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Sample records for basic biological processes

  1. Transmission as a basic process in microbial biology. Lwoff Award Prize Lecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baquero, Fernando

    2017-11-01

    Transmission is a basic process in biology and evolution, as it communicates different biological entities within and across hierarchical levels (from genes to holobionts) both in time and space. Vertical descent, replication, is transmission of information across generations (in the time dimension), and horizontal descent is transmission of information across compartments (in the space dimension). Transmission is essentially a communication process that can be studied by analogy of the classic information theory, based on 'emitters', 'messages' and 'receivers'. The analogy can be easily extended to the triad 'emigration', 'migration' and 'immigration'. A number of causes (forces) determine the emission, and another set of causes (energies) assures the reception. The message in fact is essentially constituted by 'meaningful' biological entities. A DNA sequence, a cell and a population have a semiotic dimension, are 'signs' that are eventually recognized (decoded) and integrated by receiver biological entities. In cis-acting or unenclosed transmission, the emitters and receivers correspond to separated entities of the same hierarchical level; in trans-acting or embedded transmission, the information flows between different, but frequently nested, hierarchical levels. The result (as in introgressive events) is constantly producing innovation and feeding natural selection, influencing also the evolution of transmission processes. This review is based on the concepts presented at the André Lwoff Award Lecture in the FEMS Microbiology Congress in Maastricht in 2015. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Basic digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Lockhart, Gordon B

    1985-01-01

    Basic Digital Signal Processing describes the principles of digital signal processing and experiments with BASIC programs involving the fast Fourier theorem (FFT). The book reviews the fundamentals of the BASIC program, continuous and discrete time signals including analog signals, Fourier analysis, discrete Fourier transform, signal energy, power. The text also explains digital signal processing involving digital filters, linear time-variant systems, discrete time unit impulse, discrete-time convolution, and the alternative structure for second order infinite impulse response (IIR) sections.

  3. Electron processing at low energies: from basics to environmental and biological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illenberger, Eugen

    2006-10-01

    Electron initiated reactions play a key role in nearly any field of pure and applied sciences, in the gas phase as well as in condensed phases or at interfaces. This include substrate induced photochemistry, radiation damage of biological material (and, accordingly, the molecular mechanisms, how radio sensitizers used in tumour therapy operate), reactions induced by electrons in surface tunnelling microscopy (STM), or any kind of plasma used in industrial plasma processing. In each of these fields the electron-molecule interaction represents a key step within an eventually complex reaction sequence. A particularly interesting field is the interaction of electrons with molecules at energies below the level of electronic excitation. In this range many molecules exhibit large cross sections for resonant electron capture, often followed by the decomposition of the transient negative compound (M^-# ) according to e^- + M --> M^-# --> R + X^-.^ We report on such dissociative electron attachment (DEA) processes studied at different stages of aggregation, namely in single molecules under collision free conditions, in clusters formed by supersonic gas expansion, and on the surface of solids or in molecular nanofilms. In the meantime it has also been recognised that in the damage of living cells by high energy radiation the attachment of low energy secondary electrons to DNA is a key initial process leading to strand breaks. These secondary electrons are created along the ionisation track of the primary high-energy quantum. Apart from that, bio-molecular systems exhibit unique features in DEA, like bond and site selective decompositions.

  4. Basic radiotherapy physics and biology

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, David S; Das, Indra J; Mendonca, Marc S; Dynlacht, Joseph R

    2014-01-01

    This book is a concise and well-illustrated review of the physics and biology of radiation therapy intended for radiation oncology residents, radiation therapists, dosimetrists, and physicists. It presents topics that are included on the Radiation Therapy Physics and Biology examinations and is designed with the intent of presenting information in an easily digestible format with maximum retention in mind. The inclusion of mnemonics, rules of thumb, and reader-friendly illustrations throughout the book help to make difficult concepts easier to grasp. Basic Radiotherapy Physics and Biology is a

  5. Basic biology in health physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, J.

    1976-10-01

    This report describes the consequences of the interaction of ionizing radiation with living cells and tissues. The basic processes of living cells, which are relevant to an understanding of health physics problems, are outlined with particular reference to cell-death, cancer induction and genetic effects. (author)

  6. Basic statistics in cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaux, David L

    2014-01-01

    The physicist Ernest Rutherford said, "If your experiment needs statistics, you ought to have done a better experiment." Although this aphorism remains true for much of today's research in cell biology, a basic understanding of statistics can be useful to cell biologists to help in monitoring the conduct of their experiments, in interpreting the results, in presenting them in publications, and when critically evaluating research by others. However, training in statistics is often focused on the sophisticated needs of clinical researchers, psychologists, and epidemiologists, whose conclusions depend wholly on statistics, rather than the practical needs of cell biologists, whose experiments often provide evidence that is not statistical in nature. This review describes some of the basic statistical principles that may be of use to experimental biologists, but it does not cover the sophisticated statistics needed for papers that contain evidence of no other kind.

  7. Making evolutionary biology a basic science for medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesse, Randolph M.; Bergstrom, Carl T.; Ellison, Peter T.; Flier, Jeffrey S.; Gluckman, Peter; Govindaraju, Diddahally R.; Niethammer, Dietrich; Omenn, Gilbert S.; Perlman, Robert L.; Schwartz, Mark D.; Thomas, Mark G.; Stearns, Stephen C.; Valle, David

    2010-01-01

    New applications of evolutionary biology in medicine are being discovered at an accelerating rate, but few physicians have sufficient educational background to use them fully. This article summarizes suggestions from several groups that have considered how evolutionary biology can be useful in medicine, what physicians should learn about it, and when and how they should learn it. Our general conclusion is that evolutionary biology is a crucial basic science for medicine. In addition to looking at established evolutionary methods and topics, such as population genetics and pathogen evolution, we highlight questions about why natural selection leaves bodies vulnerable to disease. Knowledge about evolution provides physicians with an integrative framework that links otherwise disparate bits of knowledge. It replaces the prevalent view of bodies as machines with a biological view of bodies shaped by evolutionary processes. Like other basic sciences, evolutionary biology needs to be taught both before and during medical school. Most introductory biology courses are insufficient to establish competency in evolutionary biology. Premedical students need evolution courses, possibly ones that emphasize medically relevant aspects. In medical school, evolutionary biology should be taught as one of the basic medical sciences. This will require a course that reviews basic principles and specific medical applications, followed by an integrated presentation of evolutionary aspects that apply to each disease and organ system. Evolutionary biology is not just another topic vying for inclusion in the curriculum; it is an essential foundation for a biological understanding of health and disease. PMID:19918069

  8. Mathematical modeling of biological processes

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Avner

    2014-01-01

    This book on mathematical modeling of biological processes includes a wide selection of biological topics that demonstrate the power of mathematics and computational codes in setting up biological processes with a rigorous and predictive framework. Topics include: enzyme dynamics, spread of disease, harvesting bacteria, competition among live species, neuronal oscillations, transport of neurofilaments in axon, cancer and cancer therapy, and granulomas. Complete with a description of the biological background and biological question that requires the use of mathematics, this book is developed for graduate students and advanced undergraduate students with only basic knowledge of ordinary differential equations and partial differential equations; background in biology is not required. Students will gain knowledge on how to program with MATLAB without previous programming experience and how to use codes in order to test biological hypothesis.

  9. Sources and basic threats of biological safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarova, O.D.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Biological safety of any state is connected with development of its public protection against biological weapons and opportunity to prevent bio terrorist attacks. That's why in modern social-economic and geo-political conditions, the problem of biological safety strengthening become significant, which is connected with migration process globalization, development of bio-technology and dramatically increased risk of pathogenic germ infections proliferation, which can be used as biological weapon. Despite of undertaken efforts by world community on full prohibition of biological weapon, its proliferation in the world still takes place. Biology revolution during second and third millennium lead to development not only biotechnology but new achievements in medicine, agriculture and other fields of economy, but also created scientific and research preconditions for development of advanced biological means of mass destruction, that make it more attractive for achieving superiority and assigned targets: low developments costs, opportunity to create it by one small laboratory with two-three high qualified specialists bio technologists; tremendous impact effect: one substance gram can contain from one till one hundreds quintillions (10 18 - 10 20 ) active pathogen molecules and in case if they belong to amplificated RNA and DNA, each molecule getting to organism, will multiply and contaminate environment (the last one is its principal difference from chemical weapon); bypass of organism immunological barriers and specific vaccinations; unusual clinic finding, hard diagnosis; weakness of traditional medications and treatment methods; lack of material destruction; opportunity of tight-lipped developments; opportunity of tight-lipped application; opportunity of delayed effect; opportunity of selective influence on specific population (by use of genetic, climatic and cultural specifications of race, nations and nationalities). Above mentioned specifications

  10. Branching processes in biology

    CERN Document Server

    Kimmel, Marek

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a theoretical background of branching processes and discusses their biological applications. Branching processes are a well-developed and powerful set of tools in the field of applied probability. The range of applications considered includes molecular biology, cellular biology, human evolution and medicine. The branching processes discussed include Galton-Watson, Markov, Bellman-Harris, Multitype, and General Processes. As an aid to understanding specific examples, two introductory chapters, and two glossaries are included that provide background material in mathematics and in biology. The book will be of interest to scientists who work in quantitative modeling of biological systems, particularly probabilists, mathematical biologists, biostatisticians, cell biologists, molecular biologists, and bioinformaticians. The authors are a mathematician and cell biologist who have collaborated for more than a decade in the field of branching processes in biology for this new edition. This second ex...

  11. Introduction to basic molecular biologic techniques for molecular imaging researches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Joo Hyun

    2004-01-01

    Molecular imaging is a rapidly growing field due to the advances in molecular biology and imaging technologies. With the introduction of imaging reporter genes into the cell, diverse cellular processes can be monitored, quantified and imaged non-invasively in vivo. These processes include the gene expression, protein-protein interactions, signal transduction pathways, and monitoring of cells such as cancer cells, immune cells, and stem cells. In the near future, molecular imaging analysis will allow us to observe the incipience and progression of the disease. These will make us easier to give a diagnosis in the early stage of intractable diseases such as cancer, neuro-degenerative disease, and immunological disorders. Additionally, molecular imaging method will be a valuable tool for the real-time evaluation of cells in molecular biology and the basic biological studies. As newer and more powerful molecular imaging tools become available, it will be necessary to corporate clinicians, molecular biologists and biochemists for the planning, interpretation, and application of these techniques to their fullest potential. In order for such a multidisciplinary team to be effective, it is essential that a common understanding of basic biochemical and molecular biologic techniques is achieved. Basic molecular techniques for molecular imaging methods are presented in this paper

  12. Basic biology of Pneumocystis carinii: a mini review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanderley de Souza

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Basic aspects of cell biology of Pneumocystis carinii are reviewed with major emphasis on its life cycle and the structural organization of the trophozoites and cyst forms. Initially considered as a protozoan it is now established that Pneumocystis belongs to the Fungi Kingdom. Its life cycle includes two basic forms: (a trophozoites, which are haploid cells that divide by binary fission and may conjugate with each other forming an early procyst and (b cysts where division takes place through a meiotic process with the formation of eight nuclei followed by cytoplasmic delimitation and formation of intracystic bodies which are subsequently released and transformed into trophozoites. Basic aspects of the structure of the two developmental stages of P. carinii are reviewed.

  13. Biological process linkage networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dikla Dotan-Cohen

    Full Text Available The traditional approach to studying complex biological networks is based on the identification of interactions between internal components of signaling or metabolic pathways. By comparison, little is known about interactions between higher order biological systems, such as biological pathways and processes. We propose a methodology for gleaning patterns of interactions between biological processes by analyzing protein-protein interactions, transcriptional co-expression and genetic interactions. At the heart of the methodology are the concept of Linked Processes and the resultant network of biological processes, the Process Linkage Network (PLN.We construct, catalogue, and analyze different types of PLNs derived from different data sources and different species. When applied to the Gene Ontology, many of the resulting links connect processes that are distant from each other in the hierarchy, even though the connection makes eminent sense biologically. Some others, however, carry an element of surprise and may reflect mechanisms that are unique to the organism under investigation. In this aspect our method complements the link structure between processes inherent in the Gene Ontology, which by its very nature is species-independent. As a practical application of the linkage of processes we demonstrate that it can be effectively used in protein function prediction, having the power to increase both the coverage and the accuracy of predictions, when carefully integrated into prediction methods.Our approach constitutes a promising new direction towards understanding the higher levels of organization of the cell as a system which should help current efforts to re-engineer ontologies and improve our ability to predict which proteins are involved in specific biological processes.

  14. Basic mathematics for the biological and social sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Marriott, F H C

    2013-01-01

    Basic Mathematics for the Biological and Social Sciences deals with the applications of basic mathematics in the biological and social sciences. Mathematical concepts that are discussed in this book include graphical methods, differentiation, trigonometrical or circular functions, limits and convergence, integration, vectors, and differential equations. The exponential function and related functions are also considered. This monograph is comprised of 11 chapters and begins with an overview of basic algebra, followed by an introduction to infinitesimal calculus, scalar and vector quantities, co

  15. Nutritional biology: a neglected basic discipline of nutritional science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döring, Frank; Ströhle, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    On the basis of a scientific-philosophical analysis, this paper tries to show that the approaches in current nutritional science-including its subdisciplines which focus on molecular aspects-are predominantly application-oriented. This becomes particularly evident through a number of conceptual problems characterized by the triad of 'dearth of theoretical foundation,' 'particularist research questions,' and 'reductionist understanding of nutrition.' The thesis presented here is that an interpretive framework based on nutritional biology is able to shed constructive light on the fundamental problems of nutritional science. In this context, the establishment of 'nutritional biology' as a basic discipline in research and education would be a first step toward recognizing the phenomenon of 'nutrition' as an oecic process as a special case of an organism-environment interaction. Modern nutritional science should be substantively grounded on ecological-and therefore systems biology as well as organismic-principles. The aim of nutritional biology, then, should be to develop near-universal 'law statements' in nutritional science-a task which presents a major challenge for the current science system.

  16. A basic analysis toolkit for biological sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siragusa Enrico

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents a software library, nicknamed BATS, for some basic sequence analysis tasks. Namely, local alignments, via approximate string matching, and global alignments, via longest common subsequence and alignments with affine and concave gap cost functions. Moreover, it also supports filtering operations to select strings from a set and establish their statistical significance, via z-score computation. None of the algorithms is new, but although they are generally regarded as fundamental for sequence analysis, they have not been implemented in a single and consistent software package, as we do here. Therefore, our main contribution is to fill this gap between algorithmic theory and practice by providing an extensible and easy to use software library that includes algorithms for the mentioned string matching and alignment problems. The library consists of C/C++ library functions as well as Perl library functions. It can be interfaced with Bioperl and can also be used as a stand-alone system with a GUI. The software is available at http://www.math.unipa.it/~raffaele/BATS/ under the GNU GPL.

  17. Evolution in health and medicine Sackler colloquium: Making evolutionary biology a basic science for medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesse, Randolph M; Bergstrom, Carl T; Ellison, Peter T; Flier, Jeffrey S; Gluckman, Peter; Govindaraju, Diddahally R; Niethammer, Dietrich; Omenn, Gilbert S; Perlman, Robert L; Schwartz, Mark D; Thomas, Mark G; Stearns, Stephen C; Valle, David

    2010-01-26

    New applications of evolutionary biology in medicine are being discovered at an accelerating rate, but few physicians have sufficient educational background to use them fully. This article summarizes suggestions from several groups that have considered how evolutionary biology can be useful in medicine, what physicians should learn about it, and when and how they should learn it. Our general conclusion is that evolutionary biology is a crucial basic science for medicine. In addition to looking at established evolutionary methods and topics, such as population genetics and pathogen evolution, we highlight questions about why natural selection leaves bodies vulnerable to disease. Knowledge about evolution provides physicians with an integrative framework that links otherwise disparate bits of knowledge. It replaces the prevalent view of bodies as machines with a biological view of bodies shaped by evolutionary processes. Like other basic sciences, evolutionary biology needs to be taught both before and during medical school. Most introductory biology courses are insufficient to establish competency in evolutionary biology. Premedical students need evolution courses, possibly ones that emphasize medically relevant aspects. In medical school, evolutionary biology should be taught as one of the basic medical sciences. This will require a course that reviews basic principles and specific medical applications, followed by an integrated presentation of evolutionary aspects that apply to each disease and organ system. Evolutionary biology is not just another topic vying for inclusion in the curriculum; it is an essential foundation for a biological understanding of health and disease.

  18. Basics of cutting and abrasive processes

    CERN Document Server

    Toenshoff, Hans Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Manufacturing is the basic industrial activity generating real value. Cutting and abrasive technologies are the backbone of precision production in machine, automotive and aircraft building as well as of production of consumer goods. We present the knowledge of modern manufacturing in these technologies on the basis of scientific research. The theory of cutting and abrasive processes and the knowledge about their application in industrial practice are a prerequisite for the studies of manufacturing science and an important part of the curriculum of the master study in German mechanical engineering. The basis of this book is our lecture “Basics of cutting and abrasive processes” (4 semester hours/3 credit hours) at the Leibniz University Hannover, which we offer to the diploma and master students specializing in manufacturing science.

  19. Applied medical image processing a basic course

    CERN Document Server

    Birkfellner, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    A widely used, classroom-tested text, Applied Medical Image Processing: A Basic Course delivers an ideal introduction to image processing in medicine, emphasizing the clinical relevance and special requirements of the field. Avoiding excessive mathematical formalisms, the book presents key principles by implementing algorithms from scratch and using simple MATLAB®/Octave scripts with image data and illustrations on an accompanying CD-ROM or companion website. Organized as a complete textbook, it provides an overview of the physics of medical image processing and discusses image formats and data storage, intensity transforms, filtering of images and applications of the Fourier transform, three-dimensional spatial transforms, volume rendering, image registration, and tomographic reconstruction.

  20. Grounding language processing on basic neurophysiological principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friederici, Angela D; Singer, Wolf

    2015-06-01

    In animal models the neural basis of cognitive and executive processes has been studied extensively at various hierarchical levels from microcircuits to distributed functional networks. This work already provides compelling evidence that diverse cognitive functions are based on similar basic neuronal mechanisms. More recent data suggest that even cognitive functions realized only in human brains rely on these canonical neuronal mechanisms. Here we argue that language, like other cognitive functions, depends on distributed computations in specialized cortical areas forming large-scale dynamic networks and examine to what extent empirical results support this view. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Stochastic processes in cell biology

    CERN Document Server

    Bressloff, Paul C

    2014-01-01

    This book develops the theory of continuous and discrete stochastic processes within the context of cell biology.  A wide range of biological topics are covered including normal and anomalous diffusion in complex cellular environments, stochastic ion channels and excitable systems, stochastic calcium signaling, molecular motors, intracellular transport, signal transduction, bacterial chemotaxis, robustness in gene networks, genetic switches and oscillators, cell polarization, polymerization, cellular length control, and branching processes. The book also provides a pedagogical introduction to the theory of stochastic process – Fokker Planck equations, stochastic differential equations, master equations and jump Markov processes, diffusion approximations and the system size expansion, first passage time problems, stochastic hybrid systems, reaction-diffusion equations, exclusion processes, WKB methods, martingales and branching processes, stochastic calculus, and numerical methods.   This text is primarily...

  2. Achieving year 2000 readiness: basic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-03-01

    This document provides an approach or addressing safety and operability concerns related to Year 2000 (Y2K). Although it was prepared for nuclear power plants the methods described are applicable to other nuclear installations and to other industrial concerns. The basic goal was to provide a brief but comprehensive approach that may be used to discover, understand and correct the Y2K related problems. The document relies on certain basic expectations of the facility that would apply to any programme: ownership, management, knowledgeable participants, thorough application of the approach, documentation of efforts, quality assurance of products and compliance with all regulatory requirements. The IAEA has and will continue to be involved with Member States to assist them in implementing this document and achieving Y2K Readiness

  3. Basic Concepts in Molecular Biology Related to Genetics and Epigenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corella, Dolores; Ordovas, Jose M

    2017-09-01

    The observation that "one size does not fit all" for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease, among other diseases, has driven the concept of precision medicine. The goal of precision medicine is to provide the best-targeted interventions tailored to an individual's genome. The human genome is composed of billions of sequence arrangements containing a code that controls how genes are expressed. This code depends on other nonstatic regulators that surround the DNA and constitute the epigenome. Moreover, environmental factors also play an important role in this complex regulation. This review provides a general perspective on the basic concepts of molecular biology related to genetics and epigenetics and a glossary of key terms. Several examples are given of polymorphisms and genetic risk scores related to cardiovascular risk. Likewise, an overview is presented of the main epigenetic regulators, including DNA methylation, methylcytosine-phosphate-guanine-binding proteins, histone modifications, other histone regulations, micro-RNA effects, and additional emerging regulators. One of the greatest challenges is to understand how environmental factors (diet, physical activity, smoking, etc.) could alter the epigenome, resulting in healthy or unhealthy cardiovascular phenotypes. We discuss some gene-environment interactions and provide a methodological overview. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Understanding the basic biology underlying the flavor world of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A. MENNELLA, Alison K. VENTURA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Health organizations worldwide recommend that adults and children minimize intakes of excess energy and salty, sweet, and fatty foods (all of which are highly preferred tastes and eat diets richer in whole grains, low- and non- fat dairy products, legumes, fish, lean meat, fruits, and vegetables (many of which taste bitter. Despite such recommendations and the well-established benefits of these foods to human health, adults are not complying, nor are their children. A primary reason for this difficulty is the remarkably potent rewarding properties of the tastes and flavors of foods high in sweetness, saltiness, and fatness. While we cannot easily change children’s basic ingrained biology of liking sweets and avoiding bitterness, we can modulate their flavor preferences by providing early exposure, starting in utero, to a wide variety of flavors within healthy foods, such as fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. Because the flavors of foods mothers eat during pregnancy and lactation also flavor amniotic fluid and breast milk and become preferred by infants, pregnant and lactating women should widen their food choices to include as many flavorful and healthy foods as possible. These experiences, combined with repeated exposure to nutritious foods and flavor variety during the weaning period and beyond, should maximize the chances that children will select and enjoy a healthier diet [Current Zoology 56 (6: 834–841, 2010].

  5. Basic processes and trends in gaseous detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    Almost a century after the invention of the proportional counter, a large research effort is still devoted to better understand the basic properties of gaseous detectors, and to improve their performances and reliability, particularly in view of use at the high radiation levels expected at LHC. In the first part of the lectures, after a brief introduction on underlying physical phenomena, I will review modern sophisticated computational tools, as well as some classic "back of the envelope" analytical methods, available today for estimating the general performances of gaseous detectors. In the second part, I will analyze in more detail problems specific to the use of detectors at high rates (space charge, discharges, aging), and describe the recent development of powerful and perhaps more reliable devices, particularly in the field of position-sensitive micro-pattern detectors.

  6. Environmental radiation: basic principles, biological facts, potential risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodemann, H.P.

    2000-01-01

    This book describes the complex processes that underlie the effects of different types of radiation at the cellular, organ and organismic level. Technical terms central to the subject matter are printed in italicize and explained in a glossary along with all physical quantities and dimensional units referred to. Through a systematic presentation of various aspects of the effects of environmental radiation on humans the author has endeavoured to make it clear that any discussion on potential health hazards must be conducted specific to the type of radiation in question. Furthermore, to study these issues meaningfully one must have a knowledge of the scientific basis of interactions between the various types of radiation and biological systems and be able to assess the relative impact of environmental radiation compared with other environmental health hazards

  7. Basic Characteristics of IEC Flickermeter Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Majchrzak

    2012-01-01

    . This paper presents the results of the numerical simulations that reconstruct the processing of flickermeter in frequency domain. With the use of standard test signals, the characteristics of flickermeter were determined for the case of amplitude modulation of input signal, frequency modulation of input signal, and for input signal with interharmonic component. For the needs of simulative research, elements of standard IEC flickermeter signal chain as well as test signal source and tools for acquisition, archiving, and presentation of the obtained results were modeled. The results were presented with a set of charts, and the specific fragments of the charts were pointed out and commented on. Some examples of the influence of input signal’s bandwidth limitation on the flickermeter measurement result were presented for the case of AM and FM modulation. In addition, the diagrams that enable the evaluation of flickermeter’s linearity were also presented.

  8. IS IT POSSIBLE TO INTEGRATE BASIC BIOLOGICAL DISCIPLINES IN A PRIVATE INSTITUTION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Azzalis

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Basic biological disciplines as biochemistry, genetic and molecular biology have grown faster than any of other sciences. Moreover, those disciplines contribute to the understanding and treatment of an elevated number of illnesses. On the other hand, teachers cannot assure the graduating students that each particular discipline  is essential.  Furthermore,  those disciplines are often studied separately without any interdisciplinary integration between them.  The new curriculum proposed at Anhembi Morumbi University  - a private institution placed at São Paulo city  - incorporates learning blocks that  have been designed to integrate basic biological disciplines and clinical contents from the beginning in order to provide the stimulation and motivation to guide the  student through his learning.  The educational trend has concentrated on the following steps: 1 Biochemistry, genetic, cellular and molecular biology teachers´ from that institution have elaborated a new discipline  that was named Biologic Process. The aim of this new discipline was integrate basic biological sciences in a single content;  2  Selecting problems that could be discussed in the light of biochemistry, genetic and molecular contents; e.g. sickle cell anemia; 3 Developing  an innovative instructional method that challenges students “learn to learn” different from problem-based learning , economically unavailable at any particular university,  and  4 Assessments that measure knowledge, skills, attitudes and beliefs.  We believe that the future pedagogical system in  private health university will be a combination of “classical”  presentation of contents combined with actively involved students in the educational process and instruction based on either hypothetical  or real clinical cases in order to create  the stimulus for  the student continues to  integrate basic and clinical investigation.

  9. Cognitive Modeling and Task Analysis: Basic Processes and Individual Differences

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ackerman, Phillip

    1999-01-01

    ... in a complex-skill environment. The subset of task conditions selected were those that involve basic processes of working memory, task monitoring, and differential loads on spatial reasoning and speed of perceiving...

  10. Some Basic Principles of Fish processing in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    J.F.N. Abowei; C.C. Tawari

    2011-01-01

    Some basic principles offish processing in Nigeria is reviewed to provide information for fish culturist to effectively manage the processing of their products. Processing of fish into forms for human consumption or suitable to be used as a supplement in animal food has been neglected in fish culture practices. This may be due to the high technology required in some of the processes and the fact that those involved in actual fish production are ignorant of the different processing methods. In...

  11. Cell biology, biophysics, and mechanobiology: From the basics to Clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Y

    2017-04-29

    Cell biology, biomechanics and biophysics are the key subjects that guide our understanding in diverse areas of tissue growth, development, remodeling and homeostasis. Novel discoveries such as molecular mechanism, and mechanobiological mechanism in cell biology, biomechanics and biophysics play essential roles in our understanding of the pathogenesis of various human diseases, as well as in designing the treatment of these diseases. In addition, studies in these areas will also facilitate early diagnostics of human diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer. In this special issue, we collected 10 original research articles and 1 review...

  12. Artificial photosynthesis: from basic biology to industrial application

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Collings, Anthony F; Critchley, Christa

    2005-01-01

    ... some of the same outcomes at rates and scales that far exceed those found in nature. In this field the ubiquitous process is photosynthesis - an ancient process inherent to almost all plants and many prokaryotes on the planet that ultimately enabled the development of earth's animal kingdom. From a practical perspective, the natural process of photosynth...

  13. Some Basic Aspects of HLA-G Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estibaliz Alegre

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G is a low polymorphic nonclassical HLA-I molecule restrictively expressed and with suppressive functions. HLA-G gene products are quite complex, with seven HLA-G isoforms, four membrane bound, and other three soluble isoforms that can suffer different posttranslational modifications or even complex formations. In addition, HLA-G has been described included in exosomes. In this review we will focus on HLA-G biochemistry with special emphasis to the mechanisms that regulate its expression and how the protein modifications affect the quantification in biological fluids.

  14. An investigation of the relationship between having recent knowledge in basic biology and student success in Anatomy and Physiology I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Edward T.

    Allied Health Programs generally require that students complete coursework in Human Anatomy and Physiology I and II as part of their Pre-Allied Health curriculum. Human Anatomy and Physiology I generally has as a prerequisite some coursework in basic biology. Basic biology as a prerequisite should provide students with the foundation of knowledge in the basic biological principles and processes that will prepare them for the material presented in a Human Anatomy and Physiology I course and the Allied Health Program. The principle question that prompted this study was, Do students need coursework in basic biology to be successful in Anatomy and Physiology I? The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a difference in the exam average obtained in Biology 202, Human Anatomy and Physiology I, for those students who have had, within the previous three years, a foundation course in basic biology as compared to those students who have not, within the previous three years, had a foundation course in basic biology. The current study analyzed data obtained on 642 students who were enrolled in Biology 202, Anatomy and Physiology I, during the Fall semester of 2000 to the Spring semester of 2003 at Wor-Wic Community College. Statistical techniques including an ANOVA, Pearson Product Moment Correlation, and a Multiple Regression Analysis were conducted to reveal any relationships in the data. The dependent variable was the exam average obtained in the independent variables included the time period since the student had taken a basic biology course, sex, age, and college GPA. The results of the ANOVA indicated that there was no relationship between the exam average between current and non-current students, where alpha = 0.05 and p = 0.783. There was statistically significance for GPA, where p = 0 .000. There was also statistically significant interactions between last biology course and GPA, p = 0.05, last biology course, sex, and GPA, p = 0.002. The Pearson Product

  15. An introduction to stochastic processes with applications to biology

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Linda J S

    2010-01-01

    An Introduction to Stochastic Processes with Applications to Biology, Second Edition presents the basic theory of stochastic processes necessary in understanding and applying stochastic methods to biological problems in areas such as population growth and extinction, drug kinetics, two-species competition and predation, the spread of epidemics, and the genetics of inbreeding. Because of their rich structure, the text focuses on discrete and continuous time Markov chains and continuous time and state Markov processes.New to the Second EditionA new chapter on stochastic differential equations th

  16. Basic Auditory Processing and Developmental Dyslexia in Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsiao-Lan Sharon; Huss, Martina; Hamalainen, Jarmo A.; Goswami, Usha

    2012-01-01

    The present study explores the relationship between basic auditory processing of sound rise time, frequency, duration and intensity, phonological skills (onset-rime and tone awareness, sound blending, RAN, and phonological memory) and reading disability in Chinese. A series of psychometric, literacy, phonological, auditory, and character…

  17. Neural correlates of processing "self-conscious" vs. "basic" emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilead, Michael; Katzir, Maayan; Eyal, Tal; Liberman, Nira

    2016-01-29

    Self-conscious emotions are prevalent in our daily lives and play an important role in both normal and pathological behavior. Despite their immense significance, the neural substrates that are involved in the processing of such emotions are surprisingly under-studied. In light of this, we conducted an fMRI study in which participants thought of various personal events which elicited feelings of negative and positive self-conscious (i.e., guilt, pride) or basic (i.e., anger, joy) emotions. We performed a conjunction analysis to investigate the neural correlates associated with processing events that are related to self-conscious vs. basic emotions, irrespective of valence. The results show that processing self-conscious emotions resulted in activation within frontal areas associated with self-processing and self-control, namely, the mPFC extending to the dACC, and within the lateral-dorsal prefrontal cortex. Processing basic emotions resulted in activation throughout relatively phylogenetically-ancient regions of the cortex, namely in visual and tactile processing areas and in the insular cortex. Furthermore, self-conscious emotions differentially activated the mPFC such that the negative self-conscious emotion (guilt) was associated with a more dorsal activation, and the positive self-conscious emotion (pride) was associated with a more ventral activation. We discuss how these results shed light on the nature of mental representations and neural systems involved in self-reflective and affective processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Polyhydroyalkanoates: from Basic Research and Molecular Biology to Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amro Abd alFattah Amara

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This review describes the Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA, an intracellular biodegradable microbial polymer. PHAs is formed from different types of three hydroxyalkanoic acids monomers, each unit forms an ester bond with the hydroxyl group of the other one and the hydroxyl substituted carbon has R configuration. The C-3 atom in β position is branched with at least one carbon atom in the form of methyl group (C1 to thirteen carbons in the form of tridecyl (C13. This alkyl side chain is not necessarily saturated. PHAs are biosynthesized through regulated pathways by specific enzymes. PHAs are accumulated in bacterial cells from soluble to insoluble form as storage materials inside the inclusion bodies during unbalanced nutrition or to save organisms from reducing equivalents. PHAs are converted again to soluble components by PHAs depolymerases and the degraded materials enter various metabolic pathways. Until now, four classes of enzymes responsible for PHAs polymerization are known. PHAs were well studied regarding their promising applications, physical, chemical and biological properties. PHAs are biodegradable, biocompatible, have good material properties, renewable and can be used in many applications. The most limiting factor in PHAs commercialization is their high cost compared to the petroleum plastics. This review highlights the new knowledge and that established by the pioneers in this field as well as the factors, which affect PHAs commercialization.

  19. Engineered Ribosomes for Basic Science and Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Aquino, Anne E; Kim, Do Soon; Jewett, Michael C

    2018-03-28

    The ribosome is the cell's factory for protein synthesis. With protein synthesis rates of up to 20 amino acids per second and at an accuracy of 99.99%, the extraordinary catalytic capacity of the bacterial translation machinery has attracted extensive efforts to engineer, reconstruct, and repurpose it for biochemical studies and novel functions. Despite these efforts, the potential for harnessing the translation apparatus to manufacture bio-based products beyond natural limits remains underexploited, and fundamental constraints on the chemistry that the ribosome's RNA-based active site can carry out are unknown. This review aims to cover the past and present advances in ribosome design and engineering to understand the fundamental biology of the ribosome to facilitate the construction of synthetic manufacturing machines. The prospects for the development of engineered, or designer, ribosomes for novel polymer synthesis are reviewed, future challenges are considered, and promising advances in a variety of applications are discusse Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Volume 9 is June 7, 2018. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  20. Piecewise deterministic processes in biological models

    CERN Document Server

    Rudnicki, Ryszard

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a concise introduction to piecewise deterministic Markov processes (PDMPs), with particular emphasis on their applications to biological models. Further, it presents examples of biological phenomena, such as gene activity and population growth, where different types of PDMPs appear: continuous time Markov chains, deterministic processes with jumps, processes with switching dynamics, and point processes. Subsequent chapters present the necessary tools from the theory of stochastic processes and semigroups of linear operators, as well as theoretical results concerning the long-time behaviour of stochastic semigroups induced by PDMPs and their applications to biological models. As such, the book offers a valuable resource for mathematicians and biologists alike. The first group will find new biological models that lead to interesting and often new mathematical questions, while the second can observe how to include seemingly disparate biological processes into a unified mathematical theory, and...

  1. Teenagers Poor Readers: Evaluation of Basic Cognitive Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa del Carmen Flores Macías

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the cognitive processes associated with reading difficulties of teenage poor readers. Several studies suggest that this population presents a poor comprehension, despite reading the words properly and have good phonological skills (which distinguishes them from a population with dyslexia. With a comparative cross-sectional design the Sicole-R multimedia battery, which assesses basic cognitive processes related to reading, was applied to participants. Results indicate that poor reader students exhibit a lower performance than normal readers in phonological awareness, orthographic processing and processing syntax, although only the latter comparison was statistically significant.

  2. Dosimetry control for radiation processing - basic requirements and standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, M.; Tsrunchev, Ts.

    2004-01-01

    A brief review of the basic international codes and standards for dosimetry control for radiation processing (high doses dosimetry), setting up a dosimetry control for radiation processing and metrology control of the dosimetry system is made. The present state of dosimetry control for food processing and the Bulgarian long experience in food irradiation (three irradiation facilities are operational at these moment) are presented. The absence of neither national standard for high doses nor accredited laboratory for calibration and audit of radiation processing dosimetry systems is also discussed

  3. Revisiting Preschoolers' Living Things Concept: A Microgenetic Analysis of Conceptual Change in Basic Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opfer, John E.; Siegler, Robert S.

    2004-01-01

    Many preschoolers know that plants and animals share basic biological properties, but this knowledge does not usually lead them to conclude that plants, like animals, are living things. To resolve this seeming paradox, we hypothesized that preschoolers largely base their judgments of life status on a biological property, capacity for teleological…

  4. Basics of Radiation Biology When Treating Hyperproliferative Benign Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Rödel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available For decades, low- and moderate-dose radiation therapy (RT has been shown to exert a beneficial therapeutic effect in a multitude of non-malignant conditions including painful degenerative muscoloskeletal and hyperproliferative disorders. Dupuytren and Ledderhose diseases are benign fibroproliferative diseases of the hand/foot with fibrotic nodules and fascial cords, which determine debilitating contractures and deformities of fingers/toes, while keloids are exuberant scar formations following burn damage, surgery, and trauma. Although RT has become an established and effective option in the management of these diseases, experimental studies to illustrate cellular composites and factors involved remain to be elucidated. More recent findings, however, indicate the involvement of radiation-sensitive targets like mitotic fibroblasts/myofibroblasts as well as inflammatory cells. Radiation-related molecular mechanisms affecting these target cells include the production of free radicals to hamper proliferative activity and interference with growth factors and cytokines. Moreover, an impairment of activated immune cells involved in both myofibroblast proliferative and inflammatory processes may further contribute to the clinical effects. We here aim at briefly describing mechanisms contributing to a modulation of proliferative and inflammatory processes and to summarize current concepts of treating hyperproliferative diseases by low and moderate doses of ionizing radiation.

  5. Basic information processing in children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Gitte

    to 12 months. Schizophrenia is characterised by disturbances in the brain’s processing of information. One example of information processing is the brain’s ability to gate or filter out stimuli, the so-called “filter function”. Psychophysiological studies have shown, that patients with schizophrenia...... have reduced sensory motor gating measured by”P50 suppression” and reduced”pre-pulse inhibition of the startle reflex” (PPI). Aims: 1. To compare basic information processing in children with PDD and a group of healthy controls. 2. To investigate whether it is possible, on the basis of outcomes...

  6. Aging and the number sense: preserved basic non-symbolic numerical processing and enhanced basic symbolic processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jade Eloise eNorris

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aging often leads to general cognitive decline in domains such as memory and attention. The effect of aging on numerical cognition, particularly on foundational numerical skills known as the Number Sense, is not well known. Early research focused on the effect of aging on arithmetic. Recent studies have begun to investigate the impact of healthy aging on basic numerical skills, but focused on non-symbolic quantity discrimination alone. Moreover, contradictory findings have emerged. The current study aimed to further investigate the impact of aging on basic non-symbolic and symbolic numerical skills. A group of 25 younger (18-25 and 25 older adults (60-77 participated in non-symbolic and symbolic numerical comparison tasks. Mathematical and spelling abilities were also measured. Results showed that aging had no effect on foundational non-symbolic numerical skills, as both groups performed similarly (RTs, accuracy and Weber fractions (w. All participants showed decreased non-symbolic acuity (accuracy and w in trials requiring inhibition. However, aging appears to be associated with a greater decline in discrimination speed in such trials. Furthermore, aging seems to have a positive impact on mathematical ability and basic symbolic numerical processing, as older participants attained significantly higher mathematical achievement scores, and performed significantly better on the symbolic comparison task than younger participants. The findings suggest that aging and its lifetime exposure to numbers may lead to better mathematical achievement and stronger basic symbolic numerical skills. Our results further support the observation that basic non-symbolic numerical skills are resilient to aging, but that aging may exacerbate poorer performance on trials requiring inhibitory processes. These findings lend further support to the notion that preserved basic numerical skills in aging may reflect the preservation of an innate, primitive and embedded Number

  7. The basics of IT audit purposes, processes, and practical information

    CERN Document Server

    Gantz, Stephen D

    2013-01-01

    The Basics of IT Audit: Purposes, Processes, and Practical Information provides you with a thorough, yet concise overview of IT auditing. Packed with specific examples, this book gives insight into the auditing process and explains regulations and standards such as the ISO-27000, series program, CoBIT, ITIL, Sarbanes-Oxley, and HIPPA. IT auditing occurs in some form in virtually every organization, private or public, large or small. The large number and wide variety of laws, regulations, policies, and industry standards that call for IT auditing make it hard for organizations to consistent

  8. Basic disturbances of information processing in psychosis prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodatsch, Mitja; Klosterkötter, Joachim; Müller, Ralf; Ruhrmann, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    The basic symptoms (BS) approach provides a valid instrument in predicting psychosis onset and represents moreover a significant heuristic framework for research. The term "basic symptoms" denotes subtle changes of cognition and perception in the earliest and prodromal stages of psychosis development. BS are thought to correspond to disturbances of neural information processing. Following the heuristic implications of the BS approach, the present paper aims at exploring disturbances of information processing, revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electro-encephalographic as characteristics of the at-risk state of psychosis. Furthermore, since high-risk studies employing ultra-high-risk criteria revealed non-conversion rates commonly exceeding 50%, thus warranting approaches that increase specificity, the potential contribution of neural information processing disturbances to psychosis prediction is reviewed. In summary, the at-risk state seems to be associated with information processing disturbances. Moreover, fMRI investigations suggested that disturbances of language processing domains might be a characteristic of the prodromal state. Neurophysiological studies revealed that disturbances of sensory processing may assist psychosis prediction in allowing for a quantification of risk in terms of magnitude and time. The latter finding represents a significant advancement since an estimation of the time to event has not yet been achieved by clinical approaches. Some evidence suggests a close relationship between self-experienced BS and neural information processing. With regard to future research, the relationship between neural information processing disturbances and different clinical risk concepts warrants further investigations. Thereby, a possible time sequence in the prodromal phase might be of particular interest.

  9. BASIC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg; Schmidt, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    BPP. Tilgangen består dels af den overordnede proces-model BASIC og dels af et iboende framework, ABCD, der er en model for systematisk adfærdsanalyse, udvikling, test og implementering af adfærdsrettede løsningskoncepter. Den samlede model gør det muligt for forskere såvel som offentligt ansatte...

  10. Improving creative thinking skills and scientific attitude through inquiry-based learning in basic biology lecture toward student of biology education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayu Sandika

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Inquiry-based learning is one of the learning methods which can provide an active and authentic scientific learning process in order students are able to improve the creative thinking skills and scientific attitude. This study aims at improving creative thinking skills and scientific attitude through inquiry-based learning in basic biology lecture toward students of biology education at the Institut Agama Islam Negeri (IAIN Jember, Indonesia. This study is included in a descriptive quantitative research. The research focused on the topic of cell transport which was taught toward 25 students of Biology 2 class from 2017 academic year of Biology Education Department at the IAIN Jember. The learning process was conducted in two meetings in November 2017. The enhancement of students' creative thinking skills was determined by one group pre-test and post-test research design using test instrument meanwhile the scientific attitude focused on curiosity and objectivity were observed using the non-test instrument. Research result showed that students' creative thinking skills enhanced highly and students' scientific attitude improved excellently through inquiry-based learning in basic biology lecture.

  11. The RCSB Protein Data Bank: views of structural biology for basic and applied research and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Peter W; Prlić, Andreas; Bi, Chunxiao; Bluhm, Wolfgang F; Christie, Cole H; Dutta, Shuchismita; Green, Rachel Kramer; Goodsell, David S; Westbrook, John D; Woo, Jesse; Young, Jasmine; Zardecki, Christine; Berman, Helen M; Bourne, Philip E; Burley, Stephen K

    2015-01-01

    The RCSB Protein Data Bank (RCSB PDB, http://www.rcsb.org) provides access to 3D structures of biological macromolecules and is one of the leading resources in biology and biomedicine worldwide. Our efforts over the past 2 years focused on enabling a deeper understanding of structural biology and providing new structural views of biology that support both basic and applied research and education. Herein, we describe recently introduced data annotations including integration with external biological resources, such as gene and drug databases, new visualization tools and improved support for the mobile web. We also describe access to data files, web services and open access software components to enable software developers to more effectively mine the PDB archive and related annotations. Our efforts are aimed at expanding the role of 3D structure in understanding biology and medicine. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  12. Test of Science Process Skills of Biology Students towards Developing of Learning Exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith S. Rabacal

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This is a descriptive study aimed to determine the academic achievement on science process skills of the BS Biology Students of Northern Negros State College of Science and Technology, Philippines with the end view of developing learning exercises which will enhance their academic achievement on basic and integrated science process skills. The data in this study were obtained using a validated questionnaire. Mean was the statistical tool used to determine the academic achievement on the above mentioned science process skills; t-test for independent means was used to determine significant difference on the academic achievement of science process skills of BS Biology students while Pearson Product Moment of Correlation Coefficient was used to determine the significant relationship between basic and integrated science process skills of the BS Biology students. A 0.05 level of significance was used to determine whether the hypothesis set in the study will be rejected or accepted. Findings revealed that the academic achievement on basic and integrated science process skills of the BS Biology students was average. Findings revealed that there are no significant differences on the academic performance of the BS Biology students when grouped according to year level and gender. Findings also revealed that there is a significant difference on the academic achievement between basic and integrated science process skills of the BS Biology students. Findings revealed that there is a significant relationship between academic achievement on the basic and integrated science process skills of the BS Biology students.

  13. Graphics processing units in bioinformatics, computational biology and systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobile, Marco S; Cazzaniga, Paolo; Tangherloni, Andrea; Besozzi, Daniela

    2017-09-01

    Several studies in Bioinformatics, Computational Biology and Systems Biology rely on the definition of physico-chemical or mathematical models of biological systems at different scales and levels of complexity, ranging from the interaction of atoms in single molecules up to genome-wide interaction networks. Traditional computational methods and software tools developed in these research fields share a common trait: they can be computationally demanding on Central Processing Units (CPUs), therefore limiting their applicability in many circumstances. To overcome this issue, general-purpose Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) are gaining an increasing attention by the scientific community, as they can considerably reduce the running time required by standard CPU-based software, and allow more intensive investigations of biological systems. In this review, we present a collection of GPU tools recently developed to perform computational analyses in life science disciplines, emphasizing the advantages and the drawbacks in the use of these parallel architectures. The complete list of GPU-powered tools here reviewed is available at http://bit.ly/gputools. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  14. Biological Processes Associated with Impact Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockell, Charles; Koeberl, Christian; Gilmour, Iain

    The diversity of papers presented in this volume attest to the fact that impact cratering is very much a biological process. This volume is the tenth in a series of books resulting from the activities of the scientific programme, "Response of the Earth System to Impact Processes" (IMPACT), by the European Science Foundation. The papers were presented at an international meeting at King's College, Cambridge in 2003. These papers investigate the effects of asteroid and comet impacts on a diversity of biological and evolutionary processes including the survival of organics and microbial ecosystems to the extinction of organisms.

  15. Basic design of alpha aqueous waste treatment process in NUCEF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mineo, Hideaki; Matsumura, Tatsuro; Nishizawa, Ichio; Mitsui, Takeshi; Ueki, Hiroyuki; Wada, Atsushi; Sakai, Ichita; Takeshita, Isao [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Nishimura, Kenji

    1996-11-01

    This paper described the basic design of Alpha Aqueous Waste Treatment Process in NUCEF. Since various experiments using the TRU (transuranium) elements are carried out in NUCEF, wastes containing TRU elements arise. The liquid wastes in NUCEF are categorized into three types. Decontamination and volume reduction of the liquid waste mainly of recovery water from acid recovery process which has lowest radioactive concentration is the most important task, because the arising rate of the waste is large. The major function of the Alpha Aqueous Waste Treatment Process is to decontaminate the radioactive concentration below the level which is allowed to discharge into sea. Prior the process design of this facility, the followings are evaluated:property and arising rate of the liquid waste, room space to install and licensing condition. Considering varieties of liquid wastes and their large volume, the very high decontamination factor was proposed by a process of multiple evaporation supported with filtration and adsorption in the head end part and reverse osmosis in the distillate part. (author)

  16. Biological processes influencing contaminant release from sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reible, D.D.

    1996-01-01

    The influence of biological processes, including bioturbation, on the mobility of contaminants in freshwater sediments is described. Effective mass coefficients are estimated for tubificid oligochaetes as a function of worm behavior and biomass density. The mass transfer coefficients were observed to be inversely proportional to water oxygen content and proportional to the square root of biomass density. The sediment reworking and contaminant release are contrasted with those of freshwater amphipods. The implications of these and other biological processes for contaminant release and i n-situ remediation of soils and sediments are summarized. 4 figs., 1 tab

  17. Advanced biologically plausible algorithms for low-level image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusakova, Valentina I.; Podladchikova, Lubov N.; Shaposhnikov, Dmitry G.; Markin, Sergey N.; Golovan, Alexander V.; Lee, Seong-Whan

    1999-08-01

    At present, in computer vision, the approach based on modeling the biological vision mechanisms is extensively developed. However, up to now, real world image processing has no effective solution in frameworks of both biologically inspired and conventional approaches. Evidently, new algorithms and system architectures based on advanced biological motivation should be developed for solution of computational problems related to this visual task. Basic problems that should be solved for creation of effective artificial visual system to process real world imags are a search for new algorithms of low-level image processing that, in a great extent, determine system performance. In the present paper, the result of psychophysical experiments and several advanced biologically motivated algorithms for low-level processing are presented. These algorithms are based on local space-variant filter, context encoding visual information presented in the center of input window, and automatic detection of perceptually important image fragments. The core of latter algorithm are using local feature conjunctions such as noncolinear oriented segment and composite feature map formation. Developed algorithms were integrated into foveal active vision model, the MARR. It is supposed that proposed algorithms may significantly improve model performance while real world image processing during memorizing, search, and recognition.

  18. Towards distributed multiscale simulation of biological processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernsdorf, J.; Berti, G.; Chopard, B.; Hegewald, J.; Krafczyk, M.; Wang, D.; Lorenz, E.; Hoekstra, A.

    2011-01-01

    The understanding of biological processes, e.g. related to cardio-vascular disease and treatment, can significantly be improved by numerical simulation. In this paper, we present an approach for a multiscale simulation environment, applied for the prediction of in-stent re-stenos is. Our focus is on

  19. Basic science through engineering? Synthetic modeling and the idea of biology-inspired engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuuttila, Tarja; Loettgers, Andrea

    2013-06-01

    Synthetic biology is often understood in terms of the pursuit for well-characterized biological parts to create synthetic wholes. Accordingly, it has typically been conceived of as an engineering dominated and application oriented field. We argue that the relationship of synthetic biology to engineering is far more nuanced than that and involves a sophisticated epistemic dimension, as shown by the recent practice of synthetic modeling. Synthetic models are engineered genetic networks that are implanted in a natural cell environment. Their construction is typically combined with experiments on model organisms as well as mathematical modeling and simulation. What is especially interesting about this combinational modeling practice is that, apart from greater integration between these different epistemic activities, it has also led to the questioning of some central assumptions and notions on which synthetic biology is based. As a result synthetic biology is in the process of becoming more "biology inspired." Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Basic equations of electromagnetic processes in moving bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minkovskij, G.

    1983-01-01

    The classical work by G. Minkovski on electrodynamics of moving bodies is discussed. Using the formulated relativity principle an absolutely unambiguous derivation of equations of electrodynamics of moving bodies and bodies at rest is given. It is shown that none of the previously proposed types of such equations accurately correspond to the principle of relativity. The derivation of basic equations of the Lorentz theory and euqtions of E. Kohn is given. The canonical representation of basic equations is presented

  1. Radioimmunoassay of the myelin basic protein in biological fluids, conditions improving sensitivity and specificity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delassalle, A.; Jacque, C.; Raoul, M.; Legrand, J.C.; Cesselin, F.; Drouet, J.

    1980-01-01

    The radioimmunoassay (RIA) for myelin basic protein (MBP) in biological fluids was reassessed in order to improve its sensitivity and eliminate some interferences. By using the pre-incubation technique and the charcoal-dextram-horse serum mixture for the separation step, the detection limit could be lowered to 200 pg/ml for cerebrospinal fluids (CSF), amniotic fluids (AF) and nervous tissue extracts and 600 pg/ml for sera. The RIA could be used directly on CSF, AF and nervous tissue extracts. Sera, however, had to be heated in citrate buffer at 100 0 C in order to discard interfering material. The present method is 10 to 20 times more sensitive than others previously published. Moreover, it can be applied to amniotic fluid. The biological fluids had to be promptly frozen to avoid degradation of MBP

  2. Stochastic transport processes in discrete biological systems

    CERN Document Server

    Frehland, Eckart

    1982-01-01

    These notes are in part based on a course for advanced students in the applications of stochastic processes held in 1978 at the University of Konstanz. These notes contain the results of re­ cent studies on the stochastic description of ion transport through biological membranes. In particular, they serve as an introduction to an unified theory of fluctuations in complex biological transport systems. We emphasize that the subject of this volume is not to introduce the mathematics of stochastic processes but to present a field of theoretical biophysics in which stochastic methods are important. In the last years the study of membrane noise has become an important method in biophysics. Valuable information on the ion transport mechanisms in membranes can be obtained from noise analysis. A number of different processes such as the opening and closing of ion channels have been shown to be sources of the measured current or voltage fluctuations. Bio­ logical 'transport systems can be complex. For example, the tr...

  3. Diffusion processes and related topics in biology

    CERN Document Server

    Ricciardi, Luigi M

    1977-01-01

    These notes are based on a one-quarter course given at the Department of Biophysics and Theoretical Biology of the University of Chicago in 1916. The course was directed to graduate students in the Division of Biological Sciences with interests in population biology and neurobiology. Only a slight acquaintance with probability and differential equations is required of the reader. Exercises are interwoven with the text to encourage the reader to play a more active role and thus facilitate his digestion of the material. One aim of these notes is to provide a heuristic approach, using as little mathematics as possible, to certain aspects of the theory of stochastic processes that are being increasingly employed in some of the population biol­ ogy and neurobiology literature. While the subject may be classical, the nov­ elty here lies in the approach and point of view, particularly in the applica­ tions such as the approach to the neuronal firing problem and its related dif­ fusion approximations. It is a ple...

  4. Image processing and recognition for biological images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Seiichi

    2013-05-01

    This paper reviews image processing and pattern recognition techniques, which will be useful to analyze bioimages. Although this paper does not provide their technical details, it will be possible to grasp their main tasks and typical tools to handle the tasks. Image processing is a large research area to improve the visibility of an input image and acquire some valuable information from it. As the main tasks of image processing, this paper introduces gray-level transformation, binarization, image filtering, image segmentation, visual object tracking, optical flow and image registration. Image pattern recognition is the technique to classify an input image into one of the predefined classes and also has a large research area. This paper overviews its two main modules, that is, feature extraction module and classification module. Throughout the paper, it will be emphasized that bioimage is a very difficult target for even state-of-the-art image processing and pattern recognition techniques due to noises, deformations, etc. This paper is expected to be one tutorial guide to bridge biology and image processing researchers for their further collaboration to tackle such a difficult target. © 2013 The Author Development, Growth & Differentiation © 2013 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  5. Processing laboratory of radio sterilized biological tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguirre H, Paulina; Zarate S, Herman; Silva R, Samy; Hitschfeld, Mario

    2005-01-01

    The nuclear development applications have also reached those areas related to health. The risk of getting contagious illnesses through applying biological tissues has been one of the paramount worries to be solved since infectious illnesses might be provoked by virus, fungis or bacterias coming from donors or whether they have been introduced by means of intermediate stages before the use of these tissues. Therefore it has been concluded that the tissue allografts must be sterilized. The sterilization of medical products has been one of the main applications of the ionizing radiations and that it is why the International Organization of Atomic Energy began in the 70s promoting works related to the biological tissue sterilization and pharmaceutical products. The development of different tissue preservation methods has made possible the creation of tissue banks in different countries, to deal with long-term preservation. In our country, a project was launched in 1998, 'Establishment of a Tissue Bank in Latino america', this project was supported by the OIEA through the project INT/ 6/ 049, and was the starting of the actual Processing Laboratory of Radioesterilized Biological Tissues (LPTR), leaded by the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN). This first organization is part of a number of entities compounding the Tissue Bank in Chile, organizations such as the Transplantation Promotion Corporation hospitals and the LPTR. The working system is carried out by means of the interaction between the hospitals and the laboratory. The medical professionals perform the procuring of tissues in the hospitals, then send them to the LPTR where they are processed and sterilized with ionizing radiation. The cycle ends up with the tissues return released to the hospitals, where they are used, and then the result information is sent to the LPTR as a form of feedback. Up to now, human skin has been processed (64 donors), amniotic membranes (35 donors) and pig skin (175 portions

  6. Stochastic Simulation of Process Calculi for Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Phillips

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Biological systems typically involve large numbers of components with complex, highly parallel interactions and intrinsic stochasticity. To model this complexity, numerous programming languages based on process calculi have been developed, many of which are expressive enough to generate unbounded numbers of molecular species and reactions. As a result of this expressiveness, such calculi cannot rely on standard reaction-based simulation methods, which require fixed numbers of species and reactions. Rather than implementing custom stochastic simulation algorithms for each process calculus, we propose to use a generic abstract machine that can be instantiated to a range of process calculi and a range of reaction-based simulation algorithms. The abstract machine functions as a just-in-time compiler, which dynamically updates the set of possible reactions and chooses the next reaction in an iterative cycle. In this short paper we give a brief summary of the generic abstract machine, and show how it can be instantiated with the stochastic simulation algorithm known as Gillespie's Direct Method. We also discuss the wider implications of such an abstract machine, and outline how it can be used to simulate multiple calculi simultaneously within a common framework.

  7. Basic lecture on imaging processing II. Scatter correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motomura, Nobutoku

    2001-01-01

    Basic knowledge of scattered radiation, method of scatter correction and the triple energy window (TEW) method are reviewed. Introduction contains Compton scattering of γ-ray and scattered radiations of single and multiple energy γ-rays which affect on images. Methods of correction involve those of convolution subtraction, scatter line spread function, transmission dependent convolution subtraction, dual energy window subtraction, dual photopeak window and TEW. The TEW estimates scattering radiations from sub-windows set at both sides of the major photoelectric peak window and its setting procedure is described. Evaluation of the TEW method is also described on 3 phantoms of different shapes and on clinical 123 I-IMP SPECT data of the head. Use of Butterworth filter is recommended to reduce the statistic noise in the sub-windows. (K.H.)

  8. Sodium removal by alcohol process: Basic tests and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, S.; Yamamoto, S.; Akai, M.; Yatabe, T.

    1997-01-01

    We have various methods for sodium removal; an alcohol cleaning process, a steam cleaning process and a direct burning process. Sodium removal by the alcohol process has a lot of advantages, such as causing no alkali corrosion to steel, short processing time and easy operation. Therefore the alcohol process was selected for the 1MWt double wall tube straight type steam generator. We have already had some experiences of the alcohol process, while still needed to confirm the sodium removal rate in the crevice and to develop an on-line sodium concentration monitoring method in alcohol during sodium removal. We have conducted the small scale sodium removal test with flowing alcohol where the sodium removal rate in the crevice and the alcohol conductivity were measured as functions of sodium concentration in alcohol and alcohol temperature. The sodium removal of the DWTSG was conducted by the devised alcohol process safely and efficiently. The process hour was about 1 day. Visual inspection during dismantling of the DWTSG showed no evidence of any un-reacted sodium. (author)

  9. Universal Gestational Age Effects on Cognitive and Basic Mathematic Processing: 2 Cohorts in 2 Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Wolke, Dieter; Strauss, Vicky Yu-Chun; Johnson, Samantha; Gilmore, Camilla; Marlow, Neil; Jaekel, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether general cognitive ability, basic mathematic processing, and mathematic attainment are universally affected by gestation at birth, as well as whether mathematic attainment is more strongly associated with cohort-specific factors such as schooling than basic cognitive and mathematical abilities. Study design The Bavarian Longitudinal Study (BLS, 1289 children, 27-41?weeks gestational age [GA]) was used to estimate effects of GA on IQ, basic mathematic processing, ...

