WorldWideScience

Sample records for basic biological processes

  1. Genomic Signal Processing: Predicting Basic Molecular Biological Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, Orly

    2005-03-01

    Advances in high-throughput technologies enable acquisition of different types of molecular biological data, monitoring the flow of biological information as DNA is transcribed to RNA, and RNA is translated to proteins, on a genomic scale. Future discovery in biology and medicine will come from the mathematical modeling of these data, which hold the key to fundamental understanding of life on the molecular level, as well as answers to questions regarding diagnosis, treatment and drug development. Recently we described data-driven models for genome-scale molecular biological data, which use singular value decomposition (SVD) and the comparative generalized SVD (GSVD). Now we describe an integrative data-driven model, which uses pseudoinverse projection (1). We also demonstrate the predictive power of these matrix algebra models (2). The integrative pseudoinverse projection model formulates any number of genome-scale molecular biological data sets in terms of one chosen set of data samples, or of profiles extracted mathematically from data samples, designated the ``basis'' set. The mathematical variables of this integrative model, the pseudoinverse correlation patterns that are uncovered in the data, represent independent processes and corresponding cellular states (such as observed genome-wide effects of known regulators or transcription factors, the biological components of the cellular machinery that generate the genomic signals, and measured samples in which these regulators or transcription factors are over- or underactive). Reconstruction of the data in the basis simulates experimental observation of only the cellular states manifest in the data that correspond to those of the basis. Classification of the data samples according to their reconstruction in the basis, rather than their overall measured profiles, maps the cellular states of the data onto those of the basis, and gives a global picture of the correlations and possibly also causal coordination of

  2. Transmission as a basic process in microbial biology. Lwoff Award Prize Lecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baquero, Fernando

    2017-11-01

    Transmission is a basic process in biology and evolution, as it communicates different biological entities within and across hierarchical levels (from genes to holobionts) both in time and space. Vertical descent, replication, is transmission of information across generations (in the time dimension), and horizontal descent is transmission of information across compartments (in the space dimension). Transmission is essentially a communication process that can be studied by analogy of the classic information theory, based on 'emitters', 'messages' and 'receivers'. The analogy can be easily extended to the triad 'emigration', 'migration' and 'immigration'. A number of causes (forces) determine the emission, and another set of causes (energies) assures the reception. The message in fact is essentially constituted by 'meaningful' biological entities. A DNA sequence, a cell and a population have a semiotic dimension, are 'signs' that are eventually recognized (decoded) and integrated by receiver biological entities. In cis-acting or unenclosed transmission, the emitters and receivers correspond to separated entities of the same hierarchical level; in trans-acting or embedded transmission, the information flows between different, but frequently nested, hierarchical levels. The result (as in introgressive events) is constantly producing innovation and feeding natural selection, influencing also the evolution of transmission processes. This review is based on the concepts presented at the André Lwoff Award Lecture in the FEMS Microbiology Congress in Maastricht in 2015. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Basic digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Lockhart, Gordon B

    1985-01-01

    Basic Digital Signal Processing describes the principles of digital signal processing and experiments with BASIC programs involving the fast Fourier theorem (FFT). The book reviews the fundamentals of the BASIC program, continuous and discrete time signals including analog signals, Fourier analysis, discrete Fourier transform, signal energy, power. The text also explains digital signal processing involving digital filters, linear time-variant systems, discrete time unit impulse, discrete-time convolution, and the alternative structure for second order infinite impulse response (IIR) sections.

  4. Basic radiotherapy physics and biology

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, David S; Das, Indra J; Mendonca, Marc S; Dynlacht, Joseph R

    2014-01-01

    This book is a concise and well-illustrated review of the physics and biology of radiation therapy intended for radiation oncology residents, radiation therapists, dosimetrists, and physicists. It presents topics that are included on the Radiation Therapy Physics and Biology examinations and is designed with the intent of presenting information in an easily digestible format with maximum retention in mind. The inclusion of mnemonics, rules of thumb, and reader-friendly illustrations throughout the book help to make difficult concepts easier to grasp. Basic Radiotherapy Physics and Biology is a

  5. Understanding a Basic Biological Process: Expert and Novice Models of Meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindfield, Ann C. H.

    The results of a study of the meiosis models utilized by individuals at varying levels of expertise while reasoning about the process of meiosis are presented. Based on these results, the issues of sources of misconceptions/difficulties and the construction of a sound understanding of meiosis are discussed. Five individuals from each of three…

  6. Basic biology in health physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, J.

    1976-10-01

    This report describes the consequences of the interaction of ionizing radiation with living cells and tissues. The basic processes of living cells, which are relevant to an understanding of health physics problems, are outlined with particular reference to cell-death, cancer induction and genetic effects. (author)

  7. Solar Process Heat Basics | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Process Heat Basics Solar Process Heat Basics Commercial and industrial buildings may use the same solar technologies-photovoltaics, passive heating, daylighting, and water heating-that are used for residential buildings. These nonresidential buildings can also use solar energy technologies that would be

  8. Making evolutionary biology a basic science for medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesse, Randolph M.; Bergstrom, Carl T.; Ellison, Peter T.; Flier, Jeffrey S.; Gluckman, Peter; Govindaraju, Diddahally R.; Niethammer, Dietrich; Omenn, Gilbert S.; Perlman, Robert L.; Schwartz, Mark D.; Thomas, Mark G.; Stearns, Stephen C.; Valle, David

    2010-01-01

    New applications of evolutionary biology in medicine are being discovered at an accelerating rate, but few physicians have sufficient educational background to use them fully. This article summarizes suggestions from several groups that have considered how evolutionary biology can be useful in medicine, what physicians should learn about it, and when and how they should learn it. Our general conclusion is that evolutionary biology is a crucial basic science for medicine. In addition to looking at established evolutionary methods and topics, such as population genetics and pathogen evolution, we highlight questions about why natural selection leaves bodies vulnerable to disease. Knowledge about evolution provides physicians with an integrative framework that links otherwise disparate bits of knowledge. It replaces the prevalent view of bodies as machines with a biological view of bodies shaped by evolutionary processes. Like other basic sciences, evolutionary biology needs to be taught both before and during medical school. Most introductory biology courses are insufficient to establish competency in evolutionary biology. Premedical students need evolution courses, possibly ones that emphasize medically relevant aspects. In medical school, evolutionary biology should be taught as one of the basic medical sciences. This will require a course that reviews basic principles and specific medical applications, followed by an integrated presentation of evolutionary aspects that apply to each disease and organ system. Evolutionary biology is not just another topic vying for inclusion in the curriculum; it is an essential foundation for a biological understanding of health and disease. PMID:19918069

  9. Mathematical modeling of biological processes

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Avner

    2014-01-01

    This book on mathematical modeling of biological processes includes a wide selection of biological topics that demonstrate the power of mathematics and computational codes in setting up biological processes with a rigorous and predictive framework. Topics include: enzyme dynamics, spread of disease, harvesting bacteria, competition among live species, neuronal oscillations, transport of neurofilaments in axon, cancer and cancer therapy, and granulomas. Complete with a description of the biological background and biological question that requires the use of mathematics, this book is developed for graduate students and advanced undergraduate students with only basic knowledge of ordinary differential equations and partial differential equations; background in biology is not required. Students will gain knowledge on how to program with MATLAB without previous programming experience and how to use codes in order to test biological hypothesis.

  10. Sources and basic threats of biological safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarova, O.D.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Biological safety of any state is connected with development of its public protection against biological weapons and opportunity to prevent bio terrorist attacks. That's why in modern social-economic and geo-political conditions, the problem of biological safety strengthening become significant, which is connected with migration process globalization, development of bio-technology and dramatically increased risk of pathogenic germ infections proliferation, which can be used as biological weapon. Despite of undertaken efforts by world community on full prohibition of biological weapon, its proliferation in the world still takes place. Biology revolution during second and third millennium lead to development not only biotechnology but new achievements in medicine, agriculture and other fields of economy, but also created scientific and research preconditions for development of advanced biological means of mass destruction, that make it more attractive for achieving superiority and assigned targets: low developments costs, opportunity to create it by one small laboratory with two-three high qualified specialists bio technologists; tremendous impact effect: one substance gram can contain from one till one hundreds quintillions (10"1"8 - 10"2"0) active pathogen molecules and in case if they belong to amplificated RNA and DNA, each molecule getting to organism, will multiply and contaminate environment (the last one is its principal difference from chemical weapon); bypass of organism immunological barriers and specific vaccinations; unusual clinic finding, hard diagnosis; weakness of traditional medications and treatment methods; lack of material destruction; opportunity of tight-lipped developments; opportunity of tight-lipped application; opportunity of delayed effect; opportunity of selective influence on specific population (by use of genetic, climatic and cultural specifications of race, nations and nationalities). Above mentioned specifications create

  11. Branching processes in biology

    CERN Document Server

    Kimmel, Marek

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a theoretical background of branching processes and discusses their biological applications. Branching processes are a well-developed and powerful set of tools in the field of applied probability. The range of applications considered includes molecular biology, cellular biology, human evolution and medicine. The branching processes discussed include Galton-Watson, Markov, Bellman-Harris, Multitype, and General Processes. As an aid to understanding specific examples, two introductory chapters, and two glossaries are included that provide background material in mathematics and in biology. The book will be of interest to scientists who work in quantitative modeling of biological systems, particularly probabilists, mathematical biologists, biostatisticians, cell biologists, molecular biologists, and bioinformaticians. The authors are a mathematician and cell biologist who have collaborated for more than a decade in the field of branching processes in biology for this new edition. This second ex...

  12. Introduction to basic molecular biologic techniques for molecular imaging researches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Joo Hyun

    2004-01-01

    Molecular imaging is a rapidly growing field due to the advances in molecular biology and imaging technologies. With the introduction of imaging reporter genes into the cell, diverse cellular processes can be monitored, quantified and imaged non-invasively in vivo. These processes include the gene expression, protein-protein interactions, signal transduction pathways, and monitoring of cells such as cancer cells, immune cells, and stem cells. In the near future, molecular imaging analysis will allow us to observe the incipience and progression of the disease. These will make us easier to give a diagnosis in the early stage of intractable diseases such as cancer, neuro-degenerative disease, and immunological disorders. Additionally, molecular imaging method will be a valuable tool for the real-time evaluation of cells in molecular biology and the basic biological studies. As newer and more powerful molecular imaging tools become available, it will be necessary to corporate clinicians, molecular biologists and biochemists for the planning, interpretation, and application of these techniques to their fullest potential. In order for such a multidisciplinary team to be effective, it is essential that a common understanding of basic biochemical and molecular biologic techniques is achieved. Basic molecular techniques for molecular imaging methods are presented in this paper

  13. Basic mathematics for the biological and social sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Marriott, F H C

    2013-01-01

    Basic Mathematics for the Biological and Social Sciences deals with the applications of basic mathematics in the biological and social sciences. Mathematical concepts that are discussed in this book include graphical methods, differentiation, trigonometrical or circular functions, limits and convergence, integration, vectors, and differential equations. The exponential function and related functions are also considered. This monograph is comprised of 11 chapters and begins with an overview of basic algebra, followed by an introduction to infinitesimal calculus, scalar and vector quantities, co

  14. A basic analysis toolkit for biological sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siragusa Enrico

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents a software library, nicknamed BATS, for some basic sequence analysis tasks. Namely, local alignments, via approximate string matching, and global alignments, via longest common subsequence and alignments with affine and concave gap cost functions. Moreover, it also supports filtering operations to select strings from a set and establish their statistical significance, via z-score computation. None of the algorithms is new, but although they are generally regarded as fundamental for sequence analysis, they have not been implemented in a single and consistent software package, as we do here. Therefore, our main contribution is to fill this gap between algorithmic theory and practice by providing an extensible and easy to use software library that includes algorithms for the mentioned string matching and alignment problems. The library consists of C/C++ library functions as well as Perl library functions. It can be interfaced with Bioperl and can also be used as a stand-alone system with a GUI. The software is available at http://www.math.unipa.it/~raffaele/BATS/ under the GNU GPL.

  15. Conservation of basic monopoles in decay processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barricelli, N.A.

    1983-01-01

    The conversation law of basic monpoles and other rules followed by these monopoles in the formation and decay processes of elementary particles are presented and discussed. A new interpretation of the distinction between rapid decay process (commonly ascribed to weak interactions) is proposed. (Auth.)

  16. Achievement report for fiscal 1988 on research and development of basic technologies for next-generation industry. Researches into organisms for biological device (information processing in organisms); 1988 nendo bio soshi seibutsu chosa kenkyu seika hokokusho. Seibutsu no joho shori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    Researches into organisms for their information processing, conducted in fiscal 1988 as part of a 'biological device research and development' project under the research and development system for basic technologies for the next-generation industry, are compiled into an article entitled 'information processing in neurons, and calcium ions.' The level of neuronal activity depends on changes in the level of nerve-membrane ion channel activity. Some kinds of ion channels are chemically activated (or inactivated) within the membrane. The phosphorylation of a protein ion channel is a typical case where an ion channel level is regulated chemically. In the muscarinic response of a neuron, a chemically operated ion channel plays an important roll relative to neuronal functions. In this response, a second messenger system in the neuron transmits extracellular information to the chemically operated ion channel. In this system, a calcium ion is one of important second messengers. (NEDO)

  17. Evolution in health and medicine Sackler colloquium: Making evolutionary biology a basic science for medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesse, Randolph M; Bergstrom, Carl T; Ellison, Peter T; Flier, Jeffrey S; Gluckman, Peter; Govindaraju, Diddahally R; Niethammer, Dietrich; Omenn, Gilbert S; Perlman, Robert L; Schwartz, Mark D; Thomas, Mark G; Stearns, Stephen C; Valle, David

    2010-01-26

    New applications of evolutionary biology in medicine are being discovered at an accelerating rate, but few physicians have sufficient educational background to use them fully. This article summarizes suggestions from several groups that have considered how evolutionary biology can be useful in medicine, what physicians should learn about it, and when and how they should learn it. Our general conclusion is that evolutionary biology is a crucial basic science for medicine. In addition to looking at established evolutionary methods and topics, such as population genetics and pathogen evolution, we highlight questions about why natural selection leaves bodies vulnerable to disease. Knowledge about evolution provides physicians with an integrative framework that links otherwise disparate bits of knowledge. It replaces the prevalent view of bodies as machines with a biological view of bodies shaped by evolutionary processes. Like other basic sciences, evolutionary biology needs to be taught both before and during medical school. Most introductory biology courses are insufficient to establish competency in evolutionary biology. Premedical students need evolution courses, possibly ones that emphasize medically relevant aspects. In medical school, evolutionary biology should be taught as one of the basic medical sciences. This will require a course that reviews basic principles and specific medical applications, followed by an integrated presentation of evolutionary aspects that apply to each disease and organ system. Evolutionary biology is not just another topic vying for inclusion in the curriculum; it is an essential foundation for a biological understanding of health and disease.

  18. Applications of Recombinant DNA Technology in Gastrointestinal Medicine and Hepatology: Basic Paradigms of Molecular Cell Biology. Part C: Protein Synthesis and Post-Translational Processing in Eukaryotic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary E Wild

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The translation of mRNA constitutes the first step in the synthesis of a functional protein. The polypeptide chain is subsequently folded into the appropriate three-dimensional configuration and undergoes a variety of processing steps before being converted into its active form. These processing steps are intimately related to the cellular events that occur in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi compartments, and determine the sorting and transport of different proteins to their appropriate destinations within the cell. While the regulation of gene expression occurs primarily at the level of transcription, the expression of many genes can also be controlled at the level of translation. Most proteins can be regulated in response to extracellular signals. In addition, intracellular protein levels can be controlled by differential rates of protein degradation. Thus, the regulation of both the amounts and activities of intracellular proteins ultimately determines all aspects of cell behaviour.

  19. The nuclear envelope from basic biology to therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worman, Howard J; Foisner, Roland

    2010-02-01

    The nuclear envelope has long been a focus of basic research for a highly specialized group of cell biologists. More recently, an expanding group of scientists and physicians have developed a keen interest in the nuclear envelope since mutations in the genes encoding lamins and associated proteins have been shown to cause a diverse range of human diseases often called laminopathies or nuclear envelopathies. Most of these diseases have tissue-selective phenotypes, suggesting that the nuclear envelope must function in cell-type- and developmental-stage-specific processes such as chromatin organization, regulation of gene expression, controlled nucleocytoplasmic transport and response to stress in metazoans. On 22-23 April 2009, Professor Christopher Hutchison organized the 4th British Nuclear Envelope Disease and Chromatin Organization meeting at the College of St Hild and St Bede at Durham University, sponsored by the Biochemical Society. In attendance were investigators with one common interest, the nuclear envelope, but with diverse expertise and training in animal and plant cell biology, genetics, developmental biology and medicine. We were each honoured to be keynote speakers. This issue of Biochemical Society Transactions contains papers written by some of the presenters at this scientifically exciting meeting, held in a bucolic setting where the food was tasty and the wine flowed freely. Perhaps at the end of this excellent meeting more questions were raised than answered, which will stimulate future research. However, what became clear is that the nuclear envelope is a cellular structure with critical functions in addition to its traditional role as a barrier separating the nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments in interphase eukaryotic cells.

