluoride Benefits: Strong Teeth History of Fluoride in Water Cost: Saves Money, Saves Teeth Fluoride in the Water Today The mineral fluoride occurs naturally on earth and is released from rocks into the soil, ...

  9. Basic Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittek, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    A discussion of the basic measures of corporate financial strength, and the sources of the information is reported. Considered are: balance sheet, income statement, funds and cash flow, and financial ratios.

  10. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... science, such as: How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic ... that with brain development in people mental disorders. Genes and environmental cues both help to direct this ...

  11. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot effectively coordinate the billions ... the basic working unit of the brain and nervous system. These cells are highly specialized for the function ...

  12. The Information Of The Milky Way From 2MASS Whole Sky Star Count: The Bimodal Color Distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Chan-Kao; Ko, Chung-Ming; Peng, Ting-Hung

    2012-01-01

    The J-Ks color distribution (CD) with a bin size of 0.05 magnitude for the entire Milky Way has been carried out by using the Two Micron All Sky Survey Point Source Catalog (2MASS PSC). The CDs are bimodal, which has a red peak at 0.8 < J-Ks < 0.85 and a blue peak at 0.3 < J-Ks < 0.4. The colors of the red peak are more or less the same for the whole sky, but that of the blue peak depend on Galactic latitude, (J-Ks ~ 0.35 at low Galactic latitudes and 0.35 < J-Ks < 0.4 for other sky areas). The blue peak dominates the bimodal CDs at low Galactic latitudes and becomes comparable with the red peak in other sky regions. In order to explain the bimodal distribution and the global trend shown by the all sky 2MASS CDs, we assemble an empirical HR diagram, which is composed by observational-based near infrared HR diagrams and color magnitude diagrams, and incorporate a Milky Way model. In the empirical HR diagram, the main sequence stars turnoff the thin disk is relatively bluer, (J-Ks)0 = 0.31, wh...

  13. Blue and White Pot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Many recent archaeological studies have proven that the earliest blue and white porcelain was produced from the kiln in Gongxian County, Henan Province in the Tang Dynasty (618-907). It was an important variety of porcelain available for export then. The early blue and white porcelain in the Yuan Dynasty appeared dark and gray. During the reign of Zhizheng, clear blue and white porcelain was produced, indicating

  14. Cellular blue naevus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal R

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A 31-year-old man had asymptomatic, stationary, 1.5X2 cm, shiny, smooth, dark blue nodule on dorsum of right hand since 12-14 years. In addition he had developed extensive eruption of yellow to orange papulonodular lesions on extensors of limbs and buttocks since one and half months. Investigations confirmed that yellow papules were xanthomatosis and he had associated diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidaemia. Biopsy of blue nodule confirmed the clinical diagnosis of cellular blue naevus. Cellular blue naevus is rare and its association with xanthomatosis and diabetes mellitus were interesting features of above patients which is being reported for its rarity.

  15. Actinometrical features of basic cloud types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuev, Sergey V.; Krasnenko, Nikolay P.; Kartashova, Elena S.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, the authors propose a method for determining the main forms of clouds using an analysis of the diurnal variation of direct and diffuse solar radiation. This approach allows operating the process of determining the sky state automatically, which in most cases requires the presence of an observer at the point of measurement. For this purpose, the authors use the direct radiation transmission ratio and diffuse radiation changes with respect to cloudless sky, which have specific values for various forms and types of clouds. The method can be especially effective in cases where measurement of the basic characteristics of radiation is carried out with automatized actinometrical complexes.

  16. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrook, Harold D

    1971-01-01

    Basic Electronics is an elementary text designed for basic instruction in electricity and electronics. It gives emphasis on electronic emission and the vacuum tube and shows transistor circuits in parallel with electron tube circuits. This book also demonstrates how the transistor merely replaces the tube, with proper change of circuit constants as required. Many problems are presented at the end of each chapter. This book is comprised of 17 chapters and opens with an overview of electron theory, followed by a discussion on resistance, inductance, and capacitance, along with their effects on t

  17. Nightscape Photography Reclaims the Natural Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafreshi, Babak

    2015-08-01

    Nightscape photos and timelapse videos, where the Earth & sky are framed together with an astronomical purpose, support the dark skies activities by improving public awareness. TWAN or The World at Night program (www.twanight.org) presents the world's best collection of such landscape astrophotos and aims to introduce the night sky as a part of nature, an essential element of our living environment besides being the astronomers lab. The nightscape images also present views of our civilizations landmarks, both natural and historic sites, against the night-time backdrop of stars, planets, and celestial events. In this context TWAN is a bridge between art, science and culture.TWAN images contribute to programs such as the Dark Sky Parks by the International Dark Sky Association or Starlight reserves by assisting local efforts in better illustrating their dark skies and by producing stunning images that not only educate the local people on their night sky heritage also communicate with the governments that are responsible to support the dark sky area.Since 2009 TWAN organizes the world's largest annual photo contest on nightscape imaging, in collaboration with the Dark Skies Awareness, National Optical Astronomy Observatory, and Astronomers Without Borders. The International Earth & Sky Photo Contest promotes the photography that documents the beauty of natural skies against the problem of light pollution. In 2014 the entries received from about 50 countries and the contest result news was widely published in the most popular sources internationally.*Babak A. Tafreshi is a photographer and science communicator. He is the creator of The World At Night program, and a contributing photographer to the National Geographic, Sky&Telescope magazine, and the European Southern Observatory. http://twanight.org/tafreshi

  18. An automated cloud detection method based on green channel of total sky visible images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Yang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Getting an accurate cloud cover state is a challenging task. In the past, traditional two-dimensional red-to-blue band methods have been widely used for cloud detection in total sky images. By analyzing the imaging principle of cameras, green channel has been selected to replace the 2-D red-to-blue band for total sky cloud detection. The brightness distribution in a total sky image is usually non-uniform, because of forward scattering and Mie scattering of aerosols, which results in increased detection errors in the circumsolar and near-horizon regions. This paper proposes an automatic cloud detection algorithm, "green channel background subtraction adaptive threshold" (GBSAT, which incorporates channel selection, background simulation, computation of solar mask and cloud mask, subtraction, adaptive threshold, and binarization. Several experimental cases show that the GBSAT algorithm is robust for all types of test total sky images and has more complete and accurate retrievals of visual effects than those found through traditional methods.

  19. Feeling blue? Blue phosphors for OLEDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hungshin Fu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Research on organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs has been revitalized, partly due to the debut of the OLED TV by SONY in 2008. While there is still plenty of room for improvement in efficiency, cost-effectiveness and longevity, it is timely to report on the advances of light emitting materials, the core of OLEDs, and their future perspectives. The focus of this account is primarily to chronicle the blue phosphors developed in our laboratory. Special attention is paid to the design strategy, synthetic novelty, and their OLED performance. The report also underscores the importance of the interplay between chemistry and photophysics en route to true-blue phosphors.

  20. Sky Radiometers on Stand for Downwelling Radiation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory — The Sky Radiation (SKYRAD) collection of radiometers provides each Atmospheric Radiation and Cloud Station (ARCS) with continuous measurements of broadband shortwave...

  1. Night sky a falcon field guide

    CERN Document Server

    Nigro, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Night Sky: A Falcon Field Guide covers both summer and winter constellations, planets, and stars found in the northern hemisphere. Conveniently sized to fit in a pocket and featuring detailed photographs, this informative guide makes it easy to identify objects in the night sky even from one's own backyard. From information on optimal weather conditions, preferred viewing locations, and how to use key tools of the trade, this handbook will help you adeptly navigate to and fro the vast and dynamic nighttime skies, and you'll fast recognize that the night sky's the limit.

  2. Daytime Water Detection Based on Sky Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Arturo; Matthies, Larry; Bellutta, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    A water body s surface can be modeled as a horizontal mirror. Water detection based on sky reflections and color variation are complementary. A reflection coefficient model suggests sky reflections dominate the color of water at ranges > 12 meters. Water detection based on sky reflections: (1) geometrically locates the pixel in the sky that is reflecting on a candidate water pixel on the ground (2) predicts if the ground pixel is water based on color similarity and local terrain features. Water detection has been integrated on XUVs.

  3. Ethanol Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-01-30

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  4. Body Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more about how the body works, what basic human anatomy is, and what happens when parts of the body don't function properly. Blood Bones, Muscles, and Joints Brain and Nervous System Digestive System Endocrine System Eyes Female Reproductive System Heart and Circulatory System Immune ...

  5. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit ... final destination. Chemical signals from other cells guide neurons in forming various brain structures. Neighboring neurons make connections with each other ...

  6. Insulin Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ≡ Are You At Risk? Diabetes Basics Living with Diabetes Food & Fitness In My ... Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy ...

  7. Blue Ocean Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orem, Donna

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a concept called the "blue ocean thinking strategy," developed by W. Chan Kim and Renée Mauborgne, professors at INSEAD, an international graduate school of business in France. The "blue ocean" thinking strategy considers opportunities to create new markets for services, rather than focusing solely on…

  8. Blue Willow Story Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Kris

    2009-01-01

    In the December 1997 issue of "SchoolArts" is a lesson titled "Blue Willow Story Plates" by Susan Striker. In this article, the author shares how she used this lesson with her middle-school students many times over the years. Here, she describes a Blue Willow plate painting project that her students made.

  9. From blue jeans to blue genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Laurence M; Vikkula, Miikka

    2009-03-01

    Cutaneous venous anomalies are common. They are blue and vary in size, number, and location and account for most consultations at specialized interdisciplinary clinics for vascular anomalies. Venous lesions are clinically important because they cause pain, dysfunction, destruction of adjacent tissues, and esthetic concern. Only resection and sclerotherapy are helpful, although not always curative. Understanding etiopathogenesis could help design animal models and develop novel therapeutic approaches. John B. Mulliken, MD, envisioned a project to uncover the genetic basis of an inherited form of venous malformation in a large New England family. Recruitment of 2 young fellows resulted in a collaborative project that unraveled the searched-for gene and its mutation. This was an opening for a new era in vascular anomalies. Two blue genes' mutations were discovered, which account for most, if not all, of the inherited forms of venous anomalies, but other genes as well, for rheologically diverse lesions. Differential diagnosis and management has improved, and animal models are being made. This was achieved through the help of Dr Mulliken, who inspired 2 young investigators in blue jeans to find 2 blue genes.

  10. The AST3 controlling and operating software suite for automatic sky survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yi; Shang, Zhaohui; Ma, Bin; Hu, Keliang

    2016-07-01

    We have developed a specialized software package, called ast3suite, to achieve the remote control and automatic sky survey for AST3 (Antarctic Survey Telescope) from scratch. It includes several daemon servers and many basic commands. Each program does only one single task, and they work together to make AST3 a robotic telescope. A survey script calls basic commands to carry out automatic sky survey. Ast3suite was carefully tested in Mohe, China in 2013 and has been used at Dome, Antarctica in 2015 and 2016 with the real hardware for practical sky survey. Both test results and practical using showed that ast3suite had worked very well without any manual auxiliary as we expected.

  11. Sky alert! when satellites fail

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Les

    2013-01-01

    How much do we depend on space satellites? Defense, travel, agriculture, weather forecasting, mobile phones and broadband, commerce...the list seems endless. But what would our live be like if the unimaginable happened and, by accident or design, those space assets disappeared? Sky Alert! explores what our world would be like, looking in turn at areas where the loss could have catastrophic effects. The book - demonstrates our dependence on space technology and satellites; - outlines the effect on our economy, defense, and daily lives if satellites and orbiting spacecraft were destroyed; - illustrates the danger of dead satellites, spent rocket stages, and space debris colliding with a functioning satellites; - demonstrates the threat of dramatically increased radiation levels associated with geomagnetic storms; - introduces space as a potential area of conflict between nations.

  12. Wavelet basics

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, Y T

    1995-01-01

    Since the study of wavelets is a relatively new area, much of the research coming from mathematicians, most of the literature uses terminology, concepts and proofs that may, at times, be difficult and intimidating for the engineer. Wavelet Basics has therefore been written as an introductory book for scientists and engineers. The mathematical presentation has been kept simple, the concepts being presented in elaborate detail in a terminology that engineers will find familiar. Difficult ideas are illustrated with examples which will also aid in the development of an intuitive insight. Chapter 1 reviews the basics of signal transformation and discusses the concepts of duals and frames. Chapter 2 introduces the wavelet transform, contrasts it with the short-time Fourier transform and clarifies the names of the different types of wavelet transforms. Chapter 3 links multiresolution analysis, orthonormal wavelets and the design of digital filters. Chapter 4 gives a tour d'horizon of topics of current interest: wave...

  13. Photometric indicators of visual night sky quality derived from all-sky brightness maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duriscoe, Dan M.

    2016-09-01

    Wide angle or fisheye cameras provide a high resolution record of artificial sky glow, which results from the scattering of escaped anthropogenic light by the atmosphere, over the sky vault in the moonless nocturnal environment. Analysis of this record yields important indicators of the extent and severity of light pollution. The following indicators were derived through numerical analysis of all-sky brightness maps: zenithal, average all-sky, median, brightest, and darkest sky brightness. In addition, horizontal and vertical illuminance, resulting from sky brightness were computed. A natural reference condition to which the anthropogenic component may be compared is proposed for each indicator, based upon an iterative analysis of a high resolution natural sky model. All-sky brightness data, calibrated in the V band by photometry of standard stars and converted to luminance, from 406 separate data sets were included in an exploratory analysis. Of these, six locations representing a wide range of severity of impact from artificial sky brightness were selected as examples and examined in detail. All-sky average brightness is the most unbiased indicator of impact to the environment, and is more sensitive and accurate in areas of slight to moderate light pollution impact than zenith brightness. Maximum vertical illuminance provides an excellent indicator of impacts to wilderness character, as does measures of the brightest portions of the sky. Zenith brightness, the workhorse of field campaigns, is compared to the other indicators and found to correlate well with horizontal illuminance, especially at relatively bright sites. The median sky brightness describes a brightness threshold for the upper half of the sky, of importance to telescopic optical astronomy. Numeric indicators, in concert with all-sky brightness maps, provide a complete assessment of visual sky quality at a site.

  14. Euclid Space Mission: building the sky survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tereno, I.; Carvalho, C. S.; Dinis, J.; Scaramella, R.; Amiaux, J.; Burigana, C.; Cuillandre, J. C.; da Silva, A.; Derosa, A.; Maiorano, E.; Maris, M.; Oliveira, D.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Gomez-Alvarez, P.; Meneghetti, M.; Wachter, S.; Wachter

    2014-05-01

    The Euclid space mission proposes to survey 15000 square degrees of the extragalactic sky during 6 years, with a step-and-stare technique. The scheduling of observation sequences is driven by the primary scientific objectives, spacecraft constraints, calibration requirements and physical properties of the sky. We present the current reference implementation of the Euclid survey and on-going work on survey optimization.

  15. Euclid Space Mission: building the sky survey

    CERN Document Server

    Tereno, I; Dinis, J; Scaramella, R; Amiaux, J; Burigana, C; Cuillandre, J C; da Silva, A; Derosa, A; Maiorano, E; Maris, M; Oliveira, D; Franzetti, P; Garilli, B; Gomez-Alvarez, P; Meneghetti, M; Wachter, S

    2015-01-01

    The Euclid space mission proposes to survey 15000 square degrees of the extragalactic sky during 6 years, with a step-and-stare technique. The scheduling of observation sequences is driven by the primary scientific objectives, spacecraft constraints, calibration requirements and physical properties of the sky. We present the current reference implementation of the Euclid survey and on-going work on survey optimization.

  16. SkyMapper Early Data Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Christian; Onken, Christopher; Schmidt, Brian; Bessell, Michael; Da Costa, Gary; Luvaul, Lance; Mackey, Dougal; Murphy, Simon; White, Marc; SkyMapper Team

    2016-05-01

    The SkyMapper Early Data Release (EDR) is the initial data release from the SkyMapper Southern Survey, which aims to create a deep, multi-epoch, multi-band photometric data set for the entire southern sky. EDR covers approximately 6700 sq. deg. (one-third) of the southern sky as obtained by the Short Survey component of the project. All included fields have at least two visits in good conditions in all six SkyMapper filters (uvgriz). Object catalogues are complete to magnitude 17-18, depending on filter. IVOA-complaint table access protocol (TAP), cone search and simple image access protocol (SIAP) services are available from the SkyMapper website (http://skymapper.anu.edu.au/), as well as through tools such as TOPCAT. Data are restricted to Australian astronomers and their collaborators for twelve months from the release date. Further details on the reduction of SkyMapper data, along with data quality improvements, will be released in late 2016 as part of SkyMapper Data Release 1 (DR1).

  17. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Standard Star Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. A.; Tucker, D. L.; Chen, B.; Neilsen, E.; Uomoto, A.; Briggs, J. W.; Brinkmann, J.; Fukugita, M.; Gunn, J. E.; Ichikawa, T.; Jorgensen, A. M.; Laubscher, B. E.; Rave, H.; Richmond, M. W.; SDSS Collaboration

    2000-12-01

    We present the newly established standard star network for the u'g'r'i'z' filter system which is being used by Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The 164 calibrated stars were chosen to be roughly distributed around the northern sky with a few south of the equator. The stars were selected to give a color range (red and blue) at each location to assist in atmospheric color term derivation and monitoring. All of these initial stars are bluer than ~dM3 as required by the science requirements of the SDSS. Plans for finalizing a larger set of secondary stars observed in each field, redder northern standards and southern hemisphere stars will also be presented. The SDSS is a joint project of The University of Chicago, Fermilab, the Institute for Advanced Study, the Japan Participation Group, The Johns Hopkins University, the Max-Plank-Institut für Astronomie, Princeton University, the United States Naval Observatory, and the University of Washington. Apache Point Observatory, site of teh SDSS, is operated by the Astrophysical Research Consortium. Funding for the project has been provided by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the SDSS member institutions, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Science Foundation, the U.S. Department of Energy, and Monbusho, Japan.

  18. Color and Variability Characteristics of Point Sources in the Faint Sky Variability Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, M E; Everett, M E; Howell, S B

    2005-03-07

    The authors present an analysis of the color and variability characteristics for point sources in the Faint Sky Variability Survey (FSVS). The FSVS cataloged {approx} 23 square degrees in BVI filters from {approx} 16-24 mag to investigate variability in faint sources at moderate to high Galactic latitudes. Point source completeness is found to be >83% for a selected representative sample (V - 17.5-22.0 mag, B-V = 0.0-1.5) containing both photometric B, V detections and 80% of the time-sampled V data available compared to a basic internal source completeness of 99%. Multi-epoch (10-30) observations in V spanning minutes to years modeled by light curve simulations reveal amplitude sensitivities to {approx} 0.015-0.075 mag over a representative V = 18-22 mag range. Periodicity determinations appear viable to time-scales of an order 1 day or less using the most sampled fields ({approx} 30 epochs). The fraction of point sources is found to be generally variable at 5-8% over V = 17.5-22.0 mag. For V brighter than 19 mag, the variable population is dominated by low amplitude (< 0.05 mag) and blue (B-V < 0.35) sources, possibly representing a population of {gamma} Doradus stars. Overall, the dominant population of variable sources are bluer than B-V = 0.65 and have Main Sequence colors, likely reflecting larger populations of RR Lyrae, SX Phe, {gamma} Doradus, and W UMa variables.

  19. Crowdfunding Astronomy with Google Sky

    CERN Document Server

    Metcalfe, Travis S

    2015-01-01

    For nearly four years, NASA's Kepler space telescope searched for planets like the Earth around more than 150,000 stars similar to the Sun. In 2008 with in-kind support from several technology companies, our non-profit organization established the Pale Blue Dot Project, an adopt-a-star program that supports scientific research on the stars observed by the Kepler mission. I describe how this innovative crowdfunding program has engaged the public over the past seven years to help support an international team in an era of economic austerity.

  20. Blue ocean strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2004-10-01

    Despite a long-term decline in the circus industry, Cirque du Soleil profitably increased revenue 22-fold over the last ten years by reinventing the circus. Rather than competing within the confines of the existing industry or trying to steal customers from rivals, Cirque developed uncontested market space that made the competition irrelevant. Cirque created what the authors call a blue ocean, a previously unknown market space. In blue oceans, demand is created rather than fought over. There is ample opportunity for growth that is both profitable and rapid. In red oceans--that is, in all the industries already existing--companies compete by grabbing for a greater share of limited demand. As the market space gets more crowded, prospects for profits and growth decline. Products turn into commodities, and increasing competition turns the water bloody. There are two ways to create blue oceans. One is to launch completely new industries, as eBay did with online auctions. But it's much more common for a blue ocean to be created from within a red ocean when a company expands the boundaries of an existing industry. In studying more than 150 blue ocean creations in over 30 industries, the authors observed that the traditional units of strategic analysis--company and industry--are of limited use in explaining how and why blue oceans are created. The most appropriate unit of analysis is the strategic move, the set of managerial actions and decisions involved in making a major market-creating business offering. Creating blue oceans builds brands. So powerful is blue ocean strategy, in fact, that a blue ocean strategic move can create brand equity that lasts for decades.

  1. Le blue-jean

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Le Blue-jean: pourquoi la technologie vient en dernier. La plupart des personnes pensent que la technique (ou la technologie) correspond à ce qui vient en amont du produit. Dans cet article, Daniel Miller s’intéresse plutôt à des cas dans lesquels l’ordre de la séquence est renversé et où le produit précède, ou initie, en quelque sorte, la technique. L’auteur commence par décrire les techniques d’usure artificielle des blue jeans  : une technique qui vise à copier les effets du port des blue ...

  2. Detection and identification of dyes in blue writing inks by LC-DAD-orbitrap MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiran; Luo, Yiwen; Yang, Xu; Xiang, Ping; Shen, Min

    2016-04-01

    In the field of forensic questioned document examination, to identify dyes detected in inks not only provides a solid foundation for ink discrimination in forged contents identification, but also facilitates the investigation of ink origin or the study regarding ink dating. To detect and identify potential acid and basic dyes in blue writing inks, a liquid chromatography-diode array detection-Orbitrap mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-Orbitrap MS) method was established. Three sulfonic acid dyes (Acid blue 1, Acid blue 9 and Acid red 52) and six triphenylmethane basic dyes (Ethyl violet, Crystal violet, Methyl violet 2B, Basic blue 7, Victoria blue B and Victoria blue R) were employed as reference dyes for method development. Determination of the nine dyes was validated to evaluate the instrument performance, and it turned out to be sensitive and stable enough for quantification. The method was then applied in the screening analysis of ten blue roller ball pen inks and twenty blue ballpoint pen inks. As a result, including TPR (a de-methylated product of Crystal violet), ten known dyes and four unknown dyes were detected in the inks. The latter were further identified as a de-methylated product of Victoria blue B, Acid blue 104, Acid violet 49 and Acid blue 90, through analyzing their characteristic precursor and product ions acquired by Orbitrap MS with good mass accuracy. The results showed that the established method is capable of detecting and identifying potential dyes in blue writing inks.

  3. Hunting the Southern Skies with SIMBA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-08-01

    First Images from the New "Millimetre Camera" on SEST at La Silla Summary A new instrument, SIMBA ("SEST IMaging Bolometer Array") , has been installed at the Swedish-ESO Submillimetre Telescope (SEST) at the ESO La Silla Observatory in July 2001. It records astronomical images at a wavelength of 1.2 mm and is able to quickly map large sky areas. In order to achieve the best possible sensitivity, SIMBA is cooled to only 0.3 deg above the absolute zero on the temperature scale. SIMBA is the first imaging millimetre instrument in the southern hemisphere . Radiation at this wavelength is mostly emitted from cold dust and ionized gas in a variety of objects in the Universe. Among other, SIMBA now opens exciting prospects for in-depth studies of the "hidden" sites of star formation , deep inside dense interstellar nebulae. While such clouds are impenetrable to optical light, they are transparent to millimetre radiation and SIMBA can therefore observe the associated phenomena, in particular the dust around nascent stars . This sophisticated instrument can also search for disks of cold dust around nearby stars in which planets are being formed or which may be left-overs of this basic process. Equally important, SIMBA may observe extremely distant galaxies in the early universe , recording them while they were still in the formation stage. Various SIMBA images have been obtained during the first tests of the new instrument. The first observations confirm the great promise for unique astronomical studies of the southern sky in the millimetre wavelength region. These results also pave the way towards the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) , the giant, joint research project that is now under study in Europe, the USA and Japan. PR Photo 28a/01 : SIMBA image centered on the infrared source IRAS 17175-3544 PR Photo 28b/01 : SIMBA image centered on the infrared source IRAS 18434-0242 PR Photo 28c/01 : SIMBA image centered on the infrared source IRAS 17271-3439 PR Photo 28d/01

  4. FROM BLUE JEANS TO BLUE GENES

    OpenAIRE

    Boon, Laurence M.; Vikkula, Miikka

    2009-01-01

    Cutaneous venous anomalies are common. They are blue in color and vary in size, number and location, and account for the majority of consultations at specialized interdisciplinary clinics for vascular anomalies. Venous lesions are clinically important as they cause pain, dysfunction, destruction of adjacent tissues and esthetic concern. Only resection and sclerotherapy are helpful, although not always curative. Understanding etiopathogenesis could help design animal models and develop novel t...

  5. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Tayal, DC

    2010-01-01

    The second edition of this book incorporates the comments and suggestions of my friends and students who have critically studied the first edition. In this edition the changes and additions have been made and subject matter has been rearranged at some places. The purpose of this text is to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date study of the principles of operation of solid state devices, their basic circuits and application of these circuits to various electronic systems, so that it can serve as a standard text not only for universities and colleges but also for technical institutes. This book

  6. Regression Basics

    CERN Document Server

    Kahane, Leo H

    2007-01-01

    Using a friendly, nontechnical approach, the Second Edition of Regression Basics introduces readers to the fundamentals of regression. Accessible to anyone with an introductory statistics background, this book builds from a simple two-variable model to a model of greater complexity. Author Leo H. Kahane weaves four engaging examples throughout the text to illustrate not only the techniques of regression but also how this empirical tool can be applied in creative ways to consider a broad array of topics. New to the Second Edition Offers greater coverage of simple panel-data estimation:

  7. Blue Ribbon Panel Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    An NCI Cancer Currents blog by the NCI acting director thanking the cancer community for contributing to the Cancer Moonshot Blue Ribbon Panel report, which was presented to the National Cancer Advisory Board on September 7.

  8. New York Blue

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — New York Blue is used cooperatively by the Laboratory and Stony Brook University as part of the New York Center for Computation Sciences. Ranked as the 28th fastest...

  9. Methylene blue test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methemoglobinemia - methylene blue test ... No special preparation is required for this test. ... which are genetic (problem with your genes). This test is used to tell the difference between methemoglobinemia ...

  10. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2004-06-01

    The Big Sky Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts during the second performance period fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks; development of GIS-based reporting framework; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. At the first two Partnership meetings the groundwork was put in place to provide an assessment of capture and storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other western DOE partnerships. Efforts are also being made to find funding to include Wyoming in the coverage areas for both geological and terrestrial sinks and sources. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts begun in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is also underway to identify and validate best management practices for

  11. GLESP package for full sky CMB maps data analysis and its realization in the FADPS data processing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkhodanov, O. V.; Doroshkevich, A. G.; Naselsky, P. D.; Novikov, D. I.; Turchaninov, V. I.; Novikov, I. D.; Christensen, P. R.; Chiang, L.-Y.

    2005-05-01

    A new scheme of sky pixelization GLESP (Gauss-LEgendre Sky Pixelization) is developed for CMB maps. The scheme is based on the Gauss-Legendre polynomials zeros and allows one to create strict orthogonal expansion of the map. A corresponding code has been implemented and comparison with other methods has been done. The package has been realized using basic principles of the FADPS data reduction system. The structure and the main procedures of the package are described.

  12. Blue Skies through a Blue Sky: an attempt to detect Rayleigh scattering in an exoplanet atmosphere from a ground-based telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchsinger, Kristen; Redfield, Seth; Cauley, Paul W.; Barman, Travis S.; Jensen, Adam G.

    2017-01-01

    When studying planetary atmospheres, scattering signatures, such as Rayleigh scattering, can often be the most easily characterized signal. This is especially true in terrestrial atmospheres, where Rayleigh scattering is the dominant spectral feature in optical wavelengths. These scattering signatures, unlike molecular or atomic line absorption, are broad and continuous, and are char- acterized by a single slope. Rayleigh scattering provides an imporant glimpse into the atmospheric composition of an exoplanet's atmosphere, and a Rayleigh scattering detection on a smaller, ground-based telescope can be a useful method to identify interesting science targets for larger, space-based telescopes.We will present observations of three exoplanets using the HYDRA multi- object spectrometer on the WIYN telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory. We obtained two transits each for WASP 12b and GJ 3470b, and one transit for HD 189733b, for a range of wavelengths between 4500 Å and 9201 Å. A successful Rayleigh scattering detection in the atmospheres of these planets using this in- strument would represent a step forward in our current detection capabilities and open up the study of planetary atmospheres to smaller, ground-based telescopes.Data presented herein were obtained at the WIYN Observatory from telescope time allocated to NN-EXPLORE through the scientific partnership of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Science Foundation, and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory. This work was supported by a NASA WIYN PI Data Award, administered by the NASA Exoplanet Science Institute.

  13. Simulations of the Microwave Sky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehgal, Neelima; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Bode, Paul; /Princeton U., Astrophys. Sci. Dept.; Das, Sudeep; /Princeton U., Astrophys. Sci. Dept. /Princeton U.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, Carlos; /Garching, Max Planck Inst.; Huffenberger, Kevin; /Miami U.; Lin, Yen-Ting; /Tokyo U., IPMU; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; /Princeton U., Astrophys. Sci. Dept.; Trac, Hy; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.

    2009-12-16

    We create realistic, full-sky, half-arcminute resolution simulations of the microwave sky matched to the most recent astrophysical observations. The primary purpose of these simulations is to test the data reduction pipeline for the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) experiment; however, we have widened the frequency coverage beyond the ACT bands and utilized the easily accessible HEALPix map format to make these simulations applicable to other current and near future microwave background experiments. Some of the novel features of these simulations are that the radio and infrared galaxy populations are correlated with the galaxy cluster and group populations, the primordial microwave background is lensed by the dark matter structure in the simulation via a ray-tracing code, the contribution to the thermal and kinetic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) signals from galaxy clusters, groups, and the intergalactic medium has been included, and the gas prescription to model the SZ signals has been refined to match the most recent X-ray observations. The cosmology adopted in these simulations is also consistent with the WMAP 5-year parameter measurements. From these simulations we find a slope for the Y{sub 200} - M{sub 200} relation that is only slightly steeper than self-similar, with an intrinsic scatter in the relation of {approx} 14%. Regarding the contamination of cluster SZ flux by radio galaxies, we find for 148 GHz (90 GHz) only 3% (4%) of halos have their SZ decrements contaminated at a level of 20% or more. We find the contamination levels higher for infrared galaxies. However, at 90 GHz, less than 20% of clusters with M{sub 200} > 2.5 x 10{sup 14}M{sub {circle_dot}} and z < 1.2 have their SZ decrements filled in at a level of 20% or more. At 148 GHz, less than 20% of clusters with M{sub 200} > 2.5 x 10{sup 14}M{sub {circle_dot}} and z < 0.8 have their SZ decrements filled in at a level of 50% or larger. Our models also suggest that a population of very high flux

  14. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2005-01-31

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership in Phase I fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks that will be used to determine the location of pilot demonstrations in Phase II; development of GIS-based reporting framework that links with national networks; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies and assessment frameworks; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. The groundwork is in place to provide an assessment of storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. Efforts are underway to showcase the architecture of the GIS framework and initial results for sources and sinks. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other western DOE partnerships. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is

  15. Teaching Chemistry Using October Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goll, James G.; Wilkinson, Lindsay J.; Snell, Dolores M.

    2009-02-01

    The first artificial satellite, Sputnik, was launched over fifty years ago, on October 4, 1957, marking the beginning of the space age. The launch of Sputnik inspired coal miners’ sons in Coalwood, West Virginia, to form a rocket research program. The story of these coal miners’ sons was told by Homer Hickham, Jr., in the book Rocket Boys: A Memoir, and later in the movie adaptation October Sky. Both the book and the movie show the importance of mentoring from a teacher, Frieda Riley, who encouraged the Rocket Boys in their endeavors. The story of the Rocket Boys can be used in science classrooms as a means to teach the scientific process and to create what is termed in both the book and movie as a body of knowledge. Several chemical principles important in the development of rocket propellant systems were depicted in the book and movie. These propellant systems are comparable to those used for the solid rocket boosters used to launch the space shuttles. The use of popular media in the classroom can engage and inspire students and teachers alike.

  16. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2004-06-01

    The Big Sky Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts during the second performance period fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks; development of GIS-based reporting framework; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. At the first two Partnership meetings the groundwork was put in place to provide an assessment of capture and storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other western DOE partnerships. Efforts are also being made to find funding to include Wyoming in the coverage areas for both geological and terrestrial sinks and sources. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts begun in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is also underway to identify and validate best management practices for

  17. Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan Capalbo

    2005-12-31

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership in Phase I are organized into four areas: (1) Evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks that will be used to determine the location of pilot demonstrations in Phase II; (2) Development of GIS-based reporting framework that links with national networks; (3) Design of an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies, market-based opportunities for carbon management, and an economic/risk assessment framework; (referred to below as the Advanced Concepts component of the Phase I efforts) and (4) Initiation of a comprehensive education and outreach program. As a result of the Phase I activities, the groundwork is in place to provide an assessment of storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that complements the ongoing DOE research agenda in Carbon Sequestration. The geology of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership Region is favorable for the potential sequestration of enormous volume of CO{sub 2}. The United States Geological Survey (USGS 1995) identified 10 geologic provinces and 111 plays in the region. These provinces and plays include both sedimentary rock types characteristic of oil, gas, and coal productions as well as large areas of mafic volcanic rocks. Of the 10 provinces and 111 plays, 1 province and 4 plays are located within Idaho. The remaining 9 provinces and 107 plays are dominated by sedimentary rocks and located in the states of Montana and Wyoming. The potential sequestration capacity of the 9 sedimentary provinces within the region ranges from 25,000 to almost 900,000 million metric tons of CO{sub 2}. Overall every sedimentary formation investigated

  18. Sky dancer: an intermittent system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cros, Anne; Rodríguez Romero, Jesse Alexander; Damián Díaz Andrade, Oscar

    2009-11-01

    Sky dancers attract people sight to make advertising. What is the origin of those large vertical tubes fluctuations above an air blower? This study complements the previous one [1] about the system analysis from a dynamical system point of view. As a difference from the ``garden hose-instability'' [2], the tube shape has got ``break points''. Those ``break points'' separate the air-filled bottom tube portion from its deflated top portion. We record the tube dynamics with a high-speed videocamera simultaneously that we measure the pressure at the air blower exit. The intermittent pressure evolution displays picks when the tube fluctuates. We compare those overpressure values with the ones that appears in a rigid tube whose exit is partially obstructed. [1] F. Castillo Flores & A. Cros ``Transition to chaos of a vertical collapsible tube conveying air flow'' J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 166, 012017 (2009). [2] A. S. Greenwald & J. Dungundji ``Static and dynamic instabilities of a propellant line'' MIT Aeroelastic and Structures Research Lab, AFOSR Sci. Report: AFOSR 67-1395 (1967).

  19. Monitoring All Sky for Variability

    CERN Document Server

    Paczynski, B

    2000-01-01

    A few percent of all stars are variable, yet over 90% of variables brighter than 12 magnitude have not been discovered yet. There is a need for an all sky search and for the early detection of any unexpected events: optical flashes from gamma-ray bursts, novae, dwarf novae, supernovae, `killer asteroids'. The ongoing projects like ROTSE, ASAS, TASS, and others, using instruments with just 4 inch aperture, have already discovered thousands of new variable stars, a flash from an explosion at a cosmological distance, and the first partial eclipse of a nearby star by its Jupiter like planet. About one million variables may be discovered with such small instruments, and many more with larger telescopes. The critical elements are software and full automation of the hardware. A complete census of the brightest eclipsing binaries is needed to select objects for a robust empirical calibration of the the accurate distance determination to the Magellanic Clouds, the first step towards the Hubble constant. An archive to ...

  20. FIrpic: archetypal blue phosphorescent emitter for electroluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranoff, Etienne; Curchod, Basile F E

    2015-05-14

    FIrpic is the most investigated bis-cyclometallated iridium complex in particular in the context of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) because of its attractive sky-blue emission, high emission efficiency, and suitable energy levels. In this Perspective we review the synthesis, structural characterisations, and key properties of this emitter. We also survey the theoretical studies and summarise a series of selected monochromatic electroluminescent devices using FIrpic as the emitting dopant. Finally we highlight important shortcomings of FIrpic as an emitter for OLEDs. Despite the large body of work dedicated to this material, it is manifest that the understanding of photophysical and electrochemical processes are only broadly understood mainly because of the different environment in which these properties are measured, i.e., isolated molecules in solvent vs. device.

  1. Detecting Rainfall Onset Using Sky Images

    CERN Document Server

    Dev, Soumyabrata; Lee, Yee Hui; Winkler, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Ground-based sky cameras (popularly known as Whole Sky Imagers) are increasingly used now-a-days for continuous monitoring of the atmosphere. These imagers have higher temporal and spatial resolutions compared to conventional satellite images. In this paper, we use ground-based sky cameras to detect the onset of rainfall. These images contain additional information about cloud coverage and movement and are therefore useful for accurate rainfall nowcast. We validate our results using rain gauge measurement recordings and achieve an accuracy of 89% for correct detection of rainfall onset.

  2. Fast, multi-dimensional and simultaneous kymograph-like particle dynamics (SkyPad analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Cadot

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Kymograph analysis is a method widely used by researchers to analyze particle dynamics in one dimensional (1D trajectories. RESULTS: Here we provide a Visual Basic-coded algorithm to use as a Microsoft Excel add-in that automatically analyzes particles in 2D trajectories with all the advantages of kymograph analysis. CONCLUSIONS: This add-in, which we named SkyPad, leads to significant time saving and higher accuracy of particle analysis. Finally, SkyPad can also be used for 3D trajectories analysis.

  3. Inflation Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Dan [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2014-03-01

    inflation since metrical fluctuations, both scalar and tensor, are also produced in inflationary models. Thus, the time appears to be appropriate for a very basic and simple exposition of the inflationary model written from a particle physics perspective. Only the simplest scalar model will be explored because it is easy to understand and contains all the basic elements of the inflationary model.

  4. Inflation Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Dan [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2014-03-01

    inflation since metrical fluctuations, both scalar and tensor, are also produced in inflationary models. Thus, the time appears to be appropriate for a very basic and simple exposition of the inflationary model written from a particle physics perspective. Only the simplest scalar model will be explored because it is easy to understand and contains all the basic elements of the inflationary model.