  10. BASIC ENGINEERING FOR GENERATION PROCESS OF BIOGAS FROM PIG MANURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Ramírez

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of this project examines the effectiveness of three treatments biodigestors by means of calculation and analysis of parameters such as chemical oxygen demand, suspended solids, fixed solids, volatile solids, pH, temperature and biogas production, taking into account that work with organic waste from pig (porquinaza, from where it determines what should be used in a farm in Tocancipá, Cundinamarca. Based on experimentation continues to perform the basic engineering for this type of system, which determined the size of the biodigestor, with the daily production of gas according to the characteristics of both the food and the farm is 4.023 m3, with a heat capacity of 14084.64 Kcal / day, which allows for comparisons of technical and economic, with the current situation of the farm. Finally concluding with the project is viable in both financial factors as energy requirements, and depend solely on the availability of resources of the owners of the property, for investment of $ 1'716 .300.

  11. Process of globalization and basic traits of Serbian national character

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atlagić Marko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In contemporary world globalization, along with many perplexities, increasingly takes on the universal/cosmopolitan character in spite of all geographical, national, racial, religious and alignment barriers. Information exchange, scientific achievements and technology are nowadays world process. Economy increasingly becomes global. Serbia and Serbian people have their own specific character, which is defined by three significant characteristics: sovereignty and territorial integrity, aspirations to social justice, the rule of people and democracy. The creators of global society should take into consideration these three important characteristics of Serbian people with which Serbian political elite is to familiarize them, for the sake of more rapid and complete process of integration of Serbs into global processes from both Serbia and its neighboring countries would benefit.

  12. Basic instinct undressed: early spatiotemporal processing for primary sexual characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lore B Legrand

    Full Text Available This study investigates the spatiotemporal dynamics associated with conscious and non-conscious processing of naked and dressed human bodies. To this effect, stimuli of naked men and women with visible primary sexual characteristics, as well as dressed bodies, were presented to 20 heterosexual male and female participants while acquiring high resolution EEG data. The stimuli were either consciously detectable (supraliminal presentations or were rendered non-conscious through backward masking (subliminal presentations. The N1 event-related potential component was significantly enhanced in participants when they viewed naked compared to dressed bodies under supraliminal viewing conditions. More importantly, naked bodies of the opposite sex produced a significantly greater N1 component compared to dressed bodies during subliminal presentations, when participants were not aware of the stimulus presented. A source localization algorithm computed on the N1 showed that the response for naked bodies in the supraliminal viewing condition was stronger in body processing areas, primary visual areas and additional structures related to emotion processing. By contrast, in the subliminal viewing condition, only visual and body processing areas were found to be activated. These results suggest that naked bodies and primary sexual characteristics are processed early in time (i.e., <200 ms and activate key brain structures even when they are not consciously detected. It appears that, similarly to what has been reported for emotional faces, sexual features benefit from automatic and rapid processing, most likely due to their high relevance for the individual and their importance for the species in terms of reproductive success.

  13. Back to basics: using colour polymorphisms to study evolutionary processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Erik I

    2017-04-01

    Here, I suggest that colour polymorphic study systems have been underutilized to answer general questions about evolutionary processes, such as morph frequency dynamics between generations and population divergence in morph frequencies. Colour polymorphisms can be used to study fundamental evolutionary processes like frequency-dependent selection, gene flow, recombination and correlational selection for adaptive character combinations. However, many previous studies of colour polymorphism often suffer from weak connections to population genetic theory. I argue that too much focus has been directed towards noticeable visual traits (colour) at the expense of understanding the evolutionary processes shaping genetic variation and covariation associated with polymorphisms in general. There is thus no need for a specific evolutionary theory for colour polymorphisms beyond the general theory of the maintenance of polymorphisms in spatially or temporally variable environments or through positive or negative frequency-dependent selection. I outline an integrative research programme incorporating these processes and suggest some fruitful avenues in future investigations of colour polymorphisms. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Basic processes in nuclear forensics and analytical plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venugopal, V.

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear forensics is the analysis of nuclear materials recovered from either the capture of unused materials, or from the radioactive debris following a nuclear explosion and can contribute significantly to the identification of the sources of the materials and the industrial processes used to obtain them. In the case of an explosion, nuclear forensics can also reconstruct key features of the nuclear device. Nuclear forensic analysis works best in conjunction with other law enforcement, radiological protection dosimetry, traditional forensics, and intelligence work to provide the basis for attributing the materials and/or nuclear device to its originators. Nuclear forensics is a piece of the overall attribution process, not a stand-alone activity

  15. Universal gestational age effects on cognitive and basic mathematic processing : 2 cohorts in 2 countries

    OpenAIRE

    Wolke, Dieter; Strauss, Vicky Yu-Chun; Johnson, Samantha J.; Gilmore, Camilla; Marlow, Neil; Jaekel, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Objective:\\ud To determine whether general cognitive ability, basic mathematic processing, and mathematic attainment are universally affected by gestation at birth, as well as whether mathematic attainment is more strongly associated with cohort-specific factors such as schooling than basic cognitive and mathematical abilities.\\ud \\ud Study design:\\ud The Bavarian Longitudinal Study (BLS, 1289 children, 27-41 weeks gestational age [GA]) was used to estimate effects of GA on IQ, basic mathemat...

  16. The gambler’s fallacy: A basic inhibitory process?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James eLyons

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Two studies were conducted to examine the relation between the gambler’s fallacy and attentional processes associated with inhibition of return (IOR. In Study 1, participants completed rapid aiming movements to equally probable targets presented to the left and right. They also completed a gambling protocol in which they bet on the illumination of either target. Consistent with the inhibition of return phenomenon, participants were slower to initate their movements on trial N + 1 when the target was the same as trial N. Participants with more pronounced IOR were more likely to switch betting behavior after a win than participants with a smaller index. This betting behavior was also related to a gambler’s fallacy index measured by a questionnaire. In Study 2, participants performed both the aiming task and the betting task with a partner. Each participant performed two trials before ceding to the partner. Thus we were able to examine IOR and betting behavior as a function of the participant’s own previous trial and their partner’s previous trial. The IOR effect was robust both within and between-participants. Participants were more likely to maintain their bet following an unsuccesful outcome regardless of whether it was their own outcome or their partner’s outcome. This type of betting behavior is consistent with the gambler’s fallacy. Individual IOR scores were a reliable predictor of betting behavior and the questionnaire was also succesful in predicting behavior. In addition, the within-person IOR indices covaried with the gambler’s fallacy index deprived from the questionnaire. In summary, there appears to be a relation between inhibition of return and the gambler’s fallacy. We suggest that early humans developed specialized attentional systems to deal with non-random environmental contingencies, and that the automatic processes associated with these systems are sometimes maladaptive in artifical environments in which the

  17. Basic to Advanced InSAR Processing: GMTSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandwell, D. T.; Xu, X.; Baker, S.; Hogrelius, A.; Mellors, R. J.; Tong, X.; Wei, M.; Wessel, P.

    2017-12-01

    Monitoring crustal deformation using InSAR is becoming a standard technique for the science and application communities. Optimal use of the new data streams from Sentinel-1 and NISAR will require open software tools as well as education on the strengths and limitations of the InSAR methods. Over the past decade we have developed freely available, open-source software for processing InSAR data. The software relies on the Generic Mapping Tools (GMT) for the back-end data analysis and display and is thus called GMTSAR. With startup funding from NSF, we accelerated the development of GMTSAR to include more satellite data sources and provide better integration and distribution with GMT. In addition, with support from UNAVCO we have offered 6 GMTSAR short courses to educate mostly novice InSAR users. Currently, the software is used by hundreds of scientists and engineers around the world to study deformation at more than 4300 different sites. The most challenging aspect of the recent software development was the transition from image alignment using the cross-correlation method to a completely new alignment algorithm that uses only the precise orbital information to geometrically align images to an accuracy of better than 7 cm. This development was needed to process a new data type that is being acquired by the Sentinel-1A/B satellites. This combination of software and open data is transforming radar interferometry from a research tool into a fully operational time series analysis tool. Over the next 5 years we are planning to continue to broaden the user base through: improved software delivery methods; code hardening; better integration with data archives; support for high level products being developed for NISAR; and continued education and outreach.

  18. The basic biology of PP2A in hematologic cells and malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorien eHaesen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Reversible protein phosphorylation plays a crucial role in regulating cell signaling. In normal cells, phosphoregulation is tightly controlled by a network of protein kinases counterbalanced by several protein phosphatases. Deregulation of this delicate balance is widely recognized as a central mechanism by which cells escape external and internal self-limiting signals, eventually resulting in malignant transformation. A large fraction of hematologic malignancies is characterized by constitutive or unrestrained activation of oncogenic kinases. This is in part achieved by activating mutations, chromosomal rearrangements or constitutive activation of upstream kinase regulators, in part by inactivation of their anti-oncogenic phosphatase counterparts. Protein Phosphatase 2A (PP2A represents a large family of cellular serine/threonine phosphatases with suspected tumor suppressive functions. In this review, we highlight our current knowledge about the complex structure and biology of these phosphatases in hematologic cells, thereby providing the rationale behind their diverse signaling functions. Eventually, this basic knowledge is key to truly understand the tumor suppressive role of PP2A in leukemogenesis and to allow further rational development of therapeutic strategies targeting PP2A.

  19. NK cell-based cancer immunotherapy: from basic biology to clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Yin, Jie; Li, Ting; Huang, Shan; Yan, Han; Leavenworth, JianMei; Wang, Xi

    2015-12-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells, which recognize and kill target cells independent of antigen specificity and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) matching, play pivotal roles in immune defence against tumors. However, tumor cells often acquire the ability to escape NK cell-mediated immune surveillance. Thus, understanding mechanisms underlying regulation of NK cell phenotype and function within the tumor environment is instrumental for designing new approaches to improve the current cell-based immunotherapy. In this review, we elaborate the main biological features and molecular mechanisms of NK cells that pertain to regulation of NK cell-mediated anti-tumor activity. We further overview current clinical approaches regarding NK cell-based cancer therapy, including cytokine infusion, adoptive transfer of autologous or allogeneic NK cells, applications of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-expressing NK cells and adoptive transfer of memory-like NK cells. With these promising clinical outcomes and fuller understanding the basic questions raised in this review, we foresee that NK cell-based approaches may hold great potential for future cancer immunotherapy.

  20. Basic emotion processing and the adolescent brain: Task demands, analytic approaches, and trajectories of changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa B. Del Piero

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Early neuroimaging studies suggested that adolescents show initial development in brain regions linked with emotional reactivity, but slower development in brain structures linked with emotion regulation. However, the increased sophistication of adolescent brain research has made this picture more complex. This review examines functional neuroimaging studies that test for differences in basic emotion processing (reactivity and regulation between adolescents and either children or adults. We delineated different emotional processing demands across the experimental paradigms in the reviewed studies to synthesize the diverse results. The methods for assessing change (i.e., analytical approach and cohort characteristics (e.g., age range were also explored as potential factors influencing study results. Few unifying dimensions were found to successfully distill the results of the reviewed studies. However, this review highlights the potential impact of subtle methodological and analytic differences between studies, need for standardized and theory-driven experimental paradigms, and necessity of analytic approaches that are can adequately test the trajectories of developmental change that have recently been proposed. Recommendations for future research highlight connectivity analyses and non-linear developmental trajectories, which appear to be promising approaches for measuring change across adolescence. Recommendations are made for evaluating gender and biological markers of development beyond chronological age.

  1. Magnetic Nanotweezers for Interrogating Biological Processes in Space and Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Wook; Jeong, Hee-Kyung; Southard, Kaden M; Jun, Young-Wook; Cheon, Jinwoo

    2018-04-17

    The ability to sense and manipulate the state of biological systems has been extensively advanced during the past decade with the help of recent developments in physical tools. Unlike standard genetic and pharmacological perturbation techniques-knockdown, overexpression, small molecule inhibition-that provide a basic on/off switching capability, these physical tools provide the capacity to control the spatial, temporal, and mechanical properties of the biological targets. Among the various physical cues, magnetism offers distinct advantages over light or electricity. Magnetic fields freely penetrate biological tissues and are already used for clinical applications. As one of the unique features, magnetic fields can be transformed into mechanical stimuli which can serve as a cue in regulating biological processes. However, their biological applications have been limited due to a lack of high-performance magnetism-to-mechanical force transducers with advanced spatiotemporal capabilities. In this Account, we present recent developments in magnetic nanotweezers (MNTs) as a useful tool for interrogating the spatiotemporal control of cells in living tissue. MNTs are composed of force-generating magnetic nanoparticles and field generators. Through proper design and the integration of individual components, MNTs deliver controlled mechanical stimulation to targeted biomolecules at any desired space and time. We first discuss about MNT configuration with different force-stimulation modes. By modulating geometry of the magnetic field generator, MNTs exert pulling, dipole-dipole attraction, and rotational forces to the target specifically and quantitatively. We discuss the key physical parameters determining force magnitude, which include magnetic field strength, magnetic field gradient, magnetic moment of the magnetic particle, as well as distance between the field generator and the particle. MNTs also can be used over a wide range of biological time scales. By simply

  2. Exploiting graphics processing units for computational biology and bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Joshua L; Sinnott-Armstrong, Nicholas A; Moore, Jason H

    2010-09-01

    Advances in the video gaming industry have led to the production of low-cost, high-performance graphics processing units (GPUs) that possess more memory bandwidth and computational capability than central processing units (CPUs), the standard workhorses of scientific computing. With the recent release of generalpurpose GPUs and NVIDIA's GPU programming language, CUDA, graphics engines are being adopted widely in scientific computing applications, particularly in the fields of computational biology and bioinformatics. The goal of this article is to concisely present an introduction to GPU hardware and programming, aimed at the computational biologist or bioinformaticist. To this end, we discuss the primary differences between GPU and CPU architecture, introduce the basics of the CUDA programming language, and discuss important CUDA programming practices, such as the proper use of coalesced reads, data types, and memory hierarchies. We highlight each of these topics in the context of computing the all-pairs distance between instances in a dataset, a common procedure in numerous disciplines of scientific computing. We conclude with a runtime analysis of the GPU and CPU implementations of the all-pairs distance calculation. We show our final GPU implementation to outperform the CPU implementation by a factor of 1700.

  3. Basic Auditory Processing Skills and Phonological Awareness in Low-IQ Readers and Typically Developing Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppen, Sarah; Huss, Martina; Fosker, Tim; Fegan, Natasha; Goswami, Usha

    2011-01-01

    We explore the relationships between basic auditory processing, phonological awareness, vocabulary, and word reading in a sample of 95 children, 55 typically developing children, and 40 children with low IQ. All children received nonspeech auditory processing tasks, phonological processing and literacy measures, and a receptive vocabulary task.…

  4. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: BIOLOGICAL DENITRIFICATION PROCESS, ECOMAT, INC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    EcoMat, Inc. of Hayward, CA has developed a two-stage ex situ anoxic biofilter biodenitrification process. The process is a fixed film bioremediation, using biocarriers and specific bacteria to treat nitrate-contaminated water. Unique to EcoMat's process is a patented mixed bed r...

  5. Assessment of knowledge of participants on basic molecular biology techniques after 5-day intensive molecular biology training workshops in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yisau, J I; Adagbada, A O; Bamidele, T; Fowora, M; Brai, B I C; Adebesin, O; Bamidele, M; Fesobi, T; Nwaokorie, F O; Ajayi, A; Smith, S I

    2017-07-08

    The deployment of molecular biology techniques for diagnosis and research in Nigeria is faced with a number of challenges, including the cost of equipment and reagents coupled with the dearth of personnel skilled in the procedures and handling of equipment. Short molecular biology training workshops were conducted at the Nigerian Institute of Medical Research (NIMR), to improve the knowledge and skills of laboratory personnel and academics in health, research, and educational facilities. Five-day molecular biology workshops were conducted annually between 2011 and 2014, with participants drawn from health, research facilities, and the academia. The courses consisted of theoretical and practical sessions. The impact of the workshops on knowledge and skill acquisition was evaluated by pre- and post-tests which consisted of 25 multiple choice and other questions. Sixty-five participants took part in the workshops. The mean knowledge of molecular biology as evaluated by the pre- and post-test assessments were 8.4 (95% CI 7.6-9.1) and 13.0 (95 CI 11.9-14.1), respectively. The mean post-test score was significantly greater than the mean pre-test score (p biology workshop significantly increased the knowledge and skills of participants in molecular biology techniques. © 2017 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(4):313-317, 2017. © 2017 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  6. Assessment of Knowledge of Participants on Basic Molecular Biology Techniques after 5-Day Intensive Molecular Biology Training Workshops in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yisau, J. I.; Adagbada, A. O.; Bamidele, T.; Fowora, M.; Brai, B. I. C.; Adebesin, O.; Bamidele, M.; Fesobi, T.; Nwaokorie, F. O.; Ajayi, A.; Smith, S. I.

    2017-01-01

    The deployment of molecular biology techniques for diagnosis and research in Nigeria is faced with a number of challenges, including the cost of equipment and reagents coupled with the dearth of personnel skilled in the procedures and handling of equipment. Short molecular biology training workshops were conducted at the Nigerian Institute of…

  7. ECOMAT INC. BIOLOGICAL DENITRIFICATION PROCESS, ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    EcoMat, Inc. of Hayward, California (EcoMat) has developed an ex situ anoxic biofilter biodenitrification (BDN) process. The process uses specific biocarriers and bacteria to treat nitrate-contaminated water and employs a patented reactor that retains biocarrier within the syste...

  8. Ultra‐processed food consumption in children from a Basic Health Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Karen Sparrenberger; Roberta Roggia Friedrich; Mariana Dihl Schiffner; Ilaine Schuch; Mário Bernardes Wagner

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the contribution of ultra‐processed food (UPF) on the dietary consumption of children treated at a Basic Health Unit and the associated factors. Method: Cross‐sectional study carried out with a convenience sample of 204 children, aged 2–10 years old, in Southern Brazil. Children's food intake was assessed using a 24‐h recall questionnaire. Food items were classified as minimally processed, processed for culinary use, and ultra‐processed. A semi‐structured questionna...

  9. Basic auditory processing is related to familial risk, not to reading fluency : An ERP study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hakvoort, Britt; van der Leij, Aryan; Maurits, Natasha; Maassen, Ben; van Zuijen, Titia L.

    Less proficient basic auditory processing has been previously connected to dyslexia. However, it is unclear whether a low proficiency level is a correlate of having a familial risk for reading problems, or whether it causes dyslexia. In this study, children's processing of amplitude rise time (ART),

  10. Basic auditory processing is related to familial risk, not to reading fluency: An ERP study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hakvoort, B.; van der Leij, A.; Maurits, N.; Maassen, B.; van Zuijen, T.L.

    2015-01-01

    Less proficient basic auditory processing has been previously connected to dyslexia. However, it is unclear whether a low proficiency level is a correlate of having a familial risk for reading problems, or whether it causes dyslexia. In this study, children's processing of amplitude rise time (ART),

  11. Strong Bisimilarity and Regularity of Basic Parallel Processes is PSPACE-Hard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srba, Jirí

    2002-01-01

    We show that the problem of checking whether two processes definable in the syntax of Basic Parallel Processes (BPP) are strongly bisimilar is PSPACE-hard. We also demonstrate that there is a polynomial time reduction from the strong bisimilarity checking problem of regular BPP to the strong...

  12. Conservation of the basic pattern of cellular amino acid composition during biological evolution in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorimachi, K; Okayasu, T; Akimoto, K; Niwa, A

    2000-01-01

    The cellular amino acid composition of plant cells was analyzed. The callus of carrot (Daucus carota), leaves of Torenia fournieri and protocomb-like body of Cymbidium, s.p. were examined as examples of plant cells. The cellular amino acid compositions differed in the plant cells, but their basic patterns were quite similar. It is concluded that the basic pattern of the cellular amino acid composition is conserved in all terrestrial organisms, including plants.

  13. Basic Teaching Skill Quality of Teacher Candidates in Microteaching Study Subject of Department of Biology Education, Pasir Pengaraian University

    OpenAIRE

    Nurul Afifah

    2017-01-01

    This research purposed on knowing basic teaching skill quality of teacher candidates in study subject Microteaching of Department of Biology Education, Pasir Pengaraian University, academic year 2016/2016. This research is qualitative research. This research has been done in February to June 2015. The subject of this research is all of the 6th semester students who are taking the Microteaching Study Subject. The instruments of this research including syllabus, teaching plans, and questionnair...

  14. Universal gestational age effects on cognitive and basic mathematic processing: 2 cohorts in 2 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolke, Dieter; Strauss, Vicky Yu-Chun; Johnson, Samantha; Gilmore, Camilla; Marlow, Neil; Jaekel, Julia

    2015-06-01

    To determine whether general cognitive ability, basic mathematic processing, and mathematic attainment are universally affected by gestation at birth, as well as whether mathematic attainment is more strongly associated with cohort-specific factors such as schooling than basic cognitive and mathematical abilities. The Bavarian Longitudinal Study (BLS, 1289 children, 27-41 weeks gestational age [GA]) was used to estimate effects of GA on IQ, basic mathematic processing, and mathematic attainment. These estimations were used to predict IQ, mathematic processing, and mathematic attainment in the EPICure Study (171 children mathematic attainment scores by 2.34 (95% CI: -2.99, -1.70) and 2.76 (95% CI: -3.40, -2.11) points, respectively. There were no differences among children born 34-41 weeks GA. Similarly, for children born mathematic processing scores decreased by 1.77 (95% CI: -2.20, -1.34) points with each lower GA week. The prediction function generated using BLS data accurately predicted the effect of GA on IQ and mathematic processing among EPICure children. However, these children had better attainment than predicted by BLS. Prematurity has adverse effects on basic mathematic processing following birth at all gestations mathematic attainment mathematic processing scores from one cohort to another among children cared for in different eras and countries suggests that universal neurodevelopmental factors may explain the effects of gestation at birth. In contrast, mathematic attainment may be improved by schooling. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Advanced Functional Nanomaterials for Biological Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    regeneration based on HA, gold nanoparticles, and graphene. We devised a one- step method in which Au and hydroxyapatite were used as a catalytic system in a...detection of cancer cells/nanomaterials in circulation.  We showed that graphitic materials can increase the osteogenesis of bone cells.  We finished...GCNFs) were produced by a single- step reduction process and used for the growth and differentiation of human adult stem cells. The nanomaterials were

  16. Landauer in the Age of Synthetic Biology: Energy Consumption and Information Processing in Biochemical Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Pankaj; Lang, Alex H.; Schwab, David J.

    2016-03-01

    A central goal of synthetic biology is to design sophisticated synthetic cellular circuits that can perform complex computations and information processing tasks in response to specific inputs. The tremendous advances in our ability to understand and manipulate cellular information processing networks raises several fundamental physics questions: How do the molecular components of cellular circuits exploit energy consumption to improve information processing? Can one utilize ideas from thermodynamics to improve the design of synthetic cellular circuits and modules? Here, we summarize recent theoretical work addressing these questions. Energy consumption in cellular circuits serves five basic purposes: (1) increasing specificity, (2) manipulating dynamics, (3) reducing variability, (4) amplifying signal, and (5) erasing memory. We demonstrate these ideas using several simple examples and discuss the implications of these theoretical ideas for the emerging field of synthetic biology. We conclude by discussing how it may be possible to overcome these limitations using "post-translational" synthetic biology that exploits reversible protein modification.

  17. Biological process of soil improvement in civil engineering: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Murtala Umar; Khairul Anuar Kassim; Kenny Tiong Ping Chiet

    2016-01-01

    The concept of using biological process in soil improvement which is known as bio-mediated soil improvement technique has shown greater potential in geotechnical engineering applications in terms of performance and environmental sustainability. This paper presents a review on the soil microorganisms responsible for this process, and factors that affect their metabolic activities and geometric compatibility with the soil particle sizes. Two mechanisms of biomineralization, i.e. biologically co...

  18. Bridging the gap between basic and applied biology: towards preclinical translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross L. Cagan

    2013-05-01

    To better translate basic research findings into the clinic, we are moving away from the traditional one-gene–one-phenotype model towards the discovery of complex mechanisms. In this Editorial, the new Editor-in-Chief and Senior Editors of Disease Models & Mechanisms (DMM discuss the role that the journal will play in this transition. DMM will continue to provide a platform for studies that bridge basic and applied science, and, by demanding the rigorous assessment of animal models of disease, will help drive the establishment of robust standards of preclinical testing for drug development.

  19. A literature-based similarity metric for biological processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chagoyen Monica

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent analyses in systems biology pursue the discovery of functional modules within the cell. Recognition of such modules requires the integrative analysis of genome-wide experimental data together with available functional schemes. In this line, methods to bridge the gap between the abstract definitions of cellular processes in current schemes and the interlinked nature of biological networks are required. Results This work explores the use of the scientific literature to establish potential relationships among cellular processes. To this end we haveused a document based similarity method to compute pair-wise similarities of the biological processes described in the Gene Ontology (GO. The method has been applied to the biological processes annotated for the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome. We compared our results with similarities obtained with two ontology-based metrics, as well as with gene product annotation relationships. We show that the literature-based metric conserves most direct ontological relationships, while reveals biologically sounded similarities that are not obtained using ontology-based metrics and/or genome annotation. Conclusion The scientific literature is a valuable source of information from which to compute similarities among biological processes. The associations discovered by literature analysis are a valuable complement to those encoded in existing functional schemes, and those that arise by genome annotation. These similarities can be used to conveniently map the interlinked structure of cellular processes in a particular organism.

  20. Physiological Aspects of Aging. Module A-5. Block A. Basic Knowledge of the Aging Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Dexter; Cap, Orest

    This instructional module on physiological aspects of aging is one in a block of 10 modules designed to provide the human services worker who works with older adults with basic information regarding the aging process. An introduction provides an overview of the module content. A listing of general objectives follows. Nine sections present…

  1. Biological process of soil improvement in civil engineering: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murtala Umar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of using biological process in soil improvement which is known as bio-mediated soil improvement technique has shown greater potential in geotechnical engineering applications in terms of performance and environmental sustainability. This paper presents a review on the soil microorganisms responsible for this process, and factors that affect their metabolic activities and geometric compatibility with the soil particle sizes. Two mechanisms of biomineralization, i.e. biologically controlled and biologically induced mineralization, were also discussed. Environmental and other factors that may be encountered in situ during microbially induced calcite precipitation (MICP and their influences on the process were identified and presented. Improvements in the engineering properties of soil such as strength/stiffness and permeability as evaluated in some studies were explored. Potential applications of the process in geotechnical engineering and the challenges of field application of the process were identified.

  2. Basic Consecutive System Consisted of Design, Process and Estimation of a Fundamental Integrated Circuit Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Akihiro; Kamizono, Hiroki; Ando, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Takeshi

    The progress of integrated-circuits technology in recent years has enabled a large performance-increase of system LSI. As it is needed long time to study the knowledge of the system LSI such as design, semiconductor process, and estimation of device, it is hard to study system LSI technology for company man and students. The basic consecutive system consisted of design, process and estimation of a fundamental IC system was studied.

  3. Synthetic Biology: Tools to Design, Build, and Optimize Cellular Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Young

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The general central dogma frames the emergent properties of life, which make biology both necessary and difficult to engineer. In a process engineering paradigm, each biological process stream and process unit is heavily influenced by regulatory interactions and interactions with the surrounding environment. Synthetic biology is developing the tools and methods that will increase control over these interactions, eventually resulting in an integrative synthetic biology that will allow ground-up cellular optimization. In this review, we attempt to contextualize the areas of synthetic biology into three tiers: (1 the process units and associated streams of the central dogma, (2 the intrinsic regulatory mechanisms, and (3 the extrinsic physical and chemical environment. Efforts at each of these three tiers attempt to control cellular systems and take advantage of emerging tools and approaches. Ultimately, it will be possible to integrate these approaches and realize the vision of integrative synthetic biology when cells are completely rewired for biotechnological goals. This review will highlight progress towards this goal as well as areas requiring further research.

  4. Synthetic biology: tools to design, build, and optimize cellular processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Eric; Alper, Hal

    2010-01-01

    The general central dogma frames the emergent properties of life, which make biology both necessary and difficult to engineer. In a process engineering paradigm, each biological process stream and process unit is heavily influenced by regulatory interactions and interactions with the surrounding environment. Synthetic biology is developing the tools and methods that will increase control over these interactions, eventually resulting in an integrative synthetic biology that will allow ground-up cellular optimization. In this review, we attempt to contextualize the areas of synthetic biology into three tiers: (1) the process units and associated streams of the central dogma, (2) the intrinsic regulatory mechanisms, and (3) the extrinsic physical and chemical environment. Efforts at each of these three tiers attempt to control cellular systems and take advantage of emerging tools and approaches. Ultimately, it will be possible to integrate these approaches and realize the vision of integrative synthetic biology when cells are completely rewired for biotechnological goals. This review will highlight progress towards this goal as well as areas requiring further research.

  5. Scientific bases of biomass processing into basic component of aviation fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachalov, V. V.; Lavrenov, V. A.; Lishchiner, I. I.; Malova, O. V.; Tarasov, A. L.; Zaichenko, V. M.

    2016-11-01

    A combination of feedstock pyrolysis and the cracking of the volatile pyrolysis products on the charcoal at 1000 °C allows to obtain a tarless synthesis gas which contains 90 vol% or more of carbon monoxide and hydrogen in approximately equal proportions. Basic component of aviation fuel was synthesized in a two-stage process from gas obtained by pyrolytic processing of biomass. Methanol and dimethyl ether can be efficiently produced in a two-layer loading of methanolic catalyst and γ-Al2O3. The total conversion of CO per pass was 38.2% using for the synthesis of oxygenates a synthesis gas with adverse ratio of H2/CO = 0.96. Conversion of CO to CH3OH was 15.3% and the conversion of CO to dimethyl ether was 20.9%. A high yield of basic component per oxygenates mass (44.6%) was obtained during conversion. The high selectivity of the synthesis process for liquid hydrocarbons was observed. An optimal recipe of aviation fuel B-92 based on a synthesized basic component was developed. The prototype of aviation fuel meets the requirements for B-92 when straight fractions of 50-100 °C (up to 35 wt%), isooctane (up to 10 wt%) and ethyl fluid (2.0 g/kg calculated as tetraethyl lead) is added to the basic component.

  6. Students' Learning Activities While Studying Biological Process Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kragten, Marco; Admiraal, Wilfried; Rijlaarsdam, Gert

    2015-01-01

    Process diagrams describe how a system functions (e.g. photosynthesis) and are an important type of representation in Biology education. In the present study, we examined students' learning activities while studying process diagrams, related to their resulting comprehension of these diagrams. Each student completed three learning tasks. Verbal…

  7. Using Restriction Mapping to Teach Basic Skills in the Molecular Biology Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Lauren; Shaker, Elizabeth; De Stasio, Elizabeth A.

    2007-01-01

    Digestion of DNA with restriction enzymes, calculation of volumes and concentrations of reagents for reactions, and the separation of DNA fragments by agarose gel electrophoresis are common molecular biology techniques that are best taught through repetition. The following open-ended, investigative laboratory exercise in plasmid restriction…

  8. BASIC SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF SOME PHOSPHORCONTATNING ORGANIC COMPOUNDS CONTAINING FRAGMENTS OF UREA AND TRYHLORETILAMID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gushylyk B.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Data about directions of synthesis and use of the phosphororganic compounds in technics, biology and medicine is presented in the paper. Antimicrobial activity of 51 phosphororganic salts and ilides containing urine and threechlor ethylenamide has been studied. Perspective of the development of effective antimicrobial substances has been determined

  9. The Crossroads between Biology and Mathematics: The Scientific Method as the Basics of Scientific Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsai, Istvan; Kampis, George

    2010-01-01

    Biology is changing and becoming more quantitative. Research is creating new challenges that need to be addressed in education as well. New educational initiatives focus on combining laboratory procedures with mathematical skills, yet it seems that most curricula center on a single relationship between scientific knowledge and scientific method:…

  10. Micro-electromembrane extraction across free liquid membranes. Extractions of basic drugs from undiluted biological samples

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubáň, Pavel; Boček, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 1337, Apr (2014), s. 32-39 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-05762S Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : micro-electromembrane extraction * free liquid membranes * biological samples Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.169, year: 2014

  11. Micro-electromembrane extraction across free liquid membranes. Extractions of basic drugs from undiluted biological samples

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubáň, Pavel; Boček, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 1337, Apr (2014), s. 32-39 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-05762S Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : micro-electromembrane extraction * free liquid membranes * biological samples Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry , Separation Impact factor: 4.169, year: 2014

  12. Is metabolic rate a universal 'pacemaker' for biological processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazier, Douglas S

    2015-05-01

    A common, long-held belief is that metabolic rate drives the rates of various biological, ecological and evolutionary processes. Although this metabolic pacemaker view (as assumed by the recent, influential 'metabolic theory of ecology') may be true in at least some situations (e.g. those involving moderate temperature effects or physiological processes closely linked to metabolism, such as heartbeat and breathing rate), it suffers from several major limitations, including: (i) it is supported chiefly by indirect, correlational evidence (e.g. similarities between the body-size and temperature scaling of metabolic rate and that of other biological processes, which are not always observed) - direct, mechanistic or experimental support is scarce and much needed; (ii) it is contradicted by abundant evidence showing that various intrinsic and extrinsic factors (e.g. hormonal action and temperature changes) can dissociate the rates of metabolism, growth, development and other biological processes; (iii) there are many examples where metabolic rate appears to respond to, rather than drive the rates of various other biological processes (e.g. ontogenetic growth, food intake and locomotor activity); (iv) there are additional examples where metabolic rate appears to be unrelated to the rate of a biological process (e.g. ageing, circadian rhythms, and molecular evolution); and (v) the theoretical foundation for the metabolic pacemaker view focuses only on the energetic control of biological processes, while ignoring the importance of informational control, as mediated by various genetic, cellular, and neuroendocrine regulatory systems. I argue that a comprehensive understanding of the pace of life must include how biological activities depend on both energy and information and their environmentally sensitive interaction. This conclusion is supported by extensive evidence showing that hormones and other regulatory factors and signalling systems coordinate the processes of

  13. Basic Data Report -- Defense Waste Processing Facility Sludge Plant, Savannah River Plant 200-S Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amerine, D.B.

    1982-09-01

    This Basic Data Report for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF)--Sludge Plant was prepared to supplement the Technical Data Summary. Jointly, the two reports were intended to form the basis for the design and construction of the DWPF. To the extent that conflicting information may appear, the Basic Data Report takes precedence over the Technical Data Summary. It describes project objectives and design requirements. Pertinent data on the geology, hydrology, and climate of the site are included. Functions and requirements of the major structures are described to provide guidance in the design of the facilities. Revision 9 of the Basic Data Report was prepared to eliminate inconsistencies between the Technical Data Summary, Basic Data Report and Scopes of Work which were used to prepare the September, 1982 updated CAB. Concurrently, pertinent data (material balance, curie balance, etc.) have also been placed in the Basic Data Report. It is intended that these balances be used as a basis for the continuing design of the DWPF even though minor revisions may be made in these balances in future revisions to the Technical Data Summary.

  14. Hidden Markov processes theory and applications to biology

    CERN Document Server

    Vidyasagar, M

    2014-01-01

    This book explores important aspects of Markov and hidden Markov processes and the applications of these ideas to various problems in computational biology. The book starts from first principles, so that no previous knowledge of probability is necessary. However, the work is rigorous and mathematical, making it useful to engineers and mathematicians, even those not interested in biological applications. A range of exercises is provided, including drills to familiarize the reader with concepts and more advanced problems that require deep thinking about the theory. Biological applications are t

  15. Treatment of slaughter wastewater by coagulation sedimentation-anaerobic biological filter and biological contact oxidation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, M.; Yu, P. F.; Fu, J. X.; Ji, X. Q.; Jiang, T.

    2017-08-01

    The optimal process parameters and conditions for the treatment of slaughterhouse wastewater by coagulation sedimentation-AF - biological contact oxidation process were studied to solve the problem of high concentration organic wastewater treatment in the production of small and medium sized slaughter plants. The suitable water temperature and the optimum reaction time are determined by the experiment of precipitation to study the effect of filtration rate and reflux ratio on COD and SS in anaerobic biological filter and the effect of biofilm thickness and gas water ratio on NH3-N and COD in biological contact oxidation tank, and results show that the optimum temperature is 16-24°C, reaction time is 20 min in coagulating sedimentation, the optimum filtration rate is 0.6 m/h, and the optimum reflux ratio is 300% in anaerobic biological filter reactor. The most suitable biological film thickness range of 1.8-2.2 mm and the most suitable gas water ratio is 12:1-14:1 in biological contact oxidation pool. In the coupling process of continuous operation for 80 days, the average effluent’s mass concentrations of COD, TP and TN were 15.57 mg/L, 40 mg/L and 0.63 mg/L, the average removal rates were 98.93%, 86.10%, 88.95%, respectively. The coupling process has stable operation effect and good effluent quality, and is suitable for the industrial application.

  16. Small-Angle Neutron Scattering for Molecular Biology: Basics and Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, William T.; Littrell, Kenneth C.

    As researchers strive to understand the interplay between the complex molecular systems that make up living cells, tools for characterizing the interactions between the various players involved have developed. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) plays an important role in building a molecular-level understanding of the structures of macromolecular systems that make up cells. SANS is widely applicable to the study of biological structures including, but by no means limited to, protein-protein or protein-nucleic acid complexes, lipid membranes, cellular scaffolding, and amyloid plaques. Here, we present a brief description of the technique as it is commonly applied to the study of biological systems and an overview instrumentation that is available at the various facilities around the world.

  17. State of the art of biological hydrogen production processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loubette, N.; Junker, M.

    2006-01-01

    Our report gives an overview of hydrogen production processes with bacteria or algae. 4 main processes are described: water biophotolysis, photo- fermentation biological CO conversion and dark fermentation. Chemical phenomena which lead to hydrogen generation are exp/aired. Performances, limits and outlook are given for each process. Main projects, programs and key players involved in this field of research have been listed. This paper resumes few results of this report. (authors)

  18. State of the art of biological hydrogen production processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolas Loubette; Michel Junker

    2006-01-01

    Our report gives an overview of hydrogen production processes with bacteria or algae. 4 main processes are described: water bio-photolysis, photo-fermentation biological CO conversion and dark fermentation. Chemical phenomena which lead to hydrogen generation are explained. Performances, limits and outlook are given for each process. Main projects, programs and key players involved in this field of research have been listed. This paper resumes few results of this report. (authors)

  19. Boolean Models of Biological Processes Explain Cascade-Like Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Wang, Guanyu; Simha, Rahul; Du, Chenghang; Zeng, Chen

    2016-01-01

    Biological networks play a key role in determining biological function and therefore, an understanding of their structure and dynamics is of central interest in systems biology. In Boolean models of such networks, the status of each molecule is either “on” or “off” and along with the molecules interact with each other, their individual status changes from “on” to “off” or vice-versa and the system of molecules in the network collectively go through a sequence of changes in state. This sequence of changes is termed a biological process. In this paper, we examine the common perception that events in biomolecular networks occur sequentially, in a cascade-like manner, and ask whether this is likely to be an inherent property. In further investigations of the budding and fission yeast cell-cycle, we identify two generic dynamical rules. A Boolean system that complies with these rules will automatically have a certain robustness. By considering the biological requirements in robustness and designability, we show that those Boolean dynamical systems, compared to an arbitrary dynamical system, statistically present the characteristics of cascadeness and sequentiality, as observed in the budding and fission yeast cell- cycle. These results suggest that cascade-like behavior might be an intrinsic property of biological processes. PMID:26821940

  20. 1995 Volvo Award in basic sciences. The use of an osteoinductive growth factor for lumbar spinal fusion. Part I: Biology of spinal fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, S D; Schimandle, J H; Hutton, W C; Chen, M I

    1995-12-15

    The histology of lumbar intertransverse process spinal fusion was studied in an experimental model in rabbits. To qualitatively and quantitatively analyze the sequential histology of spinal fusion using a previously validated animal model. Few previous studies have described the sequential histology during the posterolateral spinal fusion healing process using autogenous bone, and a basic understanding of the biology of this repair process is lacking. Fourteen adult New Zealand white rabbits underwent single-level posterolateral lumbar intertransverse process arthrodesis with autogenous iliac bone graft. Animals were killed 1-10 weeks after surgery, and the fusion masses were analyzed histologically and quantitated using a semiautomated image analysis system. Three distinct phases of healing were identified (inflammatory, reparative, and remodeling) and occurred in sequence but in a delayed fashion in the central zone of the fusion mass compared with the outer transverse process zones. Membraneous bone formation, evident first at the ends of the fusion eminating from the decorticated transverse processes, was the predominant mechanism of healing. The central zone was somewhat different in that there was a period of endochondral bone formation during weeks 3 and 4 in this zone where cartilage formed and was converted to bone. Remodeling in the central zone had equilibrated with the transverse process zones by 10 weeks. Lumbar intertransverse process spinal fusion is a complex process from a spatial and temporal standpoint. When autogenous bone is used as the graft material, this process critically depends on a variety of factors from the decorticated host bone and exposed marrow. The persistence of a central cartilage zone may be related to some types of nonunions and deserves future investigation. This enhanced understanding of the biology of spinal fusion with autogenous bone graft will provide a foundation for optimizing the use of osteoinductive bone growth

  1. Current and emerging basic science concepts in bone biology: implications in craniofacial surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Adam J; Mesa, John; Buchman, Steven R

    2012-01-01

    Ongoing research in bone biology has brought cutting-edge technologies into everyday use in craniofacial surgery. Nonetheless, when osseous defects of the craniomaxillofacial skeleton are encountered, autogenous bone grafting remains the criterion standard for reconstruction. Accordingly, the core principles of bone graft physiology continue to be of paramount importance. Bone grafts, however, are not a panacea; donor site morbidity and operative risk are among the limitations of autologous bone graft harvest. Bone graft survival is impaired when irradiation, contamination, and impaired vascularity are encountered. Although the dura can induce calvarial ossification in children younger than 2 years, the repair of critical-size defects in the pediatric population may be hindered by inadequate bone graft donor volume. The novel and emerging field of bone tissue engineering holds great promise as a limitless source of autogenous bone. Three core constituents of bone tissue engineering have been established: scaffolds, signals, and cells. Blood supply is the sine qua non of these components, which are used both individually and concertedly in regenerative craniofacial surgery. The discerning craniofacial surgeon must determine the proper use for these bone graft alternatives, while understanding their concomitant risks. This article presents a review of contemporary and emerging concepts in bone biology and their implications in craniofacial surgery. Current practices, areas of controversy, and near-term future applications are emphasized.

  2. Cancer systems biology: signal processing for cancer research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yli-Harja, Olli; Ylipää, Antti; Nykter, Matti; Zhang, Wei

    2011-01-01

    In this editorial we introduce the research paradigms of signal processing in the era of systems biology. Signal processing is a field of science traditionally focused on modeling electronic and communications systems, but recently it has turned to biological applications with astounding results. The essence of signal processing is to describe the natural world by mathematical models and then, based on these models, develop efficient computational tools for solving engineering problems. Here, we underline, with examples, the endless possibilities which arise when the battle-hardened tools of engineering are applied to solve the problems that have tormented cancer researchers. Based on this approach, a new field has emerged, called cancer systems biology. Despite its short history, cancer systems biology has already produced several success stories tackling previously impracticable problems. Perhaps most importantly, it has been accepted as an integral part of the major endeavors of cancer research, such as analyzing the genomic and epigenomic data produced by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project. Finally, we show that signal processing and cancer research, two fields that are seemingly distant from each other, have merged into a field that is indeed more than the sum of its parts. PMID:21439242

  3. DEMONSTRATION OF AN INTEGRATED, PASSIVE BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT PROCESS FOR AMD

    Science.gov (United States)

    An innovative, cost-effective, biological treatment process has been designed by MSE Technology Applications, Inc. to treat acid mine drainage (AMD). A pilot-scale demonstration is being conducted under the Mine Waste Technology Program using water flowing from an abandoned mine ...

  4. Introductory Biology Textbooks Under-Represent Scientific Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara B. Duncan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Attrition of undergraduates from Biology majors is a long-standing problem. Introductory courses that fail to engage students or spark their curiosity by emphasizing the open-ended and creative nature of biological investigation and discovery could contribute to student detachment from the field. Our hypothesis was that introductory biology books devote relatively few figures to illustration of the design and interpretation of experiments or field studies, thereby de-emphasizing the scientific process.To investigate this possibility, we examined figures in six Introductory Biology textbooks published in 2008. On average, multistep scientific investigations were presented in fewer than 5% of the hundreds of figures in each book. Devoting such a small percentage of figures to the processes by which discoveries are made discourages an emphasis on scientific thinking. We suggest that by increasing significantly the illustration of scientific investigations, textbooks could support undergraduates’ early interest in biology, stimulate the development of design and analytical skills, and inspire some students to participate in investigations of their own.

  5. A Friendly-Biological Reactor SIMulator (BioReSIM for studying biological processes in wastewater treatment processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Molina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Biological processes for wastewater treatments are inherently dynamic systems because of the large variations in the influent wastewater flow rate, concentration composition and the adaptive behavior of the involved microorganisms. Moreover, the sludge retention time (SRT is a critical factor to understand the bioreactor performances when changes in the influent or in the operation conditions take place. Since SRT are usually in the range of 10-30 days, the performance of biological reactors needs a long time to be monitored in a regular laboratory demonstration, limiting the knowledge that can be obtained in the experimental lab practice. In order to overcome this lack, mathematical models and computer simulations are useful tools to describe biochemical processes and predict the overall performance of bioreactors under different working operation conditions and variations of the inlet wastewater composition. The mathematical solution of the model could be difficult as numerous biochemical processes can be considered. Additionally, biological reactors description (mass balance, etc. needs models represented by partial or/and ordinary differential equations associated to algebraic expressions, that require complex computational codes to obtain the numerical solutions. Different kind of software for mathematical modeling can be used, from large degree of freedom simulators capable of free models definition (as AQUASIM, to closed predefined model structure programs (as BIOWIN. The first ones usually require long learning curves, whereas the second ones could be excessively rigid for specific wastewater treatment systems. As alternative, we present Biological Reactor SIMulator (BioReSIM, a MATLAB code for the simulation of sequencing batch reactors (SBR and rotating biological contactors (RBC as biological systems of suspended and attached biomass for wastewater treatment, respectively. This BioReSIM allows the evaluation of simple and complex

  6. Straight lines of neutron scattering in biology: a review of basic controls in SANS and EINS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccai, Giuseppe

    2012-10-01

    Neutron and X-ray beams in scattering experiments have similar wavelengths and explore the same length scale (~1 Å or 0.1 nm). Data collection and analysis are also broadly similar for both radiation types. There are fundamental differences, however, between the interaction of X-rays and neutrons with matter, which makes them strongly complementary for structural studies in biology. The property of neutrons to distinguish natural abundance hydrogen from its deuterium isotope and the dispersion relation that leads to the energy of ~1 Å neutrons being of the order of thermal energy are well known. They form the basis, respectively, of contrast variation on the one hand and energy-resolved scattering experiments to study macromolecular dynamics-neutron-specific scattering methods on the other. Interestingly, analysis procedures for the structural and dynamics experiments display common aspects that can be expressed as straight-line relationships. These not only act as controls of good sample preparation, but also yield model-free parameters on an absolute scale that provide fundamental information on the structure and dynamics of the system under study.

  7. 42 CFR 431.830 - Basic elements of the Medicaid quality control (MQC) claims processing assessment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL ADMINISTRATION Quality Control Medicaid Quality Control (mqc) Claims Processing Assessment System § 431.830 Basic elements of the Medicaid quality control (MQC) claims processing assessment... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basic elements of the Medicaid quality control (MQC...

  8. Is nanotechnology the key to unravel and engineer biological processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Melba; Planell, Josep A

    2012-01-01

    Regenerative medicine is an emerging field aiming to the development of new reparative strategies to treat degenerative diseases, injury, and trauma through developmental pathways in order to rebuild the architecture of the original injured organ and take over its functionality. Most of the processes and interactions involved in the regenerative process take place at subcellular scale. Nanotechnology provides the tools and technology not only to detect, to measure, or to image the interactions between the different biomolecules and biological entities, but also to control and guide the regenerative process. The relevance of nanotechnology for the development of regenerative medicine as well as an overview of the different tools that contribute to unravel and engineer biological systems are presented in this chapter. In addition, general data about the social impact and global investment in nanotechnology are provided.

  9. Classical and spatial stochastic processes with applications to biology

    CERN Document Server

    Schinazi, Rinaldo B

    2014-01-01

    The revised and expanded edition of this textbook presents the concepts and applications of random processes with the same illuminating simplicity as its first edition, but with the notable addition of substantial modern material on biological modeling. While still treating many important problems in fields such as engineering and mathematical physics, the book also focuses on the highly relevant topics of cancerous mutations, influenza evolution, drug resistance, and immune response. The models used elegantly apply various classical stochastic models presented earlier in the text, and exercises are included throughout to reinforce essential concepts. The second edition of Classical and Spatial Stochastic Processes is suitable as a textbook for courses in stochastic processes at the advanced-undergraduate and graduate levels, or as a self-study resource for researchers and practitioners in mathematics, engineering, physics, and mathematical biology. Reviews of the first edition: An appetizing textbook for a f...

  10. iBiology: communicating the process of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Sarah S

    2014-08-01

    The Internet hosts an abundance of science video resources aimed at communicating scientific knowledge, including webinars, massive open online courses, and TED talks. Although these videos are efficient at disseminating information for diverse types of users, they often do not demonstrate the process of doing science, the excitement of scientific discovery, or how new scientific knowledge is developed. iBiology (www.ibiology.org), a project that creates open-access science videos about biology research and science-related topics, seeks to fill this need by producing videos by science leaders that make their ideas, stories, and experiences available to anyone with an Internet connection. © 2014 Goodwin. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  11. Discovery biology of neuropsychiatric syndromes (DBNS): a center for integrating clinical medicine and basic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanath, Biju; Rao, Naren P; Narayanaswamy, Janardhanan C; Sivakumar, Palanimuthu T; Kandasamy, Arun; Kesavan, Muralidharan; Mehta, Urvakhsh Meherwan; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; John, John P; Mukherjee, Odity; Purushottam, Meera; Kannan, Ramakrishnan; Mehta, Bhupesh; Kandavel, Thennarasu; Binukumar, B; Saini, Jitender; Jayarajan, Deepak; Shyamsundar, A; Moirangthem, Sydney; Vijay Kumar, K G; Thirthalli, Jagadisha; Chandra, Prabha S; Gangadhar, Bangalore N; Murthy, Pratima; Panicker, Mitradas M; Bhalla, Upinder S; Chattarji, Sumantra; Benegal, Vivek; Varghese, Mathew; Reddy, Janardhan Y C; Raghu, Padinjat; Rao, Mahendra; Jain, Sanjeev

    2018-04-18

    There is emerging evidence that there are shared genetic, environmental and developmental risk factors in psychiatry, that cut across traditional diagnostic boundaries. With this background, the Discovery biology of neuropsychiatric syndromes (DBNS) proposes to recruit patients from five different syndromes (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, Alzheimer's dementia and substance use disorders), identify those with multiple affected relatives, and invite these families to participate in this study. The families will be assessed: 1) To compare neuro-endophenotype measures between patients, first degree relatives (FDR) and healthy controls., 2) To identify cellular phenotypes which differentiate the groups., 3) To examine the longitudinal course of neuro-endophenotype measures., 4) To identify measures which correlate with outcome, and 5) To create a unified digital database and biorepository. The identification of the index participants will occur at well-established specialty clinics. The selected individuals will have a strong family history (with at least another affected FDR) of mental illness. We will also recruit healthy controls without family history of such illness. All recruited individuals (N = 4500) will undergo brief clinical assessments and a blood sample will be drawn for isolation of DNA and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). From among this set, a subset of 1500 individuals (300 families and 300 controls) will be assessed on several additional assessments [detailed clinical assessments, endophenotype measures (neuroimaging- structural and functional, neuropsychology, psychophysics-electroencephalography, functional near infrared spectroscopy, eye movement tracking)], with the intention of conducting repeated measurements every alternate year. PBMCs from this set will be used to generate lymphoblastoid cell lines, and a subset of these would be converted to induced pluripotent stem cell lines and also undergo

  12. Biological signal processing with a genetic toggle switch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Hillenbrand

    Full Text Available Complex gene regulation requires responses that depend not only on the current levels of input signals but also on signals received in the past. In digital electronics, logic circuits with this property are referred to as sequential logic, in contrast to the simpler combinatorial logic without such internal memory. In molecular biology, memory is implemented in various forms such as biochemical modification of proteins or multistable gene circuits, but the design of the regulatory interface, which processes the input signals and the memory content, is often not well understood. Here, we explore design constraints for such regulatory interfaces using coarse-grained nonlinear models and stochastic simulations of detailed biochemical reaction networks. We test different designs for biological analogs of the most versatile memory element in digital electronics, the JK-latch. Our analysis shows that simple protein-protein interactions and protein-DNA binding are sufficient, in principle, to implement genetic circuits with the capabilities of a JK-latch. However, it also exposes fundamental limitations to its reliability, due to the fact that biological signal processing is asynchronous, in contrast to most digital electronics systems that feature a central clock to orchestrate the timing of all operations. We describe a seemingly natural way to improve the reliability by invoking the master-slave concept from digital electronics design. This concept could be useful to interpret the design of natural regulatory circuits, and for the design of synthetic biological systems.

  13. Biological signal processing with a genetic toggle switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillenbrand, Patrick; Fritz, Georg; Gerland, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Complex gene regulation requires responses that depend not only on the current levels of input signals but also on signals received in the past. In digital electronics, logic circuits with this property are referred to as sequential logic, in contrast to the simpler combinatorial logic without such internal memory. In molecular biology, memory is implemented in various forms such as biochemical modification of proteins or multistable gene circuits, but the design of the regulatory interface, which processes the input signals and the memory content, is often not well understood. Here, we explore design constraints for such regulatory interfaces using coarse-grained nonlinear models and stochastic simulations of detailed biochemical reaction networks. We test different designs for biological analogs of the most versatile memory element in digital electronics, the JK-latch. Our analysis shows that simple protein-protein interactions and protein-DNA binding are sufficient, in principle, to implement genetic circuits with the capabilities of a JK-latch. However, it also exposes fundamental limitations to its reliability, due to the fact that biological signal processing is asynchronous, in contrast to most digital electronics systems that feature a central clock to orchestrate the timing of all operations. We describe a seemingly natural way to improve the reliability by invoking the master-slave concept from digital electronics design. This concept could be useful to interpret the design of natural regulatory circuits, and for the design of synthetic biological systems.

  14. Developing Multimedia-assisted Inquiry Learning Instruments for Basic Biology Intended to Foster Students’ Scientific Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahyani, R.

    2017-04-01

    Seasonal Influenza is one of disease that outbreaks periodically at least once every year. This disease caused many people hospitalized. Many hospitalized people as employers would infect production quantities, distribution time, and some economic aspects. It will infect economic growth. Infected people need treatments to reduce infection period and cure the infection. In this paper, we discussed a mathematical model of seasonal influenza with treatment. Factually, the disease was held in short period, less than one year. Hence, we can assume that the population is constant at the disease outbreak time. In this paper, we analyzed the existence of the equilibrium points of the model and their stability. We also give some simulation to give a geometric image about the results of the analysis process.

  15. MEG event-related desynchronization and synchronization deficits during basic somatosensory processing in individuals with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Frank

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is a prevalent, complex disorder which is characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Convergent evidence from neurobiological studies of ADHD identifies dysfunction in fronto-striatal-cerebellar circuitry as the source of behavioural deficits. Recent studies have shown that regions governing basic sensory processing, such as the somatosensory cortex, show abnormalities in those with ADHD suggesting that these processes may also be compromised. Methods We used event-related magnetoencephalography (MEG to examine patterns of cortical rhythms in the primary (SI and secondary (SII somatosensory cortices in response to median nerve stimulation, in 9 adults with ADHD and 10 healthy controls. Stimuli were brief (0.2 ms non-painful electrical pulses presented to the median nerve in two counterbalanced conditions: unpredictable and predictable stimulus presentation. We measured changes in strength, synchronicity, and frequency of cortical rhythms. Results Healthy comparison group showed strong event-related desynchrony and synchrony in SI and SII. By contrast, those with ADHD showed significantly weaker event-related desynchrony and event-related synchrony in the alpha (8–12 Hz and beta (15–30 Hz bands, respectively. This was most striking during random presentation of median nerve stimulation. Adults with ADHD showed significantly shorter duration of beta rebound in both SI and SII except for when the onset of the stimulus event could be predicted. In this case, the rhythmicity of SI (but not SII in the ADHD group did not differ from that of controls. Conclusion Our findings suggest that somatosensory processing is altered in individuals with ADHD. MEG constitutes a promising approach to profiling patterns of neural activity during the processing of sensory input (e.g., detection of a tactile stimulus, stimulus predictability and facilitating our

  16. 100 years after Smoluchowski: stochastic processes in cell biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holcman, D; Schuss, Z

    2017-01-01

    100 years after Smoluchowski introduced his approach to stochastic processes, they are now at the basis of mathematical and physical modeling in cellular biology: they are used for example to analyse and to extract features from a large number (tens of thousands) of single molecular trajectories or to study the diffusive motion of molecules, proteins or receptors. Stochastic modeling is a new step in large data analysis that serves extracting cell biology concepts. We review here Smoluchowski’s approach to stochastic processes and provide several applications for coarse-graining diffusion, studying polymer models for understanding nuclear organization and finally, we discuss the stochastic jump dynamics of telomeres across cell division and stochastic gene regulation. (topical review)

  17. Targeting Specific HATs for Neurodegenerative Disease Treatment: Translating Basic Biology to Therapeutic Possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila K. Pirooznia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic epigenetic regulation of neurons is emerging as a fundamental mechanism by which neurons adapt their transcriptional responses to specific developmental and environmental cues. While defects within the neural epigenome have traditionally been studied in the context of early developmental and heritable cognitive disorders, recent studies point to aberrant histone acetylation status as a key mechanism underlying acquired inappropriate alterations of genome structure and function in post-mitotic neurons during the aging process. Indeed, it is becoming increasingly evident that chromatin acetylation status can be impaired during the lifetime of neurons through mechanisms related to loss of function of histone acetyltransferase (HATs activity. Several HATs have been shown to participate in vital neuronal functions such as regulation of neuronal plasticity and memory formation. As such, dysregulation of such HATs has been implicated in the pathogenesis associated with age-associated neurodegenerative diseases and cognitive decline. In order to counteract the loss of HAT function in neurodegenerative diseases, the current therapeutic strategies involve the use of small molecules called histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors that antagonize HDAC activity and thus enhance acetylation levels. Although this strategy has displayed promising therapeutic effects, currently used HDAC inhibitors lack target specificity, raising concerns about their applicability. With rapidly evolving literature on HATs and their respective functions in mediating neuronal survival and higher order brain function such as learning and memory, modulating the function of specific HATs holds new promises as a therapeutic tool in neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we focus on the recent progress in research regarding epigenetic histone acetylation mechanisms underlying neuronal activity and cognitive function. We discuss the current understanding of specific HDACs and

  18. Influence of different natural physical fields on biological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashinsky, A. L.