  20. Basics of cutting and abrasive processes

    CERN Document Server

    Toenshoff, Hans Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Manufacturing is the basic industrial activity generating real value. Cutting and abrasive technologies are the backbone of precision production in machine, automotive and aircraft building as well as of production of consumer goods. We present the knowledge of modern manufacturing in these technologies on the basis of scientific research. The theory of cutting and abrasive processes and the knowledge about their application in industrial practice are a prerequisite for the studies of manufacturing science and an important part of the curriculum of the master study in German mechanical engineering. The basis of this book is our lecture “Basics of cutting and abrasive processes” (4 semester hours/3 credit hours) at the Leibniz University Hannover, which we offer to the diploma and master students specializing in manufacturing science.

  1. Applied medical image processing a basic course

    CERN Document Server

    Birkfellner, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    A widely used, classroom-tested text, Applied Medical Image Processing: A Basic Course delivers an ideal introduction to image processing in medicine, emphasizing the clinical relevance and special requirements of the field. Avoiding excessive mathematical formalisms, the book presents key principles by implementing algorithms from scratch and using simple MATLAB®/Octave scripts with image data and illustrations on an accompanying CD-ROM or companion website. Organized as a complete textbook, it provides an overview of the physics of medical image processing and discusses image formats and data storage, intensity transforms, filtering of images and applications of the Fourier transform, three-dimensional spatial transforms, volume rendering, image registration, and tomographic reconstruction.

  2. Muscle Satellite Cells: Exploring the Basic Biology to Rule Them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Camila F; Fernandes, Stephanie A; Ribeiro Junior, Antonio F; Keith Okamoto, Oswaldo; Vainzof, Mariz

    2016-01-01

    Adult skeletal muscle is a postmitotic tissue with an enormous capacity to regenerate upon injury. This is accomplished by resident stem cells, named satellite cells, which were identified more than 50 years ago. Since their discovery, many researchers have been concentrating efforts to answer questions about their origin and role in muscle development, the way they contribute to muscle regeneration, and their potential to cell-based therapies. Satellite cells are maintained in a quiescent state and upon requirement are activated, proliferating, and fusing with other cells to form or repair myofibers. In addition, they are able to self-renew and replenish the stem pool. Every phase of satellite cell activity is highly regulated and orchestrated by many molecules and signaling pathways; the elucidation of players and mechanisms involved in satellite cell biology is of extreme importance, being the first step to expose the crucial points that could be modulated to extract the optimal response from these cells in therapeutic strategies. Here, we review the basic aspects about satellite cells biology and briefly discuss recent findings about therapeutic attempts, trying to raise questions about how basic biology could provide a solid scaffold to more successful use of these cells in clinics.

  3. Stochastic processes in cell biology

    CERN Document Server

    Bressloff, Paul C

    2014-01-01

    This book develops the theory of continuous and discrete stochastic processes within the context of cell biology.  A wide range of biological topics are covered including normal and anomalous diffusion in complex cellular environments, stochastic ion channels and excitable systems, stochastic calcium signaling, molecular motors, intracellular transport, signal transduction, bacterial chemotaxis, robustness in gene networks, genetic switches and oscillators, cell polarization, polymerization, cellular length control, and branching processes. The book also provides a pedagogical introduction to the theory of stochastic process – Fokker Planck equations, stochastic differential equations, master equations and jump Markov processes, diffusion approximations and the system size expansion, first passage time problems, stochastic hybrid systems, reaction-diffusion equations, exclusion processes, WKB methods, martingales and branching processes, stochastic calculus, and numerical methods.   This text is primarily...

  4. Fluctuating Thermodynamics for Biological Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Sihyun

    Because biomolecular processes are largely under thermodynamic control, dynamic extension of thermodynamics is necessary to uncover the mechanisms and driving factors of fluctuating processes. The fluctuating thermodynamics technology presented in this talk offers a practical means for the thermodynamic characterization of conformational dynamics in biomolecules. The use of fluctuating thermodynamics has the potential to provide a comprehensive picture of fluctuating phenomena in diverse biological processes. Through the application of fluctuating thermodynamics, we provide a thermodynamic perspective on the misfolding and aggregation of the various proteins associated with human diseases. In this talk, I will present the detailed concepts and applications of the fluctuating thermodynamics technology for elucidating biological processes. This work was supported by Samsung Science and Technology Foundation under Project Number SSTF-BA1401-13.

  5. Dentistry in the future--on the role and goal of basic research in oral biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, K K

    1993-01-01

    Examination of the state of affairs of oral biology cannot be endeavoured without considering the mutual interactions and interdependencies of sciences, and without considering the impact human acts will exert on these developments. Oral biology deals with the biochemical, chemical, molecular biologic, general biologic and physical aspects of all processes that take place in the oral cavity, in the masticatory organ, and in tissues and body fluids that are associated with the above processes. Oral biology also reaps the harvest sown by (other) basic sciences. From the methodological point of view, oral biology is indistinguishable from basic sciences; it is the anatomical object that makes it specific. Oral biology cannot be regarded as "big science" (i.e. compared with the human genome project, space research, AIDS research etc.). This fact may preserve the attractiveness of oral biology. Important science--this concerns oral biology as well--still emerges in smaller settings, although there are omens that large research cartels will swallow larger and larger portions of research appropriations. A key to staying competitive is to use new science sources and--in some cases--to join bigger groups. Once upon a time oral biologists--or scientists in general--assumed that a record of solid accomplishments was sufficient to maintain research support. Today, in several countries, politics and public visibility unfortunately determine the funding privileges. Provided that human operations on earth will render future development of sciences possible, the future of oral biology will depend 1) on concomitant development in the above basic fields, and 2) on innovations in the individual psyches. This combination will unravel the structure of genes involved in the development and metabolism of oral processes, clone important salivary and connective tissue proteins, and control most important oral diseases. To achieve these goals, oral biology must attract young talent and

  6. Understanding the basic biology underlying the flavor world of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A. MENNELLA, Alison K. VENTURA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Health organizations worldwide recommend that adults and children minimize intakes of excess energy and salty, sweet, and fatty foods (all of which are highly preferred tastes and eat diets richer in whole grains, low- and non- fat dairy products, legumes, fish, lean meat, fruits, and vegetables (many of which taste bitter. Despite such recommendations and the well-established benefits of these foods to human health, adults are not complying, nor are their children. A primary reason for this difficulty is the remarkably potent rewarding properties of the tastes and flavors of foods high in sweetness, saltiness, and fatness. While we cannot easily change children’s basic ingrained biology of liking sweets and avoiding bitterness, we can modulate their flavor preferences by providing early exposure, starting in utero, to a wide variety of flavors within healthy foods, such as fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. Because the flavors of foods mothers eat during pregnancy and lactation also flavor amniotic fluid and breast milk and become preferred by infants, pregnant and lactating women should widen their food choices to include as many flavorful and healthy foods as possible. These experiences, combined with repeated exposure to nutritious foods and flavor variety during the weaning period and beyond, should maximize the chances that children will select and enjoy a healthier diet [Current Zoology 56 (6: 834–841, 2010].

  7. Achieving year 2000 readiness: basic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-03-01

    This document provides an approach or addressing safety and operability concerns related to Year 2000 (Y2K). Although it was prepared for nuclear power plants the methods described are applicable to other nuclear installations and to other industrial concerns. The basic goal was to provide a brief but comprehensive approach that may be used to discover, understand and correct the Y2K related problems. The document relies on certain basic expectations of the facility that would apply to any programme: ownership, management, knowledgeable participants, thorough application of the approach, documentation of efforts, quality assurance of products and compliance with all regulatory requirements. The IAEA has and will continue to be involved with Member States to assist them in implementing this document and achieving Y2K Readiness

  8. Achieving year 2000 readiness: basic processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This document provides an approach or addressing safety and operability concerns related to Year 2000 (Y2K). Although it was prepared for nuclear power plants the methods described are applicable to other nuclear installations and to other industrial concerns. The basic goal was to provide a brief but comprehensive approach that may be used to discover, understand and correct the Y2K related problems. The document relies on certain basic expectations of the facility that would apply to any programme: ownership, management, knowledgeable participants, thorough application of the approach, documentation of efforts, quality assurance of products and compliance with all regulatory requirements. The IAEA has and will continue to be involved with Member States to assist them in implementing this document and achieving Y2K Readiness 12 refs, 3 figs

  9. Environmental radiation: basic principles, biological facts, potential risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodemann, H.P.

    2000-01-01

    This book describes the complex processes that underlie the effects of different types of radiation at the cellular, organ and organismic level. Technical terms central to the subject matter are printed in italicize and explained in a glossary along with all physical quantities and dimensional units referred to. Through a systematic presentation of various aspects of the effects of environmental radiation on humans the author has endeavoured to make it clear that any discussion on potential health hazards must be conducted specific to the type of radiation in question. Furthermore, to study these issues meaningfully one must have a knowledge of the scientific basis of interactions between the various types of radiation and biological systems and be able to assess the relative impact of environmental radiation compared with other environmental health hazards

  10. Hybrid Thermochemical/Biological Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert C.

    The conventional view of biorefineries is that lignocellulosic plant material will be fractionated into cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and terpenes before these components are biochemically converted into market products. Occasionally, these plants include a thermochemical step at the end of the process to convert recalcitrant plant components or mixed waste streams into heat to meet thermal energy demands elsewhere in the facility. However, another possibility for converting high-fiber plant materials is to start by thermochemically processing it into a uniform intermediate product that can be biologically converted into a bio-based product. This alternative route to bio-based products is known as hybrid thermochemical/biological processing. There are two distinct approaches to hybrid processing: (a) gasification followed by fermentation of the resulting gaseous mixture of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen (H2), and carbon dioxide (CO2) and (b) fast pyrolysis followed by hydrolysis and/or fermentation of the anhydrosugars found in the resulting bio-oil. This article explores this "cart before the horse" approach to biorefineries.

  11. Basic processes and trends in gaseous detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    Almost a century after the invention of the proportional counter, a large research effort is still devoted to better understand the basic properties of gaseous detectors, and to improve their performances and reliability, particularly in view of use at the high radiation levels expected at LHC. In the first part of the lectures, after a brief introduction on underlying physical phenomena, I will review modern sophisticated computational tools, as well as some classic "back of the envelope" analytical methods, available today for estimating the general performances of gaseous detectors. In the second part, I will analyze in more detail problems specific to the use of detectors at high rates (space charge, discharges, aging), and describe the recent development of powerful and perhaps more reliable devices, particularly in the field of position-sensitive micro-pattern detectors.

  12. Basic TRUEX process for Rocky Flats Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, R.A.; Chamberlain, D.B.; Dow, J.A.; Farley, S.E.; Nunez, L.; Regalbuto, M.C.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1994-08-01

    The Generic TRUEX Model was used to develop a TRUEX process flowsheet for recovering the transuranics (Pu, Am) from a nitrate waste stream at Rocky Flats Plant. The process was designed so that it is relatively insensitive to changes in process feed concentrations and flow rates. Related issues are considered, including solvent losses, feed analysis requirements, safety, and interaction with an evaporator system for nitric acid recycle

  13. IS IT POSSIBLE TO INTEGRATE BASIC BIOLOGICAL DISCIPLINES IN A PRIVATE INSTITUTION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Azzalis

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Basic biological disciplines as biochemistry, genetic and molecular biology have grown faster than any of other sciences. Moreover, those disciplines contribute to the understanding and treatment of an elevated number of illnesses. On the other hand, teachers cannot assure the graduating students that each particular discipline  is essential.  Furthermore,  those disciplines are often studied separately without any interdisciplinary integration between them.  The new curriculum proposed at Anhembi Morumbi University  - a private institution placed at São Paulo city  - incorporates learning blocks that  have been designed to integrate basic biological disciplines and clinical contents from the beginning in order to provide the stimulation and motivation to guide the  student through his learning.  The educational trend has concentrated on the following steps: 1 Biochemistry, genetic, cellular and molecular biology teachers´ from that institution have elaborated a new discipline  that was named Biologic Process. The aim of this new discipline was integrate basic biological sciences in a single content;  2  Selecting problems that could be discussed in the light of biochemistry, genetic and molecular contents; e.g. sickle cell anemia; 3 Developing  an innovative instructional method that challenges students “learn to learn” different from problem-based learning , economically unavailable at any particular university,  and  4 Assessments that measure knowledge, skills, attitudes and beliefs.  We believe that the future pedagogical system in  private health university will be a combination of “classical”  presentation of contents combined with actively involved students in the educational process and instruction based on either hypothetical  or real clinical cases in order to create  the stimulus for  the student continues to  integrate basic and clinical investigation.

  14. Basic Characteristics of IEC Flickermeter Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Majchrzak

    2012-01-01

    . This paper presents the results of the numerical simulations that reconstruct the processing of flickermeter in frequency domain. With the use of standard test signals, the characteristics of flickermeter were determined for the case of amplitude modulation of input signal, frequency modulation of input signal, and for input signal with interharmonic component. For the needs of simulative research, elements of standard IEC flickermeter signal chain as well as test signal source and tools for acquisition, archiving, and presentation of the obtained results were modeled. The results were presented with a set of charts, and the specific fragments of the charts were pointed out and commented on. Some examples of the influence of input signal’s bandwidth limitation on the flickermeter measurement result were presented for the case of AM and FM modulation. In addition, the diagrams that enable the evaluation of flickermeter’s linearity were also presented.

  15. Cell biology, biophysics, and mechanobiology: From the basics to Clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Y

    2017-04-29

    Cell biology, biomechanics and biophysics are the key subjects that guide our understanding in diverse areas of tissue growth, development, remodeling and homeostasis. Novel discoveries such as molecular mechanism, and mechanobiological mechanism in cell biology, biomechanics and biophysics play essential roles in our understanding of the pathogenesis of various human diseases, as well as in designing the treatment of these diseases. In addition, studies in these areas will also facilitate early diagnostics of human diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer. In this special issue, we collected 10 original research articles and 1 review...

  16. Cognitive Modeling and Task Analysis: Basic Processes and Individual Differences

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ackerman, Phillip

    1999-01-01

    ... in a complex-skill environment. The subset of task conditions selected were those that involve basic processes of working memory, task monitoring, and differential loads on spatial reasoning and speed of perceiving...

  17. Some Basic Principles of Fish processing in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    J.F.N. Abowei; C.C. Tawari

    2011-01-01

    Some basic principles offish processing in Nigeria is reviewed to provide information for fish culturist to effectively manage the processing of their products. Processing of fish into forms for human consumption or suitable to be used as a supplement in animal food has been neglected in fish culture practices. This may be due to the high technology required in some of the processes and the fact that those involved in actual fish production are ignorant of the different processing methods. In...

  18. Artificial photosynthesis: from basic biology to industrial application

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Collings, Anthony F; Critchley, Christa

    2005-01-01

    ... some of the same outcomes at rates and scales that far exceed those found in nature. In this field the ubiquitous process is photosynthesis - an ancient process inherent to almost all plants and many prokaryotes on the planet that ultimately enabled the development of earth's animal kingdom. From a practical perspective, the natural process of photosynth...

  19. Profile of science process skills of Preservice Biology Teacher in General Biology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanti, R.; Anwar, Y.; Ermayanti

    2018-04-01

    This study aims to obtain portrayal images of science process skills among preservice biology teacher. This research took place in Sriwijaya University and involved 41 participants. To collect the data, this study used multiple choice test comprising 40 items to measure the mastery of science process skills. The data were then analyzed in descriptive manner. The results showed that communication aspect outperfomed the other skills with that 81%; while the lowest one was identifying variables and predicting (59%). In addition, basic science process skills was 72%; whereas for integrated skills was a bit lower, 67%. In general, the capability of doing science process skills varies among preservice biology teachers.

  20. Integrating system safety into the basic systems engineering process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, J. W.

    1971-01-01

    The basic elements of a systems engineering process are given along with a detailed description of what the safety system requires from the systems engineering process. Also discussed is the safety that the system provides to other subfunctions of systems engineering.

  1. An introduction to stochastic processes with applications to biology

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Linda J S

    2010-01-01

    An Introduction to Stochastic Processes with Applications to Biology, Second Edition presents the basic theory of stochastic processes necessary in understanding and applying stochastic methods to biological problems in areas such as population growth and extinction, drug kinetics, two-species competition and predation, the spread of epidemics, and the genetics of inbreeding. Because of their rich structure, the text focuses on discrete and continuous time Markov chains and continuous time and state Markov processes.New to the Second EditionA new chapter on stochastic differential equations th

  2. Polyhydroyalkanoates: from Basic Research and Molecular Biology to Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amro Abd alFattah Amara

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This review describes the Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA, an intracellular biodegradable microbial polymer. PHAs is formed from different types of three hydroxyalkanoic acids monomers, each unit forms an ester bond with the hydroxyl group of the other one and the hydroxyl substituted carbon has R configuration. The C-3 atom in β position is branched with at least one carbon atom in the form of methyl group (C1 to thirteen carbons in the form of tridecyl (C13. This alkyl side chain is not necessarily saturated. PHAs are biosynthesized through regulated pathways by specific enzymes. PHAs are accumulated in bacterial cells from soluble to insoluble form as storage materials inside the inclusion bodies during unbalanced nutrition or to save organisms from reducing equivalents. PHAs are converted again to soluble components by PHAs depolymerases and the degraded materials enter various metabolic pathways. Until now, four classes of enzymes responsible for PHAs polymerization are known. PHAs were well studied regarding their promising applications, physical, chemical and biological properties. PHAs are biodegradable, biocompatible, have good material properties, renewable and can be used in many applications. The most limiting factor in PHAs commercialization is their high cost compared to the petroleum plastics. This review highlights the new knowledge and that established by the pioneers in this field as well as the factors, which affect PHAs commercialization.