  5. A Machine-Learning-Driven Sky Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satylmys, Pynar; Bashford-Rogers, Thomas; Chalmers, Alan; Debattista, Kurt

    2017-01-01

    Sky illumination is responsible for much of the lighting in a virtual environment. A machine-learning-based approach can compactly represent sky illumination from both existing analytic sky models and from captured environment maps. The proposed approach can approximate the captured lighting at a significantly reduced memory cost and enable smooth transitions of sky lighting to be created from a small set of environment maps captured at discrete times of day. The author's results demonstrate accuracy close to the ground truth for both analytical and capture-based methods. The approach has a low runtime overhead, so it can be used as a generic approach for both offline and real-time applications.

  6. Sky cover from MFRSR observations: cumulus clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kassianov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The diffuse all-sky surface irradiances measured at two nearby wavelengths in the visible spectral range and their model clear-sky counterparts are two main components of a new method for estimating the fractional sky cover of different cloud types, including cumulus clouds. The performance of this method is illustrated using 1-min resolution data from ground-based Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR. The MFRSR data are collected at the US Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF Southern Great Plains (SGP site during the summer of 2007 and represent 13 days with cumulus clouds. Good agreement is obtained between estimated values of the fractional sky cover and those provided by a well-established independent method based on broadband observations.

  7. From Telluric (Earth) To Tectonic (Sky)

    OpenAIRE

    Buchanan, Christopher Taylor

    2008-01-01

    My graduate thesis is a study of telluric and tectonic architecture. These two ideas inspired me to design a baseball stadium for the town of Blacksburg, Virginia that portrayed the contrasting concepts "of the earth" and "of the sky."

  8. Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2005-11-01

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership in Phase I fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks that will be used to determine the location of pilot demonstrations in Phase II; development of GIS-based reporting framework that links with national networks; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies and assessment frameworks; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. The groundwork is in place to provide an assessment of storage capabilities for CO2 utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research agenda in Carbon Sequestration. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other DOE regional partnerships. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is also underway to identify and validate best management practices for soil C in the

  9. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2004-10-31

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks; development of GIS-based reporting framework; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. At the first two Partnership meetings the groundwork was put in place to provide an assessment of capture and storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. During the third quarter, planning efforts are underway for the next Partnership meeting which will showcase the architecture of the GIS framework and initial results for sources and sinks, discuss the methods and analysis underway for assessing geological and terrestrial sequestration potentials. The meeting will conclude with an ASME workshop. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other western DOE partnerships. Efforts are also being made to find funding to include Wyoming in the coverage areas for both geological and terrestrial sinks and sources. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification

  10. The color of the Martian sky and its influence on the illumination of the Martian surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, N.; Markiewicz, W.J.; Sablotny, R.M.; Wuttke, M.W.; Keller, H.U.; Johnson, J. R.; Reid, R.J.; Smith, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    The dust in the atmosphere above the Mars Pathfinder landing site produced a bright, red sky that increases in redness toward the horizon at midday. There is also evidence for an absorption band in the scattered light from the sky at 860 nm. A model of the sky brightness has been developed [Markiewicz et al., this issue] and tested against Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) observations of calibration targets on the lander. The resulting model has been used to quantify the total diffuse flux onto a surface parallel to the local level for several solar elevation angles and optical depths. The model shows that the diffuse illumination in shadowed areas is strongly reddened while areas illuminated directly by the Sun (and the blue forward scattering peak) see a more solar-type spectrum, in agreement with Viking and IMP observations. Quantitative corrections for the reddening in shadowed areas are demonstrated. It is shown quantitatively that the unusual appearance of the rock Yogi (the east face of which appeared relatively blue in images taken during the morning but relatively red during the afternoon) can be explained purely by the changing illumination geometry. We conclude that any spectrophotometric analysis of surfaces on Mars must take into account the diffuse flux. Specifically, the reflectances of surfaces viewed under different illumination geometries cannot be investigated for spectral diversity unless a correction has been applied which removes the influence of the reddened diffuse flux. Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.

  11. True-sky demonstration of an autonomous star tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bezooijen, Roelof W.

    1994-07-01

    An autonomous star tracker (AST) is basically a `star field in, attitude out' device capable of determining its attitude without requiring any a priori attitude knowledge. In addition to this attitude acquisition capability, an AST can perform attitude updates autonomously and is able to provide its attitude `continuously' while tracking a star field. The Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory is developing a reliable, low-cost, miniature AST that has a one arcsec overall accuracy, weighs less than 1.5 kg, consumes less than 7 watts of power, and is sufficiently sensitive to be used at all sky locations. The device performs attitude acquisition in a fraction of a second and outputs its attitude at a 10 Hz rate when operating in its tracking mode. Besides providing the functionality needed for future advanced attitude control and navigation systems, an AST also improves spacecraft reliability, mass, power, cost, and operating expenses. The AST comprises a-thermalized, refractive optics, a frame-transfer CCD with a sensitive area of 1024 by 1024 pixels, camera electronics implemented with application- specific integrated circuits, a compact single board computer with a radiation hard 32 bit RISC processor, and an all-sky guide star database. Star identification is performed by a memory- efficient and highly robust algorithm that finds the largest group of observed stars matching a group of guide stars. An important milestone has recently been achieved with the validation of the attitude acquisition capability through correct and rapid identification of all 704 true-sky star fields obtained at the Lick Observatory, using an uncalibrated prototype AST with a 512 by 1024 pixel frame-transfer CCD and a 50 mm f/1.2 lens that provided an effective 6.5 by 13.2 degree field of view. The overlapping fields cover 47% of the sky, including both rich and sparse areas. The paper contains a description of the AST, a summary of the functions enabled or improved by the device, an

  12. Atypical cellular blue nevus or malignant blue nevus?*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daltro, Luise Ribeiro; Yaegashi, Lygia Bertalha; Freitas, Rodrigo Abdalah; Fantini, Bruno de Carvalho; Souza, Cacilda da Silva

    2017-01-01

    Blue nevus is a benign melanocytic lesion whose most frequent variants are dendritic (common) blue nevus and cellular blue nevus. Atypical cellular blue nevus presents an intermediate histopathology between the typical and a rare variant of malignant blue nevus/melanoma arising in a cellular blue nevus. An 8-year-old child presented a pigmented lesion in the buttock since birth, but with progressive growth in the last two years. After surgical excision, histopathological examination revealed atypical cellular blue nevus. Presence of mitoses, ulceration, infiltration, cytological atypia or necrosis may occur in atypical cellular blue nevus, making it difficult to differentiate it from melanoma. The growth of blue nevus is unusual and considered of high-risk for malignancy, being an indicator for complete resection and periodic follow-up of these patients. PMID:28225968

  13. Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2005-11-01

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership in Phase I fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks that will be used to determine the location of pilot demonstrations in Phase II; development of GIS-based reporting framework that links with national networks; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies and assessment frameworks; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. The groundwork is in place to provide an assessment of storage capabilities for CO2 utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research agenda in Carbon Sequestration. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other DOE regional partnerships. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is also underway to identify and validate best management practices for soil C in the

  14. Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan Capalbo

    2005-12-31

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership in Phase I are organized into four areas: (1) Evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks that will be used to determine the location of pilot demonstrations in Phase II; (2) Development of GIS-based reporting framework that links with national networks; (3) Design of an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies, market-based opportunities for carbon management, and an economic/risk assessment framework; (referred to below as the Advanced Concepts component of the Phase I efforts) and (4) Initiation of a comprehensive education and outreach program. As a result of the Phase I activities, the groundwork is in place to provide an assessment of storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that complements the ongoing DOE research agenda in Carbon Sequestration. The geology of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership Region is favorable for the potential sequestration of enormous volume of CO{sub 2}. The United States Geological Survey (USGS 1995) identified 10 geologic provinces and 111 plays in the region. These provinces and plays include both sedimentary rock types characteristic of oil, gas, and coal productions as well as large areas of mafic volcanic rocks. Of the 10 provinces and 111 plays, 1 province and 4 plays are located within Idaho. The remaining 9 provinces and 107 plays are dominated by sedimentary rocks and located in the states of Montana and Wyoming. The potential sequestration capacity of the 9 sedimentary provinces within the region ranges from 25,000 to almost 900,000 million metric tons of CO{sub 2}. Overall every sedimentary formation investigated

  15. ERT basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butters, M. [MBC Energy and Environment, Ottawa, ON (Canada)]|[National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    ERT is an economic instrument which helps power companies achieve emission reduction compliance cost-effectively. This paper presents the basics of ERT with reference to trading concepts, types of systems and types of emissions. The paper also describes the state of the Canadian energy market regarding greenhouse gases (GHG), nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide and volatile organic compounds. The association between ERT and district energy is also explained. By 2010, the global market for GHG trading is expected to be worth $10 billion to $3 trillion U.S. Canada has committed to reducing its GHG to 6 per cent below 1990 levels by 2012, but currently emits 705 Mt per year. This is expected to increase to 770 Mt by 2010. Therefore, in order to meet its commitment, GHGs will have to be reduced 200 Mt per year. Canada is currently considering ratifying the Kyoto agreement and a trading system is being developed. There are several abatement technologies currently under consideration for district energy systems, including adding scrubbers, improving efficiency, and fuel switching. The marginal cost of abatement was also discussed. tabs., figs.

  16. The conformal transformation of the night sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguzzi, E.

    2016-12-01

    We give a simple differential geometric proof of the conformal transformation of the night sky under change of observer. The proof does not use the four dimensionality of spacetime or spinor methods. Furthermore, it really shows that the result does not depend on Lorentz transformations. This approach, by giving a transparent covariant expression to the conformal factor, shows that in most situations it is possible to define a thermal sky metric independent of the observer.

  17. The Mythology of the Night Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkner, David E.

    The word "planet" comes from the Latin word planeta and the Greek word planes, which means "wanderer." When the ancient Greeks studied the night sky they noticed that most of the stars remained in the same position relative to all the other stars, but a few stars seem to move in the sky from day to day, week to week, and month to month. The Greeks called these rogue stars "wanderers" because they wandered through the starry background.

  18. The Blue Collar Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy eVan Orden

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Much effort has gone into elucidating control of the body by the brain, less so the role of the body in controlling the brain. This essay develops the idea that the brain does a great deal of work in the service of behavior that is controlled by the body, a blue collar role compared to the white collar control exercised by the body. The argument that supports a blue collar role for the brain is also consistent with recent discoveries clarifying the white collar role of synergies across the body's tensegrity structure, and the evidence of critical phenomena in brain and behavior.

  19. A Blue Lagoon Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen

    2007-01-01

    We consider a specific function of two variables whose graph surface resembles a blue lagoon. The function has a saddle point $p$, but when the function is restricted to any given straight line through $p$ it has a {\\em{strict local minimum}} along that line at $p$.......We consider a specific function of two variables whose graph surface resembles a blue lagoon. The function has a saddle point $p$, but when the function is restricted to any given straight line through $p$ it has a {\\em{strict local minimum}} along that line at $p$....

  20. Frequency of College Students' Night-Sky Watching Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, William E.; Kelly, Kathryn E.; Batey, Jason

    2006-01-01

    College students (N = 112) completed the Noctcaelador Inventory, a measure of psychological attachment to the night-sky, and estimated various night-sky watching related activities: frequency and duration of night-sky watching, astro-tourism, ownership of night-sky viewing equipment, and attendance of observatories or planetariums. The results…

  1. CENSUS OF BLUE STARS IN SDSS DR8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scibelli, Samantha [Burnt Hills-Ballston Lake High School, 88 Lake Hill Road, Ballston, NY 12027 (United States); Newberg, Heidi Jo; Carlin, Jeffrey L. [Department of Physics, Applied Physics and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, NY 12180 (United States); Yanny, Brian, E-mail: heidi@rpi.edu [Experimental Astrophysics Group, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    We present a census of the 12,060 spectra of blue objects ((g – r){sub 0} < –0.25) in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 8 (DR8). As part of the data release, all of the spectra were cross-correlated with 48 template spectra of stars, galaxies, and QSOs to determine the best match. We compared the blue spectra by eye to the templates assigned in SDSS DR8. 10,856 of the objects matched their assigned template, 170 could not be classified due to low signal-to-noise ratio, and 1034 were given new classifications. We identify 7458 DA white dwarfs, 1145 DB white dwarfs, 273 rarer white dwarfs (including carbon, DZ, DQ, and magnetic), 294 subdwarf O stars, 648 subdwarf B stars, 679 blue horizontal branch stars, 1026 blue stragglers, 13 cataclysmic variables, 129 white dwarf-M dwarf binaries, 36 objects with spectra similar to DO white dwarfs, 179, quasi-stellar objects (QSOs), and 10 galaxies. We provide two tables of these objects, sample spectra that match the templates, figures showing all of the spectra that were grouped by eye, and diagnostic plots that show the positions, colors, apparent magnitudes, proper motions, etc., for each classification. Future surveys will be able to use templates similar to stars in each of the classes we identify to automatically classify blue stars, including rare types.

  2. Educating for the Preservation of Dark Skies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Sandra Lee; Cianciolo, Frank; Wetzel, Marc; Finkelstein, Keely; Wren, William; Nance, Craig

    2015-08-01

    The stars at night really are big and bright deep in the heart of Texas at the McDonald Observatory near Fort Davis, Texas. Each year 80,000 visitors from all over the world make the pilgrimage to the Observatory to attend one of the three-times-a-week star parties. Many experience, for the first time, the humbling, splendor of a truly dark night sky. Over the last several years, the Observatory has experienced dramatic increases in visitation demonstrating the public’s appetite for science education, in general, and interest in the night sky, in particular. This increasing interest in astronomy is, ironically, occurring at a time when most of humanity’s skies are becoming increasingly light-polluted frustrating this natural interest. Dark skies and knowledgeable education and outreach staff are an important resource in maintaining the public’s interest in astronomy, support for astronomical research, and local tourism.This year Observatory educators were inspired by the observance of the International Year of Light to promote healthy outdoor lighting through its popular Astronomy Day distance learning program. This program reaches tens of thousands of K-12 students in Texas and other states with a message of how they can take action to preserve dark skies. As well, more than a thousand Boy Scouts visiting during the summer months receive a special program, which includes activities focusing on good lighting practices, thereby earning them credits toward an astronomy badge.The Observatory also offers a half-a-dozen K-12 teacher professional development workshops onsite each year, which provide about 90 teachers with dark skies information, best-practice lighting demonstrations, and red flashlights. Multi-year workshops for National Park and State of Texas Parks personnel are offered on dark sky preservation and sky interpretation at McDonald and a Dark Skies fund for retrofitting lights in the surrounding area has been established. The Observatory also uses

  3. A method for cloud detection and opacity classification based on ground based sky imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Ghonima

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Digital images of the sky obtained using a total sky imager (TSI are classified pixel by pixel into clear sky, optically thin and optically thick clouds. A new classification algorithm was developed that compares the pixel red-blue ratio (RBR to the RBR of a clear sky library (CSL generated from images captured on clear days. The difference, rather than the ratio, between pixel RBR and CSL RBR resulted in more accurate cloud classification. High correlation between TSI image RBR and aerosol optical depth (AOD measured by an AERONET photometer was observed and motivated the addition of a haze correction factor (HCF to the classification model to account for variations in AOD. Thresholds for clear and thick clouds were chosen based on a training image set and validated with set of manually annotated images. Misclassifications of clear and thick clouds into the opposite category were less than 1%. Thin clouds were classified with an accuracy of 60%. Accurate cloud detection and opacity classification techniques will improve the accuracy of short-term solar power forecasting.

  4. A method for cloud detection and opacity classification based on ground based sky imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Ghonima

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Digital images of the sky obtained using a total sky imager (TSI are classified pixel by pixel into clear sky, optically thin and optically thick clouds. A new classification algorithm was developed that compares the pixel red-blue ratio (RBR to the RBR of a clear sky library (CSL generated from images captured on clear days. The difference, rather than the ratio, between pixel RBR and CSL RBR resulted in more accurate cloud classification. High correlation between TSI image RBR and aerosol optical depth (AOD measured by an AERONET photometer was observed and motivated the addition of a haze correction factor (HCF to the classification model to account for variations in AOD. Thresholds for clear and thick clouds were chosen based on a training image set and validated with set of manually annotated images. Misclassifications of clear and thick clouds into the opposite category were less than 1%. Thin clouds were classified with an accuracy of 60%. Accurate cloud detection and opacity classification techniques will improve the accuracy of short-term solar power forecasting.

  5. Identifying Blue Horizontal Branch Stars Using the z Filter

    CERN Document Server

    Vickers, John J; Huxor, Avon P

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a new method for selecting blue horizontal branch (BHB) candidates based on color-color photometry. We make use of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey z band as a surface gravity indicator and show its value for selecting BHB stars from quasars, white dwarfs and main sequence A type stars. Using the g, r, i, and z bands, we demonstrate that extraction accuracies on par with more traditional u, g, and r photometric selection methods may be achieved. We also show that the completeness necessary to probe major Galactic structure may be maintained. Our new method allows us to efficiently select BHB stars from photometric sky surveys that do not include a u band filter such as the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System.

  6. After Stroke, 'Blue' Light May Help Beat the Blues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163731.html After Stroke, 'Blue' Light May Help Beat the Blues Akin ... a danger for people recovering from a debilitating stroke. But new research suggests that tweaking a rehabilitation ...

  7. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2004-10-31

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks; development of GIS-based reporting framework; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. At the first two Partnership meetings the groundwork was put in place to provide an assessment of capture and storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. During the third quarter, planning efforts are underway for the next Partnership meeting which will showcase the architecture of the GIS framework and initial results for sources and sinks, discuss the methods and analysis underway for assessing geological and terrestrial sequestration potentials. The meeting will conclude with an ASME workshop. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other western DOE partnerships. Efforts are also being made to find funding to include Wyoming in the coverage areas for both geological and terrestrial sinks and sources. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification

  8. An Innovative Collaboration on Dark Skies Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Constance E.; Mayer, M.; EPO Students, NOAO

    2011-01-01

    Dark night skies are being lost all over the globe, and hundreds of millions of dollars of energy are being wasted in the process.. Improper lighting is the main cause of light pollution. Light pollution is a concern on many fronts, affecting safety, energy conservation, cost, human health, and wildlife. It also robs us of the beauty of viewing the night sky. In the U.S. alone, over half of the population cannot see the Milky Way from where they live. To help address this, the National Optical Astronomy Observatory Education and Public Outreach (NOAO EPO) staff created two programs: Dark Skies Rangers and GLOBE at Night. Through the two programs, students learn about the importance of dark skies and experience activities that illustrate proper lighting, light pollution's effects on wildlife and how to measure the darkness of their skies. To disseminate the programs locally in an appropriate yet innovative venue, NOAO partnered with the Cooper Center for Environmental Learning in Tucson, Arizona. Operated by the largest school district in Tucson and the University of Arizona College of Education, the Cooper Center educates thousands of students and educators each year about ecology, science, and the beauty and wonders of the Sonoran Desert. During the first academic year (2009-2010), we achieved our goal of reaching nearly 20 teachers in 40 classrooms of 1000 students. We gave two 3-hour teacher-training sessions and provided nineteen 2.5-hour on-site evening sessions on dark skies activities for the students of the teachers trained. One outcome of the program was the contribution of 1000 "GLOBE at Night 2010” night-sky brightness measurements by Tucson students. Training sessions at similar levels are continuing this year. The partnership, planning, lesson learned, and outcomes of NOAO's collaboration with the environmental center will be presented.

  9. Plaque Type Blue Naevus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sentamilselvi G

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of plaque type blue naevus was encountered in a Dermatology Clinic in Madras. The various clinical differential diagnoses are discussed, the hitopathological features described and the benign nature of the tumour stressed. The case is reported for its rarity and to create an awareness of this entity.

  10. Blue rubber bleb naevus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal R

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A 35 year old female had multiple progressive painful, tender, soft, bluish compressible nodules with the feel of rubber nipples. There was no evidence of gastrointestinal haemangiomas or other systemic abnormalities. Histopathologically, cavernous haemangioma with prominent smooth muscle outline proved the clinical diagnosis of blue rubber bleb naevus. Only cutaneous lesions were seen in the patient.

  11. The "Blue Banana" Revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faludi, A.K.F.

    2015-01-01

    This essay is about the “Blue Banana”. Banana is the name given subsequently by others to a Dorsale européenne (European backbone) identified empirically by Roger Brunet. In a background study to the Communication of the European Commission ‘Europe 2000’, Klaus Kunzmann and Michael Wegener put forwa

  12. The Blue Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Ørts; Sornn-Friese, Henrik

    This paper makes an important contribution to the discussion about knowledge based localised externalities in the context of shipping and the maritime sector in Denmark. In the paper we ask if there is a national, knowledge‐based maritime cluster configured around the shipowners in Denmark. This ...... talk about The Blue Denmark....

  13. Blue spectral inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Schunck, Franz E

    2008-01-01

    We reconsider the nonlinear second order Abel equation of Stewart and Lyth, which follows from a nonlinear second order slow-roll approximation. We find a new eigenvalue spectrum in the blue regime. Some of the discrete values of the spectral index n_s have consistent fits to the cumulative COBE data as well as to recent ground-base CMB experiments.

  14. Dark Blue II

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Dark Blue II, high fired porcelain, decorated with cobalt chloride, woodfired with salt. 10,5 x 10,5 x 19 cm. Ferdigstilt: 2012. Innkjøpt til Collection of The American Museum of Ceramic Art, Pomona, California, USA.

  15. The Accuracy of RADIANCE Software in Modelling Overcast Sky Condition

    OpenAIRE

    Baharuddin

    2013-01-01

    A validation study of the sky models of RADIANCE simulation software against the overcast sky condition has been carried out in order to test the accuracy of sky model of RADIANCE for modeling the overcast sky condition in Hong Kong. Two sets of data have been analysed. Firstly, data collected from a set of experiments using a physical scale model. In this experiment, the illuminance of four points inside the model was measured under real sky conditions. Secondly, the RADIANCE simulation has ...

  16. yourSky: Custom Sky-Image Mosaics via the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    yourSky (http://yourSky.jpl.nasa.gov) is a computer program that supplies custom astronomical image mosaics of sky regions specified by requesters using client computers connected to the Internet. [yourSky is an upgraded version of the software reported in Software for Generating Mosaics of Astronomical Images (NPO-21121), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 25, No. 4 (April 2001), page 16a.] A requester no longer has to engage in the tedious process of determining what subset of images is needed, nor even to know how the images are indexed in image archives. Instead, in response to a requester s specification of the size and location of the sky area, (and optionally of the desired set and type of data, resolution, coordinate system, projection, and image format), yourSky automatically retrieves the component image data from archives totaling tens of terabytes stored on computer tape and disk drives at multiple sites and assembles the component images into a mosaic image by use of a high-performance parallel code. yourSky runs on the server computer where the mosaics are assembled. Because yourSky includes a Web-interface component, no special client software is needed: ordinary Web browser software is sufficient.

  17. The NexStar evolution and SkyPortal user's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, James L

    2016-01-01

    This book serves as a comprehensive guide for using a Nexstar Evolution mount with WiFi SkyPortal control, walking the reader through the process for aligning and operating the system from a tablet or smartphone. The next generation Go-To mount from Celestron, this is compatible not only with the Nextstar Evolution but also with older mounts. It is the ideal resource for anyone who owns, or is thinking of owning, a Nexstar Evolution telescope, or adapting their existing Celestron mount. Pros and cons of the system are thoroughly covered with a critical depth that addresses any possible question by users. Beginning with a brief history of Go-To telescopes and the genesis of this still new technology, the author covers every aspect of the newly expanding capability in observing. This includes the associated Sky Portal smartphone and tablet application, the transition from the original Nexstar GoTo system to the new SkyPortal system, the use of the Sky Portal application with its Sky Safari 4 basic software and ...

  18. Sky coverage modeling for the whole sky for laser guide star multiconjugate adaptive optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lianqi; Andersen, David; Ellerbroek, Brent

    2012-06-01

    The scientific productivity of laser guide star adaptive optics systems strongly depends on the sky coverage, which describes the probability of finding natural guide stars for the tip/tilt wavefront sensor(s) to achieve a certain performance. Knowledge of the sky coverage is also important for astronomers planning their observations. In this paper, we present an efficient method to compute the sky coverage for the laser guide star multiconjugate adaptive optics system, the Narrow Field Infrared Adaptive Optics System (NFIRAOS), being designed for the Thirty Meter Telescope project. We show that NFIRAOS can achieve more than 70% sky coverage over most of the accessible sky with the requirement of 191 nm total rms wavefront.

  19. The SCUBA-2 "All-Sky" Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, M A; Jenness, T; Scott, D; Ashdown, M; Brunt, C; Butner, H; Chapin, E; Chrysostomou, A C; Clark, J S; Clements, D; Collett, J L; Coppin, K; Coulson, I M; Dent, W R F; Economou, F; Evans, A; Friberg, P; Fuller, G A; Gibb, A G; Greaves, J; Hatchell, J; Holland, W S; Hudson, M; Ivison, R J; Jaffe, A; Joncas, G; Jones, H R A; Knapen, J H; Leech, J; Mann, R; Matthews, H E; Moore, T J T; Mortier, A; Negrello, M; Nutter, D; Pestalozzi, M P; Pope, A; Richer, J; Shipman, R; Urquhart, J S; Vaccari, M; Van Waerbeke, L; Viti, S; Weferling, B; White, G J; Wouterloot, J; Zhu, M

    2007-01-01

    The sub-millimetre wavelength regime is perhaps the most poorly explored over large areas of the sky, despite the considerable effort that has been expended in making deep maps over small regions. As a consequence the properties of the sub-millimetre sky as a whole, and of rare bright objects in particular, remains largely unknown. Here we describe a forthcoming survey (the SCUBA-2 ``All-Sky'' Survey, or SASSy) designed to address this issue by making a large-area map of approximately one-fifth of the sky visible from the JCMT (4800 square degrees) down to a 1 sigma noise level of 30 mJy/beam. This map forms the pilot for a much larger survey, which will potentially map the remaining sky visible from the JCMT, with the region also visible to ALMA as a priority. SASSy has been awarded 500 hours for the 4800 square degree pilot phase and will commence after the commissioning of SCUBA-2, expected in early 2008.

  20. Applications of SKY in cancer cytogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayani, Jane M; Squire, Jeremy A

    2002-01-01

    Clinical and cancer cytogenetics is a rapidly evolving discipline. The past decade has seen a dramatic change in molecular biology and fluorescence microscopy. The use of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technologies has enabled the rapid analysis of cytogenetic specimens as an adjunct to classical cytogenetic analysis. Spectral karyotyping (SKY) is a 24-color, multi-chromosomal painting assay that allows the visualization of all human chromosomes in one experiment. The ability for SKY analysis to detect equivocal or complex chromosomal rearrangements, as well as to identify the chromosomal origins of marker chromosomes and other extra-chromosomal structures, makes this a highly sensitive and valuable tool for identifying recurrent chromosomal aberrations. The SKY has been applied to various tumor groups including hematological malignancies, sarcomas, carcinomas and brain tumors, with the intent of identifying specific chromosomal abnormalities that may provide insight to the genes involved in the disease process as well as identifying recurrent cytogenetic markers for clinical diagnosis and prognostic assessment. The SKY has also been applied for the mouse genome, enabling investigators to extrapolate information from mouse models of cancer to their human counterparts. This review will address the advances that SKY has facilitated in the field of cancer cytogenetics, as well as its variety of application in the cancer research laboratories.

  1. Automatic cloud classification of whole sky images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Heinle

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The recently increasing development of whole sky imagers enables temporal and spatial high-resolution sky observations. One application already performed in most cases is the estimation of fractional sky cover. A distinction between different cloud types, however, is still in progress. Here, an automatic cloud classification algorithm is presented, based on a set of mainly statistical features describing the color as well as the texture of an image. The k-nearest-neighbour classifier is used due to its high performance in solving complex issues, simplicity of implementation and low computational complexity. Seven different sky conditions are distinguished: high thin clouds (cirrus and cirrostratus, high patched cumuliform clouds (cirrocumulus and altocumulus, stratocumulus clouds, low cumuliform clouds, thick clouds (cumulonimbus and nimbostratus, stratiform clouds and clear sky. Based on the Leave-One-Out Cross-Validation the algorithm achieves an accuracy of about 97%. In addition, a test run of random images is presented, still outperforming previous algorithms by yielding a success rate of about 75%, or up to 88% if only "serious" errors with respect to radiation impact are considered. Reasons for the decrement in accuracy are discussed, and ideas to further improve the classification results, especially in problematic cases, are investigated.

  2. Bell violation in the Sky

    CERN Document Server

    Choudhury, Sayantan; Singh, Rajeev

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we have studied the possibility of setting up Bell's inequality violating experiment in the context of cosmology, based on the basic principles of quantum mechanics. First we start with the physical motivation of implementing the Bell's inequality violation in the context of cosmology. Then to set up the cosmological Bell violating test experiment we introduce a model independent theoretical framework using which we have studied the creation of new massive particles by implementing the WKB approximation method for the scalar fluctuations in presence of additional time dependent mass contribution. Next using the background scalar fluctuation in presence of new time dependent mass contribution, we explicitly compute the expression for the one point and two point correlation functions. Furthermore, using the results for one point function we introduce a new theoretical cosmological parameter which can be expressed in terms of the other known inflationary observables and can also be treated as a fut...

  3. The Missing Link: Early Methane ("T") Dwarfs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Leggett, S. K.; Geballe, T. R.; Fan, Xiaohui

    2000-01-01

    We report the discovery of three cool brown dwarfs which fall in the effective temperature gap between the latest L dwarfs currently known, with no methane absorption bands in the 1-2.5um range, and the previously known methane (T) dwarfs, whose spectra are dominated by methane and water. The newly discovered objects were detected as very red objects in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey imaging data and have JHK colors between the red L dwarfs and the blue Gl229B-like T dwarfs. They show both CO a...

  4. Hyperspectral all-sky imaging of auroras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigernes, Fred; Ivanov, Yuriy; Chernouss, Sergey; Trondsen, Trond; Roldugin, Alexey; Fedorenko, Yury; Kozelov, Boris; Kirillov, Andrey; Kornilov, Ilia; Safargaleev, Vladimir; Holmen, Silje; Dyrland, Margit; Lorentzen, Dag; Baddeley, Lisa

    2012-12-03

    A prototype auroral hyperspectral all-sky camera has been constructed and tested. It uses electro-optical tunable filters to image the night sky as a function of wavelength throughout the visible spectrum with no moving mechanical parts. The core optical system includes a new high power all-sky lens with F-number equal to f/1.1. The camera has been tested at the Kjell Henriksen Observatory (KHO) during the auroral season of 2011/2012. It detects all sub classes of aurora above ~½ of the sub visual 1kR green intensity threshold at an exposure time of only one second. Supervised classification of the hyperspectral data shows promise as a new method to process and identify auroral forms.

  5. SPHEREx: An All-Sky Spectral Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Doré, Olivier; Capak, Peter; de Putter, Roland; Eifler, Tim; Hirata, Chris; Korngut, Phil; Krause, Elisabeth; Masters, Daniel; Raccanelli, Alvise; Zemcov, Mike; Cooray, Asantha; Flagey, Nicolas; Gong, Yan; Katti, Raj; Melnick, Gary; Mennesson, Bertrand; Unwin, Steve; Viero, Marco; Werner, Mike; Ashby, Matthew; Habib, Salman; Heitmann, Katrin; Lee, Dae-Hee; Jeong, Woong-Seob; Mauskopf, Phil; Nguyen, Hien; Öberg, Karin; Smith, Roger; Song, Yong-Seon; Tolls, Volker; Venumadhav, Tejaswi

    2014-01-01

    SPHEREx (Spectro-Photometer for the History of the Universe, Epoch of Reionization, and Ices Explorer) is a proposed all-sky spectroscopic survey satellite designed to address all three science goals in NASA's Astrophysics Division: probe the origin and destiny of our Universe; explore whether planets around other stars could harbor life; and explore the origin and evolution of galaxies. SPHEREx will scan a series of Linear Variable Filters systematically across the entire sky. The SPHEREx data-set will contain R=40 spectra spanning the near infrared (0.75$\\mu$m$<\\lambda<$ 4.83$\\mu$m) for every 6.2 arcsecond pixel over the the entire-sky. In this paper, we detail the extra-galactic and cosmological studies SPHEREx will enable and present detailed systematic effect evaluations.

  6. Sonneberg Sky Patrol Archive - Photometric Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Spasovic, Milan; Lange, Christian; Jovanovic, Dragan; Schrimpf, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The Sonneberg Sky Patrol archive so far has not yet been analyzed systematically. In this paper we present first steps towards an automated photometric analysis aiming at the search for variable stars and transient phenomena like novae. Early works on the sky patrol plates showed that photometric accuracy can be enhanced with fitting algorithms. The procedure used was a manually supported click-and-fit-routine, not suitable for automatic analysis of vast amount of photographic plates. We will present our progress on deconvolution of overlapping sources on the plates and compare photometric analysis using different methods. Our goal is to get light curves of sufficient quality from sky patrol plates, which can be classified with machine learning algorithms. The development of an automated scheme for finding transient events is in progress and the first results are very promising.

  7. THE TRANSATLANTIC BLUE DIPLOMACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana GUTU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The international diplomatic environment has reached to an unprecedented development, involving one of the newly specialized diplomatic types, namely the economic diplomacy. At the core of the fast movements in the diplomatic spheres across the Globe are the international agreements like the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP that determined diplomacy to dissolve into new subtypes, evolving from ground to the ocean and implementing new ways of achieving economic and climate sustainability. One of the newly created diplomatic spheres, is the blue ocean diplomacy that acts mainly in accordance with the rules and regulations that are being applied to the transatlantic economy. Even though TTIP encourages the increase of trade flows across the Atlantic, it will also ease the foreign investment procedures that, under the approach of keeping a sustainable environment, will represent one of the most important initiatives in implementing the blue economy concept within the framework of the transatlantic diplomacy.

  8. Faint Blue Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Richard S

    1997-01-01

    The physical properties of the faint blue galaxy population are reviewed in the context of observational progress made via deep spectroscopic surveys and Hubble Space Telescope imaging of field galaxies at various limits, and theoretical models for the integrated star formation history of the Universe. Notwithstanding uncertainties in the properties of the local population of galaxies, convincing evidence has emerged from several independent studies for a rapid decline in the volume-averaged star formation rate of field galaxies since a redshift z~1. Together with the small angular sizes and modest mean redshift of the faintest detectable sources, these results can be understood in hierarchical models where the bulk of the star formation occurred at redshifts between z~1-2. The physical processes responsible for the subsequent demise of the faint blue galaxy population remains unclear. Considerable progress will be possible when the evolutionary trends can be monitored in the context of independent physical p...

  9. Calibration of an all-sky camera for obtaining sky radiance at three wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, R.; Antón, M.; Cazorla, A.; de Miguel, A.; Olmo, F. J.; Bilbao, J.; Alados-Arboledas, L.

    2012-08-01

    This paper proposes a method to obtain spectral sky radiances, at three wavelengths (464, 534 and 626 nm), from hemispherical sky images. Images are registered with the All-Sky Imager installed at the Andalusian Center for Environmental Research (CEAMA) in Granada (Spain). The methodology followed in this work for the absolute calibration in radiance of this instrument is based on the comparison of its output measurements with modelled sky radiances derived from the LibRadtran/UVSPEC radiative transfer code under cloud-free conditions. Previously, in order to check the goodness of the simulated radiances, these are compared with experimental values recorded by a CIMEL sunphotometer. In general, modelled radiances are in agreement with experimental data, showing mean differences lower than 20% except for the pixels located next to the Sun position that show larger errors. The relationship between the output signal of the All-Sky Imager and the modelled sky radiances provides a calibration matrix for each image. The variability of the matrix coefficients is analyzed, showing no significant changes along a period of 5 months. Therefore, a unique calibration matrix per channel is obtained for all selected images (a total of 705 images per channel). Camera radiances are compared with CIMEL radiances, finding mean absolute differences between 2% and 15% except for pixels near to the Sun and high scattering angles. We apply these calibration matrices to three images in order to study the sky radiance distributions for three different sky conditions: cloudless, overcast and partially cloudy. Horizon brightening under cloudless conditions has been observed together with the enhancement effect of individual clouds on sky radiance.

  10. Calibration of an all-sky camera for obtaining sky radiance at three wavelengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Román

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method to obtain spectral sky radiances, at three wavelengths (464, 534 and 626 nm, from hemispherical sky images. Images are registered with an All-Sky Imager installed at the Andalusian Center for Environmental Research (CEAMA in Granada (Spain. The methodology followed in this work for the absolute calibration in radiance of this instrument is based on the comparison of its output measurements with modelled sky radiances derived from the Libradtran/UVSPEC radiative transfer code under cloud-free conditions. Previously, in order to check the goodness of the simulated radiances, these are compared with experimental values recorded by a CIMEL sunphotometer. In general, modelled radiances are in agreement with experimental data, showing mean differences lower than 15% except for the pixels located next to the sun position that show larger errors.

    The comparison between the output signal of the All-Sky Imager and the modelled sky radiances provides a calibration matrix for each image. The variability of the matrix coefficients is analyzed, showing no significant changes along a period of 5 months. Therefore, a unique calibration matrix per channel is obtained for all selected images (a total of 705 images per channel. Camera radiances are compared with CIMEL radiances, finding mean absolute differences between 2% and 15% except for pixels near to the Sun and high zenith angles. We apply these calibration matrices to three images in order to study the sky radiance distributions for three different sky conditions: cloudless, overcast and partially cloudy. Horizon brightening under cloudless conditions has been observed together with the enhancement effect of individual clouds on sky radiance.

  11. Wide and Fast: Monitoring the Sky in Subsecond Domain with the FAVOR and TORTORA Cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Karpov

    2010-01-01

    natural and artificial, it is necessary to perform the systematic monitoring of large regions of the sky with high temporal resolution. Here we discuss the criteria for a system that is able to perform such a task and describe two cameras we created for wide-field monitoring with high temporal resolution—FAVOR and TORTORA. Also, we describe basic principles of real-time data processing for the high frame rates needed to achieve subsecond temporal resolution on a typical hardware.

  12. Highly efficient greenish-blue platinum-based phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes on a high triplet energy platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Y. L., E-mail: yilu.chang@mail.utoronto.ca; Gong, S., E-mail: sgong@chem.utoronto.ca; White, R.; Lu, Z. H., E-mail: zhenghong.lu@utoronto.ca [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Toronto, 184 College St., Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E4 (Canada); Wang, X.; Wang, S., E-mail: wangs@chem.queensu.ca [Department of Chemistry, Queen' s University, 90 Bader Lane, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6 (Canada); Yang, C. [Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2014-04-28

    We have demonstrated high-efficiency greenish-blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PHOLEDs) based on a dimesitylboryl-functionalized C^N chelate Pt(II) phosphor, Pt(m-Bptrz)(t-Bu-pytrz-Me). Using a high triplet energy platform and optimized double emissive zone device architecture results in greenish-blue PHOLEDs that exhibit an external quantum efficiency of 24.0% and a power efficiency of 55.8 lm/W. This record high performance is comparable with that of the state-of-the-art Ir-based sky-blue organic light-emitting diodes.