    2001-01-01

    In space flight conditions gravity, magnetic, and electrical fields as well as ionizing radiation change both in size, and in direction. This causes disruptions in the conduct of some physical processes, chemical reactions, and metabolism in living organisms. In these conditions organisms of different phylogenetic level change their metabolic reactions undergo changes such as disturbances in ionic exchange both in lower and in higher plants, changes in cell morphology for example, gyrosity in Proteus ( Proteus vulgaris), spatial disorientation in coleoptiles of Wheat ( Triticum aestivum) and Pea ( Pisum sativum) seedlings, mutational changes in Crepis ( Crepis capillaris) and Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana) seedling. It has been found that even in the absence of gravity, gravireceptors determining spatial orientation in higher plants under terrestrial conditions are formed in the course of ontogenesis. Under weightlessness this system does not function and spatial orientation is determined by the light flux gradient or by the action of some other factors. Peculiarities of the formation of the gravireceptor apparatus in higher plants, amphibians, fish, and birds under space flight conditions have been observed. It has been found that the system in which responses were accompanied by phase transition have proven to be gravity-sensitive under microgravity conditions. Such reactions include also the process of photosynthesis which is the main energy production process in plants. In view of the established effects of microgravity and different natural physical fields on biological processes, it has been shown that these processes change due to the absence of initially rigid determination. The established biological effect of physical fields influence on biological processes in organisms is the starting point for elucidating the role of gravity and evolutionary development of various organisms on Earth.

  19. Development of a didactic electrophoresis kit for the practical teaching of Molecular Biology in basic and higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Silva Xavier

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The advances in the biotechnology area imposes a new reality, creating products that are present in our daily lives, affecting directly or indirectly the population. Applications related to DNA technologies in the industry, agriculture and medicine have social, ethical and ecological implications, in addition to the human health consequences. So, it is necessary that the public is informed of progress in this area of knowledge. In order to create an alternative method to stimulate students in scientific careers and improve the learning of biotechnology and molecular biology, we developed a junior research project with high school students of the Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of the Espírito Santo (Brazil, which aimed the construction of a teaching kit of electrophoresis. Electrophoresis is a technique widely used in molecular biology laboratories, which is applied to separate molecules such as proteins and nucleic acids. In this technique, electrically charged molecules are exposed to an electric field and then they move towards the oppositely charged pole, being deposited in specific points of the matrix used. The kit built in this work consists of a source of 70 V, and accessories and reagents that are readily available and present low cost and low risk to the health of users. The use of the kit allowed for electrophoretic assays with nucleic acids and food dyes. The kit also contains a printed material that addresses issues about DNA technology and the device user’s guide with suggestions of experiences to simulate paternity test, virus identification and others. The application of the teaching kit in practical classes with students and teachers of basic education showed that the activity was effective in reducing the number of errors in answers contained in a questionnaire related to the electrophoresis. Moreover, biology teachers evaluated the printed material of the didactic kit and 75% of them classified the

  20. Basic concepts in the kidney and bladder: The granulomatous diseases and the benign processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    This course considers the group of bladder and kidney diseases that poses great difficulty in preoperative diagnosis. Transitional cell and hypernephroma look-alikes are the true ''great imitators'' of diseases of the urinary system. The first half of the course examines the pathologic-physiologic underpinnings of granulomatous diseases of the urinary tract. With an understanding of these basic processes, the myriad radiologic manifestations of this group of diseases (tuberculosis, xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis, malakoplakia, schistosomiasis, and so forth) will become more obvious. The second part of the course examines the radiologic and pathologic manifestations of certain common forms of cystitis (cystitis cystica, cystitis glandularis, Cytoxan cystitis, cystitis emphysematosa) and other benign processes (pheochromocytomas, neurofibromas, fibrous polyps, duplications) that may be confused with their malignant counterparts by the unsuspecting radiologists. Knowledge of these two large groups of disease should allow a more intelligent approach to these often misdiagnosed urinary tract diseases

  1. Basic auditory processing is related to familial risk, not to reading fluency: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakvoort, Britt; van der Leij, Aryan; Maurits, Natasha; Maassen, Ben; van Zuijen, Titia L

    2015-02-01

    Less proficient basic auditory processing has been previously connected to dyslexia. However, it is unclear whether a low proficiency level is a correlate of having a familial risk for reading problems, or whether it causes dyslexia. In this study, children's processing of amplitude rise time (ART), intensity and frequency differences was measured with event-related potentials (ERPs). ERP components of interest are components reflective of auditory change detection; the mismatch negativity (MMN) and late discriminative negativity (LDN). All groups had an MMN to changes in ART and frequency, but not to intensity. Our results indicate that fluent readers at risk for dyslexia, poor readers at risk for dyslexia and fluent reading controls have an LDN to changes in ART and frequency, though the scalp activation of frequency processing was different for familial risk children. On intensity, only controls showed an LDN. Contrary to previous findings, our results suggest that neither ART nor frequency processing is related to reading fluency. Furthermore, our results imply that diminished sensitivity to changes in intensity and differential lateralization of frequency processing should be regarded as correlates of being at familial risk for dyslexia, that do not directly relate to reading fluency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Review on Physicochemical, Chemical, and Biological Processes for Pharmaceutical Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenchen; Yang, Ping

    2018-02-01

    Due to the needs of human life and health, pharmaceutical industry has made great progress in recent years, but it has also brought about severe environmental problems. The presence of pharmaceuticals in natural waters which might pose potential harm to the ecosystems and humans raised increasing concern worldwide. Pharmaceuticals cannot be effectively removed by conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) owing to the complex composition, high concentration of organic contaminants, high salinity and biological toxicity of pharmaceutical wastewater. Therefore, the development of efficient methods is needed to improve the removal effect of pharmaceuticals. This review provides an overview on three types of treatment technologies including physicochemical, chemical and biological processes and their advantages and disadvantages respectively. In addition, the future perspectives of pharmaceutical wastewater treatment are given.

  3. Radiation processing of biological tissues for nuclear disaster management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Rita

    2012-01-01

    A number of surgical procedures require tissue substitutes to repair or replace damaged or diseased tissues. Biological tissues from human donor like bone, skin, amniotic membrane and other soft tissues can be used for repair or reconstruction of the injured part of the body. Tissues from human donor can be processed and banked for orthopaedic, spinal, trauma and other surgical procedures. Allograft tissues provide an excellent alternative to autografts. The use of allograft tissue avoids the donor site morbidity and reduces the operating time, expense and trauma associated with the acquisition of autografts. Further, allografts have the added advantage of being available in large quantities. This has led to a global increase in allogeneic transplantation and development of tissue banking. However, the risk of infectious disease transmission via tissue allografts is a major concern. Therefore, tissue allografts should be sterilized to make them safe for clinical use. Radiation processing has well appreciated technological advantages and is the most suitable method for sterilization of biological tissues. Radiation processed biological tissues can be provided by the tissue banks for the management of injuries due to a nuclear disaster. A nuclear detonation will result in a large number of casualties due to the heat, blast and radiation effects of the weapon. Skin dressings or skin substitutes like allograft skin, xenograft skin and amniotic membrane can be used for the treatment of thermal burns and radiation induced skin injuries. Bone grafts can be employed for repairing fracture defects, filling in destroyed regions of bone, management of open fractures and joint injuries. Radiation processed tissues have the potential to repair or reconstruct damaged tissues and can be of great assistance in the treatment of injuries due to the nuclear weapon. (author)

  4. The Use of Microwave Incineration to Process Biological Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Sidney C.; Srinivasan, Venkatesh; Covington, Alan (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The handling and disposal of solid waste matter that has biological or biohazardous components is a difficult issue for hospitals, research laboratories, and industry. NASA faces the same challenge as it is developing regenerative systems that will process waste materials into materials that can be used to sustain humans living in space for extended durations. Plants provide critical functions in such a regenerative life support scheme in that they photosynthesize carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen. The edible portions of the plant provide a food source for the crew. Inedible portions can be processed into materials that are more recyclable. The Advanced Life Support Division at NASA Ames Research Center has been evaluating a microwave incinerator that will oxidize inedible plant matter into carbon dioxide and water. The commercially available microwave incinerator is produced by Matsushita Electronic Instruments Corporation of Japan. Microwave incineration is a technology that is simple, safe, and compact enough for home use. It also has potential applications for institutions that produce biological or biohazardous waste. The incinerator produces a sterile ash that has only 13% of the mass of the original waste. The authors have run several sets of tests with the incinerator to establish its viability in processing biological material. One goal of the tests is to show that the incinerator does not generate toxic compounds as a byproduct of the combustion process. This paper will describe the results of the tests, including analyses of the resulting ash and exhaust gases. The significance of the results and their implications on commercial applications of the technology will also be discussed.

  5. Neural bases for basic processes in heuristic problem solving: Take solving Sudoku puzzles as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yulin; Xiang, Jie; Wang, Rifeng; Zhou, Haiyan; Li, Kuncheng; Zhong, Ning

    2012-12-01

    Newell and Simon postulated that the basic steps in human problem-solving involve iteratively applying operators to transform the state of the problem to eventually achieve a goal. To check the neural basis of this framework, the present study focused on the basic processes in human heuristic problem-solving that the participants identified the current problem state and then recalled and applied the corresponding heuristic rules to change the problem state. A new paradigm, solving simplified Sudoku puzzles, was developed for an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study in problem solving. Regions of interest (ROIs), including the left prefrontal cortex, the bilateral posterior parietal cortex, the anterior cingulated cortex, the bilateral caudate nuclei, the bilateral fusiform, as well as the bilateral frontal eye fields, were found to be involved in the task. To obtain convergent evidence, in addition to traditional statistical analysis, we used the multivariate voxel classification method to check the accuracy of the predictions for the condition of the task from the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response of the ROIs, using a new classifier developed in this study for fMRI data. To reveal the roles that the ROIs play in problem solving, we developed an ACT-R computational model of the information-processing processes in human problem solving, and tried to predict the BOLD response of the ROIs from the task. Advances in human problem-solving research after Newell and Simon are then briefly discussed. © 2012 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. Identification of key processes underlying cancer phenotypes using biologic pathway analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sol Efroni

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is recognized to be a family of gene-based diseases whose causes are to be found in disruptions of basic biologic processes. An increasingly deep catalogue of canonical networks details the specific molecular interaction of genes and their products. However, mapping of disease phenotypes to alterations of these networks of interactions is accomplished indirectly and non-systematically. Here we objectively identify pathways associated with malignancy, staging, and outcome in cancer through application of an analytic approach that systematically evaluates differences in the activity and consistency of interactions within canonical biologic processes. Using large collections of publicly accessible genome-wide gene expression, we identify small, common sets of pathways - Trka Receptor, Apoptosis response to DNA Damage, Ceramide, Telomerase, CD40L and Calcineurin - whose differences robustly distinguish diverse tumor types from corresponding normal samples, predict tumor grade, and distinguish phenotypes such as estrogen receptor status and p53 mutation state. Pathways identified through this analysis perform as well or better than phenotypes used in the original studies in predicting cancer outcome. This approach provides a means to use genome-wide characterizations to map key biological processes to important clinical features in disease.

  7. The relationship between cognitive processing of affective verbal material and the basic personality structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlić Ana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between cognitive processing of affective verbal material and the basic personality structure. For the purposes of research a new experiment was created, where affective priming was measured in a lexical decision task. The term affective priming stands for facilitation in recognition of the stimuli that comes after the presentation of stimuli of the same valence. In this experiment, two words were presented on a screen in front of the subject (stimuli-prime and stimuli-target. Those two words were of the same or different affective valence, and the subject's were instructed to respond whether the second word on the screen had a meaning or not. The basic personality structure was defined by the 'Big five' model and the Disintegration model and measured by NEO PI-R and Delta 10 questionnaires. The results of the affective priming experiment indicated a strong effect of positive facilitation and much weaker effect off negative facilitation. Two significant functions were extracted by quasicanonical correlation analysis. The first function showed correlation between the effect of positive facilitation and all of the subscales of Neuroticism, Extraversion and Conscientiousness (NEO PI-R, as well as all sub dimensions of Disintegration (DELTA 10. The second one indicated to a correlation between the negative facilitation effect and some subscales of Neuroticism, Extraversion and Agreeableness (NEO PI-R, as well as all subscales of Disintegration (DELTA 10.

  8. Stochasticity in processes fundamentals and applications to chemistry and biology

    CERN Document Server

    Schuster, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This book has developed over the past fifteen years from a modern course on stochastic chemical kinetics for graduate students in physics, chemistry and biology. The first part presents a systematic collection of the mathematical background material needed to understand probability, statistics, and stochastic processes as a prerequisite for the increasingly challenging practical applications in chemistry and the life sciences examined in the second part. Recent advances in the development of new techniques and in the resolution of conventional experiments at nano-scales have been tremendous: today molecular spectroscopy can provide insights into processes down to scales at which current theories at the interface of physics, chemistry and the life sciences cannot be successful without a firm grasp of randomness and its sources. Routinely measured data is now sufficiently accurate to allow the direct recording of fluctuations. As a result, the sampling of data and the modeling of relevant processes are doomed t...

  9. Software of image processing system on the JINR basic computers and problems of its further development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V.G.

    1978-01-01

    To process picture information on the basis of BESM-6 and CDC-6500 computers, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research has developed a set of programs which enables the user to restore a spatial picture of measured events and calculate track parameters, as well as kinematically identify the events and to select most probable hypotheses for each event. A wide-scale use of programs which process picture data obtained via various track chambers requires quite a number of different options of each program. For this purpose, a special program, PATCHY editor, has been developed to update, edit and assemble large programs. Therefore, a partitioned structure of the programs has been chosen which considerably reduces programming time. Basic problems of picture processing software are discussed and the fact that availability of terminal equipment for BESM-6 and CDC-6500 computers will help to increase the processing speed and to implement interactive mode is pointed out. It is also planned to develop a training system to help the user learn how to use the programs of the system

  10. Process for the biological purification of waste water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1992-01-01

    Process for the biological purification of waste water by the activated sludge method, the waste water being mixed with recirculated sludge and being subjected to an anaerobic treatment, before the waste water thus treated is alternately subjected to anoxic and aerobic treatments and the waste...... water thus treated is led into a clarification zone for settling sludge, which sludge is recirculated in order to be mixed with the crude waste water. As a result, a simultaneous reduction of the content both of nitrogen and phosphorus of the waste water is achieved....

  11. 47 CFR 69.119 - Basic service element expedited approval process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basic service element expedited approval... CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Computation of Charges § 69.119 Basic service element... approval of new basic service elements are those indicated in § 1.45 of the rules, except as specified...

  12. Coupling of snow and permafrost processes using the Basic Modeling Interface (BMI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K.; Overeem, I.; Jafarov, E. E.; Piper, M.; Stewart, S.; Clow, G. D.; Schaefer, K. M.

    2017-12-01

    We developed a permafrost modeling tool based by implementing the Kudryavtsev empirical permafrost active layer depth model (the so-called "Ku" component). The model is specifically set up to have a basic model interface (BMI), which enhances the potential coupling to other earth surface processes model components. This model is accessible through the Web Modeling Tool in Community Surface Dynamics Modeling System (CSDMS). The Kudryavtsev model has been applied for entire Alaska to model permafrost distribution at high spatial resolution and model predictions have been verified by Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM) in-situ observations. The Ku component uses monthly meteorological forcing, including air temperature, snow depth, and snow density, and predicts active layer thickness (ALT) and temperature on the top of permafrost (TTOP), which are important factors in snow-hydrological processes. BMI provides an easy approach to couple the models with each other. Here, we provide a case of coupling the Ku component to snow process components, including the Snow-Degree-Day (SDD) method and Snow-Energy-Balance (SEB) method, which are existing components in the hydrological model TOPOFLOW. The work flow is (1) get variables from meteorology component, set the values to snow process component, and advance the snow process component, (2) get variables from meteorology and snow component, provide these to the Ku component and advance, (3) get variables from snow process component, set the values to meteorology component, and advance the meteorology component. The next phase is to couple the permafrost component with fully BMI-compliant TOPOFLOW hydrological model, which could provide a useful tool to investigate the permafrost hydrological effect.

  13. Ultra-processed food consumption in children from a Basic Health Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrenberger, Karen; Friedrich, Roberta Roggia; Schiffner, Mariana Dihl; Schuch, Ilaine; Wagner, Mário Bernardes

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the contribution of ultra-processed food (UPF) on the dietary consumption of children treated at a Basic Health Unit and the associated factors. Cross-sectional study carried out with a convenience sample of 204 children, aged 2-10 years old, in Southern Brazil. Children's food intake was assessed using a 24-h recall questionnaire. Food items were classified as minimally processed, processed for culinary use, and ultra-processed. A semi-structured questionnaire was applied to collect socio-demographic and anthropometric variables. Overweight in children was classified using a Z score >2 for children younger than 5 and Z score >+1 for those aged between 5 and 10 years, using the body mass index for age. Overweight frequency was 34% (95% CI: 28-41%). Mean energy consumption was 1672.3 kcal/day, with 47% (95% CI: 45-49%) coming from ultra-processed food. In the multiple linear regression model, maternal education (r=0.23; p=0.001) and child age (r=0.40; p<0.001) were factors associated with a greater percentage of UPF in the diet (r=0.42; p<0.001). Additionally, a statistically significant trend for higher UPF consumption was observed when data were stratified by child age and maternal educational level (p<0.001). The contribution of UPF is significant in children's diets and age appears to be an important factor for the consumption of such products. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. Biological shielding design calculation for agricultural radiation processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petwal, V.C.; Sandha, R.S.; Soni, H.C.; Subbaiah, K.V.

    2005-01-01

    An electron beam radiation processing facility for agricultural products is being set-up at Centre for Advanced Technology Indore. The facility will be based on a pulsed linear accelerator and will be used in electron and photon modes to process various products e.g. onion, potato, home-pack items and medical products. When electron beam interact with structural components of accelerator or high Z-target used in photon mode, it generates intense Bremsstrahlung radiation field, which poses radiation protection problem. Biological shielding has been designed to provide protection against the generated radiation. Different conveying schemes and hence design of irradiation cell have been studied and results are presented for two promising designs. (author)

  15. Adoption: biological and social processes linked to adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotevant, Harold D; McDermott, Jennifer M

    2014-01-01

    Children join adoptive families through domestic adoption from the public child welfare system, infant adoption through private agencies, and international adoption. Each pathway presents distinctive developmental opportunities and challenges. Adopted children are at higher risk than the general population for problems with adaptation, especially externalizing, internalizing, and attention problems. This review moves beyond the field's emphasis on adoptee-nonadoptee differences to highlight biological and social processes that affect adaptation of adoptees across time. The experience of stress, whether prenatal, postnatal/preadoption, or during the adoption transition, can have significant impacts on the developing neuroendocrine system. These effects can contribute to problems with physical growth, brain development, and sleep, activating cascading effects on social, emotional, and cognitive development. Family processes involving contact between adoptive and birth family members, co-parenting in gay and lesbian adoptive families, and racial socialization in transracially adoptive families affect social development of adopted children into adulthood.

  16. Functional annotation of chemical libraries across diverse biological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Jeff S; Li, Sheena C; Deshpande, Raamesh; Simpkins, Scott W; Nelson, Justin; Yashiroda, Yoko; Barber, Jacqueline M; Safizadeh, Hamid; Wilson, Erin; Okada, Hiroki; Gebre, Abraham A; Kubo, Karen; Torres, Nikko P; LeBlanc, Marissa A; Andrusiak, Kerry; Okamoto, Reika; Yoshimura, Mami; DeRango-Adem, Eva; van Leeuwen, Jolanda; Shirahige, Katsuhiko; Baryshnikova, Anastasia; Brown, Grant W; Hirano, Hiroyuki; Costanzo, Michael; Andrews, Brenda; Ohya, Yoshikazu; Osada, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Minoru; Myers, Chad L; Boone, Charles

    2017-09-01

    Chemical-genetic approaches offer the potential for unbiased functional annotation of chemical libraries. Mutations can alter the response of cells in the presence of a compound, revealing chemical-genetic interactions that can elucidate a compound's mode of action. We developed a highly parallel, unbiased yeast chemical-genetic screening system involving three key components. First, in a drug-sensitive genetic background, we constructed an optimized diagnostic mutant collection that is predictive for all major yeast biological processes. Second, we implemented a multiplexed (768-plex) barcode-sequencing protocol, enabling the assembly of thousands of chemical-genetic profiles. Finally, based on comparison of the chemical-genetic profiles with a compendium of genome-wide genetic interaction profiles, we predicted compound functionality. Applying this high-throughput approach, we screened seven different compound libraries and annotated their functional diversity. We further validated biological process predictions, prioritized a diverse set of compounds, and identified compounds that appear to have dual modes of action.

  17. Quantum Processes and Dynamic Networks in Physical and Biological Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudziak, Martin Joseph

    Quantum theory since its earliest formulations in the Copenhagen Interpretation has been difficult to integrate with general relativity and with classical Newtonian physics. There has been traditionally a regard for quantum phenomena as being a limiting case for a natural order that is fundamentally classical except for microscopic extrema where quantum mechanics must be applied, more as a mathematical reconciliation rather than as a description and explanation. Macroscopic sciences including the study of biological neural networks, cellular energy transports and the broad field of non-linear and chaotic systems point to a quantum dimension extending across all scales of measurement and encompassing all of Nature as a fundamentally quantum universe. Theory and observation lead to a number of hypotheses all of which point to dynamic, evolving networks of fundamental or elementary processes as the underlying logico-physical structure (manifestation) in Nature and a strongly quantized dimension to macroscalar processes such as are found in biological, ecological and social systems. The fundamental thesis advanced and presented herein is that quantum phenomena may be the direct consequence of a universe built not from objects and substance but from interacting, interdependent processes collectively operating as sets and networks, giving rise to systems that on microcosmic or macroscopic scales function wholistically and organically, exhibiting non-locality and other non -classical phenomena. The argument is made that such effects as non-locality are not aberrations or departures from the norm but ordinary consequences of the process-network dynamics of Nature. Quantum processes are taken to be the fundamental action-events within Nature; rather than being the exception quantum theory is the rule. The argument is also presented that the study of quantum physics could benefit from the study of selective higher-scale complex systems, such as neural processes in the brain

  18. Gas transport processes in sea ice: How convection and diffusion processes might affect biological imprints, a challenge for modellers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tison, J.-L.; Zhou, Shaola J. G.; Thomas, D. N.

    2012-01-01

    ice cover. These rates were however obtained surmising that neither convection, nor diffusion had affected the gas concentration profiles in the ice between discrete ice core collections. This paper discusses examples from three different field surveys (the above-mentioned Barrow experiment......, the INTERICE IV tank experiment in Hamburg and a short field survey close to the Kapisilit locality in the South-East Greenland fjords) where convection or diffusion processes have clearly affected the temporal evolution of the gas profiles in the ice, therefore potentially affecting biological signatures....... The INTERICE IV and Barrow experiment show that the initial equilibrium dissolved gas entrapment within the skeletal layer basically governs most of the profiles higher up in the sea ice cover during the active sea ice growth. However, as the ice layers age and cool down under the temperature gradient, bubble...

  19. "What if We Were in a Test Tube?" Students' Gendered Meaning Making during a Biology Lesson about the Basic Facts of the Human Genitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlander, Auli Arvola

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores what happens in the encounters between presentations of "basic facts" about the human genitals and 15-year-old students during a biology lesson in a Swedish secondary school. In this paper, meaning making was approached as relational, context-dependent and continually transacted. For this reason the analysis was…

  20. Automated force volume image processing for biological samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Polyakov

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Atomic force microscopy (AFM has now become a powerful technique for investigating on a molecular level, surface forces, nanomechanical properties of deformable particles, biomolecular interactions, kinetics, and dynamic processes. This paper specifically focuses on the analysis of AFM force curves collected on biological systems, in particular, bacteria. The goal is to provide fully automated tools to achieve theoretical interpretation of force curves on the basis of adequate, available physical models. In this respect, we propose two algorithms, one for the processing of approach force curves and another for the quantitative analysis of retraction force curves. In the former, electrostatic interactions prior to contact between AFM probe and bacterium are accounted for and mechanical interactions operating after contact are described in terms of Hertz-Hooke formalism. Retraction force curves are analyzed on the basis of the Freely Jointed Chain model. For both algorithms, the quantitative reconstruction of force curves is based on the robust detection of critical points (jumps, changes of slope or changes of curvature which mark the transitions between the various relevant interactions taking place between the AFM tip and the studied sample during approach and retraction. Once the key regions of separation distance and indentation are detected, the physical parameters describing the relevant interactions operating in these regions are extracted making use of regression procedure for fitting experiments to theory. The flexibility, accuracy and strength of the algorithms are illustrated with the processing of two force-volume images, which collect a large set of approach and retraction curves measured on a single biological surface. For each force-volume image, several maps are generated, representing the spatial distribution of the searched physical parameters as estimated for each pixel of the force-volume image.

  1. Using Fossil Shark Teeth to Illustrate Evolution and Introduce Basic Geologic Concepts in a High School Biology Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, J. G.; Nunn, J. A.

    2007-12-01

    Shell Foundation sponsors a program at Louisiana State University called Shell Undergraduate Recruitment and Geoscience Education (SURGE). The purpose of SURGE is to help local high school science teachers incorporate geology into their classrooms by providing resources and training. As part of this program, a workshop for high school biology teachers was held at Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge on June 3-5, 2007. We had the teachers do a series of activities on fossil shark teeth to illustrate evolution and introduce basic earth science concepts such as geologic time, superposition, and faunal succession and provided the teachers with lesson plans and materials. As an example, one of our exercises explores the evolution of the megatoothed shark lineage leading to Carcharocles megalodon, the largest predatory shark in history with teeth up to 17 cm long. Megatoothed shark teeth make excellent evolutionary subjects because they have a good fossil record and show continuous transitions in morphology from the Eocene to Pliocene. Our activity follows the learning cycle model. We take advantage of the curiosity of sharks shared by most people, and allow students to explore the variations among different shark teeth and explain the causes of those variations. The objectives of this exercise are to have the students: 1) sort fossil shark teeth into biologically reasonable species; 2) form hypotheses about evolutionary relationships among fossil shark teeth; and 3) describe and interpret evolutionary trends in the fossil Megatoothed lineage. To do the activity, students are divided into groups of 2-3 and given a shuffled set of 72 shark tooth cards with different images of megatoothed shark teeth. They are instructed to group the shark tooth cards into separate species of sharks. After sorting the cards, students are asked to consider the evolutionary relationships among their species and arrange their species chronologically according to the species first

  2. Implied Movement in Static Images Reveals Biological Timing Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Carlos Nather

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Visual perception is adapted toward a better understanding of our own movements than those of non-conspecifics. The present study determined whether time perception is affected by pictures of different species by considering the evolutionary scale. Static (“S” and implied movement (“M” images of a dog, cheetah, chimpanzee, and man were presented to undergraduate students. S and M images of the same species were presented in random order or one after the other (S-M or M-S for two groups of participants. Movement, Velocity, and Arousal semantic scales were used to characterize some properties of the images. Implied movement affected time perception, in which M images were overestimated. The results are discussed in terms of visual motion perception related to biological timing processing that could be established early in terms of the adaptation of humankind to the environment.

  3. EPR imaging of diffusional processes in biologically relevant polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berliner, Lawrence J.; Fujii, Hirotada

    Diffusion processes in biological tissue are important problems for noninvasive investigation. As a model study, this work addresses the diffusion of an electrolyte buffer (Krebs) solution containing a nitroxide spin probe into a cylindrical polyacrylamide gel rod. The nitroxide spin density distribution was imaged at 1.6 GHz in gel cross sections at various time intervals for both homogeneous radial diffusion and inhomogeneous diffusion. A one-dimensional radial diffusion constant was calculated for the nitroxide spin probe, TEMPOL, of 3.7 ± 0.7 × 10 -6 cm 2/s at ambient temperature. The EPR spectrometer, using low-field flat-loop surface coils (H. Nishikawa, H. Fujii, and L. J. Berliner, J. Magn. Reson.62, 79 (1985)), showed minimal dielectric or magnetic losses in sensitity for electrolyte vs nondielectric samples.

  4. Embryo fossilization is a biological process mediated by microbial biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raff, Elizabeth C; Schollaert, Kaila L; Nelson, David E; Donoghue, Philip C J; Thomas, Ceri-Wyn; Turner, F Rudolf; Stein, Barry D; Dong, Xiping; Bengtson, Stefan; Huldtgren, Therese; Stampanoni, Marco; Chongyu, Yin; Raff, Rudolf A

    2008-12-09

    Fossilized embryos with extraordinary cellular preservation appear in the Late Neoproterozoic and Cambrian, coincident with the appearance of animal body fossils. It has been hypothesized that microbial processes are responsible for preservation and mineralization of organic tissues. However, the actions of microbes in preservation of embryos have not been demonstrated experimentally. Here, we show that bacterial biofilms assemble rapidly in dead marine embryos and form remarkable pseudomorphs in which the bacterial biofilm replaces and exquisitely models details of cellular organization and structure. The experimental model was the decay of cleavage stage embryos similar in size and morphology to fossil embryos. The data show that embryo preservation takes place in 3 distinct steps: (i) blockage of autolysis by reducing or anaerobic conditions, (ii) rapid formation of microbial biofilms that consume the embryo but form a replica that retains cell organization and morphology, and (iii) bacterially catalyzed mineralization. Major bacterial taxa in embryo decay biofilms were identified by using 16S rDNA sequencing. Decay processes were similar in different taphonomic conditions, but the composition of bacterial populations depended on specific conditions. Experimental taphonomy generates preservation states similar to those in fossil embryos. The data show how fossilization of soft tissues in sediments can be mediated by bacterial replacement and mineralization, providing a foundation for experimentally creating biofilms from defined microbial species to model fossilization as a biological process.

  5. Advancing Microwave Technology for Dehydration Processing of Biologics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellemme, Stephanie L.; Van Vorst, Matthew; Paramore, Elisha

    2013-01-01

    Our prior work has shown that microwave processing can be effective as a method for dehydrating cell-based suspensions in preparation for anhydrous storage, yielding homogenous samples with predictable and reproducible drying times. In the current work an optimized microwave-based drying process was developed that expands upon this previous proof-of-concept. Utilization of a commercial microwave (CEM SAM 255, Matthews, NC) enabled continuous drying at variable low power settings. A new turntable was manufactured from Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMW-PE; Grainger, Lake Forest, IL) to provide for drying of up to 12 samples at a time. The new process enabled rapid and simultaneous drying of multiple samples in containment devices suitable for long-term storage and aseptic rehydration of the sample. To determine sample repeatability and consistency of drying within the microwave cavity, a concentration series of aqueous trehalose solutions were dried for specific intervals and water content assessed using Karl Fischer Titration at the end of each processing period. Samples were dried on Whatman S-14 conjugate release filters (Whatman, Maidestone, UK), a glass fiber membrane used currently in clinical laboratories. The filters were cut to size for use in a 13 mm Swinnex® syringe filter holder (Millipore™, Billerica, MA). Samples of 40 μL volume could be dehydrated to the equilibrium moisture content by continuous processing at 20% with excellent sample-to-sample repeatability. The microwave-assisted procedure enabled high throughput, repeatable drying of multiple samples, in a manner easily adaptable for drying a wide array of biological samples. Depending on the tolerance for sample heating, the drying time can be altered by changing the power level of the microwave unit. PMID:24835259

  6. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor Regulations... Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup... Quantities § 780.815 Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet...

  7. In search of integrative processes: basic psychological need satisfaction predicts medial prefrontal activation during decisional conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Domenico, Stefano I; Fournier, Marc A; Ayaz, Hasan; Ruocco, Anthony C

    2013-08-01

    Research has shown that people's abilities to develop and act from a coherent sense of self are facilitated by satisfaction of the basic psychological needs for competence, relatedness, and autonomy. The present study utilized functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to examine the effect of need satisfaction on activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), a key region in processing information about the self. Participants completed a decision-making task (e.g., Which occupation would you prefer, dancer or chemist?) in which they made a series of forced choices according to their personal preferences. The degree of decisional conflict (i.e., choice difficulty) between the available response options was manipulated on the basis of participants' unique preference ratings for the target stimuli, which were obtained prior to scanning. Need satisfaction predicted elevated MPFC activity during high-conflict relative to low-conflict situations, suggesting that one way need satisfaction may promote self-coherence is by enhancing the utilization of self-knowledge in the resolution of decisional conflicts. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Development of biology student worksheets to facilitate science process skills of student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahayu, Y. S.; Pratiwi, R.; Indana, S.

    2018-01-01

    This research aims to describe development of Biology student worksheets to facilitate science process skills of student, at the same time to facilitate thinking skills of students in senior high school are equipped with Assesment Sheets. The worksheets development refers to cycle which includes phase analysis (analysis), planning (planning), design (design), development (development), implementation (implementation), evaluation and revision (evaluation and revision). Phase evaluation and revision is an ongoing activity conducted in each phase of the development cycle. That is, after the evaluation of the results of these activities and make revisions at any phase, then continue to the next phase. Based on the test results for grade X, XI, and XII in St. Agnes Surabaya high school, obtained some important findings. The findings are as follows. (1) Developed biology student worksheets could be used to facilitate thinking ability of students in particular skills integrated process that includes components to formulate the problem, formulate hypotheses, determine the study variables, formulate an operational definition of variables, determine the steps in the research, planning data tables, organizing Data in the form of tables/charts, drawing conclusions, (2) Developed biology student worksheets could also facilitate the development of social interaction of students such as working together, listening/respect the opinions of others, assembling equipment and materials, discuss and share information and facilitate the upgrading of skills hands-on student activity. (3) Developed biology worksheets basically could be implemented with the guidance of the teacher step by step, especially for students who have never used a similar worksheet. Guidance at the beginning of this need, especially for worksheets that require special skills or understanding of specific concepts as a prerequisite, such as using a microscope, determine the heart rate, understand the mechanism of

  9. Ontology of physics for biology: representing physical dependencies as a basis for biological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Daniel L; Neal, Maxwell L; Bookstein, Fred L; Gennari, John H

    2013-12-02

    In prior work, we presented the Ontology of Physics for Biology (OPB) as a computational ontology for use in the annotation and representations of biophysical knowledge encoded in repositories of physics-based biosimulation models. We introduced OPB:Physical entity and OPB:Physical property classes that extend available spatiotemporal representations of physical entities and processes to explicitly represent the thermodynamics and dynamics of physiological processes. Our utilitarian, long-term aim is to develop computational tools for creating and querying formalized physiological knowledge for use by multiscale "physiome" projects such as the EU's Virtual Physiological Human (VPH) and NIH's Virtual Physiological Rat (VPR). Here we describe the OPB:Physical dependency taxonomy of classes that represent of the laws of classical physics that are the "rules" by which physical properties of physical entities change during occurrences of physical processes. For example, the fluid analog of Ohm's law (as for electric currents) is used to describe how a blood flow rate depends on a blood pressure gradient. Hooke's law (as in elastic deformations of springs) is used to describe how an increase in vascular volume increases blood pressure. We classify such dependencies according to the flow, transformation, and storage of thermodynamic energy that occurs during processes governed by the dependencies. We have developed the OPB and annotation methods to represent the meaning-the biophysical semantics-of the mathematical statements of physiological analysis and the biophysical content of models and datasets. Here we describe and discuss our approach to an ontological representation of physical laws (as dependencies) and properties as encoded for the mathematical analysis of biophysical processes.

  10. KEMAMPUAN SUBJECT SPECIFIC PEDAGOGY CALON GURU BIOLOGI PESERTA PROGRAM PENDIDIKAN PROFESIONAL GURU (PPG YANG BERLATAR BELAKANG BASIC SAINS PRA DAN POST WORKSHOP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenny Anwar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menggambarkan/mendeskripsikan kemampuan Subjek Spesifik Pedagogi mahasiswa calon guru biologi yang mengikuti program Pendidikan Profesional Guru (PPG angkatan 2012-2013 melalui pendekatan konsekutif.  Hasil sementara menunjukkan  bahwa Kemampuan Subject Specific Pedagogy mahasiswa calon guru biologi yang berlatar belakang Biologi murni program Basic Science masih minim, dapat dilihat dari hasil CoRes dan PaP-eRs buatan mereka sebelum mengikuti workshop. Setelah workshop semester I diperoleh hasil yang menunjukkan peningkatan yang cukup baik.   This study aimed to describe / describes the ability of prospective students Subject Specific Pedagogy biology teachers who follow the Professional Teacher Education Program (PTEP 2012-2013 armed consecutive approach. Preliminary results indicate that the ability of prospective students Subject Specific Pedagogy biology teacher who belongs to the pure Biology Basic Science program is minimal, it can be seen from the cores and pap-ers made ​​them before the workshop. After the workshop the first half of the obtained results that showed a pretty good improvement.

  11. Carbonation processes of basalts and ultra-basic rocks in subsurface conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daval, D.

    2009-01-01

    For mitigating against rising levels of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in the atmosphere, several ways are envisaged to store it geologically. Among them, mineral trapping by carbonation of basic and ultra-basic rocks is thought to be the safest. However, little is known about the reaction kinetics and mechanisms of the process, which would ultimately make us able to foresee the fate of CO 2 over long time spans, and possibly enhance the efficiency of the mineral trapping. As a consequence, this thesis aimed at bringing new constrains on the weathering processes of (ultra)basic silicates, with (or without) high pCO 2 . Original experimental data of dissolution and carbonation processes were acquired on five silicates: wollastonite (CaSiO 3 ), forsterite (Mg 2 SiO 4 ), diopside (CaMgSi 2 O 6 ), lizardite (Mg 3 Si 2 O 5 (OH) 4 ) and fayalite (Fe 2 SiO 4 ). The main parameters which could affect the rates of carbonation were assessed: role and mechanism of formation of passivating layers, saturation state of the fluid, specific effect of CO 2 and behaviour of iron (II). Each mineral was thought to be relevant to bring new insights on each one of these questions. Wollastonite carbonation was first investigated in batch reactors. At 90 C and pCO 2 = 25 MPa, the reaction reaches completion within a couple of days. The measured carbonation rate is similar to the modelled one, indicating that the rate-limiting step of the process is wollastonite dissolution. Consequently, the thick amorphous silica coatings (≥ 100 μm) that form onto wollastonite surface do not prevent the fluid to reach the pristine mineral. This result is in agreement with the structure of the silica coating, determined to be meso-porous at the nm-scale. Besides, the chemical gradient of calcium across the silica layer suggests that it is formed by a dissolution-precipitation mechanism instead of a solid-state diffusion mechanism. On the other hand, the dissolution of forsteritic olivine is inhibited by the

  12. Improving the reviewing process in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grossman, G. D.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available I discuss current issues in reviewing and editorial practices in ecology and evolutionary biology and suggest possible solutions for current problems. The reviewing crisis is unlikely to change unless steps are taken by journals to provide greater inclusiveness and incentives to reviewers. In addition, both journals and institutions should reduce their emphasis on publication numbers (least publishable units and impact factors and focus instead on article synthesis and quality which will require longer publications. Academic and research institutions should consider reviewing manuscripts and editorial positions an important part of a researcher’s professional activities and reward them accordingly. Rewarding reviewers either monetarily or via other incentives such as free journal subscriptions may encourage participation in the reviewing process for both profit and non–profit journals. Reviewer performance will likely be improved by measures that increase inclusiveness, such as sending reviews and decision letters to reviewers. Journals may be able to evaluate the efficacy of their reviewing process by comparing citations of rejected but subsequently published papers with those published within the journal at similar times. Finally, constructive reviews: 1 identify important shortcomings and suggest solutions when possible, 2 distinguish trivial from non–trivial problems, and 3 include editor’s evaluations of the reviews including identification of trivial versus substantive comments (i.e., those that must be addressed.

  13. The method validation step of biological dosimetry accreditation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, L.; Voisin, P.A.; Guillou, A.C.; Busset, A.; Gregoire, E.; Buard, V.; Delbos, M.; Voisin, Ph.

    2006-01-01

    One of the missions of the Laboratory of Biological Dosimetry (L.D.B.) of the Institute for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (I.R.S.N.) is to assess the radiological dose after an accidental overexposure suspicion to ionising radiation, by using radio-induced changes of some biological parameters. The 'gold standard' is the yield of dicentrics observed in patients lymphocytes, and this yield is converted in dose using dose effect relationships. This method is complementary to clinical and physical dosimetry, for medical team in charge of the patients. To obtain a formal recognition of its operational activity, the laboratory decided three years ago, to require an accreditation, by following the recommendations of both 17025 General Requirements for the Competence of Testing and Calibration Laboratories and 19238 Performance criteria for service laboratories performing biological dosimetry by cyto-genetics. Diagnostics, risks analysis were realized to control the whole analysis process leading to documents writing. Purchases, personnel department, vocational training were also included in the quality system. Audits were very helpful to improve the quality system. One specificity of this technique is that it is not normalized therefore apart from quality management aspects, several technical points needed some validations. An inventory of potentially influent factors was carried out. To estimate their real effect on the yield of dicentrics, a Placket-Burman experimental design was conducted. The effect of seven parameters was tested: the BUdr (bromodeoxyuridine), PHA (phytohemagglutinin) and colcemid concentration, the culture duration, the incubator temperature, the blood volume and the medium volume. The chosen values were calculated according to the uncertainties on the way they were measured i.e. pipettes, thermometers, test tubes. None of the factors has a significant impact on the yield of dicentrics. Therefore the uncertainty linked to their use was considered as

  14. Performance of IFAS wastewater treatment processes for biological phosphorus removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriwiriyarat, T; Randall, C W

    2005-10-01

    Integrated fixed film activated sludge (IFAS) is a promising process for the enhancement of nitrification and denitrification in conventional activated sludge systems that need to be upgraded for biological nutrient removal (BNR), particularly when they have space limitations or need modifications that will require large monetary expenses. Several studies have reported successful implementations of IFAS at temperate zone wastewater treatment facilities, typically by placement of fixed film media into aerobic zones. However, nearly all of the implementations have not included enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) in the upgraded systems. This is possibly because the treatment plants have been operated at low mixed liquor mean cell residence times (MCRTs), and EBPR would wash out of the systems at the low temperatures encountered, making it difficult to maintain EBPR. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the incorporation of EBPR into IFAS systems, and study the interactions between the fixed biomass and the mixed liquor suspended solids with respect to substrate competition and nutrient removal efficiencies. Three pilot-scale UCT/VIP configuration systems were used, one as a control and the other two with Bioweb media integrated into some of the anoxic and aerobic reactors. The systems were operated at different MCRTs, and influent COD/TP ratios, and with split influent flows. The experimental results confirmed that EBPR could be incorporated successfully into IFAS systems, but the redistribution of biomass resulting from the integration of fixed film media, and the competition of organic substrate between EBPR and denitrification would affect performances. Also, the integration of fixed film media into the anoxic reactors affected performances differently from media in aerobic reactors.

  15. DESCRIPTION OF THE ORGANIZATIONAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESSES ON THE GROUND OF THE BASIC MODEL OF THE CYCLE OF REORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gazaryan Robert Kamoevich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this scientific research is application of the basic model of interaction between phases of a cycle of reorganization of organizational and technological processes underway at industrial enterprises. The authors describe interactions between all six phases of the process of reorganization within the framework of the basic model of a cycle that contemplates organizational and technological processes. Engineering studies are necessary to check for the feasibility of reorganization of industrial enterprises and application of results extracted from the design documentation with a view to reorganization of production activities and construction operations. Upon completion of the decision-making process concerning the need for reorganization in accordance with the basic model of interaction between phases, there occurs restructuring that incorporates processes of design and construction. The authors have demonstrated that reorganization of the basic model cycle should be used in the design of organizational and technological processes with a view to the integrated consideration of reorganization of enterprises in order to comprehend and improve the efficiency of reorganization at each stage, as well as the control over the reorganization of a construction facility.

  16. Five-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Data Processing, Sky Maps, and Basic Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, J.L.; Hill, R.S.; Odegard, 3.; Larson, D.; Bennett, C.L.; Dunkley, J.; Jarosik, N.; Page, L.; Spergel, D.N.; Halpern, M.; hide

    2008-01-01

    The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) is a Medium-Class Explorer (MIDEX) satellite aimed at elucidating cosmology through full-sky observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The WMAP full-sky maps of the temperature and polarization anisotropy in five frequency bands provide our most accurate view to date of conditions in the early universe. The multi-frequency data facilitate the separation of the CMB signal from foreground emission arising both from our Galaxy and from extragalactic sources. The CMB angular power spectrum derived from these maps exhibits a highly coherent acoustic peak structure which makes it possible to extract a wealth of information about the composition and history of the universe. as well as the processes that seeded the fluctuations. WMAP data have played a key role in establishing ACDM as the new standard model of cosmology (Bennett et al. 2003: Spergel et al. 2003; Hinshaw et al. 2007: Spergel et al. 2007): a flat universe dominated by dark energy, supplemented by dark matter and atoms with density fluctuations seeded by a Gaussian, adiabatic, nearly scale invariant process. The basic properties of this universe are determined by five numbers: the density of matter, the density of atoms. the age of the universe (or equivalently, the Hubble constant today), the amplitude of the initial fluctuations, and their scale dependence. By accurately measuring the first few peaks in the angular power spectrum, WMAP data have enabled the following accomplishments: Showing the dark matter must be non-baryonic and interact only weakly with atoms and radiation. The WMAP measurement of the dark matter density puts important constraints on supersymmetric dark matter models and on the properties of other dark matter candidates. With five years of data and a better determination of our beam response, this measurement has been significantly improved. Precise determination of the density of atoms in the universe. The agreement between

  17. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... normal brain development and function can go awry, leading to mental illnesses. Brain Basics will introduce you ... of DNA. Sometimes this copying process is imperfect, leading to a gene mutation that causes the gene ...

  18. Microbiology and atmospheric processes: chemical interactions of primary biological aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Deguillaume

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the influence of primary biological aerosols (PBA on atmospheric chemistry and vice versa through microbiological and chemical properties and processes. Several studies have shown that PBA represent a significant fraction of air particulate matter and hence affect the microstructure and water uptake of aerosol particles. Moreover, airborne micro-organisms, namely fungal spores and bacteria, can transform chemical constituents of the atmosphere by metabolic activity. Recent studies have emphasized the viability of bacteria and metabolic degradation of organic substances in cloud water. On the other hand, the viability and metabolic activity of airborne micro-organisms depend strongly on physical and chemical atmospheric parameters such as temperature, pressure, radiation, pH value and nutrient concentrations. In spite of recent advances, however, our knowledge of the microbiological and chemical interactions of PBA in the atmosphere is rather limited. Further targeted investigations combining laboratory experiments, field measurements, and modelling studies will be required to characterize the chemical feedbacks, microbiological activities at the air/snow/water interface supplied to the atmosphere.

  19. Exploring Biological Motion Processing in Parkinson's Disease Using Temporal Dilation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruihua Cao

    Full Text Available Biological motion (BM perception is the compelling ability of the visual system to perceive complex animated movements effortlessly and promptly. A recent study has shown that BM can automatically lengthen perceived temporal duration independent of global configuration. The present study aimed mainly to investigate this temporal dilation effect of BM signals in Parkinson's disease (PD patients. We used the temporal dilation effect as an implicit measure of visual processing of BM. In all, 32 PD patients (under off-therapy conditions and 32 healthy controls (HCs participated in our study. In each trial, an upright BM sequence and an inverted BM sequence were presented within an interval in the center of the screen. We tested both canonical and scrambled BM sequences; the scrambled ones were generated by disturbing the global configuration of the canonical ones but preserving exactly the same local motion components. Observers were required to make a verbal two-alternative forced choice response to indicate which interval (the first or the second appeared longer. Statistical analyses were conducted on the points of subjective equality (PSEs. We found that the temporal dilation effect was significantly reduced for PD patients compared with HCs in both canonical and scrambled BM conditions. Moreover, no temporal dilation effects of scrambled BM were shown in both early- and late-stage PD patients, while the temporal dilation effect of canonical BM was relatively preserved in the early stages.

  20. Crowdsourcing and curation: perspectives from biology and natural language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschman, Lynette; Fort, Karën; Boué, Stéphanie; Kyrpides, Nikos; Islamaj Doğan, Rezarta; Cohen, Kevin Bretonnel

    2016-01-01

    Crowdsourcing is increasingly utilized for performing tasks in both natural language processing and biocuration. Although there have been many applications of crowdsourcing in these fields, there have been fewer high-level discussions of the methodology and its applicability to biocuration. This paper explores crowdsourcing for biocuration through several case studies that highlight different ways of leveraging 'the crowd'; these raise issues about the kind(s) of expertise needed, the motivations of participants, and questions related to feasibility, cost and quality. The paper is an outgrowth of a panel session held at BioCreative V (Seville, September 9-11, 2015). The session consisted of four short talks, followed by a discussion. In their talks, the panelists explored the role of expertise and the potential to improve crowd performance by training; the challenge of decomposing tasks to make them amenable to crowdsourcing; and the capture of biological data and metadata through community editing.Database URL: http://www.mitre.org/publications/technical-papers/crowdsourcing-and-curation-perspectives. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  1. The AAA+ proteins Pontin and Reptin enter adult age: from understanding their basic biology to the identification of selective inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias, Pedro M; Baek, Sung Hee; Bandeiras, Tiago M; Dutta, Anindya; Houry, Walid A; Llorca, Oscar; Rosenbaum, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Pontin and Reptin are related partner proteins belonging to the AAA+ (ATPases Associated with various cellular Activities) family. They are implicated in multiple and seemingly unrelated processes encompassing the regulation of gene transcription, the remodeling of chromatin, DNA damage sensing and repair, and the assembly of protein and ribonucleoprotein complexes, among others. The 2nd International Workshop on Pontin and Reptin took place at the Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica António Xavier in Oeiras, Portugal on October 10-12, 2014, and reported significant new advances on the mechanisms of action of these two AAA+ ATPases. The major points under discussion were related to the mechanisms through which these proteins regulate gene transcription, their roles as co-chaperones, and their involvement in pathophysiology, especially in cancer and ciliary biology and disease. Finally, they may become anticancer drug targets since small chemical inhibitors were shown to produce anti-tumor effects in animal models.

  2. The basic professional knowledge of teachers and suborganizational transformation processes of external pressure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Jens Hansen

    Danish research (Hansen 2009; Lund 2012) have shown, that the basic professional knowledge of the profession of teachers (theoretical and philosophical pedagogy and didactics ) is under press, when different kinds of extern pressure (Scott 2008, Institutions and Organizations) are to be implemented...... professional knowledge seem to take over. Furthermore this seems to happen in a paradoxical way, because it happens against an explicit wish in the profession of teachers. Research question: Which practices on a sub organizational level in schools can secure and support that the basic professional knowledge....../transformed into new practice. Reforms and normative expectations (fx evidence based teaching) etc. are constant and increasing demands from the society to the school. When these kinds of external demands are met and transformed with knowledge in the everyday life of schools, other aspects of knowledge than basic...

  3. "Sickle Cell Anemia: Tracking down a Mutation": An Interactive Learning Laboratory That Communicates Basic Principles of Genetics and Cellular Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Kevin; Williams, Mary; Horn, Spencer; Radford, David; Wyss, J. Michael

    2016-01-01

    "Sickle cell anemia: tracking down a mutation" is a full-day, inquiry-based, biology experience for high school students enrolled in genetics or advanced biology courses. In the experience, students use restriction endonuclease digestion, cellulose acetate gel electrophoresis, and microscopy to discover which of three putative patients…

  4. A simple and rapid chromatographic method to determine unauthorized basic colorants (rhodamine B, auramine O, and pararosaniline) in processed foods

    OpenAIRE

    Tatebe, Chiye; Zhong, Xining; Ohtsuki, Takashi; Kubota, Hiroki; Sato, Kyoko; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    A simple and rapid high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method to determine basic colorants such as pararosaniline (PA), auramine O (AO), and rhodamine B (RB) in various processed foods was developed. Linearity of the calibration curves ranged from 0.05 to 50 μg/mL for PA and 0.05–100 μg/mL for AO and RB. The detection and quantification limits (LOD and LOQ) of the basic colorants, which were evaluated as signal-to-noise ratios of 3 for LOD and 10 for LOQ, ranged from 0.0125 to 0.05 ...

  5. Documentation control process of Brazilian multipurpose reactor: conceptual design and basic design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kibrit, Eduardo; Prates, Jose Eduardo; Longo, Guilherme Carneiro; Salvetti, Tereza Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Established in the scope of Plan of Action of the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (PACTI/MCTI) in 2007, the construction of the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) is on the way. This type of reactor has a broad spectrum of applications in the nuclear field and related technologies such as the radioisotopes used as supplies in the production of radiopharmaceuticals, with very much benefit to the Brazilian society being, therefore, the main goal of the Project. RMB Project consists of the following stages: site selection and site evaluation; design (conceptual design, basic design, detailed design and experimental design); construction (procurement, manufacturing; civil construction; electromechanical construction and assembling); commissioning; operation and decommissioning. Each stage requires adaptation of human resources for the stage schedule execution. The implementation of a project of this magnitude requires a complex project management, which covers not only technical, but also administrative areas. Licensing, financial resources, quality and document control systems, engineering are some of the areas involved in project success. The development of the conceptual and basic designs involved the participation of three main engineering companies. INTERTECHNE Consultores S.A. was in charge of conceptual and basic designs for conventional systems of buildings and infrastructure. INVAP S.E. was responsible for preparing the basic design of the reactor core and annexes. MRS Estudos Ambientais Ltda. has prepared documents for environmental licensing. This paper describes the procedures used during conceptual and basic design stages to control design documentation and flow of this documentation, involving the analysis and incorporation of comments from experts, control and storage of a volume of approximately 15,000 documents. (author)

  6. ANALYSIS OF BASIC PSYCHOTROPIC DRUGS IN BIOLOGICAL FLUIDS AND TISSUES BY REVERSED-PHASE HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruczynik, Anna; Waksmundzka-Hajnos, Monika

    2017-03-01

    The review of the RP HPLC analysis of basic psychotropic drugs is presented. It contains sample preparation methods with centrifugation, protein precipitation, liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME), solid-phase extraction (SPE), solid-phase microextraction (SPME), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and RP-HPLC analysis. Chromatographic behavior of basic drugs in aqueous media - eluents used in reversed phase systems is discussed. Methods of blocking of residue surface silanols' interaction are mentioned. Analytical methods used for the analysis are divided into parts according with the above methods: the use of low-pH eluents, the use of high-pH eluents, the use of silanol blockers, special stationary phases for basic analytes. Literature connected with the sample preparation methods and analytical systems for the drug analysis are cited in details and presented also in Table 1.

  7. Production of hydrogen using an anaerobic biological process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Robert; Pelter, Libbie S.; Patterson, John A.

    2016-11-29

    Various embodiments of the present invention pertain to methods for biological production of hydrogen. More specifically, embodiments of the present invention pertain to a modular energy system and related methods for producing hydrogen using organic waste as a feed stock.

  8. Students' Ability to Solve Process-Diagram Problems in Secondary Biology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kragten, Marco; Admiraal, Wilfried; Rijlaarsdam, Gert

    2015-01-01

    Process diagrams are important tools in biology for explaining processes such as protein synthesis, compound cycles and the like. The aim of the present study was to measure the ability to solve process-diagram problems in biology and its relationship with prior knowledge, spatial ability and working memory. For this purpose, we developed a test…

  9. Students’ Ability to Solve Process-diagram Problems in Secondary Biology Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kragten, M.; Admiraal, W.; Rijlaarsdam, G.

    2015-01-01

    Process diagrams are important tools in biology for explaining processes such as protein synthesis, compound cycles and the like. The aim of the present study was to measure the ability to solve process-diagram problems in biology and its relationship with prior knowledge, spatial ability and

  10. Biological processing of dinuclear ruthenium complexes in eukaryotic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Heimann, Kirsten; Dinh, Xuyen Thi; Keene, F Richard; Collins, J Grant

    2016-10-20

    The biological processing - mechanism of cellular uptake, effects on the cytoplasmic and mitochondrial membranes, intracellular sites of localisation and induction of reactive oxygen species - of two dinuclear polypyridylruthenium(ii) complexes has been examined in three eukaryotic cells lines. Flow cytometry was used to determine the uptake of [{Ru(phen)2}2{μ-bb12}](4+) (Rubb12) and [Ru(phen)2(μ-bb7)Ru(tpy)Cl](3+) {Rubb7-Cl, where phen = 1,10-phenanthroline, tpy = 2,2':6',2''-terpyridine and bbn = bis[4(4'-methyl-2,2'-bipyridyl)]-1,n-alkane} in baby hamster kidney (BHK), human embryonic kidney (HEK-293) and liver carcinoma (HepG2) cell lines. The results demonstrated that the major uptake mechanism for Rubb12 and Rubb7-Cl was active transport, although with a significant contribution from carrier-assisted diffusion for Rubb12 and passive diffusion for Rubb7-Cl. Flow cytometry coupled with Annexin V/TO-PRO-3 double-staining was used to compare cell death by membrane damage or apoptosis. Rubb12 induced significant direct membrane damage, particularly with HepG2 cells, while Rubb7-Cl caused considerably less membrane damage but induced greater levels of apoptosis. Confocal microscopy, coupled with JC-1 assays, demonstrated that Rubb12 depolarises the mitochondrial membrane, whereas Rubb7-Cl had a much smaller affect. Cellular localisation experiments indicated that Rubb12 did not accumulate in the mitochondria, whereas significant mitochondrial accumulation was observed for Rubb7-Cl. The effect of Rubb12 and Rubb7-Cl on intracellular superoxide dismutase activity showed that the ruthenium complexes could induce cell death via a reactive oxygen species-mediated pathway. The results of this study demonstrate that Rubb12 predominantly kills eukaryotic cells by damaging the cytoplasmic membrane. As this dinuclear ruthenium complex has been previously shown to exhibit greater toxicity towards bacteria than eukaryotic cells, the results of the present study suggest that

  11. Simulating biological processes: stochastic physics from whole cells to colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnest, Tyler M.; Cole, John A.; Luthey-Schulten, Zaida

    2018-05-01

    The last few decades have revealed the living cell to be a crowded spatially heterogeneous space teeming with biomolecules whose concentrations and activities are governed by intrinsically random forces. It is from this randomness, however, that a vast array of precisely timed and intricately coordinated biological functions emerge that give rise to the complex forms and behaviors we see in the biosphere around us. This seemingly paradoxical nature of life has drawn the interest of an increasing number of physicists, and recent years have seen stochastic modeling grow into a major subdiscipline within biological physics. Here we review some of the major advances that have shaped our understanding of stochasticity in biology. We begin with some historical context, outlining a string of important experimental results that motivated the development of stochastic modeling. We then embark upon a fairly rigorous treatment of the simulation methods that are currently available for the treatment of stochastic biological models, with an eye toward comparing and contrasting their realms of applicability, and the care that must be taken when parameterizing them. Following that, we describe how stochasticity impacts several key biological functions, including transcription, translation, ribosome biogenesis, chromosome replication, and metabolism, before considering how the functions may be coupled into a comprehensive model of a ‘minimal cell’. Finally, we close with our expectation for the future of the field, focusing on how mesoscopic stochastic methods may be augmented with atomic-scale molecular modeling approaches in order to understand life across a range of length and time scales.