  3. Revisiting Preschoolers' Living Things Concept: A Microgenetic Analysis of Conceptual Change in Basic Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opfer, John E.; Siegler, Robert S.

    2004-01-01

    Many preschoolers know that plants and animals share basic biological properties, but this knowledge does not usually lead them to conclude that plants, like animals, are living things. To resolve this seeming paradox, we hypothesized that preschoolers largely base their judgments of life status on a biological property, capacity for teleological…

  4. Piecewise deterministic processes in biological models

    CERN Document Server

    Rudnicki, Ryszard

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a concise introduction to piecewise deterministic Markov processes (PDMPs), with particular emphasis on their applications to biological models. Further, it presents examples of biological phenomena, such as gene activity and population growth, where different types of PDMPs appear: continuous time Markov chains, deterministic processes with jumps, processes with switching dynamics, and point processes. Subsequent chapters present the necessary tools from the theory of stochastic processes and semigroups of linear operators, as well as theoretical results concerning the long-time behaviour of stochastic semigroups induced by PDMPs and their applications to biological models. As such, the book offers a valuable resource for mathematicians and biologists alike. The first group will find new biological models that lead to interesting and often new mathematical questions, while the second can observe how to include seemingly disparate biological processes into a unified mathematical theory, and...

  5. Basics of Radiation Biology When Treating Hyperproliferative Benign Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Rödel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available For decades, low- and moderate-dose radiation therapy (RT has been shown to exert a beneficial therapeutic effect in a multitude of non-malignant conditions including painful degenerative muscoloskeletal and hyperproliferative disorders. Dupuytren and Ledderhose diseases are benign fibroproliferative diseases of the hand/foot with fibrotic nodules and fascial cords, which determine debilitating contractures and deformities of fingers/toes, while keloids are exuberant scar formations following burn damage, surgery, and trauma. Although RT has become an established and effective option in the management of these diseases, experimental studies to illustrate cellular composites and factors involved remain to be elucidated. More recent findings, however, indicate the involvement of radiation-sensitive targets like mitotic fibroblasts/myofibroblasts as well as inflammatory cells. Radiation-related molecular mechanisms affecting these target cells include the production of free radicals to hamper proliferative activity and interference with growth factors and cytokines. Moreover, an impairment of activated immune cells involved in both myofibroblast proliferative and inflammatory processes may further contribute to the clinical effects. We here aim at briefly describing mechanisms contributing to a modulation of proliferative and inflammatory processes and to summarize current concepts of treating hyperproliferative diseases by low and moderate doses of ionizing radiation.

  6. Basic Auditory Processing and Developmental Dyslexia in Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsiao-Lan Sharon; Huss, Martina; Hamalainen, Jarmo A.; Goswami, Usha

    2012-01-01

    The present study explores the relationship between basic auditory processing of sound rise time, frequency, duration and intensity, phonological skills (onset-rime and tone awareness, sound blending, RAN, and phonological memory) and reading disability in Chinese. A series of psychometric, literacy, phonological, auditory, and character…

  7. Basic Substantive Law for Paralegals: Contracts, Torts, and Due Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcin, Raymond B.

    Part of the paralegal, or legal assistant, training materials prepared by the National Paralegal Institution under a Federal grant, the text comprises an overview of the basic legal concepts usually found in introductory law courses concerning contracts, torts, and the due process area of constitutional law. Part 1, Contracts, covers: definition,…

  8. Neural correlates of processing "self-conscious" vs. "basic" emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilead, Michael; Katzir, Maayan; Eyal, Tal; Liberman, Nira

    2016-01-29

    Self-conscious emotions are prevalent in our daily lives and play an important role in both normal and pathological behavior. Despite their immense significance, the neural substrates that are involved in the processing of such emotions are surprisingly under-studied. In light of this, we conducted an fMRI study in which participants thought of various personal events which elicited feelings of negative and positive self-conscious (i.e., guilt, pride) or basic (i.e., anger, joy) emotions. We performed a conjunction analysis to investigate the neural correlates associated with processing events that are related to self-conscious vs. basic emotions, irrespective of valence. The results show that processing self-conscious emotions resulted in activation within frontal areas associated with self-processing and self-control, namely, the mPFC extending to the dACC, and within the lateral-dorsal prefrontal cortex. Processing basic emotions resulted in activation throughout relatively phylogenetically-ancient regions of the cortex, namely in visual and tactile processing areas and in the insular cortex. Furthermore, self-conscious emotions differentially activated the mPFC such that the negative self-conscious emotion (guilt) was associated with a more dorsal activation, and the positive self-conscious emotion (pride) was associated with a more ventral activation. We discuss how these results shed light on the nature of mental representations and neural systems involved in self-reflective and affective processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Dosimetry control for radiation processing - basic requirements and standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, M.; Tsrunchev, Ts.

    2004-01-01

    A brief review of the basic international codes and standards for dosimetry control for radiation processing (high doses dosimetry), setting up a dosimetry control for radiation processing and metrology control of the dosimetry system is made. The present state of dosimetry control for food processing and the Bulgarian long experience in food irradiation (three irradiation facilities are operational at these moment) are presented. The absence of neither national standard for high doses nor accredited laboratory for calibration and audit of radiation processing dosimetry systems is also discussed

  10. Site remediation using biological processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, J.; Sansregret, J.L.; Cyr, B.; Pouliot, Y.

    1995-01-01

    The main process used in the bioremediation of contaminated sites is the microbial degradation and mineralization of pollutants. The bioengineering processes developed and applied by the company to optimize the microbial degradation are described and full scale case studies are reviewed. In each case, the site characteristics (type of contaminants, nature of soil, geographic location, etc.) and the results obtained are presented. The selected projects cover different bioremediation techniques (biopile, bioventing and air sparging), different contaminants (PAH, PCP, hydrocarbons) and different types of industrial sites (former gas work plant, petroleum depot, refinery, etc.)

  11. Biologic phosphorus elimination - influencing parameters, boundary conditions, process optimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Xiaohu.

    1992-01-01

    This paper first presents a systematic study of the basic process of biologic phosphorus elimination as employed by the original 'Phoredox (Main Stream) Process'. The conditions governing the process and the factors influencing its performance were determined by trial operation. A stationary model was developed for the purpose of modelling biologic phosphorus elimination in such a main stream process and optimising the dimensioning. The validity of the model was confirmed by operational data given in the literature and by operational data from the authors' own semitechnical-scale experimental plant. The model permits simulation of the values to be expected for effluent phosphorus and phosphate concentrations for given influent data and boundary conditions. It is thus possible to dimension a plant for accomodation of the original Phoredox (Main Stream) Process or any similar phosphorus eliminating plant that is to work according to the principle of the main stream process. (orig./EF) [de

  12. Aging and the number sense: preserved basic non-symbolic numerical processing and enhanced basic symbolic processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jade Eloise eNorris

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aging often leads to general cognitive decline in domains such as memory and attention. The effect of aging on numerical cognition, particularly on foundational numerical skills known as the Number Sense, is not well known. Early research focused on the effect of aging on arithmetic. Recent studies have begun to investigate the impact of healthy aging on basic numerical skills, but focused on non-symbolic quantity discrimination alone. Moreover, contradictory findings have emerged. The current study aimed to further investigate the impact of aging on basic non-symbolic and symbolic numerical skills. A group of 25 younger (18-25 and 25 older adults (60-77 participated in non-symbolic and symbolic numerical comparison tasks. Mathematical and spelling abilities were also measured. Results showed that aging had no effect on foundational non-symbolic numerical skills, as both groups performed similarly (RTs, accuracy and Weber fractions (w. All participants showed decreased non-symbolic acuity (accuracy and w in trials requiring inhibition. However, aging appears to be associated with a greater decline in discrimination speed in such trials. Furthermore, aging seems to have a positive impact on mathematical ability and basic symbolic numerical processing, as older participants attained significantly higher mathematical achievement scores, and performed significantly better on the symbolic comparison task than younger participants. The findings suggest that aging and its lifetime exposure to numbers may lead to better mathematical achievement and stronger basic symbolic numerical skills. Our results further support the observation that basic non-symbolic numerical skills are resilient to aging, but that aging may exacerbate poorer performance on trials requiring inhibitory processes. These findings lend further support to the notion that preserved basic numerical skills in aging may reflect the preservation of an innate, primitive and embedded Number

  13. Improving creative thinking skills and scientific attitude through inquiry-based learning in basic biology lecture toward student of biology education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayu Sandika

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Inquiry-based learning is one of the learning methods which can provide an active and authentic scientific learning process in order students are able to improve the creative thinking skills and scientific attitude. This study aims at improving creative thinking skills and scientific attitude through inquiry-based learning in basic biology lecture toward students of biology education at the Institut Agama Islam Negeri (IAIN Jember, Indonesia. This study is included in a descriptive quantitative research. The research focused on the topic of cell transport which was taught toward 25 students of Biology 2 class from 2017 academic year of Biology Education Department at the IAIN Jember. The learning process was conducted in two meetings in November 2017. The enhancement of students' creative thinking skills was determined by one group pre-test and post-test research design using test instrument meanwhile the scientific attitude focused on curiosity and objectivity were observed using the non-test instrument. Research result showed that students' creative thinking skills enhanced highly and students' scientific attitude improved excellently through inquiry-based learning in basic biology lecture.

  14. The RCSB Protein Data Bank: views of structural biology for basic and applied research and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Peter W; Prlić, Andreas; Bi, Chunxiao; Bluhm, Wolfgang F; Christie, Cole H; Dutta, Shuchismita; Green, Rachel Kramer; Goodsell, David S; Westbrook, John D; Woo, Jesse; Young, Jasmine; Zardecki, Christine; Berman, Helen M; Bourne, Philip E; Burley, Stephen K

    2015-01-01

    The RCSB Protein Data Bank (RCSB PDB, http://www.rcsb.org) provides access to 3D structures of biological macromolecules and is one of the leading resources in biology and biomedicine worldwide. Our efforts over the past 2 years focused on enabling a deeper understanding of structural biology and providing new structural views of biology that support both basic and applied research and education. Herein, we describe recently introduced data annotations including integration with external biological resources, such as gene and drug databases, new visualization tools and improved support for the mobile web. We also describe access to data files, web services and open access software components to enable software developers to more effectively mine the PDB archive and related annotations. Our efforts are aimed at expanding the role of 3D structure in understanding biology and medicine. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  15. The basics of IT audit purposes, processes, and practical information

    CERN Document Server

    Gantz, Stephen D

    2013-01-01

    The Basics of IT Audit: Purposes, Processes, and Practical Information provides you with a thorough, yet concise overview of IT auditing. Packed with specific examples, this book gives insight into the auditing process and explains regulations and standards such as the ISO-27000, series program, CoBIT, ITIL, Sarbanes-Oxley, and HIPPA. IT auditing occurs in some form in virtually every organization, private or public, large or small. The large number and wide variety of laws, regulations, policies, and industry standards that call for IT auditing make it hard for organizations to consistent

  16. Graphics processing units in bioinformatics, computational biology and systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobile, Marco S; Cazzaniga, Paolo; Tangherloni, Andrea; Besozzi, Daniela

    2017-09-01

    Several studies in Bioinformatics, Computational Biology and Systems Biology rely on the definition of physico-chemical or mathematical models of biological systems at different scales and levels of complexity, ranging from the interaction of atoms in single molecules up to genome-wide interaction networks. Traditional computational methods and software tools developed in these research fields share a common trait: they can be computationally demanding on Central Processing Units (CPUs), therefore limiting their applicability in many circumstances. To overcome this issue, general-purpose Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) are gaining an increasing attention by the scientific community, as they can considerably reduce the running time required by standard CPU-based software, and allow more intensive investigations of biological systems. In this review, we present a collection of GPU tools recently developed to perform computational analyses in life science disciplines, emphasizing the advantages and the drawbacks in the use of these parallel architectures. The complete list of GPU-powered tools here reviewed is available at http://bit.ly/gputools. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  17. Basic disturbances of information processing in psychosis prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodatsch, Mitja; Klosterkötter, Joachim; Müller, Ralf; Ruhrmann, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    The basic symptoms (BS) approach provides a valid instrument in predicting psychosis onset and represents moreover a significant heuristic framework for research. The term "basic symptoms" denotes subtle changes of cognition and perception in the earliest and prodromal stages of psychosis development. BS are thought to correspond to disturbances of neural information processing. Following the heuristic implications of the BS approach, the present paper aims at exploring disturbances of information processing, revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electro-encephalographic as characteristics of the at-risk state of psychosis. Furthermore, since high-risk studies employing ultra-high-risk criteria revealed non-conversion rates commonly exceeding 50%, thus warranting approaches that increase specificity, the potential contribution of neural information processing disturbances to psychosis prediction is reviewed. In summary, the at-risk state seems to be associated with information processing disturbances. Moreover, fMRI investigations suggested that disturbances of language processing domains might be a characteristic of the prodromal state. Neurophysiological studies revealed that disturbances of sensory processing may assist psychosis prediction in allowing for a quantification of risk in terms of magnitude and time. The latter finding represents a significant advancement since an estimation of the time to event has not yet been achieved by clinical approaches. Some evidence suggests a close relationship between self-experienced BS and neural information processing. With regard to future research, the relationship between neural information processing disturbances and different clinical risk concepts warrants further investigations. Thereby, a possible time sequence in the prodromal phase might be of particular interest.

  18. Towards a Unified Understanding of Lithium Action in Basic Biology and its Significance for Applied Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsson, Eric; Argüello-Miranda, Orlando; Chiu, See-Wing; Fazal, Zeeshan; Kruczek, James; Nunez-Corrales, Santiago; Pandit, Sagar; Pritchet, Laura

    2017-12-01

    Lithium has literally been everywhere forever, since it is one of the three elements created in the Big Bang. Lithium concentration in rocks, soil, and fresh water is highly variable from place to place, and has varied widely in specific regions over evolutionary and geologic time. The biological effects of lithium are many and varied. Based on experiments in which animals are deprived of lithium, lithium is an essential nutrient. At the other extreme, at lithium ingestion sufficient to raise blood concentration significantly over 1 mM/, lithium is acutely toxic. There is no consensus regarding optimum levels of lithium intake for populations or individuals-with the single exception that lithium is a generally accepted first-line therapy for bipolar disorder, and specific dosage guidelines for sufferers of that condition are generally agreed on. Epidemiological evidence correlating various markers of social dysfunction and disease vs. lithium level in drinking water suggest benefits of moderately elevated lithium compared to average levels of lithium intake. In contrast to other biologically significant ions, lithium is unusual in not having its concentration in fluids of multicellular animals closely regulated. For hydrogen ions, sodium ions, potassium ions, calcium ions, chloride ions, and magnesium ions, blood and extracellular fluid concentrations are closely and necessarily regulated by systems of highly selective channels, and primary and secondary active transporters. Lithium, while having strong biological activity, is tolerated over body fluid concentrations ranging over many orders of magnitude. The lack of biological regulation of lithium appears due to lack of lithium-specific binding sites and selectivity filters. Rather lithium exerts its myriad physiological and biochemical effects by competing for macromolecular sites that are relatively specific for other cations, most especially for sodium and magnesium. This review will consider what is known

  19. Test of Science Process Skills of Biology Students towards Developing of Learning Exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith S. Rabacal

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This is a descriptive study aimed to determine the academic achievement on science process skills of the BS Biology Students of Northern Negros State College of Science and Technology, Philippines with the end view of developing learning exercises which will enhance their academic achievement on basic and integrated science process skills. The data in this study were obtained using a validated questionnaire. Mean was the statistical tool used to determine the academic achievement on the above mentioned science process skills; t-test for independent means was used to determine significant difference on the academic achievement of science process skills of BS Biology students while Pearson Product Moment of Correlation Coefficient was used to determine the significant relationship between basic and integrated science process skills of the BS Biology students. A 0.05 level of significance was used to determine whether the hypothesis set in the study will be rejected or accepted. Findings revealed that the academic achievement on basic and integrated science process skills of the BS Biology students was average. Findings revealed that there are no significant differences on the academic performance of the BS Biology students when grouped according to year level and gender. Findings also revealed that there is a significant difference on the academic achievement between basic and integrated science process skills of the BS Biology students. Findings revealed that there is a significant relationship between academic achievement on the basic and integrated science process skills of the BS Biology students.

  20. Biological processes influencing contaminant release from sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reible, D.D.

    1996-01-01

    The influence of biological processes, including bioturbation, on the mobility of contaminants in freshwater sediments is described. Effective mass coefficients are estimated for tubificid oligochaetes as a function of worm behavior and biomass density. The mass transfer coefficients were observed to be inversely proportional to water oxygen content and proportional to the square root of biomass density. The sediment reworking and contaminant release are contrasted with those of freshwater amphipods. The implications of these and other biological processes for contaminant release and i n-situ remediation of soils and sediments are summarized. 4 figs., 1 tab

  1. BASIC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg; Schmidt, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    De sidste 10 år har vi været vidner til opkomsten af et nyt evidensbaseret policy paradigme, Behavioural Public Policy (BPP), der søger at integrere teoretiske og metodiske indsigter fra adfærdsvidenskaberne i offentlig politikudvikling. Arbejdet med BPP har dog båret præg af, at være usystematisk...... BPP. Tilgangen består dels af den overordnede proces-model BASIC og dels af et iboende framework, ABCD, der er en model for systematisk adfærdsanalyse, udvikling, test og implementering af adfærdsrettede løsningskoncepter. Den samlede model gør det muligt for forskere såvel som offentligt ansatte...