  13. Sharing the Arts of the Blue Ridge Mountains. Pottery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Martha; Gailey, Lamar

    This module on pottery making is one of eight modules designed to provide instruction on authentic Blue Ridge Mountain crafts to adult basic education students at a low cost. Contents include notes on the history of pottery, including terms to know; process used, including equipment and materials, as well as method described narratively and…

  14. Methylene Blue-Ascorbic Acid: An Undergraduate Experiment in Kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snehalatha, K. C.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Describes a laboratory exercise involving methylene blue and L-ascorbic acid in a simple clock reaction technique to illustrate the basic concepts of chemical kinetics. If stock solutions are supplied and each type of experiment takes no more than half an hour, the entire investigation can be completed in three practical sessions of three hours…

  15. Giant Rings in the CMB Sky

    CERN Document Server

    Kovetz, Ely D; Itzhaki, Nissan

    2010-01-01

    We find a unique direction in the CMB sky around which giant rings have an anomalous mean temperature profile. This direction is in very close alignment with the afore measured anomalously large bulk flow direction. We argue that a cosmic defect seeded by a pre-inflationary particle could explain the giant rings, the large bulk flow and their alignment.

  16. Pips and spots in the microwave sky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Sanz, J.L.

    1989-04-15

    An analysis is presented of some local statistical properties in the microwave sky such as mean number of hotspots over the celestial sphere, mean size of a hotspot, mean number of pips at fixed declination and 95 per cent confidence interval for the threshold of the hottest spot or pip, associated with three different experiments. (author).

  17. Predicting UV sky for future UV missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safonova, M.; Mohan, R.; Sreejith, A. G.; Murthy, Jayant

    2013-02-01

    Software simulators are now widely used in all areas of science, especially in application to astronomical missions: from instrument design to mission planning, and to data interpretation. We present a simulator to model the diffuse ultraviolet sky, where the different contributors are separately calculated and added together to produce a sky image of the size specified by the instrument requirements. Each of the contributors to the background, instrumental dark current, airglow, zodiacal light and diffuse Galactic light, depends on different factors. Airglow is dependent on the time of day; zodiacal light depends on the time of year, angle from the Sun and from the ecliptic; diffuse UV emission depends on the line of sight. To provide a full description of the sky along any line of sight, we have also added stars. The UV background light can dominate in many areas of the sky and severely limit viewing directions due to overbrightness. The simulator, available as a downloadable package and as a web-based tool, can be applied to preparation of real space missions and instruments. For demonstration, we present the example use for the two near-future UV missions: UVIT instrument on the Indian Astrosat mission and a new proposed wide-field (∼1000 square degrees) transient explorer satellite.

  18. Why Is the Sky Dark at Night?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinner, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    The puzzle as to just why the sky is dark at night, given that there are so many stars, has been around at least since Newton. This article summarizes six cosmological models that have been used to attempt to give an account of this puzzle including the Copernican universe, the Newton-Halley universe, the nineteenth century "one galaxy"…

  19. All sky imaging observations in visible and infrared waveband for validation of satellite cloud and aerosol products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Daren; Huo, Juan; Zhang, W.; Liu, J.

    A series of satellite sensors in visible and infrared wavelengths have been successfully operated on board a number of research satellites, e.g. NOAA/AVHRR, the MODIS onboard Terra and Aqua, etc. A number of cloud and aerosol products are produced and released in recent years. However, the validation of the product quality and accuracy are still a challenge to the atmospheric remote sensing community. In this paper, we suggest a ground based validation scheme for satellite-derived cloud and aerosol products by using combined visible and thermal infrared all sky imaging observations as well as surface meteorological observations. In the scheme, a visible digital camera with a fish-eye lens is used to continuously monitor the all sky with the view angle greater than 180 deg. The digital camera system is calibrated for both its geometry and radiance (broad blue, green, and red band) so as to a retrieval method can be used to detect the clear and cloudy sky spatial distribution and their temporal variations. A calibrated scanning thermal infrared thermometer is used to monitor the all sky brightness temperature distribution. An algorithm is developed to detect the clear and cloudy sky as well as cloud base height by using sky brightness distribution and surface temperature and humidity as input. Based on these composite retrieval of clear and cloudy sky distribution, it can be used to validate the satellite retrievals in the sense of real-simultaneous comparison and statistics, respectively. What will be presented in this talk include the results of the field observations and comparisons completed in Beijing (40 deg N, 116.5 deg E) in year 2003 and 2004. This work is supported by NSFC grant No. 4002700, and MOST grant No 2001CCA02200

  20. Bell violation in the sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Sayantan; Panda, Sudhakar; Singh, Rajeev

    2017-02-01

    In this work, we have studied the possibility of setting up Bell's inequality violating experiment in the context of cosmology, based on the basic principles of quantum mechanics. First we start with the physical motivation of implementing the Bell inequality violation in the context of cosmology. Then to set up the cosmological Bell violating test experiment we introduce a model independent theoretical framework using which we have studied the creation of new massive particles by implementing the WKB approximation method for the scalar fluctuations in the presence of additional time-dependent mass contribution in the cosmological perturbation theory. Here for completeness we compute the total number density and the energy density of the newly created particles in terms of the Bogoliubov coefficients using the WKB approximation method. Next using the background scalar fluctuation in the presence of a new time-dependent mass contribution, we explicitly compute the expression for the one point and two point correlation functions. Furthermore, using the results for a one point function we introduce a new theoretical cosmological parameter which can be expressed in terms of the other known inflationary observables and can also be treated as a future theoretical probe to break the degeneracy amongst various models of inflation. Additionally, we also fix the scale of inflation in a model-independent way without any prior knowledge of primordial gravitational waves. Also using the input from a newly introduced cosmological parameter, we finally give a theoretical estimate for the tensor-to-scalar ratio in a model-independent way. Next, we also comment on the technicalities of measurements from isospin breaking interactions and the future prospects of newly introduced massive particles in a cosmological Bell violating test experiment. Further, we cite a precise example of this setup applicable in the context of string theory motivated axion monodromy model. Then we comment

  1. NRAO Makes Available VLA Sky Survey Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    An original and comprehensive data set potentially full of scientific surprises now is available to astronomers, students and the public through the information superhighway. Radio images of the sky produced by the Very Large Array radio telescope -- one of the premier astronomical instruments in the world -- as part of a massive survey now are stored in an electronic repository avail- able over the Internet computer communications network. "Each of these sensitive new sky maps shows about a thou- sand radio-emitting objects, most of which have never been seen before," said Dr. J. J. Condon, leader of the National Radio As- tronomy Observatory (NRAO) survey team. "We are releasing them as soon as they are completed because they contain more data than we could possibly analyze by ourselves." "By using electronic distribution, we can open this tre- mendous resource of information for computer analysis by all as- tronomers immediately, without waiting for traditional publication," Condon added. The radio images are copyright NRAO/ AUI. Permission is granted for use of the material without charge for scholarly, educational and private non-commercial purposes. "It is entirely conceivable -- even probable -- that valuable discoveries will be made by students or amateur astrono- mers who devote the time to study these maps carefully," said team member Dr. W. D. Cotton. "Making this new information available electronically means that more people can participate in adding to its scientific value." The maps are a product of the NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS), which began its observational phase in September of 1993 and will cover 82 percent of the sky when completed by the end of 1996. The NVSS is expected to produce a catalog of more than two million ra- dio-emitting objects in the sky, and it is the first sky survey sensitive to linearly polarized emission from radio sources beyond our own Milky Way galaxy. "The NVSS is being made as a service to the entire astronomical

  2. Under the Same Blue Sky? Inequity in Migrant Children's Education in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Guangyu

    2010-01-01

    It is estimated that more than 10% of China's population has left their villages and hometowns as millions of farmers have descended upon cities and urban centers in response to a huge demand for labor since the economic reform launched in the late 1970s (Li, 2006). Approximately 19.8 million children are believed to have accompanied their parents…

  3. Natural Blue Food Colour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roda-Serrat, Maria Cinta

    2017-01-01

    the presence of the chromophore phycocyanobilin (PCB), a covalently attached linear tetrapyrrole. The applications of phycocyanins as food colorants are however limited, as they show poor stability in certain conditions of pH, light and temperature. Cleavage of PCB from the protein followed by careful product...... decreased. PCB was also found to be more sensitive to pH than phycocyanin. Regarding the stability with time, PCB showed a similar stability at pH 3, and worse at pH 5 and pH 7. The change from blue to green colour in acid conditions was attributed to protonation of the chromophore. However, the effect...

  4. Light pollution: Assessment of sky glow on two dark sky regions of Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Raul Cerveira; Pinto da Cunha, José; Peixinho, Nuno

    2016-01-01

    Artificial light at night (ALAN), producing light pollution (LP), is not a matter restricted to astronomy anymore. Light is part of modern societies and, as a consequence, the natural cycle day-night (bright-dark) has been interrupted in a large segment of the global population. There is increasing evidence that exposure to certain types of light at night and beyond threshold levels may produce hazardous effects to humans and the environment. The concept of "dark skies reserves" is a step forward in order to preserve the night sky and a means of enhancing public awareness of the problem of spread of light pollution worldwide. The aim of this study was to assess the skyglow at two sites in Portugal, the Peneda-Gerês National Park (PNPG) and the region now known as Dark Sky Alqueva Reserve. The latter site was classified as a "Starlight Tourism Destination" by the Starlight Foundation (the first in the world to achieve this classification) following a series of night sky measurements in situ described herein. The measurements at PNPG also contributed to the new set of regulations concerning light pollution at this national park. This study presents the first in situ systematic measurements of night sky brightness, showing that at the two sites the skies are mostly in levels 3 to 4 of the Bortle 9-level scale (with level 1 being the best achievable). The results indicate that the sources of light pollution and skyglow can be attributed predominantly to contamination from nearby urban regions.

  5. Global luminous efficacies on vertical surfaces for all sky types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soler, A. [E.T.S. Arquitectura, Madrid (Spain). Dpto. de Fisica e Instalaciones Aplicados; Universidad Politecnico de Madrid (Spain). Facultad de Ciencias Ambientales; Robledo, L. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain). Dpto. Sistemas Intelligentes Aplicados

    2000-02-01

    Luminous efficacies are determined at Madrid for North, South, East, West facing surfaces in two ways: by taking into account all the global illuminance and irradiance values available, and by considering data for each of three sky categories as defined from values of the sky clearness index {epsilon}' and the sky brightness index {delta}. Both methods are compared, and for {epsilon}' < 1.23 (overcast skies) the second method is found to be more accurate than the first. (author)

  6. Diffuse sky radiation influences the relationship between canopy PRI and shadow fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mõttus, Matti; Takala, Tuure L. H.; Stenberg, Pauline; Knyazikhin, Yuri; Yang, Bin; Nilson, Tiit

    2015-07-01

    The Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) of green leaves is an indicator of photosynthetic downregulation: when the photosynthetic apparatus is close to the saturation limit, PRI becomes dependent on light conditions. Therefore, by measuring the PRI of leaves under different local irradiance conditions, it should be possible to determine the saturation level of the leaves and obtain information on the light use efficiency (LUE) of a vegetation canopy. The dependence of PRI on the ratio of sunlit to shaded foliage (quantified by the canopy shadow fraction) in the field of view of an instrument has been used to remotely measure canopy LUE on clear days. However, besides photosynthetic downregulation, the dependence of canopy PRI on shadow fraction is affected by the blue sky radiation caused by scattering in the atmosphere. To quantify this effect on remotely sensed PRI, we present the underlying definitions relating leaf and canopy PRI and perform the required calculations for typical midsummer conditions in Central Finland. We demonstrate that the effect of blue sky radiation on the variation of PRI with canopy shadow fraction is similar in shape and magnitude to that of LUE variations reported in literature.

  7. The Flower Lake in the End of the Sky

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RaoRao; GuangYu

    2005-01-01

    Every adventurer may have a wish to travel to the end of the sky. In their minds, the end of the sky not only means a long journey and being away from urban hurly-burly, but also symbolizes the most beautiful place. The Flower Lake is such a place in the end of the sky.

  8. A photometric model for predicting the sky glow of greenhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alferdinck, J.W.A.M.; Janssen, E.G.O.N.; Zonneveldt, L.; Ruigrok, J.

    2006-01-01

    many greenhouses use artificial light to grow plants. Part of this light escapes, scatters in the sky and causes sky glow. Residents in the vicinity complain about the absence of natural darkness. A light scatter model is developed in order to quantify the dose of the sky glow. The luminance of the

  9. Blue ocean leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2014-05-01

    Ten years ago, two INSEAD professors broke ground by introducing "blue ocean strategy," a new model for discovering uncontested markets that are ripe for growth. In this article, they apply their concepts and tools to what is perhaps the greatest challenge of leadership: closing the gulf between the potential and the realized talent and energy of employees. Research indicates that this gulf is vast: According to Gallup, 70% of workers are disengaged from their jobs. If companies could find a way to convert them into engaged employees, the results could be transformative. The trouble is, managers lack a clear understanding of what changes they could make to bring out the best in everyone. Here, Kim and Mauborgne offer a solution to that problem: a systematic approach to uncovering, at each level of the organization, which leadership acts and activities will inspire employees to give their all, and a process for getting managers throughout the company to start doing them. Blue ocean leadership works because the managers' "customers"-that is, the people managers oversee and report to-are involved in identifying what's effective and what isn't. Moreover, the approach doesn't require leaders to alter who they are, just to undertake a different set of tasks. And that kind of change is much easier to implement and track than changes to values and mind-sets.

  10. GTC Osiris spectroscopic identification of a faint L subdwarf in the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Lodieu, N; Martin, E L; Solano, E; Aberaturi, M

    2009-01-01

    We present the discovery of an L subdwarf in 234 square degrees common to the UK Infrared Telescope (UKIRT) Infrared Deep Sky Survey Large Area Survey Data Release 2 and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 3. This is the fifth L subdwarf announced to date, the first one identified in the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey, and the faintest known. The blue optical and near-infrared colors of ULAS J135058.86+081506.8 and its overall spectra energy distribution are similar to the known mid-L subdwarfs. Low-resolution optical (700-1000 nm) spectroscopy with the Optical System for Imaging and low Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy spectrograph on the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio de Canarias reveals that ULAS J135058.86+081506.8 exhibits a strong KI pressure-broadened line at 770 nm and a red slope longward of 800 nm, features characteristics of L-type dwarfs. From direct comparison with the four known L subdwarfs, we estimate its spectral type to be sdL4-sdL6 and derive a distance in the interval 94-170 pc. We provide...

  11. Celestial polarization patterns sufficient for Viking navigation with the naked eye: detectability of Haidinger's brushes on the sky versus meteorological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Gábor; Takács, Péter; Kretzer, Balázs; Szilasi, Szilvia; Száz, Dénes; Farkas, Alexandra; Barta, András

    2017-02-01

    If a human looks at the clear blue sky from which light with high enough degree of polarization d originates, an 8-shaped bowtie-like figure, the yellow Haidinger's brush can be perceived, the long axis of which points towards the sun. A band of high d arcs across the sky at 90° from the sun. A person can pick two points on that band, observe the yellow brushes and triangulate the position of the sun based on the orientation of the two observed brushes. This method has been suggested to have been used on the open sea by Viking navigators to determine the position of the invisible sun occluded by cloud or fog. Furthermore, Haidinger's brushes can also be used to locate the sun when it is below the horizon or occluded by objects on the horizon. To determine the position of the sun using the celestial polarization pattern, the d of the portion of the sky used must be greater than the viewer's degree of polarization threshold d* for perception of Haidinger's brushes. We studied under which sky conditions the prerequisite d > d* is satisfied. Using full-sky imaging polarimetry, we measured the d-pattern of skylight in the blue (450 nm) spectral range for 1296 different meteorological conditions with different solar elevation angles θ and per cent cloud cover ρ. From the measured d-patterns of a given sky we determined the proportion P of the sky for which d > d*. We obtained that P is the largest at low solar elevations θ ≈ 0° and under totally or nearly clear skies with cloud coverage ρ = 0%, when the sun's position is already easily determined. If the sun is below the horizon (-5° ≤ θ sky conditions. Consequently, the sky-polarimetric Viking navigation based on Haidinger's brushes is most useful after sunset and prior to sunrise, when the sun is not visible and large sky regions are bright, clear and polarized enough for perception of Haidinger's brushes.

  12. Stem Cell Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tips Info Center Research Topics Federal Policy Glossary Stem Cell Information General Information Clinical Trials Funding Information Current ... Basics » Stem Cell Basics I. Back to top Stem Cell Basics I. Introduction: What are stem cells, and ...

  13. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Donate Experts \\ The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Topics Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 Spinal ... Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Preventing ...

  14. Controlling Synergistic Oxidation Processes for Efficient and Stable Blue Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lin-Song; Deng, Ya-Li; Tsang, Daniel Ping-Kuen; Jiang, Zuo-Quan; Zhang, Qisheng; Liao, Liang-Sheng; Adachi, Chihaya

    2016-09-01

    Efficient sky-blue organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) employing thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) display a three orders of magnitude increase in lifetime, which is superior to those of controlled phosphorescent OLEDs used in this study. The combination of electro-oxidation and photo-oxidation of the TADF emitters in their triplet excited-states is suppressed through molecule design and device engineering.

  15. Postpartum Blues and Postpartum Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem Ö et al.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Postpartum blues which is seen during the postpartum period is a transient psychological state. Most of the mothers experience maternity blues in postpartum period. It remains usually unrecognized by the others. Some sensitive families can misattribute these feelings as depression. In this article, we tried to review the characteristics of maternity blues and its differences from depression. We defined depression and presented the incidence and diagnostic criteria, of major depression as well as the risk factors and clinic findings of postpartum depression. Thus, especially at primary care we aimed to prevent misdiagnosis of both maternity blues and depression

  16. All Sky Survey Mission Observing Scenario Strategy

    CERN Document Server

    Spangelo, Sara C; Unwin, Stephen C; Bock, Jamie J

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops a general observing strategy for missions performing all-sky surveys, where a single spacecraft maps the celestial sphere subject to realistic constraints. The strategy is flexible such that targeted observations and variable coverage requirements can be achieved. This paper focuses on missions operating in Low Earth Orbit, where the thermal and stray-light constraints due to the Sun, Earth, and Moon result in interacting and dynamic constraints. The approach is applicable to broader mission classes, such as those that operate in different orbits or that survey the Earth. First, the instrument and spacecraft configuration is optimized to enable visibility of the targeted observations throughout the year. Second, a constraint-based high-level strategy is presented for scheduling throughout the year subject to a simplified subset of the constraints. Third, a heuristic-based scheduling algorithm is developed to assign the all-sky observations over short planning horizons. The constraint-based...

  17. 全新土星Saturn Sky

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琼

    2002-01-01

    @@ 大多数概念车都为测试公众的反应而设计,而全新敞蓬概念车土星天家(Saturn SKY)却是为了迎合青年人的鼓掌好而诞生,满足他们自己和朋友寻找一片乐土的迫切愿望.

  18. Cool Technologies for the "Sky Train"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The first train from Beijing to Tibet set out on its maiden voyage along the world's highest railway on July 1, 2006. With most of the new 1,110-kilometer track from Golmud in Qinghai to Lhasa at altitudes above 4,000 meters, the train, which is known as the "sky train" by local people, crosses more than 550 kilometers of permafrost, posing a major challenge to the railway's design and construction.

  19. Tropospheric haze and colors of the clear daytime sky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Raymond L

    2015-02-01

    To casual observers, haze's visible effects on clear daytime skies may seem mundane: significant scattering by tropospheric aerosols visibly (1) reduces the luminance contrast of distant objects and (2) desaturates sky blueness. However, few published measurements of hazy-sky spectra and chromaticities exist to compare with these naked-eye observations. Hyperspectral imaging along sky meridians of clear and hazy skies at one inland and two coastal sites shows that they have characteristic colorimetric signatures of scattering and absorption by haze aerosols. In addition, a simple spectral transfer function and a second-order scattering model of skylight reveal the net spectral and colorimetric effects of haze.

  20. Aquarius L-Band Radiometers Calibration Using Cold Sky Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinnat, Emmanuel P.; Le Vine, David M.; Piepmeier, Jeffrey R.; Brown, Shannon T.; Hong, Liang

    2015-01-01

    An important element in the calibration plan for the Aquarius radiometers is to look at the cold sky. This involves rotating the satellite 180 degrees from its nominal Earth viewing configuration to point the main beams at the celestial sky. At L-band, the cold sky provides a stable, well-characterized scene to be used as a calibration reference. This paper describes the cold sky calibration for Aquarius and how it is used as part of the absolute calibration. Cold sky observations helped establish the radiometer bias, by correcting for an error in the spillover lobe of the antenna pattern, and monitor the long-term radiometer drift.

  1. The Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array Sky Survey (VLASS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Steven T.; Baum, S. A.; Chandler, C. J.

    2014-01-01

    The Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array is a recently completed rejuvenation of the VLA, providing observers with significantly increased continuum sensitivity and spectral survey speeds (by factors of 100 or more in select cases) from 1-50 GHz and in key bands below 1 GHz. Given the potential for new centimeter-wavelength sky surveys with this enhanced facility, the NRAO VLA Sky Survey (VLASS) has been initiated to explore the science and technical opportunities of a new large survey. A community-led Science Survey Group (SSG) will define the science program and key components of VLASS, and NRAO will support its technical design and implementation. The VLASS could start observing in early 2015, with the data available immediately with no proprietary period and science data products provided to the community in a timely manner. The new VLA can image young stars and massive black holes, measure the strength and topology of the cosmic magnetic field, follow the rapid evolution of energetic phenomena, and study the formation and evolution of stars, galaxies, AGN, and the Universe itself. We can follow the evolution of gas and galaxies and particles and fields to bridge the eras from cosmic dawn to the dawn of new worlds. To address these and other key science challenges requires the VLASS to address a number of key challenges in data management, computation, image processing, and analysis. The development and implementation of capable, efficient, and robust pipeline processing of data, and the production of a basic suite of science data products such as images and catalogs, are all high priorities for VLASS. We will describe the salient capabilities of the Jansky VLA, and highlight complementarity with multi-wavelength multi-messenger sky surveys with other facilities, ultimately leading into the era of the LSST. Exemplary VLA science and commissioning observations will illustrate these features. We will also summarize the outcome of the public NRAO VLASS Science Planning

  2. An All Sky Transmission Monitor: ASTMON

    CERN Document Server

    Aceituno, J; Aceituno, F J; Galadi-Enriquez, D; Negro, J J; Soriguer, R C; Gomez, G Sanchez

    2011-01-01

    We present here the All Sky Transmission MONitor (ASTMON), designed to perform a continuous monitoring of the surface brightness of the complete night-sky in several bands. The data acquired are used to derive, in addition, a subsequent map of the multiband atmospheric extinction at any location in the sky, and a map of the cloud coverage. The instrument has been manufactured to afford extreme weather conditions, and remain operative. Designed to be fully robotic, it is ideal to be installed outdoors, as a permanent monitoring station. The preliminary results based on two of the currently operative units (at Do\\~nana National Park - Huelva- and at the Calar Alto Observatory - Almer\\'ia -, in Spain), are presented here. The parameters derived using ASTMON are in good agreement with previously reported ones, what illustrates the validity of the design and the accuracy of the manufacturing. The information provided by this instrument will be presented in forthcoming articles, once we have accumulated a statistic...

  3. Sky camera geometric calibration using solar observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquhart, Bryan; Kurtz, Ben; Kleissl, Jan

    2016-09-01

    A camera model and associated automated calibration procedure for stationary daytime sky imaging cameras is presented. The specific modeling and calibration needs are motivated by remotely deployed cameras used to forecast solar power production where cameras point skyward and use 180° fisheye lenses. Sun position in the sky and on the image plane provides a simple and automated approach to calibration; special equipment or calibration patterns are not required. Sun position in the sky is modeled using a solar position algorithm (requiring latitude, longitude, altitude and time as inputs). Sun position on the image plane is detected using a simple image processing algorithm. The performance evaluation focuses on the calibration of a camera employing a fisheye lens with an equisolid angle projection, but the camera model is general enough to treat most fixed focal length, central, dioptric camera systems with a photo objective lens. Calibration errors scale with the noise level of the sun position measurement in the image plane, but the calibration is robust across a large range of noise in the sun position. Calibration performance on clear days ranged from 0.94 to 1.24 pixels root mean square error.

  4. Modelling UV sky for future UV missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreejith, A. G.; Safanova, M.; Mohan, R.; Murthy, Jayant

    Software simulators are now widely used in all areas of science, especially in application to astronomical missions: from instrument design to mission planning, and to data interpretation. We present a simulator to model the diffuse ultraviolet sky, where the different contributors are separately calculated and added together to produce a sky image of the size specified by the instrument requirements. Each of the contributors to the background, instrumental dark current, airglow, zodiacal light and diffuse galactic light, is dependent on various factors. Airglow is dependent on the time of day, zodiacal light on the time of year, angle from the Sun and from the ecliptic, and diffuse UV emission depends on the look direction. To provide a full description of any line of sight, we have also added stars. The diffuse UV background light can dominate in many areas of the sky and severely impact space telescopes viewing directions due to over brightness. The simulator, available as a downloadable package and as a simple web-based tool, can be applied to separate missions and instruments. For demonstration, we present the example used for two UV missions: the UVIT instrument on the Indian ASTROSAT mission to be launched in the next year and a prospective wide-field mission to search for transients in the UV.

  5. Cosmology with all-sky surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Bilicki, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Various aspects of cosmology require comprehensive all-sky mapping of the cosmic web to considerable depths. In order to probe the whole extragalactic sky beyond 100 Mpc, one must draw on multiwavelength datasets and state-of-the-art photometric redshift techniques. Here I summarize our dedicated program that employs the largest photometric all-sky surveys -- 2MASS, WISE and SuperCOSMOS -- to obtain accurate redshift estimates of millions of galaxies. The first outcome of these efforts -- the 2MASS Photometric Redshift catalog (2MPZ) -- was publicly released in 2013 and includes almost 1 million galaxies with a median redshift of z~0.1. I discuss how this catalog was constructed and how it is being used for various cosmological tests. I also present how combining the WISE mid-infrared survey with SuperCOSMOS optical data allowed us to push to depths over 1 Gpc on unprecedented angular scales. These photometric redshift samples, with about 20 million sources in total, provide access to volumes large enough to ...

  6. Cosmology with all-sky surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilicki, Maciej

    2016-06-01

    Various aspects of cosmology require comprehensive all-sky mapping of the cosmic web to considerable depths. In order to probe the whole extragalactic sky beyond 100 Mpc, one must draw on multiwavelength datasets and state-of-the-art photometric redshift techniques. Here I summarize our dedicated program that employs the largest photometric all-sky surveys - 2MASS, WISE and SuperCOSMOS - to obtain accurate redshift estimates of millions of galaxies. The first outcome of these efforts - the 2MASS Photometric Redshift catalog (2MPZ) - was publicly released in 2013 and includes almost 1 million galaxies with a median redshift of z˜0.1. I discuss how this catalog was constructed and how it is being used for various cosmological tests. I also present how combining the WISE mid-infrared survey with SuperCOSMOS optical data allowed us to push to depths over 1 Gpc on unprecedented angular scales. These photometric redshift samples, with about 20 million sources in total, provide access to volumes large enough to study observationally the Copernican Principle of universal homogeneity and isotropy, as well as to probe various aspects of dark energy and dark matter through cross-correlations with other data such as the cosmic microwave or gamma-ray backgrounds. Last but not least, they constitute a test-bed for forthcoming wide-angle multi-million galaxy samples expected from such instruments as the SKA, Euclid, or LSST.

  7. Starry sky hepatic ultrasonographic pattern in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Kelly L; Chaffin, M Keith; Corapi, Wayne V; Snowden, Karen F; Schmitz, David G

    2011-01-01

    The starry sky hepatic pattern is an unusual ultrasonographic appearance of equine liver characterized by numerous small, hyperechoic foci, some of which cast an acoustic shadow, distributed randomly throughout the hepatic parenchyma. Our objectives were to describe the signalment, clinical signs, clinicopathological findings, primary disease process, and ultrasonographic findings of horses with this ultrasonographic pattern, as well as determine the associated gross and histologic changes. The starry sky pattern was identified in 18 adult horses of mixed gender and breed. The horses had various clinical signs, with weight loss and anorexia reported most commonly. Liver size and parenchymal echogenicity were normal in most horses. The hyperechoic foci frequently caused acoustic shadowing. Biliary dilation was noted rarely. The ultrasonographic pattern was the result of numerous fibrosing hepatic granulomas in all horses evaluated histologically. γ-Glutamyltransferase was the most commonly elevated hepatic enzyme, though it was increased in fewer than half the horses. Fifteen horses had an additional disease that was identified as the apparent cause of clinical signs. Three horses had primary hepatic disease while 12 had diseases of other body systems. Therefore, the starry sky ultrasonographic pattern is likely incidental in most horses and not clinically significant. Improved recognition of this pattern and further investigation of affected horses may help refine the etiology and clinical significance of the granulomas.

  8. Blue diffuse dwarf galaxies: a clearer picture

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Bethan L.; Koposov, Sergey E.; Stark, Daniel P.; Belokurov, Vasily; Pettini, Max; Olszewski, Edward W.; McQuinn, Kristen B. W.

    2017-03-01

    The search for chemically unevolved galaxies remains prevalent in the nearby Universe, mostly because these systems provide excellent proxies for exploring in detail the physics of high-z systems. The most promising candidates are extremely metal-poor galaxies (XMPs), i.e. galaxies with population. In 2014, we reoriented this search using only morphological properties and uncovered a population of ∼150 'blue diffuse dwarf (BDD) galaxies', and published a sub-sample of 12 BDD spectra. Here, we present optical spectroscopic observations of a larger sample of 51 BDDs, along with their Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) photometric properties. With our improved statistics, we use direct-method abundances to confirm that BDDs are chemically unevolved (7.43 population synthesis models and estimated to be in the range log (M*/M⊙) ≃ 5-9. Unlike other low-metallicity star-forming galaxies, BDDs are in agreement with the mass-metallicity relation at low masses, suggesting that they are not accreting large amounts of pristine gas relative to their stellar mass. BDD galaxies appear to be a population of actively star-forming dwarf irregular (dIrr) galaxies which fall within the class of low-surface-brightness dIrr galaxies. Their ongoing star formation and irregular morphology make them excellent analogues for galaxies in the early Universe.

  9. Chemical Evolution of Blue Compact Galaxies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Shi; Xu Kong; Fu-Zhen Cheng

    2006-01-01

    Based on a sample of 72 Blue Compact Galaxies (BCGs) observed with the 2.16 m telescope of the National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences (NAOC) and about 4000 strong emission line galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey,we analyzed their chemical evolution history using the revised chemical evolution model of Larsen et al. Our sample covers a much larger metallicity range (7.2<12+log(O/H) <9.0). We found that, in order to reproduce the observed abundance pattern and gas fraction over the whole metallicity range, a relatively continuous star formation history is needed for high metallicity galaxies, while assuming a series of instantaneous bursts with long quiescent periods (some Gyrs) for low metallicity galaxies. Model calculations also show that only the closed-box model is capable of reproducing the observational data over the whole metallicity range. Models that consider the ordinary winds and/or inflow can only fit the observations in the low metallicity range, and a model with enriched wind cannot fit the data in the whole metallicity range. This implies that the current adopted simple wind and inflow models are not applicable to massive galaxies, where the underlying physics of galactic winds or inflow could be more complicated.

  10. Instant BlueStacks

    CERN Document Server

    Judge, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A fast-paced, example-based approach guide for learning BlueStacks.This book is for anyone with a Mac or PC who wants to run Android apps on their computer. Whether you want to play games that are freely available for Android but not your computer, or you want to try apps before you install them on a physical device or use it as a development tool, this book will show you how. No previous experience is needed as this is written in plain English

  11. Spatial Model of Sky Brightness Magnitude in Langkawi Island, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redzuan Tahar, Mohammad; Kamarudin, Farahana; Umar, Roslan; Khairul Amri Kamarudin, Mohd; Hazmin Sabri, Nor; Ahmad, Karzaman; Rahim, Sobri Abdul; Sharul Aikal Baharim, Mohd

    2017-03-01

    Sky brightness is an essential topic in the field of astronomy, especially for optical astronomical observations that need very clear and dark sky conditions. This study presents the spatial model of sky brightness magnitude in Langkawi Island, Malaysia. Two types of Sky Quality Meter (SQM) manufactured by Unihedron are used to measure the sky brightness on a moonless night (or when the Moon is below the horizon), when the sky is cloudless and the locations are at least 100 m from the nearest light source. The selected locations are marked by their GPS coordinates. The sky brightness data obtained in this study were interpolated and analyzed using a Geographic Information System (GIS), thus producing a spatial model of sky brightness that clearly shows the dark and bright sky areas in Langkawi Island. Surprisingly, our results show the existence of a few dark sites nearby areas of high human activity. The sky brightness of 21.45 mag arcsec{}-2 in the Johnson-Cousins V-band, as the average of sky brightness equivalent to 2.8 × {10}-4{cd} {{{m}}}-2 over the entire island, is an indication that the island is, overall, still relatively dark. However, the amount of development taking place might reduce the number in the near future as the island is famous as a holiday destination.

  12. The Dancing Sky: 6 years of night sky observations at Cerro Paranal

    CERN Document Server

    Patat, F

    2008-01-01

    The present work provides the results of the first six years of operation of the systematic night-sky monitoring at ESO-Paranal (Chile). The UBVRI night-sky brightness was estimated on about 10,000 VLT-FORS1 archival images, obtained on more than 650 separate nights, distributed over 6 years and covering the descent from maximum to minimum of sunspot cycle n.23. Additionally, a set of about 1,000 low resolution, optical night-sky spectra have been extracted and analyzed. The unprecedented database discussed in this paper has led to the detection of a clear seasonal variation of the broad band night sky brightness in the VRI passbands, similar to the well known semi-annual oscillation of the NaI D doublet. The spectroscopic data demonstrate that this seasonality is common to all spectral features, with the remarkable exception of the OH rotational-vibrational bands. A clear dependency on the solar activity is detected in all passbands and it is particularly pronounced in the U band, where the sky brightness de...

  13. The interactive sky: a browsable allsky image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tancredi, Gonzalo; Da Rosa, Fernando; Roland, Santiago; Almenares, Luciano; Gomez, Fernando

    2015-08-01

    We are conducting a project to make available panoramas of the night sky of the southern hemisphere, based on a mosaic of hundred of photographs. Each allsky panorama is a giant image composed by hundreds of high-resolution photos taken in the course of one night. The panoramas are accessible with a web-browser and the public is able to zoom on them and to see the sky with better quality than the naked eye. We are preparing 4 sets of panoramas corresponding to the four seasons.The individual images are taken with a 16 Mpixels DLSR camera with a 50 mm lens mounted on a Gigapan EPIC robotic camera mounts. These devices and a autoguiding telescope are mounted in a equatorial telescope mount, which allows us to have exposure of several tens seconds. The images are then processed and stitched to create the gigantic panorama, with typical weight of several GBytes.The limiting magnitude is V~8. The panoramas include more than 50 times more stars those detected with the naked eye.In addition to the allsky panoramas, we embedded higher resolution images of specific regions of interest such as: emission nebulae and dark, open and globular clusters and galaxies; which can be zoomed.The photographs have been acquiring since December 2014 in a dark place with low light pollution in the countryside of Uruguay; which allows us to achieve deep sky objects.These panoramas will be available on a website and can be accessed with any browser.This tool will be available for teaching purposes, astronomy popularization or introductory research. Teacher guides will be developed for educational activities at different educational levels.While there are similar projects like Google Sky, the methodology used to generate the giant panoramas allows a much more realistic view, with a background of continuous sky without sharp edges. Furthermore, while the planetarium software is based on drawings of the stars, our panoramas are based on real images.This is the first project with these

  14. Evidence of Clear-Sky Daylight Whitening: Are we already conducting geoengineering?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, C. N.; Flynn, C. J.; Barnard, J.

    2015-12-01

    Long et al. (2009, JGR 114) analyzed surface radiation data spanning 1995 through 2007 from several ARM and six SURFRAD sites across the continental US, and showed an average 8 Wm-2/decade brightening in all-sky downwelling SW. The study also showed a 5 Wm-2/decade increase in the clear-sky downwelling SW, an expected result of decreasing aerosol optical depths during the same time period (Augustine et al., 2008, JGR 113). However, the unexpected result of the Long et al. study is that the 5 Wm-2/decade increase occurred in the diffuse SW, while the direct SW remained virtually unchanged...opposite what is expected for aerosol direct effect due to decreases in aerosols. With detailed radiative transfer modeling and correlation with US FAA commercial flight hours through the same years, Long et al. suggested that while the decreased aerosols did increase the total SW, an increase in high, sub-visual contrail-generated ice haze repartitioned the increase into the diffuse SW component through large-mode particle scattering. Subsequent attempts to investigate the veracity of this speculation using long time series of ARM Micropulse and Raman lidars data proved untenable due to instrument limitations and continuity issues. However, similar to using the red/blue ratio of pixel color amounts in processing color sky images to infer clouds, we have used clear-sky diffuse SW irradiance measurements from the Multi-Frequency Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) 870, 500, and 415 nm spectral channels to look at any possible trends suggesting "whitening" of the cloud-free skies over the ARM SGP site. We will present our preliminary findings to date of these investigations suggesting indeed that there has been an aggregate "whitening" of the sky conditions we typically consider to be "cloud free." Augustine, J.A., G.B.Hodges, E.G.Dutton, J.J. Michalsky, and C.R.Cornwall (2008), An aerosol optical depth climatology for NOAA's national surface radiation budget network (SURFRAD

  15. The Python Sky Model: software for simulating the Galactic microwave sky

    CERN Document Server

    Thorne, Ben; Alonso, David; Naess, Sigurd

    2016-01-01

    We present a numerical code to simulate maps of Galactic emission in intensity and polarization at microwave frequencies, aiding in the design of Cosmic Microwave Background experiments. This Python code builds on existing efforts to simulate the sky by providing an easy-to-use interface and is based on publicly available data from the WMAP and Planck satellite missions. We simulate synchrotron, thermal dust, free-free, and anomalous microwave emission over the whole sky, in addition to the Cosmic Microwave Background, and include a set of alternative prescriptions for the frequency dependence of each component that are consistent with current data. We also present a prescription for adding small-scale realizations of these components at resolutions greater than current all-sky measurements. The code is available at https://github.com/bthorne93/PySM_public.

  16. Crowdfunding Astronomy Research with Google Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Travis S.

    2015-01-01

    For nearly four years, NASA's Kepler space telescope searched for planets like Earth around more than 150,000 stars similar to the Sun. In 2008 with in-kind support from several technology companies, our non-profit organization established the Pale Blue Dot Project, an adopt-a-star program that supports scientific research on the stars observed by…

  17. Gaia: focus, straylight and basic angle

    CERN Document Server

    Mora, A; Bombrun, A; Boyadian, J; Chassat, F; Corberand, P; Davidson, M; Doyle, D; Escolar, D; Gielesen, W L M; Guilpain, T; Hernandez, J; Kirschner, V; Klioner, S A; Koeck, C; Laine, B; Lindegren, L; Serpell, E; Tatry, P; Thoral, P

    2016-01-01

    The Gaia all-sky astrometric survey is challenged by several issues affecting the spacecraft stability. Amongst them, we find the focus evolution, straylight and basic angle variations Contrary to pre-launch expectations, the image quality is continuously evolving, during commissioning and the nominal mission. Payload decontaminations and wavefront sensor assisted refocuses have been carried out to recover optimum performance. An ESA-Airbus DS working group analysed the straylight and basic angle issues and worked on a detailed root cause analysis. In parallel, the Gaia scientists have also analysed the data, most notably comparing the BAM signal to global astrometric solutions, with remarkable agreement. In this contribution, a status review of these issues will be provided, with emphasis on the mitigation schemes and the lessons learned for future space missions where extreme stability is a key requirement.