  12. Bottom-up engineering of biological systems through standard bricks: a modularity study on basic parts and devices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Pasotti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Modularity is a crucial issue in the engineering world, as it enables engineers to achieve predictable outcomes when different components are interconnected. Synthetic Biology aims to apply key concepts of engineering to design and construct new biological systems that exhibit a predictable behaviour. Even if physical and measurement standards have been recently proposed to facilitate the assembly and characterization of biological components, real modularity is still a major research issue. The success of the bottom-up approach strictly depends on the clear definition of the limits in which biological functions can be predictable. RESULTS: The modularity of transcription-based biological components has been investigated in several conditions. First, the activity of a set of promoters was quantified in Escherichia coli via different measurement systems (i.e., different plasmids, reporter genes, ribosome binding sites relative to an in vivo reference promoter. Second, promoter activity variation was measured when two independent gene expression cassettes were assembled in the same system. Third, the interchangeability of input modules (a set of constitutive promoters and two regulated promoters connected to a fixed output device (a logic inverter expressing GFP was evaluated. The three input modules provide tunable transcriptional signals that drive the output device. If modularity persists, identical transcriptional signals trigger identical GFP outputs. To verify this, all the input devices were individually characterized and then the input-output characteristic of the logic inverter was derived in the different configurations. CONCLUSIONS: Promoters activities (referred to a standard promoter can vary when they are measured via different reporter devices (up to 22%, when they are used within a two-expression-cassette system (up to 35% and when they drive another device in a functionally interconnected circuit (up to 44%. This paper

  13. Proceeding of the Scientific Meeting and Presentation on Basic Research of Nuclear Science and Technology: Book II. Nuclear Chemistry, Process Technology, and Radioactive Waste Processing and Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-06-01

    The proceeding contains papers presented on Scientific Meeting and Presentation on on Basic Research of Nuclear Science and Technology, held in Yogyakarta, 25-27 April 1995. This proceeding is second part of two books published for the meeting contains papers on nuclear chemistry, process technology, and radioactive waste management and environment. There are 62 papers indexed individually. (ID)

  14. Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater by a novel integration of heterogeneous catalytic ozonation and biological process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Haifeng; Han, Hongjun; Jia, Shengyong; Hou, Baolin; Zhao, Qian

    2014-08-01

    Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater (CGW) was investigated employing heterogeneous catalytic ozonation integrated with anoxic moving bed biofilm reactor (ANMBBR) and biological aerated filter (BAF) process. The results indicated that catalytic ozonation with the prepared catalyst (i.e. MnOx/SBAC, sewage sludge was converted into sludge based activated carbon (SBAC) which loaded manganese oxides) significantly enhanced performance of pollutants removal by generated hydroxyl radicals. The effluent of catalytic ozonation process was more biodegradable and less toxic than that in ozonation alone. Meanwhile, ANMBBR-BAF showed efficient capacity of pollutants removal in treatment of the effluent of catalytic ozonation at a shorter reaction time, allowing the discharge limits to be met. Therefore, the integrated process with efficient, economical and sustainable advantages was suitable for advanced treatment of real biologically pretreated CGW. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. BIOLOGICALLY ENHANCED OXYGEN TRANSFER IN THE ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS (JOURNAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biologically enhanced oxgyen transfer has been a hypothesis to explain observed oxygen transfer rates in activated sludge systems that were well above that predicted from aerator clean-water testing. The enhanced oxygen transfer rates were based on tests using BOD bottle oxygen ...

  16. Activated Sludge. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boe, Owen K.; Klopping, Paul H.

    This student manual contains the textual material for a seven-lesson unit on activated sludge. Topic areas addressed in the lessons include: (1) activated sludge concepts and components (including aeration tanks, aeration systems, clarifiers, and sludge pumping systems); (2) activated sludge variations and modes; (3) biological nature of activated…

  17. Effects of multiple enzyme–substrate interactions in basic units of cellular signal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seaton, D D; Krishnan, J

    2012-01-01

    Covalent modification cycles are a ubiquitous feature of cellular signalling networks. In these systems, the interaction of an active enzyme with the unmodified form of its substrate is essential for signalling to occur. However, this interaction is not necessarily the only enzyme–substrate interaction possible. In this paper, we analyse the behaviour of a basic model of signalling in which additional, non-essential enzyme–substrate interactions are possible. These interactions include those between the inactive form of an enzyme and its substrate, and between the active form of an enzyme and its product. We find that these additional interactions can result in increased sensitivity and biphasic responses, respectively. The dynamics of the responses are also significantly altered by the presence of additional interactions. Finally, we evaluate the consequences of these interactions in two variations of our basic model, involving double modification of substrate and scaffold-mediated signalling, respectively. We conclude that the molecular details of protein–protein interactions are important in determining the signalling properties of enzymatic signalling pathways. (paper)

  18. Building the process-drug–side effect network to discover the relationship between biological Processes and side effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Side effects are unwanted responses to drug treatment and are important resources for human phenotype information. The recent development of a database on side effects, the side effect resource (SIDER), is a first step in documenting the relationship between drugs and their side effects. It is, however, insufficient to simply find the association of drugs with biological processes; that relationship is crucial because drugs that influence biological processes can have an impact on phenotype. Therefore, knowing which processes respond to drugs that influence the phenotype will enable more effective and systematic study of the effect of drugs on phenotype. To the best of our knowledge, the relationship between biological processes and side effects of drugs has not yet been systematically researched. Methods We propose 3 steps for systematically searching relationships between drugs and biological processes: enrichment scores (ES) calculations, t-score calculation, and threshold-based filtering. Subsequently, the side effect-related biological processes are found by merging the drug-biological process network and the drug-side effect network. Evaluation is conducted in 2 ways: first, by discerning the number of biological processes discovered by our method that co-occur with Gene Ontology (GO) terms in relation to effects extracted from PubMed records using a text-mining technique and second, determining whether there is improvement in performance by limiting response processes by drugs sharing the same side effect to frequent ones alone. Results The multi-level network (the process-drug-side effect network) was built by merging the drug-biological process network and the drug-side effect network. We generated a network of 74 drugs-168 side effects-2209 biological process relation resources. The preliminary results showed that the process-drug-side effect network was able to find meaningful relationships between biological processes and side effects in an

  19. Proceedings of the 182nd basic science seminar (The workshop on neutron structural biology ) 'New frontiers of structural biology advanced by solution scattering'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Satoru

    2001-03-01

    182nd advanced science seminar (the workshop on neutron structural biology) was held in February 9-10, 2000 at Tokai. Thirty-six participants from universities, research institutes, and private companies took part in the workshop, and total of 24 lectures were given. This proceedings collects abstracts, the figures and tables, which the speakers used in their lectures. The proceedings contains two reviews from the point of view of x-ray and neutron scatterings, and six subjects (21 papers) including neutron and x-ray scattering in the era of structure genomics, structural changes detected with solution scattering, a new way in structural biology opened by neutron crystallography and neutron scattering, x-ray sources and detectors, simulation and solution scattering, and neutron sources and detectors. (Kazumata, Y.)

  20. THE BASIC LAWS AND FEATURES OF CYTOKINE DYNAMICS IN PROCESS AND EARLY TERMS AFTER CARDIOPULMONARY BYPASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Suskov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic variants of cytokines reactions defining type of organ dysfunctions are revealed in the course of car- diopulmonary bypass and in the early postoperative period. Their character and expression, depends on gravity preoperative an immunodeficiency and initial degree of heart insufficiency. Diphasic dynamics of development of system inflammatory reaction is confirmed after cardiopulmonary bypass: increase of levels proinflammatory cytokines is in the first phase and anti-inflammatory cytokines with development immunodepression and cellular anergy in is the second phase. Also, key role IL-1Ra is revealed in restraint of hyperactivation of system inflam- matory reaction. Blood whey levels IL-6, IL-8, G-CSF, TNF-α and IL-1Ra should be defined to cardiopulmonary bypass, in 10–12 hours, 24 hours and 3 days after cardiopulmonary bypass and may be used as prognostic criteria of development of postoperative complications. 

  1. Realization basic directions of the Bologna process in preparation of teachers physical cultures in Polish Institutes of higher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasichnik V.R.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Basic progress of higher school trends are presented in Poland. Directions of introduction of decisions of Bologna declaration and European educational standards are considered in preparation of teachers of physical culture. Information is resulted about the improvement of process of preparation of specialists of physical education and sport in the Warsaw academy of physical education. Growth of the state financing of research projects and introduction of the European educational projects is marked. It renders assistance to perfection of process of training of pedagogical personnels.

  2. Active Interaction Mapping as a tool to elucidate hierarchical functions of biological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farré, Jean-Claude; Kramer, Michael; Ideker, Trey; Subramani, Suresh

    2017-07-03

    Increasingly, various 'omics data are contributing significantly to our understanding of novel biological processes, but it has not been possible to iteratively elucidate hierarchical functions in complex phenomena. We describe a general systems biology approach called Active Interaction Mapping (AI-MAP), which elucidates the hierarchy of functions for any biological process. Existing and new 'omics data sets can be iteratively added to create and improve hierarchical models which enhance our understanding of particular biological processes. The best datatypes to further improve an AI-MAP model are predicted computationally. We applied this approach to our understanding of general and selective autophagy, which are conserved in most eukaryotes, setting the stage for the broader application to other cellular processes of interest. In the particular application to autophagy-related processes, we uncovered and validated new autophagy and autophagy-related processes, expanded known autophagy processes with new components, integrated known non-autophagic processes with autophagy and predict other unexplored connections.

  3. Basic nuclear processes affected by histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylase inhibitors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Legartová, Soňa; Stixová, Lenka; Strnad, Hynek; Kozubek, Stanislav; Martinet, N.; Dekker, F.J.; Franěk, Michal; Bártová, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 4 (2013), s. 379-396 ISSN 1750-1911 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD11020; GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/10/1022; GA ČR(CZ) GBP302/12/G157; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-07822S; GA ČR(CZ) EE2.3.30.0030 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 ; RVO:68378050 Keywords : cDNA microarray * DNA repair * epi-drug Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics; EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology (UMG-J) Impact factor: 5.215, year: 2013

  4. Basics of Polar-Format algorithm for processing Synthetic Aperture Radar images.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a background to Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image formation using the Polar Format (PFA) processing algorithm. This is meant to be an aid to those tasked to implement real-time image formation using the Polar Format processing algorithm.

  5. Microclimate effects of crop residues on biological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, J. L.; Prueger, J. H.

    1996-03-01

    Residues from crops left on the soil surface have an impact on the microclimate, primarily temperature, within the soil and the atmosphere; but, the impact on the biological system is largely unknown. Residue is assumed to have a positive impact on the biological system in the soil and a negative impact on crop growth. This report investigates the effect of standing residue on the microclimate surrounding a cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L.) crop in a semi-arid environment and the effect of flat residue on the seasonal soil temperature and soil water regimes in a humid climate with a corn ( Zea mays L.) and soybean [ Glycine max (L.) Merr.] production system. A study was conducted during 1987 and 1988 in a semi-arid climate at Lubbock, Texas using standing wheat stubble to shelter cotton from wind. In this study soil water, microclimatic variables, and plant growth were measured within standing stubble and bare soil during the early vegetative growth period. Air temperatures were warmer at night within the standing residue and the air more humid throughout the day. This led to a reduction in the soil water evaporation rate and an increase in the water use efficiency of the cotton plant within the stubble. Studies on corn residue with continuous corn and corn-soybean rotations with no-till, chiselplow, and moldboard plow tillage practices in central Iowa showed that the average soil temperatures in the upper soil profile were not affected by the presence of flat residue after tillage. Diurnal temperature ranges were most affected by the residue throughout the year. The largest effect of the residue on soil temperature was in the fall after harvest when no-till fields cooled more slowly than tilled fields. In the spring, surface residue decreased the soil water evaporation rate and increased the soil water storage within the soil profile covered with residue. In years with below normal rainfall, the additional stored soil water due to the surface residue was used by the

  6. Pulsed electrical discharges for medicine and biology techniques, processes, applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kolikov, Victor

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the application of pulsed electrical discharges in water and water dispersions of metal nanoparticles in medicine (surgery, dentistry, and oncology), biology, and ecology. The intensive electrical and shock waves represent a novel technique to destroy viruses and this way to  prepare anti-virus vaccines. The method of pulsed electrical discharges in water allows to decontaminate water from almost all known bacteria and spores of fungi being present in human beings. The nanoparticles used are not genotoxic and mutagenic. This book is useful for researchers and graduate students.

  7. The Creation of a French Basic Nuclear Installation - Description of the Regulatory Process - 13293

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahe, Carole; Leroy, Christine

    2013-01-01

    CEA is a French government-funded technological research organization. It has to build a medium-level waste interim storage facility because the geological repository will not be available until 2025. This interim storage facility, called DIADEM, has to be available in 2017. These wastes are coming from the research facilities for spent fuel reprocessing and the dismantling of the most radioactive parts of nuclear facilities. The CEA handles the waste management by inventorying the needs and updating them regularly. The conception of the facility is mainly based on this inventory. It provides quantity and characteristics of wastes and it gives the production schedule until 2035. Beyond mass and volume, main characteristics of these radioactive wastes are chemical nature, radioisotopes, radioactivity, radiation dose, the heat emitted, corrosive or explosive gas production, etc. These characteristics provide information to study the repository safety. DIADEM mainly consists of a concrete cell, isolated from the outside, wherein stainless steel welded containers are stored, stacked in a vertical position in the racks. DIADEM is scheduled to store three types of 8 mm-thick, stainless steel cylindrical containers with an outside diameter 498 mm and height from 620 to 2120 mm. DIADEM will be a basic nuclear installation (INB in French) because of overall activity of radioactive substances stored. The creation of a French basic nuclear installation is subject to authorization according to the French law No. 2006-686 of 13 June 2006 on Transparency and Security in the Nuclear Field. The authorization takes into account the technical and financial capacities of the licensee which must allow him to conduct his project in compliance with these interests, especially to cover the costs of decommissioning the installation and conduct remediation work, and to monitor and maintain its location site or, for radioactive waste disposal installations, to cover the definitive shut

  8. Vanadium in Biosphere and Its Role in Biological Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Deepika; Mani, Veena; Pal, Ravi Prakash

    2018-03-09

    Ultra-trace elements or occasionally beneficial elements (OBE) are the new categories of minerals including vanadium (V). The importance of V is attributed due to its multifaceted biological roles, i.e., glucose and lipid metabolism as an insulin-mimetic, antilipemic and a potent stress alleviating agent in diabetes when vanadium is administered at lower doses. It competes with iron for transferrin (binding site for transportation) and with lactoferrin as it is secreted in milk also. The intracellular enzyme protein tyrosine phosphatase, causing the dephosphorylation at beta subunit of the insulin receptor, is inhibited by vanadium, thus facilitating the uptake of glucose inside the cell but only in the presence of insulin. Vanadium could be useful as a potential immune-stimulating agent and also as an antiinflammatory therapeutic metallodrug targeting various diseases. Physiological state and dose of vanadium compounds hold importance in causing toxicity also. Research has been carried out mostly on laboratory animals but evidence for vanadium importance as a therapeutic agent are available in humans and large animals also. This review examines the potential biochemical and molecular role, possible kinetics and distribution, essentiality, immunity, and toxicity-related study of vanadium in a biological system.

  9. Lignocellulose Biomass: Constitutive Polymers. Biological Processes of Lignin Degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, C.; Manzanares, P.

    1994-01-01

    The structure of the lignocellulosic materials and the chemical composition of their main constitutive polymers, cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin are described. The most promising transformation processes according to the type of biomass considered: hardwood, softwood an herbaceous and the perspectives of biotechnological processes for bio pulping, bio bleaching and effluents decolorisation in the paper pulp industry are also discussed. (Author) 7 refs

  10. Pretreatment of lignocellulose with biological acid recycling (the Biosulfurol process)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenestijn, van J.; Hazewinkel, O.; Bakker, R.R.C.

    2006-01-01

    A biomass pretreatment process is being developed based on contacting lignocellulosic biomass with 70% sulfuric acid and subsequent hydrolysis by adding water. In this process, the hydrolysate can be fermented yielding ethanol, while the sulfuric acid is partly recovered by anion-selective membranes

  11. Aerobic Digestion. Biological Treatment Process Control. Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopping, Paul H.

    This unit on aerobic sludge digestion covers the theory of the process, system components, factors that affect the process performance, standard operational concerns, indicators of steady-state operations, and operational problems. The instructor's guide includes: (1) an overview of the unit; (2) lesson plan; (3) lecture outline (keyed to a set of…

  12. Basic neural processing of sound in adults is influenced by bilingual experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoe, Erika; Burakiewicz, Emily; Figueiredo, Michael; Hardin, Margaret

    2017-05-04

    The central auditory nervous system (CANS) undergoes language-dependent tuning to enhance linguistically relevant features of sound. However, less is known about how dual-language exposure affects the CANS. Recent reports indicate that Spanish-English bilingual children and adolescents have larger neural responses to the fundamental frequency (F0) of vowels, as measured by the frequency-following response (FFR), a phase-locked response to sound. Given the cross-language significance of F0, this led us to hypothesize that enhanced neural responses to the F0 are not unique to Spanish-English bilingual children and adolescents but are instead a common feature of a CANS with significant early dual language experience. In support of this hypothesis, we found that early bilingual adults, representing more than a dozen languages, had more robust FFRs to the F0 compared to English-language monolinguals suggesting that bilingual experience imprints on the CANS in a similar fashion regardless of the languages of exposure. Taken together, our results suggest that early exposure to two linguistic sound systems primes the brain to respond to the F0, a basic feature of all speech sounds that signals important indexical information for vowel, talker, and language identification. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Development of basic software for processing and visualization of NMR tomographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traina, A.J.M.; Slaets, J.F.W.

    1989-01-01

    The present work describes the software under development for Image Processing and Visualization of MR Images. This project is part of Magnetic Ressonance Tomographic System which is being built at the IFQSC - USP [pt

  14. Combining epidemiology with basic biology of sand flies, parasites, and hosts to inform leishmaniasis transmission dynamics and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtenay, Orin; Peters, Nathan C; Rogers, Matthew E; Bern, Caryn

    2017-10-01

    Quantitation of the nonlinear heterogeneities in Leishmania parasites, sand fly vectors, and mammalian host relationships provides insights to better understand leishmanial transmission epidemiology towards improving its control. The parasite manipulates the sand fly via production of promastigote secretory gel (PSG), leading to the "blocked sand fly" phenotype, persistent feeding attempts, and feeding on multiple hosts. PSG is injected into the mammalian host with the parasite and promotes the establishment of infection. Animal models demonstrate that sand flies with the highest parasite loads and percent metacyclic promastigotes transmit more parasites with greater frequency, resulting in higher load infections that are more likely to be both symptomatic and efficient reservoirs. The existence of mammalian and sand fly "super-spreaders" provides a biological basis for the spatial and temporal clustering of clinical leishmanial disease. Sand fly blood-feeding behavior will determine the efficacies of indoor residual spraying, topical insecticides, and bed nets. Interventions need to have sufficient coverage to include transmission hot spots, especially in the absence of field tools to assess infectiousness. Interventions that reduce sand fly densities in the absence of elimination could have negative consequences, for example, by interfering with partial immunity conferred by exposure to sand fly saliva. A deeper understanding of both sand fly and host biology and behavior is essential to ensuring effectiveness of vector interventions.

  15. Behaviour of radionuclides in biological and non-biological processes at very low concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinnaeve, J.; Frissel, M.J.; Klugt, N. van der; Geijn, S.C. van de.

    1980-01-01

    Four experiments using a 'biological exchange column', i.e. a cut papyrus stem were carried out. Prior to the passage of the labelled solution containing 250 μCi 137 Cs.l -1 , and 1 μCi 134 Cs.l -1 , the exchange sites of the stem were protonated. Two treatments were carried out, the first with 10 -4 M stable caesium in the labelled solution and the second with 10 -4 M potassium. After detection of the front of activity half way up the stem, 5 cm segments of the stem were cut and counted. (Auth.)

  16. Two-way feedback between biology and deep Earth processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sleep, Norman; Bird, Dennis K.; Pope, Emily Catherine

    ’s surface and interior cooled following the moon-forming impact. The oceans passed through conditions favored by thermophile organisms before becoming clement. Ocean pH was ~6 and bars of CO2 existed in the atmosphere. Subduction removed the CO2 into the mantle before the time of rock record. Serpentinite......The presence of the metamorphic products of banded iron formation and black shale indicate that the Earth teemed with life by the time of the earliest preserved rocks, ca. 3.85 Ga. Iron and sulfur-based anoxygenic photosynthesis with full carbon cycles was present by this time. The pH of the ocean...... was ~8. The lack of older rock record cloaks pre-biotic evolution and the origin of life. Nascent and early life obtained energy from chemical disequilibria in rocks rather than sunlight. Appraising putative rock pre-biological environments is difficult in that life has modified the composition...

  17. Basic research on separation control of long life nuclides in fuel reprocessing processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Atsuyuki; Usami, Go [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Maeda, Mitsuru; Fujine, Sachio; Uchiyama, Gunzo; Kihara, Takehiro; Asakura, Toshihide; Hotoku, Shinobu

    1996-01-01

    The behavior of technetium (Tc) in nuclear fuel reprocessing processes has become the subject to be elucidated in the transition to distribution process by coextraction and the catalytic action in distribution process. In order to forecast or control the behavior of Tc in reprocessing processes, it is necessary to understand that at which valence Tc exists stably in respective processes. Tc is stable at 7 valence in nitric acid solution expected in reprocessing. In this research, the reaction speed of the oxidation and reduction reactions of rhenium (Re) which simulates Tc was measured by laser Raman spectroscopy which can do high speed analysis of valence. The experimental method is explained. The Raman spectra of Re in the experimental system of this research were measured in perchloric acid solution and nitric acid solution, and compared with the values in literatures. As the result, the validity of this research was assured. It was confirmed that Re(7) was not reduced by sulfamic acid and ascorbic acid. Re(7) was reduced by thiocyanic acid once, but was oxidized again by the reaction of thiocyanic acid and nitric acid. (K.I.)

  18. A study on the basic CVD process technology for TRISO coated particle fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, D. J.; Cheon, J. H.; Keum, I. S.; Lee, H. S.; Kim, J. G.

    2006-03-01

    Hydrogen energy has many advantages and is suitable as alternative energy of fossil fuel. The study of nuclear hydrogen production has performed at present. For nuclear hydrogen production, it is needed the study of VHTR(Very High Temperature Reactor) and TRISO(TRI-iSOtropic) coated fuel. TRISO coated fuel particle deposited by FBCVD(Fludized Bed CVD) method is composed of three isotropic layers: Inner Pyrolytic Carbon (IPyC), Silicon Carbide (SiC), Outer Pyrolytic Carbon (OPyC) layers. Silicon carbide was chemically vapor deposed on graphite substrate using methyltrichlorosilane (CH 3 SiCl 3 ) as a source in hydrogen atmosphere. The effect of deposition temperature and input gas ratios ( α=Q H2 /Q MTS =P H2 /P MTS ) was investigated in order to find out characteristics of silicon carbide layer. From results of those, SiC-TRISO coating deposition was conducted and achieved. Zirconium carbide layer as an advanced material of silicon carbide layer has studied. In order to find out basic properties and characteristics, studies have conducted using various methods. Zirconium carbide is chemically vapor deposed subliming zirconium tetrachloride(ZrCl 4 ) and using methan(CH 4 ) as a source in hydrogen atmosphere. Many experiments were conducted on graphite substrate about many deposition conditions such as ZrCl 4 heating temperatures and variables of H2 and CH 4 flow rate. but carbon graphite was deposited. For deposition of zirconium carbide, several different methods were approached. so zirconium carbide deposed on ZrO 2 substrate. In this experiments. source subliming type and equipment are no problems. But deposition of zirconium carbide will be continuously studied on graphite substrate approaching views of experimental way and equipment structure

  19. Systems Biology Graphical Notation: Process Description language Level 1 Version 1.3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodie, Stuart; Le Novère, Nicolas; Demir, Emek; Mi, Huaiyu; Villéger, Alice

    2015-09-04

    The Systems Biological Graphical Notation (SBGN) is an international community effort for standardized graphical representations of biological pathways and networks. The goal of SBGN is to provide unambiguous pathway and network maps for readers with different scientific backgrounds as well as to support efficient and accurate exchange of biological knowledge between different research communities, industry, and other players in systems biology. Three SBGN languages, Process Description (PD), Entity Relationship (ER) and Activity Flow (AF), allow for the representation of different aspects of biological and biochemical systems at different levels of detail. The SBGN Process Description language represents biological entities and processes between these entities within a network. SBGN PD focuses on the mechanistic description and temporal dependencies of biological interactions and transformations. The nodes (elements) are split into entity nodes describing, e.g., metabolites, proteins, genes and complexes, and process nodes describing, e.g., reactions and associations. The edges (connections) provide descriptions of relationships (or influences) between the nodes, such as consumption, production, stimulation and inhibition. Among all three languages of SBGN, PD is the closest to metabolic and regulatory pathways in biological literature and textbooks, but its well-defined semantics offer a superior precision in expressing biological knowledge.

  20. Using Forensic Psychology to Teach Basic Psychological Processes: Eyewitness Memory and Lie Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Teachers can incorporate topics in forensic psychology into lower level courses to increase student interest and to show how psychological processes influence outcomes in high-stakes applied contexts. One such topic is eyewitness identification, which teachers can use to show how stress affects memory and how memories can become distorted during…

  1. Product, not process! Explaining a basic concept in agricultural biotechnologies and food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliabue, Giovanni

    2017-12-01

    Most life scientists have relentlessly recommended any evaluative approach of agri-food products to be based on examination of the phenotype, i.e. the actual characteristics of the food, feed and fiber varieties: the effects of any new cultivar (or micro-organism, animal) on our health are not dependent on the process(es), the techniques used to obtain it.The so-called "genetically modified organisms" ("GMOs"), on the other hand, are commonly framed as a group with special properties - most frequently seen as dubious, or even harmful.Some social scientists still believe that considering the process is a correct background for science-based understanding and regulation. To show that such an approach is utterly wrong, and to invite scientists, teachers and science communicators to explain this mistake to students, policy-makers and the public at large, we imagined a dialogue between a social scientist, who has a positive opinion about a certain weight that a process-based orientation should have in the risk assessment, and a few experts who offer plenty of arguments against that view. The discussion focuses on new food safety.

  2. The National Programme for Improvement of Access and Quality of Basic Health Care and the work process organization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela Auxiliadora Almeida LOPES

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative study analises the National Programme for Improvement of Access and Quality of the Basic Health Care focusing on the reorganization of work processes: self-evaluation, continuous education, institutional support and monitoring. Based on document analysis, direct observations and interviews with workers in the Federal District. The results point to lack of training of team members for the adherence to the programme; parcial/distorted view about its proposal; weakenesses in the monitoring; incipient self-evaluations processes; lack of institutional support; inadequate permanent education; unsatisfactory working conditions; and deficits in the support diagnosys network. It should be considered that changes in work processes require time to be implemented and that improvement in the quality of services goes beyound prescriptions and fullfilment of standards and norms.

  3. Mistaking geography for biology: inferring processes from species distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Dan L; Cardillo, Marcel; Rosauer, Dan F; Bolnick, Daniel I

    2014-10-01

    Over the past few decades, there has been a rapid proliferation of statistical methods that infer evolutionary and ecological processes from data on species distributions. These methods have led to considerable new insights, but they often fail to account for the effects of historical biogeography on present-day species distributions. Because the geography of speciation can lead to patterns of spatial and temporal autocorrelation in the distributions of species within a clade, this can result in misleading inferences about the importance of deterministic processes in generating spatial patterns of biodiversity. In this opinion article, we discuss ways in which patterns of species distributions driven by historical biogeography are often interpreted as evidence of particular evolutionary or ecological processes. We focus on three areas that are especially prone to such misinterpretations: community phylogenetics, environmental niche modelling, and analyses of beta diversity (compositional turnover of biodiversity). Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Gasification processes old and new: a basic review of the major technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breault, R. W.

    2010-01-01

    This paper has been put together to provide a single source document that not only reviews the historical development of gasification but also compares the process to combustion. It also provides a short discussion on integrated gasification and combined cycle processes. The major focus of the paper is to describe the twelve major gasifiers being marketed today. Some of these are already fully developed while others are in various stages of development. The hydrodynamics and kinetics of each are reviewed along with the most likely gas composition from each of the technologies when using a variety of fuels under different conditions from air blown to oxygen blown and atmospheric pressure to several atmospheres. (author)

  5. Time ordering of two-step processes in energetic ion-atom collisions: Basic formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolterfoht, N.

    1993-01-01

    The semiclassical approximation is applied in second order to describe time ordering of two-step processes in energetic ion-atom collisions. Emphasis is given to the conditions for interferences between first- and second-order terms. In systems with two active electrons, time ordering gives rise to a pair of associated paths involving a second-order process and its time-inverted process. Combining these paths within the independent-particle frozen orbital model, time ordering is lost. It is shown that the loss of time ordering modifies the second-order amplitude so that its ability to interfere with the first-order amplitude is essentially reduced. Time ordering and the capability for interference is regained, as one path is blocked by means of the Pauli exclusion principle. The time-ordering formalism is prepared for papers dealing with collision experiments of single excitation [Stolterfoht et al., following paper, Phys. Rev. A 48, 2986 (1993)] and double excitation [Stolterfoht et al. (unpublished)

  6. Basic number processing in children with specific learning disorders: Comorbidity of reading and mathematics disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Kristina; Göbel, Silke M; Snowling, Margaret J

    2015-01-01

    As well as being the hallmark of mathematics disorders, deficits in number processing have also been reported for individuals with reading disorders. The aim of the present study was to investigate separately the components of numerical processing affected in reading and mathematical disorders within the framework of the Triple Code Model. Children with reading disorders (RD), mathematics disorders (MD), comorbid deficits (RD + MD), and typically developing children (TD) were tested on verbal, visual-verbal, and nonverbal number tasks. As expected, children with MD were impaired across a broad range of numerical tasks. In contrast, children with RD were impaired in (visual-)verbal number tasks but showed age-appropriate performance in nonverbal number skills, suggesting their impairments were domain specific and related to their reading difficulties. The comorbid group showed an additive profile of the impairments of the two single-deficit groups. Performance in speeded verbal number tasks was related to rapid automatized naming, a measure of visual-verbal access in the RD but not in the MD group. The results indicate that deficits in number skills are due to different underlying cognitive deficits in children with RD compared to children with MD: a phonological deficit in RD and a deficit in processing numerosities in MD.

  7. Integrated chemical/physical and biological processes modeling Part 2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The approach of characterising sewage sludge into carbohydrates, lipids and proteins, as is done in the International Water Association (IWA) AD model No 1 ... found to be 64 to 68% biodegradable (depending on the kinetic formulation selected for the hydrolysis process) and to have a C,sub>3.5H7O2N0.196 composition.

  8. Benchmarking Combined Biological Phosphorus and Nitrogen Removal Wastewater Treatment Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2004-01-01

    conditions respectively, the definition of performance indexes that include the phosphorus removal processes, and the selection of a suitable operating point for the plant. Two control loops were implemented: one for dissolved oxygen control using the oxygen transfer coefficient K(L)a as manipulated variable...

  9. Biological processes for the production of aryl sulfates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention generally relates to the field of biotechnology as it applies to the production of aryl sulfates using polypeptides or recombinant cells comprising said polypeptides. More particularly, the present invention pertains to polypeptides having aryl sulfotransferase activity......, recombinant host cells expressing same and processes for the production of aryl sulfates employing these polypeptides or recombinant host cells....

  10. Anaerobic Digestion. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnegie, John W., Ed.

    This student manual contains the textual material for a four-lesson unit on anaerobic digestion control. Areas addressed include: (1) anaerobic sludge digestion (considering the nature of raw sludge, purposes of anaerobic digestion, the results of digestion, types of equipment, and other topics); (2) digester process control (considering feeding…

  11. In situ single molecule imaging of cell membranes: linking basic nanotechniques to cell biology, immunology and medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Jiang; Jin, Hua; Yang, Fen; Chen, Zheng W.; Cai, Jiye

    2014-10-01

    The cell membrane, which consists of a viscous phospholipid bilayer, different kinds of proteins and various nano/micrometer-sized domains, plays a very important role in ensuring the stability of the intracellular environment and the order of cellular signal transductions. Exploring the precise cell membrane structure and detailed functions of the biomolecules in a cell membrane would be helpful to understand the underlying mechanisms involved in cell membrane signal transductions, which could further benefit research into cell biology, immunology and medicine. The detection of membrane biomolecules at the single molecule level can provide some subtle information about the molecular structure and the functions of the cell membrane. In particular, information obtained about the molecular mechanisms and other information at the single molecule level are significantly different from that detected from a large amount of biomolecules at the large-scale through traditional techniques, and can thus provide a novel perspective for the study of cell membrane structures and functions. However, the precise investigations of membrane biomolecules prompts researchers to explore cell membranes at the single molecule level by the use of in situ imaging methods, as the exact conformation and functions of biomolecules are highly controlled by the native cellular environment. Recently, the in situ single molecule imaging of cell membranes has attracted increasing attention from cell biologists and immunologists. The size of biomolecules and their clusters on the cell surface are set at the nanoscale, which makes it mandatory to use high- and super-resolution imaging techniques to realize the in situ single molecule imaging of cell membranes. In the past few decades, some amazing imaging techniques and instruments with super resolution have been widely developed for molecule imaging, which can also be further employed for the in situ single molecule imaging of cell membranes. In

  12. Poisson Stochastic Process and Basic Schauder and Sobolev Estimates in the Theory of Parabolic Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krylov, N. V.; Priola, E.

    2017-09-01

    We show, among other things, how knowing Schauder or Sobolev-space estimates for the one-dimensional heat equation allows one to derive their multidimensional analogs for equations with coefficients depending only on the time variable with the same constants as in the case of the one-dimensional heat equation. The method is quite general and is based on using the Poisson stochastic process. It also applies to equations involving non-local operators. It looks like no other methods are available at this time and it is a very challenging problem to find a purely analytical approach to proving such results.

  13. Biological Treatment of tannery wastewater using activated sludge process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haydar, S.; Aziz, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of Activated Sludge Process (ASP) for the treatment of tannery wastewater and to develop a simple design criteria under local conditions. A bench scale model comprising of an aeration tank and final clarifier was used for this purpose. The model was operated continuously for 267 days. Settled tannery wastewater was used as influent to the aeration tank. Five days Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) of the influent and effluent were measured to find process efficiency at various mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS) and hydraulic detention time. The results of the study demonstrated that an efficiency of above 90% and 80% for BOD5 and COD, respectively could be obtained if the ASP is operated at an MLVSS concentration of 3500 mg/L keeping an aeration time of 12 hours. (author)

  14. Biological removal of metal ions from aqueous process streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shumate, S.E. II; Strandberg, G.W.; Parrott, J.R. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Aqueous waste streams from nuclear fuel processing operations may contain trace quantities of heavy metals such as uranium. Conventional chemical and physical treatment may be ineffective or very expensive when uranium concentrations in the range of 10 to 100 g/m 3 must be reduced to 1 g/m 3 or less. The ability of some microorganisms to adsorb or complex dissolved heavy metals offers an alternative treatment method. Uranium uptake by Saccharomyces cerevisiae NRRL Y-2574 and a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was examined to identify factors which might affect a process for the removal of uranium from wastewater streams. At uranium concentrations in the range of 10 to 500 g/m 3 , where the binding capacity of the biomass was not exceeded, temperature, pH, and initial uranium concentration were found to influence the rate of uranium uptake, but not the soluble uranium concentration at equilibrium. 6 figs

  15. Low cost materials of construction for biological processes: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-13

    The workshop was held, May 1993 in conjunction with the 15th Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals. The purpose of this workshop was to present information on the biomass to ethanol process in the context of materials selection and through presentation and discussion, identify promising avenues for future research. Six technical presentations were grouped into two sessions: process assessment and technology assessment. In the process assessment session, the group felt that the pretreatment area would require the most extensive materials research due the complex chemical, physical and thermal environment. Discussion centered around the possibility of metals being leached into the process stream and their effect on the fermentation mechanics. Linings were a strong option for pretreatment assuming the economics were favorable. Fermentation was considered an important area for research also, due to the unique complex of compounds and dual phases present. Erosion in feedstock handling equipment was identified as a minor concern. In the technology assessment session, methodologies in corrosion analysis were presented in addition to an overview of current coatings/linings technology. Widely practiced testing strategies, including ASTM methods, as well as novel procedures for micro-analysis of corrosion were discussed. Various coatings and linings, including polymers and ceramics, were introduced. The prevailing recommendations for testing included keeping the testing simple until the problem warranted a more detailed approach and developing standardized testing procedures to ensure the data was reproducible and applicable. The need to evaluate currently available materials such as coatings/linings, carbon/stainless steels, or fiberglass reinforced plastic was emphasized. It was agreed that economic evaluation of each material candidate must be an integral part of any research plan.

  16. Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS Process)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walia, D.S.; Srivastava, K.C.

    1994-10-01

    The overall goal of the project is to develop an advanced, clean coal biogasification (MicGAS) Process. The objectives of the research during FY 1993--94 were to: (1) enhance kinetics of methane production (biogasification, biomethanation) from Texas lignite (TxL) by the Mic-1 consortium isolated and developed at ARCTECH, (2) increase coal solids loading, (3) optimize medium composition, and (4) reduce retention time. A closer analysis of the results described here indicate that biomethanation of TxL at >5% solids loading is feasible through appropriate development of nutrient medium and further adaptation of the microorganisms involved in this process. Further understanding of the inhibitory factors and some biochemical manipulations to overcome those inhibitions will hasten the process considerably. Results are discussed on the following: products of biomethanation and enhance of methane production including: bacterial adaptation; effect of nutrient amendment substitutes; effects of solids loading; effect of initial pH of the culture medium; effect of hydrogen donors and carbon balance.

  17. Research prioritization using the Analytic Hierarchy Process: basic methods. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesely, W.E.; Shafaghi, A.; Gary, I. Jr.; Rasmuson, D.M.

    1983-08-01

    This report describes a systematic approach for prioritizing research needs and research programs. The approach is formally called the Analytic Hierarchy Process which was developed by T.L. Saaty and is described in several of his texts referenced in the report. The Analytic Hierarchy Process, or AHP for short, has been applied to a wide variety of prioritization problems and has a good record of success as documented in Saaty's texts. The report develops specific guidelines for constructing the hierarchy and for prioritizing the research programs. Specific examples are given to illustrate the steps in the AHP. As part of the work, a computer code has been developed and the use of the code is described. The code allows the prioritizations to be done in a codified and efficient manner; sensitivity and parametric studies can also be straightforwardly performed to gain a better understanding of the prioritization results. Finally, as an important part of the work, an approach is developed which utilizes probabilistic risk analyses (PRAs) to systematically identify and prioritize research needs and research programs. When utilized in an AHP framework, the PRA's which have been performed to date provide a powerful information source for focusing research on those areas most impacting risk and risk uncertainty

  18. Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater by a novel integration of heterogeneous Fenton oxidation and biological process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Han, Hongjun; Zhuang, Haifeng; Hou, Baolin; Jia, Shengyong; Xu, Chunyan; Wang, Dexin

    2015-04-01

    Laboratorial scale experiments were conducted in order to investigate a novel system integrating heterogeneous Fenton oxidation (HFO) with anoxic moving bed biofilm reactor (ANMBBR) and biological aerated filter (BAF) process on advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater (CGW). The results indicated that HFO with the prepared catalyst (FeOx/SBAC, sewage sludge based activated carbon (SBAC) which loaded Fe oxides) played a key role in eliminating COD and COLOR as well as in improving the biodegradability of raw wastewater. The surface reaction and hydroxyl radicals (OH) oxidation were the mechanisms for FeOx/SBAC catalytic reaction. Compared with ANMBBR-BAF process, the integrated system was more effective in abating COD, BOD5, total phenols (TPs), total nitrogen (TN) and COLOR and could shorten the retention time. Therefore, the integrated system was a promising technology for engineering applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Conserving forest biological diversity: How the Montreal Process helps achieve sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Nelson; Guy Robertson; Kurt. Riitters

    2015-01-01

    Forests support a variety of ecosystems, species and genes — collectively referred to as biological diversity — along with important processes that tie these all together. With the growing recognition that biological diversity contributes to human welfare in a number of important ways such as providing food, medicine and fiber (provisioning services...

  20. Biologically-based signal processing system applied to noise removal for signal extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chi Yung; Petrich, Loren I.

    2004-07-13

    The method and system described herein use a biologically-based signal processing system for noise removal for signal extraction. A wavelet transform may be used in conjunction with a neural network to imitate a biological system. The neural network may be trained using ideal data derived from physical principles or noiseless signals to determine to remove noise from the signal.

  1. Improved biological processes for the production of aryl sulfates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention generally relates to the field of biotechnology as it applies to the production of aryl sulfates using recombinant host cells. More particularly, the present invention pertains to recombinant host cells comprising (e.g., expressing) a polypeptide having aryl sulfotransferase...... activity, wherein said recombinant host cells have been modified to have an increased uptake of sulfate compared to identical host cells that does not carry said modification. Further provided are processes for the production of aryl sulfates, such as zosteric acid, employing such recombinant host cells....

  2. Processing of basic speech acts following localized brain damage: a new light on the neuroanatomy of language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soroker, Nachum; Kasher, Asa; Giora, Rachel; Batori, Gila; Corn, Cecilia; Gil, Mali; Zaidel, Eran

    2005-03-01

    We examined the effect of localized brain lesions on processing of the basic speech acts (BSAs) of question, assertion, request, and command. Both left and right cerebral damage produced significant deficits relative to normal controls, and left brain damaged patients performed worse than patients with right-sided lesions. This finding argues against the common conjecture that the right hemisphere of most right-handers plays a dominant role in natural language pragmatics. In right-hemisphere damaged patients, there was no correlation between location and extent of lesion in perisylvian cortex and performance on BSAs. By contrast, processing of the different BSAs by left hemisphere-damaged patients was strongly affected by perisylvian lesion location, with each BSA showing a distinct pattern of localization. This finding raises the possibility that the classical left perisylvian localization of language functions, as measured by clinical aphasia batteries, partly reflects the localization of the BSAs required to perform these functions.

  3. Process for rapidly determining biological toxicity of wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDowell, C.S.

    1986-11-04

    This patent describes a process for determining the quality of a wastewater solution or a solution of a specific chemical. The process comprises mixing microrganisms with a test solution, measuring the dissolved oxygen content in the test solution, and correlating dissolved oxygen content of the mixture with a standard solution. The improvement described here is for enhancing the sensitivity of the test while reducing the amount of time necessary to conduct a test which comprises: a. utilizing a bacterial culture in the form of a dried powder, the bacterial culture being capable of aerobic biodegradation of organic wastes; b. placing a preselected amount of the bacterial culture into a test vessel containing a preselected amount of aqueous waste which has been saturated with oxygen; c. measuring the dissolved oxygen content in the test sample as a function of time; d. determining the rate of dissolved oxygen decline at a preselected time, and; e. determining the ratio between the rate of dissolved oxygen decline at the preselected time and the rate of decline for a preselected baseline standard solution, and thereby determining the degree of inhibition of bacterial respiration or growth.

  4. The bacterial interlocked process ONtology (BiPON): a systemic multi-scale unified representation of biological processes in prokaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Vincent J; Goelzer, Anne; Ferré, Arnaud; Fischer, Stephan; Dinh, Marc; Loux, Valentin; Froidevaux, Christine; Fromion, Vincent

    2017-11-23

    High-throughput technologies produce huge amounts of heterogeneous biological data at all cellular levels. Structuring these data together with biological knowledge is a critical issue in biology and requires integrative tools and methods such as bio-ontologies to extract and share valuable information. In parallel, the development of recent whole-cell models using a systemic cell description opened alternatives for data integration. Integrating a systemic cell description within a bio-ontology would help to progress in whole-cell data integration and modeling synergistically. We present BiPON, an ontology integrating a multi-scale systemic representation of bacterial cellular processes. BiPON consists in of two sub-ontologies, bioBiPON and modelBiPON. bioBiPON organizes the systemic description of biological information while modelBiPON describes the mathematical models (including parameters) associated with biological processes. bioBiPON and modelBiPON are related using bridge rules on classes during automatic reasoning. Biological processes are thus automatically related to mathematical models. 37% of BiPON classes stem from different well-established bio-ontologies, while the others have been manually defined and curated. Currently, BiPON integrates the main processes involved in bacterial gene expression processes. BiPON is a proof of concept of the way to combine formally systems biology and bio-ontology. The knowledge formalization is highly flexible and generic. Most of the known cellular processes, new participants or new mathematical models could be inserted in BiPON. Altogether, BiPON opens up promising perspectives for knowledge integration and sharing and can be used by biologists, systems and computational biologists, and the emerging community of whole-cell modeling.

  5. Kinetics of quasi-isoenergetic transition processes in biological macromolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, E.G.; Teslenko, V.I.

    2010-01-01

    A master equation describing the evolution of averaged molecular state occupancies in molecular systems where alternation of molecular energy levels is caused by discrete dichotomous and trichotomous stochastic fields, is derived. This study is focused on the kinetics of quasi-isoenergetic transition processes in the presence of moderately high frequency stochastic field. A novel physical mechanism for temperature-independent transitions in flexible molecular systems is proposed. This mechanism becomes effective when the conformation transitions between quasi-isoenergetic molecular states take place. At room temperatures, stochastic broadening of molecular energy levels predominates the energy of low-frequency vibrations accompanying the transition. This leads to a cancellation of the temperature dependence in the stochastically averaged rate constants. As examples, physical interpretations of the temperature-independent onset of P2X 3 receptor desensitization in neuronal membranes, as well as degradation of PER2 protein in embrionic fibroblasts, are provided.

  6. Heat transfer and fluid flow in biological processes advances and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Sid

    2015-01-01

    Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow in Biological Processes covers emerging areas in fluid flow and heat transfer relevant to biosystems and medical technology. This book uses an interdisciplinary approach to provide a comprehensive prospective on biofluid mechanics and heat transfer advances and includes reviews of the most recent methods in modeling of flows in biological media, such as CFD. Written by internationally recognized researchers in the field, each chapter provides a strong introductory section that is useful to both readers currently in the field and readers interested in learning more about these areas. Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow in Biological Processes is an indispensable reference for professors, graduate students, professionals, and clinical researchers in the fields of biology, biomedical engineering, chemistry and medicine working on applications of fluid flow, heat transfer, and transport phenomena in biomedical technology. Provides a wide range of biological and clinical applications of fluid...

  7. Life's origin: the cosmic, planetary and biological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scattergood, T.; Des Marais, D.; Jahnke, L.

    1987-01-01

    From elements formed in interstellar furnaces to humans peering back at the stars, the evolution of life has been a long, intricate and perhaps inevitable process. Life as we know it requires a planet orbiting a star at just the right distance so that water can exist in liquid form. It needs a rich supply of chemicals and energy sources. On Earth, the combination of chemistry and energy generated molecules that evolved ways of replicating themselves and of passing information from one generation to the next. Thus, the thread of life began. This chart traces the thread, maintained by DNA molecules for much of its history, as it weaves its way through the primitive oceans, gaining strength and diversity along the way. Organisms eventually moved onto the land, where advanced forms, including humans, ultimately arose. Finally, assisted by a technology of its own making, life has reached back out into space to understand its own origins, to expand into new realms, and to seek other living threads in the cosmos.

  8. Acute toxicity and chemical evaluation of coking wastewater under biological and advanced physicochemical treatment processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehua, Ma; Cong, Liu; Xiaobiao, Zhu; Rui, Liu; Lujun, Chen

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the changes of toxic compounds in coking wastewater with biological treatment (anaerobic reactor, anoxic reactor and aerobic-membrane bioreactor, A1/A2/O-MBR) and advanced physicochemical treatment (Fenton oxidation and activated carbon adsorption) stages. As the biological treatment stages preceding, the inhibition effect of coking wastewater on the luminescence of Vibrio qinghaiensis sp. Nov. Q67 decreased. Toxic units (TU) of coking wastewater were removed by A1/A2/O-MBR treatment process, however approximately 30 % TU remained in the biologically treated effluent. There is a tendency that fewer and fewer residual organic compounds could exert equal acute toxicity during the biological treatment stages. Activated carbon adsorption further removed toxic pollutants of biologically treated effluent but the Fenton effluent increased acute toxicity. The composition of coking wastewater during the treatment was evaluated using the three-dimensional fluorescence spectra, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The organic compounds with high polarity were the main cause of acute toxicity in the coking wastewater. Aromatic protein-like matters in the coking wastewater with low biodegradability and high toxicity contributed mostly to the remaining acute toxicity of the biologically treated effluents. Chlorine generated from the oxidation process was responsible for the acute toxicity increase after Fenton oxidation. Therefore, the incorporation of appropriate advanced physicochemical treatment process, e.g., activated carbon adsorption, should be implemented following biological treatment processes to meet the stricter discharge standards and be safer to the environment.

  9. Frequency of Home Numeracy Activities Is Differentially Related to Basic Number Processing and Calculation Skills in Kindergartners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutaf Yıldız, Belde; Sasanguie, Delphine; De Smedt, Bert; Reynvoet, Bert

    2018-01-01

    Home numeracy has been shown to play an important role in children’s mathematical performance. However, findings are inconsistent as to which home numeracy activities are related to which mathematical skills. The present study disentangled between various mathematical abilities that were previously masked by the use of composite scores of mathematical achievement. Our aim was to shed light on the specific associations between home numeracy and various mathematical abilities. The relationships between kindergartners’ home numeracy activities, their basic number processing and calculation skills were investigated. Participants were 128 kindergartners (Mage = 5.43 years, SD = 0.29, range: 4.88–6.02 years) and their parents. The children completed non-symbolic and symbolic comparison tasks, non-symbolic and symbolic number line estimation tasks, mapping tasks (enumeration and connecting), and two calculation tasks. Their parents completed a home numeracy questionnaire. Results indicated small but significant associations between formal home numeracy activities that involved more explicit teaching efforts (i.e., identifying numerals, counting) and children’s enumeration skills. There was no correlation between formal home numeracy activities and non-symbolic number processing. Informal home numeracy activities that involved more implicit teaching attempts, such as “playing games” and “using numbers in daily life,” were (weakly) correlated with calculation and symbolic number line estimation, respectively. The present findings suggest that disentangling between various basic number processing and calculation skills in children might unravel specific relations with both formal and informal home numeracy activities. This might explain earlier reported contradictory findings on the association between home numeracy and mathematical abilities.

  10. Frequency of Home Numeracy Activities Is Differentially Related to Basic Number Processing and Calculation Skills in Kindergartners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutaf Yıldız, Belde; Sasanguie, Delphine; De Smedt, Bert; Reynvoet, Bert

    2018-01-01

    Home numeracy has been shown to play an important role in children's mathematical performance. However, findings are inconsistent as to which home numeracy activities are related to which mathematical skills. The present study disentangled between various mathematical abilities that were previously masked by the use of composite scores of mathematical achievement. Our aim was to shed light on the specific associations between home numeracy and various mathematical abilities. The relationships between kindergartners' home numeracy activities, their basic number processing and calculation skills were investigated. Participants were 128 kindergartners ( M age = 5.43 years, SD = 0.29, range: 4.88-6.02 years) and their parents. The children completed non-symbolic and symbolic comparison tasks, non-symbolic and symbolic number line estimation tasks, mapping tasks (enumeration and connecting), and two calculation tasks. Their parents completed a home numeracy questionnaire. Results indicated small but significant associations between formal home numeracy activities that involved more explicit teaching efforts (i.e., identifying numerals, counting) and children's enumeration skills. There was no correlation between formal home numeracy activities and non-symbolic number processing. Informal home numeracy activities that involved more implicit teaching attempts , such as "playing games" and "using numbers in daily life," were (weakly) correlated with calculation and symbolic number line estimation, respectively. The present findings suggest that disentangling between various basic number processing and calculation skills in children might unravel specific relations with both formal and informal home numeracy activities. This might explain earlier reported contradictory findings on the association between home numeracy and mathematical abilities.

  11. Stochastic processes, multiscale modeling, and numerical methods for computational cellular biology

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the modeling and mathematical analysis of stochastic dynamical systems along with their simulations. The collected chapters will review fundamental and current topics and approaches to dynamical systems in cellular biology. This text aims to develop improved mathematical and computational methods with which to study biological processes. At the scale of a single cell, stochasticity becomes important due to low copy numbers of biological molecules, such as mRNA and proteins that take part in biochemical reactions driving cellular processes. When trying to describe such biological processes, the traditional deterministic models are often inadequate, precisely because of these low copy numbers. This book presents stochastic models, which are necessary to account for small particle numbers and extrinsic noise sources. The complexity of these models depend upon whether the biochemical reactions are diffusion-limited or reaction-limited. In the former case, one needs to adopt the framework of s...

  12. Solid separation and sbr biological process for pig slurry treatment; Depuracion de purines por separacion de solidos y tratamiento biologico en SBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lekuona, A.; Alberdi, M.; Lekue, I.; Lasuen, M.

    2009-07-01

    Egiluze treatment plant in Renteria (Gipuzkoa, spain), has treated around 45 m{sup 3}/day of pig slurry since 2006. During this two years, the plant has been running in order to get a suitable effluent, which fulfills the corresponding parameters to be discharged to municipal drain. The treatment process consists basically of a first solid separation and subsequent nitrification-de-nitrificacion biological process using a Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR). The technical and economic results showed in this article, prove that the process used in Egiluze treatment plant is an effective solution which allows the treatment of pig slurry in an economical and automated way. (Author)

  13. Quantum biological information theory

    CERN Document Server

    Djordjevic, Ivan B

    2016-01-01

    This book is a self-contained, tutorial-based introduction to quantum information theory and quantum biology. It serves as a single-source reference to the topic for researchers in bioengineering, communications engineering, electrical engineering, applied mathematics, biology, computer science, and physics. The book provides all the essential principles of the quantum biological information theory required to describe the quantum information transfer from DNA to proteins, the sources of genetic noise and genetic errors as well as their effects. Integrates quantum information and quantum biology concepts; Assumes only knowledge of basic concepts of vector algebra at undergraduate level; Provides a thorough introduction to basic concepts of quantum information processing, quantum information theory, and quantum biology; Includes in-depth discussion of the quantum biological channel modelling, quantum biological channel capacity calculation, quantum models of aging, quantum models of evolution, quantum models o...

  14. An Investigation Of The Influence Of Leadership And Processes On Basic Performance Results Using A Decision Model Based On Efqm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Talat İnan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available EFQM Excellence Model is a quality approach that companies benefit in achieving success. EFQM Excellence Model is an assessment tool helping to determine what is competence and missing aspects in achieving excellence.In this study, based on the EFQM Excellence Model, the influence of basic performance results caused by leadership and processes variables in this model of a firm engaged in maintenance and repair services due to a large-scale company. In this work, a survey was conducted that covering the company's employees and managers. The data obtained from this survey was utilized by using SPSS16.0 statistics software in respect of factor analysis, reliability analysis, correlation and regression analysis. The relation between variables was evaluated taking into account the resuşts of analysis.

  15. A basic experimental study on characteristics of on-line human information processing associated with man-machine interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Nagai, Yoshinori; Kojima, Shin-ichi.

    1990-01-01

    Regarding human factors research on man-machine interface, a basic psychological experiment was conducted to observe psycho-physiological characteristics of on-line human cognitive behavior when cognitive tasks on learning and pattern classification were given to subjects by personal computer using a simple state transition model. During the experiment, three different types of subjects' data were recorded: (i) eye movement data by eye mark recorder, (ii) physio-electric signals by polygraph and (iii) verbal reports. Those subjects' data were analyzed with respect to: (i) the related human cognitive characteristics concerning problem solving strategy, measures of problem difficulty and mental image effect, (ii) observed eye movement characteristics such as saccade, attention, pupil reaction and blinking, etc., and (iii) obtained characteristics of skin potential response and heart rate. It was found that the application of psycho-physiological measurement would serve to objective and detailed analysis of on-line cognitive process. (author)

  16. Work Process Oriented Learning via Mobile Devices – Theoretical Basics and Examples for a (New Didactical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Spöttl

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Two problems can be identified which counteract the need for further training: On the one hand the clientele of skilled workers is not necessarily keen on further training. On the other hand the time and cost pressure within the sector does not offer any room for time-consuming further training measures far away from the workplace. This is why the project “Virtual Learning on the building site – (Vila-b” was realized in cooperation with the project partners of the University of Bremen (Working group »Digital Media« of the Centre for Information Technology as well as from the economy (Arbeitskreis ökologischer Holzbau e. V. and Claus Holm, pm|c. The project team has tested a concept which facilitated learning adapted to the occupational reality and supported by the advantages of digital media. The central didactical elements for the development of this further training course are the contextual and methodological orientation to real work processes as well as the use of digital mobile media which facilitate learning directly at the workplace. The present article starts with a description of the theoretical basics for learning within the work process and discusses the didactical elements which are necessary for work process oriented learning with digital and mobile media.

  17. Removal of reactive blue 19 from wastewaters by physicochemical and biological processes - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddique, M.; Farooq, R.; Shaheen, A.

    2011-01-01

    The developments for the removal of reactive blue 19 dye (RB 19) by various physicochemical methods such as sonolysis, photo catalysis, electrochemical, ozonolysis, adsorption, hydrolysis and biological methods like microbial degradation, bio sorption, chemical and biological reductive decolorisation has been presented. It was found that none of the individual physical and chemical technique can be used in wastewater treatment with good economics and high energy efficiency. For example, the application of adsorption method is restricted as adsorbent materials requires frequent regenerations; ozonolysis and photo catalysis processes can efficiently decolorize and degrade the dye but these face operational difficulties are not cost effective. Similarly the performance of biological treatment processes is required to enhance by developing efficient strains of bacteria, fungi. The comparison of physiochemical and biological treatment of RB 19 dye suggested that biological treatment of RB 19 dye is comparatively cost-effective process. However, the integrated approach can be used to decolorize and degrade the dye by combining both physicochemical and biological processes. (author)

  18. Simulation and Analysis of Complex Biological Processes: an Organisation Modelling Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosse, T.; Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores how the dynamics of complex biological processes can be modelled and simulated as an organisation of multiple agents. This modelling perspective identifies organisational structure occurring in complex decentralised processes and handles complexity of the analysis of the dynamics

  19. WE-DE-202-03: Modeling of Biological Processes - What Happens After Early Molecular Damage?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMahon, S.