  2. Towards the understanding of network information processing in biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vijay

    Living organisms perform incredibly well in detecting a signal present in the environment. This information processing is achieved near optimally and quite reliably, even though the sources of signals are highly variable and complex. The work in the last few decades has given us a fair understanding of how individual signal processing units like neurons and cell receptors process signals, but the principles of collective information processing on biological networks are far from clear. Information processing in biological networks, like the brain, metabolic circuits, cellular-signaling circuits, etc., involves complex interactions among a large number of units (neurons, receptors). The combinatorially large number of states such a system can exist in makes it impossible to study these systems from the first principles, starting from the interactions between the basic units. The principles of collective information processing on such complex networks can be identified using coarse graining approaches. This could provide insights into the organization and function of complex biological networks. Here I study models of biological networks using continuum dynamics, renormalization, maximum likelihood estimation and information theory. Such coarse graining approaches identify features that are essential for certain processes performed by underlying biological networks. We find that long-range connections in the brain allow for global scale feature detection in a signal. These also suppress the noise and remove any gaps present in the signal. Hierarchical organization with long-range connections leads to large-scale connectivity at low synapse numbers. Time delays can be utilized to separate a mixture of signals with temporal scales. Our observations indicate that the rules in multivariate signal processing are quite different from traditional single unit signal processing.

  3. Basic design of alpha aqueous waste treatment process in NUCEF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mineo, Hideaki; Matsumura, Tatsuro; Nishizawa, Ichio; Mitsui, Takeshi; Ueki, Hiroyuki; Wada, Atsushi; Sakai, Ichita; Takeshita, Isao [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Nishimura, Kenji

    1996-11-01

    This paper described the basic design of Alpha Aqueous Waste Treatment Process in NUCEF. Since various experiments using the TRU (transuranium) elements are carried out in NUCEF, wastes containing TRU elements arise. The liquid wastes in NUCEF are categorized into three types. Decontamination and volume reduction of the liquid waste mainly of recovery water from acid recovery process which has lowest radioactive concentration is the most important task, because the arising rate of the waste is large. The major function of the Alpha Aqueous Waste Treatment Process is to decontaminate the radioactive concentration below the level which is allowed to discharge into sea. Prior the process design of this facility, the followings are evaluated:property and arising rate of the liquid waste, room space to install and licensing condition. Considering varieties of liquid wastes and their large volume, the very high decontamination factor was proposed by a process of multiple evaporation supported with filtration and adsorption in the head end part and reverse osmosis in the distillate part. (author)

  4. Introduction to basic concepts and elements in process synthesis and process intensification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rong, Ben-Guang

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter, we introduce some basic concepts and elements for process synthesis (PS) and process intensification (PI). These basic concepts and elements are taken partially from distillation systems synthesis and intensification, as described in Chapter 2. In Chapter 2,we present six distill...... these common concepts and elements in the context of general PS and PI works. We hope that at least some of the concepts and elements can be examined and addressed in the methodological approaches for PS and PI....

  5. Basic and applied problems in developmental biology and immunobiology of cestode infections: Hymenolepis, Taenia and Echinococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, A

    2015-02-01

    Differentiation and development of parasites, including longevity in host animals, are thought to be governed by host-parasite interactions. In this review, several topics on the developmental biology of cestode infections are discussed from immunobiological perspective with a focus on Hymenolepis, Taenia and Echinococcus infections. The basic premise of this review is that 'differentiation and development of cestodes' are somehow affected by host immune responses with an evolutionary history. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Process for sewage biological treatment from uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popa, K.; Cecal, A.; Craciun, I.

    2004-01-01

    The invention relates to the sewage treatment, in particular to the sewage biological treatmen from radioactive waste, namely from uranium. The process dor sewage biological treatment from uranium includes cultivation in the sewage of the aquatic plants Lemna minor and Spirulina platensis. The plants cultivation is carried out in two stages. In the first stage for cultivation is used Lemna minor in the second stage - Spirulina platensis . After finishing the plant cultivation it is carried out separation of their biomass. The result of the invention consists in increasing the uranyl ions by the biomass of plants cultivated in the sewage

  7. Process for sewage biological treatment from uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popa, Karin; Cecal, Alexandru; Craciun, Iftimie Ionel; Rudic, Valeriu; Gulea, Aurelian; Cepoi, Liliana

    2004-01-01

    The invention relates to the sewage treatment, in particular to the sewage biological treatment from radioactive waste, namely from uranium. The process for sewage biological treatment from uranium includes cultivation in the sewage of the aquatic plants Lemna minor and Spirulina platensis. The plant cultivation is carried out in two stages. In the first stage for cultivation is used Lemna minor and in the second stage - Spirulina platensis. After finishing the plant cultivation it is carried out separation of their biomass. The result of the invention consists in increasing the uranyl ions accumulation by the biomass of plants cultivated in the sewage.

  8. Basic science through engineering? Synthetic modeling and the idea of biology-inspired engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuuttila, Tarja; Loettgers, Andrea

    2013-06-01

    Synthetic biology is often understood in terms of the pursuit for well-characterized biological parts to create synthetic wholes. Accordingly, it has typically been conceived of as an engineering dominated and application oriented field. We argue that the relationship of synthetic biology to engineering is far more nuanced than that and involves a sophisticated epistemic dimension, as shown by the recent practice of synthetic modeling. Synthetic models are engineered genetic networks that are implanted in a natural cell environment. Their construction is typically combined with experiments on model organisms as well as mathematical modeling and simulation. What is especially interesting about this combinational modeling practice is that, apart from greater integration between these different epistemic activities, it has also led to the questioning of some central assumptions and notions on which synthetic biology is based. As a result synthetic biology is in the process of becoming more "biology inspired." Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Radioimmunoassay of the myelin basic protein in biological fluids, conditions improving sensitivity and specificity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delassalle, A.; Jacque, C.; Raoul, M.; Legrand, J.C.; Cesselin, F.; Drouet, J.

    1980-01-01

    The radioimmunoassay (RIA) for myelin basic protein (MBP) in biological fluids was reassessed in order to improve its sensitivity and eliminate some interferences. By using the pre-incubation technique and the charcoal-dextram-horse serum mixture for the separation step, the detection limit could be lowered to 200 pg/ml for cerebrospinal fluids (CSF), amniotic fluids (AF) and nervous tissue extracts and 600 pg/ml for sera. The RIA could be used directly on CSF, AF and nervous tissue extracts. Sera, however, had to be heated in citrate buffer at 100 0 C in order to discard interfering material. The present method is 10 to 20 times more sensitive than others previously published. Moreover, it can be applied to amniotic fluid. The biological fluids had to be promptly frozen to avoid degradation of MBP

  10. Stochastic transport processes in discrete biological systems

    CERN Document Server

    Frehland, Eckart

    1982-01-01

    These notes are in part based on a course for advanced students in the applications of stochastic processes held in 1978 at the University of Konstanz. These notes contain the results of re­ cent studies on the stochastic description of ion transport through biological membranes. In particular, they serve as an introduction to an unified theory of fluctuations in complex biological transport systems. We emphasize that the subject of this volume is not to introduce the mathematics of stochastic processes but to present a field of theoretical biophysics in which stochastic methods are important. In the last years the study of membrane noise has become an important method in biophysics. Valuable information on the ion transport mechanisms in membranes can be obtained from noise analysis. A number of different processes such as the opening and closing of ion channels have been shown to be sources of the measured current or voltage fluctuations. Bio­ logical 'transport systems can be complex. For example, the tr...

  11. Redox processes in radiation biology and cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenstock, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    Free-radical intermediates, particularly the activated oxygen species OH, O - 2 , and 1 O 2 , are implicated in many types of radiation damage to biological systems. In addition, these same species may be formed, either directly or indirectly through biochemical redox reactions, in both essential and aberrant metabolic processes. Cell survival and adaptation to an environment containing ionizing radiation and other physical and chemical carcinogens ultimately depend upon the cell's ability to maintain optimal function in response to free-radical damage at the chemical level. Many of these feedback control mechanisms are redox controlled. Radiation chemical techniques using selective radical scavengers, such as product analysis and pulse radiolysis, enable us to generate, observe, and characterize individually the nature and reactivity of potentially damaging free radicals. From an analysis of the chemical kinetics of free-radical involvement in biological damage, redox mechanisms are proposed to describe the early processes of radiation damage, redox mechanisms are proposed to describe the early processes of radiation damage, its protection and sensitization, and the role of free radicals in radiation and chemical carcinogenesis

  12. Diffusion processes and related topics in biology

    CERN Document Server

    Ricciardi, Luigi M

    1977-01-01

    These notes are based on a one-quarter course given at the Department of Biophysics and Theoretical Biology of the University of Chicago in 1916. The course was directed to graduate students in the Division of Biological Sciences with interests in population biology and neurobiology. Only a slight acquaintance with probability and differential equations is required of the reader. Exercises are interwoven with the text to encourage the reader to play a more active role and thus facilitate his digestion of the material. One aim of these notes is to provide a heuristic approach, using as little mathematics as possible, to certain aspects of the theory of stochastic processes that are being increasingly employed in some of the population biol­ ogy and neurobiology literature. While the subject may be classical, the nov­ elty here lies in the approach and point of view, particularly in the applica­ tions such as the approach to the neuronal firing problem and its related dif­ fusion approximations. It is a ple...

  13. Image processing and recognition for biological images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Seiichi

    2013-05-01

    This paper reviews image processing and pattern recognition techniques, which will be useful to analyze bioimages. Although this paper does not provide their technical details, it will be possible to grasp their main tasks and typical tools to handle the tasks. Image processing is a large research area to improve the visibility of an input image and acquire some valuable information from it. As the main tasks of image processing, this paper introduces gray-level transformation, binarization, image filtering, image segmentation, visual object tracking, optical flow and image registration. Image pattern recognition is the technique to classify an input image into one of the predefined classes and also has a large research area. This paper overviews its two main modules, that is, feature extraction module and classification module. Throughout the paper, it will be emphasized that bioimage is a very difficult target for even state-of-the-art image processing and pattern recognition techniques due to noises, deformations, etc. This paper is expected to be one tutorial guide to bridge biology and image processing researchers for their further collaboration to tackle such a difficult target. © 2013 The Author Development, Growth & Differentiation © 2013 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  14. Processing laboratory of radio sterilized biological tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguirre H, Paulina; Zarate S, Herman; Silva R, Samy; Hitschfeld, Mario

    2005-01-01

    The nuclear development applications have also reached those areas related to health. The risk of getting contagious illnesses through applying biological tissues has been one of the paramount worries to be solved since infectious illnesses might be provoked by virus, fungis or bacterias coming from donors or whether they have been introduced by means of intermediate stages before the use of these tissues. Therefore it has been concluded that the tissue allografts must be sterilized. The sterilization of medical products has been one of the main applications of the ionizing radiations and that it is why the International Organization of Atomic Energy began in the 70s promoting works related to the biological tissue sterilization and pharmaceutical products. The development of different tissue preservation methods has made possible the creation of tissue banks in different countries, to deal with long-term preservation. In our country, a project was launched in 1998, 'Establishment of a Tissue Bank in Latino america', this project was supported by the OIEA through the project INT/ 6/ 049, and was the starting of the actual Processing Laboratory of Radioesterilized Biological Tissues (LPTR), leaded by the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN). This first organization is part of a number of entities compounding the Tissue Bank in Chile, organizations such as the Transplantation Promotion Corporation hospitals and the LPTR. The working system is carried out by means of the interaction between the hospitals and the laboratory. The medical professionals perform the procuring of tissues in the hospitals, then send them to the LPTR where they are processed and sterilized with ionizing radiation. The cycle ends up with the tissues return released to the hospitals, where they are used, and then the result information is sent to the LPTR as a form of feedback. Up to now, human skin has been processed (64 donors), amniotic membranes (35 donors) and pig skin (175 portions

  15. Understanding the biological underpinnings of ecohydrological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxman, T. E.; Scott, R. L.; Barron-Gafford, G. A.; Hamerlynck, E. P.; Jenerette, D.; Tissue, D. T.; Breshears, D. D.; Saleska, S. R.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change presents a challenge for predicting ecosystem response, as multiple factors drive both the physical and life processes happening on the land surface and their interactions result in a complex, evolving coupled system. For example, changes in surface temperature and precipitation influence near-surface hydrology through impacts on system energy balance, affecting a range of physical processes. These changes in the salient features of the environment affect biological processes and elicit responses along the hierarchy of life (biochemistry to community composition). Many of these structural or process changes can alter patterns of soil water-use and influence land surface characteristics that affect local climate. Of the many features that affect our ability to predict the future dynamics of ecosystems, it is this hierarchical response of life that creates substantial complexity. Advances in the ability to predict or understand aspects of demography help describe thresholds in coupled ecohydrological system. Disentangling the physical and biological features that underlie land surface dynamics following disturbance are allowing a better understanding of the partitioning of water in the time-course of recovery. Better predicting the timing of phenology and key seasonal events allow for a more accurate description of the full functional response of the land surface to climate. In addition, explicitly considering the hierarchical structural features of life are helping to describe complex time-dependent behavior in ecosystems. However, despite this progress, we have yet to build an ability to fully account for the generalization of the main features of living systems into models that can describe ecohydrological processes, especially acclimation, assembly and adaptation. This is unfortunate, given that many key ecosystem services are functions of these coupled co-evolutionary processes. To date, both the lack of controlled measurements and experimentation

  16. Howard Brenner's Legacy for Biological Transport Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitsche, Johannes

    2014-11-01

    This talk discusses the manner in which Howard Brenner's theoretical contributions have had, and long will have, strong and direct impact on the understanding of transport processes occurring in biological systems. His early work on low Reynolds number resistance/mobility coefficients of arbitrarily shaped particles, and particles near walls and in pores, is an essential component of models of hindered diffusion through many types of membranes and tissues, and convective transport in microfluidic diagnostic systems. His seminal contributions to macrotransport (coarse-graining, homogenization) theory presaged the growing discipline of multiscale modeling. For biological systems they represent the key to infusing diffusion models of a wide variety of tissues with a sound basis in their microscopic structure and properties, often over a hierarchy of scales. Both scientific currents are illustrated within the concrete context of diffusion models of drug/chemical diffusion through the skin. This area of theory, which is key to transdermal drug development and risk assessment of chemical exposure, has benefitted very directly from Brenner's contributions. In this as in other areas, Brenner's physicochemical insight, mathematical virtuosity, drive for fully justified analysis free of ad hoc assumptions, quest for generality, and impeccable exposition, have consistently elevated the level of theoretical understanding and presentation. We close with anecdotes showing how his personal qualities and warmth helped to impart high standards of rigor to generations of grateful research students. Authors are Johannes M. Nitsche, Ludwig C. Nitsche and Gerald B. Kasting.

  17. Stochastic Simulation of Process Calculi for Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Phillips

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Biological systems typically involve large numbers of components with complex, highly parallel interactions and intrinsic stochasticity. To model this complexity, numerous programming languages based on process calculi have been developed, many of which are expressive enough to generate unbounded numbers of molecular species and reactions. As a result of this expressiveness, such calculi cannot rely on standard reaction-based simulation methods, which require fixed numbers of species and reactions. Rather than implementing custom stochastic simulation algorithms for each process calculus, we propose to use a generic abstract machine that can be instantiated to a range of process calculi and a range of reaction-based simulation algorithms. The abstract machine functions as a just-in-time compiler, which dynamically updates the set of possible reactions and chooses the next reaction in an iterative cycle. In this short paper we give a brief summary of the generic abstract machine, and show how it can be instantiated with the stochastic simulation algorithm known as Gillespie's Direct Method. We also discuss the wider implications of such an abstract machine, and outline how it can be used to simulate multiple calculi simultaneously within a common framework.

  18. Mixing and Processing of Complex Biological Fluids

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liepmann, Dorian

    2003-01-01

    ... of microfluidic control on the makeup and molecular structure of biological fluids. For this project, we focused on two critical fluids that are biologically significant and that are of critical importance to DoD...

  19. Virtual Lab Demonstrations Improve Students’ Mastery of Basic Biology Laboratory Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Maldarelli, Grace A.; Hartmann, Erica M.; Cummings, Patrick J.; Horner, Robert D.; Obom, Kristina. M.; Shingles, Richard; Pearlman, Rebecca S.

    2009-01-01

    Biology laboratory classes are designed to teach concepts and techniques through experiential learning. Students who have never performed a technique must be guided through the process, which is often difficult to standardize across multiple lab sections. Visual demonstration of laboratory procedures is a key element in teaching pedagogy. The main goals of the study were to create videos explaining and demonstrating a variety of lab techniques that would serve as teaching tools for undergradu...