  18. Gaia: focus, straylight and basic angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, A.; Biermann, M.; Bombrun, A.; Boyadjian, J.; Chassat, F.; Corberand, P.; Davidson, M.; Doyle, D.; Escolar, D.; Gielesen, W. L. M.; Guilpain, T.; Hernandez, J.; Kirschner, V.; Klioner, S. A.; Koeck, C.; Laine, B.; Lindegren, L.; Serpell, E.; Tatry, P.; Thoral, P.

    2016-07-01

    The Gaia all-sky astrometric survey is challenged by several issues affecting the spacecraft stability. Amongst them, we find the focus evolution, straylight and basic angle variations Contrary to pre-launch expectations, the image quality is continuously evolving, during commissioning and the nominal mission. Payload decontaminations and wavefront sensor assisted refocuses have been carried out to recover optimum performance. An ESA-Airbus DS working group analysed the straylight and basic angle issues and worked on a detailed root cause analysis. In parallel, the Gaia scientists have also analysed the data, most notably comparing the BAM signal to global astrometric solutions, with remarkable agreement. In this contribution, a status review of these issues will be provided, with emphasis on the mitigation schemes and the lessons learned for future space missions where extreme stability is a key requirement.

  19. Testing an inversion method for estimating electron energy fluxes from all-sky camera images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Partamies

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available An inversion method for reconstructing the precipitating electron energy flux from a set of multi-wavelength digital all-sky camera (ASC images has recently been developed by tomografia. Preliminary tests suggested that the inversion is able to reconstruct the position and energy characteristics of the aurora with reasonable accuracy. This study carries out a thorough testing of the method and a few improvements for its emission physics equations.

    We compared the precipitating electron energy fluxes as estimated by the inversion method to the energy flux data recorded by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP satellites during four passes over auroral structures. When the aurorae appear very close to the local zenith, the fluxes inverted from the blue (427.8nm filtered ASC images or blue and green line (557.7nm images together give the best agreement with the measured flux values. The fluxes inverted from green line images alone are clearly larger than the measured ones. Closer to the horizon the quality of the inversion results from blue images deteriorate to the level of the ones from green images. In addition to the satellite data, the precipitating electron energy fluxes were estimated from the electron density measurements by the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR. These energy flux values were compared to the ones of the inversion method applied to over 100 ASC images recorded at the nearby ASC station in Longyearbyen. The energy fluxes deduced from these two types of data are in general of the same order of magnitude. In 35% of all of the blue and green image inversions the relative errors were less than 50% and in 90% of the blue and green image inversions less than 100%.

    This kind of systematic testing of the inversion method is the first step toward using all-sky camera images in the way in which global UV images have recently been used to estimate the energy fluxes. The

  20. Dark Skies Preservation through Responsible Lighting: the IYL2015 Quality Lighting Kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Constance E.

    2015-01-01

    Poor quality lighting not only impedes astronomy research, but creates safety issues, affects human circadian sensitivities, disrupts ecosystems, and wastes more than a few billion dollars/year of energy in the USA alone. The United Nations-sanctioned the International Year of Light in 2015 (IYL2015) is providing an opportunity to increase public awareness of dark skies preservation, quality lighting and energy conservation. The Education and Public Outreach (EPO) group at the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO) has received a small grant through the International Astronomical Union (IAU) to produce official 'Quality Lighting Teaching Kits' for the IYL2015 cornerstone theme, 'Cosmic Light'. These kits will emphasize the use of proper optical design in achieving quality lighting that promotes both energy efficiency and energy conservation of an endangered natural resource, our dark skies. The concepts and practice of 'quality lighting' will be explored through demonstrations, hands-on/minds-on activities, formative assessment probes, and engineering design projects that explore basic principles of optics and the physics of light. The impact of the kits will be amplified by providing professional development using tutorial videos created at NOAO and conducting question and answer sessions via Google+ Hangouts for the outreach volunteers. The quality lighting education program will leverage NOAO EPO's work in the last ten years on lighting and optics education (e.g., the IAU 'Dark Skies Africa', APS 'Dark Skies Yuma' and 'Hands-On Optics' programs). NOAO's partners are CIE (International Commission on Illumination), IDA (International Dark-Sky Association) and SPIE (International Society for Optics and Photonics), as well as the IAU Office of Astronomy for Development, Galileo Teacher Training Program, Universe Awareness, and Global Hands-on Universe. Their networks will disseminate the program and kits to formal and informal audiences worldwide. The impact

  1. Causality and skies: is non-refocussing necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, A.; Ibort, A.; Lafuente, J.

    2015-05-01

    The causal structure of a strongly causal, null pseudo-convex, space-time M is completely characterized in terms of a partial order on its space of skies defined by means of a class of non-negative Legendrian isotopies called sky isotopies. It is also shown that such partial order is determined by the class of future causal celestial curves, that is, curves in the space of light rays which are tangent to skies and such that they determine non-negative sky isotopies. It will also be proved that the space of skies Σ equipped with Low’s (or reconstructive) topology is homeomorphic and diffeomorphic to M under the only additional assumption that M separates skies, that is, that different events determine different skies. The sky-separating property of M is sharp and the previous result provides an answer to the question about the class of space-times whose causal structure, topological and differentiable structure can be reconstructed from their spaces of light rays and skies. These results can be understood as a Malament-Hawking-like theorem stated in terms of the partial order defined on the space of skies.

  2. Skycorr: A general tool for spectroscopic sky subtraction

    CERN Document Server

    Noll, S; Kimeswenger, S; Barden, M; Jones, A M; Modigliani, A; Szyszka, C; Taylor, J

    2014-01-01

    Airglow emission lines, which dominate the optical-to-near-IR sky radiation, show strong, line-dependent variability on various time scales. Therefore, the subtraction of the sky background in the affected wavelength regime becomes a problem if plain sky spectra have to be taken at a different time as the astronomical data. A solution of this issue is the physically motivated scaling of the airglow lines in the plain sky data to fit the sky lines in the object spectrum. We have developed a corresponding instrument-independent approach based on one-dimensional spectra. Our code skycorr separates sky lines and sky/object continuum by an iterative approach involving a line finder and airglow line data. The sky lines are grouped according to their expected variability. The line groups in the sky data are then scaled to fit the sky in the science data. Required pixel-specific weights for overlapping groups are taken from a comprehensive airglow model. Deviations in the wavelength calibration are corrected by fitti...

  3. The SPHEREx All-Sky Spectroscopic Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unwin, Stephen C.; SPHEREx Science Team, SPHEREx Project Team

    2016-06-01

    SPHEREx is a mission to conduct an optical-near-IR survey of the entire sky with a spectrum at every pixel location. It was selected by NASA for a Phase A study in its Small Explorer Program; if selected, development would begin in 2016, and the observatory would start a 2-year prime mission in 2020. An all-sky spectroscopic survey can be used to tackle a wide range of science questions. The SPHEREx science team is focusing on three: (1) Probing the physics of inflation through measuring non-Gaussianity from the study of large-scale structure; (2) Studying the origin of water and biogenic molecules in a wide range of physical and chemical environments via ice absorption spectra; (3) Charting the history of star formation in the universe through intensity mapping of the large-scale spatial power. The instrument is a small wide-field telescope operating in the range of 0.75 - 4.8 µm at a spectral resolution of 41.5 in the optical and 150 at the long-wavelength end. It observes in a sun-sync low-earth orbit, covering the sky like WISE and COBE. SPHEREx is a simple instrument that requires no new technology. The Phase A design has substantial technical and resource margins and can be built with low risk. It is a partnership between Caltech and JPL, with Ball Aerospace and the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute as major partners. This research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  4. Sloan Digital Sky Survey Photometric Calibration Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriner, J.

    2016-05-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey calibration is revisited to obtain the most accurate photometric calibration. A small but significant error is found in the flat-fielding of the Photometric telescope used for calibration. Two SDSS star catalogs are compared and the average difference in magnitude as a function of right ascension and declination exhibits small systematic errors in relative calibration. The photometric transformation from the SDSS Photometric Telescope to the 2.5 m telescope is recomputed and compared to synthetic magnitudes computed from measured filter bandpasses.

  5. The stargazer's guide to the night sky

    CERN Document Server

    Lisle, Jason, Dr

    2012-01-01

    Explore the night sky, identify stars, constellations, and even planets. Stargaze with a telescope, binoculars, or even your naked eye. Allow Dr. Jason Lisle, a research scientist with a masters and PhD in astrophysics, to guide you in examining the beauty of God's Creation with 150 full color star-charts. Learn the best ways and optimal times to observe planets and stars with easy to use illustrations. Create or expand the hobby of stargazing; an outdoor, educational hobby to enjoy with friends or family.

  6. ACTPol: On-Sky Performance and Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, E.; Beall, J.; Bond, J. R.; Cho, H. M.; Datta, R.; Devlin, M. J.; Dunner, R.; Fox, A. E.; Gallardo, P.; Hasselfield, M.; Henderson, S.; Hilton, G. C.; Hincks, A. D.; Hlozek, R.; Hubmayr, J.; Irwin, K.; Klein, J.; Koopman, B.; Li, D.; Lungu, M.; Newburgh, L.; Nibarger, J. P.; Niemack, M. D.; Maurin, L.; Wollack, E. J.

    2014-01-01

    ACTPol is the polarization-sensitive receiver on the Atacama Cosmology Telescope. ACTPol enables sensitive millimeter wavelength measurements of the temperature and polarization anisotropies of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) at arcminute angular scales. These measurements are designed to explore the process of cosmic structure formation, constrain or determine the sum of the neutrino masses, probe dark energy, and provide a foundation for a host of other cosmological tests. We present an overview of the first season of ACTPol observations focusing on the optimization and calibration of the first detector array as well as detailing the on-sky performance.

  7. Colors of the daytime overcast sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Raymond L., Jr.; Hernández-Andrés, Javier

    2005-09-01

    Time-series measurements of daylight (skylight plus direct sunlight) spectra beneath overcast skies reveal an unexpectedly wide gamut of pastel colors. Analyses of these spectra indicate that at visible wavelengths, overcasts are far from spectrally neutral transmitters of the daylight incident on their tops. Colorimetric analyses show that overcasts make daylight bluer and that the amount of bluing increases with cloud optical depth. Simulations using the radiative-transfer model MODTRAN4 help explain the observed bluing: multiple scattering within optically thick clouds greatly enhances spectrally selective absorption by water droplets. However, other factors affecting overcast colors seen from below range from minimal (cloud-top heights) to moot (surface colors).

  8. Polygons and practice in Skies of Arcadia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoya Street

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper features research carried out at the Victoria and Albert Museum into the design history of Sega’s 2000 Dreamcast title, Skies of Arcadia (released in Japan as Eternal Arcadia. It was released by Overworks, a subsidiary of Sega, at an interesting point in Japanese computer game history. A new generation of video game consoles was in its infancy, and much speculation in the industry surrounded how networked gaming and large, open, tridimensional game worlds would change game design in the years ahead.

  9. Sloan Digital Sky Survey Photometric Calibration Revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marriner, John; /Fermilab

    2012-06-29

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey calibration is revisited to obtain the most accurate photometric calibration. A small but significant error is found in the flat-fielding of the Photometric telescope used for calibration. Two SDSS star catalogs are compared and the average difference in magnitude as a function of right ascension and declination exhibits small systematic errors in relative calibration. The photometric transformation from the SDSS Photometric Telescope to the 2.5 m telescope is recomputed and compared to synthetic magnitudes computed from measured filter bandpasses.

  10. Lost Skies of Italian Folk Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barale, Piero

    The limited archival material and the scarcity of evidence from the oldest living representatives of various communities effectively restrict research on archaic astronomical knowledge within Italy to the Alpine area and the most northerly part of the Appenines. These are territories where, fortunately, the folk culture is historically recognized as being very conservative. The sky provided a series of "astral instruments" used for planning religious festivals, fairs, and work in the fields through an empirical-symbolic approach and ancient sidereal calendars with which the valley dwellers were able to arrange daily life.

  11. SPHEREx: An All-Sky Spectral Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, James; SPHEREx Science Team

    2016-01-01

    SPHEREx, a mission in NASA's Small Explorer (SMEX) program that was selected for Phase A in July 2015, is an all-sky survey satellite designed to address all three science goals in NASA's astrophysics division, in a single survey, with a single instrument. We will probe the physics of inflation by measuring non-Gaussianity by studying large-scale structure, surveying a large cosmological volume at low redshifts, complementing high-z surveys optimized to constrain dark energy. The origin of water and biogenic molecules will be investigated in all phases of planetary system formation - from molecular clouds to young stellar systems with protoplanetary disks - by measuring ice absorption spectra. We will chart the origin and history of galaxy formation through a deep survey mapping large-scale spatial power. Finally, SPHEREx will be the first all-sky near-infrared spectral survey, creating a legacy archive of spectra (0.75 - 4.8 um at R = 41.5 and 150) with high sensitivity using a cooled telescope with large mapping speed.SPHEREx will observe from a sun-synchronous low-earth orbit, covering the entire sky in a manner similar to IRAS, COBE and WISE. During its two-year mission, SPHEREx will produce four complete all-sky maps for constraining the physics of inflation. These same maps contain numerous high signal-to-noise absorption spectra to study water and biogenic ices. The orbit naturally covers two deep regions at the celestial poles, which we use for studying galaxy evolution. All aspects of the SPHEREx instrument and spacecraft have high heritage. SPHEREx requires no new technologies and carries large technical and resource margins on every aspect of the design. The projected instrument sensitivity, based on conservative performance estimates, meets the driving point source sensitivity requirement with 300 % margin.SPHEREx is a partnership between Caltech and JPL, following the successful management structure of the NuSTAR and GALEX SMEX missions. The spacecraft

  12. Blue Man袭东京

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naomi Saeki; 李宝怡

    2008-01-01

    <正>20年前在美国曼克顿风靡一时的Blue Man Group,最近在东京出现,马上成为城中话题。在东京,每年有不少舞台剧演出,但是像Blue Man Group这样备受注目的,近年罕见。Blue Man Group in Tokyo于上年12月开始公演·1个月的门票早在9月中旬

  13. Ultraviolet Radiation in Overcast Sky at the Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    自建辉; 王庚辰; 胡非

    2003-01-01

    Based on the analysis of one year of observation data of solar radiation at the ground in Beijing in 1990, a simple empirical formula for calculating UV radiation in overcast sky is established. The formula is Quv/Quv0 = A1S + A0, where Quv and Quvo are monthly mean daily sums of UV exposure in overcast sky and clear sky, respectively. S is the daily sunshine hours. The calculated results agree well with the observed. The maximum and minimum relative biases are 9.9% and 0.1%, respectively, and the yearly relative bias is 2.9%. The ratio of ultraviolet radiation of overcast sky to clear sky in 1990 is between 44.6% and 61.8%, and the yearly average is 53.9%. Thus, almost half of the UV energy is lost in the atmosphere in overcast sky in 1990.

  14. EXPLORING THE VARIABLE SKY WITH LINEAR. I. PHOTOMETRIC RECALIBRATION WITH THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sesar, Branimir [Division of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stuart, J. Scott [Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Lexington, MA 02420-9108 (United States); Ivezic, Zeljko; Morgan, Dylan P.; Becker, Andrew C. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); Wozniak, Przemyslaw [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545-0001 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    We describe photometric recalibration of data obtained by the asteroid survey LINEAR. Although LINEAR was designed for astrometric discovery of moving objects, the data set described here contains over 5 billion photometric measurements for about 25 million objects, mostly stars. We use Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data from the overlapping {approx}10,000 deg{sup 2} of sky to recalibrate LINEAR photometry and achieve errors of 0.03 mag for sources not limited by photon statistics with errors of 0.2 mag at r {approx} 18. With its 200 observations per object on average, LINEAR data provide time domain information for the brightest four magnitudes of the SDSS survey. At the same time, LINEAR extends the deepest similar wide-area variability survey, the Northern Sky Variability Survey, by 3 mag. We briefly discuss the properties of about 7000 visually confirmed periodic variables, dominated by roughly equal fractions of RR Lyrae stars and eclipsing binary stars, and analyze their distribution in optical and infrared color-color diagrams. The LINEAR data set is publicly available from the SkyDOT Web site.

  15. The night-sky at the Calar Alto Observatory II: The sky at the near infrared

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez, S F; Aceituno, J; Cristobal, D; Perea, J; Alves, J

    2008-01-01

    We present here the characterization of the night sky-brightness at the near-infrared, the telescope seeing, and the fraction of useful time at the Calar Alto observatory. For this study we have collected a large dataset comprising 7311 near-infrared images taken regularly along the last four years for the ALHAMBRA survey (J, H and Ks-bands), together with a more reduced dataset of additional near-infrared images taken for the current study. In addition we collected the information derived by the meteorological station at the observatory during the last 10 years, together with the results from the cloud sensor for the last ~2 years. We analyze the dependency of the near-infrared night sky-brightness with the airmass and the seasons, studying its origins and proposing a zenithal correction. A strong correlation is found between the night sky-brightness in the Ks-band and the air temperature, with a gradient of ~ -0.08 mag per 1 C degree. The typical (darkest) night sky-brightness in the J, H and Ks-band are 15...

  16. Seeing the Sky through Hubble's Eye: The COSMOS SkyWalker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnke, K.; Sánchez, S. F.; Koekemoer, A.

    2006-08-01

    Large, high-resolution space-based imaging surveys produce a volume of data that is difficult to present to the public in a comprehensible way. While megapixel-sized images can still be printed out or downloaded via the World Wide Web, this is no longer feasible for images with 109 pixels (e.g., the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys [ACS] images of the Galaxy Evolution from Morphology and SEDs [GEMS] project) or even 1010 pixels (for the ACS Cosmic Evolution Survey [COSMOS]). We present a Web-based utility called the COSMOS SkyWalker that allows viewing of the huge ACS image data set, even through slow Internet connections. Using standard HTML and JavaScript, the application successively loads only those portions of the image at a time that are currently being viewed on the screen. The user can move within the image by using the mouse or interacting with an overview image. Using an astrometrically registered image for the COSMOS SkyWalker allows the display of calibrated world coordinates for use in science. The SkyWalker ``technique'' can be applied to other data sets. This requires some customization, notably the slicing up of a data set into small (e.g., 2562 pixel) subimages. An advantage of the SkyWalker is the use of standard Web browser components; thus, it requires no installation of any software and can therefore be viewed by anyone across many operating systems.

  17. Uncertainties of parameterized surface downward clear-sky shortwave and all-sky longwave radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gubler

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available As many environmental models rely on simulating the energy balance at the Earth's surface based on parameterized radiative fluxes, knowledge of the inherent model uncertainties is important. In this study we evaluate one parameterization of clear-sky direct, diffuse and global shortwave downward radiation (SDR and diverse parameterizations of clear-sky and all-sky longwave downward radiation (LDR. In a first step, SDR is estimated based on measured input variables and estimated atmospheric parameters for hourly time steps during the years 1996 to 2008. Model behaviour is validated using the high quality measurements of six Alpine Surface Radiation Budget (ASRB stations in Switzerland covering different elevations, and measurements of the Swiss Alpine Climate Radiation Monitoring network (SACRaM in Payerne. In a next step, twelve clear-sky LDR parameterizations are calibrated using the ASRB measurements. One of the best performing parameterizations is elected to estimate all-sky LDR, where cloud transmissivity is estimated using measured and modeled global SDR during daytime. In a last step, the performance of several interpolation methods is evaluated to determine the cloud transmissivity in the night.

    We show that clear-sky direct, diffuse and global SDR is adequately represented by the model when using measurements of the atmospheric parameters precipitable water and aerosol content at Payerne. If the atmospheric parameters are estimated and used as a fix value, the relative mean bias deviance (MBD and the relative root mean squared deviance (RMSD of the clear-sky global SDR scatter between between −2 and 5%, and 7 and 13% within the six locations. The small errors in clear-sky global SDR can be attributed to compensating effects of modeled direct and diffuse SDR since an overestimation of aerosol content in the atmosphere results in underestimating the direct, but overestimating the diffuse SDR. Calibration of LDR parameterizations

  18. Efficient Blue Electroluminescence Using Quantum-Confined Two-Dimensional Perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sudhir; Jagielski, Jakub; Yakunin, Sergii; Rice, Peter; Chiu, Yu-Cheng; Wang, Mingchao; Nedelcu, Georgian; Kim, Yeongin; Lin, Shangchao; Santos, Elton J G; Kovalenko, Maksym V; Shih, Chih-Jen

    2016-10-03

    Solution-processed hybrid organic-inorganic lead halide perovskites are emerging as one of the most promising candidates for low-cost light-emitting diodes (LEDs). However, due to a small exciton binding energy, it is not yet possible to achieve an efficient electroluminescence within the blue wavelength region at room temperature, as is necessary for full-spectrum light sources. Here, we demonstrate efficient blue LEDs based on the colloidal, quantum-confined 2D perovskites, with precisely controlled stacking down to one-unit-cell thickness (n = 1). A variety of low-k organic host compounds are used to disperse the 2D perovskites, effectively creating a matrix of the dielectric quantum wells, which significantly boosts the exciton binding energy by the dielectric confinement effect. Through the Förster resonance energy transfer, the excitons down-convert and recombine radiatively in the 2D perovskites. We report room-temperature pure green (n = 7-10), sky blue (n = 5), pure blue (n = 3), and deep blue (n = 1) electroluminescence, with record-high external quantum efficiencies in the green-to-blue wavelength region.

  19. The sixth data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Adelman-McCarthy, Jennifer K.; Agüeros, Marcel A.; Allam, Sahar S.; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Anderson, Kurt S. J.; Anderson, Scott F.; Annis, James; Bahcall, Neta A.; Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.; Baldry, Ivan K.; Barentine, J. C.; Bassett, Bruce A.; Becker, Andrew C.; Beers, Timothy C.; Bell, Eric F.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the Sixth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. With this data release, the imaging of the northern Galactic cap is now complete. The survey contains images and parameters of roughly 287 million objects over 9583 deg^2, including scans over a large range of Galactic latitudes and longitudes. The survey also includes 1.27 million spectra of stars, galaxies, quasars, and blank sky (for sky subtraction) selected over 7425 deg^2. This release includes much more stella...

  20. Basic Research Firing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Basic Research Firing Facility is an indoor ballistic test facility that has recently transitioned from a customer-based facility to a dedicated basic research...

  1. SkyMine Carbon Mineralization Pilot Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christenson, Norm; Walters, Jerel

    2014-12-31

    This Topical Report addresses accomplishments achieved during Phase 2b of the SkyMine® Carbon Mineralization Pilot Project. The primary objectives of this project are to design, construct, and operate a system to capture CO2 from a slipstream of flue gas from a commercial coal-fired cement kiln, convert that CO2 to products having commercial value (i.e., beneficial use), show the economic viability of the CO2 capture and conversion process, and thereby advance the technology to the point of readiness for commercial scale demonstration and deployment. The overall process is carbon negative, resulting in mineralization of CO2 that would otherwise be released into the atmosphere. The project will also substantiate market opportunities for the technology by sales of chemicals into existing markets, and identify opportunities to improve technology performance and reduce costs at the commercial scale. The project is being conducted in two phases. The primary objectives of Phase 1 were to evaluate proven SkyMine® process chemistry for commercial pilot-scale operation and complete the preliminary design for the pilot plant to be built and operated in Phase 2, complete a NEPA evaluation, and develop a comprehensive carbon life cycle analysis. The objective of Phase 2b was to build the pilot plant to be operated and tested in Phase 2c.

  2. Deep sky observing an astronomical tour

    CERN Document Server

    Coe, Steven R

    2016-01-01

    This updated second edition has all of the information needed for your successful forays into deep sky observing. Coe uses his years of experience to give detailed practical advice about how to find the best observing site, how to make the most of the time spent there, and what equipment and instruments to take along. There are comprehensive lists of deep sky objects of all kinds, along with Steve's own observations describing how they look through telescopes with apertures ranging from 4 inches to 36 inches (0.1 - 0.9 meters). Binocular observing also gets its due, while the lists of objects have been amended to highlight only the best targets. A new index makes finding targets easier than ever before, while the selection of viewing targets has been revised from the first edition. Most of all, this book is all about how to enjoy astronomy. The author's enthusiasm and sense of wonder shine through every page as he invites you along on a tour of some of the most beautiful and fascinating sites in the deep ...

  3. SkyMine Carbon Mineralization Pilot Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joe Jones; Clive Barton; Mark Clayton; Al Yablonsky; David Legere

    2010-09-30

    This Topical Report addresses accomplishments achieved during Phase 1 of the SkyMine{reg_sign} Carbon Mineralization Pilot Project. The primary objectives of this project are to design, construct, and operate a system to capture CO{sub 2} from a slipstream of flue gas from a commercial coal-fired cement kiln, convert that CO{sub 2} to products having commercial value (i.e., beneficial use), show the economic viability of the CO{sub 2} capture and conversion process, and thereby advance the technology to a point of readiness for commercial scale demonstration and proliferation. The project will also substantiate market opportunities for the technology by sales of chemicals into existing markets, and identify opportunities to improve technology performance and reduce costs at commercial scale. The primary objectives of Phase 1 of the project were to elaborate proven SkyMine{reg_sign} process chemistry to commercial pilot-scale operation and complete the preliminary design ('Reference Plant Design') for the pilot plant to be built and operated in Phase 2. Additionally, during Phase 1, information necessary to inform a DOE determination regarding NEPA requirements for the project was developed, and a comprehensive carbon lifecycle analysis was completed. These items were included in the formal application for funding under Phase 2. All Phase 1 objectives were successfully met on schedule and within budget.

  4. The Tomaraho Conception of the Sky

    CERN Document Server

    Sequera, Guillermo

    2011-01-01

    The small community of the Tomaraho, an ethnic group culturally derived from the Zamucos, became known in the South American and world anthropological scenario in recent times. This group, far from the banks of the Paraguay river, remained concealed from organized modern societies for many years. Like any other groups of people in close contact with nature, the Tomaraho developed a profound and rich world view which parallels other more widely researched aboriginal cultures as well as showing distinctive features of their own. This is also apparent in their imagery of the sky and of the characters that are closely connected with the celestial sphere. This paper is based on the lengthy anthropological studies of G. Sequera. We have recently undertaken a project to carry out a detailed analysis of the different astronomical elements present in the imagined sky of the Tomaraho and other Chamacoco ethnic groups. We will briefly review some aspects of this aboriginal culture: places where they live, regions of inf...

  5. Sky monitoring with ARGO-YBJ

    CERN Document Server

    Vernetto, S; Zhang, J L

    2009-01-01

    A sky monitoring at gamma ray energy E > 0.6 TeV has been performed by the full coverage Extensive Air Shower detector ARGO-YBJ, located in Tibet at 4300 m of altitude. We monitored 135 galactic and extragalactic gamma ray sources in the sky declination band from -10 to +70 degrees for 424 days, detecting the Crab Nebula and Mrk421 with a significance respectively of 7.0 and 8.0 standard deviations. For a set of 11 AGNs known to emit in the TeV energy range, the search has been performed in time scales of 1, 10 and 30 days in order to study possible flaring activities. Significant emissions has been observed from Mrk421 in the time scales of 10 and 30 days, during June and March 2008, when the source had a strong activity also observed in the X-rays waveband. The analysis of the background has revealed the existence of a significant excess of the CR flux in two localized regions of angular size 10-30 degrees, in agreement with previous indications.

  6. COSMO-SkyMed and GIS applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milillo, Pietro; Sole, Aurelia; Serio, Carmine

    2013-04-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Remote Sensing have become key technology tools for the collection, storage and analysis of spatially referenced data. Industries that utilise these spatial technologies include agriculture, forestry, mining, market research as well as the environmental analysis . Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is a coherent active sensor operating in the microwave band which exploits relative motion between antenna and target in order to obtain a finer spatial resolution in the flight direction exploiting the Doppler effect. SAR have wide applications in Remote Sensing such as cartography, surface deformation detection, forest cover mapping, urban planning, disasters monitoring , surveillance etc… The utilization of satellite remote sensing and GIS technology for this applications has proven to be a powerful and effective tool for environmental monitoring. Remote sensing techniques are often less costly and time-consuming for large geographic areas compared to conventional methods, moreover GIS technology provides a flexible environment for, analyzing and displaying digital data from various sources necessary for classification, change detection and database development. The aim of this work si to illustrate the potential of COSMO-SkyMed data and SAR applications in a GIS environment, in particular a demostration of the operational use of COSMO-SkyMed SAR data and GIS in real cases will be provided for what concern DEM validation, river basin estimation, flood mapping and landslide monitoring.

  7. China Mobile: Expanding "Blue Ocean"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Driving force is crucial for realizing high-speed growth. The strong driving force from "Blue Ocean Strategy" is an important advantage for China Mobile to realize harmonious and leap-forward development.

  8. Karner Blue Butterfly Recovery Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This recovery plan has been prepared by the Karner Blue Butterfly Recovery Team under the leadership of Dr. David Andow, University of Minnesota-St. Paul. Dr. John...

  9. Ecology of blue straggler stars

    CERN Document Server

    Carraro, Giovanni; Beccari, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    The existence of blue straggler stars, which appear younger, hotter, and more massive than their siblings, is at odds with a simple picture of stellar evolution. Such stars should have exhausted their nuclear fuel and evolved long ago to become cooling white dwarfs. They are found to exist in globular clusters, open clusters, dwarf spheroidal galaxies of the Local Group, OB associations and as field stars. This book summarises the many advances in observational and theoretical work dedicated to blue straggler stars. Carefully edited extended contributions by well-known experts in the field cover all the relevant aspects of blue straggler stars research: Observations of blue straggler stars in their various environments; Binary stars and formation channels; Dynamics of globular clusters; Interpretation of observational data and comparison with models. The book also offers an introductory chapter on stellar evolution written by the editors of the book.

  10. Sky Mining - Application to Photomorphic Redshift Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Pragyansmita

    The field of astronomy has evolved from the ancient craft of observing the sky. In it's present form, astronomers explore the cosmos not just by observing through the tiny visible window used by our eyes, but also by exploiting the electromagnetic spectrum from radio waves to gamma rays. The domain is undoubtedly at the forefront of data-driven science. The data growth rate is expected to be around 50%--100% per year. This data explosion is attributed largely to the large-scale wide and deep surveys of the different regions of the sky at multiple wavelengths (both ground and space-based surveys). This dissertation describes the application of machine learning methods to the estimation of galaxy redshifts leveraging such a survey data. Galaxy is a large system of stars held together by mutual gravitation and isolated from similar systems by vast regions of space. Our view of the universe is closely tied to our understanding of galaxy formation. Thus, a better understanding of the relative location of the multitudes of galaxies is crucial. The position of each galaxy can be characterized using three coordinates. Right Ascension (ra) and Declination (dec) are the two coordinates that locate the galaxy in two dimensions on the plane of the sky. It is relatively straightforward to measure them. In contrast, fixing the third coordinate that is the galaxy's distance from the observer along the line of sight (redshift 'z') is considerably more challenging. "Spectroscopic redshift" method gives us accurate and precise measurements of z. However, it is extremely time-intensive and unusable for faint objects. Additionally, the rate at which objects are being identified via photometric surveys far exceeds the rate at which the spectroscopic redshift measurements can keep pace in determining their distance. As the surveys go deeper into the sky, the proportion of faint objects being identified also continues to increase. In order to tackle both these drawbacks increasing in

  11. Using routine meteorological data to derive sky conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pagès

    Full Text Available Sky condition is a matter of interest for public and weather predictors as part of weather analyses. In this study, we apply a method that uses total solar radiation and other meteorological data recorded by an automatic station for deriving an estimation of the sky condition. The impetus of this work is the intention of the Catalan Meteorological Service (SMC to provide the public with real-time information about the sky condition. The methodology for deriving sky conditions from meteorological records is based on a supervised classification technique called maximum likelihood method. In this technique we first need to define features which are derived from measured variables. Second, we must decide which sky conditions are intended to be distinguished. Some analyses have led us to use four sky conditions: (a cloudless or almost cloudless sky, (b scattered clouds, (c mostly cloudy – high clouds, (d overcast – low clouds. An additional case, which may be treated separately, corresponds to precipitation (rain or snow. The main features for estimating sky conditions are, as expected, solar radiation and its temporal variability. The accuracy of this method of guessing sky conditions compared with human observations is around 70% when applied to four sites in Catalonia (NE Iberian Peninsula. The agreement increases if we take into account the uncertainty both in the automatic classifier and in visual observations.

    Key words. Meteorological and atmospheric dynamics (instruments and techniques; radiative processes – Atmospheric composition and structure (cloud physics and chemistry

  12. Body Basics Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness About the Body Basics Library KidsHealth > For Teens > About the Body Basics Library A A A Did you ever wonder what ... system, part, and process works. Use this medical library to find out about basic human anatomy, how ...

  13. Body Basics Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness About the Body Basics Library KidsHealth > For Teens > About the Body Basics Library Print A A A Did you ever wonder ... system, part, and process works. Use this medical library to find out about basic human anatomy, how ...

  14. Basic Cake Decorating Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdany, Mel

    Included in this student workbook for basic cake decorating are the following: (1) Drawings of steps in a basic way to ice a layer cake, how to make a paper cone, various sizes of flower nails, various sizes and types of tin pastry tubes, and special rose tubes; (2) recipes for basic decorating icings (buttercream, rose paste, and royal icing);…

  15. Near-ultraviolet signatures of environment-driven galaxy quenching in Sloan Digital Sky Survey groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossett, Jacob P.; Pimbblet, Kevin A.; Jones, D. Heath; Brown, Michael J. I.; Stott, John P.

    2017-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of group environment on residual star formation in galaxies, using Galaxy Evolution Explorer near-ultraviolet (NUV) galaxy photometry with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey group catalogue of Yang et al. We compared the (NUV - r) colours of grouped and non-grouped galaxies, and find a significant increase in the fraction of red sequence galaxies with blue (NUV - r) colours outside of groups. When comparing galaxies in mass-matched samples of satellite (non-central), and non-grouped galaxies, we found a >4σ difference in the distribution of (NUV - r) colours, and an (NUV - r) blue fraction >3σ higher outside groups. A comparison of satellite and non-grouped samples has found the NUV fraction is a factor of ˜2 lower for satellite galaxies between 1010.5 and 10^{10.7} M_{⊙}, showing that higher mass galaxies are more likely to have residual star formation when not influenced by a group potential. There was a higher (NUV - r) blue fraction of galaxies with lower Sérsic indices (n histories to find that many of the (NUV - r) blue non-grouped galaxies can be explained by a slow (˜2 Gyr) decay of star formation, compared to the satellite galaxies. We suggest that taken together, the difference in (NUV - r) colours between samples can be explained by a population of secularly evolving, non-grouped galaxies, where star formation declines slowly. This slow channel is less prevalent in group environments where more rapid quenching can occur.

  16. The Fate of Luminous Compact Blue Galaxies: An Environmental Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Crawford, S M; Glenn, A; Hössel, J G

    2004-01-01

    Luminous Compact Blue Galaxies (LCBGs) are a heterogeneous class which dominate an intermediate phase of galaxy evolution. These sources account for the majority of the star formation between 0.3sky. The Southern African Large Telescope's (SALT) Prime Focus Imaging Spectrograph (PFIS), with a field of view matching our WIYN data, will allow us to determine several fundamental characteristics of cluster LCBGs, including (1) star formation rates (SFR) and metallicities from low dispersion Mulit-Object Spectroscopy (MOS); (2) dynamical masses from line-widths measured via high dispersion MOS; and (3) cluster velocity dispersions of LCBGs relative to other cluster em...

  17. Sky surveys of interest for cataclysmic variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szkody, Paula

    2016-07-01

    Sky Surveys provide much useful information for finding and understanding catacylsmic variables (CVs). Depending on the length of time the survey runs and the cadence used, the surveys can easily locate novae and dwarf novae based on the amplitude and shape of the light curves. For systems with high inclination or prominent hot spots and periods of hours, some orbital information can be derived from eclipses that are caught or repetitive modulations in the folded light curves. However, in most cases, detailed knowledge of the type of system and its orbital period must come from extended observations at other wavelengths, as most surveys take place in one filter or unfiltered. Currently, we are in the midst of an explosion of recently past, continuing and future plans for sky surveys. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey found about 300 CVs in its Legacy Mode, with small numbers continuing to be added through the extended phases. The CVs were primarily identified through spectroscopic coverage of selected objects from the photometric survey and subsequently found a wide variety of systems (polars, intermediate polars, novalikes, dwarf novae, objects with pulsating white dwarfs) due to spectroscopic differences among these types. The Palomar Transit Factory (PTF), Intermediate PTF and future Zwicky Transient Facilty (ZTF) operate in the same mode of candidate discovery via outbursts followed by spectroscopy for confirmation. The Catalina Real-Time Transient Survey primarily adds dwarf novae that are found from outbursts in the long time span of observations. The Kepler K2 mission operates with a much higher cadence (48-1440 observations/day) but shorter total length (70-80 days) and thus finds CVs through orbital variability as well as those with short outburst intervals. Gaia will provide distances for most of the objects under study, thus locating them in the galaxy. The upcoming Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will go much fainter and cover variability on a 10 yr

  18. The Gamma-ray Sky with Fermi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David

    2012-01-01

    Gamma rays reveal extreme, nonthermal conditions in the Universe. The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has been exploring the gamma-ray sky for more than four years, enabling a search for powerful transients like gamma-ray bursts, novae, solar flares, and flaring active galactic nuclei, as well as long-term studies including pulsars, binary systems, supernova remnants, and searches for predicted sources of gamma rays such as dark matter annihilation. Some results include a stringent limit on Lorentz invariance derived from a gamma-ray burst, unexpected gamma-ray variability from the Crab Nebula, a huge gamma-ray structure associated with the center of our galaxy, surprising behavior from some gamma-ray binary systems, and a possible constraint on some WIMP models for dark matter.

  19. The 4 Pi Sky Transient Alerts Hub

    CERN Document Server

    Staley, Tim D

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the 4 Pi Sky 'hub', a collection of open data-services and underlying software packages built for rapid, fully automated reporting and response to astronomical transient alerts. These packages build on the mature 'VOEvent' standardized message-format, and aim to provide a decentralized and open infrastructure for handling transient alerts. In particular we draw attention to the initial release of voeventdb, an archive and remote-query service that allows astronomers to make historical queries about transient alerts. By employing spatial filters and web-of-citation lookups, voeventdb enables cross-matching of transient alerts to bring together data from multiple sources, as well as providing a point of reference when planning new follow-up campaigns. We also highlight the recent addition of optical-transient feeds from the ASASSN and GAIA projects to our VOEvent distribution stream. Both the source-code and deployment-scripts which implement these services are freely available and permissively lic...