    2016-01-01

    Radiation therapy for the treatment of cancer has been established as a highly precise and effective way to eradicate a localized region of diseased tissue. To achieve further significant gains in the therapeutic ratio, we need to move towards biologically optimized treatment planning. To achieve this goal, we need to understand how the radiation-type dependent patterns of induced energy depositions within the cell (physics) connect via molecular, cellular and tissue reactions to treatment outcome such as tumor control and undesirable effects on normal tissue. Several computational biology approaches have been developed connecting physics to biology. Monte Carlo simulations are the most accurate method to calculate physical dose distributions at the nanometer scale, however simulations at the DNA scale are slow and repair processes are generally not simulated. Alternative models that rely on the random formation of individual DNA lesions within one or two turns of the DNA have been shown to reproduce the clusters of DNA lesions, including single strand breaks (SSBs), double strand breaks (DSBs) without the need for detailed track structure simulations. Efficient computational simulations of initial DNA damage induction facilitate computational modeling of DNA repair and other molecular and cellular processes. Mechanistic, multiscale models provide a useful conceptual framework to test biological hypotheses and help connect fundamental information about track structure and dosimetry at the sub-cellular level to dose-response effects on larger scales. In this symposium we will learn about the current state of the art of computational approaches estimating radiation damage at the cellular and sub-cellular scale. How can understanding the physics interactions at the DNA level be used to predict biological outcome? We will discuss if and how such calculations are relevant to advance our understanding of radiation damage and its repair, or, if the underlying biological

  20. Electric and mechanical basic parameters to elaborate a process for a technical verification of safety related design modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamuno Fernandez, Mercedes; La Roca Mallofre, GISEL; Bano Azcon, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic process to check a design in order to achieve all the requirements that regulations demand. Nuclear engineers must verify that a design is done according to the safety requirements, and this paper presents how we have elaborated a process to improve the technical project verification. For a faster, better and easier verification process, here we summarize how to select the electric and mechanical basic parameters, which ensure the correct project verification of safety related design modifications. This process considers different aspects, which guarantee that the design preserves the availability, reliability and functional capability of the Structures, Systems and Components needed to operate the Nuclear Power Station with security. Electric and mechanical reference parameters are identified and discussed as well as others related ones, which are critical to safety. The implementation procedure to develop tasks performed in any company that has a quality plan is a requirement. On the engineering business, it is important not to use the personal criteria to do a technical analysis of a project; although, many times it is the checker's criteria and knowledge responsibility to ensure the correct development of a design modification. Then, the checker capabilities are the basis of the modification verification. This kind of procedure's development is not easy, because in an engineering project with important technical contents, there are multiple scenarios, but lots of them have a common basis. If we can identify the technical common basis of these projects, we will make good project verification but there are many difficulties we can encounter along this process. (authors)

  1. Moving beyond a descriptive aquatic toxicology: the value of biological process and trait information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segner, Helmut

    2011-10-01

    In order to improve the ability to link chemical exposure to toxicological and ecological effects, aquatic toxicology will have to move from observing what chemical concentrations induce adverse effects to more explanatory approaches, that are concepts which build on knowledge of biological processes and pathways leading from exposure to adverse effects, as well as on knowledge on stressor vulnerability as given by the genetic, physiological and ecological (e.g., life history) traits of biota. Developing aquatic toxicology in this direction faces a number of challenges, including (i) taking into account species differences in toxicant responses on the basis of the evolutionarily developed diversity of phenotypic vulnerability to environmental stressors, (ii) utilizing diversified biological response profiles to serve as biological read across for prioritizing chemicals, categorizing them according to modes of action, and for guiding targeted toxicity evaluation; (iii) prediction of ecological consequences of toxic exposure from knowledge of how biological processes and phenotypic traits lead to effect propagation across the levels of biological hierarchy; and (iv) the search for concepts to assess the cumulative impact of multiple stressors. An underlying theme in these challenges is that, in addition to the question of what the chemical does to the biological receptor, we should give increasing emphasis to the question how the biological receptor handles the chemicals, i.e., through which pathways the initial chemical-biological interaction extends to the adverse effects, how this extension is modulated by adaptive or compensatory processes as well as by phenotypic traits of the biological receptor. 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain Brain ... called the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Brain Basics in Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life— ...

  3. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Research Glossary Brain Basics (PDF, 10 pages) Introduction Watch the Brain Basics video Welcome. Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses ...

  4. On the analysis of complex biological supply chains: From Process Systems Engineering to Quantitative Systems Pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Rohit T; Scherholz, Megerle L; Hartmanshenn, Clara; Bae, Seul-A; Androulakis, Ioannis P

    2017-12-05

    The use of models in biology has become particularly relevant as it enables investigators to develop a mechanistic framework for understanding the operating principles of living systems as well as in quantitatively predicting their response to both pathological perturbations and pharmacological interventions. This application has resulted in a synergistic convergence of systems biology and pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling techniques that has led to the emergence of quantitative systems pharmacology (QSP). In this review, we discuss how the foundational principles of chemical process systems engineering inform the progressive development of more physiologically-based systems biology models.

  5. Operation and control of SBR processes for enhanced biological nutrient removal from wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Puig Broch, Sebastià

    2008-01-01

    In the last decades, the awareness of environmental issues has increased in society considerably. There is an increasing need to improve the effluent quality of domestic wastewater treatment processes. This thesis describes the application of the Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) technology for Biological Nutrient Removal (BNR) from the wastewater. In particular, the work presented evolves from the nitrogen removal to the biological nutrient removal (i.e. nitrogen plus phosphorous removal) with ...

  6. Basic Cancer Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... basics of cancer . Carcinoma Cancer that starts in skin or tissues that line the inside or cover the outside of internal organs. Cells The basic units that make up the human body. Chemoprevention The use of natural, synthetic (made in a laboratory), or biologic (from a ...

  7. Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I am particularly happy that the Academy is bringing out this document by Professor M S. Valiathan on Ayurvedic Biology. It is an effort to place before the scientific community, especially that of India, the unique scientific opportunities that arise out of viewing Ayurveda from the perspective of contemporary science, its tools ...

  8. Basic characteristics of Australian iron ore concentrate and its effects on sinter properties during the high-limonite sintering process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong-hui; Liu, Hao; Zhang, Jian-liang; Liu, Zheng-jian; Xue, Xun; Wang, Guang-wei; Kang, Qing-feng

    2017-09-01

    The basic characteristics of Australian iron ore concentrate (Ore-A) and its effects on sinter properties during a high-limonite sintering process were studied using micro-sinter and sinter pot methods. The results show that the Ore-A exhibits good granulation properties, strong liquid flow capability, high bonding phase strength and crystal strength, but poor assimilability. With increasing Ore-A ratio, the tumbler index and the reduction index (RI) of the sinter first increase and then decrease, whereas the softening interval (Δ T) and the softening start temperature ( T 10%) of the sinter exhibit the opposite behavior; the reduction degradation index (RDI+3.15) of the sinter increases linearly, but the sinter yield exhibits no obvious effects. With increasing Ore-A ratio, the distribution and crystallization of the minerals are improved, the main bonding phase first changes from silico-ferrite of calcium and aluminum (SFCA) to kirschsteinite, silicate, and SFCA and then transforms to 2CaO·SiO2 and SFCA. Given the utilization of Ore-A and the improvement of the sinter properties, the Ore-A ratio in the high-limonite sintering process is suggested to be controlled at approximately 6wt%.

  9. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics transport and rate processes in physical, chemical and biological systems

    CERN Document Server

    Demirel, Yasar

    2014-01-01

    Natural phenomena consist of simultaneously occurring transport processes and chemical reactions. These processes may interact with each other and may lead to self-organized structures, fluctuations, instabilities, and evolutionary systems. Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics, 3rd edition emphasizes the unifying role of thermodynamics in analyzing the natural phenomena. This third edition updates and expands on the first and second editions by focusing on the general balance equations for coupled processes of physical, chemical, and biological systems. The new edition contains a new chapte

  10. Effect of Process-Oriented Guided-Inquiry Learning on Non-majors Biology Students' Understanding of Biological Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, Breann M.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of process-oriented guided-inquiry learning (POGIL) on non-majors college biology students' understanding of biological classification. This study addressed an area of science instruction, POGIL in the non-majors college biology laboratory, which has yet to be qualitatively and quantitatively researched. A concurrent triangulation mixed methods approach was used. Students' understanding of biological classification was measured in two areas: scores on pre and posttests (consisting of 11 multiple choice questions), and conceptions of classification as elicited in pre and post interviews and instructor reflections. Participants were Minnesota State University, Mankato students enrolled in BIOL 100 Summer Session. One section was taught with the traditional curriculum (n = 6) and the other section in the POGIL curriculum (n = 10) developed by the researcher. Three students from each section were selected to take part in pre and post interviews. There were no significant differences within each teaching method (p group may have scored higher on the posttest (M = 8.830 +/- .477 vs. M = 7.330 +/- .330; z =-1.729, p = .084) and the traditional group may have scored higher on the pretest than the posttest (M = 8.333 +/- .333 vs M = 7.333 +/- .333; z = -1.650 , p = .099). Two themes emerged after the interviews and instructor reflections: 1) After instruction students had a more extensive understanding of classification in three areas: vocabulary terms, physical characteristics, and types of evidence used to classify. Both groups extended their understanding, but only POGIL students could explain how molecular evidence is used in classification. 2) The challenges preventing students from understanding classification were: familiar animal categories and aquatic habitats, unfamiliar organisms, combining and subdividing initial groupings, and the hierarchical nature of classification. The POGIL students were the only group to

  11. An overview of biological processes and their potential for CO2 capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goli, Amin; Shamiri, Ahmad; Talaiekhozani, Amirreza; Eshtiaghi, Nicky; Aghamohammadi, Nasrin; Aroua, Mohamed Kheireddine

    2016-12-01

    The extensive amount of available information on global warming suggests that this issue has become prevalent worldwide. Majority of countries have issued laws and policies in response to this concern by requiring their industrial sectors to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, such as CO2. Thus, introducing new and more effective treatment methods, such as biological techniques, is crucial to control the emission of greenhouse gases. Many studies have demonstrated CO2 fixation using photo-bioreactors and raceway ponds, but a comprehensive review is yet to be published on biological CO2 fixation. A comprehensive review of CO2 fixation through biological process is presented in this paper as biological processes are ideal to control both organic and inorganic pollutants. This process can also cover the classification of methods, functional mechanisms, designs, and their operational parameters, which are crucial for efficient CO2 fixation. This review also suggests the bio-trickling filter process as an appropriate approach in CO2 fixation to assist in creating a pollution-free environment. Finally, this paper introduces optimum designs, growth rate models, and CO2 fixation of microalgae, functions, and operations in biological CO2 fixation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A semester-long project for teaching basic techniques in molecular biology such as restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis to undergraduate and graduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBartolomeis, Susan M

    2011-01-01

    Several reports on science education suggest that students at all levels learn better if they are immersed in a project that is long term, yielding results that require analysis and interpretation. I describe a 12-wk laboratory project suitable for upper-level undergraduates and first-year graduate students, in which the students molecularly locate and map a gene from Drosophila melanogaster called dusky and one of dusky's mutant alleles. The mapping strategy uses restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis; hence, students perform most of the basic techniques of molecular biology (DNA isolation, restriction enzyme digestion and mapping, plasmid vector subcloning, agarose and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, DNA labeling, and Southern hybridization) toward the single goal of characterizing dusky and the mutant allele dusky(73). Students work as individuals, pairs, or in groups of up to four students. Some exercises require multitasking and collaboration between groups. Finally, results from everyone in the class are required for the final analysis. Results of pre- and postquizzes and surveys indicate that student knowledge of appropriate topics and skills increased significantly, students felt more confident in the laboratory, and students found the laboratory project interesting and challenging. Former students report that the lab was useful in their careers.

  13. ``What if we were in a test tube?'' Students' gendered meaning making during a biology lesson about the basic facts of the human genitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlander, Auli Arvola

    2014-06-01

    This paper explores what happens in the encounters between presentations of "basic facts" about the human genitals and 15-year-old students during a biology lesson in a Swedish secondary school. In this paper, meaning making was approached as relational, context-dependent and continually transacted. For this reason the analysis was conducted through a series of close readings of situations where students interacted with each other and the teacher in opening up gaps about alternative ways of discussing gender. Drawing on Foucault's theories about the inclusion and exclusion of knowledge and the subsequent work of Butler and other feminist researchers, the paper illuminates what gendered relations remain tacit in the conversation. It then illustrates possible ways in which these tacit gendered meanings could be made overt and discussed with the students when making meaning about the human genitals. The paper also shows how the ways in which human genitals are transacted in the science classroom have importance for what kind of learning is made available to the students.

  14. DNA micelle flares: a study of the basic properties that contribute to enhanced stability and binding affinity in complex biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanyue; Wu, Cuichen; Chen, Tao; Sun, Hao; Cansiz, Sena; Zhang, Liqin; Cui, Cheng; Hou, Weijia; Wu, Yuan; Wan, Shuo; Cai, Ren; Liu, Yuan; Sumerlin, Brent; Zhang, Xiaobing; Tan, Weihong

    2016-01-01

    DMFs are spherical DNA-diacyllipid nanostructures formed by hydrophobic effects between lipid tails coupled to single-stranded DNAs. Such properties as high cellular permeability, low critical micelle concentration (CMC) and facile fabrication facilitate intracellular imaging and drug delivery. While the basic properties of NFs have been amply described and tested, few studies have characterized the fundamental properties of DMFs with particular respect to aggregation number, dissociation constant and biostability. Therefore, to further explore their conformational features and enhanced stability in complex biological systems, we herein report a series of characterization studies. Static light scattering (SLS) demonstrated that DMFs possess greater DNA loading capacity when compared to other DNA-based nanostructures. Upon binding to complementary DNA (cDNA), DMFs showed excellent dissociation constants (K d ) and increased melting temperatures, as well as constant CMC (10 nM) independent of DNA length. DMFs also present significantly enhanced stability in aqueous solution with nuclease and cell lysate. These properties make DMFs ideal for versatile applications in bioanalysis and theranostics studies.

  15. A Semester-Long Project for Teaching Basic Techniques in Molecular Biology Such as Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis to Undergraduate and Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBartolomeis, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    Several reports on science education suggest that students at all levels learn better if they are immersed in a project that is long term, yielding results that require analysis and interpretation. I describe a 12-wk laboratory project suitable for upper-level undergraduates and first-year graduate students, in which the students molecularly locate and map a gene from Drosophila melanogaster called dusky and one of dusky's mutant alleles. The mapping strategy uses restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis; hence, students perform most of the basic techniques of molecular biology (DNA isolation, restriction enzyme digestion and mapping, plasmid vector subcloning, agarose and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, DNA labeling, and Southern hybridization) toward the single goal of characterizing dusky and the mutant allele dusky73. Students work as individuals, pairs, or in groups of up to four students. Some exercises require multitasking and collaboration between groups. Finally, results from everyone in the class are required for the final analysis. Results of pre- and postquizzes and surveys indicate that student knowledge of appropriate topics and skills increased significantly, students felt more confident in the laboratory, and students found the laboratory project interesting and challenging. Former students report that the lab was useful in their careers. PMID:21364104

  16. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... at NIMH News & Events About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain Brain Basics in Real Life Brain Research Glossary Brain Basics (PDF, 10 pages) Introduction Watch the Brain Basics video ...

  17. Proceeding of the Scientific Meeting and Presentation on Basic Research in Nuclear of the Scientific and Technology Part II : Nuclear Chemistry; Process Technology and Radioactive Waste Management; Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudjatmoko; Karmanto, Eko Edy; Endang-Supartini

    1996-04-01

    Scientific Meeting and Presentation on Basic Research in Nuclear Science and Technology is a routine activity was held by Yogyakarta Nuclear Research Centre, National Atomic Energy Agency (BATAN) for monitoring the research activity which achieved in BATAN. The Proceeding contains a proposal about basic which has Nuclear Chemistry, Process Technology, Radioactive Waste Management and Environment. This proceeding is the second part from two part which published in series. There are 61 articles which have separated index

  18. Impaired global, and compensatory local, biological motion processing in people with high levels of autistic traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen J A Van Boxtel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available People with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD are hypothesized to have poor high-level processing but superior low-level processing, causing impaired social recognition, and a focus on non-social stimulus contingencies. Biological motion perception provides an ideal domain to investigate exactly how ASD modulates the interaction between low and high-level processing, because it involves multiple processing stages, and carries many important social cues. We investigated individual differences among typically developing observers in biological motion processing, and whether such individual differences associate with the number of autistic traits. In Experiment 1, we found that individuals with fewer autistic traits were automatically and involuntarily attracted to global biological motion information, whereas individuals with more autistic traits did not show this pre-attentional distraction. We employed an action adaptation paradigm in the second study to show that individuals with more autistic traits were able to compensate for deficits in global processing with an increased involvement in local processing. Our findings can be interpreted within a predictive coding framework, which characterizes the functional relationship between local and global processing stages, and explains how these stages contribute to the perceptual difficulties associated with ASD.

  19. Brushing Your Spacecrafts Teeth: A Review of Biological Reduction Processes for Planetary Protection Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugel, D.E. (Betsy); Rummel, J. D.; Conley, C. A.

    2017-01-01

    Much like keeping your teeth clean, where you brush away biofilms that your dentist calls plaque, there are various methods to clean spaceflight hardware of biological contamination, known as biological reduction processes. Different approaches clean your hardwares teeth in different ways and with different levels of effectiveness. We know that brushing at home with a simple toothbrush is convenient and has a different level of impact vs. getting your teeth cleaned at the dentist. In the same way, there are some approaches to biological reduction that may require simple tools or more complex implementation approaches (think about sonicating or just soaking your dentures, vs. brushing them). There are also some that are more effective for different degrees of cleanliness and still some that have materials compatibility concerns. In this article, we review known and NASA-certified approaches for biological reduction, pointing out materials compatibility concerns and areas where additional research is needed.

  20. Combined heterogeneous Electro-Fenton and biological process for the treatment of stabilized landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiju, Archa; Gandhimathi, R; Ramesh, S T; Nidheesh, P V

    2018-03-15

    Treatment of stabilized landfill leachate is a great challenge due to its poor biodegradability. Present study made an attempt to treat this wastewater by combining electro-Fenton (E-Fenton) and biological process. E-Fenton treatment was applied prior to biological process to enhance the biodegradability of leachate, which will be beneficial for the subsequent biological process. This study also investigates the efficiency of iron molybdophosphate (FeMoPO) nanoparticles as a heterogeneous catalyst in E-Fenton process. The effects of initial pH, catalyst dosage, applied voltage and electrode spacing on Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal efficiency were analyzed to determine the optimum conditions. Heterogeneous E-Fenton process gave 82% COD removal at pH 2, catalyst dosage of 50 mg/L, voltage 5 V, electrode spacing 3 cm and electrode area 25 cm 2 . Combined E-Fenton and biological treatment resulted an overall COD removal of 97%, bringing down the final COD to 192 mg/L. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effectiveness of photochemical and sonochemical processes in degradation of Basic Violet 16 (BV16 dye from aqueous solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmani Zahra

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, degradation of Basic Violet 16 (BV16 by ultraviolet radiation (UV, ultrasonic irradiation (US, UV/H2O2 and US/H2O2 processes was investigated in a laboratory-scale batch photoreactor equipped with a 55W immersed-type low-pressure mercury vapor lamp and a sonoreactor with high frequency (130kHz plate type transducer at 100W of acoustic power. The effects of initial dye concentration, concentration of H2O2 and solution pH and presence of Na2SO4 was studied on the sonochemical and photochemical destruction of BV16 in aqueous phase. The results indicated that in the UV/H2O2 and US/H2O2 systems, a sufficient amount of H2O2 was necessary, but a very high H2O2 concentration would inhibit the reaction rate. The optimum H2O2 concentration was achieved in the range of 17 mmol/L at dye concentration of 30 mg/L. A degradation of 99% was obtained with UV/H2O2 within 8 minutes while decolorization efficiency by using UV (23%, US (2O2(

  2. Dynamic Model of Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Process Based on Multi-zone Reaction Kinetics: Model Derivation and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, Bapin Kumar; Brooks, Geoff; Rhamdhani, M. Akbar; Li, Zushu; Schrama, Frank N. H.; Sun, Jianjun

    2018-04-01

    A multi-zone kinetic model coupled with a dynamic slag generation model was developed for the simulation of hot metal and slag composition during the basic oxygen furnace (BOF) operation. The three reaction zones (i) jet impact zone, (ii) slag-bulk metal zone, (iii) slag-metal-gas emulsion zone were considered for the calculation of overall refining kinetics. In the rate equations, the transient rate parameters were mathematically described as a function of process variables. A micro and macroscopic rate calculation methodology (micro-kinetics and macro-kinetics) were developed to estimate the total refining contributed by the recirculating metal droplets through the slag-metal emulsion zone. The micro-kinetics involves developing the rate equation for individual droplets in the emulsion. The mathematical models for the size distribution of initial droplets, kinetics of simultaneous refining of elements, the residence time in the emulsion, and dynamic interfacial area change were established in the micro-kinetic model. In the macro-kinetics calculation, a droplet generation model was employed and the total amount of refining by emulsion was calculated by summing the refining from the entire population of returning droplets. A dynamic FetO generation model based on oxygen mass balance was developed and coupled with the multi-zone kinetic model. The effect of post-combustion on the evolution of slag and metal composition was investigated. The model was applied to a 200-ton top blowing converter and the simulated value of metal and slag was found to be in good agreement with the measured data. The post-combustion ratio was found to be an important factor in controlling FetO content in the slag and the kinetics of Mn and P in a BOF process.

  3. Dynamic Model of Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Process Based on Multi-zone Reaction Kinetics: Model Derivation and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, Bapin Kumar; Brooks, Geoff; Rhamdhani, M. Akbar; Li, Zushu; Schrama, Frank N. H.; Sun, Jianjun

    2018-01-01

    A multi-zone kinetic model coupled with a dynamic slag generation model was developed for the simulation of hot metal and slag composition during the basic oxygen furnace (BOF) operation. The three reaction zones (i) jet impact zone, (ii) slag-bulk metal zone, (iii) slag-metal-gas emulsion zone were considered for the calculation of overall refining kinetics. In the rate equations, the transient rate parameters were mathematically described as a function of process variables. A micro and macroscopic rate calculation methodology (micro-kinetics and macro-kinetics) were developed to estimate the total refining contributed by the recirculating metal droplets through the slag-metal emulsion zone. The micro-kinetics involves developing the rate equation for individual droplets in the emulsion. The mathematical models for the size distribution of initial droplets, kinetics of simultaneous refining of elements, the residence time in the emulsion, and dynamic interfacial area change were established in the micro-kinetic model. In the macro-kinetics calculation, a droplet generation model was employed and the total amount of refining by emulsion was calculated by summing the refining from the entire population of returning droplets. A dynamic FetO generation model based on oxygen mass balance was developed and coupled with the multi-zone kinetic model. The effect of post-combustion on the evolution of slag and metal composition was investigated. The model was applied to a 200-ton top blowing converter and the simulated value of metal and slag was found to be in good agreement with the measured data. The post-combustion ratio was found to be an important factor in controlling FetO content in the slag and the kinetics of Mn and P in a BOF process.

  4. Basic psychological needs and neurophysiological responsiveness to decisional conflict: an event-related potential study of integrative self processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Domenico, Stefano I; Le, Ada; Liu, Yichuan; Ayaz, Hasan; Fournier, Marc A

    2016-10-01

    Fulfillment of the basic psychological needs for competence, relatedness, and autonomy is believed to facilitate people's integrative tendencies to process psychological conflicts and develop a coherent sense of self. The present study therefore used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine the relation between need fulfillment and the amplitude of conflict negativity (CN), a neurophysiological measure of conflict during personal decision making. Participants completed a decision-making task in which they made a series of forced choices according to their personal preferences. Three types of decision-making situations were created on the basis of participants' unique preference ratings, which were obtained prior to ERP recording: low-conflict situations (choosing between an attractive and an unattractive option), high-conflict approach-approach situations (choosing between two similarly attractive options), and high-conflict avoidance-avoidance situations (choosing between two similarly unattractive options). As expected, CN amplitudes were larger in high- relative to low-conflict situations, and source localization analyses suggested that the anterior cingulate cortex was the generating structure of the CN. Most importantly, people reporting higher need fulfillment exhibited larger CN amplitudes in avoidance-avoidance situations relative to low-conflict situations; to a lesser extent, they also exhibited larger CN amplitudes in approach-approach situations relative to low-conflict situations. By contrast, people reporting lower need fulfillment exhibited CN amplitudes that poorly discriminated the three decision situations. These results suggest that need fulfillment may promote self-coherent functioning by increasing people's receptivity to and processing of events that challenge their abilities to make efficient, self-congruent choices.

  5. Degrading organic micropollutants: The next challenge in the evolution of biological wastewater treatment processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh eSinghal

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Global water scarcity is driving the need for identifying new water source. Wastewater could be a potential water resource if appropriate treatment technologies could be developed. One of the barriers to obtaining high quality water from wastewater arises from the presence of organic micropollutants, which are biologically active at trace levels. Removal of these compounds from wastewater by current physico-chemical technologies is prohibitively expensive. While biological treatment processes are comparatively cheap, current systems are not capable of degrading the wide range of organic micropollutants present in wastewater. As current wastewater treatment processes were developed for treating conventional pollutants present at mg/L levels, degrading the ng/L levels of micropollutants will require a different approach to system design and operation. In this paper we discuss strategies that could be employed to develop biological wastewater treatment systems capable of degrading organic micropollutants.

  6. Degradation of chlorinated paraben by integrated irradiation and biological treatment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shizong; Wang, Jianlong; Sun, Yuliang

    2017-03-15

    Chlorinated paraben, namely, methyl 3, 5-dichloro-4-hydroxybenzoate (MDHB) is the by-product of chlorination disinfection of paraben and frequently detected in the aquatic environments, which exhibited higher persistence and toxicity than paraben itself. In this paper, the combined irradiation and biological treatment process was employed to investigate the removal of MDHB from aqueous solution. The results showed that the removal efficiency of MDHB and total organic carbon (TOC) by irradiation process increased with radiation dose no matter what the initial concentration of MDHB was. The maximum removal efficiency of MDHB was 100%, 91.1%, 93%, respectively, for the initial concentration of MDHB of 1 mg/L, 5 mg/L and 10 mg/L with the radiation dose of 800 Gy. However, the maximum removal efficiency of TOC among all the experimental groups was only 15.3% obtained with the initial concentration of 1 mg/L at dose of 800 Gy. The subsequent biological treatment enhanced the mineralization of MDHB. The suitable radiation dose for the subsequent biological treatment was determined to be 600 Gy. In this case the removal efficiency of TOC increased to about 70%. Compared to the single biological treatment, the integrated irradiation and biological treatment significantly increase the degradation and mineralization of MDHB. Moreover, the dechlorination efficiency reached 77.4% during the integrated irradiation and biological treatment process. In addition, eight intermediates were identified during the combined process and the possible degradation pathway was proposed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Diurnal rhythmicity in biological processes involved in bioavailability of functional food factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurusaki, Takashi; Sakakibara, Hiroyuki; Aoshima, Yoshiki; Yamazaki, Shunsuke; Sakono, Masanobu; Shimoi, Kayoko

    2013-05-01

    In the past few decades, many types of functional factors have been identified in dietary foods; for example, flavonoids are major groups widely distributed in the plant kingdom. However, the absorption rates of the functional food factors are usually low, and many of these are difficult to be absorbed in the intact forms because of metabolization by biological processes during absorption. To gain adequate beneficial effects, it is therefore mandatory to know whether functional food factors are absorbed in sufficient quantity, and then reach target organs while maintaining beneficial effects. These are the reasons why the bioavailability of functional food factors has been well investigated using rodent models. Recently, many of the biological processes have been reported to follow diurnal rhythms recurring every 24 h. Therefore, absorption and metabolism of functional food factors influenced by the biological processes may vary with time of day. Consequently, the evaluation of the bioavailability of functional food factors using rodent models should take into consideration the timing of consumption. In this review, we provide a perspective overview of the diurnal rhythm of biological processes involved in the bioavailability of functional food factors, particularly flavonoids.

  8. Investigation of the Nature of Metaconceptual Processes of Pre-Service Biology Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuruk, Nejla; Selvi, Meryem; Yakisan, Mehmet

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of Study: The aim of this study is to investigate the nature of pre-service biology teachers' metaconceptual processes that were active as they participated in metaconceptual teaching activities. Methods: Several instructional activities, including poster drawing, concept mapping, group and class discussions, and journal writing, were…

  9. Arctic Biotechnology – Sustainable Products and Processes from Arctic Biological Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Mariane Schmidt; Hennessy, Rosanna Catherine; Stougaard, Peter

    Biological resources from the Arctic hold the potential for development of sustainable products and/or processes within areas such as pharma, agriculture, and biotech. Here, we present the identification of cold-active enzymes and biocontrol agents isolated from cold-adapted bacteria. Truly cold...

  10. Do two machine-learning based prognostic signatures for breast cancer capture the same biological processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drier, Yotam; Domany, Eytan

    2011-03-14

    The fact that there is very little if any overlap between the genes of different prognostic signatures for early-discovery breast cancer is well documented. The reasons for this apparent discrepancy have been explained by the limits of simple machine-learning identification and ranking techniques, and the biological relevance and meaning of the prognostic gene lists was questioned. Subsequently, proponents of the prognostic gene lists claimed that different lists do capture similar underlying biological processes and pathways. The present study places under scrutiny the validity of this claim, for two important gene lists that are at the focus of current large-scale validation efforts. We performed careful enrichment analysis, controlling the effects of multiple testing in a manner which takes into account the nested dependent structure of gene ontologies. In contradiction to several previous publications, we find that the only biological process or pathway for which statistically significant concordance can be claimed is cell proliferation, a process whose relevance and prognostic value was well known long before gene expression profiling. We found that the claims reported by others, of wider concordance between the biological processes captured by the two prognostic signatures studied, were found either to be lacking statistical rigor or were in fact based on addressing some other question.

  11. Do two machine-learning based prognostic signatures for breast cancer capture the same biological processes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yotam Drier

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The fact that there is very little if any overlap between the genes of different prognostic signatures for early-discovery breast cancer is well documented. The reasons for this apparent discrepancy have been explained by the limits of simple machine-learning identification and ranking techniques, and the biological relevance and meaning of the prognostic gene lists was questioned. Subsequently, proponents of the prognostic gene lists claimed that different lists do capture similar underlying biological processes and pathways. The present study places under scrutiny the validity of this claim, for two important gene lists that are at the focus of current large-scale validation efforts. We performed careful enrichment analysis, controlling the effects of multiple testing in a manner which takes into account the nested dependent structure of gene ontologies. In contradiction to several previous publications, we find that the only biological process or pathway for which statistically significant concordance can be claimed is cell proliferation, a process whose relevance and prognostic value was well known long before gene expression profiling. We found that the claims reported by others, of wider concordance between the biological processes captured by the two prognostic signatures studied, were found either to be lacking statistical rigor or were in fact based on addressing some other question.

  12. The chemistry-biology-medicine continuum and the drug discovery and development process in academia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaou, K C

    2014-09-18

    Admirable as it is, the drug discovery and development process is continuously undergoing changes and adjustments in search of further improvements in efficiency, productivity, and profitability. Recent trends in academic-industrial partnerships promise to provide new opportunities for advancements of this process through transdisciplinary collaborations along the entire spectrum of activities involved in this complex process. This perspective discusses ways to promote the emerging academic paradigm of the chemistry-biology-medicine continuum as a means to advance the drug discovery and development process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Process simulation and comparison of biological conversion of syngas and hydrogen in biogas plants

    OpenAIRE

    Salman Chaudhary Awais; Schwede Sebastian; Thorin Eva; Yan Jinyue

    2017-01-01

    Organic waste is a good source of clean energy. However, different fractions of waste have to be utilized efficiently. One way is to find pathways to convert waste into useful products via various available processes (gasification, pyrolysis anaerobic digestion, etc.) and integrate them to increase the combined efficiency of the process. The syngas and hydrogen produced from the thermal conversion of biomass can be upgraded to biomethane via biological methanation. The current study presents ...

  14. Grunnleggende ferdigheter for arbeidslivet? Bruk og betydning i restaurant- og matfagyrker: [Basic skills for working life? Use and importance in restaurant and food processing occupations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halvor Spetalen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A framework for basic skills is included in all subjects and curricula throughout the Norwegian school system. These basic skills are defined as reading, numeracy, and oral, written and digital skills. In this article, I question to what extent these basic skills are being used in professional practice within a selection of restaurant and food processing occupations. The empirical data in the article is based on a survey done autumn 2015 (Spetalen, Eben and Jahanlu, 2016. The report shows that basic skills are being used to various degrees. This variation is not only between different restaurant- and food processing trades, but also in relation to certified skilled workers and those with management responsibilities. Data from this survey indicate that managers and skilled professionals correlated significantly when using basic skills for work. Both mangers and skilled professionals make use of basic skills far more often than professionals without managerial responsibility and non-skilled workers, do. Influenced by Michael Young’s (2004 theory, this survey gives valuable input in developing new vocational curricula relating to a reformed structure in Norwegian vocational training, starting autumn 2019.

  15. Chemical analysis and biological testing of materials from the EDS coal liquefaction process: a status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Later, D.W.; Pelroy, R.A.; Wilson, B.W.

    1984-05-01

    Representative process materials were obtained from the EDS pilot plant for chemical and biological analyses. These materials were characterized for biological activity and chemical composition using a microbial mutagenicity assay and chromatographic and mass spectrometric analytical techniques. The two highest boiling distillation cuts, as well as process solvent (PS) obtained from the bottoms recycle mode operation, were tested for initiation of mouse skin tumorigenicity. All three materials were active; the crude 800/sup 0 +/F cut was substantially more potent than the crude bottoms recycle PS or 750 to 800/sup 0/F distillate cut. Results from chemical analyses showed the EDS materials, in general, to be more highly alkylated and have higher hydroaromatic content than analogous SRC II process materials (no in-line process hydrogenation) used for comparison. In the microbial mutagenicity assays the N-PAC fractions showed greater activity than did the aliphatic hydrocarbon, hydroxy-PAH, or PAH fractions, although mutagenicity was detected in certain PAH fractions by a modified version of the standard microbial mutagenicity assay. Mutagenic activities for the EDS materials were lower, overall, than those for the corresponding materials from the SRC II process. The EDS materials produced under different operational modes had distinguishable differences in both their chemical constituency and biological activity. The primary differences between the EDS materials studied here and their SRC II counterparts used for comparison are most likely attributable to the incorporation of catalytic hydrogenation in the EDS process. 27 references, 28 figures, 27 tables.

  16. Microbiology and atmospheric processes: the role of biological particles in cloud physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Möhler

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available As part of a series of papers on the sources, distribution and potential impact of biological particles in the atmosphere, this paper introduces and summarizes the potential role of biological particles in atmospheric clouds. Biological particles like bacteria or pollen may be active as both cloud condensation nuclei (CCN and heterogeneous ice nuclei (IN and thereby can contribute to the initial cloud formation stages and the development of precipitation through giant CCN and IN processes. The paper gives an introduction to aerosol-cloud processes involving CCN and IN in general and provides a short summary of previous laboratory, field and modelling work which investigated the CCN and IN activity of bacterial cells and pollen. Recent measurements of atmospheric ice nuclei with a continuous flow diffusion chamber (CFDC and of the heterogeneous ice nucleation efficiency of bacterial cells are also briefly discussed. As a main result of this overview paper we conclude that a proper assessment of the impact of biological particles on tropospheric clouds needs new laboratory, field and modelling work on the abundance of biological particles in the atmosphere and their CCN and heterogeneous IN properties.

  17. Mineralization of 2-chlorophenol by sequential electrochemical reductive dechlorination and biological processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arellano-González, Miguel Ángel; González, Ignacio [Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Departamento de Química, Av. San Rafael Atlixco No. 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Texier, Anne-Claire, E-mail: actx@xanum.uam.mx [Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Departamento de Biotecnología, Av. San Rafael Atlixco No. 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Dechlorination of 2-chlorophenol to phenol was 100% efficient on Pd-Ni/Ti electrode. • An ECCOCEL reactor was efficient and selective to obtain phenol from 2-chlorophenol. • Phenol was totally mineralized in a coupled denitrifying biorreactor. • Global time of 2-chlorophenol mineralization in the combined system was 7.5 h. - Abstract: In this work, a novel approach was applied to obtain the mineralization of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) in an electrochemical-biological combined system where an electrocatalytic dehydrogenation process (reductive dechlorination) was coupled to a biological denitrification process. Reductive dechlorination of 2-CP was conducted in an ECCOCEL-type reactor on a Pd-Ni/Ti electrode at a potential of −0.40 V vs Ag/AgCl{sub (s)}/KCl{sub (sat)}, achieving 100 percent transformation of 2-CP into phenol. The electrochemically pretreated effluent was fed to a rotating cylinder denitrifying bioreactor where the totality of phenol was mineralized by denitrification, obtaining CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2} as the end products. The total time required for 2-CP mineralization in the combined electrochemical-biological process was 7.5 h. This value is close to those previously reported for electrochemical and advanced oxidation processes but in this case, an efficient process was obtained without accumulation of by-products or generation of excessive energy costs due to the selective electrochemical pretreatment. This study showed that the use of electrochemical reductive pretreatment combined with biological processes could be a promising technology for the removal of recalcitrant molecules, such as chlorophenols, from wastewaters by more efficient, rapid, and environmentally friendly processes.

  18. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit of the brain ... specialized for the function of conducting messages. A neuron has three basic parts: Cell body which includes ...

  19. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in Real Life Brain Research Glossary Brain Basics (PDF, 10 pages) Introduction Watch the Brain Basics video ... and epigenetic changes can be passed on to future generations. Further understanding of genes and epigenetics may ...

  20. An Evaluation of the Quality of the Desinfection Process in Inanimated Surfaces of Basic Health Units by Biomarkers Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Bandeira Fucci

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Infection Related Health Care – IRHC may occur by exogenous transmission through the contamination of contaminated surfaces. This study aimed at verifying the quality of the process of disinfecting inanimate surfaces of Basic Health Units – BHU in a northeastern city in São Paulo state, through the presence of biomarkers, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. We evaluated 7 UBS in random times and days, covering the following areas: dressing-room doorknob, drinking fountains and faucets, office desk, reception counter. Sterile swabs were rubbed on a 20 cm2 surface and transported to the laboratory in Stuart medium to the Clinical Analyses Didactic Laboratory of UNIFEV. The samples were cultured on Blood agar and MacConkey agar at 35 ± 1oC for 24 hours in aerobic and microaerophilic jar, respectively. Staphylococcus aureus was identified by the production of hemolysin, catalase and coagulase. Escherichia coli was identified using the biochemical tests: TSI, citrate, urease, indole, lysine, ornithine and arginine. Of the 105 samples analyzed, 6.66% of the samples were positive for Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli to 2.85%. The Areas which showed the presence of biomarkers were: the reception booth, booth pharmacy, handles of the dressing room, dressing room faucet and drinking fountain. These results corroborate other studies that show that inanimate surfaces are important sources of contamination in the healthcare environment, contributing to crosscontamination and, consequently, to the increase of infection to the patient who is subjected to procedures in this environment. Within this context, government, by means of public health policies, is responsible for the training of health professionals, contributing to the promotion and prevention of public health

  1. Natural physical and biological processes compromise the long-term performance of compacted soil caps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.D.

    1995-01-01

    Compacted soil barriers are components of essentially all caps placed on closed waste disposal sites. The intended functions of soil barriers in waste facility caps include restricting infiltration of water and release of gases and vapors, either independently or in combination with synthetic membrane barriers, and protecting other manmade or natural barrier components. Review of the performance of installed soil barriers and of natural processes affecting their performance indicates that compacted soil caps may function effectively for relatively short periods (years to decades), but natural physical and biological processes can be expected to cause them to fail in the long term (decades to centuries). This paper addresses natural physical and biological processes that compromise the performance of compacted soil caps and suggests measures that may reduce the adverse consequences of these natural failure mechanisms

  2. A comparison of form processing involved in the perception of biological and nonbiological movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, Steven M; Lu, Hongjing

    2016-01-01

    Although there is evidence for specialization in the human brain for processing biological motion per se, few studies have directly examined the specialization of form processing in biological motion perception. The current study was designed to systematically compare form processing in perception of biological (human walkers) to nonbiological (rotating squares) stimuli. Dynamic form-based stimuli were constructed with conflicting form cues (position and orientation), such that the objects were perceived to be moving ambiguously in two directions at once. In Experiment 1, we used the classification image technique to examine how local form cues are integrated across space and time in a bottom-up manner. By comparing with a Bayesian observer model that embodies generic principles of form analysis (e.g., template matching) and integrates form information according to cue reliability, we found that human observers employ domain-general processes to recognize both human actions and nonbiological object movements. Experiments 2 and 3 found differential top-down effects of spatial context on perception of biological and nonbiological forms. When a background does not involve social information, observers are biased to perceive foreground object movements in the direction opposite to surrounding motion. However, when a background involves social cues, such as a crowd of similar objects, perception is biased toward the same direction as the crowd for biological walking stimuli, but not for rotating nonbiological stimuli. The model provided an accurate account of top-down modulations by adjusting the prior probabilities associated with the internal templates, demonstrating the power and flexibility of the Bayesian approach for visual form perception.

  3. Group processing in an undergraduate biology course for preservice teachers: Experiences and attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberger, Lauren Brownback

    Group processing is a key principle of cooperative learning in which small groups discuss their strengths and weaknesses and set group goals or norms. However, group processing has not been well-studied at the post-secondary level or from a qualitative or mixed methods perspective. This mixed methods study uses a phenomenological framework to examine the experience of group processing for students in an undergraduate biology course for preservice teachers. The effect of group processing on students' attitudes toward future group work and group processing is also examined. Additionally, this research investigated preservice teachers' plans for incorporating group processing into future lessons. Students primarily experienced group processing as a time to reflect on past performance. Also, students experienced group processing as a time to increase communication among group members and become motivated for future group assignments. Three factors directly influenced students' experiences with group processing: (1) previous experience with group work, (2) instructor interaction, and (3) gender. Survey data indicated that group processing had a slight positive effect on students' attitudes toward future group work and group processing. Participants who were interviewed felt that group processing was an important part of group work and that it had increased their group's effectiveness as well as their ability to work effectively with other people. Participants held positive views on group work prior to engaging in group processing, and group processing did not alter their atittude toward group work. Preservice teachers who were interviewed planned to use group work and a modified group processing protocol in their future classrooms. They also felt that group processing had prepared them for their future professions by modeling effective collaboration and group skills. Based on this research, a new model for group processing has been created which includes extensive

  4. Treatment of winery wastewater by physicochemical, biological and advanced processes: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou, L A; Li Puma, G; Fatta-Kassinos, D

    2015-04-09

    Winery wastewater is a major waste stream resulting from numerous cleaning operations that occur during the production stages of wine. The resulting effluent contains various organic and inorganic contaminants and its environmental impact is notable, mainly due to its high organic/inorganic load, the large volumes produced and its seasonal variability. Several processes for the treatment of winery wastewater are currently available, but the development of alternative treatment methods is necessary in order to (i) maximize the efficiency and flexibility of the treatment process to meet the discharge requirements for winery effluents, and (ii) decrease both the environmental footprint, as well as the investment/operational costs of the process. This review, presents the state-of-the-art of the processes currently applied and/or tested for the treatment of winery wastewater, which were divided into five categories: i.e., physicochemical, biological, membrane filtration and separation, advanced oxidation processes, and combined biological and advanced oxidation processes. The advantages and disadvantages, as well as the main parameters/factors affecting the efficiency of winery wastewater treatment are discussed. Both bench- and pilot/industrial-scale processes have been considered for this review. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of Basicity and MgO in Slag on the Behaviors of Smelting Vanadium Titanomagnetite in the Direct Reduction-Electric Furnace Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Jiang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of basicity and MgO content on reduction behavior and separation of iron and slag during smelting vanadium titanomagnetite by electric furnace were investigated. The reduction behaviors affect the separation of iron and slag in the direct reduction-electric furnace process. The recovery rates of Fe, V, and Ti grades in iron were analyzed to determine the effects of basicity and MgO content on the reduction of iron oxides, vanadium oxides, and titanium oxides. The chemical compositions of vanadium-bearing iron and main phases of titanium slag were detected by XRF and XRD, respectively. The results show that the higher level of basicity is beneficial to the reduction ofiron oxides and vanadium oxides, and titanium content dropped in molten iron with the increasing basicity. As the content of MgO increased, the recovery rate of Fe increased slightly but the recovery rate of V increased considerably. The grades of Ti in molten iron were at a low level without significant change when MgO content was below 11%, but increased as MgO content increased to 12.75%. The optimum conditions for smelting vanadium titanomagnetite were about 11.38% content of MgO and quaternary basicity was about 1.10. The product, vanadium-bearing iron, can be applied in the converter steelmaking process, and titanium slag containing 50.34% TiO2 can be used by the acid leaching method.

  6. The Divergent Thinking of Basic Skills of Sciences Process Skills of Life Aspects on Natural Sciences Subject in Indonesian Elementary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subali, Bambang; Paidi; Mariyam, Siti

    2016-01-01

    This research aims at measuring the divergent thinking of basic skills of science process skills (SPS) of life aspects in Natural Sciences subjects on Elementary School. The test instruments used in this research have been standardized through the development of instruments. In this case, the tests were tried out to 3070 students. The results of…

  7. Mineral CO2 sequestration in basalts and ultra-basic rocks: impact of secondary silicated phases on the carbonation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sissmann, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    The formation of carbonates constitutes a stable option for carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) geological sequestration, and is prone to play a significant role in reducing emissions of anthropic origin. However, our comprehension of the carbonation mechanism, as well as of the kinetics limitations encountered during this chemical reaction, remains poorly developed. Though there is a large number of studies focusing on the dissolution kinetics of basic silicates and on the precipitation of carbonates, few have inquired about the impact that the formation of non-carbonated secondary phases can have on these reaction's kinetics. It is the approach chosen here, as only solid knowledge of the global carbonation mechanism can make this process predictive and efficient. Experimental data on dissolution and carbonation have therefore been determined in batch reactors, on relevant minerals and rocks. Firstly, we studied the carbonation of olivine (a major phase within peridotites and minor within basalts) at 90 deg. C and under pCO 2 of 280 bars. The dissolution of San Carlos olivine (Mg 1.76 Fe 0.24 SiO 4 ) is slowed down by the formation of a surface silica gel, when the fluid reaches equilibrium with amorphous silica. The transport of species to the reactive medium becomes the limiting step of the process, slowing down the dissolution process of San Carlos olivine by 5 orders of magnitude. However, this passivation doesn't occur during the alteration of Ca-olivine (Ca 2 SiO 4 ), though a surface silica layer does form. This comparison suggests that it isn't the structure of the silicate but its chemical composition, which controls the transport properties through the interfacial layer. The second part explores the effects of organic ligands and of temperature variations on the formation of those phases. The addition of citrate at 90 deg. C increases the kinetics of San Carlos olivine by one order of magnitude, and allows the release of enough Mg in the aqueous medium to form

  8. HRI catalytic two-stage liquefaction (CTSL) process materials: chemical analysis and biological testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, C.W.; Later, D.W.

    1985-12-01

    This report presents data from the chemical analysis and biological testing of coal liquefaction materials obtained from the Hydrocarbon Research, Incorporated (HRI) catalytic two-stage liquefaction (CTSL) process. Materials from both an experimental run and a 25-day demonstration run were analyzed. Chemical methods of analysis included adsorption column chromatography, high-resolution gas chromatography, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, low-voltage probe-inlet mass spectrometry, and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The biological activity was evaluated using the standard microbial mutagenicity assay and an initiation/promotion assay for mouse-skin tumorigenicity. Where applicable, the results obtained from the analyses of the CTSL materials have been compared to those obtained from the integrated and nonintegrated two-stage coal liquefaction processes. 18 refs., 26 figs., 22 tabs.

  9. Marketing the use of the space environment for the processing of biological and pharmaceutical materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The perceptions of U.S. biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies concerning the potential use of the space environment for the processing of biological substances was examined. Physical phenomena that may be important in space-base processing of biological materials are identified and discussed in the context of past and current experiment programs. The capabilities of NASA to support future research and development, and to engage in cooperative risk sharing programs with industry are discussed. Meetings were held with several biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies to provide data for an analysis of the attitudes and perceptions of these industries toward the use of the space environment. Recommendations are made for actions that might be taken by NASA to facilitate the marketing of the use of the space environment, and in particular the Space Shuttle, to the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries.

  10. Biological treatment of fish processing wastewater: A case study from Sfax City (Southeastern Tunisia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemli, Meryem; Karray, Fatma; Feki, Firas; Loukil, Slim; Mhiri, Najla; Aloui, Fathi; Sayadi, Sami

    2015-04-01

    The present work presents a study of the biological treatment of fish processing wastewater at salt concentration of 55 g/L. Wastewater was treated by both continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) and membrane bioreactor (MBR) during 50 and 100 days, respectively. These biological processes involved salt-tolerant bacteria from natural hypersaline environments at different organic loading rates (OLRs). The phylogenetic analysis of the corresponding excised DGGE bands has demonstrated that the taxonomic affiliation of the most dominant species includes Halomonadaceae and Flavobacteriaceae families of the Proteobacteria (Gamma-proteobacteria class) and the Bacteroidetes phyla, respectively. The results of MBR were better than those of CSTR in the removal of total organic carbon with efficiencies from 97.9% to 98.6%. Nevertheless, salinity with increasing OLR aggravates fouling that requires more cleaning for a membrane in MBR while leads to deterioration of sludge settleability and effluent quality in CSTR. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Sensory processing sensitivity: a review in the light of the evolution of biological responsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron, Elaine N; Aron, Arthur; Jagiellowicz, Jadzia

    2012-08-01

    This article reviews the literature on sensory processing sensitivity (SPS) in light of growing evidence from evolutionary biology that many personality differences in nonhuman species involve being more or less responsive, reactive, flexible, or sensitive to the environment. After briefly defining SPS, it first discusses how biologists studying animal personality have conceptualized this general environmental sensitivity. Second, it reviews relevant previous human personality/temperament work, focusing on crossover interactions (where a trait generates positive or negative outcomes depending on the environment), and traits relevant to specific hypothesized aspects of SPS: inhibition of behavior, sensitivity to stimuli, depth of processing, and emotional/physiological reactivity. Third, it reviews support for the overall SPS model, focusing on development of the Highly Sensitive Person (HSP) Scale as a measure of SPS then on neuroimaging and genetic studies using the scale, all of which bears on the extent to which SPS in humans corresponds to biological responsivity.

  12. Microbialites and microbial communities: Biological diversity, biogeochemical functioning, diagenetic processes, tracers of environmental changes

    OpenAIRE

    Camoin, Gilbert; Gautret, Pascale

    2006-01-01

    Editorial; This special issue is dedicated to microbialites and microbial communities and addresses their biological diversity, their biogeochemical functioning, their roles in diagenetic processes and their environmental significance. It is the logical successor of the special issue that one of us edited after the workshop on “Microbial mediation in carbonate diagenesis” which was held in Chichilianne (France) in 1997 (Camoin, G., Ed., 1999. Microbial mediation in carbonate diagenesis. Sedim...

  13. A short comparison of electron and proton transfer processes in biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertrand, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    The main differences between electron and proton transfers that take place in biological systems are examined. The relation between the distance dependence of the rate constant and the mass of the transferred particle is analyzed in detail. Differences between the two processes have important consequences at the experimental level, which are discussed. The various mechanisms that ensure the coupling between electron and proton transfers are briefly described

  14. Influence of Technological Processes on Biologically Active Compounds of Produced Grapes Juices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tříska, Jan; Balík, J.; Strohalm, J.; Novotná, P.; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Lefnerová, D.; Landfeld, A.; Híc, P.; Tománková, E.; Veverka, J.; Houška, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 3 (2016), s. 421-429 ISSN 1935-5130 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA MZe QJ1210258; GA MZe QI91B094 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Grapevine juices * Thermomaceration * Biologically active compounds * Antioxidative capacity * Total polyphenols * Antimutagenic activity Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 2.576, year: 2016

  15. Parts, Materials, and Processes Experience Summary. Volume 1; [Catalog of ALERT and Other Information on Basic Design, Reliability, Quality and Applications Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The ALERT program, a system for communicating common problems with parts, materials, and processes, is condensed and catalogued. Expanded information on selected topics is provided by relating the problem area (failure) to the cause, the investigations and findings, the suggestions for avoidance (inspections, screening tests, proper part applications), and failure analysis procedures. The basic objective of ALERT is the avoidance of the recurrence of parts, materials, and processed problems, thus improving the reliability of equipment produced for and used by the government.

  16. Determination of Biological Treatability Processes of Textile Wastewater and Implementation of a Fuzzy Logic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun Akif Kabuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the biological treatability of textile wastewater. For this purpose, a membrane bioreactor (MBR was utilized for biological treatment after the ozonation process. Due to the refractory organic contents of textile wastewater that has a low biodegradability capacity, ozonation was implemented as an advanced oxidation process prior to the MBR system to increase the biodegradability of the wastewater. Textile wastewater, oxidized by ozonation, was fed to the MBR at different hydraulic retention times (HRT. During the process, color, chemical oxygen demand (COD, and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD removal efficiencies were monitored for 24-hour, 12-hour, 6-hour, and 3-hour retention times. Under these conditions, 94% color, 65% COD, and 55% BOD removal efficiencies were obtained in the MBR system. The experimental outputs were modeled with multiple linear regressions (MLR and fuzzy logic. MLR results suggested that color removal is more related to COD removal relative to BOD removal. A surface map of this issue was prepared with a fuzzy logic model. Furthermore, fuzzy logic was employed to the whole modeling of the biological system treatment. Determination coefficients for COD, BOD, and color removal efficiencies were 0.96, 0.97, and 0.92, respectively.

  17. Posttranslational modifications of desmin and their implication in biological processes and pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Daniel L; Paulin, Denise; Mericskay, Mathias; Li, Zhenlin

    2014-01-01

    Desmin, the muscle-specific intermediate filament, is involved in myofibrillar myopathies, dilated cardiomyopathy and muscle wasting. Desmin is the target of posttranslational modifications (PTMs) such as phosphorylation, ADP-ribosylation and ubiquitylation as well as nonenzymatic modifications such as glycation, oxidation and nitration. Several PTM target residues and their corresponding modifying enzymes have been discovered in human and nonhuman desmin. The major effect of phosphorylation and ADP-ribosylation is the disassembly of desmin filaments, while ubiquitylation of desmin leads to its degradation. The regulation of the desmin filament network by phosphorylation and ADP-ribosylation was found to be implicated in several major biological processes such as myogenesis, myoblast fusion, muscle contraction, muscle atrophy, cell division and possibly desmin interactions with its binding partners. Phosphorylation of desmin is also implicated in many forms of desmin-related myopathies (desminopathies). In this review, we summarize the findings on desmin PTMs and their implication in biological processes and pathologies, and discuss the current knowledge on the regulation of the desmin network by PTMs. We conclude that the desmin filament network can be seen as an intricate scaffold for muscle cell structure and biological processes and that its dynamics can be affected by PTMs. There are now precise tools to investigate PTMs and visualize cellular structures that have been underexploited in the study of desminopathies. Future studies should focus on these aspects.

  18. Removal of pharmaceuticals from wastewater by biological processes, hydrodynamic cavitation and UV treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupanc, Mojca; Kosjek, Tina; Petkovšek, Martin; Dular, Matevž; Kompare, Boris; Širok, Brane; Blažeka, Željko; Heath, Ester

    2013-07-01

    To augment the removal of pharmaceuticals different conventional and alternative wastewater treatment processes and their combinations were investigated. We tested the efficiency of (1) two distinct laboratory scale biological processes: suspended activated sludge and attached-growth biomass, (2) a combined hydrodynamic cavitation-hydrogen peroxide process and (3) UV treatment. Five pharmaceuticals were chosen including ibuprofen, naproxen, ketoprofen, carbamazepine and diclofenac, and an active metabolite of the lipid regulating agent clofibric acid. Biological treatment efficiency was evaluated using lab-scale suspended activated sludge and moving bed biofilm flow-through reactors, which were operated under identical conditions in respect to hydraulic retention time, working volume, concentration of added pharmaceuticals and synthetic wastewater composition. The suspended activated sludge process showed poor and inconsistent removal of clofibric acid, carbamazepine and diclofenac, while ibuprofen, naproxen and ketoprofen yielded over 74% removal. Moving bed biofilm reactors were filled with two different types of carriers i.e. Kaldnes K1 and Mutag BioChip™ and resulted in higher removal efficiencies for ibuprofen and diclofenac. Augmentation and consistency in the removal of diclofenac were observed in reactors using Mutag BioChip™ carriers (85%±10%) compared to reactors using Kaldnes carriers and suspended activated sludge (74%±22% and 48%±19%, respectively). To enhance the removal of pharmaceuticals hydrodynamic cavitation with hydrogen peroxide process was evaluated and optimal conditions for removal were established regarding the duration of cavitation, amount of added hydrogen peroxide and initial pressure, all of which influence the efficiency of the process. Optimal parameters resulted in removal efficiencies between 3-70%. Coupling the attached-growth biomass biological treatment, hydrodynamic cavitation/hydrogen peroxide process and UV treatment

  19. Basic electrotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Ashen, R A

    2013-01-01

    BASIC Electrotechnology discusses the applications of Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC) in engineering, particularly in solving electrotechnology-related problems. The book is comprised of six chapters that cover several topics relevant to BASIC and electrotechnology. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to BASIC, and Chapter 2 talks about the use of complex numbers in a.c. circuit analysis. Chapter 3 covers linear circuit analysis with d.c. and sinusoidal a.c. supplies. The book also discusses the elementary magnetic circuit theory. The theory and performance of two windi

  20. Comparative Study on Interaction of Form and Motion Processing Streams by Applying Two Different Classifiers in Mechanism for Recognition of Biological Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Research on psychophysics, neurophysiology, and functional imaging shows particular representation of biological movements which contains two pathways. The visual perception of biological movements formed through the visual system called dorsal and ventral processing streams. Ventral processing stream is associated with the form information extraction; on the other hand, dorsal processing stream provides motion information. Active basic model (ABM) as hierarchical representation of the human object had revealed novelty in form pathway due to applying Gabor based supervised object recognition method. It creates more biological plausibility along with similarity with original model. Fuzzy inference system is used for motion pattern information in motion pathway creating more robustness in recognition process. Besides, interaction of these paths is intriguing and many studies in various fields considered it. Here, the interaction of the pathways to get more appropriated results has been investigated. Extreme learning machine (ELM) has been implied for classification unit of this model, due to having the main properties of artificial neural networks, but crosses from the difficulty of training time substantially diminished in it. Here, there will be a comparison between two different configurations, interactions using synergetic neural network and ELM, in terms of accuracy and compatibility. PMID:25276860

  1. Comparative Study on Interaction of Form and Motion Processing Streams by Applying Two Different Classifiers in Mechanism for Recognition of Biological Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bardia Yousefi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on psychophysics, neurophysiology, and functional imaging shows particular representation of biological movements which contains two pathways. The visual perception of biological movements formed through the visual system called dorsal and ventral processing streams. Ventral processing stream is associated with the form information extraction; on the other hand, dorsal processing stream provides motion information. Active basic model (ABM as hierarchical representation of the human object had revealed novelty in form pathway due to applying Gabor based supervised object recognition method. It creates more biological plausibility along with similarity with original model. Fuzzy inference system is used for motion pattern information in motion pathway creating more robustness in recognition process. Besides, interaction of these paths is intriguing and many studies in various fields considered it. Here, the interaction of the pathways to get more appropriated results has been investigated. Extreme learning machine (ELM has been implied for classification unit of this model, due to having the main properties of artificial neural networks, but crosses from the difficulty of training time substantially diminished in it. Here, there will be a comparison between two different configurations, interactions using synergetic neural network and ELM, in terms of accuracy and compatibility.