  20. Biological processes for mitigation of greenhouse gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benemann, John R. [California Univ., Dept. of Plant and Microbial Biology, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1999-07-01

    Biological processes driven by photosynthesis cycle through the atmosphere well over an order of magnitude more CO{sub 2} than is currently emitted from the combustion of fossils fuels. Already human activities control and appropriate almost half the primary photosynthetic productivity of the planet. Better management of natural and man-made ecosystems affords many opportunities for mitigation of greenhouse gases, through sink enhancements, source reduction and substitution of fossil fuels with biofuels. Biofuels can be recovered from most organic wastes, from agricultural and forestry residues, and from biomass produced solely for energy use. However, the currently low costs of fossil fuels limits the market for biofuels. Accounting for the greenhouse mitigation value of biofuels would significantly increase their contribution to world fuel suppliers, estimated to be currently equivalent to about 15% of fossil fuel usage. Another limiting factor in expanding the use of biofuels is the relatively low solar energy conversion efficiencies of photosynthesis. Currently well below 1% of solar energy is converted into biomass energy even by intensive agricultural or forestry systems, with peak conversion efficiencies about 2 to 3% for sugar cane or microalgae cultures. One approach to increase photosynthetic efficiencies, being developed at the University of California Berkeley, is to reduce the amount of light-gathering chlorophyll in microalgae and higher plants. This would reduce mutual shading and also increase photosynthetic efficiencies under full sunlight intensities. Estimates of the potential of photosynthetic greenhouse mitigation processes vary widely. However, even conservative estimates for biofuels substituting for fossil fuels project the potential to reduce a large fraction of current increases in atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels. Biofuels production will require integration with existing agronomic, forestry and animal husbandry systems, and improved

  1. Bayesian inference in processing experimental data: principles and basic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Agostini, G

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces general ideas and some basic methods of the Bayesian probability theory applied to physics measurements. Our aim is to make the reader familiar, through examples rather than rigorous formalism, with concepts such as the following: model comparison (including the automatic Ockham's Razor filter provided by the Bayesian approach); parametric inference; quantification of the uncertainty about the value of physical quantities, also taking into account systematic effects; role of marginalization; posterior characterization; predictive distributions; hierarchical modelling and hyperparameters; Gaussian approximation of the posterior and recovery of conventional methods, especially maximum likelihood and chi-square fits under well-defined conditions; conjugate priors, transformation invariance and maximum entropy motivated priors; and Monte Carlo (MC) estimates of expectation, including a short introduction to Markov Chain MC methods

  2. Sodium removal by alcohol process: Basic tests and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, S.; Yamamoto, S.; Akai, M.; Yatabe, T.

    1997-01-01

    We have various methods for sodium removal; an alcohol cleaning process, a steam cleaning process and a direct burning process. Sodium removal by the alcohol process has a lot of advantages, such as causing no alkali corrosion to steel, short processing time and easy operation. Therefore the alcohol process was selected for the 1MWt double wall tube straight type steam generator. We have already had some experiences of the alcohol process, while still needed to confirm the sodium removal rate in the crevice and to develop an on-line sodium concentration monitoring method in alcohol during sodium removal. We have conducted the small scale sodium removal test with flowing alcohol where the sodium removal rate in the crevice and the alcohol conductivity were measured as functions of sodium concentration in alcohol and alcohol temperature. The sodium removal of the DWTSG was conducted by the devised alcohol process safely and efficiently. The process hour was about 1 day. Visual inspection during dismantling of the DWTSG showed no evidence of any un-reacted sodium. (author)

  3. From basic processes to sensors: particle-matter interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laforge, Bertrand; Bourgeois, Christian

    2005-11-01

    This academic course aims at presenting and explaining techniques of detection of radiations displaying an energy higher that some tens of keV, such as those met in nuclear physics or in particle physics. In a first part, the author first analyses the operation of a biological sensor (the eye), and then presents some generalities about matter: Rutherford experiment, the atom, molecules and solids. The second part deals with interactions between radiations and matter. The author there addresses interactions of heavy charged particles (ionization with high or low energy transfer), interactions of electrons (ionization, Bremsstrahlung), multiple scattering and straggling, the Cherenkov effect, transition radiation, the interaction of γ radiations in matter (Compton effect, photoelectric effect), the interaction of neutrons in matter. Appendices address γ spectrometry, the radiation of a charged particle moving in a dielectric medium, and issues related to statistical fluctuations (distribution functions, fluctuation propagation, energy resolution, noises)

  4. BASIC ENGINEERING FOR GENERATION PROCESS OF BIOGAS FROM PIG MANURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Ramírez

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of this project examines the effectiveness of three treatments biodigestors by means of calculation and analysis of parameters such as chemical oxygen demand, suspended solids, fixed solids, volatile solids, pH, temperature and biogas production, taking into account that work with organic waste from pig (porquinaza, from where it determines what should be used in a farm in Tocancipá, Cundinamarca. Based on experimentation continues to perform the basic engineering for this type of system, which determined the size of the biodigestor, with the daily production of gas according to the characteristics of both the food and the farm is 4.023 m3, with a heat capacity of 14084.64 Kcal / day, which allows for comparisons of technical and economic, with the current situation of the farm. Finally concluding with the project is viable in both financial factors as energy requirements, and depend solely on the availability of resources of the owners of the property, for investment of $ 1'716 .300.

  5. Basic physics of the fission process. Chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaudon, A.

    1981-01-01

    A general description of the fission process is given with special emphasis on those aspects which are necessary for the understanding of the measurements and calculations of neutron-induced fission cross-sections. Having considered the various phases of the process, some typical properties of the low-energy fission of actinide nuclei are presented and the more specific features of neutron induced fission are examined. (U.K.)

  6. Basic Instinct Undressed: Early Spatiotemporal Processing for Primary Sexual Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrand, Lore B.; Del Zotto, Marzia; Tyrand, Rémi; Pegna, Alan J.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the spatiotemporal dynamics associated with conscious and non-conscious processing of naked and dressed human bodies. To this effect, stimuli of naked men and women with visible primary sexual characteristics, as well as dressed bodies, were presented to 20 heterosexual male and female participants while acquiring high resolution EEG data. The stimuli were either consciously detectable (supraliminal presentations) or were rendered non-conscious through backward masking (subliminal presentations). The N1 event-related potential component was significantly enhanced in participants when they viewed naked compared to dressed bodies under supraliminal viewing conditions. More importantly, naked bodies of the opposite sex produced a significantly greater N1 component compared to dressed bodies during subliminal presentations, when participants were not aware of the stimulus presented. A source localization algorithm computed on the N1 showed that the response for naked bodies in the supraliminal viewing condition was stronger in body processing areas, primary visual areas and additional structures related to emotion processing. By contrast, in the subliminal viewing condition, only visual and body processing areas were found to be activated. These results suggest that naked bodies and primary sexual characteristics are processed early in time (i.e., sexual features benefit from automatic and rapid processing, most likely due to their high relevance for the individual and their importance for the species in terms of reproductive success. PMID:23894532

  7. NK cell-based cancer immunotherapy: from basic biology to clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Yin, Jie; Li, Ting; Huang, Shan; Yan, Han; Leavenworth, JianMei; Wang, Xi

    2015-12-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells, which recognize and kill target cells independent of antigen specificity and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) matching, play pivotal roles in immune defence against tumors. However, tumor cells often acquire the ability to escape NK cell-mediated immune surveillance. Thus, understanding mechanisms underlying regulation of NK cell phenotype and function within the tumor environment is instrumental for designing new approaches to improve the current cell-based immunotherapy. In this review, we elaborate the main biological features and molecular mechanisms of NK cells that pertain to regulation of NK cell-mediated anti-tumor activity. We further overview current clinical approaches regarding NK cell-based cancer therapy, including cytokine infusion, adoptive transfer of autologous or allogeneic NK cells, applications of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-expressing NK cells and adoptive transfer of memory-like NK cells. With these promising clinical outcomes and fuller understanding the basic questions raised in this review, we foresee that NK cell-based approaches may hold great potential for future cancer immunotherapy.

  8. Process of globalization and basic traits of Serbian national character

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atlagić Marko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In contemporary world globalization, along with many perplexities, increasingly takes on the universal/cosmopolitan character in spite of all geographical, national, racial, religious and alignment barriers. Information exchange, scientific achievements and technology are nowadays world process. Economy increasingly becomes global. Serbia and Serbian people have their own specific character, which is defined by three significant characteristics: sovereignty and territorial integrity, aspirations to social justice, the rule of people and democracy. The creators of global society should take into consideration these three important characteristics of Serbian people with which Serbian political elite is to familiarize them, for the sake of more rapid and complete process of integration of Serbs into global processes from both Serbia and its neighboring countries would benefit.

  9. Basic instinct undressed: early spatiotemporal processing for primary sexual characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lore B Legrand

    Full Text Available This study investigates the spatiotemporal dynamics associated with conscious and non-conscious processing of naked and dressed human bodies. To this effect, stimuli of naked men and women with visible primary sexual characteristics, as well as dressed bodies, were presented to 20 heterosexual male and female participants while acquiring high resolution EEG data. The stimuli were either consciously detectable (supraliminal presentations or were rendered non-conscious through backward masking (subliminal presentations. The N1 event-related potential component was significantly enhanced in participants when they viewed naked compared to dressed bodies under supraliminal viewing conditions. More importantly, naked bodies of the opposite sex produced a significantly greater N1 component compared to dressed bodies during subliminal presentations, when participants were not aware of the stimulus presented. A source localization algorithm computed on the N1 showed that the response for naked bodies in the supraliminal viewing condition was stronger in body processing areas, primary visual areas and additional structures related to emotion processing. By contrast, in the subliminal viewing condition, only visual and body processing areas were found to be activated. These results suggest that naked bodies and primary sexual characteristics are processed early in time (i.e., <200 ms and activate key brain structures even when they are not consciously detected. It appears that, similarly to what has been reported for emotional faces, sexual features benefit from automatic and rapid processing, most likely due to their high relevance for the individual and their importance for the species in terms of reproductive success.

  10. Basic abnormalities in visual processing affect face processing at an early age in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlamings, Petra Hendrika Johanna Maria; Jonkman, Lisa Marthe; van Daalen, Emma; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan; Kemner, Chantal

    2010-12-15

    A detailed visual processing style has been noted in autism spectrum disorder (ASD); this contributes to problems in face processing and has been directly related to abnormal processing of spatial frequencies (SFs). Little is known about the early development of face processing in ASD and the relation with abnormal SF processing. We investigated whether young ASD children show abnormalities in low spatial frequency (LSF, global) and high spatial frequency (HSF, detailed) processing and explored whether these are crucially involved in the early development of face processing. Three- to 4-year-old children with ASD (n = 22) were compared with developmentally delayed children without ASD (n = 17). Spatial frequency processing was studied by recording visual evoked potentials from visual brain areas while children passively viewed gratings (HSF/LSF). In addition, children watched face stimuli with different expressions, filtered to include only HSF or LSF. Enhanced activity in visual brain areas was found in response to HSF versus LSF information in children with ASD, in contrast to control subjects. Furthermore, facial-expression processing was also primarily driven by detail in ASD. Enhanced visual processing of detailed (HSF) information is present early in ASD and occurs for neutral (gratings), as well as for socially relevant stimuli (facial expressions). These data indicate that there is a general abnormality in visual SF processing in early ASD and are in agreement with suggestions that a fast LSF subcortical face processing route might be affected in ASD. This could suggest that abnormal visual processing is causative in the development of social problems in ASD. Copyright © 2010 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Basic processes in nuclear forensics and analytical plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venugopal, V.

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear forensics is the analysis of nuclear materials recovered from either the capture of unused materials, or from the radioactive debris following a nuclear explosion and can contribute significantly to the identification of the sources of the materials and the industrial processes used to obtain them. In the case of an explosion, nuclear forensics can also reconstruct key features of the nuclear device. Nuclear forensic analysis works best in conjunction with other law enforcement, radiological protection dosimetry, traditional forensics, and intelligence work to provide the basis for attributing the materials and/or nuclear device to its originators. Nuclear forensics is a piece of the overall attribution process, not a stand-alone activity

  12. Basic Functional Capabilities for a Military Message Processing Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-09-01

    Rey, California 90291 I1. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADORESS 2. MREPORT OWNtL Advanced Research Projects Agency September 1974 1400 Wilson Blvd. Is...WOROD (Conionwo m trevre aide If tneeoooy arm idmentify by egekA INber) automated message processing, command and control , writer-to-reader service...Characterizations During Preparation 31 Post-Preparation Phases 38 Transmission 38 Delivery 39 Reception 41 Archival 44 Administrativo Functions 44

  13. Bologna Process and Basic Nursing Education in 21 European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humar, L; Sansoni, J

    2017-01-01

    The Bologna Process and the Directives of the European Union have had a profound impact on nursing education in Europe. The aim of this study was to identify the similarities and differences within nursing education framework at entry level in 2014 in European countries. A questionnaire was devised by the researchers and distributed via e-mail to the nursing associations/nursing regulatory bodies of 30 European countries. Data were collected from January to May 2014. Responses were received from 21 European Countries. Results indicated that while a completion of 12 years of general education was a requirement to access nursing education in almost all respondent countries, other admission requirements differed between countries. Nursing courses were offered mostly by Faculties of Nursing and Faculties of Health Sciences (in higher education Institutions) and lecturers and management staff were mainly nurses. The results indicated significant different educational requirements for nurse educators. A foreign language was mandatory in half of the respondent countries. Nursing profession was represented at government level in just over half of the respondent countries, often with a Directorate position. The Bologna Process has helped harmonise initial nursing education in Europe but clear standards for nursing education need to be set up. Therefore, the research about the influence of the Bologna process on the development of the nursing profession should be further encouraged.

  14. Magnetic Nanotweezers for Interrogating Biological Processes in Space and Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Wook; Jeong, Hee-Kyung; Southard, Kaden M; Jun, Young-Wook; Cheon, Jinwoo

    2018-04-17

    The ability to sense and manipulate the state of biological systems has been extensively advanced during the past decade with the help of recent developments in physical tools. Unlike standard genetic and pharmacological perturbation techniques-knockdown, overexpression, small molecule inhibition-that provide a basic on/off switching capability, these physical tools provide the capacity to control the spatial, temporal, and mechanical properties of the biological targets. Among the various physical cues, magnetism offers distinct advantages over light or electricity. Magnetic fields freely penetrate biological tissues and are already used for clinical applications. As one of the unique features, magnetic fields can be transformed into mechanical stimuli which can serve as a cue in regulating biological processes. However, their biological applications have been limited due to a lack of high-performance magnetism-to-mechanical force transducers with advanced spatiotemporal capabilities. In this Account, we present recent developments in magnetic nanotweezers (MNTs) as a useful tool for interrogating the spatiotemporal control of cells in living tissue. MNTs are composed of force-generating magnetic nanoparticles and field generators. Through proper design and the integration of individual components, MNTs deliver controlled mechanical stimulation to targeted biomolecules at any desired space and time. We first discuss about MNT configuration with different force-stimulation modes. By modulating geometry of the magnetic field generator, MNTs exert pulling, dipole-dipole attraction, and rotational forces to the target specifically and quantitatively. We discuss the key physical parameters determining force magnitude, which include magnetic field strength, magnetic field gradient, magnetic moment of the magnetic particle, as well as distance between the field generator and the particle. MNTs also can be used over a wide range of biological time scales. By simply

  15. Basic to Advanced InSAR Processing: GMTSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandwell, D. T.; Xu, X.; Baker, S.; Hogrelius, A.; Mellors, R. J.; Tong, X.; Wei, M.; Wessel, P.

    2017-12-01

    Monitoring crustal deformation using InSAR is becoming a standard technique for the science and application communities. Optimal use of the new data streams from Sentinel-1 and NISAR will require open software tools as well as education on the strengths and limitations of the InSAR methods. Over the past decade we have developed freely available, open-source software for processing InSAR data. The software relies on the Generic Mapping Tools (GMT) for the back-end data analysis and display and is thus called GMTSAR. With startup funding from NSF, we accelerated the development of GMTSAR to include more satellite data sources and provide better integration and distribution with GMT. In addition, with support from UNAVCO we have offered 6 GMTSAR short courses to educate mostly novice InSAR users. Currently, the software is used by hundreds of scientists and engineers around the world to study deformation at more than 4300 different sites. The most challenging aspect of the recent software development was the transition from image alignment using the cross-correlation method to a completely new alignment algorithm that uses only the precise orbital information to geometrically align images to an accuracy of better than 7 cm. This development was needed to process a new data type that is being acquired by the Sentinel-1A/B satellites. This combination of software and open data is transforming radar interferometry from a research tool into a fully operational time series analysis tool. Over the next 5 years we are planning to continue to broaden the user base through: improved software delivery methods; code hardening; better integration with data archives; support for high level products being developed for NISAR; and continued education and outreach.

  16. Processing scarce biological samples for light and transmission electron microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Taupin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Light microscopy (LM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM aim at understanding the relationship structure-function. With advances in biology, isolation and purification of scarce populations of cells or subcellular structures may not lead to enough biological material, for processing for LM and TEM. A protocol for preparation of scarce biological samples is presented. It is based on pre-embedding the biological samples, suspensions or pellets, in bovine serum albumin (BSA and bis-acrylamide (BA, cross-linked and polymerized. This preparation provides a simple and reproducible technique to process biological materials, present in limited quantities that can not be amplified, for light and transmission electron microscopy.