  20. The Gamma-ray Sky with Fermi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, D.J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, 20771 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Gamma rays reveal extreme, nonthermal conditions in the Universe. The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has been exploring the gamma-ray sky for more than four years, enabling a search for powerful transients like gamma-ray bursts, solar flares, and flaring active galactic nuclei, as well as long-term studies including pulsars, binary systems, supernova remnants, and searches for predicted sources of gamma rays such as clusters of galaxies. Some results include a stringent limit on Lorentz invariance violation derived from a gamma-ray burst, unexpected gamma-ray variability from the Crab Nebula, a huge gamma-ray structure in the direction of the center of our Galaxy, and strong constraints on some Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) models for dark matter.

  1. SkyProwler变形无人机

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    如今的无人机行业可用炙手可热来形容。几乎每个月,都会出现一些新概念无人机。近日,在众筹网站Kickstarter上,又出现了一款很有意思的无人机。它就是美国亚利桑那州Krossblade公司正在开发的一款可垂直起降、并能在空中变换造型的无人机SkyProwler。自发起众筹以来,该项目已取得巨大成功,共筹集到超过23万美金。

  2. SkyMouse: A smart interface for astronomical on-line resources and services

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI ChenZhou; SUN HuaPing; ZHAO YongHeng; LUO Yu; QI DaZhi

    2008-01-01

    With the development of network and the World Wide Web (WWW), the Internet has been growing and changing dramatically. More and more on-line database systems and different kinds of services are available for astronomy research. How to help users find their way through the jungle of information services becomes an important challenge. Although astronomers have been aware of the importance of interoperability and introduced the concept of Virtual Observatory as a uniform environment for future astronomical on-line resources and services, transparent access to heterogeneous on-line information is still difficult. SkyMouse is a lightweight interface for distributed astronomical on-line resources and services, which is designed and developed by us, i.e., Chinese Virtual Observatory project. Taking ad-vantage of screen word-capturing technology, different kinds of information systems can be queried through simple mouse actions, and results are returned in a uniform web page. SkyMouse is an easy to use application, aiming to show basic information or to create a comprehensive overview of a specific astronomical object. In this paper current status of on-line resources and services access is reviewed; system architecture, features and functions of SkyMouse are described; challenges for intelligent in-terface for on-line astronomical resources and services are discussed.

  3. Double-lined M dwarf eclipsing binaries from Catalina Sky Survey and LAMOST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chien-Hsiu; Lin, Chien-Cheng

    2017-02-01

    Eclipsing binaries provide a unique opportunity to determine fundamental stellar properties. In the era of wide-field cameras and all-sky imaging surveys, thousands of eclipsing binaries have been reported through light curve classification, yet their basic properties remain unexplored due to the extensive efforts needed to follow them up spectroscopically. In this paper we investigate three M2-M3 type double-lined eclipsing binaries discovered by cross-matching eclipsing binaries from the Catalina Sky Survey with spectroscopically classified M dwarfs from the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope survey data release one and two. Because these three M dwarf binaries are faint, we further acquire radial velocity measurements using GMOS on the Gemini North telescope with R∼ 4000, enabling us to determine the mass and radius of individual stellar components. By jointly fitting the light and radial velocity curves of these systems, we derive the mass and radius of the primary and secondary components of these three systems, in the range between 0.28-0.42M_ȯ and 0.29-0.67R_ȯ, respectively. Future observations with a high resolution spectrograph will help us pin down the uncertainties in their stellar parameters, and render these systems benchmarks to study M dwarfs, providing inputs to improving stellar models in the low mass regime, or establishing an empirical mass-radius relation for M dwarf stars.

  4. 76 FR 42704 - Sky River LLC; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Sky River LLC; Notice of Filing Take notice that, on July 8, 2011, Sky River LLC filed to amend its Open Access Transmission Tariff (OATT) filing, submitted on April 1, 2011...

  5. Gender Roles and Night-Sky Watching among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, William E.; McGee, Catherine M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between gender roles and night-sky watching in a sample of college students (N=161). The Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI) and the Noctcaelador Inventory (NI) were used to investigate the differences between gender role groups for night-sky watching. The results supported the hypothesis that androgynous…

  6. Basics of Bayesian Learning - Basically Bayes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan

    Tutorial presented at the IEEE Machine Learning for Signal Processing Workshop 2006, Maynooth, Ireland, September 8, 2006. The tutorial focuses on the basic elements of Bayesian learning and its relation to classical learning paradigms. This includes a critical discussion of the pros and cons...

  7. Multi-wavelength study of 14000 star-forming galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Izotov, Y I; Fricke, K J; Henkel, C

    2013-01-01

    (abridged) We studied a large sample of ~14000 dwarf star-forming galaxies with strong emission lines selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and distributed in the redshift range of z~0-0.6. We modelled spectral energy distributions (SED) of all galaxies which were based on the SDSS spectra in the visible range of 0.38-0.92 micron and included both the stellar and ionised gas emission. These SEDs were extrapolated to the UV and mid-infrared ranges to cover the wavelength range of 0.1-22 micron. The SDSS spectroscopic data were supplemented by photometric data from the GALEX, SDSS, 2MASS, WISE, IRAS, and NVSS all-sky surveys. We derived global characteristics of the galaxies, such as their element abundances, luminosities, and stellar masses. The luminosities and stellar masses range within the sample over ~5 orders of magnitude, thereby linking low-mass and low-luminosity blue compact dwarf (BCD) galaxies to luminous galaxies, which are similar to high-redshift Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs). The lumi...

  8. Solar Spectral Irradiance under Clear and Cloudy Skies: Measurements and a Semiempirical Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nann, Stefan; Riordan, Carol

    1991-04-01

    In a combined effort, the Centre for Solar Energy and Hydrogen Research in Germany and the Solar Energy Research Institute in the United States analyzed several thousand measurements of the solar spectral irradiance recorded at four sites. The goal was to develop a semiempirical model that describes the total solar spectral irradiance for clear and cloudy sky conditions based on readily available input data.To investigate how the spectral transmission of clouds deviates from an assumed neutral density filter, the measured spectra are compared with simulated clear-sky spectra. A correlation is established between the cloud thickness and the relatively higher transmission of clouds in the ultraviolet and blue region of the solar spectrum. Using this approach, a semiempirical model is proposed based solely on global and diffuse broadband irradiance measurements, precipitable water-vapor data, and the sun's position. The model, called SEDESI, is applied to calculate spectral irradiance in short time steps (30 or 60 minutes) that are needed for either the design and performance analysis of spectrally selective solar energy conversion systems or to predict daylight availability. The results are also applicable to current climate research areas such as validating radiative transfer codes.

  9. Crowdfunding Astronomy Research With Google Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Travis S.

    2015-12-01

    For nearly four years, NASA's Kepler space telescope searched for planets like Earth around more than 150,000 stars similar to the Sun. In 2008 with in-kind support from several technology companies, our non-profit organization established the Pale Blue Dot Project, an adopt-a-star program that supports scientific research on the stars observed by the Kepler mission. To help other astronomy educators conduct successful fundraising efforts, I describe how this innovative crowdfunding program successfully engaged the public over the past seven years to help support an international team in an era of economic austerity.

  10. Night Sky Quality Measurements at the ATA50 Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, Hüseyin; Nasiroglu, Ilham; Guney, Yavuz

    2016-07-01

    One of the most important factor affecting the quality of the sky in astronomy is the light pollution (luminance of the night sky). Light pollution, also affects humans and wildlife in many ways. This effect occurs by using the light source of outdoor lighting in the wrong way. Light pollution can be reduced by lighting only what is actually needed, when and where it is needed. In generally, SQM (Sky Quality Meter- Clear Sky Detector) is used to measure this light effect. In this work we present night sky brightness measurements performed at the Atatürk University Astrophysics Research Telescope (ATA50) and the surrounding area, Erzurum, TURKEY. We also discussed the physical impacts of light pollution on science, humans and wildlife.

  11. Day/night whole sky imagers for 24-h cloud and sky assessment: history and overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Janet E; Karr, Monette E; Johnson, Richard W; Burden, Art R

    2013-03-10

    A family of fully automated digital whole sky imagers (WSIs) has been developed at the Marine Physical Laboratory over many years, for a variety of research and military applications. The most advanced of these, the day/night whole sky imagers (D/N WSIs), acquire digital imagery of the full sky down to the horizon under all conditions from full sunlight to starlight. Cloud algorithms process the imagery to automatically detect the locations of cloud for both day and night. The instruments can provide absolute radiance distribution over the full radiance range from starlight through daylight. The WSIs were fielded in 1984, followed by the D/N WSIs in 1992. These many years of experience and development have resulted in very capable instruments and algorithms that remain unique. This article discusses the history of the development of the D/N WSIs, system design, algorithms, and data products. The paper cites many reports with more detailed technical documentation. Further details of calibration, day and night algorithms, and cloud free line-of-sight results will be discussed in future articles.

  12. Ba3(P1−MnO4)2 : Blue/green inorganic materials based on tetrahedral Mn(V)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sourav Laha; Rohit Sharma; S V Bhat; M L P Reddy; J Gopalakrishnan; S Natarajan

    2011-10-01

    We describe a blue/green inorganic material, Ba3(P1−MnO4)2 (I) based on tetrahedral MnO$^{3-}_{4}$ :32 chromophore. The solid solutions (I) which are sky-blue and turquoise-blue for ≤ 0.25 and dark green for ≥ 0.50, are readily synthesized in air from commonly available starting materials, stabilizing the MnO$^{3-}_{4}$ chromophore in an isostructural phosphate host. We suggest that the covalency/ionicity of P–O/Mn–O bonds in the solid solutions tunes the crystal field strength around Mn(V) such that a blue colour results for materials with small values of . The material could serve as a nontoxic blue/green inorganic pigment.

  13. Basic molecular spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Gorry, PA

    1985-01-01

    BASIC Molecular Spectroscopy discusses the utilization of the Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC) programming language in molecular spectroscopy. The book is comprised of five chapters that provide an introduction to molecular spectroscopy through programs written in BASIC. The coverage of the text includes rotational spectra, vibrational spectra, and Raman and electronic spectra. The book will be of great use to students who are currently taking a course in molecular spectroscopy.

  14. Basic digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Lockhart, Gordon B

    1985-01-01

    Basic Digital Signal Processing describes the principles of digital signal processing and experiments with BASIC programs involving the fast Fourier theorem (FFT). The book reviews the fundamentals of the BASIC program, continuous and discrete time signals including analog signals, Fourier analysis, discrete Fourier transform, signal energy, power. The text also explains digital signal processing involving digital filters, linear time-variant systems, discrete time unit impulse, discrete-time convolution, and the alternative structure for second order infinite impulse response (IIR) sections.

  15. Kinesthetic Astronomy: Significant Upgrades to the Sky Time Lesson that Support Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, C. A.; Zawaski, M.

    2004-12-01

    This paper will report on a significant upgrade to the first in a series of innovative, experiential lessons we call Kinesthetic Astronomy. The Sky Time lesson reconnects students with the astronomical meaning of the day, year, and seasons. Like all Kinesthetic Astronomy lessons, it teaches basic astronomical concepts through choreographed bodily movements and positions that provide educational sensory experiences. They are intended for sixth graders up through adult learners in both formal and informal educational settings. They emphasize astronomical concepts and phenomenon that people can readily encounter in their "everyday" lives such as time, seasons, and sky motions of the Sun, Moon, stars, and planets. Kinesthetic Astronomy lesson plans are fully aligned with national science education standards, both in content and instructional practice. Our lessons offer a complete learning cycle with written assessment opportunities now embedded throughout the lesson. We have substantially strengthened the written assessment options for the Sky Time lesson to help students translate their kinesthetic and visual learning into the verbal-linguistic and mathematical-logical realms of expression. Field testing with non-science undergraduates, middle school science teachers and students, Junior Girl Scouts, museum education staff, and outdoor educators has been providing evidence that Kinesthetic Astronomy techniques allow learners to achieve a good grasp of concepts that are much more difficult to learn in more conventional ways such as via textbooks or even computer animation. Field testing of the Sky Time lesson has also led us to significant changes from the previous version to support student learning. We will report on the nature of these changes.

  16. Why Do Proteins Glow Blue?

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Sohini; Hazra, Partha; Mandal, Pankaj

    2014-01-01

    Recent literatures reported blue-green emission from amyloid fibril as exclusive signature of fibril formation. This unusual visible luminescence is regularly used to monitor fibril growth. Blue-green emission has also been observed in crystalline protein and in solution. However, the origin of this emission is not known exactly. Our spectroscopic study of serum proteins reveals that the blue-green emission is a property of protein monomer. Evidences suggest that semiconductor-like band structure of proteins with the optical band-gap in the visible region is possibly the origin of this phenomenon. We show here that the band structure of proteins is primarily the result of electron delocalization through the peptide chain, rather than through the hydrogen bond network in secondary structure.

  17. The lizard celestial compass detects linearly polarized light in the blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrami, Giulia; Parretta, Antonio; Petrucci, Ferruccio; Buttini, Paola; Bertolucci, Cristiano; Foà, Augusto

    2012-09-15

    The present study first examined whether ruin lizards, Podarcis sicula, are able to orientate using plane-polarized light produced by an LCD screen. Ruin lizards were trained and tested indoors, inside a hexagonal Morris water maze positioned under an LCD screen producing white polarized light with a single E-vector, which provided an axial cue. White polarized light did not include wavelengths in the UV. Lizards orientated correctly either when tested with E-vector parallel to the training axis or after 90 deg rotation of the E-vector direction, thus validating the apparatus. Further experiments examined whether there is a preferential region of the light spectrum to perceive the E-vector direction of polarized light. For this purpose, lizards reaching learning criteria under white polarized light were subdivided into four experimental groups. Each group was tested for orientation under a different spectrum of plane-polarized light (red, green, cyan and blue) with equalized photon flux density. Lizards tested under blue polarized light orientated correctly, whereas lizards tested under red polarized light were completely disoriented. Green polarized light was barely discernible by lizards, and thus insufficient for a correct functioning of their compass. When exposed to cyan polarized light, lizard orientation performances were optimal, indistinguishable from lizards detecting blue polarized light. Overall, the present results demonstrate that perception of linear polarization in the blue is necessary - and sufficient - for a proper functioning of the sky polarization compass of ruin lizards. This may be adaptively important, as detection of polarized light in the blue improves functioning of the polarization compass under cloudy skies, i.e. when the alternative celestial compass based on detection of the sun disk is rendered useless because the sun is obscured by clouds.

  18. SkyDOT (Sky Database for Objects in the Time Domain) A Virtual Observatory for Variability Studies at LANL

    CERN Document Server

    Wozniak, P R; Galassi, M; Priedhorsky, W; Starr, D; Vestrand, W T; White, R; Wren, J

    2002-01-01

    The mining of Virtual Observatories (VOs) is becoming a powerful new method for discovery in astronomy. Here we report on the development of SkyDOT (Sky Database for Objects in the Time domain), a new Virtual Observatory, which is dedicated to the study of sky variability. The site will confederate a number of massive variability surveys and enable exploration of the time domain in astronomy. We discuss the architecture of the database and the functionality of the user interface. An important aspect of SkyDOT is that it is continuously updated in near real time so that users can access new observations in a timely manner. The site will also utilize high level machine learning tools that will allow sophisticated mining of the archive. Another key feature is the real time data stream provided by RAPTOR (RAPid Telescopes for Optical Response), a new sky monitoring experiment under construction at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

  19. Agminated blue nevus - Case report*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisboa, Alice Paixão; Silvestre, Keline Jácome; Pedreira, Renata Leite; Alves, Natália Ribeiro de Magalhães; Obadia, Daniel Lago; Azulay-Abulafia, Luna

    2016-01-01

    Blue nevi are benign melanocytic lesions located in the deeper reticular dermis, consequence of failure of melanocytic migration into the dermal-epidermal junction from the neural crest. Lesions are usually asymptomatic and solitary, but may present in a multiple or agminated (grouped) pattern. The agminated subtype is formed when bluish-pigmented lesions cluster together in a well-defined area. Lesions can be flat or raised. We report the case of a patient who presented multiple bluish macules (1-3 mm in diameter) grouped on the left upper back. Dermoscopy and anatomic pathological examination were consistent with blue nevus. PMID:27828645

  20. Predicting the sky from 30 MHz to 800 GHz: the extended Global Sky Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Adrian

    We propose to construct the extended Global Sky Model (eGSM), a software package and associated data products that are capable of generating maps of the sky at any frequency within a broad range (30 MHz to 800 GHz). The eGSM is constructed from archival data, and its outputs will include not only "best estimate" sky maps, but also accurate error bars and the ability to generate random realizations of missing modes in the input data. Such views of the sky are crucial in the practice of precision cosmology, where our ability to constrain cosmological parameters and detect new phenomena (such as B-mode signatures from primordial gravitational waves, or spectral distortions of the Cosmic Microwave Background; CMB) rests crucially on our ability to remove systematic foreground contamination. Doing so requires empirical measurements of the foreground sky brightness (such as that arising from Galactic synchrotron radiation, among other sources), which are typically performed only at select narrow wavelength ranges. We aim to transcend traditional wavelength limits by optimally combining existing data to provide a comprehensive view of the foreground sky at any frequency within the broad range of 30 MHz to 800 GHz. Previous efforts to interpolate between multi-frequency maps resulted in the Global Sky Model (GSM) of de Oliveira-Costa et al. (2008), a software package that outputs foreground maps at any frequency of the user's choosing between 10 MHz and 100 GHz. However, the GSM has a number of shortcomings. First and foremost, the GSM does not include the latest archival data from the Planck satellite. Multi-frequency models depend crucially on data from Planck, WMAP, and COBE to provide high-frequency "anchor" maps. Another crucial shortcoming is the lack of error bars in the output maps. Finally, the GSM is only able to predict temperature (i.e., total intensity) maps, and not polarization information. With the recent release of Planck's polarized data products, the

  1. Southern Sky Redshift Survey: Clustering of Local Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willmer, Christopher N. A.; da Costa, Luiz Nicolaci; Pellegrini, Paulo S.

    1998-03-01

    We use the two-point correlation function to calculate the clustering properties of the recently completed SSRS2 survey, which probes two well-separated regions of the sky, allowing one to evaluate the sensitivity of sample-to-sample variations. Taking advantage of the large number of galaxies in the combined sample, we also investigate the dependence of clustering on the internal properties of galaxies. The redshift-space correlation function for the combined magnitude-limited sample of the SSRS2 is given by xi(s) = [s/(5.85 h^-1 Mpc)]^-1.60 for separations in the range 2 h^-1 Mpc b b is the linear biasing factor for optical galaxies. We have used the SSRS2 sample to study the dependence of xi on the internal properties of galaxies, such as luminosity, morphology, and color. We confirm earlier results that luminous galaxies (L > L^*) are more clustered than sub-L^* galaxies and that the luminosity segregation is scale-independent. We also find that early types are more clustered than late types. However, in the absence of rich clusters, the relative bias between early and late types in real space, b_E+S0/b_S ~ 1.2, is not as strong as previously estimated. Furthermore, both morphologies present a luminosity-dependent bias, with the early types showing a slightly stronger dependence on luminosity. We also find that red galaxies are significantly more clustered than blue ones, with a mean relative bias of b_R/b_B ~ 1.4, stronger than that observed for morphology. Finally, by comparing our results with the measurements obtained from the infrared-selected galaxies, we determine that the relative bias between optical and IRAS galaxies in real space is b_o/b_I ~ 1.4. Based on observations obtained at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatories, operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation; Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito, operated

  2. The VLA Sky Survey (VLASS): Technical Implementation and Pilot Survey Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Steven T.; Baum, Stefi; Chandler, Claire J.; Chatterjee, Shami; Kimball, Amy E.; Lacy, Mark; Law, Casey J.; Schinzel, Frank; Arancibia, Demian; Hiriart, R.; Medlin, Drew; VLA Sky Survey Team; Survey Science Group

    2017-01-01

    The VLA Sky Survey (VLASS) is a 5520 hour project to survey the 33885 square degrees of the sky above Declination -40 degrees from 2-4 GHz at 2.5" angular resolution using the upgraded Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). Over the survey duration of 7 years, each area of the sky will be covered in 3 epochs spaced 32 months apart, to a depth of 0.12mJy/beam rms noise per epoch and 0.07mJy/beam for 3 epochs combined. Pilot observations were taken in mid-2016, with the full survey to start in September 2017. The raw data will be available in the NRAO archive immediately with no proprietary period and science data products will be provided to the community in a timely manner. Basic Data Products (BDP) that will be produced by the survey team include: raw and calibrated visibility data, quick-look continuum images, single-epoch images and spectral image cubes, single-epoch basic object catalogs, and cumulative "static sky" images and image cubes and basic object catalogs to the full survey depth. Single-epoch and cumulative images are in intensity and linear polarization (Stokes IQU). In addition to the BDP provided by NRAO and served through the NRAO archive, there are opportunities for Enhanced Data Products and Services that are provided by the community in partnership with the VLASS team.In this presentation we describe the survey design and the Technical Implementation Plan (TIP) for the VLASS, and report on results from the VLASS Pilot observations. The pilot survey covered 2480 unique square degrees, with 2160 square degrees within the SDSS/FIRST footprint. The pilot also covered key deep fields including COSMOS, GOODS-N, CDFS, Elais-N1, and the SDSS Stripe-82. Preliminary imaging and comparisons have been carried out for selected pilot fields as part of early science verification. We also discuss the technical issues and challenges remaining to be addressed before commencing the survey and our plans moving forward. There are also opportunities for community

  3. Basic Research Objectives Reaffirmed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Haiyan; Zhao Baohua

    2002-01-01

    @@ As a national institution for scientific research and a component of the national innovation system, CAS should and must make key contributions to the great national rejuvenation of the country. Keeping this in mind, CAS has developed four developmental targets for its basic research. This was revealed at a CAS conference on basic research held June 11-12 in Beijing.

  4. Cycles in basic innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de E.A. (Bert); Franses, P.H.P.H.

    2005-01-01

    Basic innovations are often believed to be the drivers of economic growth. It has been widely documented that economic growth follows cyclical patterns of varying length. In this paper we examine if such patterns are also present in basic innovations. For an annual time series of count data covering

  5. Basic Science Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummel, Clete

    These six learning modules were developed for Lake Michigan College's Basic Science Training Program, a workshop to develop good study skills while reviewing basic science. The first module, which was designed to provide students with the necessary skills to study efficiently, covers the following topics: time management; an overview of a study…

  6. Basic principle of superconductivity

    OpenAIRE

    De Cao, Tian

    2007-01-01

    The basic principle of superconductivity is suggested in this paper. There have been two vital wrong suggestions on the basic principle, one is the relation between superconductivity and the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC), and another is the relation between superconductivity and pseudogap.

  7. All Sky Cloud Coverage Monitoring for SONG-China Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, J. F.; Deng, L. C.; Yan, Z. Z.; Wang, K.; Wu, Y.

    2016-05-01

    In order to monitor the cloud distributions at Qinghai station, a site selected for SONG (Stellar Observations Network Group)-China node, the design of the proto-type of all sky camera (ASC) applied in Xinglong station is adopted. Both hardware and software improvements have been made in order to be more precise and deliver quantitative measurements. The ARM (Advanced Reduced Instruction Set Computer Machine) MCU (Microcontroller Unit) instead of PC is used to control the upgraded version of ASC. A much higher reliability has been realized in the current scheme. Independent of the positions of the Sun and Moon, the weather conditions are constantly changing, therefore it is difficult to get proper exposure parameters using only the temporal information of the major light sources. A realistic exposure parameters for the ASC can actually be defined using a real-time sky brightness monitor that is also installed at the same site. The night sky brightness value is a very sensitive function of the cloud coverage, and can be accurately measured by the sky quality monitor. We study the correlation between the exposure parameter and night sky brightness value, and give the mathematical relation. The images of the all sky camera are inserted into database directly. All sky quality images are archived in FITS format which can be used for further analysis.

  8. Global horizontal irradiance clear sky models : implementation and analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Hansen, Clifford W.; Reno, Matthew J.

    2012-03-01

    Clear sky models estimate the terrestrial solar radiation under a cloudless sky as a function of the solar elevation angle, site altitude, aerosol concentration, water vapor, and various atmospheric conditions. This report provides an overview of a number of global horizontal irradiance (GHI) clear sky models from very simple to complex. Validation of clear-sky models requires comparison of model results to measured irradiance during clear-sky periods. To facilitate validation, we present a new algorithm for automatically identifying clear-sky periods in a time series of GHI measurements. We evaluate the performance of selected clear-sky models using measured data from 30 different sites, totaling about 300 site-years of data. We analyze the variation of these errors across time and location. In terms of error averaged over all locations and times, we found that complex models that correctly account for all the atmospheric parameters are slightly more accurate than other models, but, primarily at low elevations, comparable accuracy can be obtained from some simpler models. However, simpler models often exhibit errors that vary with time of day and season, whereas the errors for complex models vary less over time.

  9. Sky luminance distribution in Pamplona (Spain) during the summer period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, J. L.; de Blas, M.; García, A.; Gracia, A.; de Francisco, A.

    2010-04-01

    In this work the outdoor daylight conditions in Pamplona (South Europe) during the summer period have been studied. The selected sky type (from fifteen standards) at a given moment is the one exhibiting the lowest RMSD when comparing the theoretical and experimental luminance distributions in the sky hemisphere. Two year data of luminance distribution registered every 10 min in 145 positions of the sky hemisphere have been used for selecting the sky type. The most frequent sky type in Pamplona is V.5 (cloudless polluted with a broad solar corona), with an occurrence of 29.5%. This result coincides with the one observed in a previous study in Athens. Six types of sky (V.5, IV.4, III.4, III.3, V.4 y II.2) out of the fifteen standards become practically the 80% of all the studied ones. Regarding a possible use in daylight climate studies, the frequency of occurrence of the fifteen types of sky for fourteen solar elevation intervals has been included.

  10. Sky Background Variability Measured on Maunakea at Gemini North Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Adam B.; Roth, Katherine; Stephens, Andrew W.

    2016-01-01

    Gemini North has recently implemented a Quality Assessment Pipeline (QAP) that automatically reduces images in realtime to determine sky condition quantities, including background sky brightness from the optical to near-infrared. Processing archived images through the QAP and mining the results allows us to look for trends and systematic issues with the instruments and optics during the first decade of Gemini.Here we present the results of using the QAP calculated values to quantify how airglow affects the background sky brightness of images taken with Gemini's imaging instruments, GMOS and NIRI, as well as searching for other factors that may cause changes in the sky brightness. By investigating the dependence of measured sky brightness as a function of a variety of variables, including time after twilight, airmass, season, distance from the moon, air temperature, etc., we quantify the effect of sky brightness and its impact on the sensitivity of Gemini optical and near-infrared imaging data. These measurements will be used to determine new sky background relationships for Maunakea, and to improve the Gemini Integration Time Calculators (ITCs).

  11. Causality and skies: is non-refocussing necessary?

    CERN Document Server

    Bautista, A; Lafuente, J

    2014-01-01

    It is shown that if $M$ is a strongly causal free of naked singularities space-time, then its causal structure is completely characterized by a partial order in the space of skies defined by means of a class non-negative Legendrian isotopies. It is also proved that such partial order is determined by the class of future causal celestial curves, that is, curves in the space of light rays which are tangent to skies and such that they determine non-negative sky-Legendrian isotopies. It will also be proved that the space of skies $\\Sigma$ equipped with Low's (or reconstructive) topology is homeomorphic and diffeomorphic to $M$ under the only additional assumption that $M$ separates skies, that is, that different points determine different skies. The sky-separating property of $M$ being weaker than the "non-refocussing" property encountered in the previous literature is sharp and the previous result provides the answer to the question of what is the class of space-times whose causal structure, topology and differe...

  12. Blue Ocean vs. Five Forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E. Burke (Andrew); A.J. van Stel (André); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe article reports on the authors' research in the Netherlands which focused on a profit model in Dutch retail stores and a so-called blue-ocean approach which requires a new market that attracts consumers and increases profits. Topics include the competitive strategy approach to increa

  13. Blue rubber bleb naevus syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lybecker, Martin Bell; Stawowy, Marek; Clausen, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Blue rubber bleb naevus syndrome (BRBNS) is a rare vascular disorder with malformed veins, or blebs, appearing in the skin or internal organs. Gastrointestinal tract involvement is the most common feature and often subject to bleeding, potentially resulting in chronic occult blood loss and iron...

  14. The blue revolution in asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Karen Sau; Ponte, Stefano; Kelling, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we examine the upgrading trajectories of selected aquaculture value chains in four Asian countries and the links between upgrading and three factors of value chain governance: coordination mechanisms; types of drivers; and domestic regulation. We find instances of improving produ...... of upgrading the "blue revolution" in Asia...

  15. Splitting neutrino masses and showering into Sky

    CERN Document Server

    Fargion, D; Iacovelli, M; Lanciano, O; Oliva, P; De Lucentini, P G S; Grossi, M; De Santis, M

    2006-01-01

    Neutrino masses might be as light as a few time the atmospheric neutrino mass splitting. High Energy ZeV cosmic neutrinos (in Z-Showering model) might hit relic ones at each mass in different resonance energies in our nearby Universe. This non-degenerated density and energy must split UHE Z-boson secondaries (in Z-Burst model) leading to multi injection of UHECR nucleons within future extreme AUGER energy. Secondaries of Z-Burst as neutral gamma, below a few tens EeV are better surviving local GZK cut-off and they might explain recent Hires BL-Lac UHECR correlations at small angles. A different high energy resonance must lead to Glashow's anti-neutrino showers while hitting electrons in matter. In air, Glashow's anti-neutrino showers lead to collimated and directional air-showers offering a new Neutrino Astronomy. At greater energy around PeV, Tau escaping mountains and Earth and decaying in flight are effectively showering in air sky. These Horizontal showering is splitting by geomagnetic field in forked sha...

  16. Lighting up the sky for CERN's anniversary

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    For CERN's Golden Jubilee, the Canton of Geneva, supported by the Pays de Gex local authorities, lit up eight points around the LHC ring. On the date of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, 29 September 2004, the Organization's Host State authorities gave the Laboratory a gift of light. As night fell, twenty-four powerful floodlights blazed into the night sky from the eight access points to the future LHC. For the many spectators gathered at a special vantage point above the village of Crozet, these beams emanating from the valley floor marked out the locations of the access shafts around the 27-km of the LHC tunnel.The event was organised by the Department of Justice, Police and Security of the Canton of Geneva, with the participation of the Crozet local council and support of local councils in the Canton of Geneva, the Communauté des communes of the Pays de Gex, and the Ain Préfecture. This joint gift from the local authorities on both sides of the French-Swiss border has great symbolic value for an organisatio...

  17. MUSE dream conclusion: the sky verdict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillier, P.; Accardo, M.; Adjali, L.; Anwand, H.; Bacon, R.; Boudon, D.; Capoani, L.; Daguisé, E.; Dupieux, M.; Dupuy, C.; Francois, M.; Glindemann, A.; Gojak, D.; Gonté, F.; Haddad, N.; Hansali, G.; Hahn, T.; Jarno, A.; Kelz, A.; Koehler, C.; Kosmalski, J.; Laurent, F.; Larrieu, M.; Lizon, J.-L.; Loupias, M.; Manescau, A.; Migniau, J.-E.; Monstein, C.; Nicklas, H.; Parès, L.; Pécontal-Rousset, A.; Piqueras, L.; Reiss, R.; Remillieux, A.; Renault, E.; Rupprecht, G.; Streicher, O.; Stuik, R.; Valentin, H.; Vernet, J.; Weilbacher, P.; Zins, G.

    2014-08-01

    MUSE (Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer) is a second generation instrument built for ESO (European Southern Observatory). The MUSE project is supported by a European consortium of 7 institutes. After the finalisation of its integration in Europe, the MUSE instrument has been partially dismounted and shipped to the VLT (Very Large Telescope) in Chile. From October 2013 till February 2014, it has then been reassembled, tested and finally installed on the telescope its final home. From there it collects its first photons coming from the outer limit of the visible universe. This critical moment when the instrument finally meets its destiny is the opportunity to look at the overall outcome of the project and the final performance of the instrument on the sky. The instrument which we dreamt of has become reality. Are the dreamt performances there as well? These final instrumental performances are the result of a step by step process of design, manufacturing, assembly, test and integration. Now is also time to review the path opened by the MUSE project. What challenges were faced during those last steps, what strategy, what choices did pay off? What did not?

  18. MUSE from Europe to the Chilean Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillier, P.; Accardo, Mateo; Adjali, L.; Anwand, H.; Bacon, R.; Boudon, D.; Capoani, L.; Daguisé, E.; Dupieux, M.; Dupuy, C.; François, M.; Glindemann, A.; Gojak, D.; Gonté, F.; Haddad, N.; Hansali, G.; Hahn, T.; Jarno, A.; Kelz, A.; Koehler, Kristof; Kosmalski, Johan; Laurent, F.; Larrieu, M.; Lizon, J.-L.; Loupias, M.; Manescau, A.; Migniau, J. E.; Monstein, C.; Nicklas, H.; Parès, L.; Pécontal-Rousset, A.; Piqueras, L.; Reiss, R.; Remillieux, A.; Renault, E.; Rupprecht, G.; Streicher, O.; Stuik, R.; Valentin, H.; Vernet, J.; Weilbacher, P.; Zins, G.

    2014-07-01

    MUSE (Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer) is a second generation instrument, built for ESO (European Southern Observatory) and dedicated to the VLT (Very Large Telescope). This instrument is an innovative integral field spectrograph (1x1 arcmin2 Field of View), operating in the visible wavelength range, from 465 nm to 930 nm. The MUSE project is supported by a European consortium of 7 institutes. After the finalisation of its integration and test in Europe validated by its Preliminary Acceptance in Europe, the MUSE instrument has been partially dismounted and shipped to the VLT (Very Large Telescope) in Chile. From October 2013 till February 2014, it has then been reassembled, tested and finally installed on the telescope its final home. From there it will collect its first photons coming from the outer limit of the visible universe. To come to this achievement, many tasks had to be completed and challenges overcome. These last steps in the project life have certainly been ones of the most critical. Critical in terms of risk, of working conditions, of operational constrains, of schedule and finally critical in terms of outcome: The first light and the final performances of the instrument on the sky.

  19. Dark Sky Simulations: Early Data Release

    CERN Document Server

    Skillman, Samuel W; Turk, Matthew J; Wechsler, Risa H; Holz, Daniel E; Sutter, P M

    2014-01-01

    The Dark Sky Simulations are an ongoing series of cosmological N-body simulations designed to provide a quantitative and accessible model of the evolution of the large-scale Universe. Such models are essential for many aspects of the study of dark matter and dark energy, since we lack a sufficiently accurate analytic model of non-linear gravitational clustering. In July 2014, we made available to the general community our early data release, consisting of over 55 Terabytes of simulation data products, including our largest simulation to date, which used $1.07 \\times 10^{12}~(10240^3)$ particles in a volume $8h^{-1}\\mathrm{Gpc}$ across. Our simulations were performed with 2HOT, a purely tree-based adaptive N-body method, running on 200,000 processors of the Titan supercomputer, with data analysis enabled by yt. We provide an overview of the derived halo catalogs, mass function, power spectra and light cone data. We show self-consistency in the mass function and mass power spectrum at the 1% level over a range ...

  20. All-sky search of NAUTILUS data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astone, P [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare INFN, Rome (Italy); Bassan, M; Coccia, E; D' Antonio, S; Minenkov, Y; Modena, I [University of Rome ' Tor Vergata' and INFN, Rome II (Italy); Bonifazi, P [IFSI-CNR and INFN, Rome (Italy); Borkowski, K M [Centre of Astronomy, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Torun (Poland); Budzynski, R J [Department of Physics, Warsaw University, Warsaw (Poland); Chincarini, A [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare INFN, Genova (Italy); Emilio, M Di Paolo [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi, L' Aquila (Italy); Fafone, V; Giordano, G; Marini, A [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare INFN, Frascati (Italy); Frasca, S [University of Rome ' La Sapienza' and INFN, Rome (Italy); Foffa, S; Maggiore, M [Dep. de Phys. Theorique, Universite de Geneve, Geneve (Switzerland); Jaranowski, P [Faculty of Physics, University of Bialystok, Bialystok (Poland); Kondracki, W; Krolak, A [Institute of Mathematics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland)], E-mail: krolak@impan.gov.pl (and others)

    2008-09-21

    A search for periodic gravitational-wave signals from isolated neutron stars in the NAUTILUS detector data is presented. We have analyzed half a year of data over the frequency band (922.2; 923.2) Hz, the spindown range ( - 1.463 x 10{sup -8}; 0) Hz/s and over the entire sky. We have divided the data into two day stretches and we have analyzed each stretch coherently using matched filtering. We have imposed a low threshold for the optimal detection statistic to obtain a set of candidates that are further examined for coincidences among various data stretches. For some candidates we have also investigated the change of the signal-to-noise ratio when we increase the observation time from 2 to 4 days. Our analysis has not revealed any gravitational-wave signals. Therefore we have imposed upper limits on the dimensionless gravitational-wave amplitude over the parameter space that we have searched. Depending on frequency, our upper limit ranges from 3.4 x 10{sup -23} to 1.3 x 10{sup -22}. We have attempted a statistical verification of the hypotheses leading to our conclusions. We estimate that our upper limit is accurate to within 18%.

  1. Supplemental Oxygen for Paratroopers and Sky Divers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Jha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Parajumping and sky diving in Armed Forces are used for rapid and strategic troop’s deployments. In the combat free fall (CFF, the troops are paradropped from high altitudes in excess of 30,000 ft above mean sea level (AMSL when they glide to a great distance, often within the enemy lines. Physiology of parajumping necessitates supplemental oxygen above 15,000 ft AMSL. Possibility of serious hypoxia and decompression sickness mandate the usage of supplemental oxygen through dedicated equipment. Other considerations such as effects of hypoxia on tissue oxygenation, physical and mental performance, neuronal functions, night vision, and prevailing anxiety factors, etc. also assume significance. Factors like intermittent hypoxic exposures, free fall, effects of posture during fall, and possible microgravity become mitigating factors. Owing to limited oxygen supply being carried by the paratroopers, using dilution method in providing the breathing gas too assumes importance at times as a trade-off between requirements and supply. This paper reviews the literatures to extent possible and recommends certain concepts for an optimal oxygen usage during the high altitude parajumps.Defence Science Journal, 2012, 62(1, pp.51-57, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.62.599

  2. All-sky search of NAUTILUS data

    CERN Document Server

    Astone, P; Bonifazi, P; Borkowski, K M; Budzyński, R J; Chincarini, A; Coccia, E; D'Antonio, S; Emilio, M Di Paolo; Fafone, V; Frasca, S; Foffa, S; Giordano, G; Jaranowski, P; Kondracki, W; Królak, A; Maggiore, M; Marini, A; Minenkov, Y; Modena, I; Modestino, G; Moleti, A; Pallottino, G V; Palomba, C; Parodi, R; Pietka, M; Pizzella, G; Pletsch, H J; Quintieri, L; Ricci, F; Rocchi, A; Ronga, F; Sturani, R; Terenzi, R; Vaccarone, R; Visco, M

    2008-01-01

    A search for periodic gravitational-wave signals from isolated neutron stars in the NAUTILUS detector data is presented. We have analyzed half a year of data over the frequency band $$ Hz, the spindown range $$ Hz/s and over the entire sky. We have divided the data into 2 day stretches and we have analyzed each stretch coherently using matched filtering. We have imposed a low threshold for the optimal detection statistic to obtain a set of candidates that are further examined for coincidences among various data stretches. For some candidates we have also investigated the change of the signal-to-noise ratio when we increase the observation time from two to four days. Our analysis has not revealed any gravitational-wave signals. Therefore we have imposed upper limits on the dimensionless gravitational-wave amplitude over the parameter space that we have searched. Depending on frequency, our upper limit ranges from $3.4 \\times 10^{-23}$ to $1.3 \\times 10^{-22}$. We have attempted a statistical verification of th...