  2. Survey of biological processes for odor reduction; Kartlaeggning och studie av biologiska processer foer luktreduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrhenius, Karine; Rosell, Lars [SP Technical Research Inst. of Sweden, Boraas (Sweden); Hall, Gunnar [SIK Swedish Inst. for Food and Biotechnology, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2009-09-15

    This project aims to characterize chemical and subsequently odor emissions from a digester plant located closed to Boraas in Sweden (Boraas Energi och Miljoe AB). The digestion produces mainly 2 by-products, biogas and high quality organic biofertilizer. Biogas is a renewable source of electrical and heat energy and subsequently digester have a promising future. Unfortunately, release of unpleasant odours is one of the problems that may limit development of the technique as odours strongly influence the level of acceptance of the neighbours. The number of complaints due to odours depends mostly, upon the degree of odour release, the weather condition and plant environment (which influence the risks for spreading out), and the tolerance of the neighbours. These parameters are strongly variable. Many processes inside the plant distributed on a large surface may contribute to odour release. Chemical emissions were studied, in this project, by extensive sampling inside the plant. Results were then evaluated regarding risk for odour releases. The goal was to suggest controls and routines to limit releases. The conditions leading to the higher risks for odour emissions were studied by performing sampling at different periods of the year and subsequently different weather conditions. At first, places for measurement were chosen together with personal of the plant. Three zones are considered to mainly contribute to the odour emissions: the landfill region, the cisterns region and the leaching lake region. Totally 13 places were studied with regard to odour and chemical emissions under 2008-2009 at different weather conditions. Some results from a previous project (2007) are also presented here. Results show that the spreading out of can be maintained to an acceptable level as long as the plant is functioning without disturbances. The early stages of the treatment of waste should be confined in locals with closed doors to avoid spreading out of odours. Through controlled

  3. Preliminary degradation process study of infectious biological waste in a 5 k W thermal plasma equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xochihua S M, M.C.

    1997-01-01

    This work is a preliminary study of infectious biological waste degradation process by thermal plasma and was made in Thermal Plasma Applications Laboratory of Environmental Studies Department of the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ). Infectious biological waste degradation process is realized by using samples such polyethylene, cotton, glass, etc., but the present study scope is to analyze polyethylene degradation process with mass and energy balances involved. Degradation method is realized as follow: a polyethylene sample is put in an appropriated crucible localized inside a pyrolysis reactor chamber, the plasma jet is projected to the sample, by the pyrolysis phenomena the sample is degraded into its constitutive particles: carbon and hydrogen. Air was utilized as a recombination gas in order to obtain the higher percent of CO 2 if amount of O 2 is greater in the recombination gas, the CO generation is reduced. The effluent gases of exhaust pyrolysis reactor through are passed through a heat exchanger to get cooled gases, the temperature water used is 15 Centigrade degrees. Finally the gases was tried into absorption tower with water as an absorbent fluid. Thermal plasma degradation process is a very promising technology, but is necessary to develop engineering process area to avail all advantages of thermal plasma. (Author)

  4. [Analysis of novel style biological fluidized bed A/O combined process in dyeing wastewater treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chao-Hai; Huang, Hui-Jing; Ren, Yuan; Wu, Chao-Fei; Wu, Hai-Zhen; Lu, Bin

    2011-04-01

    A novel biological fluidized bed was designed and developed to deal with high-concentration refractory organic industrial wastewater. From 12 successful projects, three cases of dyeing wastewater treatment projects with the scale of 1200, 2000 and 13000 m3/d respectively were selected to analyze the principle of treating refractory organic wastewater with fluidized bed technology and discuss the superiority of self-developed biological fluidized bed from the aspects of technical and economic feasibility. In the three cases, when the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of biological system were 23, 34 and 21. 8 h, and the volume loading of influents (COD) were 1.75, 4.75 and 2.97 kg/(m3 x d), the corresponding COD removal were 97.3%, 98.1% and 95.8%. Furthermore the operating costs of projects were 0.91, 1.17 and 0.88 yuan per ton of water respectively. The index of effluent all met the 1st grade of Guangdong Province wastewater discharge standard. Results showed that the biological fluidized bed had characteristics of shorter retention time, greater oxygen utilization rate, faster conversion rate of organic pollutants and less sludge production, which made it overcome the shortcomings of traditional methods in printing and dyeing wastewater treatment. Considering the development of technology and the combination of ecological security and recycling resources, a low-carbon wastewater treatment process was proposed.

  5. Prospects for energy recovery during hydrothermal and biological processing of waste biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber Van Doren, Léda; Posmanik, Roy; Bicalho, Felipe A; Tester, Jefferson W; Sills, Deborah L

    2017-02-01

    Thermochemical and biological processes represent promising technologies for converting wet biomasses, such as animal manure, organic waste, or algae, to energy. To convert biomass to energy and bio-chemicals in an economical manner, internal energy recovery should be maximized to reduce the use of external heat and power. In this study, two conversion pathways that couple hydrothermal liquefaction with anaerobic digestion or catalytic hydrothermal gasification were compared. Each of these platforms is followed by two alternative processes for gas utilization: 1) combined heat and power; and 2) combustion in a boiler. Pinch analysis was applied to integrate thermal streams among unit processes and improve the overall system efficiency. A techno-economic analysis was conducted to compare the feasibility of the four modeled scenarios under different market conditions. Our results show that a systems approach designed to recover internal heat and power can reduce external energy demands and increase the overall process sustainability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Anesthesia Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Anesthesia Basics KidsHealth / For Teens / Anesthesia Basics What's in ... español Conceptos básicos sobre la anestesia What Is Anesthesia? No doubt about it, getting an operation can ...

  7. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Brain Basics in Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah ... having trouble coping with the stresses in her life. She began to think of suicide because she ...

  8. Process of Argumentation in High School Biology Class: A Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, M.; Rakhmawati, E.; Hendarto, P.; Winarni

    2017-02-01

    Argumentation skill can be nurtured by designing a lesson in which students are provided with the opportunity to argue. This research aims to analyse argumentation process in biology class. The participants were students of three biology classes from different high schools in Surakarta Indonesia. One of the classroom was taught by a student teacher, and the rest were instructed by the assigned teachers. Through a classroom observation, oral activities were noted, audio-recorded and video-taped. Coding was done based on the existence of claiming-reasoning-evidence (CRE) process by McNeill and Krajcik. Data was analysed qualitatively focusing on the role of teachers to initiate questioning to support argumentation process. The lesson design of three were also analysed. The result shows that pedagogical skill of teachers to support argumentation process, such as skill to ask, answer, and respond to students’ question and statements need to be trained intensively. Most of the argumentation found were only claiming, without reasoning and evidence. Teachers have to change the routine of mostly posing open-ended questions to students, and giving directly a correct answer to students’ questions. Knowledge and skills to encourage student to follow inquiry-based learning have to be acquired by teachers.

  9. Electrochemical advanced oxidation and biological processes for wastewater treatment: a review of the combined approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganzenko, Oleksandra; Huguenot, David; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Esposito, Giovanni; Oturan, Mehmet A

    2014-01-01

    As pollution becomes one of the biggest environmental challenges of the twenty-first century, pollution of water threatens the very existence of humanity, making immediate action a priority. The most persistent and hazardous pollutants come from industrial and agricultural activities; therefore, effective treatment of this wastewater prior to discharge into the natural environment is the solution. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have caused increased interest due to their ability to degrade hazardous substances in contrast to other methods, which mainly only transfer pollution from wastewater to sludge, a membrane filter, or an adsorbent. Among a great variety of different AOPs, a group of electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOPs), including electro-Fenton, is emerging as an environmental-friendly and effective treatment process for the destruction of persistent hazardous contaminants. The only concern that slows down a large-scale implementation is energy consumption and related investment and operational costs. A combination of EAOPs with biological treatment is an interesting solution. In such a synergetic way, removal efficiency is maximized, while minimizing operational costs. The goal of this review is to present cutting-edge research for treatment of three common and problematic pollutants and effluents: dyes and textile wastewater, olive processing wastewater, and pharmaceuticals and hospital wastewater. Each of these types is regarded in terms of recent scientific research on individual electrochemical, individual biological and a combined synergetic treatment.

  10. Biological shielding design and qualification of concreting process for construction of electron beam irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petwal, V.C.; Kumar, P.; Suresh, N.; Parchani, G.; Dwivedi, J.; Thakurta, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    A technology demonstration facility for irradiation of food and agricultural products is being set-up by RRCAT at Indore. The facility design is based on linear electron accelerator with maximum beam power of 10 kW and can be operated either in electron mode at 10 MeV or photon modes at 5/7.5 MeV. Biological shielding has been designed in accordance with NCRP 51 to achieve dose rate at all accessible points outside the irradiation vault less than the permissible limit of 0.1 mR/hr. In addition to radiation attenuation property, concrete must have satisfactory mechanical properties to meet the structural requirements. There are number of site specific variables which affect the structural, thermal and radiological properties of concrete, leading to considerable difference in actual values and design values. Hence it is essential to establish a suitable site and environmental specific process to cast the concrete and qualify the process by experimental measurement. For process qualification we have cast concrete test blocks of different thicknesses up to 3.25 m and evaluated the radiological and mechanical properties by radiometry, ultrasonic and mechanical tests. In this paper we describe the biological shielding design of the facility and analyse the results of tests carried out for qualification of the process. (author)

  11. Intended process water management concept for the mechanical biological treatment of municipal solid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Weichgrebe

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating operational experience in both aerobic and anaerobic mechanical biological waste treatment (MBT makes it increasingly obvious that controlled water management would substantially reduce the cost of MBT and also enhance resource recovery of the organic and inorganic fraction. The MBT plant at Gescher, Germany, is used as an example in order to determine the quantity and composition of process water and leachates from intensive and subsequent rotting, pressing water from anaerobic digestion and scrubber water from acid exhaust air treatment, and hence prepare an MBT water balance. The potential of, requirements for and limits to internal process water reuse as well as the possibilities of resource recovery from scrubber water are also examined. Finally, an assimilated process water management concept with the purpose of an extensive reduction of wastewater quantity and freshwater demand is presented.

  12. Basic hydraulics

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, P D

    1982-01-01

    BASIC Hydraulics aims to help students both to become proficient in the BASIC programming language by actually using the language in an important field of engineering and to use computing as a means of mastering the subject of hydraulics. The book begins with a summary of the technique of computing in BASIC together with comments and listing of the main commands and statements. Subsequent chapters introduce the fundamental concepts and appropriate governing equations. Topics covered include principles of fluid mechanics; flow in pipes, pipe networks and open channels; hydraulic machinery;

  13. Studies of Basic Electronic Properties of CdTe-Based Solar Cells and Their Evolution During Processing and Stress: Final Technical Report, 16 October 2001 - 31 August 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaydanov, V. I.; Ohno, T. R.

    2007-02-01

    This report describes basic issues behind CdTe/CdS cell performance and stability, such as the nature and electronic properties of impurities and defects that control the majority carrier concentration, mechanisms of dopant compensation, recombination processes, their nature and properties, migration and transformation of defects under various processing, stress, and operating conditions. We believe that a better basic understanding of the specific influence of grain boundaries, especially for fine-grain materials such as those making up CdTe-based cells, is now one of the most important issues we must address. We need to clarify the role of grain boundaries in forming the film electronic properties, as well as those of the p-n junction.

  14. Process-driven inference of biological network structure: feasibility, minimality, and multiplicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanyu Wang

    Full Text Available A common problem in molecular biology is to use experimental data, such as microarray data, to infer knowledge about the structure of interactions between important molecules in subsystems of the cell. By approximating the state of each molecule as "on" or "off", it becomes possible to simplify the problem, and exploit the tools of boolean analysis for such inference. Amongst boolean techniques, the process-driven approach has shown promise in being able to identify putative network structures, as well as stability and modularity properties. This paper examines the process-driven approach more formally, and makes four contributions about the computational complexity of the inference problem, under the "dominant inhibition" assumption of molecular interactions. The first is a proof that the feasibility problem (does there exist a network that explains the data? can be solved in polynomial-time. Second, the minimality problem (what is the smallest network that explains the data? is shown to be NP-hard, and therefore unlikely to result in a polynomial-time algorithm. Third, a simple polynomial-time heuristic is shown to produce near-minimal solutions, as demonstrated by simulation. Fourth, the theoretical framework explains how multiplicity (the number of network solutions to realize a given biological process, which can take exponential-time to compute, can instead be accurately estimated by a fast, polynomial-time heuristic.

  15. Combination of Advanced Oxidation Processes and biological treatments for wastewater decontamination-A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oller, I.; Malato, S.; Sanchez-Perez, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays there is a continuously increasing worldwide concern for development of alternative water reuse technologies, mainly focused on agriculture and industry. In this context, Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) are considered a highly competitive water treatment technology for the removal of those organic pollutants not treatable by conventional techniques due to their high chemical stability and/or low biodegradability. Although chemical oxidation for complete mineralization is usually expensive, its combination with a biological treatment is widely reported to reduce operating costs. This paper reviews recent research combining AOPs (as a pre-treatment or post-treatment stage) and bioremediation technologies for the decontamination of a wide range of synthetic and real industrial wastewater. Special emphasis is also placed on recent studies and large-scale combination schemes developed in Mediterranean countries for non-biodegradable wastewater treatment and reuse. The main conclusions arrived at from the overall assessment of the literature are that more work needs to be done on degradation kinetics and reactor modeling of the combined process, and also dynamics of the initial attack on primary contaminants and intermediate species generation. Furthermore, better economic models must be developed to estimate how the cost of this combined process varies with specific industrial wastewater characteristics, the overall decontamination efficiency and the relative cost of the AOP versus biological treatment.

  16. Potential biological hazard of importance for HACCP plans in fresh fish processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baltić Milan Ž.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP system is scientifically based and focused on problem prevention in order to assure the produced food products are safe to consume. Prerequisite programs such as GMP (Good Manufacturing Practices, GHP (Good Hygienic Practices are an essential foundation for the development and implementation of successful HACCP plans. One of the preliminary tasks in the development of HACCP plan is to conduct a hazard analysis. The process of conducting a hazard analysis involves two stages. The first is hazard identification and the second stage is the HACCP team decision which potential hazards must be addressed in the HACCP plan. By definition, the HACCP concept covers all types of potential food safety hazards: biological, chemical and physical, whether they are naturally occurring in the food, contributed by the environment or generated by a mistake in the manufacturing process. In raw fish processing, potential significant biological hazards which are reasonably likely to cause illness of humans are parasites (Trematodae, Nematodae, Cestodae, bacteria (Salmonella, E. coli, Vibrio parahemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium botulinum, Staphyloccocus aureus, viruses (Norwalk virus, Entero virusesi, Hepatitis A, Rotovirus and bio-toxins. Upon completion of hazard analysis, any measure(s that are used to control the hazard(s should be described.

  17. Proceeding on the scientific meeting and presentation on basic research of nuclear science and technology (book II): chemical, waste processing technology and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prayitno; Syarip; Samin; Darsono; Agus Taftazani; Sudjatmoko; Tri Mardji Atmono; Dwi Biyantoro; Gede Sutresna W; Tjipto Sujitno; Slamet Santosa; Herry Poernomo; Bambang Siswanto; Eko Edy Karmanto; Endro Kismolo; Budi Setiawan; Prajitno; Jumari; Wahini Nurhayati

    2015-06-01

    Scientific Meeting and Presentation on Basic Research in Nuclear Science and Technology is an annual activity held by Centre for Accelerator Science and Technology, National Nuclear Energy Agency, in Yogyakarta, for monitoring research activities achieved by the Agency. The papers presented in the meeting were collected into proceedings which were divided into two groups that are chemistry, environmental and waste treatment technology process . The proceedings consists of three articles from keynote speakers and 24 articles from BATAN and others participants.(PPIKSN)

  18. Proceedings of the Scientific Meeting and Presentation on Basic Researchin Nuclear Science and Technology part II: Nuclear Chemistry, Process Technology, Radioactive Waste Management and Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukarsono, R.; Karmanto, Eko-Edy; Suradjijo, Ganang

    2000-01-01

    Scientific Meeting and Presentation on Basic Research in Nuclear Scienceand Technology is an annual activity held by Centre for Research and Development of Advanced Technology, National Nuclear Energy Agency, for monitoring research activities achieved by the Agency. The papers presented in the meeting were collected into proceedings. These are the second part of the proceedings that contain 71 articles in the fields of nuclear chemistry, process technology, radioactive waste management, and environment (PPIN).

  19. Comparing biological and thermochemical processing of sugarcane bagasse: An energy balance perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leibbrandt, N.H.; Knoetze, J.H.; Goergens, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    The technical performance of lignocellulosic enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation versus pyrolysis processes for sugarcane bagasse was evaluated, based on currently available technology. Process models were developed for bioethanol production from sugarcane bagasse using three different pretreatment methods, i.e. dilute acid, liquid hot water and steam explosion, at various solid concentrations. Two pyrolysis processes, namely fast pyrolysis and vacuum pyrolysis, were considered as alternatives to biological processing for the production of biofuels from sugarcane bagasse. For bioethanol production, a minimum of 30% solids in the pretreatment reactor was required to render the process energy self-sufficient, which led to a total process energy demand equivalent to roughly 40% of the feedstock higher heating value. Both vacuum pyrolysis and fast pyrolysis could be operated as energy self-sufficient if 45% of the produced char from fast pyrolysis is used to fuel the process. No char energy is required to fuel the vacuum pyrolysis process due to lower process energy demands (17% compared to 28% of the feedstock higher heating value). The process models indicated that effective process heat integration can result in a 10-15% increase in all process energy efficiencies. Process thermal efficiencies between 52 and 56% were obtained for bioethanol production at pretreatment solids at 30% and 50%, respectively, while the efficiencies were 70% for both pyrolysis processes. The liquid fuel energy efficiency of the best bioethanol process is 41%, while that of crude bio-oil production before upgrading is 67% and 56% via fast and vacuum pyrolysis, respectively. Efficiencies for pyrolysis processes are expected to decrease by up to 15% should upgrade to a transportation fuel of equivalent quality to bioethanol be taken into consideration. -- Highlights: → Liquid biofuels can be produced via lignocellulosic enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation or pyrolysis. → A minimum of

  20. Process development for biological cleaning of industrial waste water; Prozessentwicklung fuer die biologische Reinigung industrieller Abwaesser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hempel, D.C. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Bioverfahrenstechnik; Noertemann, B. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Bioverfahrenstechnik

    1997-09-01

    Surface water, and drinking water obtained from surface water, should be largely free of organic compounds. This applies particularly to substances that are not or poorly degradable in the environment. Pollution of surface water with poorly degradable toxic substances - especially from industrial applications - can be avoided or at least largely reduced by means of specially adapted biological waste water cleaning techniques. The compound ethylene diamine tetraacetate (EDTA), which has multiple technical applications and is used in large amounts, demonstrates that even contaminants considered to be unsuitable for biological treatment can be eliminated from waste water by means of certain biological processes employing specially enriched bacterial cultures. (orig.) [Deutsch] Oberflaechengewaesser und daraus gewonnenes Trinkwasser sollen moeglichst frei von organischen Verbindungen sein. Dies gilt insbesondere fuer Substanzen, die in der Umwelt nicht oder nur sehr langsam abbaubar sind. Eine Belastung von Oberflaechengewaessern mit schwer abbaubaren `Problemstoffen` - insbesondere aus industriellen Anwendungsbereichen - kann unter anderem mit Hilfe speziell angepasster Verfahren zur biologischen Abwasserreinigung vermieden beziehungsweise weitestgehend reduziert werden. Am Beispiel der technisch sehr vielfaeltig und in grossen Mengen eingesetzten Verbindung EDTA (Ethylendiamintetraacetat) laesst sich erkennen, dass durch bestimmte bioverfahrenstechnische Massnahmen mit Hilfe speziell angereicherter Bakterienkulturen auch als `biologieunfaehig` eingestufte Problemstoffe aus Abwaessern eliminiert werden koennen. (orig.)

  1. Principles for integrating reactive species into in vivo biological processes: Examples from exercise physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaritelis, Nikos V; Cobley, James N; Paschalis, Vassilis; Veskoukis, Aristidis S; Theodorou, Anastasios A; Kyparos, Antonios; Nikolaidis, Michalis G

    2016-04-01

    The equivocal role of reactive species and redox signaling in exercise responses and adaptations is an example clearly showing the inadequacy of current redox biology research to shed light on fundamental biological processes in vivo. Part of the answer probably relies on the extreme complexity of the in vivo redox biology and the limitations of the currently applied methodological and experimental tools. We propose six fundamental principles that should be considered in future studies to mechanistically link reactive species production to exercise responses or adaptations: 1) identify and quantify the reactive species, 2) determine the potential signaling properties of the reactive species, 3) detect the sources of reactive species, 4) locate the domain modified and verify the (ir)reversibility of post-translational modifications, 5) establish causality between redox and physiological measurements, 6) use selective and targeted antioxidants. Fulfilling these principles requires an idealized human experimental setting, which is certainly a utopia. Thus, researchers should choose to satisfy those principles, which, based on scientific evidence, are most critical for their specific research question. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Reductions of bacterial antibiotic resistance through five biological treatment processes treated municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qing-Bin; Guo, Mei-Ting; Wei, Wu-Ji; Yang, Jian

    2016-10-01

    Wastewater treatment plants are hot spots for antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). However, limited studies have been conducted to compare the reductions of ARB and ARGs by various biological treatment processes. The study explored the reductions of heterotrophic bacteria resistant to six groups of antibiotics (vancomycin, gentamicin, erythromycin, cephalexin, tetracycline, and sulfadiazine) and corresponding resistance genes (vanA, aacC1, ereA, ampC, tetA, and sulI) by five bench-scale biological reactors. Results demonstrated that membrane bioreactor (MBR) and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) significantly reduced ARB abundances in the ranges of 2.80∼3.54 log and 2.70∼3.13 log, respectively, followed by activated sludge (AS). Biological filter (BF) and anaerobic (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket, UASB) techniques led to relatively low reductions. In contrast, ARGs were not equally reduced as ARB. AS and SBR also showed significant potentials on ARGs reduction, whilst MBR and UASB could not reduce ARGs effectively. Redundancy analysis implied that the purification of wastewater quality parameters (COD, NH4 (+)-N, and turbidity) performed a positive correlation to ARB and ARGs reductions.

  3. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a ... in controlling movement, managing the release of various hormones, and aiding the flow of information to the ...

  4. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Events About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  5. Basic Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittek, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    A discussion of the basic measures of corporate financial strength, and the sources of the information is reported. Considered are: balance sheet, income statement, funds and cash flow, and financial ratios.

  6. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... effectively coordinate the billions of cells in the body, the results can affect many aspects of life. ... messages. A neuron has three basic parts: Cell body which includes the nucleus, cytoplasm, and cell organelles. ...

  7. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a ... brain. DNA —The "recipe of life," containing inherited genetic information that helps to define physical and some ...

  8. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses are disorders of the brain, ... learning more about how the brain grows and works in healthy people, and how normal brain development ...

  9. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... science, such as: How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic ... that with brain development in people mental disorders. Genes and environmental cues both help to direct this ...

  10. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a ... blues" from time to time. In contrast, major depression is a serious disorder that lasts for weeks. ...

  11. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic structure of the ... inside contents of the cell from its surrounding environment and controls what enters and leaves the cell, ...

  12. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit of ... but sometimes give rise to disabilities or diseases. neural circuit —A network of neurons and their interconnections. ...

  13. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... in the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot effectively coordinate the billions ... the basic working unit of the brain and nervous system. These cells are highly specialized for the function ...

  14. Brain Basics

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    Full Text Available ... the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot effectively coordinate the billions ... basic working unit of the brain and nervous system. These cells are highly specialized for the function ...

  15. The Flipped Classroom: Teaching the Basic Science Process Skills to High-Performing 2nd Grade Students of Miriam College Lower School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Kenneth Camiling

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Technology has greatly shaped pedagogical practices over time. However scholars posit that the developing technology-aided, -based, and -oriented instructional practices still need scholarly and systematic studies to prove their effectiveness. An emerging teaching strategy that highlights technology tools and programs is Flipped Learning: a strategy where technology redirects learning from large groups to individuals. The research described here hypothesizes that there is a significant difference between the basic science process skills test score means of elementary students in a Flipped classroom and those in a traditional classroom. To test this hypothesis, an experimental design was used as the participants were divided the into two groups: experimental and control. An instructional design was crafted to simultaneously teach both control and experimental groups within a one (1 hour schedule. The experimental group was asked to watch at home researcher-made videos that teach the basic science process skills. In class, these participants deepened understanding of the skills through varied activities. The control group was taught using the traditional method operationalized as 5E Inquiry-Based Model.Both pre- and post-tests were administered to check the relative test scores. A Mann Whitney U test was conducted to evaluate the difference between the basic process skills test mean scores. It is concluded that there is a statistically significant difference (at α=0.05, r = 0.42 with a large effect size between the two variables.

  16. Advances in wastewater nitrogen removal by biological processes: state of the art review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea G. Capodaglio

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes the state-of-the-art of the most recent advances in biological nitrogen removal, including process design criteria and technological innovations. With reference to the Modified Ludzck Ettinger (MLE process (pre-denitrification and nitrification in the activated sludge process, the most common nitrogen removal process used nowadays, a new design equation for the denitrification reactor based on specific denitrification rate (SDNR has been proposed. In addition, factors influencing SDNR (DO in the anoxic reactor; hydrodynamic behavior are analyzed, and technological solutions are proposed. Concerning technological advances, the paper presents a summary of various “deammonification” processes, better known by their patent names like ANAMMOX®, DEMON®, CANON®, ANITA® and others. These processes have already found applications in the treatment of high-strength wastewater such as digested sludge liquor and landfill leachate. Among other emerging denitrification technologies, consideration is given to the Membrane Biofilm Reactors (MBfRs that can be operated both in oxidation and reduction mode.

  17. Research on rural sewage treatment using biological-ecological coupling process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang SHI

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Developing low-investment, low-energy consumption and low-maintenance sewage treatment process is important for sewage treatment in rural areas. An upflow anaerobic filter (UAF without energy consumption and a subsurface flow wetland (SFW are utilized as a biological-ecological coupling process to treat rural domestic sewage. The effect of the coupling process on treatment performance of domestic sewage under different hydraulic retention time (HRT is investigated. The removal of nitrogen and phosphorus in the SFW is improved by increasing plant density. The results show that the coupling process of UAF and SFW has no power consumption and is maintenance-free, suitable for rural sewage treatment; the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus mainly happens in the SFW phase; increasing the density of reed plants in the SFW can obviously enhance the capacity to remove nitrogen and phosphorus, and ensure that the efficient performance of the coupling process of UAF and SFW is stabilized in a high level. When the HRTs of UAF and SFW are 18 h and 3 d, respectively, the concentrations of COD, ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen and total phosphorus in the final effluent treated by UAF and SFW process are 44.07, 4.25, 13.36 and 0.44 mg/L, respectively, meeting the requirement of first grade class A in Discharge Standard of Pollutants for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant (GB 18918-2002.

  18. Nitrous oxide production from reactive nitrification intermediates: a concerted action of biological and chemical processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggemann, Nicolas; Heil, Jannis; Liu, Shurong; Wei, Jing; Vereecken, Harry

    2017-04-01

    This contribution tries to open up a new perspective on biogeochemical N2O production processes, taking the term bio-geo-chemistry literally. What if a major part of N2O is produced from reactive intermediates of microbiological N turnover processes ("bio…") leaking out of the involved microorganisms into the soil ("…geo…") and then reacting chemically ("…chemistry") with the surrounding matrix? There are at least two major reactive N intermediates that might play a significant role in these coupled biological-chemical reactions, i.e. hydroxylamine (NH2OH) and nitrite (NO2-), both of which are produced during nitrification under oxic conditions, while NO2- is also produced during denitrification under anoxic conditions. Furthermore, NH2OH is assumed to be also a potential intermediate of DNRA and/or anammox. First, this contribution will summarize information about several chemical reactions involving NH2OH and NO2- leading to the formation of N2O. These abiotic reactions are: reactions of NO2- with reduced metal cations, nitrosation reactions of NO2- and soil organic matter (SOM), the reaction between NO2- and NH2OH, and the oxidation of NH2OH by oxidized metal ions. While these reactions can occur over a broad range of soil characteristics, they are ignored in most current N trace gas studies in favor of biological processes only. Disentangling microbiological from purely chemical N2O production is further complicated by the fact that the chemically formed N2O is either undiscernible from N2O produced during nitrification, or shows an intermediate 15N site preference between that of N2O from nitrification and denitrification, respectively. Results from experiments with live and sterilized soil samples, with artificial soil mixtures and with phenolic lignin decomposition model compounds will be presented that demonstrate the potential contribution of these abiotic processes to soil N trace gas emissions, given a substantial leakage rate of these reactive

  19. A biological inspired fuzzy adaptive window median filter (FAWMF) for enhancing DNA signal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Muneer; Jung, Low Tan; Bhuiyan, Al-Amin

    2017-10-01

    Digital signal processing techniques commonly employ fixed length window filters to process the signal contents. DNA signals differ in characteristics from common digital signals since they carry nucleotides as contents. The nucleotides own genetic code context and fuzzy behaviors due to their special structure and order in DNA strand. Employing conventional fixed length window filters for DNA signal processing produce spectral leakage and hence results in signal noise. A biological context aware adaptive window filter is required to process the DNA signals. This paper introduces a biological inspired fuzzy adaptive window median filter (FAWMF) which computes the fuzzy membership strength of nucleotides in each slide of window and filters nucleotides based on median filtering with a combination of s-shaped and z-shaped filters. Since coding regions cause 3-base periodicity by an unbalanced nucleotides' distribution producing a relatively high bias for nucleotides' usage, such fundamental characteristic of nucleotides has been exploited in FAWMF to suppress the signal noise. Along with adaptive response of FAWMF, a strong correlation between median nucleotides and the Π shaped filter was observed which produced enhanced discrimination between coding and non-coding regions contrary to fixed length conventional window filters. The proposed FAWMF attains a significant enhancement in coding regions identification i.e. 40% to 125% as compared to other conventional window filters tested over more than 250 benchmarked and randomly taken DNA datasets of different organisms. This study proves that conventional fixed length window filters applied to DNA signals do not achieve significant results since the nucleotides carry genetic code context. The proposed FAWMF algorithm is adaptive and outperforms significantly to process DNA signal contents. The algorithm applied to variety of DNA datasets produced noteworthy discrimination between coding and non-coding regions contrary

  20. Composting of the solid fraction of digestate derived from pig slurry: Biological processes and compost properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tambone, Fulvia; Terruzzi, Laura; Scaglia, Barbara; Adani, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Anaerobic digestion leads to the production of a biologically stable digestate. • Solid–liquid separation produces a solid fraction having high fertilizer value. • Composting process shows low biological activity due to high biological stability of digestate. • Solid digestate fraction can be composted in a short time or used directly as organic fertilizer. - Abstract: The aim of this paper was to assess the characteristics of the solid fractions (SF) obtained by mechanical separation of digestate, their compostability and compost quality. To do so, the SF of digestates obtained from anaerobic digestion of pig slurry, energy crops and agro-industrial residues were sampled in five plants located in Northern Italy. Results obtained indicated that anaerobic digestion by itself promoted the high biological stability of biomasses with a Potential Dynamic Respiration Index (PDRI) close to 1000 mgO 2 kg V S −1 h −1 . Subsequent composting of digestates, with an added bulking agent, did not give remarkably different results, and led only to a slight modification of the characteristics of the initial non-composted mixtures; the composts obtained fully respected the legal limits for high quality compost. Chemical studies of organic matter composition of the biomasses by using CP MAS 13 C NMR, indicated that the compost was composed of a high relative content of O-alkyl-C (71.47% of total C) (cellulose and hemicelluloses) and a low alkyl-C (12.42%) (i.e. volatile fatty acids, steroid-like molecules, aliphatic biopolymers and proteins)

  1. [Experimental study on the mechanism of oilfield wastewater treatment by using hydrolysis-acidification with aerobic biological processes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yue; Huang, Xiang-feng; Qiu, Zhan; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Fei-juan; Zhou, Qi

    2006-07-01

    Hydrolysis-acidification + aerobic biological processes were conducted experimentally to treat oilfield wastewater pretreated with physical and chemical treatment in Xinjiang oilfield. The results showed that when the COD concentration in influent was 190-220 mg x L(-1), that in effluent reduced to 65-75 mg x L(-1) under HRT of 10h in both hydrolysis-acidification process and aerobic biological process, reaching the strictest requirement of Effluent Standards for Wastewater from Petroleum Development Industry (GB3550-83). Using GC/MS technology, the relative content of various organic pollutants was analyzed to discover the transfer and degradation law in the oilfield wastewater in biological treatment process. The system of DNA extraction technique, PCR and DGGE reacting systems were practical to analyze the microbial community in the hydrolysis-acidification and aerobic biological processes. The predominant sequences of several 16S rDNA DGGE fragments were determined and confirmed in comparison in GeneBank (NCBI).

  2. A novel theory: biological processes mostly involve two types of mediators, namely general and specific mediators Endogenous small radicals such as superoxide and nitric oxide may play a role of general mediator in biological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Jian

    2005-01-01

    A great number of papers have shown that free radicals as well as bioactive molecules can play a role of mediator in a wide spectrum of biological processes, but the biological actions and chemical reactivity of the free radicals are quite different from that of the bioactive molecules, and that a wide variety of bioactive molecules can be easily modified by free radicals due to having functional groups sensitive to redox, and the significance of the interaction between the free radicals and the bioactive molecules in biological processes has been confirmed by the results of some in vitro and in vivo studies. Based on these evidence, this article presented a novel theory about the mediators of biological processes. The essentials of the theory are: (a) mediators of biological processes can be classified into general and specific mediators; the general mediators include two types of free radicals, namely superoxide and nitric oxide; the specific mediators include a wide variety of bioactive molecules, such as specific enzymes, transcription factors, cytokines and eicosanoids; (b) a general mediator can modify almost any class of the biomolecules, and thus play a role of mediator in nearly every biological process via diverse mechanisms; a specific mediator always acts selectively on certain classes of the biomolecules, and may play a role of mediator in different biological processes via a same mechanism; (c) biological processes are mostly controlled by networks of their mediators, so the free radicals can regulate the last consequence of a biological process by modifying some types of the bioactive molecules, or in cooperation with these bioactive molecules; the biological actions of superoxide and nitric oxide may be synergistic or antagonistic. According to this theory, keeping the integrity of these networks and the balance between the free radicals and the bioactive molecules as well as the balance between the free radicals and the free radical scavengers

  3. Chemical and biological agent incident response and decision process for civilian and public sector facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raber, Ellen; Hirabayashi, Joy M; Mancieri, Saverio P; Jin, Alfred L; Folks, Karen J; Carlsen, Tina M; Estacio, Pete

    2002-04-01

    In the event of a terrorist attack or catastrophic release involving potential chemical and/or biological warfare agents, decisionmakers will need to make timely and informed choices about whether, or how, to respond. The objective of this article is to provide a decision framework to specify initial and follow-up actions, including possible decontamination, and to address long-term health and environmental issues. This decision framework consists of four phases, beginning with the identification of an incident and ending with verification that cleanup and remediation criteria have been met. The flowchart takes into account both differences and similarities among potential agents or toxins at key points in the decision-making process. Risk evaluation and communication of information to the public must be done throughout the process to ensure a successful effort.

  4. Environmental performance of biological nutrient removal processes from a life cycle perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ontiveros, Guillermo A; Campanella, Enrique A

    2013-12-01

    The goal of the present study is to assess different alternatives for a wastewater treatment plant module with capacity to remove nutrients biologically, taking into account present Argentine regulations for effluent discharge. A computational modeling tool (GPS-X) was employed to simulate the behavior of the different alternatives, and Life Cycle Assessment was applied to quantify the environmental impact. A 2000 m(3)/d municipal wastewater flow was used to carry out the simulations, the annual flow was utilized as functional units and the main topics analyzed were energy efficiency, land use, eutrophication reduction and biosolid reuse. Biogas and biosolid generation was evaluated as a good opportunity to generate a cleaner process. This study highlights the fact that nutrient removal processes significantly improve the quality of effluent and biosolids and reduces energy consumption. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Biological processes in the water column of the South Atlantic Bight: Zooplankton responses. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paffenhofer, G.A.

    1992-09-25

    This study sought to determine and understand the major processes governing the abundance, distribution, composition and eventual fate of zooplankton on the southeastern shelf of the US in relation to water circulation. Over much of the shelf circulation is dominated by the Gulf Stream and/or atmospheric forcing. Most of our studies concentrated on processes on the middle and outer shelf. On the latter, pronounced biological production occurs year-round at frequent intervals and is due to Gulf Stream eddies which move by at an average frequency of one every week. These eddies are rich in nutrients which, when upwelled into the euphoric zone, lead to pronounced primary production which then triggers zooplankton production.

  6. Biological processes in the water column of the South Atlantic Bight: Zooplankton responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paffenhofer, G.A.

    1992-09-25

    This study sought to determine and understand the major processes governing the abundance, distribution, composition and eventual fate of zooplankton on the southeastern shelf of the US in relation to water circulation. Over much of the shelf circulation is dominated by the Gulf Stream and/or atmospheric forcing. Most of our studies concentrated on processes on the middle and outer shelf. On the latter, pronounced biological production occurs year-round at frequent intervals and is due to Gulf Stream eddies which move by at an average frequency of one every week. These eddies are rich in nutrients which, when upwelled into the euphoric zone, lead to pronounced primary production which then triggers zooplankton production.

  7. Distorted wave calculations for electron loss process induced by bare ion impact on biological targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monti, J.M.; Tachino, C.A.; Hanssen, J.; Fojón, O.A.; Galassi, M.E.; Champion, C.; Rivarola, R.D.

    2014-01-01

    Distorted wave models are employed to investigate the electron loss process induced by bare ions on biological targets. The two main reactions which contribute to this process, namely, the single electron ionization as well as the single electron capture are here studied. In order to further assess the validity of the theoretical descriptions used, the influence of particular mechanisms are studied, like dynamic screening for the case of electron ionization and energy deposition on the target by the impacting projectile for the electron capture one. Results are compared with existing experimental data. - Highlights: ► Distorted wave models are used to investigate ion-molecule collisions. ► Differential and total cross-sections for capture and ionization are evaluated. ► The influence of dynamic screening is determined. ► Capture reaction dominates the mean energy deposited by the projectile on the target

  8. Streams of events and performance of queuing systems: The basic anatomy of arrival/departure processes, when the focus is set on autocorrelation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Erland Hejn

    2004-01-01

    some arrival processes for some simulation study a thorough preliminary analysis has to be undertaken in order to uncover the basic time series nature of the interacting processes. Flexible methods for generating streams of autocorrelated variates of any desired distributional type, such as the ARTA...... method or some autocorrelation extended descriptive sampling method, can then easily be applied. The results from the Livny, Melamed and Tsiolis (1993) study as well as the results from this work both indicates that system performance measures as for instance average waiting time or average time...

  9. Proceedings of the Scientific Meeting and Presentation on Basic Research in Nuclear of the Science and Technology part II : Nuclear Chemistry and Process Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamsul Abraha; Yateman Arryanto; Sri Jauhari S; Agus Taftazani; Kris Tri Basuki; Djoko Sardjono, Ign.; Sukarsono, R.; Samin; Syarip; Suryadi, MS; Sardjono, Y.; Tri Mardji Atmono; Dwiretnani Sudjoko; Tjipto Sujitno, BA.

    2007-08-01

    The Scientific Meeting and Presentation on Basic Research in Nuclear Science and Technology is a routine activity held by Centre for Accelerator Technology and Material Process, National Nuclear Energy Agency, for monitoring the research activity which achieved in National Nuclear Energy Agency. The Meeting was held in Yogyakarta on July 10, 2007. The proceedings contains papers presented on the meeting about Nuclear Chemistry and Process Technology and there are 47 papers which have separated index. The proceedings is the second part of the three parts which published in series. (PPIN)

  10. Biological sludge reduction during abattoir wastewater treatment process using a sequencing batch aerobic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskes, Sajiâa; Bouallagui, Hassib; Godon, Jean Jacques; Abid, Sami; Hamdi, Moktar

    2013-01-01

    Excess sludge disposal during biological treatment of wastewater is subject to numerous constraints, including social, health and regulatory factors. To reduce the amount of excess sludge, coupled processes involving different biological technologies are currently under taken. This work presents a laboratory scale sequencing batch aerobic system included an anaerobic zone for biomass synchronization (SBAAS: sequencing batch aerobic anaerobic system). This system was adopted to reduce sludge production during abattoir wastewater (AW) treatment. The average chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of 89% was obtained at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) and a sludge retention time (SRT) of 2 days and 15-20 days, respectively. The comparison of SBAAS performances with a conventional sequencing batch activated sludge system (SBASS) found that the observed biomass production yield (Y(obs)) were in the ranges of 0.26 and 0.7 g suspended solids g(-1) COD removed, respectively. A significant reduction in the excess biomass production of 63% was observed by using the SBAAS. In fact, in the anaerobic zone microorganisms consume the intracellular stocks of energy by endogenous metabolism, which limits biosynthesis and accelerates sludge decay. The single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) method was used to study the dynamic and the diversity of bacterial communities. Results showed a significant change in the population structure by including the anaerobic stage in the process, and revealed clearly that the sludge production yield can be correlated with the bacterial communities present in the system.

  11. Carbon Isotope Fractionation of 1,2-Dibromoethane by Biological and Abiotic Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster van Groos, Paul G; Hatzinger, Paul B; Streger, Sheryl H; Vainberg, Simon; Philp, R Paul; Kuder, Tomasz

    2018-03-20

    1,2-Dibromethane (EDB) is a toxic fuel additive that likely occurs at many sites where leaded fuels have impacted groundwater. This study quantified carbon (C) isotope fractionation of EDB associated with anaerobic and aerobic biodegradation, abiotic degradation by iron sulfides, and abiotic hydrolysis. These processes likely contribute to EDB degradation in source zones (biodegradation) and in more dilute plumes (hydrolysis). Mixed anaerobic cultures containing dehalogenating organisms (e.g., Dehaloccoides spp.) were examined, as were aerobic cultures that degrade EDB cometabolically. Bulk C isotope enrichment factors (ε bulk ) associated with biological degradation covered a large range, with mixed anaerobic cultures fractionating more (ε bulk from -8 to -20‰) than aerobic cultures (ε bulk from -3 to -6‰). ε bulk magnitudes associated with the abiotic processes (dihaloelimination by FeS/FeS 2 and hydrolysis) were large but fairly well constrained (ε bulk from -19 to -29‰). As expected, oxidative mechanisms fractionated EDB less than dihaloelimination and substitution mechanisms, and biological systems exhibited a larger range of fractionation, potentially due to isotope masking effects. In addition to quantifying and discussing ε bulk values, which are highly relevant for quantifying in situ EDB degradation, an innovative approach for constraining the age of EDB in the aqueous phase, based on fractionation during hydrolysis, is described.

  12. Dispensing processes impact apparent biological activity as determined by computational and statistical analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Ekins

    Full Text Available Dispensing and dilution processes may profoundly influence estimates of biological activity of compounds. Published data show Ephrin type-B receptor 4 IC50 values obtained via tip-based serial dilution and dispensing versus acoustic dispensing with direct dilution differ by orders of magnitude with no correlation or ranking of datasets. We generated computational 3D pharmacophores based on data derived by both acoustic and tip-based transfer. The computed pharmacophores differ significantly depending upon dispensing and dilution methods. The acoustic dispensing-derived pharmacophore correctly identified active compounds in a subsequent test set where the tip-based method failed. Data from acoustic dispensing generates a pharmacophore containing two hydrophobic features, one hydrogen bond donor and one hydrogen bond acceptor. This is consistent with X-ray crystallography studies of ligand-protein interactions and automatically generated pharmacophores derived from this structural data. In contrast, the tip-based data suggest a pharmacophore with two hydrogen bond acceptors, one hydrogen bond donor and no hydrophobic features. This pharmacophore is inconsistent with the X-ray crystallographic studies and automatically generated pharmacophores. In short, traditional dispensing processes are another important source of error in high-throughput screening that impacts computational and statistical analyses. These findings have far-reaching implications in biological research.

  13. Basic Concurrency Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvengreen, Hans Henrik

    2002-01-01

    In this set of notes, we present some of the basic theory underlying the discipline of programming with concurrent processes/threads. The notes are intended to supplement a standard textbook on concurrent programming.......In this set of notes, we present some of the basic theory underlying the discipline of programming with concurrent processes/threads. The notes are intended to supplement a standard textbook on concurrent programming....

  14. Biological Niches within Human Calcified Aortic Valves: Towards Understanding of the Pathological Biomineralization Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Cottignoli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite recent advances, mineralization site, its microarchitecture, and composition in calcific heart valve remain poorly understood. A multiscale investigation, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS, from micrometre up to nanometre, was conducted on human severely calcified aortic and mitral valves, to provide new insights into calcification process. Our aim was to evaluate the spatial relationship existing between bioapatite crystals, their local growing microenvironment, and the presence of a hierarchical architecture. Here we detected the presence of bioapatite crystals in two different mineralization sites that suggest the action of two different growth processes: a pathological crystallization process that occurs in biological niches and is ascribed to a purely physicochemical process and a matrix-mediated mineralized process in which the extracellular matrix acts as the template for a site-directed nanocrystals nucleation. Different shapes of bioapatite crystallization were observed at micrometer scale in each microenvironment but at the nanoscale level crystals appear to be made up by the same subunits.

  15. Improving the biological nitrogen removal process in pharmaceutical wastewater treatment plants: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrijos, M; Carrera, J; Lafuente, J

    2004-04-01

    The Biological Nitrogen Removal (BNR) process of some pharmaceutical wastewater treatment plants has important operational problems. This study shows that, in order to solve these problems, the design of industrial BNR processes should start by analysing three key parameters: the characteristics of the wastewater load, the determination of the maximum TKN removal rate and the detection of toxic or inhibitory compounds in the wastewater. A case study of this analysis in pharmaceutical wastewater is presented here. In this case, the conventional TKN analytical method does not make an accurate characterisation of the wastewater load because it measures a concentration of 100 mg TKN l(-1) whereas the real concentration, determined with a modified TKN analytical method, is 150-500 mg TKN l(-1). Also, the TKN removal of the treatment system is insufficient in some periods because it falls below legal requirements. This problem might be a consequence of the wrong characterisation of wastewater during the design process. The maximum TKN removal at 27 degrees C (24 mg N g VSS(-1) d(-1) or 197 mg N l(-1) d(-1)) was evaluated in a pilot-scale plant. This value is six times greater than the average NLR applied in the full-scale plant. Finally, some of the components of the wastewater, such as p-phenylenediamine, might have inhibitory or toxic effects on the biological process. P-phenylenediamine causes a large decrease in the nitrification rate. This effect was determined by respirometry. This methodology shows that the effect is mainly inhibitory with a contact time of 30 min and if the contact time is longer, 14 hours, a toxic effect is observed.

  16. Robust analysis of the hydrophobic basic analytes loratadine and desloratadine in pharmaceutical preparations and biological fluids by sweeping-cyclodextrin-modified micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Awady, Mohamed; Belal, Fathalla; Pyell, Ute

    2013-09-27

    The analysis of hydrophobic basic analytes by micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) is usually challenging because of the tendency of these analytes to be adsorbed onto the inner capillary wall in addition to the difficulty to separate these compounds as they exhibit extremely high retention factors. A robust and reliable method for the simultaneous determination of loratadine (LOR) and its major metabolite desloratadine (DSL) is developed based on cyclodextrin-modified micellar electrokinetic chromatography (CD-MEKC) with acidic sample matrix and basic background electrolyte (BGE). The influence of the sample matrix on the reachable focusing efficiency is studied. It is shown that the application of a low pH sample solution mitigates problems associated with the low solubility of the hydrophobic basic analytes in aqueous solution while having advantages with regard to on-line focusing. Moreover, the use of a basic BGE reduces the adsorption of these analytes in the separation compartment. The separation of the studied analytes is achieved in less than 7min using a BGE consisting of 10mmolL(-1) disodium tetraborate buffer, pH 9.30 containing 40mmolL(-1) SDS and 20mmolL(-1) hydroxypropyl-β-CD while the sample solution is composed of 10mmolL(-1) phosphoric acid, pH 2.15. A full validation study of the developed method based on the pharmacopeial guidelines is performed. The method is successfully applied to the analysis of the studied drugs in tablets without interference of tablet additives as well as the analysis of spiked human urine without any sample pretreatment. Furthermore, DSL can be detected as an impurity in LOR bulk powder at the stated pharmacopeial limit (0.1%, w/w). The selectivity of the developed method allows the analysis of LOR and DSL in combination with the co-formulated drug pseudoephedrine. It is shown that in CD-MEKC with basic BGE, solute-wall interactions are effectively suppressed allowing the development of efficient and precise

  17. Impact of nitinol stent surface processing on in-vivo nickel release and biological response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraja, Srinidhi; Sullivan, Stacey J L; Stafford, Philip R; Lucas, Anne D; Malkin, Elon

    2018-03-27

    Although nitinol is widely used in percutaneous cardiovascular interventions, a causal relationship between nickel released from implanted cardiovascular devices and adverse systemic or local biological responses has not been established. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between nitinol surface processing, in-vivo nickel release, and biocompatibility. Nitinol stents manufactured using select surface treatments were implanted into the iliac arteries of minipigs for 6 months. Clinical chemistry profile, complete blood count, serum and urine nickel analyses were performed periodically during the implantation period. After explant, stented arteries were either digested and analyzed for local nickel concentration or fixed and sectioned for histopathological analysis of stenosis and inflammation within the artery. The results indicated that markers for liver and kidney function were not different than baseline values throughout 180 days of implantation regardless of surface finish. In addition, white blood cell, red blood cell, and platelet counts were similar to baseline values for all surface finishes. Systemic nickel concentrations in serum and urine were not significantly different between processing groups and comparable to baseline values during 180 days of implantation. However, stents with non-optimized surface finishing had significantly greater nickel levels in the surrounding artery compared to polished stents. These stents had increased stenosis with potential for local inflammation compared to polished stents. These findings demonstrate that proper polishing of nitinol surfaces can reduce in-vivo nickel release locally, which may aid in minimizing adverse inflammatory reactions and restenosis. Nitinol is a commonly used material in cardiovascular medical devices. However, relationships between nitinol surface finishing, in-vivo metal ion release, and adverse biological responses have yet to be established. We addressed

  18. Development of a computational system for management of risks in radiosterilization processes of biological tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya, Cynara Viterbo

    2009-01-01

    Risk management can be understood to be a systematic management which aims to identify record and control the risks of a process. Applying risk management becomes a complex activity, due to the variety of professionals involved. In order to execute risk management the following are requirements of paramount importance: the experience, discernment and judgment of a multidisciplinary team, guided by means of quality tools, so as to provide standardization in the process of investigating the cause and effects of risks and dynamism in obtaining the objective desired, i.e. the reduction and control of the risk. This work aims to develop a computational system of risk management (software) which makes it feasible to diagnose the risks of the processes of radiosterilization of biological tissues. The methodology adopted was action-research, according to which the researcher performs an active role in the establishment of the problems found, in the follow-up and in the evaluation of the actions taken owing to the problems. The scenario of this action-research was the Laboratory of Biological Tissues (LTB) in the Radiation Technology Center IPEN/CNEN-SP - Sao Paulo/Brazil. The software developed was executed in PHP and Flash/MySQL language, the server (hosting), the software is available on the Internet (www.vcrisk.com.br), which the user can access from anywhere by means of the login/access password previously sent by email to the team responsible for the tissue to be analyzed. The software presents friendly navigability whereby the user is directed step-by-step in the process of investigating the risk up to the means of reducing it. The software 'makes' the user comply with the term and present the effectiveness of the actions taken to reduce the risk. Applying this system provided the organization (LTB/CTR/IPEN) with dynamic communication, effective between the members of the multidisciplinary team: a) in decision-making; b) in lessons learned; c) in knowing the new risk

  19. Open Water Processes of the San Francisco Estuary: From Physical Forcing to Biological Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Kimmerer

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the current state of knowledge of the open waters of the San Francisco Estuary. This estuary is well known for the extent to which it has been altered through loss of wetlands, changes in hydrography, and the introduction of chemical and biological contaminants. It is also one of the most studied estuaries in the world, with much of the recent research effort aimed at supporting restoration efforts. In this review I emphasize the conceptual foundations for our current understanding of estuarine dynamics, particularly those aspects relevant to restoration. Several themes run throughout this paper. First is the critical role physical dynamics play in setting the stage for chemical and biological responses. Physical forcing by the tides and by variation in freshwater input combine to control the movement of the salinity field, and to establish stratification, mixing, and dilution patterns throughout the estuary. Many aspects of estuarine dynamics respond to interannual variation in freshwater flow; in particular, abundance of several estuarine-dependent species of fish and shrimp varies positively with flow, although the mechanisms behind these relationships are largely unknown. The second theme is the importance of time scales in determining the degree of interaction between dynamic processes. Physical effects tend to dominate when they operate at shorter time scales than biological processes; when the two time scales are similar, important interactions can arise between physical and biological variability. These interactions can be seen, for example, in the response of phytoplankton blooms, with characteristic time scales of days, to stratification events occurring during neap tides. The third theme is the key role of introduced species in all estuarine habitats; particularly noteworthy are introduced waterweeds and fishes in the tidal freshwater reaches of the estuary, and introduced clams there and in brackish water. The

  20. The decade 1989-1998 in Spanish psychology: an analysis of research in basic psychological processes, history of psychology, and other related topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igoa, J M

    2001-11-01

    This article presents a review of research published by Spanish Faculty from the area of basic psychology in the decade 1989-1998. It provides information about research on basic psychological processes commonly studied under the labels of experimental and cognitive psychology, plus a number of topics from other research areas, including some applied psychology issues. The review analyzes the work of 241 faculty members from 27 different Spanish universities, as reflected in 1,882 published papers, book chapters, and books. The analyses carried out in this report include a description of the main research trends found in each area, with some representative references of the published materials, and statistics showing the distribution of this research work in various relevant publications (both Spanish and foreign), with figures that reveal the impact of this work both at a national and international scale.

  1. DNA micelle flares: a study of the basic properties that contribute to enhanced stability and binding affinity in complex biological systems

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yanyue; Wu, Cuichen; Chen, Tao; Sun, Hao; Cansiz, Sena; Zhang, Liqin; Cui, Cheng; Hou, Weijia; Wu, Yuan; Wan, Shuo; Cai, Ren; Liu, Yuan; Sumerlin, Brent; Zhang, Xiaobing; Tan, Weihong

    2016-01-01

    DMFs are spherical DNA-diacyllipid nanostructures formed by hydrophobic effects between lipid tails coupled to single-stranded DNAs. Such properties as high cellular permeability, low critical micelle concentration (CMC) and facile fabrication facilitate intracellular imaging and drug delivery. While the basic properties of NFs have been amply described and tested, few studies have characterized the fundamental properties of DMFs with particular respect to aggregation number, dissociation con...

  2. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrook, Harold D

    1971-01-01

    Basic Electronics is an elementary text designed for basic instruction in electricity and electronics. It gives emphasis on electronic emission and the vacuum tube and shows transistor circuits in parallel with electron tube circuits. This book also demonstrates how the transistor merely replaces the tube, with proper change of circuit constants as required. Many problems are presented at the end of each chapter. This book is comprised of 17 chapters and opens with an overview of electron theory, followed by a discussion on resistance, inductance, and capacitance, along with their effects on t

  3. Activity of human kallikrein-related peptidase 6 (KLK6) on substrates containing sequences of basic amino acids. Is it a processing protease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Roberta N; Oliveira, Lilian C G; Parise, Carolina B; Oliveira, Juliana R; Severino, Beatrice; Corvino, Angela; di Vaio, Paola; Temussi, Piero A; Caliendo, Giuseppe; Santagada, Vincenzo; Juliano, Luiz; Juliano, Maria A

    2017-05-01

    Human kallikrein 6 (KLK6) is highly expressed in the central nervous system and with elevated level in demyelinating disease. KLK6 has a very restricted specificity for arginine (R) and hydrolyses myelin basic protein, protein activator receptors and human ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits. Here we report a previously unreported activity of KLK6 on peptides containing clusters of basic amino acids, as in synthetic fluorogenic peptidyl-Arg-7-amino-4-carbamoylmethylcoumarin (peptidyl-ACC) peptides and FRET peptides in the format of Abz-peptidyl-Q-EDDnp (where Abz=ortho-aminobenzoic acid and Q-EDDnp=glutaminyl-N-(2,4-dinitrophenyl) ethylenediamine), in which pairs or sequences of basic amino acids (R or K) were introduced. Surprisingly, KLK6 hydrolyzed the fluorogenic peptides Bz-A-R ↓ R-ACC and Z-R ↓ R-MCA between the two R groups, resulting in non-fluorescent products. FRET peptides containing furin processing sequences of human MMP-14, nerve growth factor (NGF), Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and Neurotrophin-4 (NT-4) were cleaved by KLK6 at the same position expected by furin. Finally, KLK6 cleaved FRET peptides derived from human proenkephalin after the KR, the more frequent basic residues flanking enkephalins in human proenkephalin sequence. This result suggests the ability of KLK6 to release enkephalin from proenkephalin precursors and resembles furin a canonical processing proteolytic enzyme. Molecular models of peptides were built into the KLK6 structure and the marked preference of the cut between the two R of the examined peptides was related to the extended conformation of the substrates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Transcriptomic variation of eyestalk reveals the genes and biological processes associated with molting in Portunus trituberculatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjian Lv

    Full Text Available Molting is an essential biological process throughout the life history of crustaceans, which is regulated by many neuropeptide hormones expressed in the eyestalk. To better understand the molting mechanism in Portunus trituberculatus, we used digital gene expression (DGE to analyze single eyestalk samples during the molting cycle by high-throughput sequencing.We obtained 14,387,942, 12,631,508 and 13,060,062 clean sequence reads from inter-molt (InM, pre-molt (PrM and post-molt (PoM cDNA libraries, respectively. A total of 1,394 molt-related differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified. GO and KEGG enrichment analysis identified some important processes and pathways with key roles in molting regulation, such as chitin metabolism, peptidase inhibitor activity, and the ribosome. We first observed a pattern associated with the neuromodulator-related pathways during the molting cycle, which were up-regulated in PrM and down-regulated in PoM. Four categories of important molting-related transcripts were clustered and most of them had similar expression patterns, which suggests that there is a connection between these genes throughout the molt cycle.Our work is the first molt-related investigation of P. trituberculatus focusing on the eyestalk at the whole transcriptome level. Together, our results, including DEGs, identification of molting-related biological processes and pathways, and observed expression patterns of important genes, provide a novel insight into the function of the eyestalk in molting regulation.