  17. a Numerical Study of Basic Coastal Upwelling Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhihong

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3 -D) numerical models with a second order turbulence closure are developed for the study of coastal upwelling processes. A logarithmic coordinate system is introduced to obtain increased resolution in the regions near the surface and bottom where high velocity shear occurs and in the upwelling zone where its width is confined to the coast. In the experiments performed in the 2-D model an ocean initially at rest is driven by a spatially uniform alongshore wind-stress. There is a development of an offshore flow in the surface layer and an onshore flow below the surface layer. In the wind-stress direction there is a development of a coastal surface jet. The neglect of the alongshore pressure gradient leads to the intensification of the jet, and the concentration of the onshore flow in an over-developed Ekman layer yielding an unrealistic deepening of a bottom mixed layer. When bathymetric variations are introduced, some modifications in the dynamics of upwelling are observed. On the shelf region there is another upwelling zone and isotherms are interested with the bottom topography. When an alongshore pressure gradient is added externally into the model, the strength of the coastal jet decreases and a coastal undercurrent exists at greater depth. In addition the return onshore flow is largely independent of depth and the deepening of the bottom mixed layer disappears. In the experiments performed in the 3-D model a wind-stress with limited domain is used. Coastally trapped waves are generated and propagate along the coastline leading to a development of an alongshore pressure gradient, which has a significant effect on upwelling. The evolution of the alongshore flow, vertical velocity and the temperature is determined by both remote and local wind due to the propagation of waves. As the integration proceeds, the flow pattern becomes remarkably 3-dimensional

  18. Assessment of knowledge of participants on basic molecular biology techniques after 5-day intensive molecular biology training workshops in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yisau, J I; Adagbada, A O; Bamidele, T; Fowora, M; Brai, B I C; Adebesin, O; Bamidele, M; Fesobi, T; Nwaokorie, F O; Ajayi, A; Smith, S I

    2017-07-08

    The deployment of molecular biology techniques for diagnosis and research in Nigeria is faced with a number of challenges, including the cost of equipment and reagents coupled with the dearth of personnel skilled in the procedures and handling of equipment. Short molecular biology training workshops were conducted at the Nigerian Institute of Medical Research (NIMR), to improve the knowledge and skills of laboratory personnel and academics in health, research, and educational facilities. Five-day molecular biology workshops were conducted annually between 2011 and 2014, with participants drawn from health, research facilities, and the academia. The courses consisted of theoretical and practical sessions. The impact of the workshops on knowledge and skill acquisition was evaluated by pre- and post-tests which consisted of 25 multiple choice and other questions. Sixty-five participants took part in the workshops. The mean knowledge of molecular biology as evaluated by the pre- and post-test assessments were 8.4 (95% CI 7.6-9.1) and 13.0 (95 CI 11.9-14.1), respectively. The mean post-test score was significantly greater than the mean pre-test score (p biology workshop significantly increased the knowledge and skills of participants in molecular biology techniques. © 2017 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(4):313-317, 2017. © 2017 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  19. Assessment of Knowledge of Participants on Basic Molecular Biology Techniques after 5-Day Intensive Molecular Biology Training Workshops in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yisau, J. I.; Adagbada, A. O.; Bamidele, T.; Fowora, M.; Brai, B. I. C.; Adebesin, O.; Bamidele, M.; Fesobi, T.; Nwaokorie, F. O.; Ajayi, A.; Smith, S. I.

    2017-01-01

    The deployment of molecular biology techniques for diagnosis and research in Nigeria is faced with a number of challenges, including the cost of equipment and reagents coupled with the dearth of personnel skilled in the procedures and handling of equipment. Short molecular biology training workshops were conducted at the Nigerian Institute of…

  20. Exploiting graphics processing units for computational biology and bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Joshua L; Sinnott-Armstrong, Nicholas A; Moore, Jason H

    2010-09-01

    Advances in the video gaming industry have led to the production of low-cost, high-performance graphics processing units (GPUs) that possess more memory bandwidth and computational capability than central processing units (CPUs), the standard workhorses of scientific computing. With the recent release of generalpurpose GPUs and NVIDIA's GPU programming language, CUDA, graphics engines are being adopted widely in scientific computing applications, particularly in the fields of computational biology and bioinformatics. The goal of this article is to concisely present an introduction to GPU hardware and programming, aimed at the computational biologist or bioinformaticist. To this end, we discuss the primary differences between GPU and CPU architecture, introduce the basics of the CUDA programming language, and discuss important CUDA programming practices, such as the proper use of coalesced reads, data types, and memory hierarchies. We highlight each of these topics in the context of computing the all-pairs distance between instances in a dataset, a common procedure in numerous disciplines of scientific computing. We conclude with a runtime analysis of the GPU and CPU implementations of the all-pairs distance calculation. We show our final GPU implementation to outperform the CPU implementation by a factor of 1700.

  1. 47 CFR 69.119 - Basic service element expedited approval process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basic service element expedited approval process. 69.119 Section 69.119 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Computation of Charges § 69.119 Basic service element...

  2. Principles of interaction of ionizing radiation with matter and basic radiation chemistry processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santar, I.; Bednar, J.

    1976-01-01

    The basic principles are given of the interaction of ionizing radiation with matter and the main trends are pointed out in radiation chemistry. A brief characteristics is given of the basic radiation chemical processes in gases and in the condensed phase, namely in water and in organic substances. (B.S.)

  3. Basic emotion processing and the adolescent brain: Task demands, analytic approaches, and trajectories of changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa B. Del Piero

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Early neuroimaging studies suggested that adolescents show initial development in brain regions linked with emotional reactivity, but slower development in brain structures linked with emotion regulation. However, the increased sophistication of adolescent brain research has made this picture more complex. This review examines functional neuroimaging studies that test for differences in basic emotion processing (reactivity and regulation between adolescents and either children or adults. We delineated different emotional processing demands across the experimental paradigms in the reviewed studies to synthesize the diverse results. The methods for assessing change (i.e., analytical approach and cohort characteristics (e.g., age range were also explored as potential factors influencing study results. Few unifying dimensions were found to successfully distill the results of the reviewed studies. However, this review highlights the potential impact of subtle methodological and analytic differences between studies, need for standardized and theory-driven experimental paradigms, and necessity of analytic approaches that are can adequately test the trajectories of developmental change that have recently been proposed. Recommendations for future research highlight connectivity analyses and non-linear developmental trajectories, which appear to be promising approaches for measuring change across adolescence. Recommendations are made for evaluating gender and biological markers of development beyond chronological age.

  4. Basic Auditory Processing Skills and Phonological Awareness in Low-IQ Readers and Typically Developing Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppen, Sarah; Huss, Martina; Fosker, Tim; Fegan, Natasha; Goswami, Usha

    2011-01-01

    We explore the relationships between basic auditory processing, phonological awareness, vocabulary, and word reading in a sample of 95 children, 55 typically developing children, and 40 children with low IQ. All children received nonspeech auditory processing tasks, phonological processing and literacy measures, and a receptive vocabulary task.…

  5. Virtual Lab Demonstrations Improve Students’ Mastery of Basic Biology Laboratory Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace A. Maldarelli

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Biology laboratory classes are designed to teach concepts and techniques through experiential learning. Students who have never performed a technique must be guided through the process, which is often difficult to standardize across multiple lab sections. Visual demonstration of laboratory procedures is a key element in teaching pedagogy. The main goals of the study were to create videos explaining and demonstrating a variety of lab techniques that would serve as teaching tools for undergraduate and graduate lab courses and to assess the impact of these videos on student learning. Demonstrations of individual laboratory procedures were videotaped and then edited with iMovie. Narration for the videos was edited with Audacity. Undergraduate students were surveyed anonymously prior to and following screening to assess the impact of the videos on student lab performance by completion of two Participant Perception Indicator surveys. A total of 203 and 171 students completed the pre- and posttesting surveys, respectively. Statistical analyses were performed to compare student perceptions of knowledge of, confidence in, and experience with the lab techniques before and after viewing the videos. Eleven demonstrations were recorded. Chi-square analysis revealed a significant increase in the number of students reporting increased knowledge of, confidence in, and experience with the lab techniques after viewing the videos. Incorporation of instructional videos as prelaboratory exercises has the potential to standardize techniques and to promote successful experimental outcomes.

  6. Integrated biological, chemical and physical processes kinetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... for C and N removal, only gas and liquid phase processes were considered for this integrated model. ... kLA value for the aeration system, which affects the pH in the anoxic and aerobic reactors through CO2 gas exchange. ... Water SA Vol.

  7. Bridging the gap between basic and applied biology: towards preclinical translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross L. Cagan

    2013-05-01

    To better translate basic research findings into the clinic, we are moving away from the traditional one-gene–one-phenotype model towards the discovery of complex mechanisms. In this Editorial, the new Editor-in-Chief and Senior Editors of Disease Models & Mechanisms (DMM discuss the role that the journal will play in this transition. DMM will continue to provide a platform for studies that bridge basic and applied science, and, by demanding the rigorous assessment of animal models of disease, will help drive the establishment of robust standards of preclinical testing for drug development.

  8. The Structure of Phonological Processing and Its Relationship to Basic Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jason M.; Lindstrom, Jennifer H.; Lindstrom, Will; Denis, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    We investigated various structural models of phonological processing and the relationship of phonological processing abilities to basic reading. Data were collected on 116 kindergarten and first grade students. The specific ability model, which included phonological awareness, phonological memory, and rapid automatized naming as separate…

  9. Strong Bisimilarity and Regularity of Basic Parallel Processes is PSPACE-Hard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srba, Jirí

    2002-01-01

    We show that the problem of checking whether two processes definable in the syntax of Basic Parallel Processes (BPP) are strongly bisimilar is PSPACE-hard. We also demonstrate that there is a polynomial time reduction from the strong bisimilarity checking problem of regular BPP to the strong...

  10. Reformation of organization and realization of budgetary process: basic directions, problems and ways of their solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.B. Ponomarenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the research of the basic problems of organization and realization of budgetary process in the country on the modern stage. A budgetary process is one of the main levers which is able really to provide management of an economy under conditions of a market economy. Organizational and administrative structures of the budgetary process are ineffective in Ukraine. In spite of more than twenty-year old history, the budgetary process of Ukraine has the row of unsolved problems. For this reason there is the necessity in deep theoretical rethinking and methodological work at approaches to the budgetary process. We consider it is wise to find out the basic problems which arise during organization and realization of the budgetary process in Ukraine. The study of the matter results in the complex of recommendations which are able to provide effective realization of the budgetary process in Ukraine and solve a number of problem questions.

  11. Basic visual perceptual processes in children with typical development and cerebral palsy: The processing of surface, length, orientation, and position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmetz, Emilie; Magis, David; Detraux, Jean-Jacques; Barisnikov, Koviljka; Rousselle, Laurence

    2018-03-02

    The present study aims to assess how the processing of basic visual perceptual (VP) components (length, surface, orientation, and position) develops in typically developing (TD) children (n = 215, 4-14 years old) and adults (n = 20, 20-25 years old), and in children with cerebral palsy (CP) (n = 86, 5-14 years old) using the first four subtests of the Battery for the Evaluation of Visual Perceptual and Spatial processing in children. Experiment 1 showed that these four basic VP processes follow distinct developmental trajectories in typical development. Experiment 2 revealed that children with CP present global and persistent deficits for the processing of basic VP components when compared with TD children matched on chronological age and nonverbal reasoning abilities.

  12. BASIC SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF SOME PHOSPHORCONTATNING ORGANIC COMPOUNDS CONTAINING FRAGMENTS OF UREA AND TRYHLORETILAMID

    OpenAIRE

    Gushylyk B.

    2013-01-01

    Data about directions of synthesis and use of the phosphororganic compounds in technics, biology and medicine is presented in the paper. Antimicrobial activity of 51 phosphororganic salts and ilides containing urine and threechlor ethylenamide has been studied. Perspective of the development of effective antimicrobial substances has been determined

  13. BASIC SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF SOME PHOSPHORCONTATNING ORGANIC COMPOUNDS CONTAINING FRAGMENTS OF UREA AND TRYHLORETILAMID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gushylyk B.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Data about directions of synthesis and use of the phosphororganic compounds in technics, biology and medicine is presented in the paper. Antimicrobial activity of 51 phosphororganic salts and ilides containing urine and threechlor ethylenamide has been studied. Perspective of the development of effective antimicrobial substances has been determined

  14. The Crossroads between Biology and Mathematics: The Scientific Method as the Basics of Scientific Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsai, Istvan; Kampis, George

    2010-01-01

    Biology is changing and becoming more quantitative. Research is creating new challenges that need to be addressed in education as well. New educational initiatives focus on combining laboratory procedures with mathematical skills, yet it seems that most curricula center on a single relationship between scientific knowledge and scientific method:…

  15. Micro-electromembrane extraction across free liquid membranes. Extractions of basic drugs from undiluted biological samples

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubáň, Pavel; Boček, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 1337, Apr (2014), s. 32-39 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-05762S Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : micro-electromembrane extraction * free liquid membranes * biological samples Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.169, year: 2014

  16. Synthetic Biology: Tools to Design, Build, and Optimize Cellular Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Eric; Alper, Hal

    2010-01-01

    The general central dogma frames the emergent properties of life, which make biology both necessary and difficult to engineer. In a process engineering paradigm, each biological process stream and process unit is heavily influenced by regulatory interactions and interactions with the surrounding environment. Synthetic biology is developing the tools and methods that will increase control over these interactions, eventually resulting in an integrative synthetic biology that will allow ground-up cellular optimization. In this review, we attempt to contextualize the areas of synthetic biology into three tiers: (1) the process units and associated streams of the central dogma, (2) the intrinsic regulatory mechanisms, and (3) the extrinsic physical and chemical environment. Efforts at each of these three tiers attempt to control cellular systems and take advantage of emerging tools and approaches. Ultimately, it will be possible to integrate these approaches and realize the vision of integrative synthetic biology when cells are completely rewired for biotechnological goals. This review will highlight progress towards this goal as well as areas requiring further research. PMID:20150964

  17. Synthetic Biology: Tools to Design, Build, and Optimize Cellular Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Young

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The general central dogma frames the emergent properties of life, which make biology both necessary and difficult to engineer. In a process engineering paradigm, each biological process stream and process unit is heavily influenced by regulatory interactions and interactions with the surrounding environment. Synthetic biology is developing the tools and methods that will increase control over these interactions, eventually resulting in an integrative synthetic biology that will allow ground-up cellular optimization. In this review, we attempt to contextualize the areas of synthetic biology into three tiers: (1 the process units and associated streams of the central dogma, (2 the intrinsic regulatory mechanisms, and (3 the extrinsic physical and chemical environment. Efforts at each of these three tiers attempt to control cellular systems and take advantage of emerging tools and approaches. Ultimately, it will be possible to integrate these approaches and realize the vision of integrative synthetic biology when cells are completely rewired for biotechnological goals. This review will highlight progress towards this goal as well as areas requiring further research.

  18. Synthetic biology: tools to design, build, and optimize cellular processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Eric; Alper, Hal

    2010-01-01

    The general central dogma frames the emergent properties of life, which make biology both necessary and difficult to engineer. In a process engineering paradigm, each biological process stream and process unit is heavily influenced by regulatory interactions and interactions with the surrounding environment. Synthetic biology is developing the tools and methods that will increase control over these interactions, eventually resulting in an integrative synthetic biology that will allow ground-up cellular optimization. In this review, we attempt to contextualize the areas of synthetic biology into three tiers: (1) the process units and associated streams of the central dogma, (2) the intrinsic regulatory mechanisms, and (3) the extrinsic physical and chemical environment. Efforts at each of these three tiers attempt to control cellular systems and take advantage of emerging tools and approaches. Ultimately, it will be possible to integrate these approaches and realize the vision of integrative synthetic biology when cells are completely rewired for biotechnological goals. This review will highlight progress towards this goal as well as areas requiring further research.

  19. Treatment of slaughter wastewater by coagulation sedimentation-anaerobic biological filter and biological contact oxidation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, M.; Yu, P. F.; Fu, J. X.; Ji, X. Q.; Jiang, T.

    2017-08-01

    The optimal process parameters and conditions for the treatment of slaughterhouse wastewater by coagulation sedimentation-AF - biological contact oxidation process were studied to solve the problem of high concentration organic wastewater treatment in the production of small and medium sized slaughter plants. The suitable water temperature and the optimum reaction time are determined by the experiment of precipitation to study the effect of filtration rate and reflux ratio on COD and SS in anaerobic biological filter and the effect of biofilm thickness and gas water ratio on NH3-N and COD in biological contact oxidation tank, and results show that the optimum temperature is 16-24°C, reaction time is 20 min in coagulating sedimentation, the optimum filtration rate is 0.6 m/h, and the optimum reflux ratio is 300% in anaerobic biological filter reactor. The most suitable biological film thickness range of 1.8-2.2 mm and the most suitable gas water ratio is 12:1-14:1 in biological contact oxidation pool. In the coupling process of continuous operation for 80 days, the average effluent’s mass concentrations of COD, TP and TN were 15.57 mg/L, 40 mg/L and 0.63 mg/L, the average removal rates were 98.93%, 86.10%, 88.95%, respectively. The coupling process has stable operation effect and good effluent quality, and is suitable for the industrial application.

  20. Students’ learning activities while studying biological process diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kragten, M.; Admiraal, W.; Rijlaarsdam, G.