  3. Wide-Field Sky Monitoring - Optical and X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudec, R.; BART Teams; Ondrejov Observatory Lobster Eye Team

    We report on selected projects in wide-field sky imaging. This includes the recent efforts to digitize the astronomical sky plate archives and to apply these data for various scientific projects. We also address and discuss the status of the development of related algorithms and software programs. These data may easily provide very long term monitoring over very extended time intervals (up to more than 100 years) with limiting magnitudes between 12 and 23. The further experiments include CCD sky monitors, OMC camera onboard the ESA Integral satellite, robotic telescopes, and innovative wide-field X-ray telescopes.

  4. Data indexing techniques for the EUVE all-sky survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, J.; Saba, V.; Dobson, C.

    1992-01-01

    This poster describes techniques developed for manipulating large full-sky data sets for the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer project. The authors have adapted the quatrilateralized cubic sphere indexing algorithm to allow us to efficiently store and process several types of large data sets, such as full-sky maps of photon counts, exposure time, and count rates. A variation of this scheme is used to index sparser data such as individual photon events and viewing times for selected areas of the sky, which are eventually used to create EUVE source catalogs.

  5. ESA Sky: a new Astronomy Multi-Mission Interface

    OpenAIRE

    Merín, Bruno; Salgado, Jesús; Giordano, Fabrizio; Baines, Deborah; Sarmiento, María-Henar; Martí, Belén López; Racero, Elena; Gutiérrez, Raúl; Pollock, Andy; Rosa, Michael; Castellanos, Javier; González, Juan; De león, Ignacio; de Landaluce, Iñaki Ortiz; de Teodoro, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    We present a science-driven discovery portal for all the ESA Astronomy Missions called ESA Sky that allow users to explore the multi-wavelength sky and to seamlessly retrieve science-ready data in all ESA Astronomy mission archives from a web application without prior-knowledge of any of the missions. The first public beta of the service has been released, currently featuring an interface for exploration of the multi-wavelength sky and for single and/or multiple target searches of science-rea...

  6. ESO unveils an amazing, interactive, 360-degree panoramic view of the entire night sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    The first of three images of ESO's GigaGalaxy Zoom project - a new magnificent 800-million-pixel panorama of the entire sky as seen from ESO's observing sites in Chile - has just been released online. The project allows stargazers to explore and experience the Universe as it is seen with the unaided eye from the darkest and best viewing locations in the world. This 360-degree panoramic image, covering the entire celestial sphere, reveals the cosmic landscape that surrounds our tiny blue planet. This gorgeous starscape serves as the first of three extremely high-resolution images featured in the GigaGalaxy Zoom project, launched by ESO within the framework of the International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009). GigaGalaxy Zoom features a web tool that allows users to take a breathtaking dive into our Milky Way. With this tool users can learn more about many different and exciting objects in the image, such as multicoloured nebulae and exploding stars, just by clicking on them. In this way, the project seeks to link the sky we can all see with the deep, "hidden" cosmos that astronomers study on a daily basis. The wonderful quality of the images is a testament to the splendour of the night sky at ESO's sites in Chile, which are the most productive astronomical observatories in the world. The plane of our Milky Way Galaxy, which we see edge-on from our perspective on Earth, cuts a luminous swath across the image. The projection used in GigaGalaxy Zoom place the viewer in front of our Galaxy with the Galactic Plane running horizontally through the image - almost as if we were looking at the Milky Way from the outside. From this vantage point, the general components of our spiral galaxy come clearly into view, including its disc, marbled with both dark and glowing nebulae, which harbours bright, young stars, as well as the Galaxy's central bulge and its satellite galaxies. The painstaking production of this image came about as a collaboration between ESO, the renowned

  7. Basic stress analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Iremonger, M J

    1982-01-01

    BASIC Stress Analysis aims to help students to become proficient at BASIC programming by actually using it in an important engineering subject. It also enables the student to use computing as a means of learning stress analysis because writing a program is analogous to teaching-it is necessary to understand the subject matter. The book begins by introducing the BASIC approach and the concept of stress analysis at first- and second-year undergraduate level. Subsequent chapters contain a summary of relevant theory, worked examples containing computer programs, and a set of problems. Topics c

  8. Quantum electronics basic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Fain, V M; Sanders, J H

    1969-01-01

    Quantum Electronics, Volume 1: Basic Theory is a condensed and generalized description of the many research and rapid progress done on the subject. It is translated from the Russian language. The volume describes the basic theory of quantum electronics, and shows how the concepts and equations followed in quantum electronics arise from the basic principles of theoretical physics. The book then briefly discusses the interaction of an electromagnetic field with matter. The text also covers the quantum theory of relaxation process when a quantum system approaches an equilibrium state, and explai

  9. QCD-inspired spectra from Blue`s functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, M.A. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany)]|[Technische Hochschule Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik]|[Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Cracow (Poland). Dept. of Theoretical Physics; Papp, G. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany)]|[Lorand Eoetvoes Univ., Budapest (Hungary). Inst. for Theoretical Physics; Zahed, I. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1996-03-01

    We use the law of addition in random matrix theory to analyze the spectral distributions of a variety of chiral random matrix models as inspired from QCD whether by symmetries or models. In terms of the Blue`s functions recently discussed by Zee, we show that most of the spectral distributions in the macroscopic limit and the quenched approximation, follow algebraically from the discontinuity of a pertinent solution to a cubic (Cardano) or a quartic (Ferrari) equation. We use the end-point equation of the energy spectra in chiral random matrix models to argue for novel phase structures, in which the Dirac density of states plays the role of an order parameter. (orig.)

  10. Five generations of peace operations: from the "thin blue line" to "painting a country blue"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Michael Kenkel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article combines both international practice and analytical contributions into a systematic and synthetic presentation of the evolution of peace operations from their modern inception in 1948 to the present. It seeks to serve a didactic purpose in proposing a basic structure for Brazilian scholars' burgeoning debate on peace operations and intervention, rather than a definitive characterization of blue helmet practice. Peace operations' progression is traced through five analytical "generations," each adding a crucial factor distinguishing it from its predecessors. Each generation is placed in relation to changes in the nature of conflict and in the interpretation of the foundational principles of peace operations, and links to broader theoretical issues in International Relations are made explicit at each stage.

  11. Discovery of a New Blue Quasar: SDSS J022218.03-062511.1

    CERN Document Server

    Fix, Mees B; Tucker, Douglas L; Wester, William; Annis, James

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of a bright blue quasar: SDSS J022218.03-062511.1. This object was discovered spectroscopically while searching for hot white dwarfs that may be used as calibration sources for large sky surveys such as the Dark Energy Survey or the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope project. We present the calibrated spectrum, spectral line shifts and report a redshift of z = 0.521 +/- 0.0015 and a rest-frame g-band luminosity of 8.71 X 10^11 L(Sun).

  12. HIV Treatment: The Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV Treatment HIV Treatment: The Basics (Last updated 2/24/2017; last reviewed 2/24/2017) Key Points Antiretroviral therapy (ART) ... reduces the risk of HIV transmission . How do HIV medicines work? HIV attacks and destroys the infection- ...

  13. Kidney Disease Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Take the first step Alternate Language URL Kidney Disease Basics Page Content Your kidneys filter extra ... blood pressure are the most common causes of kidney disease. ​These conditions can slowly damage the kidneys ...

  14. Health Literacy Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions. 1 Health literacy is dependent on individual and systemic factors: Communication skills of lay persons and professionals Lay and professional ...

  15. Basic Financial Accounting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiborg, Karsten

    This textbook on Basic Financial Accounting is targeted students in the economics studies at universities and business colleges having an introductory subject in the external dimension of the company's economic reporting, including bookkeeping, etc. The book includes the following subjects...

  16. Sky pixelization for the analysis of extended emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkhodanov, O. V.; Doroshkevich, A. G.

    2013-08-01

    Spherical pixelization schemes are reviewed that allow analyzing extended emission and, in particular, the cosmic microwave background. Problems with implementing different schemes are considered. The nonhierarchical Gauss-Legendre sky pixelization (GLESP) approach is discussed in detail.

  17. Basic Concurrency Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvengreen, Hans Henrik

    2002-01-01

    In this set of notes, we present some of the basic theory underlying the discipline of programming with concurrent processes/threads. The notes are intended to supplement a standard textbook on concurrent programming.......In this set of notes, we present some of the basic theory underlying the discipline of programming with concurrent processes/threads. The notes are intended to supplement a standard textbook on concurrent programming....

  18. The High Time Resolution Radio Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, D.

    2013-11-01

    Pulsars are laboratories for extreme physics unachievable on Earth. As individual sources and possible orbital companions can be used to study magnetospheric, emission, and superfluid physics, general relativistic effects, and stellar and binary evolution. As populations they exhibit a wide range of sub-types, with parameters varying by many orders of magnitude signifying fundamental differences in their evolutionary history and potential uses. There are currently around 2200 known pulsars in the Milky Way, the Magellanic clouds, and globular clusters, most of which have been discovered with radio survey observations. These observations, as well as being suitable for detecting the repeating signals from pulsars, are well suited for identifying other transient astronomical radio bursts that last just a few milliseconds that either singular in nature, or rarely repeating. Prior to the work of this thesis non-repeating radio transients at extragalactic distances had possibly been discovered, however with just one example status a real astronomical sources was in doubt. Finding more of these sources was a vital to proving they were real and to open up the universe for millisecond-duration radio astronomy. The High Time Resolution Universe survey uses the multibeam receiver on the 64-m Parkes radio telescope to search the whole visible sky for pulsars and transients. The temporal and spectral resolution of the receiver and the digital back-end enable the detection of relatively faint, and distant radio sources. From the Parkes telescope a large portion of the Galactic plane can be seen, a rich hunting ground for radio pulsars of all types, while previously poorly surveyed regions away from the Galactic plane are also covered. I have made a number of pulsar discoveries in the survey, including some rare systems. These include PSR J1226-6208, a possible double neutron star system in a remarkably circular orbit, PSR J1431-471 which is being eclipsed by its companion with

  19. "Sausage" and "Toothbrush" in the Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, Myungkook J.; Dawson, William; Van Weeren, Reinout J.; Wittman, David M.; Merging Cluster Collaborations

    2016-06-01

    Radio-relic clusters are a subclass of merging clusters that exhibit elongated diffuse radio emissions at the periphery of the systems. A number of observational and theoretical studies support the premise that the relics trace the locations of shock fronts induced by cluster mergers. Detailed analysis of the radio relic data enables us to put independent constraints on the key parameters necessary in our reconstruction of the merging scenario, including the direction of the merger, the projection angle between the merger axis and the plane of the sky, the shock velocity, and the time since the impact. Because of the limited observational time window set by both development and deterioration of mature shocks, only a few tens of radio relic clusters are known to date. In this poster, we present a detailed study of the two radio-relic clusters CIZA J2242.8+5301 and RX J0603.3+4214, whose peculiar radio-relic morphologies give them the nicknames "Sausage" and "Toothbrush", respectively. Both clusters possess remarkably large (~2 Mpc) radio relics stretched perpendicular to the hypothesized merger axes. After briefly reviewing previous studies, we highlight our recent weak-lensing analysis of these two interesting systems. We find that the "Sausage" cluster's dark matter is elongated along the merger axis and composed of two massive systems, each weighing ~1015 solar masses. On the other hand, the dark matter of the "Toothbrush" cluster is distributed complicatedly and resolved into at least four subclusters with relatively modest masses. Our weak-lensing studies help us to constrain the merger scenarios and enable detailed follow-up numerical studies in the future.

  20. Dark Skies, Bright Kids! Year 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokal, Kimberly R.; Johnson, K. E.; Barcos-Munoz, L. D.; Beaton, R.; Borish, J.; Crawford, S. B.; Corby, J.; Damke, G.; Dean, J.; Dorsey, G.; Jackson, L.; Liss, S.; Oza, A.; Peacock, S.; Prager, B.; Romero, C.; Sivakoff, G. R.; Walker, L.; Whelan, D. G.; Zucker, C.

    2013-01-01

    Aiming to engage young children's natural excitement and curiosity, the outreach group Dark Skies, Bright Kids (DSBK) brings a hands-on approach to astronomy to elementary schools in Virginia. We hope to enhance children's view and understanding of science while exploring the Universe using fun activities. DSBK focuses on rural and underserved schools in Albemarle County and offers a semester-long astronomy club for third through fifth grade students. We believe regular interactions foster personal relationships between students and volunteers that encourage a life-long interest in science. In our fourth year of hosting clubs, we returned to Ivy Creek Elementary School, where we saw wonderful responses from a special group of students with `low-incidence' disabilities. DSBK has grown to realize a broader reach beyond local astronomy clubs; we hope to ignite a spark of interest in astronomy and science more widely- in more children, their families, and their teachers. We also hosted the Second Annual Central Virginia Star Party with an open invitation to the community to encourage families to enjoy astronomy together. Throughout the year, DSBK now holds 'one-off' programs (akin to astronomy field days) for elementary schools and children's groups throughout Virginia. Furthermore, we are in the final stages of a project to create two bilingual astronomy books called "Snapshots of the Universe", in Spanish and French with English translations. This art book will be made available online and we are working to get a copy in every elementary school in the state. DSBK has begun to reach out to elementary school teachers in order to provide them with useful and engaging classroom material. We have adapted our volunteer-created activities into useful and ready-to-use lessons, available online. After improvements based on research through interactions and feedback from teachers, we have explicitly identified the learning goals in terms of Virginia's Standards of Learning

  1. Dark Skies, Bright Kids! Year 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, David G.; Johnson, K. E.; Barcos-Munoz, L. D.; Beaton, R. L.; Borish, J.; Corby, J. F.; Dorsey, G.; Gugliucci, N. E.; Prager, B. J.; Ries, P. A.; Romero, C. E.; Sokal, K. R.; Tang, X.; Walker, L. M.; Yang, A. J.; Zasowski, G.

    2012-01-01

    Dark Skies, Bright Kids! (DSBK) is a program that brings astronomy education to elementary schools throughout central Virginia. In a relaxed, out-of-classroom atmosphere, we are able to foster the innate curiosity that young students have about science and the world around them. We target schools that are under-served due to their rural locale or special needs students, demonstrating that science is a fun and creative process to a segment of the population that might not otherwise be exposed to astronomy. Families are included in the learning experience during semi-annual `star parties'. Since last January, we have expanded the breadth and depth of our educational capabilities. We have developed new programs for use in our digital planetarium. We held the first Central Virginia Star Party, providing an atmosphere where local children from multiple schools were able to share their love for astronomy. Local government and University officials were also invited so that they could experience our focused science outreach. Most recently, we have become part of Ivy Creek School's Club Day activities, bringing our program to a new segment of the elementary school system in Albemarle County: those that have `low-incidence' disabilities, requiring special attention. We continue to develop a curriculum for after-school programs that functions as either a series of one-time activities or several months of focused outreach at one school. Many of these activities are provided on our website, http://www.astro.virginia.edu/dsbk/, for the wider astronomical community, including the new planetarium work. We have extended our book project to include two bilingual astronomy books called `Snapshots of the Universe,' one in Spanish and English, the other in French and English. These books introduce young people to some of the many wonders of the Universe through art and captions developed by DSBK volunteers.

  2. Full-sky Astrometric Mapping Explorer (FAME)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, K.; Gaume, R.; Harris, F.; Monet, D.; Murison, M.; Seidelmann, P. K.; Urban, S.; Johnson, M.; Horner, S.; Vassar, R.

    2000-12-01

    The FAME project began Phase B development in September 2000. FAME is a MIDEX class NASA Explorer mission that will perform an all-sky, astrometric survey with unprecedented accuracy. FAME will produce an astrometric catalog of 40 million stars between 5th and 15th magnitude. For the bright stars (5th to 9th magnitude) FAME will determine positions and parallaxes accurate to better than 50 microarcseconds, with proper motion errors less than 50 microarcseconds per year. For the fainter stars (between 9th and 15th magnitude) FAME will determine positions and parallaxes accurate to better than 500 microarcseconds, with proper motion errors less than 500 microarcseconds per year. FAME will also collect photometric data on these 40 million stars in four Sloan DSS colors. The FAME science, instrument, and spacecraft requirements and error budgets are being refined to establish the basis for the improved design of the instrument and spacecraft. The Attitude Control System (ACS) based on solar radiation pressure is being studied, including the limitations on the solar angle between the Sun and the rotation angle. The data processing plans are being developed. The CCD procurement contract is in place and design and fabrication of the CCDs is in progress. CCD tests for operations in various Time Delay Integration (TDI) situations are underway and described in another poster. It appears that the current FAME launch schedule will be delayed somewhat due to recent NASA budget restrictions. The FAME project is funded by the NASA Explorer program administered by Goddard Space Flight Center for the Office of Space Science under contract number S-13610-Y.

  3. Decreased scattering coefficient of blue sclerae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanting, P J; Borsboom, P C; te Meerman, G J; ten Kate, L P

    1985-01-01

    The optical scattering properties of blue and normal sclerae were studied with a fiber optic scattering monitor. The scattering was clearly reduced in two osteogenesis imperfecta patients with blue sclerae, and low normal in one osteogenesis imperfecta patient without blue sclerae.

  4. Multiwavelength Astronomy Education with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raddick, M. J.; Sparks, R.

    2004-05-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) has developed an extensive array of education and public outreach activities, focused on the SkyServer web site. SkyServer (http://skyserver.sdss.org) offers easy access to the complete dataset of the SDSS, nearly 90 million stars and galaxies. Although the SDSS is primarily an optical survey, we have developed activities that link SDSS data to data from other surveys. Cross-correlations to ROSAT (x-rays) and FIRST (radio) are included in SkyServer, and many other surveys can be cross-correlated with SDSS data using SkyQuery (http://www.skyquery.org). We have developed a "Sky Surveys" activity for high school, community college, and college teachers. The activity teaches students about historical and modern sky surveys; students compare SDSS images to POSS (an optical survey from the 1950s), and compare images seen by the SDSS to the images of same objects from radio and x-ray data. The activity includes a teacher's guide with sample solutions, a lesson plan, and a scoring rubric. We are also developing other activities that use SkyQuery and the National Virtual Observatory's (http://www.us-vo.org) Data Inventory Service. In this presentation, I will demonstrate these activities, provide handouts for teachers, and discuss the future directions that SDSS outreach will take. We gratefully acknowledge funding from the Space Telescope Science Institute's IDEAS program (http://ideas.stsci.edu), the National Science Foundation's Small Grants for Exploratory Research (SGER) program, and the Maryland Space Grant Consortium.

  5. SKYMONITOR: A Global Network for Sky Brightness Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Donald R.; Mckenna, D.; Pulvermacher, R.; Everett, M.

    2010-01-01

    We are implementing a global network to measure sky brightness at dark-sky critical sites with the goal of creating a multi-decade database. The heart of this project is the Night Sky Brightness Monitor (NSBM), an autonomous 2 channel photometer which measures night sky brightness in the visual wavelengths (Mckenna et al, AAS 2009). Sky brightness is measured every minute at two elevation angles typically zenith and 20 degrees to monitor brightness and transparency. The NSBM consists of two parts, a remote unit and a base station with an internet connection. Currently these devices use 2.4 Ghz transceivers with a range of 100 meters. The remote unit is battery powered with daytime recharging using a solar panel. Data received by the base unit is transmitted via email protocol to IDA offices in Tucson where it will be collected, archived and made available to the user community via a web interface. Two other versions of the NSBM are under development: one for radio sensitive areas using an optical fiber link and the second that reads data directly to a laptop for sites without internet access. NSBM units are currently undergoing field testing at two observatories. With support from the National Science Foundation, we will construct and install a total of 10 units at astronomical observatories. With additional funding, we will locate additional units at other sites such as National Parks, dark-sky preserves and other sites where dark sky preservation is crucial. We will present the current comparison with the National Park Service sky monitoring camera. We anticipate that the SKYMONITOR network will be functioning by the end of 2010.

  6. Sky Glow from Cities: The Army Illumination Model v2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    corresponding to one 10th magnitude star per square degree and will not be pursued further here). Benn and Ellison find that the sky brightness at La Palma ...not have electricity, liquid and pressurized lamps are 23 included. For these latter two, liquid Citronella, lamp oil , liquid paraffin and...Properties; AFGL-TR-79-0214; Air Force Geophysics Laboratory: Hanscom Air Force Base, MA, 1979. 19. Benn, C. R. and Ellison, S. L. La Palma Night-Sky

  7. The Status of the NASA All Sky Fireball Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, William J.; Moser, Danielle E.

    2011-01-01

    Established by the NASA Meteoroid Environment Office, the NASA All Sky Fireball Network consists of 6 meteor video cameras in the southern United States, with plans to expand to 15 cameras by 2013. As of mid-2011, the network had detected 1796 multi-station meteors, including meteors from 43 different meteor showers. The current status of the NASA All Sky Fireball Network is described, alongside preliminary results.

  8. Angle of sky light polarization derived from digital images of the sky under various conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjing; Cao, Yu; Zhang, Xuanzhe; Yang, Yi; Ning, Yu

    2017-01-20

    Skylight polarization is used for navigation by some birds and insects. Skylight polarization also has potential for human navigation applications. Its advantages include relative immunity from interference and the absence of error accumulation over time. However, there are presently few examples of practical applications for polarization navigation technology. The main reason is its weak robustness during cloudy weather conditions. In this paper, the real-time measurement of the sky light polarization pattern across the sky has been achieved with a wide field of view camera. The images were processed under a new reference coordinate system to clearly display the symmetrical distribution of angle of polarization with respect to the solar meridian. A new algorithm for the extraction of the image axis of symmetry is proposed, in which the real-time azimuth angle between the camera and the solar meridian is accurately calculated. Our experimental results under different weather conditions show that polarization navigation has high accuracy, is strongly robust, and performs well during fog and haze, clouds, and strong sunlight.

  9. Seeing the sky through Hubble's eye: The COSMOS SkyWalker

    CERN Document Server

    Jahnke, K; Koekemoer, A

    2006-01-01

    Large, high-resolution space-based imaging surveys produce a volume of data that is difficult to present to the public in a comprehensible way. While megapixel-sized images can still be printed out or downloaded via the World Wide Web, this is no longer feasible for images with 10^9 pixels (e.g., the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys [ACS] images of the Galaxy Evolution from Morphology and SEDs [GEMS] project) or even 10^10 pixels (for the ACS Cosmic Evolution Survey [COSMOS]). We present a Web-based utility called the COSMOS SkyWalker that allows viewing of the huge ACS image data set, even through slow Internet connections. Using standard HTML and JavaScript, the application successively loads only those portions of the image at a time that are currently being viewed on the screen. The user can move within the image by using the mouse or interacting with an overview image. Using an astrometrically registered image for the COSMOS SkyWalker allows the display of calibrated world coordinates f...

  10. Open Skies: Facilitating the many dimensions of transparency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allentuck, J.

    1993-08-01

    The Treaty on Open Skies (Open Skies) was signed on 24 March 1992 by 23 European nations in addition to the United States and Canada. Unlike other arms control treaties which prohibit specific weapons or weapon systems, Open Skies is intended to provide, in the words of its preamble, means ``to facilitate the monitoring of compliance with existing or future arms control agreements.`` In addition, its objectives include the ``improvement of openness and transparency for conflict prevention and crises management in the framework of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe and in other relevant international institutions.`` The preamble also alludes to the possible extension of the Open Skies regime into additional (non-arms control) fields, such as environmental protection. Not mentioned is an objective which the treaty would appear to strive to attain: to equalize to some degree the ability of nations to obtain intelligence deemed essential to their national security. This is in fact the case since it provides such means to signatories which otherwise do not have direct access to advanced information gathering technology. ``Open Skies`` also contributes to monitoring or treaty verification by providing an instrument for cuing further investigation of information which might indicate impending treaty violation. Thus, while appearing unfocussed from a monitoring or treaty verification point of view, Open Skies represents substantial progress toward facilitating transparency.

  11. Night Sky Brightness at San Pedro Martir Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plauchu-Frayn, I.; Richer, M. G.; Colorado, E.; Herrera, J.; Córdova, A.; Ceseña, U.; Ávila, F.

    2017-03-01

    We present optical UBVRI zenith night sky brightness measurements collected on 18 nights during 2013 to 2016 and SQM measurements obtained daily over 20 months during 2014 to 2016 at the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional on the Sierra San Pedro Mártir (OAN-SPM) in México. The UBVRI data is based upon CCD images obtained with the 0.84 m and 2.12 m telescopes, while the SQM data is obtained with a high-sensitivity, low-cost photometer. The typical moonless night sky brightness at zenith averaged over the whole period is U = 22.68, B = 23.10, V = 21.84, R = 21.04, I = 19.36, and SQM = 21.88 {mag} {{arcsec}}-2, once corrected for zodiacal light. We find no seasonal variation of the night sky brightness measured with the SQM. The typical night sky brightness values found at OAN-SPM are similar to those reported for other astronomical dark sites at a similar phase of the solar cycle. We find a trend of decreasing night sky brightness with decreasing solar activity during period of the observations. This trend implies that the sky has become darker by Δ U = 0.7, Δ B = 0.5, Δ V = 0.3, Δ R=0.5 mag arcsec‑2 since early 2014 due to the present solar cycle.

  12. South African night sky brightness during high aerosol epochs

    CERN Document Server

    Winkler, Hartmut; Marang, Fred

    2014-01-01

    Sky conditions in the remote, dry north-western interior of South Africa are now the subject of considerable interest in view of the imminent construction of numerous solar power plants in this area. Furthermore, the part of this region in which the core of the SKA is to be located (which includes SALT) has been declared an Astronomical Advantage Zone, for which sky brightness monitoring will now be mandatory. In this project we seek to characterise the sky brightness profile under a variety of atmospheric conditions. Key factors are of course the lunar phase and altitude, but in addition the sky brightness is also significantly affected by the atmospheric aerosol loading, as that influences light beam scattering. In this paper we chose to investigate the sky characteristics soon after the Mount Pinatubo volcanic eruption in 1991, which resulted in huge ash masses reaching the stratosphere (where they affected solar irradiance for several years). We re-reduced photometric sky measurements from the South Afric...

  13. New Sky Flats for HST's ACS/WFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Ray A.; Grogin, Norman A.

    2016-06-01

    We have begun experiments to make new sky flat files for HST's ACS/WFC. Sky flats can be especially useful for deep imaging in such as programs as deep, extragalactic survey programs because they can help to better deal with noise at low levels. Although we also hope to make similar sky flats for some other popular filters including F606W and F814W, we are beginning this experiment with the F435W filter on the ACS/WFC since it is a popular filter in use in many deep extragalactic surveys, and since the bluer filters such as F435W generally have lower throughput and images in that filter are typically noisier than others at some longer mid-optical wavelengths. Initially, although sources will be masked in these images, etc. we are endeavoring to use just post-SM4 F435W images of duration equal to or greater than 800 seconds and which are free of bright stars in order to try and avoid scattered light and sky background color issues as much as possible, although the sky in different images taken at different times and in different directions will likely have some different background levels and color terms in any event. However, our hope is that the final sky flats will be of sufficient S/N to be good calibrators for deep survey programs.

  14. Status of Blue Ridge Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    This is one in a series of reports prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overview of Blue Ridge Reservoir summarizes reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, water quality and aquatic biological conditions, and activities of reservoir management agencies. This information was extracted from the most current reports and data available, as well as interview with water resource professionals in various federal, state, and local agencies. Blue Ridge Reservoir is a single-purpose hydropower generating project. When consistent with this primary objective, the reservoir is also operated to benefit secondary objectives including water quality, recreation, fish and aquatic habitat, development of shoreline, aesthetic quality, and other public and private uses that support overall regional economic growth and development. 8 refs., 1 fig.

  15. Thermoluminescence (TL) of Egyptian Blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schvoerer, M.; Delavergne, M.-C.; Chapoulie, R.

    1988-01-01

    Egyptian Blue is a synthesized crystalline pictorial pigment with formula CaCuSi/sub 4/O/sub 10/. It has been used in Egypt and Mesopotamia from the 3rd millenium B.C. A preliminary experiment on a recently synthesized sample showed that this pigment is thermoluminescent after ..beta.. irradiation (/sup 90/Sr). As the signal intensity grows linearly with the administered dose within the temperature range commonly used in TL dating, we have been looking for this phenomenon from archaeological pigments. It was encountered with two samples found in excavation. From its intensity and stability we concluded that Egyptian Blue can be dated using TL. This first and positive result encouraged us to extend the method to other types of mineral pigments synthesized by early man, and to suggest that it may be used for direct dating of ancient murals.

  16. The Physics of the Blues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, J. Murray

    2009-03-01

    In looking at the commonalities between music and science, one sees that the musician's palette is based on the principles of physics. The pitch of a musical note is determined by the frequency of the sound wave. The scales that musicians use to create and play music can be viewed as a set of rules. What makes music interesting is how musicians develop those rules and create ambiguity with them. I will discuss the evolution of western musical scales in this context. As a particular example, ``Blue'' notes are very harmonic notes that are missing from the equal temperament scale. The techniques of piano blues and jazz represent the melding of African and Western music into something totally new and exciting. Live keyboard demonstrations will be used. Beyond any redeeming entertainment value the talk will emphasize the serious connections between science and art in music. Nevertheless tips will be accepted.

  17. Fe K-edge XANES of Maya blue pigment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rio, M. Sanchez del [ESRF, Experiments Division, B.P. 220, F-38043, Grenoble Cedex (France)]. E-mail: srio@esrf.fr; Sodo, A. [ESRF, Experiments Division, B.P. 220, F-38043, Grenoble Cedex (France); Eeckhout, S.G. [ESRF, Experiments Division, B.P. 220, F-38043, Grenoble Cedex (France); Neisius, T. [ESRF, Experiments Division, B.P. 220, F-38043, Grenoble Cedex (France); Martinetto, P. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, Grenoble B.P. 166, F-38042, Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Dooryhee, E. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, Grenoble B.P. 166, F-38042, Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Reyes-Valerio, C. [INAH, Mexico DF (Mexico)

    2005-08-15

    The utilization of techniques used in Materials Science for the characterization of artefacts of interest for cultural heritage is getting more and more attention nowadays. One of the products of the ancient Maya chemistry is the 'Maya blue' pigment, made with natural indigo and palygorskite. This pigment is different from any other pigment used in other parts of the world. It is durable and acid-resistant, and still keeps many secrets to scientists even though it has been studied for more than 50 years. Although the pigment is basically made of palygorskite Si{sub 8}(Mg{sub 2}Al{sub 2})O{sub 20}(OH){sub 2}(OH{sub 2}){sub 4}.4H{sub 2}O and an organic colourant (indigo: C{sub 16}H{sub 10}N{sub 2}O{sub 2}), a number of other compounds have been found in previous studies on archaeological samples, like other clays and minerals, iron nanoparticles, iron oxides, impurities of transition metals (Cr, Mn, Ti, V), etc. We measured at the ESRF ID26 beamline the Fe K-edge XANES spectra of the blue pigment in ancient samples. They are compared to XANES spectra of Maya blue samples synthesized under controlled conditions, and iron oxides usually employed as pigments (hematite and goethite). Our results show that the iron found in ancient Maya blue pigment is related to the Fe exchanged in the palygorskite clay. We did not find iron in metallic form or goethite in archaeological Maya blue.

  18. 马自达新一代动力传动系统SKY%New Driveline SKY from Mazda

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    忻文

    2010-01-01

    @@ 马自达日前发布了计划在2011年上市的新款车中配备的新一代动力传动系统.这一名为"SKY"的动力系统系列由2.0L排量直4汽油发动机"SKY-G"、2.2L直4柴油发动机"SKY-D"、6档自动变速器(AT)"SKY-Drive"及新型6档手动变速器(MT)构成,实现了小型轻量化与高效化.

  19. The Sky Polarization Observatory (SPOrt): a project to measure the diffused sky polarization from the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortiglioni, S.

    1999-07-01

    The Sky Polarization Observatory (SPOrt), a project to measure the diffused sky polarization in the frequency range of 22-90 GHz from the International Space Station, is described in its current configuration. Some preliminary considerations about the general topic of polarization in radiometric observations are made, in order to introduce the importance of polarimetric measurements in the more general context of Cosmic Microwave Background observations. The International Space Station is also introduced as a quite good opportunity to address such problematics.

  20. Spectral and Spatial UV Sky Radiance Measurements at a Seaside Resort Under Clear Sky and Slightly Overcast Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandmann, Henner; Stick, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Spatial measurements of the diffusely scattered sky radiance at a seaside resort under clear sky and slightly overcast conditions have been used to calculate the sky radiance distribution across the upper hemisphere. The measurements were done in the summer season when solar UV radiation is highest. The selected wavelengths were 307, 350 and 550 nm representing the UVB, UVA and VIS band. Absolute values of radiance differ considerably between the wavelengths. Normalizing the measured values by use of direct solar radiance made the spatial distributions of unequal sky radiance comparable. The results convey a spatial impression of the different distributions of the radiance at the three wavelengths. Relative scattered radiance intensity is one order of magnitude greater in UVB than in VIS, whereas in UVA lies roughly in between. Under slightly overcast conditions scattered radiance is increased at all three wavelengths by about one order of magnitude. These measurements taken at the seaside underline the importance of diffuse scattered radiance. The effect of shading parts of the sky can be estimated from the distribution of sky radiance. This knowledge might be useful for sun seekers and in the treatment of people staying at the seaside for therapeutic purposes.

  1. Splitting Neutrino masses and Showering into Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargion, D.; D'Armiento, D.; Lanciano, O.; Oliva, P.; Iacobelli, M.; de Sanctis Lucentini, P. G.; Grossi, M.; de Santis, M.

    2007-06-01

    Neutrino masses might be as light as a few time the atmospheric neutrino mass splitting. The relic cosmic neutrinos may cluster in wide Dark Hot Local Group Halo. High Energy ZeV cosmic neutrinos (in Z-Showering model) might hit relic ones at each mass in different resonance energies in our nearby Universe. This non-degenerated density and energy must split UHE Z-boson secondaries (in Z-Burst model) leading to multi injection of UHECR nucleons within future extreme AUGER energy. Secondaries of Z-Burst as neutral gamma, below a few tens EeV are better surviving local GZK cut-off and they might explain recent Hires BL-Lac UHECR correlations at small angles. A different high energy resonance must lead to Glashow's anti-neutrino showers while hitting electrons in matter. In water and ice it leads to isotropic light explosions. In air, Glashow's anti-neutrino showers lead to collimated and directional air-showers offering a new Neutrino Astronomy. Because of neutrino flavor mixing, astrophysical energetic tau neutrino above tens GeV must arise over atmospheric background. At TeV range is difficult to disentangle tau neutrinos from other atmospheric flavors. At greater energy around PeV, Tau escaping mountains and Earth and decaying in flight are effectively showering in air sky. These Horizontal showering is splitting by geomagnetic field in forked shapes. Such air-showers secondaries release amplified and beamed gamma bursts (like observed TGF), made also by muon and electron pair bundles, with their accompanying rich Cherenkov flashes. Also planet's largest (Saturn, Jupiter) atmosphere limbs offer an ideal screen for UHE GZK and Z-burst tau neutrino, because their largest sizes. Titan thick atmosphere and small radius are optimal for discovering up-going resonant Glashow resonant anti-neutrino electron showers. Detection from Earth of Tau, anti-Tau, anti-electron neutrino induced Air-showers by twin Magic Telescopes on top mountains, or space based detection on

  2. Interpreting Sky-Averaged 21-cm Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirocha, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    Within the first ~billion years after the Big Bang, the intergalactic medium (IGM) underwent a remarkable transformation, from a uniform sea of cold neutral hydrogen gas to a fully ionized, metal-enriched plasma. Three milestones during this epoch of reionization -- the emergence of the first stars, black holes (BHs), and full-fledged galaxies -- are expected to manifest themselves as extrema in sky-averaged ("global") measurements of the redshifted 21-cm background. However, interpreting these measurements will be complicated by the presence of strong foregrounds and non-trivialities in the radiative transfer (RT) modeling required to make robust predictions.I have developed numerical models that efficiently solve the frequency-dependent radiative transfer equation, which has led to two advances in studies of the global 21-cm signal. First, frequency-dependent solutions facilitate studies of how the global 21-cm signal may be used to constrain the detailed spectral properties of the first stars, BHs, and galaxies, rather than just the timing of their formation. And second, the speed of these calculations allows one to search vast expanses of a currently unconstrained parameter space, while simultaneously characterizing the degeneracies between parameters of interest. I find principally that (1) physical properties of the IGM, such as its temperature and ionization state, can be constrained robustly from observations of the global 21-cm signal without invoking models for the astrophysical sources themselves, (2) translating IGM properties to galaxy properties is challenging, in large part due to frequency-dependent effects. For instance, evolution in the characteristic spectrum of accreting BHs can modify the 21-cm absorption signal at levels accessible to first generation instruments, but could easily be confused with evolution in the X-ray luminosity star-formation rate relation. Finally, (3) the independent constraints most likely to aide in the interpretation

  3. Evaluation of Clear Sky Models for Satellite-Based Irradiance Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengupta, M.; Gotseff, P.

    2013-12-01

    This report describes an intercomparison of three popular broadband clear sky solar irradiance model results with measured data, as well as satellite-based model clear sky results compared to measured clear sky data. The authors conclude that one of the popular clear sky models (the Bird clear sky model developed by Richard Bird and Roland Hulstrom) could serve as a more accurate replacement for current satellite-model clear sky estimations. Additionally, the analysis of the model results with respect to model input parameters indicates that rather than climatological, annual, or monthly mean input data, higher-time-resolution input parameters improve the general clear sky model performance.