  5. Basic concepts on threat, vulnerability and risk associated to a process of massive use of gaseous fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ospina G, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    The massive use of gaseous fuels, natural gas and liquefied gas of the oil or G.L.P., demands the implementation and complex technologies utilization in each one of the technical activities operative that transportation, distribution and consumption of these fuels requires, in order to accomplish each one of they in the form most efficient and possible insurance. Natural phenomena (earthquakes, landslides) and technical phenomena and caused by the man (terrorism, not appropriate designs of transportation and distribution net, wrong manipulation of the gas equipment) represent a latent danger for the distributors as well as for the users of the gas, generating a threat, of large proportions, for the normal development of the program of massive use of the gas, in any geographical environment where this is implemented. In this article are described the disaster concepts, threat, vulnerability and risk and the form as are related to the project of massive use of the gas, basically to transportation areas, distribution and final use

  6. Novel MBR_based main stream biological nutrient removal process: high performance and microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuanyi; Xu, Xinhai; Zhao, Kuixia; Tang, Lianggang; Zou, Siqi; Yuan, Limei

    2018-02-01

    For municipal wastewater treatment, main stream biological nutrient removal (BNR) process is becoming more and more important. This lab-scale study, novel MBR_based BNR processes (named A 2 N-MBR and A 2 NO-MBR) were built. Comparison of the COD removal, results obtained demonstrated that COD removal efficiencies were almost the same in three processes, with effluent concentration all bellowed 30 mg L -1 . However, the two-sludge systems (A 2 N-MBR and A 2 NO-MBR) had an obvious advantage over the A 2 /O for denitrification and phosphorus removal, with the average TP removal rates of 91.20, 98.05% and TN removal rates of 73.00, 79.49%, respectively, higher than that of 86.45 and 61.60% in A 2 /O process. Illumina Miseq sequencing revealed that Candidatus_Accumulibacter, which is capable of using nitrate as an electron acceptor for phosphorus and nitrogen removal simultaneously, was the dominant phylum in both A 2 N-MBR and A 2 NO-MBR process, accounting for 28.74 and 23.98%, respectively. Distinguishingly, major organism groups related to nitrogen and phosphorus removal in A 2 /O system were Anaerolineaceae_uncultured, Saprospiraceae_uncultured and Thauera, with proportions of 11.31, 8.56 and 5.00%, respectively. Hence, the diversity of dominant PAOs group was likely responsible for the difference in nitrogen and phosphorus removal in the three processes.

  7. State observers for a biological wastewater nitrogen removal process in a sequential batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaventura, K M; Roqueiro, N; Coelho, M A; Araújo, O Q

    2001-08-01

    Biological removal of nitrogen is a two-step process: aerobic autotrophic microorganisms oxidize ammoniacal nitrogen to nitrate, and the nitrate is further reduced to elementary nitrogen by heterotrophic microorganisms under anoxic condition with concomitant organic carbon removal. Several state variables are involved which render process monitoring a demanding task, as in most biotechnological processes, measurement of primary variables such as microorganism, carbon and nitrogen concentrations is either difficult or expensive. An alternative is to use a process model of reduced order for on-line inference of state variables based on secondary process measurements, e.g. pH and redox potential. In this work, two modeling approaches were investigated: a generic reduced order model based on the generally accepted IAWQ No. 1 Model [M. Henze, C.P.L., Grady, W., Gujer, G.V.R., Marais, T., Matsuo, Water Res. 21 (5) (1987) 505-515]-generic model (GM), and a reduced order model specially validated with the data acquired from a benchscale sequential batch reactor (SBR) specific model (SM). Model inaccuracies and measurement errors were compensated for with a Kalman filter structure to develop two state observers: one built with GM, the generic observer (GO), and another based on SM, the specific observer (SO). State variables estimated by GM, SM, GO and SO were compared to experimental data from the SBR unit. GM gave the worst performance while SM predictions presented some model to data mismatch. GO and SO, on the other hand, were both in very good agreement with experimental data showing that filters add robustness against model errors, which reduces the modeling effort while assuring adequate inference of process variables.

  8. Broadening Horizons and Teaching Basic Biology through Cell-Free Synthesis of Green Fluorescent Protein in a High School Laboratory Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albayrak, Cem; Jones, K. C.; Swartz, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) has emerged as a practical method for producing a broad variety of proteins. In addition, the direct accessibility to the reaction environment makes CFPS particularly suitable as a learning vehicle for fundamental biological concepts. Here, we describe its implementation as a teaching tool for a high school…

  9. Introducing Basic Molecular Biology to Turkish Rural and Urban Primary School Children via Hands-on PCR and Gel Electrophoresis Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selli, Cigdem; Yildirim, Gokce; Kaymak, Aysegul; Karacicek, Bilge; Ogut, Deniz; Gungor, Turkan; Erem, Erdem; Ege, Mehmet; Bümen, Nilay; Tosun, Metiner

    2014-01-01

    This study includes the results of a 2-day education project titled "Molecular Biology Laboratory Summer School, MoBiLYO." The project was held at a University Research Center by scientists from Department of Pharmacology and graduate students. The project was composed of introductory lectures, model construction, DNA isolation,…

  10. Assessment of the removal of estrogenicity in biological nutrient removal wastewater treatment processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogunlaja, O.O., E-mail: oogunlaj@uwaterloo.ca; Parker, W.J., E-mail: wjparker@uwaterloo.ca

    2015-05-01

    The removal of estrogenicity in a University of Cape Town-biological nutrient removal (UCT-BNR) wastewater treatment process was investigated using pilot and bench scale systems, batch experiments and mathematical modeling. In the pilot BNR process, 96 ± 5% of the estrogenicity exerted by the influent wastewater was removed by the treatment process. The degradation efficiencies in the anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic zones of the pilot BNR bioreactor were 11 ± 9%, 18 ± 2% and 93 ± 10%, respectively. In order to further understand the performance of the BNR process in the removal of estrogenicity from wastewater, a bench scale BNR process was operated with synthetic wastewater dosed with E1 and E2. The removal of estrogenicity in the bench scale system (95 ± 5%) was comparable to the pilot BNR process and the degradation efficiencies were estimated to be 8 ± 0.8%, 38 ± 4% and 85 ± 22% in the anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic zones, respectively. A biotransformation model developed to predict the fate of E1 and E2 in batch tests using the sludge from the BNR process was calibrated using the data from the experiments. The biotransformation rate constants for the transformation of E2 to E1 were estimated as 71 ± 1.5, 31 ± 3.3 and 1 ± 0.9 L g COD{sup −1} d{sup −1} for the aerobic, anoxic and anaerobic batch tests, respectively, while the corresponding biotransformation rate constants for the transformation of E1 were estimated to be 7.3 ± 1.0, 3 ± 2.0, and 0.85 ± 0.6 L·g COD{sup −1} d{sup −1}. A steady state mass balance model formulated to describe the interactions between E2 and E1 in BNR activated sludge reasonably described the fate of E1 and E2 in the BNR process. - Highlights: • Comparable estrogenicity removal was observed from two BNR processes. • Pseudo first order model described the transformation of E2 and E1 in BNR process. • Biotransformation of E1 in BNR activated sludge controls the degradation of E2.

  11. Assessment of the removal of estrogenicity in biological nutrient removal wastewater treatment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogunlaja, O.O.; Parker, W.J.

    2015-01-01

    The removal of estrogenicity in a University of Cape Town-biological nutrient removal (UCT-BNR) wastewater treatment process was investigated using pilot and bench scale systems, batch experiments and mathematical modeling. In the pilot BNR process, 96 ± 5% of the estrogenicity exerted by the influent wastewater was removed by the treatment process. The degradation efficiencies in the anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic zones of the pilot BNR bioreactor were 11 ± 9%, 18 ± 2% and 93 ± 10%, respectively. In order to further understand the performance of the BNR process in the removal of estrogenicity from wastewater, a bench scale BNR process was operated with synthetic wastewater dosed with E1 and E2. The removal of estrogenicity in the bench scale system (95 ± 5%) was comparable to the pilot BNR process and the degradation efficiencies were estimated to be 8 ± 0.8%, 38 ± 4% and 85 ± 22% in the anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic zones, respectively. A biotransformation model developed to predict the fate of E1 and E2 in batch tests using the sludge from the BNR process was calibrated using the data from the experiments. The biotransformation rate constants for the transformation of E2 to E1 were estimated as 71 ± 1.5, 31 ± 3.3 and 1 ± 0.9 L g COD −1 d −1 for the aerobic, anoxic and anaerobic batch tests, respectively, while the corresponding biotransformation rate constants for the transformation of E1 were estimated to be 7.3 ± 1.0, 3 ± 2.0, and 0.85 ± 0.6 L·g COD −1 d −1 . A steady state mass balance model formulated to describe the interactions between E2 and E1 in BNR activated sludge reasonably described the fate of E1 and E2 in the BNR process. - Highlights: • Comparable estrogenicity removal was observed from two BNR processes. • Pseudo first order model described the transformation of E2 and E1 in BNR process. • Biotransformation of E1 in BNR activated sludge controls the degradation of E2

  12. Basic conceptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasanov, A.Kh.

    1988-01-01

    In this part of book author presents the basic conceptions of minerals studying. The course of minerals deposits is the most important branch of geology science and studying the geology, material constitution, formation conditions and regularity of distribution in earth crust different types of mineral raw materials

  13. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... mental illnesses. Search the NIMH Website: Home Health & Education Mental Health Information Statistics Consumer Health Publications Help for Mental Illnesses Clinical Trials Outreach Research Priorities Funding Labs at ... Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain ...

  14. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a ... MSC 9663 Bethesda, MD 20892-9663 Follow Us Facebook Twitter YouTube Google Plus NIMH Newsletter NIMH RSS ...

  15. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by which the cell sends information to receiving neurons. cell body —Contains the nucleus and cytoplasm of a ... circuit —A network of neurons and their interconnections. neuron —A nerve cell that is the basic, working unit of the ...

  16. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Join A Study News & Events News & Events Home Science News Events Multimedia Social Media Press Resources Newsletters NIMH News Feeds About Us About Us Home About the Director Advisory Boards and ... Basics will introduce you to some of this science, such as: How the brain develops How genes ...

  17. Ethanol Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-01-30

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  18. Evaluating the feasibility of biological waste processing for long term space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, J. L.; Alazraki, M. P.; Atkinson, C. F.; Finger, B. W.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Recycling waste products during orbital (e.g., International Space Station) and planetary missions (e.g., lunar base, Mars transit mission, Martian base) will reduce storage and resupply costs. Wastes streams on the space station will include human hygiene water, urine, faeces, and trash. Longer term missions will contain human waste and inedible plant material from plant growth systems used for atmospheric regeneration, food production, and water recycling. The feasibility of biological and physical-chemical waste recycling is being investigated as part of National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program. In-vessel composting has lower manpower requirements, lower water and volume requirements, and greater potential for sanitization of human waste compared to alternative bioreactor designs such as continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR). Residual solids from the process (i.e. compost) could be used a biological air filter, a plant nutrient source, and a carbon sink. Potential in-vessel composting designs for both near- and long-term space missions are presented and discussed with respect to the unique aspects of space-based systems.

  19. Safety Assessment and Biological Effects of a New Cold Processed SilEmulsion for Dermatological Purpose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Raposo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is of crucial importance to evaluate the safety profile of the ingredients used in dermatological emulsions. A suitable equilibrium between safety and efficacy is a pivotal concern before the marketing of a dermatological product. The aim was to assess the safety and biological effects of a new cold processed silicone-based emulsion (SilEmulsion. The hazard, exposure, and dose-response assessment were used to characterize the risk for each ingredient. EpiSkin assay and human repeat insult patch tests were performed to compare the theoretical safety assessment to in vitro and in vivo data. The efficacy of the SilEmulsion was studied using biophysical measurements in human volunteers during 21 days. According to the safety assessment of the ingredients, 1,5-pentanediol was an ingredient of special concern since its margin of safety was below the threshold of 100 (36.53. EpiSkin assay showed that the tissue viability after the application of the SilEmulsion was 92 ± 6% and, thus considered nonirritant to the skin. The human studies confirmed that the SilEmulsion was not a skin irritant and did not induce any sensitization on the volunteers, being safe for human use. Moreover, biological effects demonstrated that the SilEmulsion increased both the skin hydration and skin surface lipids.

  20. Comprehension of complex biological processes by analytical methods: how far can we go using mass spectrometry?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerner, C.

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive understanding of complex biological processes is the basis for many biomedical issues of great relevance for modern society including risk assessment, drug development, quality control of industrial products and many more. Screening methods provide means for investigating biological samples without research hypothesis. However, the first boom of analytical screening efforts has passed and we again need to ask whether and how to apply screening methods. Mass spectrometry is a modern tool with unrivalled analytical capacities. This applies to all relevant characteristics of analytical methods such as specificity, sensitivity, accuracy, multiplicity and diversity of applications. Indeed, mass spectrometry qualifies to deal with complexity. Chronic inflammation is a common feature of almost all relevant diseases challenging our modern society; these diseases are apparently highly diverse and include arteriosclerosis, cancer, back pain, neurodegenerative diseases, depression and other. The complexity of mechanisms regulating chronic inflammation is the reason for the practical challenge to deal with it. The presentation shall give an overview of capabilities and limitations of the application of this analytical tool to solve critical questions with great relevance for our society. (author)

  1. The relative contributions of biological and abiotic processes to carbon dynamics in subarctic sea ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Dorte Haubjerg; Thomas, David; Rysgaard, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge on the relative effects of biological activity and precipitation/dissolution of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in influencing the air-ice CO2 exchange in sea-ice-covered season is currently lacking. Furthermore, the spatial and temporal occurrence of CaCO3 and other biogeochemical parameters...... in sea ice are still not well described. Here we investigated autotrophic and heterotrophic activity as well as the precipitation/dissolution of CaCO3 in subarctic sea ice in South West Greenland. Integrated over the entire ice season (71 days), the sea ice was net autotrophic with a net carbon fixation...... and CaCO3 precipitation. The net biological production could only explain 4 % of this sea-ice-driven CO2 uptake. Abiotic processes contributed to an air-sea CO2 uptake of 1.5 mmol m(-2) sea ice day(-1), and dissolution of CaCO3 increased the air-sea CO2 uptake by 36 % compared to a theoretical estimate...

  2. Process of inorganic nitrogen transformation and design of kinetics model in the biological aerated filter reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Gang; Xu, Xia; Yao, Lirong; Lu, Liqiao; Zhao, Tingting; Zhang, Wenyi

    2011-04-01

    As one of the plug-flow reactors, biological aerated filter (BAF) reactor was divided into four sampling sectors to understand the characteristics of elemental nitrogen transformation during the reaction process, and then the different characteristics of elemental nitrogen transformation caused by different NH(3)-N loadings, biological quantities and activities in each section were obtained. The results showed that the total transformation ratio in the nitrifying reactor was more than 90% in the absence of any organic carbon resource, at the same time, more than 65% NH(3)-N in the influent were nitrified at the filter height of 70 cm below under the conditions of the influent runoff 9-19 L/h, the gas-water ratio 4-5:1, the dissolved oxygen 3.0-5.8 mg/L and the NH(3)-N load 0.28-0.48 kg NH(3)-N/m(3) d. On the base of the Eckenfelder mode, the kinetics equation of the NH(3)-N transformation along the reactor was S(e)=S(0) exp(-0.0134D/L(1.2612)). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Simulation and optimization of a coking wastewater biological treatment process by activated sludge models (ASM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaohui; Yang, Yang; Wu, Gaoming; Mao, Juan; Zhou, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Applications of activated sludge models (ASM) in simulating industrial biological wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are still difficult due to refractory and complex components in influents as well as diversity in activated sludges. In this study, an ASM3 modeling study was conducted to simulate and optimize a practical coking wastewater treatment plant (CWTP). First, respirometric characterizations of the coking wastewater and CWTP biomasses were conducted to determine the specific kinetic and stoichiometric model parameters for the consecutive aeration-anoxic-aeration (O-A/O) biological process. All ASM3 parameters have been further estimated and calibrated, through cross validation by the model dynamic simulation procedure. Consequently, an ASM3 model was successfully established to accurately simulate the CWTP performances in removing COD and NH4-N. An optimized CWTP operation condition could be proposed reducing the operation cost from 6.2 to 5.5 €/m(3) wastewater. This study is expected to provide a useful reference for mathematic simulations of practical industrial WWTPs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Basic Study of Establishment of Quality Assurance Processes to Develop an Integrated Quality Assurance System for Nuclear Power Plant Construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Byungki; Moon, Byeongsuk; Lee, Jae Kyoung

    2014-01-01

    An integrated quality assurance system has necessitated carrying out quality assurance programs in a systematic manner because the opportunities to expand business in overseas markets have increased since the export of a nuclear power plant to UAE in 2009. In this study, we use PDCA method to systematically analyze the quality assurance procedures that were used in previous projects for constructing nuclear power plants. We reached a classification system of quality assurance processes at each phase of nuclear power plant construction by integrating similar work related to quality such as planning, design, equipment manufacturing, construction and start-up. We also established a hierarchy of quality assurance processes to develop an integrated quality assurance system as a technology goal to be developed later. To obtain most updated quality assurance activities, a quality assurance process is structured by integrating similar works analyzed from quality assurance procedures through PDCA cycle method. At the implementation phase of Hierarchy of quality processes and sequence of processes for constructing nuclear power plant are established in this study. Integrated quality assurance system is to be developed by connecting organizations as well as stakeholders such as owners, Architect engineering, suppliers, contractors, and sub-contractors to carry out assigned work efficiently

  5. Basic Study of Establishment of Quality Assurance Processes to Develop an Integrated Quality Assurance System for Nuclear Power Plant Construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Byungki; Moon, Byeongsuk; Lee, Jae Kyoung [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    An integrated quality assurance system has necessitated carrying out quality assurance programs in a systematic manner because the opportunities to expand business in overseas markets have increased since the export of a nuclear power plant to UAE in 2009. In this study, we use PDCA method to systematically analyze the quality assurance procedures that were used in previous projects for constructing nuclear power plants. We reached a classification system of quality assurance processes at each phase of nuclear power plant construction by integrating similar work related to quality such as planning, design, equipment manufacturing, construction and start-up. We also established a hierarchy of quality assurance processes to develop an integrated quality assurance system as a technology goal to be developed later. To obtain most updated quality assurance activities, a quality assurance process is structured by integrating similar works analyzed from quality assurance procedures through PDCA cycle method. At the implementation phase of Hierarchy of quality processes and sequence of processes for constructing nuclear power plant are established in this study. Integrated quality assurance system is to be developed by connecting organizations as well as stakeholders such as owners, Architect engineering, suppliers, contractors, and sub-contractors to carry out assigned work efficiently.

  6. Comparative biology approaches for charged particle exposures and cancer development processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronenberg, Amy; Gauny, Stacey; Kwoh, Ely; Sudo, Hiroko; Wiese, Claudia; Dan, Cristian; Turker, Mitchell

    Comparative biology studies can provide useful information for the extrapolation of results be-tween cells in culture and the more complex environment of the tissue. In other circumstances, they provide a method to guide the interpretation of results obtained for cells from differ-ent species. We have considered several key cancer development processes following charged particle exposures using comparative biology approaches. Our particular emphases have been mutagenesis and genomic instability. Carcinogenesis requires the accumulation of mutations and most of htese mutations occur on autosomes. Two loci provide the greatest avenue for the consideration of charged particle-induced mutation involving autosomes: the TK1 locus in human cells and the APRT locus in mouse cells. Each locus can provide information on a wide variety of mutational changes, from small intragenic mutations through multilocus dele-tions and extensive tracts of mitotic recombination. In addition, the mouse model can provide a direct measurement of chromosome loss which cannot be accomplished in the human cell system. Another feature of the mouse APRT model is the ability to examine effects for cells exposed in vitro with those obtained for cells exposed in situ. We will provide a comparison of the results obtained for the TK1 locus following 1 GeV/amu Fe ion exposures to the human lymphoid cells with those obtained for the APRT locus for mouse kidney epithelial cells (in vitro or in situ). Substantial conservation of mechanisms is found amongst these three exposure scenarios, with some differences attributable to the specific conditions of exposure. A similar approach will be applied to the consideraiton of proton-induced autosomal mutations in the three model systems. A comparison of the results obtained for Fe ions vs. protons in each case will highlight LET-specificc differences in response. Another cancer development process that is receiving considerable interest is genomic instability. We

  7. Biological impact of preschool music classes on processing speech in noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strait, Dana L.; Parbery-Clark, Alexandra; O’Connell, Samantha; Kraus, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Musicians have increased resilience to the effects of noise on speech perception and its neural underpinnings. We do not know, however, how early in life these enhancements arise. We compared auditory brainstem responses to speech in noise in 32 preschool children, half of whom were engaged in music training. Thirteen children returned for testing one year later, permitting the first longitudinal assessment of subcortical auditory function with music training. Results indicate emerging neural enhancements in musically trained preschoolers for processing speech in noise. Longitudinal outcomes reveal that children enrolled in music classes experience further increased neural resilience to background noise following one year of continued training compared to nonmusician peers. Together, these data reveal enhanced development of neural mechanisms undergirding speech-in-noise perception in preschoolers undergoing music training and may indicate a biological impact of music training on auditory function during early childhood. PMID:23872199

  8. Biological processes in the water column of the South Atlantic Bight: Zooplankton responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-02-07

    The goal of the Fall Removal Experiment 1987 was to determine the processes affecting the dependent and fate of low salinity coastal water and of biological material therein during fall when winds are mainly south-to westward. Five zooplankton taxa, Acartia tonsa, (A. tonsa) Paracalanus species (sp), Temora turbinata (T. turbinata), Oncaea sp, and Sagitta enflata were examined. Data on the distribution of all five taxa were presented, and distribution over time was also studied. The abundance of A. tonsa decreased tenfold over the 13 day sampling period, Paracalanus varied twofold and T. Turbinata showed little variability. The A. tonsa decrease was postulated to result from food abundance or predation, although the possible role of size distribution, water displacement and chlorophyll distribution will be examined in the future. A possible role of turbulence in zooplankton abundance is being examined. 8 refs., 5 figs.

  9. Study on substrate metabolism process of saline waste sludge and its biological hydrogen production potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zengshuai; Guo, Liang; Li, Qianqian; Zhao, Yangguo; Gao, Mengchun; She, Zonglian

    2017-07-01

    With the increasing of high saline waste sludge production, the treatment and utilization of saline waste sludge attracted more and more attention. In this study, the biological hydrogen production from saline waste sludge after heating pretreatment was studied. The substrate metabolism process at different salinity condition was analyzed by the changes of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), carbohydrate and protein in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), and dissolved organic matters (DOM). The excitation-emission matrix (EEM) with fluorescence regional integration (FRI) was also used to investigate the effect of salinity on EPS and DOM composition during hydrogen fermentation. The highest hydrogen yield of 23.6 mL H 2 /g VSS and hydrogen content of 77.6% were obtained at 0.0% salinity condition. The salinity could influence the hydrogen production and substrate metabolism of waste sludge.

  10. Application of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in stabilization process of biological molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossien Salmani

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: Co-precipitation method is an easy way to prepare magnetic nanoparticles of iron with a large surface and small particle size, which increases the ability of these particles to act as a suitable carrier for enzyme stabilization. Adequate modification of the surface of these nanoparticles enhances their ability to bind to biological molecules. The immobilized protein or enzyme on magnetic nanoparticles are more stable against structural changes, temperature and pH in comparison with un-stabilized structures, and it is widely used in various sciences, including protein isolation and purification, pharmaceutical science, and food analysis. Stabilization based on the covalent bonds and physical absorption is nonspecific, which greatly limits their functionality. The process of stabilization through bio-mediums provide a new method to overcome the selectivity problem.

  11. Insights into biological information processing: structural and dynamical analysis of a human protein signalling network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuente, Alberto de la; Fotia, Giorgio; Maggio, Fabio; Mancosu, Gianmaria; Pieroni, Enrico [CRS4 Bioinformatica, Parco Tecnologico POLARIS, Ed.1, Loc Piscinamanna, Pula (Italy)], E-mail: alf@crs4.it

    2008-06-06

    We present an investigation on the structural and dynamical properties of a 'human protein signalling network' (HPSN). This biological network is composed of nodes that correspond to proteins and directed edges that represent signal flows. In order to gain insight into the organization of cell information processing this network is analysed taking into account explicitly the edge directions. We explore the topological properties of the HPSN at the global and the local scale, further applying the generating function formalism to provide a suitable comparative model. The relationship between the node degrees and the distribution of signals through the network is characterized using degree correlation profiles. Finally, we analyse the dynamical properties of small sub-graphs showing high correlation between their occurrence and dynamic stability.

  12. Composting of biological waste. Processes and utilisation. Summary report; Bioabfallkompostierung. Verfahren und Verwertung. Kurzfassung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gronauer, A.; Claassen, N.; Ebertseder, T.; Fischer, P.; Gutser, R.; Helm, M.; Popp, L.; Schoen, H.

    1997-12-31

    The project investigated environmentally compatible concepts for processing and utilisation of biological waste by means of composting and spreading on agriculataural and gardening plots. The project comprised three parts: Composting techniques, applications of compost in agriculture and gardening, and applications in landscaping. This volume comprises the summaries of the three part-projects. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Die umweltschonende Aufbereitung und Verwertung von Bioabfall durch Kompostierung und Rueckfuehrung auf landwirtschaftliche und gaertnerische Flaechen wurde untersucht. Dieses Projekt war dreigeteilt in die Bereiche der Kompostierung selbst, der Anwendung des Komposts in der Landwirtschaft und seiner Anwendung im Gartenbau sowie im Garten- und Landschaftsbau (GaLa-Bau). Die vorliegende Schrift enthaelt die Zusammenfassung der genannten drei Teilberichte. (orig./SR)

  13. Biological effect of Muller's Ratchet: distant capsid site can affect picornavirus protein processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escarmís, Cristina; Perales, Celia; Domingo, Esteban

    2009-07-01

    Repeated bottleneck passages of RNA viruses result in accumulation of mutations and fitness decrease. Here, we show that clones of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) subjected to bottleneck passages, in the form of plaque-to-plaque transfers in BHK-21 cells, increased the thermosensitivity of the viral clones. By constructing infectious FMDV clones, we have identified the amino acid substitution M54I in capsid protein VP1 as one of the lesions associated with thermosensitivity. M54I affects processing of precursor P1, as evidenced by decreased production of VP1 and accumulation of VP1 precursor proteins. The defect is enhanced at high temperatures. Residue M54 of VP1 is exposed on the virion surface, and it is close to the B-C loop where an antigenic site of FMDV is located. M54 is not in direct contact with the VP1-VP3 cleavage site, according to the three-dimensional structure of FMDV particles. Models to account for the effect of M54 in processing of the FMDV polyprotein are proposed. In addition to revealing a distance effect in polyprotein processing, these results underline the importance of pursuing at the biochemical level the biological defects that arise when viruses are subjected to multiple bottleneck events.

  14. Video-rate processing in tomographic phase microscopy of biological cells using CUDA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardikman, Gili; Habaza, Mor; Waller, Laura; Shaked, Natan T

    2016-05-30

    We suggest a new implementation for rapid reconstruction of three-dimensional (3-D) refractive index (RI) maps of biological cells acquired by tomographic phase microscopy (TPM). The TPM computational reconstruction process is extremely time consuming, making the analysis of large data sets unreasonably slow and the real-time 3-D visualization of the results impossible. Our implementation uses new phase extraction, phase unwrapping and Fourier slice algorithms, suitable for efficient CPU or GPU implementations. The experimental setup includes an external off-axis interferometric module connected to an inverted microscope illuminated coherently. We used single cell rotation by micro-manipulation to obtain interferometric projections from 73 viewing angles over a 180° angular range. Our parallel algorithms were implemented using Nvidia's CUDA C platform, running on Nvidia's Tesla K20c GPU. This implementation yields, for the first time to our knowledge, a 3-D reconstruction rate higher than video rate of 25 frames per second for 256 × 256-pixel interferograms with 73 different projection angles (64 × 64 × 64 output). This allows us to calculate additional cellular parameters, while still processing faster than video rate. This technique is expected to find uses for real-time 3-D cell visualization and processing, while yielding fast feedback for medical diagnosis and cell sorting.

  15. A novel A-B process for enhanced biological nutrient removal in municipal wastewater reclamation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guangjing; Wang, Han; Gu, Jun; Shen, Nan; Qiu, Zheng; Zhou, Yan; Liu, Yu

    2017-12-01

    This study developed an innovative A-B process for enhanced nutrients removal in municipal wastewater reclamation, in which a micro-aerated moving bed biofilm reactor served as A-stage and a step-feed sequencing batch reactor (SBR) as B-stage. In the A-stage, 55% of COD and 15% of ammonia nitrogen was removed, while more than 88% of the total nitrogen was removed via nitritation and denitritation, together with 93% of phosphorous removal at the B-stage where ammonia oxidizing bacteria activity was significantly higher than nitrite oxidizing bacteria activity. Meanwhile substantial phenotype of polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) was also observed in the B-stage SBR. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that Accumulibacter was the dominant PAOs with undetectable Competibacter. Compared to the conventional activated sludge process, the proposed A-B process could offer a more cost-effective alternative for enhanced biological nutrients removal from municipal wastewater with less energy consumption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Low-voltage electrically-enhanced microextraction as a novel technique for simultaneous extraction of acidic and basic drugs from biological fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidi, Shahram; Yamini, Yadollah; Rezazadeh, Maryam; Esrafili, Ali

    2012-06-22

    In the present work, for the first time a new set-up was presented for simultaneous extraction of acidic and basic drugs using a recent novel electrically-enhanced microextraction technique, termed electromembrane extraction at low voltages followed by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. Nalmefene (NAL) as a basic drug and diclofenac (DIC) as an acidic drug were extracted from 24 mL aqueous sample solutions at neutral pH into 10 μL of each acidified (HCl 50 mM) and basic (NaOH 50 mM) acceptor solution, respectively. Supported liquid membranes including 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether containing 5% di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate and 1-octanol were used to ensure efficient extraction of NAL and DIC, respectively. Low voltage of 40 V was applied over the SLMs during 14 min extraction time. The influences of fundamental parameters affecting the transport of target drugs were optimized using experimental design. Under optimal conditions, NAL and DIC were extracted with extraction recoveries of 12.5 and 14.6, respectively, which corresponded to preconcentration factors of 300 and 350, respectively. The proposed technique provided good linearity with correlation coefficient values higher than 0.9956 over a concentration range of 8-500 μg L⁻¹ and 12-500 μg L⁻¹ for NAL and DIC, respectively. Limits of detection and quantifications, and intra-day precisions (n=3) were less than 4 μg L⁻¹, 12 μg L⁻¹, and 10.1%, respectively. Extraction and determination of NAL and DIC in human urine samples were successfully performed. In light of the data obtained in the present work, this new set-up for EME with low voltages has a future potential as a simple, selective, and fast sample preparation technique for simultaneous extraction and determination of acidic and basic drugs in different complicated matrices. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Spies and Bloggers: New Synthetic Biology Tools to Understand Microbial Processes in Soils and Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiello, C. A.; Silberg, J. J.; Cheng, H. Y.; Del Valle, I.; Fulk, E. M.; Gao, X.; Bennett, G. N.

    2017-12-01

    Microbes can be programmed through synthetic biology to report on their behavior, informing researchers when their environment has triggered changes in their gene expression (e.g. in response to shifts in O2 or H2O), or when they have participated in a specific step of an elemental cycle (e.g. denitrification). This use of synthetic biology has the potential to significantly improve our understanding of microbes' roles in elemental and water cycling, because it allows reporting on the environment from the perspective of a microbe, matching the measurement scale exactly to the scale that a microbe experiences. However, synthetic microbes have not yet seen wide use in soil and sediment laboratory experiments because synthetic organisms typically report by fluorescing, making their signals difficult to detect outside the petri dish. We are developing a new suite of microbial programs that report instead by releasing easily-detected gases, allowing the real-time, noninvasive monitoring of behaviors in sediments and soils. Microbial biosensors can, in theory, be programmed to detect dynamic processes that contribute to a wide range of geobiological processes, including C cycling (biofilm production, methanogenesis, and synthesis of extracellular enzymes that degrade organic matter), N cycling (expression of enzymes that underlie different steps of the N cycle) and potentially S cycling. We will provide an overview of the potential uses of gas-reporting biosensors in soil and sediment lab experiments, and will report the development of the systematics of these sensors. Successful development of gas biosensors for laboratory use will require addressing issues including: engineering the intensity and selectivity of microbial gas production to maximize the signal to noise ratio; normalizing the gas reporter signal to cell population size, managing gas diffusion effects on signal shape; and developing multiple gases that can be used in parallel.

  18. Biological treatment processes for PCB contaminated soil at a site in Newfoundland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punt, M.; Cooper, D.; Velicogna, D.; Mohn, W.; Reimer, K.; Parsons, D.; Patel, T.; Daugulis, A.

    2002-01-01

    SAIC Canada is conducting a study under the direction of a joint research and development contract between Public Works and Government Services Canada and Environment Canada to examine the biological options for treating PCB contaminated soil found at a containment cell at a former U.S. Military Base near Stephenville, Newfoundland. In particular, the study examines the feasibility of using indigenous microbes for the degradation of PCBs. The first phase of the study involved the testing of the microbes in a bioreactor. The second phase, currently underway, involves a complete evaluation of possible microbes for PCB degradation. It also involves further study into the biological process options for the site. Suitable indigenous and non-indigenous microbes for PCB dechlorination and biphenyl degradation are being identified and evaluated. In addition, the effectiveness and economics of microbial treatment in a conventional bioreactor is being evaluated. The conventional bioreactor used in this study is the two-phase partitioning bioreactor (TPPB) using a biopile process. Results thus far will be used to help Public Works and Government Services Canada to choose the most appropriate remedial technology. Preliminary results suggest that the use of soil classification could reduce the volume of soil requiring treatment. The soil in the containment cell contains microorganisms that could grow in isolation on biphenyl, naphthalene and potentially Aroclor 1254. Isolated native microbes were inoculated in the TPPB for growth. The TPPB was also run successfully under anaerobic conditions. Future work will involve lab-scale evaluation of microbes for PCB dechlorination and biphenyl degradation using both indigenous and non-indigenous microbes. The next phase of study may also involve field-scale demonstration of treatment methods. 2 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs

  19. Biological processes for concentrating trace elements from uranium mine waters. Technical completion report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brierley, C.L.; Brierley, J.A.

    1981-12-01

    Waste water from uranium mines in the Ambrosia Lake district near Grants, New Mexico, USA, contains uranium, selenium, radium and molybdenum. The Kerr-McGee Corporation has a novel treatment process for waters from two mines to reduce the concentrations of the trace contaminants. Particulates are settled by ponding, and the waters are passed through an ion exchange resin to remove uranium; barium chloride is added to precipitate sulfate and radium from the mine waters. The mine waters are subsequently passed through three consecutive algae ponds prior to discharge. Water, sediment and biological samples were collected over a 4-year period and analyzed to assess the role of biological agents in removal of inorganic trace contaminants from the mine waters. Some of the conclusions derived from this study are: (1) The concentrations of soluble uranium, selenium and molybdenum were not diminished in the mine waters by passage through the series of impoundments which constituted the mine water treatment facility. Uranium concentrations were reduced but this was due to passage of the water through an ion exchange column. (2) The particulate concentrations of the mine water were reduced at least ten-fold by passage of the waters through the impoundments. (3) The sediments were anoxic and enriched in uranium, molybdenum and selenium. The deposition of particulates and the formation of insoluble compounds were proposed as mechanisms for sediment enrichment. (4) The predominant algae of the treatment ponds were the filamentous Spirogyra and Oscillatoria, and the benthic alga, Chara. (5) Adsorptive processes resulted in the accumulation of metals in the algae cells. (6) Stimulation of sulfate reduction by the bacteria resulted in retention of molybdenum, selenium, and uranium in sediments. 1 figure, 16 tables

  20. Functional knowledge transfer for high-accuracy prediction of under-studied biological processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Y Park

    Full Text Available A key challenge in genetics is identifying the functional roles of genes in pathways. Numerous functional genomics techniques (e.g. machine learning that predict protein function have been developed to address this question. These methods generally build from existing annotations of genes to pathways and thus are often unable to identify additional genes participating in processes that are not already well studied. Many of these processes are well studied in some organism, but not necessarily in an investigator's organism of interest. Sequence-based search methods (e.g. BLAST have been used to transfer such annotation information between organisms. We demonstrate that functional genomics can complement traditional sequence similarity to improve the transfer of gene annotations between organisms. Our method transfers annotations only when functionally appropriate as determined by genomic data and can be used with any prediction algorithm to combine transferred gene function knowledge with organism-specific high-throughput data to enable accurate function prediction. We show that diverse state-of-art machine learning algorithms leveraging functional knowledge transfer (FKT dramatically improve their accuracy in predicting gene-pathway membership, particularly for processes with little experimental knowledge in an organism. We also show that our method compares favorably to annotation transfer by sequence similarity. Next, we deploy FKT with state-of-the-art SVM classifier to predict novel genes to 11,000 biological processes across six diverse organisms and expand the coverage of accurate function predictions to processes that are often ignored because of a dearth of annotated genes in an organism. Finally, we perform in vivo experimental investigation in Danio rerio and confirm the regulatory role of our top predicted novel gene, wnt5b, in leftward cell migration during heart development. FKT is immediately applicable to many bioinformatics

  1. Basic Auditory Processing Deficits in Dyslexia: Systematic Review of the Behavioral and Event-Related Potential/Field Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämäläinen, Jarmo A.; Salminen, Hanne K.; Leppänen, Paavo H. T.

    2013-01-01

    A review of research that uses behavioral, electroencephalographic, and/or magnetoencephalographic methods to investigate auditory processing deficits in individuals with dyslexia is presented. Findings show that measures of frequency, rise time, and duration discrimination as well as amplitude modulation and frequency modulation detection were…

  2. Degradation of benzalkonium chloride coupling photochemical advanced oxidation technologies with biological processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meichtry, J; Lamponi, A; Gautier, E; Acosta, T; Fiol, P; Curutchet, G; Candal, R; Litter, M

    2005-01-01

    The combination of Advanced Oxidation Technologies (AOTs) and biological processes can be visualized as a very successful technological option for treatment of effluents, because it combines high oxidizing technologies with a conventional, low-cost and well-established treatment technology.Photochemical AOTs, like UV-C with or without H 2 O 2 , photo-Fenton (PF, UV/H 2 O 2 /Fe(II-III)) and UV/TiO 2 heterogeneous photo catalysis involve the generation and use of powerful oxidizing species, mainly the hydroxyl radical.In almost all AOTs, it is possible to use sunlight. Benzalkonium chloride (dodecyldimetylbencylammonium chloride, BKC) is a widely used surfactant, which has many industrial applications.Due to its antibacterial effect, it cannot be eliminated from effluents by a biological treatment, and the complexity of its chemical structure makes necessary the use of drastic oxidizing treatments to achieve complete mineralization and to avoid the formation of byproducts even more toxic than the initial compound.In this study, different alternatives for BKC treatment using photochemical AOTs followed by bio catalytic techniques are presented.Three AOTs were tested: a) UV-C (254 nm, germicide lamp) with and without H 2 O 2 , b) PF (366 nm), c) UV/TiO 2 (254 and 366 nm). PF at a 15:1:1 H 2 O 2 total/BKC 0 /Fe 0 molar ratio at 55 degree C was the most efficient treatment in order to decrease the tensioactivity and the total organic carbon of the solution . The biocatalysis was studied in a reactor fitted with a biofilm of microorganisms coming from a sludge-water treatment plant. To evaluate the maximal BKC concentration that could be allowed to ingress to the biological reactor after the AOT treatment, the toxicity of solutions of different BKC concentrations was analyzed. The study of the relevant parameters of both processes and their combination allowed to establish the preliminary conditions for optimizing the pollutant degradation

  3. Altered processing of rewarding and aversive basic taste stimuli in symptomatic women with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa: An fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteleone, Alessio Maria; Monteleone, Palmiero; Esposito, Fabrizio; Prinster, Anna; Volpe, Umberto; Cantone, Elena; Pellegrino, Francesca; Canna, Antonietta; Milano, Walter; Aiello, Marco; Di Salle, Francesco; Maj, Mario

    2017-07-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have displayed a dysregulation in the way in which the brain processes pleasant taste stimuli in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). However, exactly how the brain processes disgusting basic taste stimuli has never been investigated, even though disgust plays a role in food intake modulation and AN and BN patients exhibit high disgust sensitivity. Therefore, we investigated the activation of brain areas following the administration of pleasant and aversive basic taste stimuli in symptomatic AN and BN patients compared to healthy subjects. Twenty underweight AN women, 20 symptomatic BN women and 20 healthy women underwent fMRI while tasting 0.292 M sucrose solution (sweet taste), 0.5 mM quinine hydrochloride solution (bitter taste) and water as a reference taste. In symptomatic AN and BN patients the pleasant sweet stimulus induced a higher activation in several brain areas than that induced by the aversive bitter taste. The opposite occurred in healthy controls. Moreover, compared to healthy controls, AN patients showed a decreased response to the bitter stimulus in the right amygdala and left anterior cingulate cortex, while BN patients showed a decreased response to the bitter stimulus in the right amygdala and left insula. These results show an altered processing of rewarding and aversive taste stimuli in ED patients, which may be relevant for understanding the pathophysiology of AN and BN. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Quantum electronics basic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Fain, V M; Sanders, J H

    1969-01-01

    Quantum Electronics, Volume 1: Basic Theory is a condensed and generalized description of the many research and rapid progress done on the subject. It is translated from the Russian language. The volume describes the basic theory of quantum electronics, and shows how the concepts and equations followed in quantum electronics arise from the basic principles of theoretical physics. The book then briefly discusses the interaction of an electromagnetic field with matter. The text also covers the quantum theory of relaxation process when a quantum system approaches an equilibrium state, and explai

  5. Wavelet basics

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, Y T

    1995-01-01

    Since the study of wavelets is a relatively new area, much of the research coming from mathematicians, most of the literature uses terminology, concepts and proofs that may, at times, be difficult and intimidating for the engineer. Wavelet Basics has therefore been written as an introductory book for scientists and engineers. The mathematical presentation has been kept simple, the concepts being presented in elaborate detail in a terminology that engineers will find familiar. Difficult ideas are illustrated with examples which will also aid in the development of an intuitive insight. Chapter 1 reviews the basics of signal transformation and discusses the concepts of duals and frames. Chapter 2 introduces the wavelet transform, contrasts it with the short-time Fourier transform and clarifies the names of the different types of wavelet transforms. Chapter 3 links multiresolution analysis, orthonormal wavelets and the design of digital filters. Chapter 4 gives a tour d'horizon of topics of current interest: wave...

  6. Telemetry System of Biological Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Spisak

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The mobile telemetry system of biological parameters serves for reading and wireless data transfer of measured values of selected biological parameters to an outlying computer. It concerns basically long time monitoring of vital function of car pilot.The goal of this projects is to propose mobile telemetry system for reading, wireless transfer and processing of biological parameters of car pilot during physical and psychical stress. It has to be made with respect to minimal consumption, weight and maximal device mobility. This system has to eliminate signal noise, which is created by biological artifacts and disturbances during the data transfer.

  7. A compact and versatile microfluidic probe for local processing of tissue sections and biological specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cors, J. F.; Lovchik, R. D.; Delamarche, E.; Kaigala, G. V.

    2014-03-01

    The microfluidic probe (MFP) is a non-contact, scanning microfluidic technology for local (bio)chemical processing of surfaces based on hydrodynamically confining nanoliter volumes of liquids over tens of micrometers. We present here a compact MFP (cMFP) that can be used on a standard inverted microscope and assist in the local processing of tissue sections and biological specimens. The cMFP has a footprint of 175 × 100 × 140 mm3 and can scan an area of 45 × 45 mm2 on a surface with an accuracy of ±15 μm. The cMFP is compatible with standard surfaces used in life science laboratories such as microscope slides and Petri dishes. For ease of use, we developed self-aligned mounted MFP heads with standardized "chip-to-world" and "chip-to-platform" interfaces. Switching the processing liquid in the flow confinement is performed within 90 s using a selector valve with a dead-volume of approximately 5 μl. We further implemented height-compensation that allows a cMFP head to follow non-planar surfaces common in tissue and cellular ensembles. This was shown by patterning different macroscopic copper-coated topographies with height differences up to 750 μm. To illustrate the applicability to tissue processing, 5 μm thick M000921 BRAF V600E+ melanoma cell blocks were stained with hematoxylin to create contours, lines, spots, gradients of the chemicals, and multiple spots over larger areas. The local staining was performed in an interactive manner using a joystick and a scripting module. The compactness, user-friendliness, and functionality of the cMFP will enable it to be adapted as a standard tool in research, development and diagnostic laboratories, particularly for the interaction with tissues and cells.

  8. Magnetic nanoparticles based dispersive micro-solid-phase extraction as a novel technique for coextraction of acidic and basic drugs from biological fluids and waste water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgharinezhad, Ali Akbar; Mollazadeh, Narges; Ebrahimzadeh, Homeira; Mirbabaei, Fatemeh; Shekari, Nafiseh

    2014-04-18

    The coextraction of acidic and basic drugs from different samples is a considerable and disputable concept in sample preparation strategies. In this study, for the first time, simultaneous extraction of acidic and basic drugs with magnetic nanoparticles based dispersive micro-solid phase extraction followed by high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection was introduced. Cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide-coated Fe3O4@decanoic acid as an efficient sorbent was successfully applied to adsorb diclofenac (DIC) as an acidic and diphenhydramine (DPH) as a basic model compound. First, appropriate amount of synthetic Fe3O4@decanoic acid nanoparticles was added to aqueous solution of drugs. After adjusting the pH of the solution, cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) was added to the mixture being stirred at a constant rate. After the adsorption of drugs and decantation of supernatant with a magnetic field, the sorbent was eluted with methanol by fierce vortex. The parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were optimized and obtained as: pH of the sample=9, concentration of CTAB=0.2mmolL(-1), amount of sorbent=10mg, extraction time=5min, no salt addition to sample, type and volume of the eluent=50μL methanol, and desorption time=1min. Under the optimum conditions detection limits and linear dynamic ranges were achieved in the range of 1.8-3.0, 5-1500μgL(-1) for DPH and 1.5-3.5, 5-1500μgL(-1) for DIC, respectively. The percent of extraction recovery and relative standard deviations (n=5) were in the range of 47.3-60, 5.2-9.0 for DPH and 64-76.7, 5.1-5.8 for DIC, respectively. Ultimately, the applicability of the method was successfully confirmed by the extraction and determination of DIC and DPH in human urine, plasma and waste water samples in the range of microgram per liter and satisfactory results were obtained. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Remediation of a winery wastewater combining aerobic biological oxidation and electrochemical advanced oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Francisca C; Boaventura, Rui A R; Brillas, Enric; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2015-05-15

    Apart from a high biodegradable fraction consisting of organic acids, sugars and alcohols, winery wastewaters exhibit a recalcitrant fraction containing high-molecular-weight compounds as polyphenols, tannins and lignins. In this context, a winery wastewater was firstly subjected to a biological oxidation to mineralize the biodegradable fraction and afterwards an electrochemical advanced oxidation process (EAOP) was applied in order to mineralize the refractory molecules or transform them into simpler ones that can be further biodegraded. The biological oxidation led to above 97% removals of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), but was inefficient on the degradation of a bioresistant fraction corresponding to 130 mg L(-1) of DOC, 380 mg O2 L(-1) of COD and 8.2 mg caffeic acid equivalent L(-1) of total dissolved polyphenols. Various EAOPs such as anodic oxidation with electrogenerated H2O2 (AO-H2O2), electro-Fenton (EF), UVA photoelectro-Fenton (PEF) and solar PEF (SPEF) were then applied to the recalcitrant effluent fraction using a 2.2 L lab-scale flow plant containing an electrochemical cell equipped with a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and a carbon-PTFE air-diffusion cathode and coupled to a photoreactor with compound parabolic collectors (CPCs). The influence of initial Fe(2+) concentration and current density on the PEF process was evaluated. The relative oxidative ability of EAOPs increased in the order AO-H2O2 effluent, along with energy consumptions of 45 kWh (kg DOC)(-1) and 5.1 kWh m(-3). After this coupled treatment, color, odor, COD, BOD5, NH4(+), NO3(-) and SO4(2-) parameters complied with the legislation targets and, in addition, a total dissolved polyphenols content of 0.35 mg caffeic acid equivalent L(-1) was found. Respirometry tests revealed low biodegradability enhancement along the SPEF process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Controlled Carbon Source Addition to an Alternating Nitrification-Denitrification Wastewater Treatment Process Including Biological P Removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaacs, Steven Howard; Henze, Mogens

    1995-01-01

    The paper investigates the effect of adding an external carbon source on the rate of denitrification in an alternating activated sludge process including biological P removal. Two carbon sources were examined, acetate and hydrolysate derived from biologically hydrolyzed sludge. Preliminary batch...... that external carbon source addition may serve as a suitable control variable to improve process performance....... process, the addition of either carbon source to the anoxic zone also resulted in an instantaneous and fairly reproducible increase in the denitrification rate. Some release of phosphate associated with the carbon source addition was observed. With respect to nitrogen removal, these results indicate...

  11. Process simulation and comparison of biological conversion of syngas and hydrogen in biogas plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awais Salman, Chaudhary; Schwede, Sebastian; Thorin, Eva; Yan, Jinyue

    2017-11-01

    Organic waste is a good source of clean energy. However, different fractions of waste have to be utilized efficiently. One way is to find pathways to convert waste into useful products via various available processes (gasification, pyrolysis anaerobic digestion, etc.) and integrate them to increase the combined efficiency of the process. The syngas and hydrogen produced from the thermal conversion of biomass can be upgraded to biomethane via biological methanation. The current study presents the simulation model to predict the amount of biomethane produced by injecting the hydrogen and syngas. Hydrogen injection is modelled both in-situ and ex-situ while for syngas solely the ex-situ case has been studied. The results showed that 85% of the hydrogen conversion was achieved for the ex-situ reactor while 81% conversion rate was achieved for the in-situ reactor. The syngas could be converted completely in the bio-reactor. However, the addition of syngas resulted in an increase of carbon dioxide. Simulation of biomethanation of gas addition showed a biomethane concentration of 87% while for hydrogen addition an increase of 74% and 80% for in-situ and ex-situ addition respectively.

  12. Roles of extracellular polymeric substances in enhanced biological phosphorus removal process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Wei; Zhang, Hai-Ling; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Yu, Han-Qing

    2015-12-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process is known to mainly rely on the ability of phosphorus-accumulating organisms to take up, transform and store excess amount of phosphorus (P) inside the cells. However, recent studies have revealed considerable accumulation of P also in the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of sludge, implying a non-negligible role of EPS in P removal by EBPR sludge. However, the contribution of EPS to P uptake and the forms of accumulated extracellular P vary substantially in different studies, and the underlying mechanism of P transformation and transportation in EPS remains poorly understood. This review provides a new recognition into the P removal process in EBPR system by incorporating the role of EPS. It overviews on the characteristics of P accumulation in EPS, explores the mechanism of P transformation and transportation in EBPR sludge and EPS, summarizes the main influential factors for the P-accumulation properties of EPS, and discusses the remaining knowledge gaps and needed future efforts that may lead to better understanding and use of such an EPS role for maximizing P recovery from wastewater. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Preferential biological processes in the human limbus by differential gene profiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin N Nakatsu

    Full Text Available Corneal epithelial stem cells or limbal stem cells (LSCs are responsible for the maintenance of the corneal epithelium in humans. The exact location of LSCs is still under debate, but the increasing need for identifying the biological processes in the limbus, where LSCs are located, is of great importance in the regulation of LSCs. In our current study we identified 146 preferentially expressed genes in the human limbus in direct comparison to that in the cornea and conjunctiva. The expression of newly identified limbal transcripts endomucin, fibromodulin, paired-like homeodomain 2 (PITX2 and axin-2 were validated using qRT-PCR. Further protein analysis on the newly identified limbal transcripts showed protein localization of PITX2 in the basal and suprabasal layer of the limbal epithelium and very low expression in the cornea and conjunctiva. Two other limbal transcripts, frizzled-7 and tenascin-C, were expressed in the basal epithelial layer of the limbus. Gene ontology and network analysis of the overexpressed limbal genes revealed cell-cell adhesion, Wnt and TGF-β/BMP signaling components among other developmental processes in the limbus. These results could aid in a better understanding of the regulatory elements in the LSC microenvironment.

  14. Comparison of biological and advanced treatment processes for ciprofloxacin removal in a raw hospital wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guney, Gokce; Sponza, Delia Teresa

    2016-12-01

    The treatability of ciprofloxacin (CIP) antibiotic was investigated using a single aerobic, a single anaerobic, an anaerobic/aerobic sequential reactor system, a sonicator and a photocatalytic reactor with TiO2 nanoparticles in a raw hospital wastewater in Izmir, Turkey. The effects of increasing organic loading on the performance of all biological systems were investigated, while the effects of power and time on the yields of sonication and photocatalysis were determined. The maximum COD and CIP yields were 95% and 83% in anaerobic/aerobic sequential reactor system at an HRT of 10 days and at an OLR of 0.19 g COD/L × day after 50 days of incubation, respectively. The maximum CH4 gas production was 580 mL day(-1) at an HRT of 6.7 days. The maximum COD and CIP yields were 95% and 81% after 45 min sonication time at a power of 640 W and a frequency of 35 kHz while the maximum yield of COD and CIP were 98% and 88% after 45 min UV irradiation time with a UV power of 210 W using 0.5 g L(-1) TiO2. Among the aforementioned treatment processes, it was found that the highest treatment yields for COD (98%) and CIP (88%) pollutants were obtained with the photocatalytic process due to high OH((●)) radical productions.

  15. Combined Fenton oxidation and aerobic biological processes for treating a surfactant wastewater containing abundant sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaojun; Song Yang; Mai Junsheng

    2008-01-01

    The present study is to investigate the treatment of a surfactant wastewater containing abundant sulfate by Fenton oxidation and aerobic biological processes. The operating conditions have been optimized. Working at an initial pH value of 8, a Fe 2+ dosage of 600 mg L -1 and a H 2 O 2 dosage of 120 mg L -1 , the chemical oxidation demand (COD) and linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) were decreased from 1500 and 490 mg L -1 to 230 and 23 mg L -1 after 40 min of Fenton oxidation, respectively. Advanced oxidation pretreatment using Fenton reagent was very effective at enhancing the biodegradability of this kind of wastewater. The wastewater was further treated by a bio-chemical treatment process based on an immobilized biomass reactor with a hydraulic detention time (HRT) of 20 h after Fenton oxidation pretreatment under the optimal operating conditions. It was found that the COD and LAS of the final effluent were less than 100 and 5 mg L -1 , corresponding to a removal efficiencies of over 94% and 99%, respectively

  16. In vitro biological outcome of laser application for modification or processing of titanium dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindy, Ahmed; Farahmand, Farzam; Tabatabaei, Fahimeh Sadat

    2017-07-01

    There are numerous functions for laser in modern implant dentistry including surface treatment, surface coating, and implant manufacturing. As laser application may potentially improve osseointegration of dental implants, we systematically reviewed the literature for in vitro biological responses to laser-modified or processed titanium dental implants. The literature was searched in PubMed, ISI Web, and Scopus, using keywords "titanium dental implants," "laser," "biocompatibility," and their synonyms. After screening the 136 references obtained, 28 articles met the inclusion criteria. We found that Nd:YAG laser was the most commonly used lasers in the treatment or processing of titanium dental implants. Most of the experiments used cell attachment and cell proliferation to investigate bioresponses of the implants. The most commonly used cells in these assays were osteoblast-like cells. Only one study was conducted in stem cells. These in vitro studies reported higher biocompatibility in laser-modified titanium implants. It seems that laser radiation plays a vital role in cell response to dental implants; however, it is necessary to accomplish more studies using different laser types and parameters on various cells to offer a more conclusive result.

  17. A biological/chemical process for reduced waste and energy consumption: caprolactam production. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    A biological/chemical process for converting cyclohexane into caprolactam was investigated: microorganisms in a bioreactor would be used to convert cyclohexane into caprolactone followed by chemical synthesis of caprolactam using ammonia. Four microorganisms were isolated from natural soil and water, that can utilize cyclohexane as a sole source of C and energy for growth. They were shown to have the correct metabolic intermediates and enzymes to convert cyclohexane into cyclohexanol, cyclohexanone, and caprolactone. Genetic techniques to create and select for caprolactone hydrolase negative-mutants were developed; those are used to convert cyclohexane into caprolactone but, because of the block, are unable to metabolize the caprolactone further. Because of a new nylon carpet reycle process and the long time frame for a totally new bioprocess, a limited study was done to evaluate whether a simplified bioprocess to convert cyclohexanol into cyclohexanone or caprolactone was feasible; growth rates and key enzyme levels were measured in a collection of microorganisms that metabolize cyclohexanol to determine if the bioactivity is high enough to support an economical cyclohexanol bioprocess. Although these microorganisms had sufficient bioactivity, they could tolerate only low levels (<1%) of cyclohexanol and thus are not suitable for developing a cost effective bioprocess because of the high cost of dilute product recovery.

  18. Process simulation and comparison of biological conversion of syngas and hydrogen in biogas plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Chaudhary Awais

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic waste is a good source of clean energy. However, different fractions of waste have to be utilized efficiently. One way is to find pathways to convert waste into useful products via various available processes (gasification, pyrolysis anaerobic digestion, etc. and integrate them to increase the combined efficiency of the process. The syngas and hydrogen produced from the thermal conversion of biomass can be upgraded to biomethane via biological methanation. The current study presents the simulation model to predict the amount of biomethane produced by injecting the hydrogen and syngas. Hydrogen injection is modelled both in-situ and ex-situ while for syngas solely the ex-situ case has been studied. The results showed that 85% of the hydrogen conversion was achieved for the ex-situ reactor while 81% conversion rate was achieved for the in-situ reactor. The syngas could be converted completely in the bio-reactor. However, the addition of syngas resulted in an increase of carbon dioxide. Simulation of biomethanation of gas addition showed a biomethane concentration of 87% while for hydrogen addition an increase of 74% and 80% for in-situ and ex-situ addition respectively.