    2015-01-01

    Process diagrams describe how a system functions (e.g. photosynthesis) and are an important type of representation in Biology education. In the present study, we examined students’ learning activities while studying process diagrams, related to their resulting comprehension of these diagrams. Each

  1. Evolutionary biology: a basic science for medicine in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Robert L

    2011-01-01

    Evolutionary biology was a poorly developed discipline at the time of the Flexner Report and was not included in Flexner's recommendations for premedical or medical education. Since that time, however, the value of an evolutionary approach to medicine has become increasingly recognized. There are several ways in which an evolutionary perspective can enrich medical education and improve medical practice. Evolutionary considerations rationalize our continued susceptibility or vulnerability to disease; they call attention to the idea that the signs and symptoms of disease may be adaptations that prevent or limit the severity of disease; they help us understand the ways in which our interventions may affect the evolution of microbial pathogens and of cancer cells; and they provide a framework for thinking about population variation and risk factors for disease. Evolutionary biology should become a foundational science for the medical education of the future.

  2. Hidden Markov processes theory and applications to biology

    CERN Document Server

    Vidyasagar, M

    2014-01-01

    This book explores important aspects of Markov and hidden Markov processes and the applications of these ideas to various problems in computational biology. The book starts from first principles, so that no previous knowledge of probability is necessary. However, the work is rigorous and mathematical, making it useful to engineers and mathematicians, even those not interested in biological applications. A range of exercises is provided, including drills to familiarize the reader with concepts and more advanced problems that require deep thinking about the theory. Biological applications are t

  3. Workplace Basic Skills in the Metal Casting Industry for World Class Process and Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Bonnie

    A workplace basic skills project for the metal casting industry was established jointly by Central Alabama Community College and Robinson Foundry, Inc. Evaluation of the project was made through a commercial test of hourly workers' general literacy level gains, instructor-developed pre- and posttests of mastery of the industrial process and…

  4. Neural processing of basic tastes in healthy young and older adults - an fMRI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeveen, Heleen R.; Dalenberg, Jelle R.; Renken, Remco J.; ter Horst, Gert J.; Lorist, Monicque M.

    2015-01-01

    Ageing affects taste perception as shown in psychophysical studies, however, underlying structural and functional mechanisms of these changes are still largely unknown. To investigate the neurobiology of age-related differences associated with processing of basic tastes, we measured brain activation

  5. Formulae and figures for basic two-body QCD processes in ep interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tymieniecka, T.; Warsaw Univ.; Zarnecki, A.F.

    1992-10-01

    A compilation of some useful formulae is given for basic 2→2 processes involving quarks, gluons and photons. The formulae are illustrated by evaluation of some partonic cross sections, parton luminosities and ep cross sections at HERA and LEPxLHC energies. (orig.)

  6. Physiological Aspects of Aging. Module A-5. Block A. Basic Knowledge of the Aging Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Dexter; Cap, Orest

    This instructional module on physiological aspects of aging is one in a block of 10 modules designed to provide the human services worker who works with older adults with basic information regarding the aging process. An introduction provides an overview of the module content. A listing of general objectives follows. Nine sections present…

  7. Strong Bisimilarity and Regularity of Basic Parallel Processes is PSPACE-Hard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srba, Jirí

    2002-01-01

    We show that the problem of checking whether two processes definable in the syntax of Basic Parallel Processes (BPP) are strongly bisimilar is PSPACE-hard. We also demonstrate that there is a polynomial time reduction from the strong bisimilarity checking problem of regular BPP to the strong...... regularity (finiteness) checking of BPP. This implies that strong regularity of BPP is also PSPACE-hard....

  8. State of the art of biological hydrogen production processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loubette, N.; Junker, M.

    2006-01-01

    Our report gives an overview of hydrogen production processes with bacteria or algae. 4 main processes are described: water biophotolysis, photo- fermentation biological CO conversion and dark fermentation. Chemical phenomena which lead to hydrogen generation are exp/aired. Performances, limits and outlook are given for each process. Main projects, programs and key players involved in this field of research have been listed. This paper resumes few results of this report. (authors)

  9. State of the art of biological hydrogen production processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolas Loubette; Michel Junker

    2006-01-01

    Our report gives an overview of hydrogen production processes with bacteria or algae. 4 main processes are described: water bio-photolysis, photo-fermentation biological CO conversion and dark fermentation. Chemical phenomena which lead to hydrogen generation are explained. Performances, limits and outlook are given for each process. Main projects, programs and key players involved in this field of research have been listed. This paper resumes few results of this report. (authors)

  10. Site-selective protein-modification chemistry for basic biology and drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krall, Nikolaus; da Cruz, Filipa P; Boutureira, Omar; Bernardes, Gonçalo J L

    2016-02-01

    Nature has produced intricate machinery to covalently diversify the structure of proteins after their synthesis in the ribosome. In an attempt to mimic nature, chemists have developed a large set of reactions that enable post-expression modification of proteins at pre-determined sites. These reactions are now used to selectively install particular modifications on proteins for many biological and therapeutic applications. For example, they provide an opportunity to install post-translational modifications on proteins to determine their exact biological roles. Labelling of proteins in live cells with fluorescent dyes allows protein uptake and intracellular trafficking to be tracked and also enables physiological parameters to be measured optically. Through the conjugation of potent cytotoxicants to antibodies, novel anti-cancer drugs with improved efficacy and reduced side effects may be obtained. In this Perspective, we highlight the most exciting current and future applications of chemical site-selective protein modification and consider which hurdles still need to be overcome for more widespread use.

  11. Current and emerging basic science concepts in bone biology: implications in craniofacial surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Adam J; Mesa, John; Buchman, Steven R

    2012-01-01

    Ongoing research in bone biology has brought cutting-edge technologies into everyday use in craniofacial surgery. Nonetheless, when osseous defects of the craniomaxillofacial skeleton are encountered, autogenous bone grafting remains the criterion standard for reconstruction. Accordingly, the core principles of bone graft physiology continue to be of paramount importance. Bone grafts, however, are not a panacea; donor site morbidity and operative risk are among the limitations of autologous bone graft harvest. Bone graft survival is impaired when irradiation, contamination, and impaired vascularity are encountered. Although the dura can induce calvarial ossification in children younger than 2 years, the repair of critical-size defects in the pediatric population may be hindered by inadequate bone graft donor volume. The novel and emerging field of bone tissue engineering holds great promise as a limitless source of autogenous bone. Three core constituents of bone tissue engineering have been established: scaffolds, signals, and cells. Blood supply is the sine qua non of these components, which are used both individually and concertedly in regenerative craniofacial surgery. The discerning craniofacial surgeon must determine the proper use for these bone graft alternatives, while understanding their concomitant risks. This article presents a review of contemporary and emerging concepts in bone biology and their implications in craniofacial surgery. Current practices, areas of controversy, and near-term future applications are emphasized.

  12. Universal Gestational Age Effects on Cognitive and Basic Mathematic Processing: 2 Cohorts in 2 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolke, Dieter; Strauss, Vicky Yu-Chun; Johnson, Samantha; Gilmore, Camilla; Marlow, Neil; Jaekel, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether general cognitive ability, basic mathematic processing, and mathematic attainment are universally affected by gestation at birth, as well as whether mathematic attainment is more strongly associated with cohort-specific factors such as schooling than basic cognitive and mathematical abilities. Study design The Bavarian Longitudinal Study (BLS, 1289 children, 27-41 weeks gestational age [GA]) was used to estimate effects of GA on IQ, basic mathematic processing, and mathematic attainment. These estimations were used to predict IQ, mathematic processing, and mathematic attainment in the EPICure Study (171 children mathematic attainment scores by 2.34 (95% CI: −2.99, −1.70) and 2.76 (95% CI: −3.40, −2.11) points, respectively. There were no differences among children born 34-41 weeks GA. Similarly, for children born mathematic processing scores decreased by 1.77 (95% CI: −2.20, −1.34) points with each lower GA week. The prediction function generated using BLS data accurately predicted the effect of GA on IQ and mathematic processing among EPICure children. However, these children had better attainment than predicted by BLS. Conclusions Prematurity has adverse effects on basic mathematic processing following birth at all gestations mathematic attainment mathematic processing scores from one cohort to another among children cared for in different eras and countries suggests that universal neurodevelopmental factors may explain the effects of gestation at birth. In contrast, mathematic attainment may be improved by schooling. PMID:25842966

  13. Boolean Models of Biological Processes Explain Cascade-Like Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Wang, Guanyu; Simha, Rahul; Du, Chenghang; Zeng, Chen

    2016-01-29

    Biological networks play a key role in determining biological function and therefore, an understanding of their structure and dynamics is of central interest in systems biology. In Boolean models of such networks, the status of each molecule is either "on" or "off" and along with the molecules interact with each other, their individual status changes from "on" to "off" or vice-versa and the system of molecules in the network collectively go through a sequence of changes in state. This sequence of changes is termed a biological process. In this paper, we examine the common perception that events in biomolecular networks occur sequentially, in a cascade-like manner, and ask whether this is likely to be an inherent property. In further investigations of the budding and fission yeast cell-cycle, we identify two generic dynamical rules. A Boolean system that complies with these rules will automatically have a certain robustness. By considering the biological requirements in robustness and designability, we show that those Boolean dynamical systems, compared to an arbitrary dynamical system, statistically present the characteristics of cascadeness and sequentiality, as observed in the budding and fission yeast cell- cycle. These results suggest that cascade-like behavior might be an intrinsic property of biological processes.

  14. Basic Data Report -- Defense Waste Processing Facility Sludge Plant, Savannah River Plant 200-S Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amerine, D.B.

    1982-09-01

    This Basic Data Report for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF)--Sludge Plant was prepared to supplement the Technical Data Summary. Jointly, the two reports were intended to form the basis for the design and construction of the DWPF. To the extent that conflicting information may appear, the Basic Data Report takes precedence over the Technical Data Summary. It describes project objectives and design requirements. Pertinent data on the geology, hydrology, and climate of the site are included. Functions and requirements of the major structures are described to provide guidance in the design of the facilities. Revision 9 of the Basic Data Report was prepared to eliminate inconsistencies between the Technical Data Summary, Basic Data Report and Scopes of Work which were used to prepare the September, 1982 updated CAB. Concurrently, pertinent data (material balance, curie balance, etc.) have also been placed in the Basic Data Report. It is intended that these balances be used as a basis for the continuing design of the DWPF even though minor revisions may be made in these balances in future revisions to the Technical Data Summary.

  15. "Sickle cell anemia: tracking down a mutation": an interactive learning laboratory that communicates basic principles of genetics and cellular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Kevin; Williams, Mary; Horn, Spencer; Radford, David; Wyss, J Michael

    2016-03-01

    "Sickle cell anemia: tracking down a mutation" is a full-day, inquiry-based, biology experience for high school students enrolled in genetics or advanced biology courses. In the experience, students use restriction endonuclease digestion, cellulose acetate gel electrophoresis, and microscopy to discover which of three putative patients have the sickle cell genotype/phenotype using DNA and blood samples from wild-type and transgenic mice that carry a sickle cell mutation. The inquiry-based, problem-solving approach facilitates the students' understanding of the basic concepts of genetics and cellular and molecular biology and provides experience with contemporary tools of biotechnology. It also leads to students' appreciation of the causes and consequences of this genetic disease, which is relatively common in individuals of African descent, and increases their understanding of the first principles of genetics. This protocol provides optimal learning when led by well-trained facilitators (including the classroom teacher) and carried out in small groups (6:1 student-to-teacher ratio). This high-quality experience can be offered to a large number of students at a relatively low cost, and it is especially effective in collaboration with a local science museum and/or university. Over the past 15 yr, >12,000 students have completed this inquiry-based learning experience and demonstrated a consistent, substantial increase in their understanding of the disease and genetics in general. Copyright © 2016 The American Physiological Society.

  16. Association of impaired facial affect recognition with basic facial and visual processing deficits in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Daniel; McBain, Ryan; Holt, Daphne J; Ongur, Dost; Chen, Yue

    2009-06-15

    Impaired emotion recognition has been reported in schizophrenia, yet the nature of this impairment is not completely understood. Recognition of facial emotion depends on processing affective and nonaffective facial signals, as well as basic visual attributes. We examined whether and how poor facial emotion recognition in schizophrenia is related to basic visual processing and nonaffective face recognition. Schizophrenia patients (n = 32) and healthy control subjects (n = 29) performed emotion discrimination, identity discrimination, and visual contrast detection tasks, where the emotionality, distinctiveness of identity, or visual contrast was systematically manipulated. Subjects determined which of two presentations in a trial contained the target: the emotional face for emotion discrimination, a specific individual for identity discrimination, and a sinusoidal grating for contrast detection. Patients had significantly higher thresholds (worse performance) than control subjects for discriminating both fearful and happy faces. Furthermore, patients' poor performance in fear discrimination was predicted by performance in visual detection and face identity discrimination. Schizophrenia patients require greater emotional signal strength to discriminate fearful or happy face images from neutral ones. Deficient emotion recognition in schizophrenia does not appear to be determined solely by affective processing but is also linked to the processing of basic visual and facial information.

  17. DEMONSTRATION OF AN INTEGRATED, PASSIVE BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT PROCESS FOR AMD

    Science.gov (United States)

    An innovative, cost-effective, biological treatment process has been designed by MSE Technology Applications, Inc. to treat acid mine drainage (AMD). A pilot-scale demonstration is being conducted under the Mine Waste Technology Program using water flowing from an abandoned mine ...

  18. Straight lines of neutron scattering in biology: a review of basic controls in SANS and EINS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccai, Giuseppe

    2012-10-01

    Neutron and X-ray beams in scattering experiments have similar wavelengths and explore the same length scale (~1 Å or 0.1 nm). Data collection and analysis are also broadly similar for both radiation types. There are fundamental differences, however, between the interaction of X-rays and neutrons with matter, which makes them strongly complementary for structural studies in biology. The property of neutrons to distinguish natural abundance hydrogen from its deuterium isotope and the dispersion relation that leads to the energy of ~1 Å neutrons being of the order of thermal energy are well known. They form the basis, respectively, of contrast variation on the one hand and energy-resolved scattering experiments to study macromolecular dynamics-neutron-specific scattering methods on the other. Interestingly, analysis procedures for the structural and dynamics experiments display common aspects that can be expressed as straight-line relationships. These not only act as controls of good sample preparation, but also yield model-free parameters on an absolute scale that provide fundamental information on the structure and dynamics of the system under study.

  19. Introductory Biology Textbooks Under-Represent Scientific Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara B. Duncan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Attrition of undergraduates from Biology majors is a long-standing problem. Introductory courses that fail to engage students or spark their curiosity by emphasizing the open-ended and creative nature of biological investigation and discovery could contribute to student detachment from the field. Our hypothesis was that introductory biology books devote relatively few figures to illustration of the design and interpretation of experiments or field studies, thereby de-emphasizing the scientific process.To investigate this possibility, we examined figures in six Introductory Biology textbooks published in 2008. On average, multistep scientific investigations were presented in fewer than 5% of the hundreds of figures in each book. Devoting such a small percentage of figures to the processes by which discoveries are made discourages an emphasis on scientific thinking. We suggest that by increasing significantly the illustration of scientific investigations, textbooks could support undergraduates’ early interest in biology, stimulate the development of design and analytical skills, and inspire some students to participate in investigations of their own.

  20. A Friendly-Biological Reactor SIMulator (BioReSIM for studying biological processes in wastewater treatment processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Molina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Biological processes for wastewater treatments are inherently dynamic systems because of the large variations in the influent wastewater flow rate, concentration composition and the adaptive behavior of the involved microorganisms. Moreover, the sludge retention time (SRT is a critical factor to understand the bioreactor performances when changes in the influent or in the operation conditions take place. Since SRT are usually in the range of 10-30 days, the performance of biological reactors needs a long time to be monitored in a regular laboratory demonstration, limiting the knowledge that can be obtained in the experimental lab practice. In order to overcome this lack, mathematical models and computer simulations are useful tools to describe biochemical processes and predict the overall performance of bioreactors under different working operation conditions and variations of the inlet wastewater composition. The mathematical solution of the model could be difficult as numerous biochemical processes can be considered. Additionally, biological reactors description (mass balance, etc. needs models represented by partial or/and ordinary differential equations associated to algebraic expressions, that require complex computational codes to obtain the numerical solutions. Different kind of software for mathematical modeling can be used, from large degree of freedom simulators capable of free models definition (as AQUASIM, to closed predefined model structure programs (as BIOWIN. The first ones usually require long learning curves, whereas the second ones could be excessively rigid for specific wastewater treatment systems. As alternative, we present Biological Reactor SIMulator (BioReSIM, a MATLAB code for the simulation of sequencing batch reactors (SBR and rotating biological contactors (RBC as biological systems of suspended and attached biomass for wastewater treatment, respectively. This BioReSIM allows the evaluation of simple and complex

  1. Influence of chronic low intensively irradiation on the basic metabolic processes in leguminous plants (fabaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharova, N.V.