  4. From Sky to Archive: Long Term Management of Sky Survey Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darch, Peter T.; Sands, Ashley E.; Borgman, Christine; Golshan, Milena S.; Traweek, Sharon

    2017-01-01

    Sky survey data may remain scientifically valuable long beyond the end of a survey’s operational period, both for continuing inquiry and for calibrating and testing instruments for subsequent generations of surveys. Astronomy infrastructure has many stakeholders, including those concerned with data management. Research libraries are increasingly partnering with scholars to sustain access to data.The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) was among the first major scientific projects to partner with libraries in this way, embarking on a data transfer process with two university libraries. We report on a qualitative case study of this process.Ideally, long-term sustainability of sky survey data would be a key part of planning and construction, but rarely does this occur. Teams are under pressure to deliver a project on time and on budget that produces high-quality data during its operational period, leaving few resources available to plan long-term data management. The difficulty of planning is further compounded by the complexity of predicting circumstances and needs of the astronomy community in future decades. SDSS team members regarded libraries, long-lived institutions concerned with access to scholarship, as a potential solution to long-term data sustainability.As the SDSS data transfer was the first of this scale attempted - 160 TB of data - astronomers and library staff were faced with scoping the range of activities involved. They spent two years planning this five-year process. While successful overall as demonstration projects, the libraries encountered many obstacles. We found all parties experienced difficulty in articulating their notions of “scientific data,” “archiving,” “serving,” and “providing access” to the datasets. Activities and interpretations of the data transfer process varied by institutional motivations for participation and by available infrastructure. We conclude several, rather than a single, “library solutions” for long

  5. Blue Mountain, Humboldt County, Nevada, U.S.A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ted Fitzpatrick, Brian D. Fairbank

    2005-04-01

    The report documents the drilling of well Deep Blue No.2, the second deep geothermal test hole at the Blue Mountain Geothermal Area, Humboldt County, Nevada. The well was drilled by Noramex Corp, a Nevada company, with funding support from the US Department of Energy, under the DOE’s GRED II Program. Deep Blue No.2 was drilled as a ‘step-out’ hole from Deep Blue No.1, to further evaluate the commercial potential of the geothermal resource. Deep Blue No.2 was designed as a vertical, slim observation test hole to a nominal target depth of 1000 meters (nominal 3400 feet). The well tests an area of projected high temperatures at depth, from temperature gradients measured in a group of shallow drill holes located approximately one kilometer to the northeast of observation hole Deep Blue No.1. The well is not intended for, or designed as, a commercial well or a production well. Deep Blue No.2 was spudded on March 25, 2004 and completed to a total depth of 1127.76m (3700 ft) on April 28, 2004. The well was drilled using conventional rotary drilling techniques to a depth of 201.17 m (660 ft), and continuously cored from 201.17m (660 ft) to 1127.76m (3700 ft). A brief rig-on flow-test was conducted at completion to determine basic reservoir parameters and obtain fluid samples. A permeable fracture zone with measured temperatures of 150 to 167°C (302 to 333°F) occurs between 500 to 750m (1640 to 2461ft). The well was left un-lined in anticipation of the Phase III - Flow and Injection Testing. A further Kuster temperature survey was attempted after the well had been shut in for almost 3 weeks. The well appears to have bridged off at 439m (1440ft) as the Kuster tool was unable to descend past this point. Several attempts to dislodge the obstruction using tube jars were unsuccessful. Deep Blue No.2 encountered variably fractured and veined, fine-grained rocks of the Singas Formation, and intruded by minor strongly altered fine-grained felsic dikes, and less altered

  6. Basic Electromagnetism and Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Moliton, André

    2007-01-01

    Basic Electromagnetism and Materials is the product of many years of teaching basic and applied electromagnetism. This textbook can be used to teach electromagnetism to a wide range of undergraduate science majors in physics, electrical engineering or materials science. However, by making lesser demands on mathematical knowledge than competing texts, and by emphasizing electromagnetic properties of materials and their applications, this textbook is uniquely suited to students of materials science. Many competing texts focus on the study of propagation waves either in the microwave or optical domain, whereas Basic Electromagnetism and Materials covers the entire electromagnetic domain and the physical response of materials to these waves. Professor André Moliton is Director of the Unité de Microélectronique, Optoélectronique et Polymères (Université de Limoges, France), which brings together three groups studying the optoelectronics of molecular and polymer layers, micro-optoelectronic systems for teleco...

  7. Nuclear multifragmentation: Basic concepts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Chaudhuri; S Mallik; S Das Gupta

    2014-05-01

    We present a brief overview of nuclear multifragmentation reaction. Basic formalism of canonical thermodynamical model based on equilibrium statistical mechanics is described. This model is used to calculate basic observables of nuclear multifragmentation like mass distribution, fragment multiplicity, isotopic distribution and isoscaling. Extension of canonical thermodynamical model to a projectile fragmentation model is outlined. Application of the projectile fragmentation model for calculating average number of intermediate mass fragments and the average size of the largest cluster at different bound, differential charge distribution and cross-section of neutron-rich nuclei of different projectile fragmentation reactions at different energies are described. Application of nuclear multifragmentation reaction in basic research as well as in other domains is outlined.

  8. Decontamination: back to basics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Susan J; Sjorgen, Geoff

    2008-07-01

    My invitation from this Journal's Editor, Felicia Cox, to provide a paper for this themed issue, included the sentence 'I was wondering if you or a colleague would like to contribute a back to basics article on the relevant standards and guidelines for decontamination, including what is compliance?'. The reason it is so interesting to me is that the term 'back to basics' implies reverting to a simpler time in life - when by just sticking to the rules, life became easier. However, with decontamination this is not actually true.

  9. Comprehensive basic mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Veena, GR

    2005-01-01

    Salient Features As per II PUC Basic Mathematics syllabus of Karnataka. Provides an introduction to various basic mathematical techniques and the situations where these could be usefully employed. The language is simple and the material is self-explanatory with a large number of illustrations. Assists the reader in gaining proficiency to solve diverse variety of problems. A special capsule containing a gist and list of formulae titled ''REMEMBER! Additional chapterwise arranged question bank and 3 model papers in a separate section---''EXAMINATION CORNER''.

  10. Basic set theory

    CERN Document Server

    Levy, Azriel

    2002-01-01

    An advanced-level treatment of the basics of set theory, this text offers students a firm foundation, stopping just short of the areas employing model-theoretic methods. Geared toward upper-level undergraduate and graduate students, it consists of two parts: the first covers pure set theory, including the basic motions, order and well-foundedness, cardinal numbers, the ordinals, and the axiom of choice and some of it consequences; the second deals with applications and advanced topics such as point set topology, real spaces, Boolean algebras, and infinite combinatorics and large cardinals. An

  11. Basic research championed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friebele, Elaine

    In April, the Office of National Science and Technology Policy released its biennial report to Congress. Science and Technology: Shaping the Twenty-First Century addresses the President's policy for maintaining U.S. leadership in science and technology, significant developments, and important national issues in science, and opportunities to use science and technology in federal programs and national goals. The administration strongly supports basic research as a sound investment and an inspiration to society. As corporate laboratories increasingly favor applied R&D projects, the federal government is becoming the dominant sponsor of long-term, basic research.

  12. Basic properties of semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Landsberg, PT

    2013-01-01

    Since Volume 1 was published in 1982, the centres of interest in the basic physics of semiconductors have shifted. Volume 1 was called Band Theory and Transport Properties in the first edition, but the subject has broadened to such an extent that Basic Properties is now a more suitable title. Seven chapters have been rewritten by the original authors. However, twelve chapters are essentially new, with the bulk of this work being devoted to important current topics which give this volume an almost encyclopaedic form. The first three chapters discuss various aspects of modern band theory and the

  13. Basic Financial Accounting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiborg, Karsten

    This textbook on Basic Financial Accounting is targeted students in the economics studies at universities and business colleges having an introductory subject in the external dimension of the company's economic reporting, including bookkeeping, etc. The book includes the following subjects: busin......: business entities, the transformation process, types of businesses, stakeholders, legislation, the annual report, the VAT system, double-entry bookkeeping, inventories, and year-end cast flow analysis.......This textbook on Basic Financial Accounting is targeted students in the economics studies at universities and business colleges having an introductory subject in the external dimension of the company's economic reporting, including bookkeeping, etc. The book includes the following subjects...

  14. "APEC Blue" association with emission control and meteorological conditions detected by multi-scale statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Dai, Xin-Gang

    2016-09-01

    The term "APEC Blue" has been created to describe the clear sky days since the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit held in Beijing during November 5-11, 2014. The duration of the APEC Blue is detected from November 1 to November 14 (hereafter Blue Window) by moving t test in statistics. Observations show that APEC Blue corresponds to low air pollution with respect to PM2.5, PM10, SO2, and NO2 under strict emission-control measures (ECMs) implemented in Beijing and surrounding areas. Quantitative assessment shows that ECM is more effective on reducing aerosols than the chemical constituents. Statistical investigation has revealed that the window also resulted from intensified wind variability, as well as weakened static stability of atmosphere (SSA). The wind and ECMs played key roles in reducing air pollution during November 1-7 and 11-13, and strict ECMs and weak SSA become dominant during November 7-10 under weak wind environment. Moving correlation manifests that the emission reduction for aerosols can increase the apparent wind cleanup effect, leading to significant negative correlations of them, and the period-wise changes in emission rate can be well identified by multi-scale correlations basing on wavelet decomposition. In short, this case study manifests statistically how human interference modified air quality in the mega city through controlling local and surrounding emissions in association with meteorological condition.

  15. Preservation of blue-jack mackerel (Trachurus picturatus Bowdich) silage by chemical and fermentative acidification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enes Dapkevicius, M.L.N.; Nout, M.J.R.; Rombouts, F.M.; Houben, J.H.

    2007-01-01

    We compared acidified and lactic acid fermented silage approaches for the preservation of blue-jack mackerel. Silages acidified with formic and propionic acids had stable pH (3.8) and low (19 mg/g N) levels of volatile nitrogen compounds (total volatile basic nitrogen, TVBN), but relatively high (82

  16. NOAA AVHRR Clear-Sky Products over Oceans (ACSPO): Sea Surface Temperature, Clear Sky Radiances, and Aerosol Optical Depth for the Global Ocean, 2011 - present (NCEI Accession 0072979)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The AVHRR Clear-Sky Processor over Oceans, jointly developed between NESDIS STAR and OSDPD, produces AVHRR clear-sky products over oceans. ACSPO generates output...

  17. Adsorption of Methylene Blue, Bromophenol Blue, and Coomassie Brilliant Blue by α-chitin nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solairaj Dhananasekaran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Expelling of dyestuff into water resource system causes major thread to the environment. Adsorption is the cost effective and potential method to remove the dyes from the effluents. Therefore, an attempt was made to study the adsorption of dyestuff (Methylene Blue (MB, Bromophenol Blue (BPB and Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB by α-chitin nanoparticles (CNP prepared from Penaeus monodon (Fabricius, 1798 shell waste. On contrary to the most recognizable adsorption studies using chitin, this is the first study using unique nanoparticles of ⩽50 nm used for the dye adsorption process. The results showed that the adsorption process increased with increase in the concentration of CNP, contact time and temperature with the dyestuff, whereas the adsorption process decreased with increase in the initial dye concentration and strong acidic pH. The results from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy confirmed that the interaction between dyestuff and CNP involved physical adsorption. The adsorption process obeys Langmuir isotherm (R2 values were 0.992, 0.999 and 0.992 for MB, BPB and CBB, and RL value lies between 0 and 1 for all the three dyes and pseudo second order kinetics (R2 values were 0.996, 0.999 and 0.996 for MB, BPB and CBB more effectively. The isotherm and kinetic models confirmed that CNP can be used as a suitable adsorbent material for the removal of dyestuff from effluents.

  18. Observation and Study on Sky Luminance Distribution in Beijing%北京地区天空亮度的观测与研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗涛; 林若慈; 赵建平; 王书晓

    2013-01-01

    天空亮度分布是采光设计与计算的基础数据,也是定量描述和定义天空状态的重要参数.而相关仪器设备和观测数据的缺乏却制约了国内天空亮度方面的研究.本文利用自行研发的光谱式天空扫描亮度计,对北京地区的天空亮度分布进行了为期1年的跟踪观测,并首次给出了国内的天空与CIE标准天空的对应关系,本文的研究成果为国内光气候研究提供了数据支持.%Sky luminance distribution is the basic data for day lighting design and calculation and also important parameter for quantitative description and definition of sky condition.However,shortages of relevant instrument and equipment as well as observation data restrict domestic researches on sky luminance.This paper uses a self-developed spectrum sky scanner to carry on 1-year track observation of sky luminance distribution in Beijing and gives for the first time the corresponding relationship between domestic sky and CIE standard sky model.The research findings of this paper provide data support for the domestic light climate researches.

  19. George and the blue moon

    CERN Document Server

    Hawking, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    George and his best friend, Annie have been selected as junior astronauts - part of a programme that trains up young people for a trip to Mars in the future. This is everything they've ever wanted - they get to be a part of up-to-the minute space discoveries and meet a bunch of new friends who are as fascinated by the universe as they are. But when they arrive at space camp, George and Annie quickly learn that strange things are happening - on Earth as well as up in our skies. Mysterious space missions are happening in secret, and the astronaut training they're undertaking gets scarier and scarier . . . The fifth adventure in this series by Lucy and Stephen Hawking - also containing up-to-the-minute scientific facts and information by the world's leading scientists.

  20. Deepest Wide-Field Colour Image in the Southern Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    LA SILLA CAMERA OBSERVES CHANDRA DEEP FIELD SOUTH ESO PR Photo 02a/03 ESO PR Photo 02a/03 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 437 pix - 95k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 873 pix - 904k] [HiRes - JPEG: 4000 x 4366 pix - 23.1M] Caption : PR Photo 02a/03 shows a three-colour composite image of the Chandra Deep Field South (CDF-S) , obtained with the Wide Field Imager (WFI) camera on the 2.2-m MPG/ESO telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory (Chile). It was produced by the combination of about 450 images with a total exposure time of nearly 50 hours. The field measures 36 x 34 arcmin 2 ; North is up and East is left. Technical information is available below. The combined efforts of three European teams of astronomers, targeting the same sky field in the southern constellation Fornax (The Oven) have enabled them to construct a very deep, true-colour image - opening an exceptionally clear view towards the distant universe . The image ( PR Photo 02a/03 ) covers an area somewhat larger than the full moon. It displays more than 100,000 galaxies, several thousand stars and hundreds of quasars. It is based on images with a total exposure time of nearly 50 hours, collected under good observing conditions with the Wide Field Imager (WFI) on the MPG/ESO 2.2m telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory (Chile) - many of them extracted from the ESO Science Data Archive . The position of this southern sky field was chosen by Riccardo Giacconi (Nobel Laureate in Physics 2002) at a time when he was Director General of ESO, together with Piero Rosati (ESO). It was selected as a sky region towards which the NASA Chandra X-ray satellite observatory , launched in July 1999, would be pointed while carrying out a very long exposure (lasting a total of 1 million seconds, or 278 hours) in order to detect the faintest possible X-ray sources. The field is now known as the Chandra Deep Field South (CDF-S) . The new WFI photo of CDF-S does not reach quite as deep as the available images of the "Hubble Deep Fields

  1. Ethanol Basics (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  2. Korean Basic Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    These 11 volumes of the Korean Basic Course comprise 112 lesson units designed to train native English language speakers to Level 3 proficiency in comprehension and speaking and Level 2 proficiency in reading and writing Korean. (Level 5 on this scale is native-speaker level.) Intended for classroom use in the Defense Language Institute intensive…

  3. Basic physics for all

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, B N

    2012-01-01

    This is a simple, concise book for both student and non-physics students, presenting basic facts in straightforward form and conveying fundamental principles and theories of physics. This book will be helpful as a supplement to class teaching and to aid those who have difficulty in mastering concepts and principles.

  4. Vaccine Basics (Smallpox)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: About CDC.gov . Smallpox About Smallpox History of Smallpox Spread and Eradication of Smallpox Transmission Signs and Symptoms Prevention and Treatment Smallpox Vaccine Basics Vaccine Safety Side Effects of Vaccination Who Should Get a Smallpox Vaccination? Bioterrorism The ...

  5. FULA BASIC COURSE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SWIFT, LLOYD B.; AND OTHERS

    THIS BEGINNING COURSE IS AN INTRODUCTION TO FULA (KNOWN VARIOUSLY AS FULANI, FUL, PEUL, OR PHEUL), A NIGER-CONGO LANGUAGE SPOKEN THROUGHOUT THE GRASSLAND AREAS OF WEST AFRICA FROM THE ATLANTIC TO CAMEROUN. THE TEXT IS ONE OF A SERIES OF SHORT BASIC COURSES IN SELECTED AFRICAN LANGUAGES BEING PREPARED BY THE FOREIGN SERVICE INSTITUTE. IT IS…

  6. Basic Library List.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duren, William L., Jr.

    Reported is an initial attempt to define a minimal college mathematics library. Included is a list of some 300 books, from which approximately 170 are to be chosen to form a basic library in undergraduate mathematics. The areas provided for in this list include Algebra, Analysis, Applied Mathematics, Geometry, Topology, Logic, Foundations and Set…

  7. Lippincott Basic Reading Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monterey Peninsula Unified School District, Monterey, CA.

    This program, included in "Effective Reading Programs...," serves 459 students in grades 1-3 at 15 elementary schools. The program employs a diagnostic-prescriptive approach to instruction in a nongraded setting through the use of the Lippincott Basic Reading program. When a child enters the program, he is introduced to a decoding…

  8. Basic Drafting: Book Two.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Ronald; And Others

    The second of a two-book course in drafting, this manual consists of 12 topics in the following units: sketching techniques, geometric constructions, orthographic views, dimensioning procedures, basic tolerancing, auxiliary views, sectional views, inking tools and techniques, axonometrics, oblique, perspective, and computer-aided drafting.…

  9. Health Insurance Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... members at a lower cost. The four basic types of managed care plans are: HMO (Health Maintenance Organization). When you join an HMO, you choose a ... may have to pay more. EPO (Exclusive Provider Organization). An EPO is like a PPO, only ... Health Plan (CDHP) This type of plan is fairly new. It lets you ...

  10. Basic bioreactor design.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riet, van 't K.; Tramper, J.

    1991-01-01

    Based on a graduate course in biochemical engineering, provides the basic knowledge needed for the efficient design of bioreactors and the relevant principles and data for practical process engineering, with an emphasis on enzyme reactors and aerated reactors for microorganisms. Includes exercises.

  11. Basic Nuclear Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    Basic concepts of nuclear structures, radiation, nuclear reactions, and health physics are presented in this text, prepared for naval officers. Applications to the area of nuclear power are described in connection with pressurized water reactors, experimental boiling water reactors, homogeneous reactor experiments, and experimental breeder…

  12. Canadian Adult Basic Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke, W. Michael, Comp.

    "Trends," a publication of the Canadian Association for Adult Education, is a collection of abstracts on selected subjects affecting adult education; this issue is on adult basic education (ABE). It covers teachers and teacher training, psychological factors relating to the ABE teacher and students, manuals for teachers, instructional…

  13. Basic Microfluidics Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Winnie Edith

    2015-01-01

    ,000 m−1, which is a huge difference and has a large impact on flow behavior. In this chapter the basic microfluidic theory will be presented, enabling the reader to gain a comprehensive understanding of how liquids behave at the microscale, enough to be able to engage in design of micro systems...

  14. Basic Tuberculosis Facts

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-12

    In this podcast, Dr. Kenneth Castro, Director of the Division of Tuberculosis Elimination, discusses basic TB prevention, testing, and treatment information.  Created: 3/12/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 3/12/2012.

  15. Fire Whirls, Vortex Breakdown(?), and Blue Whirls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oran, Elaine; Xiao, Huahua; Gollner, Michael

    2016-11-01

    As we were investigating the efficiency of fire-whirl burning on water, we observed the usual transformation of a pool fire to a fire whirl, and then suddenly, we saw the fire undergo a third transition. A blue cup appeared around the base of the fire whirl, surrounding the yellow flame, the yellow flame receded into the cup and finally disappeared. What remained was a small, rapidly spinning blue flame that burned until the fuel on the water was consumed. The blue whirl was shaped like a spinning cup, closed at the bottom near the water surface, and spreading in radius moving upwards towards the rim. Above the blue cup lip, there was a purple cone-shaped mist. The fuel was usually n-heptane, but at one point it was crude oil, and still the blue whirl formed naturally. The height of the fire whirl on the laboratory pan was larger than a half meter, and this evolved into a blue whirl about 4-8 cm high. Occasionally the blue whirl would become "unstable" and revert to a transitional state of blue cup holding a yellow flame. When the blue whirl formed, turbulence seemed to disappear, and the flame became quiet. We will show videos of how this happened and discuss the evolution of the fire whirl to the blue whirl in vortex-breakdown concepts. This work was supported by and EAGER award from NSF and Minta Martin Endowment Funds in the Department of Aerospace Engineering at the University of Maryland.

  16. Astronomical Sky Quality Near Eureka, in the Canadian High Arctic

    CERN Document Server

    Steinbring, Eric; Drummond, James R

    2011-01-01

    Nighttime visible-light sky brightness and transparency are reported for the Polar Environment Research Laboratory (PEARL), located on a 610-m high ridge near the Eureka research station, on Ellesmere Island, Canada. Photometry of Polaris obtained in V band with the PEARL All Sky Imager (PASI) over two winters is supported by standard meteorological measurements and visual estimates of sky conditions from sea level. These data show that during the period of the study, October through March of 2008/09 and 2009/10, the sky near zenith had a mean surface brightness of 19.7 mag/square-arcsec when the sun was more than 12 deg below the horizon, reaching 20.7 mag/square-arcsec during astronomical darkness with no moon. Skies were without thick cloud and potentially usable for astronomy 86% of the time (extinction <2 mag). Up to 68% of the time was spectroscopic (<0.5 mag), attenuated by ice crystals, or clear with stable atmospheric transparency. Those conditions can persist for over 100 hours at a time. Furt...

  17. The $AKARI$ Far-Infrared All-Sky Survey Maps

    CERN Document Server

    Doi, Yasuo; Ootsubo, Takafumi; Arimatsu, Ko; Tanaka, Masahiro; Kitamura, Yoshimi; Kawada, Mitsunobu; Matsuura, Shuji; Nakagawa, Takao; Morishima, Takahiro; Hattori, Makoto; Komugi, Shinya; White, Glenn J; Ikeda, Norio; Kato, Daisuke; Chinone, Yuji; Etxaluze, Mireya; Figueredo, Elysandra

    2015-01-01

    We present a far-infrared all-sky atlas from a sensitive all-sky survey using the Japanese $AKARI$ satellite. The survey covers $> 99$% of the sky in four photometric bands centred at 65 $\\mu$m, 90 $\\mu$m, 140 $\\mu$m, and 160 $\\mu$m with spatial resolutions ranging from 1 to 1.5 arcmin. These data provide crucial information for the investigation and characterisation of the properties of dusty material in the Interstellar Medium (ISM), since significant portion of its energy is emitted between $\\sim$50 and 200 $\\mu$m. The large-scale distribution of interstellar clouds, their thermal dust temperatures and column densities, can be investigated with the improved spatial resolution compared to earlier all-sky survey observations. In addition to the point source distribution, the large-scale distribution of ISM cirrus emission, and its filamentary structure, are well traced. We have made the first public release of the full-sky data to provide a legacy data set for use by the astronomical community.

  18. The AKARI far-infrared all-sky survey maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Yasuo; Takita, Satoshi; Ootsubo, Takafumi; Arimatsu, Ko; Tanaka, Masahiro; Kitamura, Yoshimi; Kawada, Mitsunobu; Matsuura, Shuji; Nakagawa, Takao; Morishima, Takahiro; Hattori, Makoto; Komugi, Shinya; White, Glenn J.; Ikeda, Norio; Kato, Daisuke; Chinone, Yuji; Etxaluze, Mireya; Cypriano, Elysandra F.

    2015-06-01

    We present a far-infrared all-sky atlas from a sensitive all-sky survey using the Japanese AKARI satellite. The survey covers > 99% of the sky in four photometric bands centred at 65 μm, 90 μm, 140 μm, and 160 μm, with spatial resolutions ranging from 1' to 1{^''.}5. These data provide crucial information on the investigation and characterisation of the properties of dusty material in the interstellar medium (ISM), since a significant portion of its energy is emitted between ˜ 50 and 200 μm. The large-scale distribution of interstellar clouds, their thermal dust temperatures, and their column densities can be investigated with the improved spatial resolution compared to earlier all-sky survey observations. In addition to the point source distribution, the large-scale distribution of ISM cirrus emission, and its filamentary structure, are well traced. We have made the first public release of the full-sky data to provide a legacy data set for use in the astronomical community.

  19. Mining the SDSS SkyServer SQL queries log

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, Vitor M.; Santos, Rafael; Raddick, Jordan; Thakar, Ani

    2016-05-01

    SkyServer, the Internet portal for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) astronomic catalog, provides a set of tools that allows data access for astronomers and scientific education. One of SkyServer data access interfaces allows users to enter ad-hoc SQL statements to query the catalog. SkyServer also presents some template queries that can be used as basis for more complex queries. This interface has logged over 330 million queries submitted since 2001. It is expected that analysis of this data can be used to investigate usage patterns, identify potential new classes of queries, find similar queries, etc. and to shed some light on how users interact with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data and how scientists have adopted the new paradigm of e-Science, which could in turn lead to enhancements on the user interfaces and experience in general. In this paper we review some approaches to SQL query mining, apply the traditional techniques used in the literature and present lessons learned, namely, that the general text mining approach for feature extraction and clustering does not seem to be adequate for this type of data, and, most importantly, we find that this type of analysis can result in very different queries being clustered together.

  20. ESA Sky: a new Astronomy Multi-Mission Interface

    CERN Document Server

    Merín, Bruno; Giordano, Fabrizio; Baines, Deborah; Sarmiento, María-Henar; Martí, Belén López; Racero, Elena; Gutiérrez, Raúl; Pollock, Andy; Rosa, Michael; Castellanos, Javier; González, Juan; León, Ignacio; de Landaluce, Iñaki Ortiz; de Teodoro, Pilar; Nieto, Sara; Lennon, Daniel J; Arviset, Christophe; de Marchi, Guido; O'Mullane, William

    2015-01-01

    We present a science-driven discovery portal for all the ESA Astronomy Missions called ESA Sky that allow users to explore the multi-wavelength sky and to seamlessly retrieve science-ready data in all ESA Astronomy mission archives from a web application without prior-knowledge of any of the missions. The first public beta of the service has been released, currently featuring an interface for exploration of the multi-wavelength sky and for single and/or multiple target searches of science-ready imaging data and catalogues. Future releases will enable retrieval of spectra and will have special time-domain exploration features. From a technical point of view, the system offers progressive multi-resolution all-sky projections of full mission datasets using a new generation of HEALPix projections called HiPS, developed at the CDS; detailed geometrical footprints to connect the all-sky mosaics to individual observations; and direct access to science-ready data at the underlying mission-specific science archives.

  1. Central neural coding of sky polarization in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homberg, Uwe; Heinze, Stanley; Pfeiffer, Keram; Kinoshita, Michiyo; el Jundi, Basil

    2011-03-12

    Many animals rely on a sun compass for spatial orientation and long-range navigation. In addition to the Sun, insects also exploit the polarization pattern and chromatic gradient of the sky for estimating navigational directions. Analysis of polarization-vision pathways in locusts and crickets has shed first light on brain areas involved in sky compass orientation. Detection of sky polarization relies on specialized photoreceptor cells in a small dorsal rim area of the compound eye. Brain areas involved in polarization processing include parts of the lamina, medulla and lobula of the optic lobe and, in the central brain, the anterior optic tubercle, the lateral accessory lobe and the central complex. In the optic lobe, polarization sensitivity and contrast are enhanced through convergence and opponency. In the anterior optic tubercle, polarized-light signals are integrated with information on the chromatic contrast of the sky. Tubercle neurons combine responses to the UV/green contrast and e-vector orientation of the sky and compensate for diurnal changes of the celestial polarization pattern associated with changes in solar elevation. In the central complex, a topographic representation of e-vector tunings underlies the columnar organization and suggests that this brain area serves as an internal compass coding for spatial directions.

  2. Sky Variability in the y Band at the LSST Site

    CERN Document Server

    High, F William; Stalder, Brian; Gilmore, David Kirk; Tonry, John L

    2010-01-01

    We have measured spatial and temporal variability in the y band sky brightness over the course of four nights above Cerro Tololo near Cerro Pachon, Chile, the planned site for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST). Our wide-angle camera lens provided a 41 deg field of view and a 145 arcsec pixel scale. We minimized potential system throughput differences by deploying a deep depletion CCD and a filter that matches the proposed LSST y_3 band (970 to 1030 nm). Images of the sky exhibited coherent wave structure, attributable to atmospheric gravity waves at 90 km altitude, creating 3 to 4% root mean square spatial sky flux variability on scales of about 2 degrees and larger. Over the course of a full night the y_3 band additionally showed highly coherent temporal variability of up to a factor of 2 in flux. We estimate the mean absolute sky level to be approximately y_3 = 17.8 mag (Vega), or y_3 = 18.3 mag (AB). While our observations were made through a y_3 filter, the relative sky brightness variability sho...

  3. Night sky brightness at San Pedro Martir Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Plauchu-Frayn, I; Colorado, E; Herrera, J; Cordova, A; Cesena, U; Avila, F

    2016-01-01

    We present optical UBVRI zenith night sky brightness measurements collected on eighteen nights during 2013--2016 and SQM measurements obtained daily over twenty months during 2014--2016 at the Observatorio Astronomico Nacional on the Sierra San Pedro Martir (OAN-SPM) in Mexico. The UBVRI data is based upon CCD images obtained with the 0.84m and 2.12m telescopes, while the SQM data is obtained with a high-sensitivity, low-cost photometer. The typical moonless night sky brightness at zenith averaged over the whole period is U = 22.68, B = 23.10, V = 21.84, R = 21.04, I = 19.36, and SQM = 21.88 mag/square arcsec, once corrected for zodiacal light. We find no seasonal variation of the night sky brightness measured with the SQM. The typical night sky brightness values found at OAN-SPM are similar to those reported for other astronomical dark sites at a similar phase of the solar cycle. We find a trend of decreasing night sky brightness with decreasing solar activity during period of the observations. This trend im...

  4. Various Shades of Blue's Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Janik, R A; Papp, G; Zahed, I; Janik, Romuald A.; Nowak, Maciej A.; Papp, Gabor; Zahed, Ismail

    1997-01-01

    We discuss random matrix models in terms of elementary operations on Blue's functions (functional inverse of Green's functions). We show that such operations embody the essence of a number of physical phenomena whether at/or away from the critical points. We illustrate these assertions by borrowing on a number of recent results in effective QCD in vacuum and matter. We provide simple physical arguments in favor of the universality of the continuum QCD spectral oscillations, whether at zero virtuality, in the bulk of the spectrum or at the chiral critical points. We also discuss effective quantum systems of disorder with strong or weak dissipation (Hatano-Nelson localization).

  5. From the Scale Model of the Sky to the Armillary Sphere

    CERN Document Server

    Gangui, Alejandro; Paez, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    It is customary to employ a semi-spherical scale model to describe the apparent path of the Sun across the sky, whether it be its diurnal motion or its variation throughout the year. A flat surface and three bent semi-rigid wires (representing the three solar arcs during solstices and equinoxes) will do the job. On the other hand, since very early times, there have been famous armillary spheres built and employed by the most outstanding astronomers for the description of the celestial movements. In those instruments, many of them now considered true works of art, Earth lies in the center of the cosmos and the observer looks at the whole "from the outside." Of course, both devices, the scale model of the sky and the armillary sphere, serve to represent the movement of the Sun, and in this paper we propose to show their equivalence by a simple construction. Knowing the basics underlying the operation of the armillary sphere will give us confidence to use it as a teaching resource in school.

  6. The search for Near Earth Objects - why dark skies are critically important

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainscoat, Richard

    2015-08-01

    Impact of Earth by asteroids is perhaps the only natural disaster that can be prevented. If an asteroid that will impact Earth can be identified sufficiently early, it is possible to modify its orbit to eliminate the impact. As a consequence, a major effort is presently underway to identify Near Earth Objects (NEOs) that may present a threat to Earth. The impact of a 20-meter diameter object near Chelyabinsk, Russia, provided a spectacular reminder of the threat that these objects present. Although no deaths were caused, injuries and a large amount of property damage were caused.The search for NEOs is mostly funded by NASA. The principal search telescopes are the Pan-STARRS telescopes, located on Haleakala, Maui, Hawaii, and the Catalina Sky Survey, located near Tucson, Arizona. Both of these locations are seriously threatened by light pollution. A new survey, ATLAS, will commence shortly, with one telescope located on Haleakala, Maui, and the other telescope located on Mauna Loa, Hawaii (which is less threatened).Artificial light (i.e., light pollution) at these observing sites raises the sky background, and makes faint objects harder or impossible to see.Searches for Near Earth Objects typically use very broad passbands in order to obtain the maximum amount of light. These passbands typically stretch from 400 to 820 nm. As such, they are very vulnerable to the changes in lighting that are occurring across the globe, with widespread introduction of blue-rich white lighting. It is critically important in all of these locations to limit the amount of blue light that is so readily scattered by the atmosphere.A network of followup telescopes, spread across the planet, play a crucial role in the discovery of NEOs. After a new NEO is identified by the survey telescopes such as Pan-STARRS and Catalina, additional observations must be secured to establish its orbit, and in order to determine whether it poses a threat to Earth. The majority of these followup telescopes are

  7. Basic experimental research on methylene blue-mediated photody-namic therapy combined with adriamycin for breast carcinoma%亚甲蓝光动力疗法联合阿霉素治疗乳腺癌的实验研究*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佟仲生; 刘晓东; 史业辉; 李淑芬; 王忱; 郝春芳

    2013-01-01

      目的:探讨亚甲蓝介导的光动力疗法联合阿霉素对小鼠乳腺癌细胞系4T1的体外及体内抑瘤效应及其相关机制,为临床应用提供理论依据。方法:本研究分为空白对照组、阿霉素组、光动力治疗组及联合治疗组。MTT法检测光动力疗法联合阿霉素对乳腺癌细胞增殖的影响。流式细胞术检测细胞凋亡及坏死情况。Rhodamine123检测线粒体膜电位变化。建立乳腺癌荷瘤小鼠模型,绘制肿瘤生长曲线,观察治疗效果。结果:体外实验表明光动力疗效与光敏剂呈剂量依赖性,而联合阿霉素可以增强抑瘤效应。阿霉素组细胞死亡率较低,光动力治疗组以早期及晚期凋亡为主,联合治疗组以晚期凋亡及坏死为主。与空白对照组比较,光动力治疗组及联合治疗组线粒体膜电位显著降低,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05),联合治疗组较光动力治疗组线粒体膜电位更低(P<0.05)。体内实验显示光动力疗法可以显著抑制小鼠乳腺癌皮下移植瘤生长,而联合阿霉素可以增强抑瘤作用。结论:亚甲蓝介导的光动力疗法对乳腺癌细胞及移植瘤的生长抑制作用明显,联合阿霉素可增强抑瘤效果。光动力疗法以细胞凋亡为主,其机制可能与降低肿瘤细胞线粒体膜电位相关。%  Objective: This work aimed to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of methylene blue (MB)-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT) with adriamycin (ADM) on 4T1 mouse mammary carcinoma cells in vitro and in vitro, thereby providing a theoretical ba-sis for clinical applications. Methods: The experimental study was divided into four groups, namely, control (Group One), ADM (Group Two), PDT (Group Three), and therapeutic alliance or PDT+ADM (Group Four). Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay was em-ployed to determine the effects of the combined therapy on the proliferation of breast cancer cells. Cell

  8. ZAP -- Enhanced PCA Sky Subtraction for Integral Field Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Soto, Kurt T; Bacon, Roland; Richard, Johan; Conseil, Simon

    2016-01-01

    We introduce Zurich Atmosphere Purge (ZAP), an approach to sky subtraction based on principal component analysis (PCA) that we have developed for the Multi Unit Spectrographic Explorer (MUSE) integral field spectrograph. ZAP employs filtering and data segmentation to enhance the inherent capabilities of PCA for sky subtraction. Extensive testing shows that ZAP reduces sky emission residuals while robustly preserving the flux and line shapes of astronomical sources. The method works in a variety of observational situations from sparse fields with a low density of sources to filled fields in which the target source fills the field of view. With the inclusion of both of these situations the method is generally applicable to many different science cases and should also be useful for other instrumentation. ZAP is available for download at http://muse-vlt.eu/science/tools.

  9. Using inpainting to construct accurate cut-sky CMB estimators

    CERN Document Server

    Gruetjen, H F; Liguori, M; Shellard, E P S

    2015-01-01

    The direct evaluation of manifestly optimal, cut-sky CMB power spectrum and bispectrum estimators is numerically very costly, due to the presence of inverse-covariance filtering operations. This justifies the investigation of alternative approaches. In this work, we mostly focus on an inpainting algorithm that was introduced in recent CMB analyses to cure cut-sky suboptimalities of bispectrum estimators. First, we show that inpainting can equally be applied to the problem of unbiased estimation of power spectra. We then compare the performance of a novel inpainted CMB temperature power spectrum estimator to the popular apodised pseudo-$C_l$ (PCL) method and demonstrate, both numerically and with analytic arguments, that inpainted power spectrum estimates significantly outperform PCL estimates. Finally, we study the case of cut-sky bispectrum estimators, comparing the performance of three different approaches: inpainting, apodisation and a novel low-l leaning scheme. Providing an analytic argument why the loca...

  10. Scalable Nuclear Density Functional Theory with Sky3D

    CERN Document Server

    Afibuzzaman, Md; Aktulga, Hasan Metin

    2016-01-01

    In nuclear astro-physics, the quantum simulation of large inhomogenous dense systems as present in the crusts of neutron stars presents big challenges. The feasible number of particles in a simulation box with periodic boundary conditions is strongly limited due to the immense computational cost of the quantum methods. In this paper, we describe the techniques used to parallelize Sky3D, a nuclear density functional theory code that operates on an equidistant grid, and optimize its performance on distributed memory architectures. We also describe cache blocking techniques to accelerate the compute-intensive matrix calculation part in Sky3D. Presented techniques allow Sky3D to achieve good scaling and high performance on a large number of cores, as demonstrated through detailed performance analysis on Edison, a Cray XC30 supercomputer.

  11. All-Sky Interferometry with Spherical Harmonic Transit Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, J Richard; Pen, Ue-Li; Stebbins, Albert; Sitwell, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we describe the spherical harmonic transit telescope, a novel formalism for the analysis of transit radio telescopes. This all-sky approach bypasses the curved sky complications of traditional interferometry and so is particularly well suited to the analysis of wide-field radio interferometers. It enables compact and computationally efficient representations of the data and its statistics that allow new ways of approaching important problems like map-making and foreground removal. In particular, we show how it enables the use of the Karhunen-Loeve transform as a highly effective foreground filter, suppressing realistic foreground residuals for our fiducial example by at least a factor twenty below the 21cm signal even in highly contaminated regions of the sky. This is despite the presence of the angle-frequency mode mixing inherent in real-world instruments with frequency-dependent beams. We show, using Fisher forecasting, that foreground cleaning has little effect on power spectrum constraints ...