  19. Photo-induced regeneration of hormones by electron transfer processes: Potential biological and medical consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Getoff, Nikola, E-mail: nikola.getoff@univie.ac.a [Section of Radiation Biology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Hartmann, Johannes [Department of Gynecologic Endocrinology and Reproduction, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Schittl, Heike [Section of Radiation Biology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Gerschpacher, Marion [Department of Gynecologic Endocrinology and Reproduction, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Quint, Ruth Maria [Section of Radiation Biology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2011-08-15

    Based on the previous results concerning electron transfer processes in biological substances, it was of interest to investigate if hormone transients resulting by e.g. electron emission can be regenerated. The presented results prove for the first time that the hormone transients originating by the electron emission process can be successfully regenerated by the transfer of electrons from a potent electron donor, such as vitamin C (VitC). Investigations were performed using progesterone (PRG), testosterone (TES) and estrone (E1) as representatives of hormones. By irradiation with monochromatic UV light ({lambda}=254 nm) in a media of 40% water and 60% ethanol, the degradation as well as the regeneration of the hormones was studied with each hormone individually and in the mixture with VitC as a function of the absorbed UV dose, using HPLC. Calculated from the obtained initial yields, the determined regeneration of PRG amounted to 52.7%, for TES to 58.6% and for E1 to 90.9%. The consumption of VitC was determined in the same way. The reported results concerning the regeneration of hormones by the transfer of electrons from an electron donor offer a new, promising method for the therapy with hormones. As a consequence of the regeneration of hormones, a decreased formation of carcinogenic metabolites is expected.

  20. Morphology of Filamentous Fungi: Linking Cellular Biology to Process Engineering Using Aspergillus niger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krull, Rainer; Cordes, Christiana; Horn, Harald; Kampen, Ingo; Kwade, Arno; Neu, Thomas R.; Nörtemann, Bernd

    In various biotechnological processes, filamentous fungi, e.g. Aspergillus niger, are widely applied for the production of high value-added products due to their secretion efficiency. There is, however, a tangled relationship between the morphology of these microorganisms, the transport phenomena and the related productivity. The morphological characteristics vary between freely dispersed mycelia and distinct pellets of aggregated biomass. Hence, advantages and disadvantages for mycel or pellet cultivation have to be balanced out carefully. Due to this inadequate understanding of morphogenesis of filamentous microorganisms, fungal morphology, along with reproducibility of inocula of the same quality, is often a bottleneck of productivity in industrial production. To obtain an optimisation of the production process it is of great importance to gain a better understanding of the molecular and cell biology of these microorganisms as well as the approaches in biochemical engineering and particle technique, in particular to characterise the interactions between the growth conditions, cell morphology, spore-hyphae-interactions and product formation. Advances in particle and image analysis techniques as well as micromechanical devices and their applications to fungal cultivations have made available quantitative morphological data on filamentous cells. This chapter provides the ambitious aspects of this line of action, focussing on the control and characterisation of the morphology, the transport gradients and the approaches to understand the metabolism of filamentous fungi. Based on these data, bottlenecks in the morphogenesis of A. niger within the complex production pathways from gene to product should be identified and this may improve the production yield.

  1. Photo-induced regeneration of hormones by electron transfer processes: Potential biological and medical consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Getoff, Nikola; Hartmann, Johannes; Schittl, Heike; Gerschpacher, Marion; Quint, Ruth Maria

    2011-01-01

    Based on the previous results concerning electron transfer processes in biological substances, it was of interest to investigate if hormone transients resulting by e.g. electron emission can be regenerated. The presented results prove for the first time that the hormone transients originating by the electron emission process can be successfully regenerated by the transfer of electrons from a potent electron donor, such as vitamin C (VitC). Investigations were performed using progesterone (PRG), testosterone (TES) and estrone (E1) as representatives of hormones. By irradiation with monochromatic UV light (λ=254 nm) in a media of 40% water and 60% ethanol, the degradation as well as the regeneration of the hormones was studied with each hormone individually and in the mixture with VitC as a function of the absorbed UV dose, using HPLC. Calculated from the obtained initial yields, the determined regeneration of PRG amounted to 52.7%, for TES to 58.6% and for E1 to 90.9%. The consumption of VitC was determined in the same way. The reported results concerning the regeneration of hormones by the transfer of electrons from an electron donor offer a new, promising method for the therapy with hormones. As a consequence of the regeneration of hormones, a decreased formation of carcinogenic metabolites is expected.

  2. Effect of residual H2O2 from advanced oxidation processes on subsequent biological water treatmen : A laboratory batch study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, F.; van Halem, D.; Liu, G.; Lekkerkerker-Teunissen, K.; van der Hoek, J.P.

    2017-01-01

    H2O2 residuals from advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) may have critical impacts on the microbial ecology and performance of subsequent biological treatment processes, but little is known. The objective of this study was to evaluate how H2O2 residuals influence sand systems with an emphasis on

  3. Evaluation of the processing of dry biological ferment for gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabundjian, Ingrid Traete

    2007-01-01

    The developed work had with objectives to demonstrate if it had alteration in the growth of UFC in plate and in the viability of yeasts and total bacteria when dry biological ferment was dealt with by different doses to gamma radiation and under different times storage, to determine the D10 dose for total bacteria and yeasts in this product and to analyzed the processing of this product it promoted some benefit without causing unfeasibility of exactly. The different samples of dry biological ferment had been irradiated at IPEN in a Gammacell - 220 source at 0.5; 1; 2 and 3 kGy doses (dose rate of 3.51 kGy/h). This procedure referring samples to each dose of radiation had been after destined to the microbiological analysis and the test of viability while excessively the samples had been stored the ambient temperature (23 degree C). The increase of the dose of radiation caused a reduction in the counting of yeasts growth, of total bacteria growth and also in the frequency of viable yeast cells, demonstrated by FDA-EB fluorescent method. Beyond of radiation the storage time also it influenced in counting reduction of total bacteria and reduction of frequency of viable cells. According with the analysis of simple linear regression, the dose of radiation necessary to eliminate 90% of the yeast population was between 1.10 and 2.23 kGy and for the bacterial population varied between 2.31 and 2.95 kGy. These results demonstrated clearly the negative points of the application of ionizing radiation in dry biological ferment; therefore the interval of D10 found for total bacteria is superior to found for yeasts. Being thus, the use of this resource for the improvement of the product quality becomes impracticable, since to reduce significantly the bacterial population necessarily we have that to diminish the population of yeasts. With yeasts reduction of we will go significantly to modify the quality and the viability of product. (author)

  4. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Tayal, DC

    2010-01-01

    The second edition of this book incorporates the comments and suggestions of my friends and students who have critically studied the first edition. In this edition the changes and additions have been made and subject matter has been rearranged at some places. The purpose of this text is to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date study of the principles of operation of solid state devices, their basic circuits and application of these circuits to various electronic systems, so that it can serve as a standard text not only for universities and colleges but also for technical institutes. This book

  5. Basic principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, P.D.

    1996-01-01

    Some basic explanations are given of the principles underlying the nuclear fuel cycle, starting with the physics of atomic and nuclear structure and continuing with nuclear energy and reactors, fuel and waste management and finally a discussion of economics and the future. An important aspect of the fuel cycle concerns the possibility of ''closing the back end'' i.e. reprocessing the waste or unused fuel in order to re-use it in reactors of various kinds. The alternative, the ''oncethrough'' cycle, discards the discharged fuel completely. An interim measure involves the prolonged storage of highly radioactive waste fuel. (UK)

  6. Determination of Basic Structure-Property Relations for Processing and Modeling in Advanced Nuclear Fuel: Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, Kirk; Parra, Manuel; Peralta, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    The project objective is to study structure-property relations in solid solutions of nitrides and oxides with surrogate elements to simulate the behavior of fuels of inert matrix fuels of interest to the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), with emphasis in zirconium-based materials. Work with actual fuels will be carried out in parallel in collaboration with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Three key aspects will be explored: microstructure characterization through measurement of global texture evolution and local crystallographic variations using Electron Backscattering Diffraction (EBSD); determination of mechanical properties, including fracture toughness, quasi-static compression strength, and hardness, as functions of load and temperature, and, finally, development of structure-property relations to describe mechanical behavior of the fuels based on experimental data. Materials tested will be characterized to identify the mechanisms of deformation and fracture and their relationship to microstructure and its evolution. New aspects of this research are the inclusion of crystallographic information into the evaluation of fuel performance and the incorporation of statistical variations of microstructural variables into simplified models of mechanical behavior of fuels that account explicitly for these variations. The work is expected to provide insight into processing conditions leading to better fuel performance and structural reliability during manufacturing and service, as well as providing a simplified testing model for future fuel production

  7. Advanced low carbon-to-nitrogen ratio wastewater treatment by electrochemical and biological coupling process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shihai; Li, Desheng; Yang, Xue; Zhu, Shanbin; Xing, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Nitrogen pollution in ground and surface water significantly affects the environment and its organisms, thereby leading to an increasingly serious environmental problem. Such pollution is difficult to degrade because of the lack of carbon sources. Therefore, an electrochemical and biological coupling process (EBCP) was developed with a composite catalytic biological carrier (CCBC) and applied in a pilot-scale cylindrical reactor to treat wastewater with a carbon-to-nitrogen (C/N) ratio of 2. The startup process, coupling principle, and dynamic feature of the EBCP were examined along with the effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT), dissolved oxygen (DO), and initial pH on nitrogen removal. A stable coupling system was obtained after 51 days when plenty of biofilms were cultivated on the CCBC without inoculation sludge. Autotrophic denitrification, with [Fe(2+)] and [H] produced by iron-carbon galvanic cells in CCBC as electron donors, was confirmed by equity calculation of CODCr and nitrogen removal. Nitrogen removal efficiency was significantly influenced by HRT, DO, and initial pH with optimal values of 3.5 h, 3.5 ± 0.1 mg L(-1), and 7.5 ± 0.1, respectively. The ammonia, nitrate, and total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiencies of 90.1 to 95.3 %, 90.5 to 99.0 %, and 90.3 to 96.5 % were maintained with corresponding initial concentrations of 40 ± 2 mg L(-1) (NH3-N load of 0.27 ± 0.01 kg NH3-N m(-3) d(-1)), 20 ± 1 mg L(-1), and 60 ± 2 mg L(-1) (TN load of 0.41 ± 0.02 kg TN m(-3) d(-1)). Based on the Eckenfelder model, the kinetics equation of the nitrogen transformation along the reactor was N e  = N 0 exp (-0.04368 h/L(1.8438)). Hence, EBCP is a viable method for advanced low C/N ratio wastewater treatment.

  8. Processes that Drove the Transition from Chemistry to Biology: Concepts and Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohorille, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    above background was evolved in vitro. This enzyme does not look like any contemporary protein. It is very flexible and its structure is kept together just by a single salt bridge between a charged residue and a coordinating zinc. A similar picture emerges from studies of simple transmembrane channels that mimic those in ancestral cells. Again, they are extremely flexible and do not form a conventional pore. Yet, they efficiently mediate ion transport. Studies on simple proteins that are on-going in several laboratories hold promise of revealing crucial links between chemical and biological catalysis and other ubiquitous cell functions. Interaction between composition, growth and division of protobiologically relevant vesicles and metabolic reactions that they encapsulate is an example of coupling between simple functions that promotes reproduction and evolution. Recent studies have demonstrated possible mechanisms by which vesicles might have evolved their composition from fatty acids to phospholipids, thus facilitating a number of new cellular functions. Conversely, it has been also demonstrated that an encapsulated metabolism might drive vesicle division. These are, again, examples of processes that might have driven the transition from chemistry to biology.

  9. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Criteria (RDoC) Funding Funding Home Opportunities & Announcements Funding Strategy for Grants Application Process Managing Grants Clinical Research ... occur when this process does not work correctly. Communication between neurons can also be electrical, such as ...

  10. A DO- and pH-Based Early Warning System of Nitrification Inhibition for Biological Nitrogen Removal Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunook Kim

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In Korea, more than 80% of municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs with capacities of 500 m3·d−1 or more are capable of removing nitrogen from wastewater through biological nitrification and denitrification processes. Normally, these biological processes show excellent performance, but if a toxic chemical is present in the influent to a WWTP, the biological processes (especially, the nitrification process may be affected and fail to function normally; nitrifying bacteria are known very vulnerable to toxic substances. Then, the toxic compound as well as the nitrogen in wastewater may be discharged into a receiving water body without any proper treatment. Moreover, it may take significant time for the process to return back its normal state. In this study, a DO- and pH-based strategy to identify potential nitrification inhibition was developed to detect early the inflow of toxic compounds to a biological nitrogen removal process. This strategy utilizes significant changes observed in the oxygen uptake rate and the pH profiles of the mixed liquor when the activity of nitrifying bacteria is inhibited. Using the strategy, the toxicity from test wastewater with 2.5 mg·L−1 Hg2+, 0.5 mg·L−1 allythiourea, or 0.25 mg·L−1 chloroform could be successfully detected.

  11. Removal of Refractory Organics from Biologically Treated Landfill Leachate by Microwave Discharge Electrodeless Lamp Assisted Fenton Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuyi Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biologically treated leachate usually contains considerable amount of refractory organics and trace concentrations of xenobiotic pollutants. Removal of refractory organics from biologically treated landfill leachate by a novel microwave discharge electrodeless lamp (MDEL assisted Fenton process was investigated in the present study in comparison to conventional Fenton and ultraviolet Fenton processes. Conventional Fenton and ultraviolet Fenton processes could substantially remove up to 70% of the refractory organics in a membrane bioreactor treated leachate. MDEL assisted Fenton process achieved excellent removal performance of the refractory components, and the effluent chemical oxygen demand concentration was lower than 100 mg L−1. Most organic matters were transformed into smaller compounds with molecular weights less than 1000 Da. Ten different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were detected in the biologically treated leachate, most of which were effectively removed by MDEL-Fenton treatment. MDEL-Fenton process provides powerful capability in degradation of refractory and xenobiotic organic pollutants in landfill leachate and could be adopted as a single-stage polishing process for biologically treated landfill leachate to meet the stringent discharge limit.

  12. Treatment of bromoamine acid wastewater using combined process of micro-electrolysis and biological aerobic filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Li; Ni, Jinren; Wu, Yanjun; Zhang, Yongyong

    2009-03-15

    The wastewater originated from the production of bromoamine acid was treated in a sequential system of micro-electrolysis (ME) and biological aerobic filter (BAF). Decolorization and COD(Cr) removal rate of the proposed system was investigated with full consideration of the influence of two major controlling factors such as organic loading rate (OLR) and hydraulic retention time (HRT). The removal rate of COD(Cr) was 81.2% and that of chrominance could be up to 96.6% at an OLR of 0.56 kg m(-3)d(-1) when the total HRT was 43.4h. Most of the chrominance was removed by the ME treatment, however, the BAF process was more effective for COD(Cr) removal. The GC-MS and HPLC-MS analysis of the contaminants revealed that 1-aminoanthraquinone, bromoamine acid and mono-sulfonated 1,2-dichlorobenzene were the main organic components in the wastewater. The reductive transformation of the anthraquinone derivatives in the ME reactor improved the biodegradability of the wastewater, and rendered the decolorization. After long-term of operation, it was observed that the predominant microorganisms immobilized on the BAF carriers were rod-shaped and globular. Four bacterial strains with apparent 16S rDNA fragments in the Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles of BAF samples were identified as Variovorax sp., Sphingomonas sp., Mycobacterium sp., and Microbacterium sp.

  13. Treatment of bromoamine acid wastewater using combined process of micro-electrolysis and biological aerobic filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan Li [Shenzhen Graduate School, Peking University, Key Laboratory for Environmental and Urban Sciences, Guang Dong 518055 (China); Department of Environmental Engineering, Peking University, Key Laboratory of Water and Sediment Sciences, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100871 (China); Ni Jinren [Shenzhen Graduate School, Peking University, Key Laboratory for Environmental and Urban Sciences, Guang Dong 518055 (China); Department of Environmental Engineering, Peking University, Key Laboratory of Water and Sediment Sciences, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100871 (China)], E-mail: nijinren@iee.pku.edu.cn; Wu Yanjun; Zhang Yongyong [Shenzhen Graduate School, Peking University, Key Laboratory for Environmental and Urban Sciences, Guang Dong 518055 (China); Department of Environmental Engineering, Peking University, Key Laboratory of Water and Sediment Sciences, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2009-03-15

    The wastewater originated from the production of bromoamine acid was treated in a sequential system of micro-electrolysis (ME) and biological aerobic filter (BAF). Decolorization and COD{sub Cr} removal rate of the proposed system was investigated with full consideration of the influence of two major controlling factors such as organic loading rate (OLR) and hydraulic retention time (HRT). The removal rate of COD{sub Cr} was 81.2% and that of chrominance could be up to 96.6% at an OLR of 0.56 kg m{sup -3} d{sup -1} when the total HRT was 43.4 h. Most of the chrominance was removed by the ME treatment, however, the BAF process was more effective for COD{sub Cr} removal. The GC-MS and HPLC-MS analysis of the contaminants revealed that 1-aminoanthraquinone, bromoamine acid and mono-sulfonated 1,2-dichlorobenzene were the main organic components in the wastewater. The reductive transformation of the anthraquinone derivatives in the ME reactor improved the biodegradability of the wastewater, and rendered the decolorization. After long-term of operation, it was observed that the predominant microorganisms immobilized on the BAF carriers were rod-shaped and globular. Four bacterial strains with apparent 16S rDNA fragments in the Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles of BAF samples were identified as Variovorax sp., Sphingomonas sp., Mycobacterium sp., and Microbacterium sp.

  14. Treatment of bromoamine acid wastewater using combined process of micro-electrolysis and biological aerobic filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Li; Ni Jinren; Wu Yanjun; Zhang Yongyong

    2009-01-01

    The wastewater originated from the production of bromoamine acid was treated in a sequential system of micro-electrolysis (ME) and biological aerobic filter (BAF). Decolorization and COD Cr removal rate of the proposed system was investigated with full consideration of the influence of two major controlling factors such as organic loading rate (OLR) and hydraulic retention time (HRT). The removal rate of COD Cr was 81.2% and that of chrominance could be up to 96.6% at an OLR of 0.56 kg m -3 d -1 when the total HRT was 43.4 h. Most of the chrominance was removed by the ME treatment, however, the BAF process was more effective for COD Cr removal. The GC-MS and HPLC-MS analysis of the contaminants revealed that 1-aminoanthraquinone, bromoamine acid and mono-sulfonated 1,2-dichlorobenzene were the main organic components in the wastewater. The reductive transformation of the anthraquinone derivatives in the ME reactor improved the biodegradability of the wastewater, and rendered the decolorization. After long-term of operation, it was observed that the predominant microorganisms immobilized on the BAF carriers were rod-shaped and globular. Four bacterial strains with apparent 16S rDNA fragments in the Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles of BAF samples were identified as Variovorax sp., Sphingomonas sp., Mycobacterium sp., and Microbacterium sp

  15. Biological Processes that Prepare Mammalian Spermatozoa to Interact with an Egg and Fertilize It

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daulat R. P. Tulsiani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the mouse and other mammals studied, including man, ejaculated spermatozoa cannot immediately fertilize an egg. They require a certain period of residence in the female genital tract to become functionally competent cells. As spermatozoa traverse through the female genital tract, they undergo multiple biochemical and physiological changes collectively referred to as capacitation. Only capacitated spermatozoa interact with the extracellular egg coat, the zona pellucida. The tight irreversible binding of the opposite gametes triggers a Ca2+-dependent signal transduction cascade. The net result is the fusion of the sperm plasma membrane and the underlying outer acrosomal membrane at multiple sites that causes the release of acrosomal contents at the site of sperm-egg adhesion. The hydrolytic action of the acrosomal enzymes released, along with the hyperactivated beat pattern of the bound spermatozoon, is important factor that directs the sperm to penetrate the egg coat and fertilize the egg. The sperm capacitation and the induction of the acrosomal reaction are Ca2+-dependent signaling events that have been of wide interest to reproductive biologists for over half a century. In this paper, we intend to discuss data from this and other laboratories that highlight the biological processes which prepare spermatozoa to interact with an egg and fertilize it.

  16. Assessment of the propensity of biofilm growth on newfloat carrier media through process and biological experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podedworna, J; Zubrowska-Sudoł, M; Grabińska-Łoniewska, A

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results of research on biomass growth on Newfloat carrier elements and the implications of this growth on the wastewater treatment process. Supervision of the experiment comprised of the analysis of treatment efficiency (dynamic experiments), the estimation of the content of nitrifying bacteria in the biofilm (batch tests) and biological investigations of the biofilm structure and composition. It has been demonstrated that the biofilm growing on the carrier elements was rich in nitrifying bacteria and that this in turn guaranteed the highly efficient oxidation of ammoniacal nitrogen. After the full growth of biofilm had been established, average removal efficiencies were as follows: organic C removal-88.8% (effluent COD below 60 mg O2 l(-1)), nitrification-97.9% (effluent ammoniacal N below 1 mg N-NH4+ l(-1)), denitrification (after the COD loading rate increased to over 0.53 kg COD m(-3) d(-1))-95.7% (total N in the effluent below 8 mg N l(-1)).

  17. Enhanced biological nutrient removal in sequencing batch reactors operated as static/oxic/anoxic (SOA) process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dechao; Chen, Hongbo; Li, Xiaoming; Yang, Qi; Zeng, Tianjing; Luo, Kun; Zeng, Guangming

    2013-09-01

    An innovative static/oxic/anoxic (SOA) activated sludge process characterized by static phase as a substitute for conventional anaerobic stage was developed to enhance biological nutrient removal (BNR) with influent ammonia of 20 and 40 mg/L in R1 and R2 reactors, respectively. The results demonstrated that static phase could function as conventional anaerobic stage. In R1 lower influent ammonia concentration facilitated more polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) growth, but secondary phosphorus release occurred due to NOx(-) depletion during post-anoxic period. In R2, however, denitrifying phosphorus removal proceeded with sufficient NOx(-). Both R1 and R2 saw simultaneous nitrification-denitrification. Glycogen was utilized to drive post-denitrification with denitrification rates in excess of typical endogenous decay rates. The anoxic stirring duration could be shortened from 3 to 1.5h to avoid secondary phosphorus release in R1 and little adverse impact was found on nutrients removal in R2. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Allele-specific gene expression is widespread across the genome and biological processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Palacios

    Full Text Available Allelic specific gene expression (ASGE appears to be an important factor in human phenotypic variability and as a consequence, for the development of complex traits and diseases. In order to study ASGE across the human genome, we have performed a study in which genotyping was coupled with an analysis of ASGE by screening 11,500 SNPs using the Mapping 10 K Array to identify differential allelic expression. We found that from the 5,133 SNPs that were suitable for analysis (heterozygous in our sample and expressed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, 2,934 (57% SNPs had differential allelic expression. Such SNPs were equally distributed along human chromosomes and biological processes. We validated the presence or absence of ASGE in 18 out 20 SNPs (90% randomly selected by real time PCR in 48 human subjects. In addition, we observed that SNPs close to -but not included in- segmental duplications had increased levels of ASGE. Finally, we found that transcripts of unknown function or non-coding RNAs, also display ASGE: from a total of 2,308 intronic SNPs, 1510 (65% SNPs underwent differential allelic expression. In summary, ASGE is a widespread mechanism in the human genome whose regulation seems to be far more complex than expected.

  19. [Achieve single-stage autotrophic biological nitrogen removal process by controlling the concentration of free ammonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Li-Li; Yang, Zhao-Hui; Xu, Zheng-Yong; Li, Xiao-Jiang; Tang, Zhi-Gang; Deng, Jiu-Hu

    2011-01-01

    Through controlling the concentration of free ammonia in the sequencing batch reactor (SBR), the single-stage autotrophic biological nitrogen removal process was achieved, including partial nitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation. The experiment was completed via two steps, the enrichment of nitrite bacteria and the inoculation of the mixture of anammox biomass. The operating temperature in the SBR was (31 +/- 2) degrees C. During the step of the enrichment of nitrite bacteria, pH was about 7.8. Changes of FA concentration were achieved by controlling the concentration of influent NH4(+) -N(56-446 mg x L(-1)), in order to inhibit and eliminate the nitrate bacteria. The activity tests of the sludge, 55d after enrichment, showed strong activity of aerobic ammonium oxidation [2.91 kg x (kg x d)(-1)] and low activity of nitrite oxidation [0.03 kg x(kg x d)(-1)]. During the inoculation of the mixture of anammox biomass, changes of FA concentration were achieved by controlling the concentration of influent NH4(+) -N and pH. As the inoculation of anammox biomass, abundant of bacteria and nutrient content were into the reactor and there kept high activity of aerobic ammonium oxidation [2.83 kg x (kg x d)(-1)] and a certain activity of nitrite oxidation, at the same time, the activity of anammox and heterotrophic denitrification reached 0.65 kg x (kg x d)(-1) and 0.11 kg x (kg x d)(-1), respectively.

  20. Biological processes dominate seasonality of remotely sensed canopy greenness in an Amazon evergreen forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jin; Kobayashi, Hideki; Stark, Scott C; Meng, Ran; Guan, Kaiyu; Tran, Ngoc Nguyen; Gao, Sicong; Yang, Wei; Restrepo-Coupe, Natalia; Miura, Tomoaki; Oliviera, Raimundo Cosme; Rogers, Alistair; Dye, Dennis G; Nelson, Bruce W; Serbin, Shawn P; Huete, Alfredo R; Saleska, Scott R

    2018-03-01

    Satellite observations of Amazon forests show seasonal and interannual variations, but the underlying biological processes remain debated. Here we combined radiative transfer models (RTMs) with field observations of Amazon forest leaf and canopy characteristics to test three hypotheses for satellite-observed canopy reflectance seasonality: seasonal changes in leaf area index, in canopy-surface leafless crown fraction and/or in leaf demography. Canopy RTMs (PROSAIL and FLiES), driven by these three factors combined, simulated satellite-observed seasonal patterns well, explaining c. 70% of the variability in a key reflectance-based vegetation index (MAIAC EVI, which removes artifacts that would otherwise arise from clouds/aerosols and sun-sensor geometry). Leaf area index, leafless crown fraction and leaf demography independently accounted for 1, 33 and 66% of FLiES-simulated EVI seasonality, respectively. These factors also strongly influenced modeled near-infrared (NIR) reflectance, explaining why both modeled and observed EVI, which is especially sensitive to NIR, captures canopy seasonal dynamics well. Our improved analysis of canopy-scale biophysics rules out satellite artifacts as significant causes of satellite-observed seasonal patterns at this site, implying that aggregated phenology explains the larger scale remotely observed patterns. This work significantly reconciles current controversies about satellite-detected Amazon phenology, and improves our use of satellite observations to study climate-phenology relationships in the tropics. No claim to original US Government works New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  1. Fenton-biological treatment processes for the removal of some pharmaceuticals from industrial wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Mohamed I; Wahaab, Rifaat A; El-Kalliny, A S

    2009-08-15

    A treatability study of pharmaceutical wastewater from El-Nasr Pharmaceutical and Chemical Company, South-East of Cairo, was carried out. The company discharges both industrial (6000 m(3)/d) and municipal wastewater (128 m(3)/d) into a nearby evaporation pond without any treatment. The generated raw wastewater is characterized by high values of COD (4100-13,023), TSS (20-330 mg/L), and oil grease (17.4-600 mg/L). In addition, the presence of refractory compounds decreases BOD/COD ratio (0.25-0.30). Analysis of raw wastewater confirmed that pre-treatment is required prior to discharge into public sewers to comply with the Egyptian Environmental laws and regulations. The obtained results indicated that the refractory compounds and their by-products cannot be readily removed by biological treatment and always remain in the treated effluent or adsorbed on the sludge flocs. The application of Fenton oxidation process as a pre-treatment improved the removal of pharmaceuticals from wastewater and appears to be an affective solution to achieve compliance with the law legislation with respect to discharge in a determined receptor medium.

  2. A two-stage biological gas to liquid transfer process to convert carbon dioxide into bioplastic

    KAUST Repository

    Al Rowaihi, Israa

    2018-03-06

    The fermentation of carbon dioxide (CO2) with hydrogen (H2) uses available low-cost gases to synthesis acetic acid. Here, we present a two-stage biological process that allows the gas to liquid transfer (Bio-GTL) of CO2 into the biopolymer polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB). Using the same medium in both stages, first, acetic acid is produced (3.2 g L−1) by Acetobacterium woodii from 5.2 L gas-mixture of CO2:H2 (15:85 v/v) under elevated pressure (≥2.0 bar) to increase H2-solubility in water. Second, acetic acid is converted to PHB (3 g L−1 acetate into 0.5 g L−1 PHB) by Ralstonia eutropha H16. The efficiencies and space-time yields were evaluated, and our data show the conversion of CO2 into PHB with a 33.3% microbial cell content (percentage of the ratio of PHB concentration to cell concentration) after 217 h. Collectively, our results provide a resourceful platform for future optimization and commercialization of a Bio-GTL for PHB production.

  3. The microbial community in a high-temperature enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Hui Ong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR process operated at a relatively high temperature, 28 °C, removed 85% carbon and 99% phosphorus from wastewater over a period of two years. This study investigated its microbial community through fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH and clone library generation. Through FISH, considerably more Candidatus “Accumulibacter phosphatis” (Accumulibacter-polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs than Candidatus ‘Competibacter phosphatis’ (Competibacter-glycogen accumulating organisms were detected in the reactor, at 36 and 7% of total bacterial population, respectively. A low ratio of Glycogen/Volatile Fatty Acid of 0.69 further indicated the dominance of PAOs in the reactor. From clone library generated, 26 operational taxonomy units were retrieved from the sludge and a diverse population was shown, comprising Proteobacteria (69.6%, Actinobacteria (13.7%, Bacteroidetes (9.8%, Firmicutes (2.94%, Planctomycetes (1.96%, and Acidobacteria (1.47%. Accumulibacter are the only recognized PAOs revealed by the clone library. Both the clone library and FISH results strongly suggest that Accumulibacter are the major PAOs responsible for the phosphorus removal in this long-term EBPR at relatively high temperature.

  4. Generating quantitative models describing the sequence specificity of biological processes with the stabilized matrix method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sette Alessandro

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many processes in molecular biology involve the recognition of short sequences of nucleic-or amino acids, such as the binding of immunogenic peptides to major histocompatibility complex (MHC molecules. From experimental data, a model of the sequence specificity of these processes can be constructed, such as a sequence motif, a scoring matrix or an artificial neural network. The purpose of these models is two-fold. First, they can provide a summary of experimental results, allowing for a deeper understanding of the mechanisms involved in sequence recognition. Second, such models can be used to predict the experimental outcome for yet untested sequences. In the past we reported the development of a method to generate such models called the Stabilized Matrix Method (SMM. This method has been successfully applied to predicting peptide binding to MHC molecules, peptide transport by the transporter associated with antigen presentation (TAP and proteasomal cleavage of protein sequences. Results Herein we report the implementation of the SMM algorithm as a publicly available software package. Specific features determining the type of problems the method is most appropriate for are discussed. Advantageous features of the package are: (1 the output generated is easy to interpret, (2 input and output are both quantitative, (3 specific computational strategies to handle experimental noise are built in, (4 the algorithm is designed to effectively handle bounded experimental data, (5 experimental data from randomized peptide libraries and conventional peptides can easily be combined, and (6 it is possible to incorporate pair interactions between positions of a sequence. Conclusion Making the SMM method publicly available enables bioinformaticians and experimental biologists to easily access it, to compare its performance to other prediction methods, and to extend it to other applications.

  5. Fröhlich Condensate: Emergence of Synergetic Dissipative Structures in Information Processing Biological and Condensed Matter Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Luzzi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We consider the case of a peculiar complex behavior in open boson systems sufficiently away from equilibrium, having relevance in the functioning of information-processing biological and condensed matter systems. This is the so-called Fröhlich–Bose–Einstein condensation, a self-organizing-synergetic dissipative structure, a phenomenon apparently working in biological processes and present in several cases of systems of boson-like quasi-particles in condensed inorganic matter. Emphasis is centered on the quantum-mechanical-statistical irreversible thermodynamics of these open systems, and the informational characteristics of the phenomena.

  6. Basic Number Processing Deficits in ADHD: A Broad Examination of Elementary and Complex Number Processing Skills in 9- to 12-Year-Old Children with ADHD-C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Liane; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph

    2008-01-01

    ADHD (attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder) and academic difficulties are frequently associated, but to date this link is poorly understood. In order to explore which components of number processing and calculation skills may be disturbed in children with ADHD we presented a series of respective tasks to 9- to 12-year-old children with…

  7. Basic health program: state administration of basic health programs; eligibility and enrollment in standard health plans; essential health benefits in standard health plans; performance standards for basic health programs; premium and cost sharing for basic health programs; federal funding process; trust fund and financial integrity. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-12

    This final rule establishes the Basic Health Program (BHP), as required by section 1331 of the Affordable Care Act. The BHP provides states the flexibility to establish a health benefits coverage program for low-income individuals who would otherwise be eligible to purchase coverage through the Affordable Insurance Exchange (Exchange, also called Health Insurance Marketplace). The BHP complements and coordinates with enrollment in a QHP through the Exchange, as well as with enrollment in Medicaid and the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP). This final rule also sets forth a framework for BHP eligibility and enrollment, benefits, delivery of health care services, transfer of funds to participating states, and federal oversight. Additionally, this final rule amends another rule issued by the Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services (Secretary) in order to clarify the applicability of that rule to the BHP.

  8. Broadening Horizons and Teaching Basic Biology Through Cell-Free Synthesis of Green Fluorescent Protein in a High School Laboratory Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albayrak, Cem; Jones, K. C.; Swartz, James R.

    2013-12-01

    Cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) has emerged as a practical method for producing a broad variety of proteins. In addition, the direct accessibility to the reaction environment makes CFPS particularly suitable as a learning vehicle for fundamental biological concepts. Here, we describe its implementation as a teaching tool for a high school laboratory course. Ninety students in a biotechnology class used CFPS to study the effects of the concentrations of amino acids, cell extract, DNA, and the energy source on accumulation of active super-folder green fluorescent protein. Students estimated product concentrations simply by comparing solution colors to a printed green color gradient. This simple and inexpensive method allows for immediate measurements, and 26 of the 30 groups observed measurable product concentrations within 60 min. These student-generated data were then discussed to illustrate concepts of data analysis such as outliers and standard deviation. We also combined the laboratory experience with a visit to a university campus that included a laboratory tour and a college-style lecture. Our overall objective was to excite the students about the scientific enterprise and to instill a sense of personal relevance and attainability so that these students could realistically consider technical careers.

  9. An integrated methodological approach to the computer-assisted gas chromatographic screening of basic drugs in biological fluids using nitrogen selective detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugal, R; Massé, R; Sanchez, G; Bertrand, M J

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents the methodological aspects of a computerized system for the gas-chromatographic screening and primary identification of central nervous system stimulants and narcotic analgesics (including some of their respective metabolites) extracted from urine. The operating conditions of a selective nitrogen detector for optimized analytical functions are discussed, particularly the effect of carrier and fuel gas on the detector's sensitivity to nitrogen-containing molecules and discriminating performance toward biological matrix interferences. Application of simple extraction techniques, combined with rapid derivatization procedures, computer data acquisition, and reduction of chromatographic data are presented. Results show that this system approach allows for the screening of several drugs and their metabolites in a short amount of time. The reliability and stability of the system have been tested by analyzing several thousand samples for doping control at major international sporting events and for monitoring drug intake in addicts participating in a rehabilitation program. Results indicate that these techniques can be used and adapted to many different analytical toxicology situations.

  10. Reproductive Behavior and Basic Biology of the Oriental Bamboo-Inhabiting Anoplomus rufipes and a Comparison with Frugivorous Dacinae Fruit Flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovac, Damir

    2015-01-01

    The reproductive behaviors and mating systems of the fruit-infesting species of the Dacinae tribes Ceratitidini and Dacini are increasingly well understood, while in the non-frugivorous tribe Gastrozonini, data are lacking. In the present study, the reproductive behavior of Anoplomus rufipes from North Thailand was studied in the field, other behaviors also in the laboratory. A. rufipes mated on young bamboo plants growing in areas destroyed by fire. Exudates of extrafloral nectaries produced by the young bamboo plants provided food for the females. Factors affecting the choice of the mating site were favorable microclimatic conditions and food. Courtship behavior was performed on the upper sides of bamboo leaves and included pheromone calling (abdominal elevation, anal pouch eversion, abdominal pleural distention), anal dabbing, looping flights and a specific lofting/body swaying behavior. The males searched individually for females or formed leks containing up to four males. The reproductive behaviors and lek formation of A. rufipes are compared to other Dacinae (Ceratitis, Bactrocera), and their functions are discussed. Hitherto unknown data on the general biology of A. rufipes are also included. A. rufipes larvae infested living bamboo shoots of Cephalostachyum pergracile, and the observed behaviors of the adults included locomotion, grooming, feeding, oral droplet deposition, bubbling and agonistic behavior. PMID:26512699

  11. Reproductive Behavior and Basic Biology of the Oriental Bamboo-Inhabiting Anoplomus rufipes and a Comparison with Frugivorous Dacinae Fruit Flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Kovac

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive behaviors and mating systems of the fruit-infesting species of the Dacinae tribes Ceratitidini and Dacini are increasingly well understood, while in the non-frugivorous tribe Gastrozonini, data are lacking. In the present study, the reproductive behavior of Anoplomus rufipes from North Thailand was studied in the field, other behaviors also in the laboratory. A. rufipes mated on young bamboo plants growing in areas destroyed by fire. Exudates of extrafloral nectaries produced by the young bamboo plants provided food for the females. Factors affecting the choice of the mating site were favorable microclimatic conditions and food. Courtship behavior was performed on the upper sides of bamboo leaves and included pheromone calling (abdominal elevation, anal pouch eversion, abdominal pleural distention, anal dabbing, looping flights and a specific lofting/body swaying behavior. The males searched individually for females or formed leks containing up to four males. The reproductive behaviors and lek formation of A. rufipes are compared to other Dacinae (Ceratitis, Bactrocera, and their functions are discussed. Hitherto unknown data on the general biology of A. rufipes are also included. A. rufipes larvae infested living bamboo shoots of Cephalostachyum pergracile, and the observed behaviors of the adults included locomotion, grooming, feeding, oral droplet deposition, bubbling and agonistic behavior.

  12. Unity and disunity in evolutionary sciences: process-based analogies open common research avenues for biology and linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, Johann-Mattis; Pathmanathan, Jananan Sylvestre; Lopez, Philippe; Bapteste, Eric

    2016-08-20

    For a long time biologists and linguists have been noticing surprising similarities between the evolution of life forms and languages. Most of the proposed analogies have been rejected. Some, however, have persisted, and some even turned out to be fruitful, inspiring the transfer of methods and models between biology and linguistics up to today. Most proposed analogies were based on a comparison of the research objects rather than the processes that shaped their evolution. Focusing on process-based analogies, however, has the advantage of minimizing the risk of overstating similarities, while at the same time reflecting the common strategy to use processes to explain the evolution of complexity in both fields. We compared important evolutionary processes in biology and linguistics and identified processes specific to only one of the two disciplines as well as processes which seem to be analogous, potentially reflecting core evolutionary processes. These new process-based analogies support novel methodological transfer, expanding the application range of biological methods to the field of historical linguistics. We illustrate this by showing (i) how methods dealing with incomplete lineage sorting offer an introgression-free framework to analyze highly mosaic word distributions across languages; (ii) how sequence similarity networks can be used to identify composite and borrowed words across different languages; (iii) how research on partial homology can inspire new methods and models in both fields; and (iv) how constructive neutral evolution provides an original framework for analyzing convergent evolution in languages resulting from common descent (Sapir's drift). Apart from new analogies between evolutionary processes, we also identified processes which are specific to either biology or linguistics. This shows that general evolution cannot be studied from within one discipline alone. In order to get a full picture of evolution, biologists and linguists need to

  13. Аn improvement of process of organization of pedagogical practice is priority condition of forming of professional competence of future teachers the basics of health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.І. Kara

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The problem of improving the organization of teaching practice as one of the primary conditions of formation professional competence of future teachers of basic health. Highlighted that the improvement of the process of organizing teaching practice can be done by improving the content of the students during the teaching practice, the organization of joint work of all supervisors (teachers of higher educational institutions and teachers of general educational institutions, compliance with the uniform requirements supervisors to an evaluation of the student's performance. It is noted that purposeful pedagogical guidance and to improve the content of the students during the teaching practice creates the conditions for the formation of all the components of professional competence of future teachers.

  14. Process Development and Basic Studies of Electrochemically Deposited CdTe-Based Solar Cells: Final Technical Report, 15 May 1998 - 17 August 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaydanov, V. I.; Ohno, T. R.

    2002-03-01

    This report describes the long-term research and development issues related to polycrystalline thin-film solar cells. Our general research approach is based on combining activities aimed at improvement of cell performance and stability with activities aimed at increasing our fundamental understanding of the properties of materials making up the cells: CdTe, CdS, multi-layer back-contact, and transparent conducting oxide (TCO) front-contact. We emphasize the relation between structural and electronic material properties and various processing procedures, as well as the microscopic mechanisms responsible for the cell performance and its degradation. There is a lack of knowledge and understanding of basic issues behind the CdTe/CdS cell performance and stability, such as the nature and electronic properties of impurities and defects that control the majority-carrier concentration, mechanisms of the dopant compensation, recombination centers, their nature and properties, diffusion, electro migration and transformation of defects under various processing, stress, and operating conditions. We believe that better basic understanding of the specific influence of polycrystallinity, especially for fine-grain materials characteristic of CdTe-based cells, is now one of the most important issues we must address. We need to clarify the role of grain boundaries in forming the film electronic properties, as well as those of the p-n junction. It is important to study and understand the influence of the grain boundaries on the spatial distribution and migration of impurities and electrically active defects. To fulfill these tasks, one needs to develop new methods and techniques (or adjust existing ones) for material characterization, as well as develop more sophisticated approaches to data analysis and modeling.

  15. Basic Processes of Plasma Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-04-01

    compensation (means) and orbit maneuvering. With the advent of onboard nuclear power plants of 100kW electric and more high power arcjets and even MPD...advanced thrusters are the high power arcjets while MPD thrusters are cur- rently investigated up into the several hundred kilowatt range in steady state...Propuls. Conf. Orlando, Fl. July 1990 [4] T. Yamada, Y. Shimizu, K. Toki and K. Kuriki, " Thermal Analysis and Thrust Performance of a Low Power

  16. Basic process of irradiation softening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makii, Koichi; Tsutsumi, Tetsuo; Aono, Yasuhisa; Kuramoto, Eiichi

    1987-01-01

    The authors have been engaged in research that uses the Johnson-Wilson potential (i.e., potential between two bodies) to analyze the interaction between the core of a spiral dislocation and point defects (interstitial atoms) under stress. Metals with the body-centered cubic structure, however, have covalent bonding nature and multi-body effects of d-electrons cannot be ignored. In the present work, the N-body potential, which takes into account such multi-body effects of d-electrons, is compared with the Johnson-Wilson potential. Compared to the Johnson-Wilson potential, the N-body potential suffers a considerably smaller misfit energy and allows computer simulation of the interaction to be performed at an external force level closer to that used in measurement. Low-stress, long-period relaxation causes pipe diffusion of crowdions. This causes the expansion of ''three-kink configuration'', leading to hardening. As a result of the pipe diffusion, crowdions are absorbed into spiral dislocations and released out of the crystal. It has been reported that during a tensile test at 77 K, irradiated samples are softened at the yield point and the degree of softening recovers as the strain increases. This also supports the idea that the number of defects decreases due to the interaction between dislocations and interstitial atoms. (Nogami, K.)

  17. Mechanical Biological Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilitewski, B-; Oros, Christiane; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    The basic processes and technologies of composting and anaerobic digestion, as described in the previous chapters, are usually used for specific or source-separated organic waste flows. However, in the 1990s mechanical biological waste treatment technologies (MBT) were developed for unsorted...... or residual waste (after some recyclables removed at the source). The concept was originally to reduce the amount of waste going to landfill, but MBT technologies are today also seen as plants recovering fuel as well as material fractions. As the name suggests the technology combines mechanical treatment...... technologies (screens, sieves, magnets, etc.) with biological technologies (composting, anaerobic digestion). Two main technologies are available: Mechanical biological pretreatment (MBP), which first removes an RDF fraction and then biologically treats the remaining waste before most of it is landfilled...

  18. Nutritional Systems Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kasper

    and network biology has the potential to increase our understanding of how small molecules affect metabolic pathways and homeostasis, how this perturbation changes at the disease state, and to what extent individual genotypes contribute to this. A fruitful strategy in approaching and exploring the field...... biology research. The paper also shows as a proof-of-concept that a systems biology approach to diet is meaningful and demonstrates some basic principles on how to work with diet systematic. The second chapter of this thesis we developed the resource NutriChem v1.0. A foodchemical database linking...... sites of diet on the disease pathway. We propose a framework for interrogating the critical targets in colon cancer process and identifying plant-based dietary interventions as important modifiers using a systems chemical biology approach. The fifth chapter of the thesis is on discovering of novel anti...

  19. Gene-ontology enrichment analysis in two independent family-based samples highlights biologically plausible processes for autism spectrum disorders.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Anney, Richard J L

    2012-02-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have implicated a range of genes from discrete biological pathways in the aetiology of autism. However, despite the strong influence of genetic factors, association studies have yet to identify statistically robust, replicated major effect genes or SNPs. We apply the principle of the SNP ratio test methodology described by O\\'Dushlaine et al to over 2100 families from the Autism Genome Project (AGP). Using a two-stage design we examine association enrichment in 5955 unique gene-ontology classifications across four groupings based on two phenotypic and two ancestral classifications. Based on estimates from simulation we identify excess of association enrichment across all analyses. We observe enrichment in association for sets of genes involved in diverse biological processes, including pyruvate metabolism, transcription factor activation, cell-signalling and cell-cycle regulation. Both genes and processes that show enrichment have previously been examined in autistic disorders and offer biologically plausibility to these findings.

  20. Enhanced biological processes associated with alopecia in polar bears (Ursus maritimus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Lizabeth; Miles, A. Keith; Stott, Jeffrey L.; Waters, Shannon C.; Atwood, Todd C.

    2015-01-01

    Populations of wildlife species worldwide experience incidents of mass morbidity and mortality. Primary or secondary drivers of these events may escape classical detection methods for identifying microbial insults, toxin exposure, or additional stressors. In 2012, 28% of polar bears sampled in a study in the southern Beaufort Sea region of Alaska had varying degrees of alopecia that was concomitant with reduced body condition. Concurrently, elevated numbers of sick or dead ringed seals were detected in the southern Beaufort, Chukchi, and Bering seas in 2012, resulting in the declaration of an unusual mortality event (UME) by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The primary and possible ancillary causative stressors of these events are unknown, and related physiological changes within individual animals have been undetectable using classical diagnostic methods. Here we present an emerging technology as a potentially guiding investigative approach aimed at elucidating the circumstances responsible for the susceptibility of certain polar bears to observed conditions. Using transcriptomic analysis we identified enhanced biological processes including immune response, viral defense, and response to stress in polar bears with alopecia. Our results support an alternative mechanism of investigation into the causative agents that, when used proactively, could serve as an early indicator for populations and species at risk. We suggest that current or classical methods for investigation into events of unusual morbidity and mortality can be costly, sometimes unfocused, and often inconclusive. Advances in technology allow for implementation of a holistic system of surveillance and investigation that could provide early warning of health concerns in wildlife species important to humans.

  1. The Stress Relaxation Process in Sutures Tied with a Surgeon's Knot in a Simulated Biological Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liber-Kneć, Aneta; Łagan, Sylwia

    2016-01-01

    The exact characteristics of sutures are not only the basis for selecting from among different types of suture, but also provide the necessary information for the design of new surgical sutures. Apart from information relating to the breaking load of a suture reported in pharmacopoeias, the viscoelastic properties of sutures can be an additional selection criterium - one that influences stitching quality, especially when there is a risk of wound dehiscence. The aim of the study was to assess the stress relaxation process for 3 polymeric sutures in an environment simulating the conditions in a living organism and (for comparison) in room conditions. Stress relaxation testing was carried out on 3 polymeric sutures: polypropylene (PP), polydioxanone (PDS) and polyglycolic acid (PGA). To identify the mechanical properties of the sutures, uniaxial tensile tests were conducted according to the Polish Pharmacopoeia. The relaxation test was carried out in room conditions and in the bath simulating a biological environment. The sutures being tested were tied with a surgeon's knot. The PP suture exhibited the greatest stress relaxation (18% of the initial stress in room conditions and 21% of the initial stress in the bath). The PGA suture exhibited the least stress relaxation (approximately 60% of the initial stress in room conditions and 59% of the initial stress in the bath). The PDS suture was tested at a lower strain level and showed stress relaxation similar to the PGA suture (approximately 63% of the initial stress in room conditions and 55% in the bath). Multifilament braided absorbable (PGA) sutures and monofilament absorbable (PDS) sutures had a higher stress relaxation ratio over time than monofilament non-absorbable (PP) sutures. These findings may indicate higher stress maintained over time in PDS and PGA sutures, and thus higher tension at wound edges, sufficient to resist wound dehiscence.

  2. Enhanced biological processes associated with alopecia in polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Lizabeth; Miles, A Keith; Stott, Jeffrey; Waters, Shannon; Atwood, Todd

    2015-10-01

    Populations of wildlife species worldwide experience incidents of mass morbidity and mortality. Primary or secondary drivers of these events may escape classical detection methods for identifying microbial insults, toxin exposure, or additional stressors. In 2012, 28% of polar bears sampled in a study in the southern Beaufort Sea region of Alaska had varying degrees of alopecia that was concomitant with reduced body condition. Concurrently, elevated numbers of sick or dead ringed seals were detected in the southern Beaufort, Chukchi, and Bering seas in 2012, resulting in the declaration of an unusual mortality event (UME) by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The primary and possible ancillary causative stressors of these events are unknown, and related physiological changes within individual animals have been undetectable using classical diagnostic methods. Here we present an emerging technology as a potentially guiding investigative approach aimed at elucidating the circumstances responsible for the susceptibility of certain polar bears to observed conditions. Using transcriptomic analysis we identified enhanced biological processes including immune response, viral defense, and response to stress in polar bears with alopecia. Our results support an alternative mechanism of investigation into the causative agents that, when used proactively, could serve as an early indicator for populations and species at risk. We suggest that current or classical methods for investigation into events of unusual morbidity and mortality can be costly, sometimes unfocused, and often inconclusive. Advances in technology allow for implementation of a holistic system of surveillance and investigation that could provide early warning of health concerns in wildlife species important to humans. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Biological Carbon Dioxide Assimilation Process Using Marine Phytoplankton Tetraselmis suecica and Bivalve Perna viridis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirichai Dharmvanij

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Biological CO2 assimilation process using marine phytoplankton and marine bivalve was evaluated by carbon assimilation of the green mussel Perna viridis fed with Tetraselmis suecica under laboratory condition. Incorporation of carbon dioxide into phytoplankton biomass was performed through aeration. The experiment consisted of three treatments i.e. mussels without feeding (Control, mussels fed with T. suecica cultured with air (Treatment 1: T-Air, and mussels fed with T. suecica cultured with 1.5% CO2 in air (Treatment 2: T-CO2. The results showed that growth of mussels in T-Air and T-CO2 was 22.4 ± 4.0 mg/individual/day and 28.9 ± 12.3 mg/individual/day, respectively, which was significantly higher than control (mussels without feeding. Growth of mussels in T-Air was significantly lower than in T-CO2. Carbon content in shell (15.59 ± 0.57 % D.W. and meat (38.28 ± 1.72 % D.W. of mussels fed with aerated T. suecica (T-Air was significantly higher than that found in mussels fed with 1.5% CO2 T. suecica (14.2 ± 0.47 and 36.61± 0.43 % D.W. in shell and in meat, respectively (p≤0.05. With T-Air, 1.95±0.27 and 9.36±1.24% of carbon from T. suecica cells was assimilated into shell and meat of the mussel, respectively, while in T-CO2 , carbon assimilation from T. suecica cells in shell and meat was 2.19±0.55 and 11.22±2.76% respectively.

  4. A Case Study Documenting the Process by Which Biology Instructors Transition from Teacher-Centered to Learner-Centered Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marbach-Ad, Gili; Hunt Rietschel, Carly

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we used a case study approach to obtain an in-depth understanding of the change process of two university instructors who were involved with redesigning a biology course. Given the hesitancy of many biology instructors to adopt evidence-based, learner-centered teaching methods, there is a critical need to understand how biology instructors transition from teacher-centered (i.e., lecture-based) instruction to teaching that focuses on the students. Using the innovation-decision model for change, we explored the motivation, decision-making, and reflective processes of the two instructors through two consecutive, large-enrollment biology course offerings. Our data reveal that the change process is somewhat unpredictable, requiring patience and persistence during inevitable challenges that arise for instructors and students. For example, the change process requires instructors to adopt a teacher-facilitator role as opposed to an expert role, to cover fewer course topics in greater depth, and to give students a degree of control over their own learning. Students must adjust to taking responsibility for their own learning, working collaboratively, and relinquishing the anonymity afforded by lecture-based teaching. We suggest implications for instructors wishing to change their teaching and administrators wishing to encourage adoption of learner-centered teaching at their institutions. © 2016 G. Marbach-Ad and C. H. Rietschel. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  5. Effective Biological Nitrogen Removal Treatment Processes for Domestic Wastewaters with Low C/N Ratios: A Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Sheng-Peng; Pellicer i Nàcher, Carles; Merkey, Brian

    2010-01-01

    treatment processes including the modified anaerobic/anoxic/oxic (A(2)/O) process, the step-feed multistage anaerobic/ oxic (A/O) process, and new reactors like the membrane bioreactors (MBRs) and the membrane-aerated biofilm reactors (MABRs) can support the innovative biological nitrogen removal pathways...... effluent, the leachate of food waste, digested piggery manure, hydrolyzed molasses, biologically hydrolyzed or mechanically disintegrated sludge offer the same or better performance for nitrogen removal at reduced costs. Finally, we suggest that (1) these new processes and technologies are implemented...... at large scale for nitrogen removal from low C/N domestic wastewater, (2) further method logic are explored to introduce the Anammox pathway into domestic wastewater treatment, and (3) alternative carbon sources are explored and optimized for supporting the denitrification. With these efforts, cost...

  6. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home Opportunities & Announcements Funding Strategy for Grants Application Process Managing Grants Clinical Research Training Small Business Research Labs at NIMH Labs at NIMH Home Research Areas Principal Investigators Administrative Oversight & Support Collaborations & Partnerships Join A Study News & ...

  7. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... occur when this process does not work correctly. Communication between neurons can also be electrical, such as ... the body's response to stress. impulse —An electrical communication signal sent between neurons by which neurons communicate ...

  8. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Grants Application Process Managing Grants Clinical Research Training Small Business Research Labs at NIMH Labs at NIMH ... needed for the cell to work properly including small structures called cell organelles. Dendrites branch off from ...

  9. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Criteria (RDoC) Funding Funding Home Opportunities & Announcements Funding Strategy for Grants Application Process Managing Grants Clinical Research Training Small Business Research Labs at NIMH Labs at NIMH Home ...

  10. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Funding Home Opportunities & Announcements Funding Strategy for Grants Application Process Managing Grants Clinical Research Training Small Business ... works in healthy people, and how normal brain development and function can go awry, leading to mental ...

  11. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Application Process Managing Grants Clinical Research Training Small Business Research Labs at NIMH Labs at NIMH Home ... all. She was happily married and successful in business. Then, after a serious setback at work, she ...

  12. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... copying process is imperfect, leading to a gene mutation that causes the gene to code for a slightly different protein. Some mutations are harmless, some can be helpful, and others ...

  13. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Criteria (RDoC) Funding Funding Home Opportunities & Announcements Funding Strategy for Grants Application Process Managing Grants Clinical Research Training Small Business Research Labs at NIMH Labs ...

  14. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the brain How different parts of the brain communicate and work with each other How changes in ... occur when this process does not work correctly. Communication between neurons can also be electrical, such as ...

  15. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home About the Director Advisory Boards and Groups Strategic Plan Offices and Divisions Budget Careers at NIMH ... occur when this process does not work correctly. Communication between neurons can also be electrical, such as ...

  16. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... occur when this process does not work correctly. Communication between neurons can also be electrical, such as ... medication used to treat depression. SSRIs boost the amount of serotonin in the brain and help reduce ...

  17. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to receptors on the receiving neuron's dendrites and starts the process over again. At the end of ... all. She was happily married and successful in business. Then, after a serious setback at work, she ...

  18. Biological control of beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, with baculoviruses in greenhouses : development of a comprehensive process-based model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bianchi, F.J.J.A.; Vlak, J.M.; Rabbinge, R.; Werf, van der W.

    2002-01-01

    We describe the development of a comprehensive process-based model simulating the epizootiology and agronomic efficacy of baculoviruses used for biological control of beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, in greenhouse chrysanthemum. The model is built to help understand, evaluate, and predict the

  19. A Case Study Documenting the Process by Which Biology Instructors Transition from Teacher-Centered to Learner-Centered Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marbach-Ad, Gili; Hunt Rietschel, Carly

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we used a case study approach to obtain an in-depth understanding of the change process of two university instructors who were involved with redesigning a biology course. Given the hesitancy of many biology instructors to adopt evidence-based, learner-centered teaching methods, there is a critical need to understand how biology instructors transition from teacher-centered (i.e., lecture-based) instruction to teaching that focuses on the students. Using the innovation-decision model for change, we explored the motivation, decision-making, and reflective processes of the two instructors through two consecutive, large-enrollment biology course offerings. Our data reveal that the change process is somewhat unpredictable, requiring patience and persistence during inevitable challenges that arise for instructors and students. For example, the change process requires instructors to adopt a teacher-facilitator role as opposed to an expert role, to cover fewer course topics in greater depth, and to give students a degree of control over their own learning. Students must adjust to taking responsibility for their own learning, working collaboratively, and relinquishing the anonymity afforded by lecture-based teaching. We suggest implications for instructors wishing to change their teaching and administrators wishing to encourage adoption of learner-centered teaching at their institutions. PMID:27856550

  20. Biological, psychological and social processes that explain celebrities' influence on patients' health-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Steven J; Tan, Charlie

    2015-01-01

    Celebrities can have substantial influence as medical advisors. However, their impact on public health is equivocal: depending on the advice's validity and applicability, celebrity engagements can benefit or hinder efforts to educate patients on evidence-based practices and improve their health literacy. This meta-narrative analysis synthesizes multiple disciplinary insights explaining the influence celebrities have on people's health-related behaviors. Systematic searches of electronic databases BusinessSource Complete, Communication & Mass Media Complete, Humanities Abstracts, ProQuest Political Science, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Sociology Abstracts were conducted. Retrieved articles were used to inform a conceptual analysis of the possible processes accounting for the substantial influence celebrities may have as medical advisors. Fourteen mechanisms of celebrity influence were identified. According to the economics literature, celebrities distinguish endorsed items from competitors and can catalyze herd behavior. Marketing studies tell us that celebrities' characteristics are transferred to endorsed products, and that the most successful celebrity advisors are those viewed as credible, a perception they can create with their success. Neuroscience research supports these explanations, finding that celebrity endorsements activate brain regions involved in making positive associations, building trust and encoding memories. The psychology literature tells us that celebrity advice conditions people to react positively toward it. People are also inclined to follow celebrities if the advice matches their self-conceptions or if not following it would generate cognitive dissonance. Sociology explains how celebrities' advice spreads through social networks, how their influence is a manifestation of people's desire to acquire celebrities' social capital, and how they affect the ways people acquire and interpret health information. There are clear and deeply rooted biological