  12. Accurate Sky Continuum Subtraction with Fibre-fed Spectrographs

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Yanbin; Puech, Mathieu; Flores, Hector; Royer, Frederic; Disseau, Karen; Gonçalves, Thiago; Hammer, François; Cirasuolo, Michele; Evans, Chris; Causi, Gianluca Li; Maiolino, Roberto; Melo, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Fibre-fed spectrographs now have throughputs equivalent to slit spectrographs. However, the sky subtraction accuracy that can be reached has often been pinpointed as one of the major issues associated with the use of fibres. Using technical time observations with FLAMES-GIRAFFE, two observing techniques, namely dual staring and cross beam-switching, were tested and the resulting sky subtraction accuracy reached in both cases was quantified. Results indicate that an accuracy of 0.6% on sky subtraction can be reached, provided that the cross beam-switching mode is used. This is very encouraging with regard to the detection of very faint sources with future fibre-fed spectrographs, such as VLT/MOONS or E-ELT/MOSAIC.

  13. Diagnosis of clear sky ultraviolet radiation for Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemus Deschamps, L. [Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre (Australia); Galindo, I.; Solano, R.; Elizalde, A.T.; Fonseca, J. [Centro Universitario de Investigaciones en Ciencias del Ambiente, University of Colima (Mexico)

    2002-07-01

    A discrete-ordinate radiative transfer model is employed to develop a regional clear sky ultraviolet (UV) diagnosis system. The clear sky UV radiation, weighted by the spectral sensitivity of human skin is calculated using the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data sets. Examples of the geographical clear sky UV Index distributions are presented and the model results are compared with surface UV measurements from University of Colima for 1999. [Spanish] Utilizando un modelo de transferencia de radiacion de ordenadas discretas se desarrolla un sistema para el diagnostico de la distribucion de radiacion ultravioleta para cielo despejado en la Republica Mexicana. La radiacion para cielo despejado se obtiene utilizando la respuesta espectral de la piel humana y los datos de satelite de ozono total registrados por el espectrometro TOMS. Se presentan ejemplos del Indice de radiacion ultravioleta (UV Index) calculados con el modelo y se comparan con las mediciones en superficie obtenidas en la Universidad de Colima durante 1999.

  14. Measuring the influence of aerosols and albedo on sky polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuter, A; Emde, C; Blumthaler, M

    2010-11-01

    All-sky distributions of the polarized radiance are measured using an automated fish-eye camera system with a rotating polarizer. For a large range of aerosol and surface albedo situations, the influence on the degree of polarization and sky radiance is investigated. The range of aerosol optical depth and albedo is 0.05-0.5 and 0.1-0.75, respectively. For this range of parameters, a reduction of the degree of polarization from about 0.7 to 0.4 was observed. The analysis is done for 90° scattering angle in the principal plane under clear sky conditions for a broadband channel of 450 ± 25 nm and solar zenith angles between 55° and 60°. Radiative transfer calculations considering three different aerosol mixtures are performed and and agree with the measurements within the statistical error.

  15. Dark Skies Awareness Programs for the International Year of Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Constance E.; US IYA Dark Skies Working Group

    2009-05-01

    The arc of the Milky Way seen from a truly dark location is part of our planet's cultural and natural heritage. More than 1/5 of the world population, 2/3 of the United States population and 1/2 of the European Union population have already lost naked-eye visibility of the Milky Way. This loss, caused by light pollution, is a serious and growing issue that impacts astronomical research, the economy, ecology, energy conservation, human health, public safety and our shared ability to see the night sky. For this reason, "Dark Skies” is a cornerstone project of the International Year of Astronomy. Its goal is to raise public awareness of the impact of artificial lighting on local environments by getting people worldwide involved in a variety of programs that: 1) Teach about dark skies using new technology (e.g., an activity-based planetarium show on DVD, podcasting, social networking on Facebook and MySpace, a Second Life presence) 2) Provide thematic events on light pollution at star parties and observatory open houses (Dark Skies Discovery Sites, Nights in the (National) Parks, Sidewalk Astronomy) 3) Organize events in the arts (e.g., a photography contest) 4) Involve citizen-scientists in naked-eye and digital-meter star hunting programs (e.g., GLOBE at Night, "How Many Stars?", the Great World Wide Star Count and the radio frequency interference equivalent: "Quiet Skies") and 5) Raise awareness about the link between light pollution and public health, economic issues, ecological consequences, energy conservation, safety and security, and astronomy (e.g., The Starlight Initiative, World Night in Defense of Starlight, International Dark Sky Week, International Dark-Sky Communities, Earth Hour, The Great Switch Out, a traveling exhibit, downloadable posters and brochures). The poster will provide an update, describe how people can continue to participate, and take a look ahead at the program's sustainability. For more information, visit www.darkskiesawareness.org.

  16. The SuperCOSMOS all-sky galaxy catalogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, J. A.; Hambly, N. C.; Bilicki, M.; MacGillivray, H. T.; Miller, L.; Read, M. A.; Tritton, S. B.

    2016-10-01

    We describe the construction of an all-sky galaxy catalogue, using SuperCOSMOS scans of Schmidt photographic plates from the UK Schmidt Telescope and Second Palomar Observatory Sky Survey. The photographic photometry is calibrated using Sloan Digital Sky Survey data, with results that are linear to 2 per cent or better. All-sky photometric uniformity is achieved by matching plate overlaps and also by requiring homogeneity in optical-to-2MASS colours, yielding zero-points that are uniform to 0.03 mag or better. The typical AB depths achieved are BJ < 21, RF < 19.5 and IN < 18.5, with little difference between hemispheres. In practice, the IN plates are shallower than the BJ and RF plates, so for most purposes we advocate the use of a catalogue selected in these two latter bands. At high Galactic latitudes, this catalogue is approximately 90 per cent complete with 5 per cent stellar contamination; we quantify how the quality degrades towards the Galactic plane. At low latitudes, there are many spurious galaxy candidates resulting from stellar blends: these approximately match the surface density of true galaxies at |b| = 30°. Above this latitude, the catalogue limited in BJ and RF contains in total about 20 million galaxy candidates, of which 75 per cent are real. This contamination can be removed, and the sky coverage extended, by matching with additional data sets. This SuperCOSMOS catalogue has been matched with 2MASS and with WISE, yielding quasi-all-sky samples of respectively 1.5 million and 18.5 million galaxies, to median redshifts of 0.08 and 0.20. This legacy data set thus continues to offer a valuable resource for large-angle cosmological investigations.

  17. C-BASS: The C-Band All Sky Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Timothy J.; C-BASS Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    The C-Band All Sky Survey (C-BASS) is a project to image the whole sky at a wavelength of 6 cm (frequency 5 GHz), measuring both the brightness and the polarization of the sky. Correlation polarimeters are mounted on two separate telescopes, one at the Owens Valley Observatory (OVRO) in California and another in South Africa, allowing C-BASS to map the whole sky. The OVRO instrument has completed observations for the northern part of the survey. We are working on final calibration of intensity and polarization. The southern instrument has recently started observations for the southern part of the survey from its site at Klerefontein near Carnarvon in South Africa. The principal aim of C-BASS is to allow the subtraction of polarized Galactic synchrotron emission from the data produced by CMB polarization experiments, such as WMAP, Planck, and dedicated B-mode polarization experiments. In addition it will contribute to studies of: (1) the local (region close to the Galactic plane. Observations at many wavelengths from radio to infrared are needed to fully understand the foregrounds. At 5 GHz, C-BASS maps synchrotron polarization with minimal corruption by Faraday rotation, and complements the full-sky maps from WMAP and Planck. I will present the project status, show results of component separation in selected sky regions, and describe the northern survey data products.C-BASS (http://www.astro.caltech.edu/cbass/) is a collaborative project between the Universities of Oxford and Manchester in the UK, the California Institute of Technology (supported by the National Science Foundation and NASA) in the USA, the Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory (supported by the Square Kilometre Array project) in South Africa, and the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) in Saudi Arabia.

  18. Basic electronic circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Buckley, P M

    1980-01-01

    In the past, the teaching of electricity and electronics has more often than not been carried out from a theoretical and often highly academic standpoint. Fundamentals and basic concepts have often been presented with no indication of their practical appli­ cations, and all too frequently they have been illustrated by artificially contrived laboratory experiments bearing little relationship to the outside world. The course comes in the form of fourteen fairly open-ended constructional experiments or projects. Each experiment has associated with it a construction exercise and an explanation. The basic idea behind this dual presentation is that the student can embark on each circuit following only the briefest possible instructions and that an open-ended approach is thereby not prejudiced by an initial lengthy encounter with the theory behind the project; this being a sure way to dampen enthusiasm at the outset. As the investigation progresses, questions inevitably arise. Descriptions of the phenomena encounte...

  19. Basics of statistical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Müller-Kirsten, Harald J W

    2013-01-01

    Statistics links microscopic and macroscopic phenomena, and requires for this reason a large number of microscopic elements like atoms. The results are values of maximum probability or of averaging. This introduction to statistical physics concentrates on the basic principles, and attempts to explain these in simple terms supplemented by numerous examples. These basic principles include the difference between classical and quantum statistics, a priori probabilities as related to degeneracies, the vital aspect of indistinguishability as compared with distinguishability in classical physics, the differences between conserved and non-conserved elements, the different ways of counting arrangements in the three statistics (Maxwell-Boltzmann, Fermi-Dirac, Bose-Einstein), the difference between maximization of the number of arrangements of elements, and averaging in the Darwin-Fowler method. Significant applications to solids, radiation and electrons in metals are treated in separate chapters, as well as Bose-Eins...

  20. Basic linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Blyth, T S

    2002-01-01

    Basic Linear Algebra is a text for first year students leading from concrete examples to abstract theorems, via tutorial-type exercises. More exercises (of the kind a student may expect in examination papers) are grouped at the end of each section. The book covers the most important basics of any first course on linear algebra, explaining the algebra of matrices with applications to analytic geometry, systems of linear equations, difference equations and complex numbers. Linear equations are treated via Hermite normal forms which provides a successful and concrete explanation of the notion of linear independence. Another important highlight is the connection between linear mappings and matrices leading to the change of basis theorem which opens the door to the notion of similarity. This new and revised edition features additional exercises and coverage of Cramer's rule (omitted from the first edition). However, it is the new, extra chapter on computer assistance that will be of particular interest to readers:...

  1. Basic Semiconductor Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hamaguchi, Chihiro

    2010-01-01

    This book presents a detailed description of the basic semiconductor physics. The reader is assumed to have a basic command of mathematics and some elementary knowledge of solid state physics. The text covers a wide range of important phenomena in semiconductors, from the simple to the advanced. The reader can understand three different methods of energy band calculations, empirical pseudo-potential, k.p perturbation and tight-binding methods. The effective mass approximation and electron motion in a periodic potential, Boltzmann transport equation and deformation potentials used for full band Monte Carlo simulation are discussed. Experiments and theoretical analysis of cyclotron resonance are discussed in detail because the results are essential to the understanding of semiconductor physics. Optical and transport properties, magneto-transport, two dimensional electron gas transport (HEMT and MOSFET), and quantum transport are reviewed, explaining optical transition, electron phonon interactions, electron mob...

  2. Basics of RF electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Gallo, A

    2011-01-01

    RF electronics deals with the generation, acquisition and manipulation of high-frequency signals. In particle accelerators signals of this kind are abundant, especially in the RF and beam diagnostics systems. In modern machines the complexity of the electronics assemblies dedicated to RF manipulation, beam diagnostics, and feedbacks is continuously increasing, following the demands for improvement of accelerator performance. However, these systems, and in particular their front-ends and back-ends, still rely on well-established basic hardware components and techniques, while down-converted and acquired signals are digitally processed exploiting the rapidly growing computational capability offered by the available technology. This lecture reviews the operational principles of the basic building blocks used for the treatment of high-frequency signals. Devices such as mixers, phase and amplitude detectors, modulators, filters, switches, directional couplers, oscillators, amplifiers, attenuators, and others are d...

  3. Basic plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Basudev

    2014-01-01

    Basic Plasma Physics is designed to serve as an introductory compact textbook for advanced undergraduate, postgraduate and research students taking plasma physics as one of their subject of study for the first time. It covers the current syllabus of plasma physics offered by the most universities and technical institutions. The book requires no background in plasma physics but only elementary knowledge of basic physics and mathematics. Emphasis has been given on the analytical approach. Topics are developed from first principle so that the students can learn through self-study. One chapter has been devoted to describe some practical aspects of plasma physics. Each chapter contains a good number of solved and unsolved problems and a variety of review questions, mostly taken from recent examination papers. Some classroom experiments described in the book will surely help students as well as instructors.

  4. Emulsion Science Basic Principles

    CERN Document Server

    Leal-Calderon, Fernando; Schmitt, Véronique

    2007-01-01

    Emulsions are generally made out of two immiscible fluids like oil and water, one being dispersed in the second in the presence of surface-active compounds.They are used as intermediate or end products in a huge range of areas including the food, chemical, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, paint, and coating industries. Besides the broad domain of technological interest, emulsions are raising a variety of fundamental questions at the frontier between physics and chemistry. This book aims to give an overview of the most recent advances in emulsion science. The basic principles, covering aspects of emulsions from their preparation to their destruction, are presented in close relation to both the fundamental physics and the applications of these materials. The book is intended to help scientists and engineers in formulating new materials by giving them the basics of emulsion science.

  5. Geothermal Technologies Program Blue Ribbon Panel Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-06-17

    The Geothermal Technologies Program assembled a geothermal Blue Ribbon Panel on March 22-23, 2011 in Albuquerque, New Mexico for a guided discussion on the future of geothermal energy in the United States and the role of the DOE Program. The Geothermal Blue Ribbon Panel Report captures the discussions and recommendations of the experts. An addendum is available here: http://www.eere.energy.gov/geothermal/pdfs/gtp_blue_ribbon_panel_report_addendum10-2011.pdf

  6. Menstrual Cycle: Basic Biology

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The basic biology of the menstrual cycle is a complex, coordinated sequence of events involving the hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, ovary, and endometrium. The menstrual cycle with all its complexities can be easily perturbed by environmental factors such as stress, extreme exercise, eating disorders, and obesity. Furthermore, genetic influences such as fragile X premutations (Chapter X), X chromosome abnormalities (Chapter X), and galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) point mutati...

  7. Risk communication basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corrado, P.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    In low-trust, high-concern situations, 50% of your credibility comes from perceived empathy and caring, demonstrated in the first 30 s you come in contact with someone. There is no second chance for a first impression. These and other principles contained in this paper provide you with a basic level of understanding of risk communication. The principles identified are time-tested caveats and will assist you in effectively communicating technical information.

  8. Visual Basic educational programme

    OpenAIRE

    Pranaitis, Arūnas

    2005-01-01

    Visual basic educational programme Informational Technologies has become such a popular subject that they are applied in all works of life. However, Informational Technologies are still rarely used in the lessons at school. There are such reasons of the mentioned issue: · Insufficient base of computers, · The old software and its disadvantages, · The lack of computerized educational programmes. The aim of the work was to prove that it is actual to create computerized educat...

  9. Basics of Computer Networking

    CERN Document Server

    Robertazzi, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Springer Brief Basics of Computer Networking provides a non-mathematical introduction to the world of networks. This book covers both technology for wired and wireless networks. Coverage includes transmission media, local area networks, wide area networks, and network security. Written in a very accessible style for the interested layman by the author of a widely used textbook with many years of experience explaining concepts to the beginner.

  10. Thermodynamics - basic conception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wee, Eul Bok

    1979-08-15

    This book tells of basic conception of thermodynamics, condition and property of matter, work and power, thermal efficiency, the principle of the conservation of energy, relationship between work and heat, enthalpy, Jouel's law, complete gasification, the second low of thermodynamics such as thermal efficiency and quality factor, carnot cycle, and entropy, condensation of gas like press of internal combustion engine, vapor, steam power plant and structure, internal combustion cycle, freeze cycle, flow of fluid, combustion and heat transfer.

  11. Decision support basics

    CERN Document Server

    Power, Daniel J

    2009-01-01

    This book is targeted to busy managers and MBA students who need to grasp the basics of computerized decision support. Some of the topics covered include: What is a DSS? What do managers need to know about computerized decision support? And how can managers identify opportunities to create innovative DSS? Overall the book addresses 35 fundamental questions that are relevant to understanding computerized decision support.

  12. The basic anaesthesia machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurudatt, Cl

    2013-09-01

    After WTG Morton's first public demonstration in 1846 of use of ether as an anaesthetic agent, for many years anaesthesiologists did not require a machine to deliver anaesthesia to the patients. After the introduction of oxygen and nitrous oxide in the form of compressed gases in cylinders, there was a necessity for mounting these cylinders on a metal frame. This stimulated many people to attempt to construct the anaesthesia machine. HEG Boyle in the year 1917 modified the Gwathmey's machine and this became popular as Boyle anaesthesia machine. Though a lot of changes have been made for the original Boyle machine still the basic structure remains the same. All the subsequent changes which have been brought are mainly to improve the safety of the patients. Knowing the details of the basic machine will make the trainee to understand the additional improvements. It is also important for every practicing anaesthesiologist to have a thorough knowledge of the basic anaesthesia machine for safe conduct of anaesthesia.

  13. Blue-sky bifurcation of ion energies and the limits of neutral-gas sympathetic cooling of trapped ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schowalter, Steven J.; Dunning, Alexander J.; Chen, Kuang; Puri, Prateek; Schneider, Christian; Hudson, Eric R.

    2016-01-01

    Sympathetic cooling of trapped ions through collisions with neutral buffer gases is critical to a variety of modern scientific fields, including fundamental chemistry, mass spectrometry, nuclear and particle physics, and atomic and molecular physics. Despite its widespread use over four decades, there remain open questions regarding its fundamental limitations. To probe these limits, here we examine the steady-state evolution of up to 10 barium ions immersed in a gas of three-million laser-cooled calcium atoms. We observe and explain the emergence of nonequilibrium behaviour as evidenced by bifurcations in the ion steady-state temperature, parameterized by ion number. We show that this behaviour leads to the limitations in creating and maintaining translationally cold samples of trapped ions using neutral-gas sympathetic cooling. These results may provide a route to studying non-equilibrium thermodynamics at the atomic level. PMID:27511602

  14. Save the blue sky, protect the ozone layer%拯救蓝天,保护臭氧层

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴勇

    2009-01-01

    @@ 1 何谓臭氧层 臭氧层位于距地面20~30公里的上空,假设将其移到地面只有3 mm(1大气压)的厚度.而正是这像蕾丝窗帘厚度的臭氧层在保护着地球不受紫外线的照射.

  15. Nothing but blue skies? Not-for-profit health systems try to soar over a slipping Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japsen, B; Limbacher, P B

    1997-12-01

    With Columbia/HCA Healthcare Corp. sitting on the sidelines, a newly aggressive not-for-profit hospital sector is stepping up its merger and acquisition activity. Since Richard Scott resigned as Columbia's chief on July 25, the company hasn't announced a single acquisition. Meanwhile, during that span, 40 not-for-profit systems have announced deals involving 50 hospitals.

  16. Blue-sky bifurcation of ion energies and the limits of neutral-gas sympathetic cooling of trapped ions

    CERN Document Server

    Schowalter, Steven J; Chen, Kuang; Puri, Prateek; Schneider, Christian; Hudson, Eric R

    2016-01-01

    Sympathetic cooling of trapped ions through collisions with neutral buffer gases is critical to a variety of modern scientific fields, including fundamental chemistry, mass spectrometry, nuclear and particle physics, and atomic and molecular physics. Despite its widespread use over four decades, there remain open questions regarding its fundamental limitations. To probe these limits, here we examine the steady-state evolution of up to ten barium ions immersed in a gas of three-million laser-cooled calcium atoms. We observe and explain the emergence of nonequilibrium behavior as evidenced by bifurcations in the ion steady-state temperature, parameterized by ion number. We show that this behavior leads to limitations in creating and maintaining translationally cold samples of trapped ions using neutral-gas sympathetic cooling. These results may provide a route to studying nonequilibrium thermodynamics.

  17. Blue-sky bifurcation of ion energies and the limits of neutral-gas sympathetic cooling of trapped ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schowalter, Steven J.; Dunning, Alexander J.; Chen, Kuang; Puri, Prateek; Schneider, Christian; Hudson, Eric R.

    2016-08-01

    Sympathetic cooling of trapped ions through collisions with neutral buffer gases is critical to a variety of modern scientific fields, including fundamental chemistry, mass spectrometry, nuclear and particle physics, and atomic and molecular physics. Despite its widespread use over four decades, there remain open questions regarding its fundamental limitations. To probe these limits, here we examine the steady-state evolution of up to 10 barium ions immersed in a gas of three-million laser-cooled calcium atoms. We observe and explain the emergence of nonequilibrium behaviour as evidenced by bifurcations in the ion steady-state temperature, parameterized by ion number. We show that this behaviour leads to the limitations in creating and maintaining translationally cold samples of trapped ions using neutral-gas sympathetic cooling. These results may provide a route to studying non-equilibrium thermodynamics at the atomic level.

  18. Out of a clear blue sky? FOM, the bomb and the boost in Dutch physics funding after World War II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeneveld, F.; van Dongen, J.

    2013-01-01

    Soon after the end of World War II, Dutch science was reconstituted by novel funding agencies with well-filled coffers. The currently received view is that in a vulnerable and war-torn society the new institutions were created on the basis of technocratic ideals that date back to pre-war years. One

  19. Out of a Clear Blue Sky? FOM, The Bomb, and The Boost in Dutch Physics Funding after World War II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeneveld, F; van Dongen, J.A.E.F.

    2013-01-01

    Soon after the end of World War II, Dutch science was reconstituted by novel funding agencies with well-filled coffers. The currently received view is that in a vulnerable and war-torn society the new institutions were created on the basis of technocratic ideals that date back to pre-war years. One

  20. Full-sky, High-resolution Maps of Interstellar Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisner, Aaron Michael

    We present full-sky, high-resolution maps of interstellar dust based on data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) and Planck missions. We describe our custom processing of the entire WISE 12 micron All-Sky imaging data set, and present the resulting 15 arcsecond resolution, full-sky map of diffuse Galactic dust emission, free of compact sources and other contaminating artifacts. Our derived 12 micron dust map offers angular resolution far superior to that of all other existing full-sky, infrared dust emission maps, revealing a wealth of small-scale filamentary structure. We also apply the Finkbeiner et al. (1999) two-component thermal dust emission model to the Planck HFI maps. We derive full-sky 6.1 arcminute resolution maps of dust optical depth and temperature by fitting this two-component model to Planck 217-857 GHz along with DIRBE/IRAS 100 micron data. In doing so, we obtain the first ever full-sky 100-3000 GHz Planck-based thermal dust emission model, as well as a dust temperature correction with ~10 times enhanced angular resolution relative to DIRBE-based temperature maps. Analyzing the joint Planck/DIRBE dust spectrum, we show that two-component models provide a better fit to the 100-3000 GHz emission than do single-MBB models, though by a lesser margin than found by Finkbeiner et al. (1999) based on FIRAS and DIRBE. We find that, in diffuse sky regions, our two-component 100-217 GHz predictions are on average accurate to within 2.2%, while extrapolating the Planck Collaboration (2013) single-MBB model systematically underpredicts emission by 18.8% at 100 GHz, 12.6% at 143 GHz and 7.9% at 217 GHz. We calibrate our two-component optical depth to reddening, and compare with reddening estimates based on stellar spectra. We find the dominant systematic problems in our temperature/reddening maps to be zodiacal light on large angular scales and the cosmic infrared background anisotropy on small angular scales. Future work will focus on combining

  1. Improving night sky star image processing algorithm for star sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbabmir, Mohammad Vali; Mohammadi, Seyyed Mohammad; Salahshour, Sadegh; Somayehee, Farshad

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, the night sky star image processing algorithm, consisting of image preprocessing, star pattern recognition, and centroiding steps, is improved. It is shown that the proposed noise reduction approach can preserve more necessary information than other frequently used approaches. It is also shown that the proposed thresholding method unlike commonly used techniques can properly perform image binarization, especially in images with uneven illumination. Moreover, the higher performance rate and lower average centroiding estimation error of near 0.045 for 400 simulated images compared to other algorithms show the high capability of the proposed night sky star image processing algorithm.

  2. Mapping the nano-Hertz gravitational wave sky

    CERN Document Server

    Cornish, Neil J

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new method for extracting gravitational wave signals from pulsar timing data. We show that any gravitational wave signal can be decomposed into an orthogonal set of sky maps, with the number of maps equal to the number of pulsars in the timing array. These maps may be used as a basis to construct gravitational wave templates for any type of source, including collections of point sources. A variant of the standard Hellings-Downs correlation analysis is recovered for statistically isotropic signals. The template based approach allows us to probe potential anisotropies in the signal and produce maps of the gravitational wave sky.

  3. Color-magnitude distribution of face-on nearby galaxies in Sloan digital sky survey DR7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Shuo-Wen; Feng, Long-Long [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Gu, Qiusheng; Huang, Song; Shi, Yong, E-mail: qsgu@nju.edu.cn [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2014-05-20

    We have analyzed the distributions in the color-magnitude diagram (CMD) of a large sample of face-on galaxies to minimize the effect of dust extinctions on galaxy color. About 300,000 galaxies with log (a/b) < 0.2 and redshift z < 0.2 are selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7 catalog. Two methods are employed to investigate the distributions of galaxies in the CMD, including one-dimensional (1D) Gaussian fitting to the distributions in individual magnitude bins and two-dimensional (2D) Gaussian mixture model (GMM) fitting to galaxies as a whole. We find that in the 1D fitting, two Gaussians are not enough to fit galaxies with the excess present between the blue cloud and the red sequence. The fitting to this excess defines the center of the green valley in the local universe to be (u – r){sub 0.1} = –0.121M {sub r,} 0{sub .1} – 0.061. The fraction of blue cloud and red sequence galaxies turns over around M {sub r,} {sub 0.1} ∼ –20.1 mag, corresponding to stellar mass of 3 × 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}. For the 2D GMM fitting, a total of four Gaussians are required, one for the blue cloud, one for the red sequence, and the additional two for the green valley. The fact that two Gaussians are needed to describe the distributions of galaxies in the green valley is consistent with some models that argue for two different evolutionary paths from the blue cloud to the red sequence.

  4. The pre-launch Planck Sky Model: a model of sky emission at submillimetre to centimetre wavelengths

    CERN Document Server

    Delabrouille, J; Melin, J -B; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J; Jeune, M Le; Castex, G; de Zotti, G; Basak, S; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A; Bernard, J -P; Bouchet, F R; Clements, D L; da Silva, A; Dickinson, C; Dodu, F; Dolag, K; Elsner, F; Fauvet, L; Faÿ, G; Giardino, G; Leach, S; Lesgourgues, J; Liguori, M; Macias-Perez, J F; Massardi, M; Matarrese, S; Mazzotta, P; Montier, L; Mottet, S; Paladini, R; Partridge, B; Piffaretti, R; Prezeau, G; Prunet, S; Ricciardi, S; Roman, M; Schaefer, B; Toffolatti, L

    2012-01-01

    We present the Planck Sky Model (PSM), a parametric model for the generation of all-sky, few arcminute resolution maps of sky emission at submillimetre to centimetre wavelengths, in both intensity and polarisation. Several options are implemented to model the cosmic microwave background, Galactic diffuse emission (synchrotron, free-free, thermal and spinning dust, CO lines), Galactic H-II regions, extragalactic radio sources, dusty galaxies, and thermal and kinetic Sunyaev-Zeldovich signals from clusters of galaxies. Each component is simulated by means of educated interpolations/extrapolations of data sets available at the time of the launch of the Planck mission, complemented by state-of-the-art models of the emission. Distinctive features of the simulations are: spatially varying spectral properties of synchrotron and dust; different spectral parameters for each point source; modeling of the clustering properties of extragalactic sources and of the power spectrum of fluctuations in the cosmic infrared back...

  5. Time Order and ‘Speaking Out’: Traditional Farming and Beliefs in Europe and Indonesia and Sky Symmetry Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harm Henricus Hollestelle

    2016-09-01

    With the concept of ‘speaking out’ I connect with the theatre training work of Iris Warren and Kristin Linklater. At the same time, while objects and their properties belong to the domain of physics, I will use some basic symmetry concepts from physics. Correlation then takes the form of an interwoven fabric where cause and effect are entangled. Different subsistence practices will correlate with different symmetries, i.e. translational and rotational symmetries, of the sky universe, that can be recognized from artistic expressions like personal ornaments.

  6. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping Project: Post-Starburst Signatures in Quasar Host Galaxies at z < 1

    CERN Document Server

    Matsuoka, Yoshiki; Shen, Yue; Brandt, William N; Greene, Jenny E; Ho, Luis C; Schneider, Donald P; Sun, Mouyuan; Trump, Jonathan R

    2015-01-01

    Quasar host galaxies are key for understanding the relation between galaxies and the supermassive black holes (SMBHs) at their cores. We present a study of 191 unobscured quasars and their host galaxies at z < 1, using high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) spectra produced by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping project. Clear detection of stellar absorption lines allows a reliable decomposition of the observed spectra into nuclear and host components, using spectral models of quasar and stellar radiations as well as emission lines from the interstellar medium. We estimate age, mass (M*), and velocity dispersion (sigma*) of the host stars, the star formation rate (SFR), quasar luminosity, and SMBH mass (Mbh), for each object. The quasars are preferentially hosted by massive galaxies with M* ~ 10^{11} Msun characterized by stellar ages around a billion years, which coincides with the transition phase of normal galaxies from the blue cloud to the red sequence. The host galaxies have relatively low S...

  7. Characterization of clear sky conditions over El Leoncito Observatory from an all-sky imager designed for upper atmosphere studies.

    OpenAIRE

    Martinis, C.; Wilson, J.; Zablowski, P.; Baumgardner, J.; Aballay, Jose Luis; Garcia, Beatriz Elena; Ristori, Pablo Roberto; Otero, Lidia Ana

    2015-01-01

    A method for determining cloud cover fraction over El Leoncito Observatory (31.8°S, 69.3°W) is presented. Data from an all-sky imaging system, designed to measure nightglow originating from the mesosphere and thermosphere, is used to determine the fraction of the sky covered by clouds. More than 9,000 hr of observations from May 2006 to December 2010 are used to show that El Leoncito is clear approximately 75–80% of the time. No significant seasonal variations are observed. The optical ground...

  8. Analytic expressions for the black-sky and white-sky albedos of the cosine lobe model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodin, Christopher

    2013-05-01

    The cosine lobe model is a bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) that is commonly used in computer graphics to model specular reflections. The model is both simple and physically plausible, but physical quantities such as albedo have not been related to the parameterization of the model. In this paper, analytic expressions for calculating the black-sky and white-sky albedos from the cosine lobe BRDF model with integer exponents will be derived, to the author's knowledge for the first time. These expressions for albedo can be used to place constraints on physics-based simulations of radiative transfer such as high-fidelity ray-tracing simulations.

  9. Biosorption of Methyl Blue Onto Tartaric Acid Modified Wheat Bran From Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhua Yao

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Tartaric acid modified wheat bran was utilized as adsorbent to remove methyl blue, a basic dye from aqueous solution. Batch experiments were carried out to study the effect of various experimental parameters such as initial solution pH, contact time, initial dye concentration and adsorbent dosage, on dye adsorption. The results showed that the modification of wheat bran by tartaric acid significantly improved its adsorption capacity, and made thismaterial a suitable adsorbent to remove 1.6 times higher than that of unmodified one. The amount of methyl blue adsorbed was found to vary with initial solution pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time and initial methyl blue concentration. Kinetics study showed that theoverall adsorption rate of methyl blue was illustrated by pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The applicability of theLangmuir and Freundlich models for the data was tested. Both models adequately described the experimental data of the biosorption of methyl blue. The maximum adsorption capacity for methyl blue calculated from Langmuir model was 25.18 mg/g. The study has shown the effectiveness of modified wheat bran in the removal of methylblue, and that it can be considered as an attractive alternative to the more expensive technologies used in wastewater treatment.

  10. Ecology of Blue Straggler Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Boffin, H M J; Beccari, G

    2014-01-01

    The existence of blue straggler stars (BSS), which appear younger, hotter, and more massive than their siblings, is at odds with a simple picture of stellar evolution, as such stars should have exhausted their nuclear fuel and evolved long ago to become cooling white dwarfs. As such, BSS could just be some quirks but in fact their understanding requires a deep knowledge of many different areas in astronomy, from stellar evolution through cluster dynamics, from chemical abundances to stellar populations. In November 2012, a workshop on this important topic took place at the ESO Chilean headquarters in Santiago. The many topics covered at this workshop were introduced by very comprehensive invited reviews, providing a unique and insightful view on the field. These reviews have now become chapters of the first ever book on BSS.

  11. Liquid biofuels from blue biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kádár, Zsófia; Jensen, Annette Eva; Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    medium, light as energy source and they capture CO2 for the synthesis of new organic material, thus can grow on non-agricultural land, without increasing food prices, or using fresh water. Due to all these advantages in addition to very high biomass yield with high carbohydrate content, macroalgaes can......Marine (blue) biomasses, such as macroalgaes, represent a huge unexploited amount of biomass. With their various chemical compositions, macroalgaes can be a potential substrate for food, feed, biomaterials, pharmaceuticals, health care products and also for bioenergy. Algae use seawater as a growth...... be the well suited candidates as feedstock for biofuel production in the future. The aim of our studies is to examine the possibility producing liquid biofuel (ethanol and butanol) from macroalgaes....

  12. Catalyst in Basic Oleochemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Suyenty

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently Indonesia is the world largest palm oil producer with production volume reaching 16 million tones per annum. The high crude oil and ethylene prices in the last 3 – 4 years contribute to the healthy demand growth for basic oleochemicals: fatty acids and fatty alcohols. Oleochemicals are starting to replace crude oil derived products in various applications. As widely practiced in petrochemical industry, catalyst plays a very important role in the production of basic oleochemicals. Catalytic reactions are abound in the production of oleochemicals: Nickel based catalysts are used in the hydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids; sodium methylate catalyst in the transesterification of triglycerides; sulfonic based polystyrene resin catalyst in esterification of fatty acids; and copper chromite/copper zinc catalyst in the high pressure hydrogenation of methyl esters or fatty acids to produce fatty alcohols. To maintain long catalyst life, it is crucial to ensure the absence of catalyst poisons and inhibitors in the feed. The preparation methods of nickel and copper chromite catalysts are as follows: precipitation, filtration, drying, and calcinations. Sodium methylate is derived from direct reaction of sodium metal and methanol under inert gas. The sulfonic based polystyrene resin is derived from sulfonation of polystyrene crosslinked with di-vinyl-benzene. © 2007 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.[Presented at Symposium and Congress of MKICS 2007, 18-19 April 2007, Semarang, Indonesia][How to Cite: E. Suyenty, H. Sentosa, M. Agustine, S. Anwar, A. Lie, E. Sutanto. (2007. Catalyst in Basic Oleochemicals. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 2 (2-3: 22-31.  doi:10.9767/bcrec.2.2-3.6.22-31][How to Link/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.2.2-3.6.22-31 || or local: http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/6

  13. Basic heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Bacon, D H

    2013-01-01

    Basic Heat Transfer aims to help readers use a computer to solve heat transfer problems and to promote greater understanding by changing data values and observing the effects, which are necessary in design and optimization calculations.The book is concerned with applications including insulation and heating in buildings and pipes, temperature distributions in solids for steady state and transient conditions, the determination of surface heat transfer coefficients for convection in various situations, radiation heat transfer in grey body problems, the use of finned surfaces, and simple heat exc

  14. Electrical installation calculations basic

    CERN Document Server

    Kitcher, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    All the essential calculations required for basic electrical installation workThe Electrical Installation Calculations series has proved an invaluable reference for over forty years, for both apprentices and professional electrical installation engineers alike. The book provides a step-by-step guide to the successful application of electrical installation calculations required in day-to-day electrical engineering practice. A step-by-step guide to everyday calculations used on the job An essential aid to the City & Guilds certificates at Levels 2 and 3Fo

  15. Back to basics audio

    CERN Document Server

    Nathan, Julian

    1998-01-01

    Back to Basics Audio is a thorough, yet approachable handbook on audio electronics theory and equipment. The first part of the book discusses electrical and audio principles. Those principles form a basis for understanding the operation of equipment and systems, covered in the second section. Finally, the author addresses planning and installation of a home audio system.Julian Nathan joined the audio service and manufacturing industry in 1954 and moved into motion picture engineering and production in 1960. He installed and operated recording theaters in Sydney, Austra

  16. Basic genetics for dermatologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthu Sendhil Kumaran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During the past few decades, advances in the field of molecular genetics have enriched us in understanding the pathogenesis of diseases, their identification, and appropriate therapeutic interventions. In the last 20 years, genetic basis of more than 350 monogenic skin diseases have been elucidated and is counting. The widespread use of molecular genetics as a tool in diagnosis is not practiced routinely due to genetic heterogenicity, limited access and low sensitivity. In this review, we have presented the very basics of genetics so as to enable dermatologists to have working understanding of medical genetics.

  17. Machine shop basics

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Rex

    2004-01-01

    Use the right tool the right wayHere, fully updated to include new machines and electronic/digital controls, is the ultimate guide to basic machine shop equipment and how to use it. Whether you're a professional machinist, an apprentice, a trade student, or a handy homeowner, this fully illustrated volume helps you define tools and use them properly and safely. It's packed with review questions for students, and loaded with answers you need on the job.Mark Richard Miller is a Professor and Chairman of the Industrial Technology Department at Texas A&M University in Kingsville, T

  18. C# Database Basics

    CERN Document Server

    Schmalz, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Working with data and databases in C# certainly can be daunting if you're coming from VB6, VBA, or Access. With this hands-on guide, you'll shorten the learning curve considerably as you master accessing, adding, updating, and deleting data with C#-basic skills you need if you intend to program with this language. No previous knowledge of C# is necessary. By following the examples in this book, you'll learn how to tackle several database tasks in C#, such as working with SQL Server, building data entry forms, and using data in a web service. The book's code samples will help you get started

  19. Menstrual Cycle: Basic Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Shannon M.; Matzuk, Martin M.

    2010-01-01

    The basic biology of the menstrual cycle is a complex, coordinated sequence of events involving the hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, ovary, and endometrium. The menstrual cycle with all its complexities can be easily perturbed by environmental factors such as stress, extreme exercise, eating disorders, and obesity. Furthermore, genetic influences such as fragile X premutations (Chapter X), X chromosome abnormalities (Chapter X), and galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) point mutations (galactosemia) also contribute to perturbations of the menstrual cycle. Although not perfect, mouse model have helped to identify and confirm additional components and pathways in menstrual cycle function and dysfunction in humans. PMID:18574203

  20. Basic structural dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, James C

    2012-01-01

    A concise introduction to structural dynamics and earthquake engineering Basic Structural Dynamics serves as a fundamental introduction to the topic of structural dynamics. Covering single and multiple-degree-of-freedom systems while providing an introduction to earthquake engineering, the book keeps the coverage succinct and on topic at a level that is appropriate for undergraduate and graduate students. Through dozens of worked examples based on actual structures, it also introduces readers to MATLAB, a powerful software for solving both simple and complex structural d