    2011-01-01

    Effect of the incorporated radionuclides on the basic metabolic processes in leguminous plants growth in inspected conditions was studied. There were findings of the accelerated course of a stage development in ontogenesis, increase of the photosynthetic activity of leaf and peroxidase activity along with a rise of the contents of photosynthetic pigments and lipid peroxidation products. The data are indicative of the distinct stimulation effect induced by the incorporated radionuclides. (authors)

  2. Basic numerical processing, calculation, and working memory in children with dyscalculia and/or ADHD symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Jörg-Tobias; Ise, Elena; Raddatz, Julia; Schwenk, Christin; Dobel, Christian

    2016-09-01

    Deficits in basic numerical skills, calculation, and working memory have been found in children with developmental dyscalculia (DD) as well as children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This paper investigates cognitive profiles of children with DD and/or ADHD symptoms (AS) in a double dissociation design to obtain a better understanding of the comorbidity of DD and ADHD. Children with DD-only (N = 33), AS-only (N = 16), comorbid DD+AS (N = 20), and typically developing controls (TD, N = 40) were assessed on measures of basic numerical processing, calculation, working memory, processing speed, and neurocognitive measures of attention. Children with DD (DD, DD+AS) showed deficits in all basic numerical skills, calculation, working memory, and sustained attention. Children with AS (AS, DD+AS) displayed more selective difficulties in dot enumeration, subtraction, verbal working memory, and processing speed. Also, they generally performed more poorly in neurocognitive measures of attention, especially alertness. Children with DD+AS mostly showed an additive combination of the deficits associated with DD-only and A_Sonly, except for subtraction tasks, in which they were less impaired than expected. DD and AS appear to be related to largely distinct patterns of cognitive deficits, which are present in combination in children with DD+AS.

  3. Discovery biology of neuropsychiatric syndromes (DBNS): a center for integrating clinical medicine and basic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanath, Biju; Rao, Naren P; Narayanaswamy, Janardhanan C; Sivakumar, Palanimuthu T; Kandasamy, Arun; Kesavan, Muralidharan; Mehta, Urvakhsh Meherwan; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; John, John P; Mukherjee, Odity; Purushottam, Meera; Kannan, Ramakrishnan; Mehta, Bhupesh; Kandavel, Thennarasu; Binukumar, B; Saini, Jitender; Jayarajan, Deepak; Shyamsundar, A; Moirangthem, Sydney; Vijay Kumar, K G; Thirthalli, Jagadisha; Chandra, Prabha S; Gangadhar, Bangalore N; Murthy, Pratima; Panicker, Mitradas M; Bhalla, Upinder S; Chattarji, Sumantra; Benegal, Vivek; Varghese, Mathew; Reddy, Janardhan Y C; Raghu, Padinjat; Rao, Mahendra; Jain, Sanjeev

    2018-04-18

    There is emerging evidence that there are shared genetic, environmental and developmental risk factors in psychiatry, that cut across traditional diagnostic boundaries. With this background, the Discovery biology of neuropsychiatric syndromes (DBNS) proposes to recruit patients from five different syndromes (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, Alzheimer's dementia and substance use disorders), identify those with multiple affected relatives, and invite these families to participate in this study. The families will be assessed: 1) To compare neuro-endophenotype measures between patients, first degree relatives (FDR) and healthy controls., 2) To identify cellular phenotypes which differentiate the groups., 3) To examine the longitudinal course of neuro-endophenotype measures., 4) To identify measures which correlate with outcome, and 5) To create a unified digital database and biorepository. The identification of the index participants will occur at well-established specialty clinics. The selected individuals will have a strong family history (with at least another affected FDR) of mental illness. We will also recruit healthy controls without family history of such illness. All recruited individuals (N = 4500) will undergo brief clinical assessments and a blood sample will be drawn for isolation of DNA and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). From among this set, a subset of 1500 individuals (300 families and 300 controls) will be assessed on several additional assessments [detailed clinical assessments, endophenotype measures (neuroimaging- structural and functional, neuropsychology, psychophysics-electroencephalography, functional near infrared spectroscopy, eye movement tracking)], with the intention of conducting repeated measurements every alternate year. PBMCs from this set will be used to generate lymphoblastoid cell lines, and a subset of these would be converted to induced pluripotent stem cell lines and also undergo

  4. Classical and spatial stochastic processes with applications to biology

    CERN Document Server

    Schinazi, Rinaldo B

    2014-01-01

    The revised and expanded edition of this textbook presents the concepts and applications of random processes with the same illuminating simplicity as its first edition, but with the notable addition of substantial modern material on biological modeling. While still treating many important problems in fields such as engineering and mathematical physics, the book also focuses on the highly relevant topics of cancerous mutations, influenza evolution, drug resistance, and immune response. The models used elegantly apply various classical stochastic models presented earlier in the text, and exercises are included throughout to reinforce essential concepts. The second edition of Classical and Spatial Stochastic Processes is suitable as a textbook for courses in stochastic processes at the advanced-undergraduate and graduate levels, or as a self-study resource for researchers and practitioners in mathematics, engineering, physics, and mathematical biology. Reviews of the first edition: An appetizing textbook for a f...

  5. Is nanotechnology the key to unravel and engineer biological processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Melba; Planell, Josep A

    2012-01-01

    Regenerative medicine is an emerging field aiming to the development of new reparative strategies to treat degenerative diseases, injury, and trauma through developmental pathways in order to rebuild the architecture of the original injured organ and take over its functionality. Most of the processes and interactions involved in the regenerative process take place at subcellular scale. Nanotechnology provides the tools and technology not only to detect, to measure, or to image the interactions between the different biomolecules and biological entities, but also to control and guide the regenerative process. The relevance of nanotechnology for the development of regenerative medicine as well as an overview of the different tools that contribute to unravel and engineer biological systems are presented in this chapter. In addition, general data about the social impact and global investment in nanotechnology are provided.

  6. Facial decoding in schizophrenia is underpinned by basic visual processing impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belge, Jan-Baptist; Maurage, Pierre; Mangelinckx, Camille; Leleux, Dominique; Delatte, Benoît; Constant, Eric

    2017-09-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with a strong deficit in the decoding of emotional facial expression (EFE). Nevertheless, it is still unclear whether this deficit is specific for emotions or due to a more general impairment for any type of facial processing. This study was designed to clarify this issue. Thirty patients suffering from schizophrenia and 30 matched healthy controls performed several tasks evaluating the recognition of both changeable (i.e. eyes orientation and emotions) and stable (i.e. gender, age) facial characteristics. Accuracy and reaction times were recorded. Schizophrenic patients presented a performance deficit (accuracy and reaction times) in the perception of both changeable and stable aspects of faces, without any specific deficit for emotional decoding. Our results demonstrate a generalized face recognition deficit in schizophrenic patients, probably caused by a perceptual deficit in basic visual processing. It seems that the deficit in the decoding of emotional facial expression (EFE) is not a specific deficit of emotion processing, but is at least partly related to a generalized perceptual deficit in lower-level perceptual processing, occurring before the stage of emotion processing, and underlying more complex cognitive dysfunctions. These findings should encourage future investigations to explore the neurophysiologic background of these generalized perceptual deficits, and stimulate a clinical approach focusing on more basic visual processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. iBiology: communicating the process of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Sarah S

    2014-08-01

    The Internet hosts an abundance of science video resources aimed at communicating scientific knowledge, including webinars, massive open online courses, and TED talks. Although these videos are efficient at disseminating information for diverse types of users, they often do not demonstrate the process of doing science, the excitement of scientific discovery, or how new scientific knowledge is developed. iBiology (www.ibiology.org), a project that creates open-access science videos about biology research and science-related topics, seeks to fill this need by producing videos by science leaders that make their ideas, stories, and experiences available to anyone with an Internet connection. © 2014 Goodwin. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  8. Applying the Nernst equation to simulate redox potential variations for biological nitrification and denitrification processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cheng-Nan; Cheng, Hong-Bang; Chao, Allen C

    2004-03-15

    In this paper, various forms of Nernst equations have been developed based on the real stoichiometric relationship of biological nitrification and denitrification reactions. Instead of using the Nernst equation based on a one-to-one stoichiometric relation for the oxidizing and the reducing species, the basic Nernst equation is modified into slightly different forms. Each is suitable for simulating the redox potential (ORP) variation of a specific biological nitrification or denitrification process. Using the data published in the literature, the validity of these developed Nernst equations has been verified by close fits of the measured ORP data with the calculated ORP curve. The simulation results also indicate that if the biological process is simulated using an incorrect form of Nernst equation, the calculated ORP curve will not fit the measured data. Using these Nernst equations, the ORP value that corresponds to a predetermined degree of completion for the biochemical reaction can be calculated. Thus, these Nernst equations will enable a more efficient on-line control of the biological process.

  9. Deficient cortical face-sensitive N170 responses and basic visual processing in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, S; Mashhoon, Y; Ekstrom, T; Lukas, S; Chen, Y

    2016-01-01

    Face detection, an ability to identify a visual stimulus as a face, is impaired in patients with schizophrenia. It is unclear whether impaired face processing in this psychiatric disorder results from face-specific domains or stems from more basic visual domains. In this study, we examined cortical face-sensitive N170 response in schizophrenia, taking into account deficient basic visual contrast processing. We equalized visual contrast signals among patients (n=20) and controls (n=20) and between face and tree images, based on their individual perceptual capacities (determined using psychophysical methods). We measured N170, a putative temporal marker of face processing, during face detection and tree detection. In controls, N170 amplitudes were significantly greater for faces than trees across all three visual contrast levels tested (perceptual threshold, two times perceptual threshold and 100%). In patients, however, N170 amplitudes did not differ between faces and trees, indicating diminished face selectivity (indexed by the differential responses to face vs. tree). These results indicate a lack of face-selectivity in temporal responses of brain machinery putatively responsible for face processing in schizophrenia. This neuroimaging finding suggests that face-specific processing is compromised in this psychiatric disorder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Computer-Based Support of Decision Making Processes during Biological Incidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Antos

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes contextual analysis of a general system that should provide a computerized support of decision making processes related to response operations in case of a biological incident. This analysis is focused on information systems and information resources perspective and their integration using appropriate tools and technology. In the contextual design the basic modules of BioDSS system are suggested and further elaborated. The modules deal with incident description, scenarios development and recommendation of appropriate countermeasures. Proposals for further research are also included.

  11. Targeting Specific HATs for Neurodegenerative Disease Treatment: Translating Basic Biology to Therapeutic Possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila K. Pirooznia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic epigenetic regulation of neurons is emerging as a fundamental mechanism by which neurons adapt their transcriptional responses to specific developmental and environmental cues. While defects within the neural epigenome have traditionally been studied in the context of early developmental and heritable cognitive disorders, recent studies point to aberrant histone acetylation status as a key mechanism underlying acquired inappropriate alterations of genome structure and function in post-mitotic neurons during the aging process. Indeed, it is becoming increasingly evident that chromatin acetylation status can be impaired during the lifetime of neurons through mechanisms related to loss of function of histone acetyltransferase (HATs activity. Several HATs have been shown to participate in vital neuronal functions such as regulation of neuronal plasticity and memory formation. As such, dysregulation of such HATs has been implicated in the pathogenesis associated with age-associated neurodegenerative diseases and cognitive decline. In order to counteract the loss of HAT function in neurodegenerative diseases, the current therapeutic strategies involve the use of small molecules called histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors that antagonize HDAC activity and thus enhance acetylation levels. Although this strategy has displayed promising therapeutic effects, currently used HDAC inhibitors lack target specificity, raising concerns about their applicability. With rapidly evolving literature on HATs and their respective functions in mediating neuronal survival and higher order brain function such as learning and memory, modulating the function of specific HATs holds new promises as a therapeutic tool in neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we focus on the recent progress in research regarding epigenetic histone acetylation mechanisms underlying neuronal activity and cognitive function. We discuss the current understanding of specific HDACs and

  12. Development of a didactic electrophoresis kit for the practical teaching of Molecular Biology in basic and higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Silva Xavier

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The advances in the biotechnology area imposes a new reality, creating products that are present in our daily lives, affecting directly or indirectly the population. Applications related to DNA technologies in the industry, agriculture and medicine have social, ethical and ecological implications, in addition to the human health consequences. So, it is necessary that the public is informed of progress in this area of knowledge. In order to create an alternative method to stimulate students in scientific careers and improve the learning of biotechnology and molecular biology, we developed a junior research project with high school students of the Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of the Espírito Santo (Brazil, which aimed the construction of a teaching kit of electrophoresis. Electrophoresis is a technique widely used in molecular biology laboratories, which is applied to separate molecules such as proteins and nucleic acids. In this technique, electrically charged molecules are exposed to an electric field and then they move towards the oppositely charged pole, being deposited in specific points of the matrix used. The kit built in this work consists of a source of 70 V, and accessories and reagents that are readily available and present low cost and low risk to the health of users. The use of the kit allowed for electrophoretic assays with nucleic acids and food dyes. The kit also contains a printed material that addresses issues about DNA technology and the device user’s guide with suggestions of experiences to simulate paternity test, virus identification and others. The application of the teaching kit in practical classes with students and teachers of basic education showed that the activity was effective in reducing the number of errors in answers contained in a questionnaire related to the electrophoresis. Moreover, biology teachers evaluated the printed material of the didactic kit and 75% of them classified the

  13. 100 years after Smoluchowski: stochastic processes in cell biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holcman, D; Schuss, Z

    2017-01-01

    100 years after Smoluchowski introduced his approach to stochastic processes, they are now at the basis of mathematical and physical modeling in cellular biology: they are used for example to analyse and to extract features from a large number (tens of thousands) of single molecular trajectories or to study the diffusive motion of molecules, proteins or receptors. Stochastic modeling is a new step in large data analysis that serves extracting cell biology concepts. We review here Smoluchowski’s approach to stochastic processes and provide several applications for coarse-graining diffusion, studying polymer models for understanding nuclear organization and finally, we discuss the stochastic jump dynamics of telomeres across cell division and stochastic gene regulation. (topical review)

  14. Influence of different natural physical fields on biological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashinsky, A. L.

    2001-01-01

    In space flight conditions gravity, magnetic, and electrical fields as well as ionizing radiation change both in size, and in direction. This causes disruptions in the conduct of some physical processes, chemical reactions, and metabolism in living organisms. In these conditions organisms of different phylogenetic level change their metabolic reactions undergo changes such as disturbances in ionic exchange both in lower and in higher plants, changes in cell morphology for example, gyrosity in Proteus ( Proteus vulgaris), spatial disorientation in coleoptiles of Wheat ( Triticum aestivum) and Pea ( Pisum sativum) seedlings, mutational changes in Crepis ( Crepis capillaris) and Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana) seedling. It has been found that even in the absence of gravity, gravireceptors determining spatial orientation in higher plants under terrestrial conditions are formed in the course of ontogenesis. Under weightlessness this system does not function and spatial orientation is determined by the light flux gradient or by the action of some other factors. Peculiarities of the formation of the gravireceptor apparatus in higher plants, amphibians, fish, and birds under space flight conditions have been observed. It has been found that the system in which responses were accompanied by phase transition have proven to be gravity-sensitive under microgravity conditions. Such reactions include also the process of photosynthesis which is the main energy production process in plants. In view of the established effects of microgravity and different natural physical fields on biological processes, it has been shown that these processes change due to the absence of initially rigid determination. The established biological effect of physical fields influence on biological processes in organisms is the starting point for elucidating the role of gravity and evolutionary development of various organisms on Earth.

  15. KINAESTHETIC LEARNING STYLE AND ITS USAGE IN LEARNING PROCESS IN BASIC SCHOOL

    OpenAIRE

    Jonāne, Lolita

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the research is to explore the possibilities and methodological solutions of using kinaesthetic teaching style in the teaching/learning process in basic school and its impact on pupil involvement in learning activities and attainment of goals. Qualitative  and quantitative methods  - experienced teacher’s survey and student-trainee survey  after observation and analysys of lessons at school are used during the study. It is concluded that: 1)the kinesthetic style of learning involve...

  16. MEG event-related desynchronization and synchronization deficits during basic somatosensory processing in individuals with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Frank

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is a prevalent, complex disorder which is characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Convergent evidence from neurobiological studies of ADHD identifies dysfunction in fronto-striatal-cerebellar circuitry as the source of behavioural deficits. Recent studies have shown that regions governing basic sensory processing, such as the somatosensory cortex, show abnormalities in those with ADHD suggesting that these processes may also be compromised. Methods We used event-related magnetoencephalography (MEG to examine patterns of cortical rhythms in the primary (SI and secondary (SII somatosensory cortices in response to median nerve stimulation, in 9 adults with ADHD and 10 healthy controls. Stimuli were brief (0.2 ms non-painful electrical pulses presented to the median nerve in two counterbalanced conditions: unpredictable and predictable stimulus presentation. We measured changes in strength, synchronicity, and frequency of cortical rhythms. Results Healthy comparison group showed strong event-related desynchrony and synchrony in SI and SII. By contrast, those with ADHD showed significantly weaker event-related desynchrony and event-related synchrony in the alpha (8–12 Hz and beta (15–30 Hz bands, respectively. This was most striking during random presentation of median nerve stimulation. Adults with ADHD showed significantly shorter duration of beta rebound in both SI and SII except for when the onset of the stimulus event could be predicted. In this case, the rhythmicity of SI (but not SII in the ADHD group did not differ from that of controls. Conclusion Our findings suggest that somatosensory processing is altered in individuals with ADHD. MEG constitutes a promising approach to profiling patterns of neural activity during the processing of sensory input (e.g., detection of a tactile stimulus, stimulus predictability and facilitating our

  17. Review on Physicochemical, Chemical, and Biological Processes for Pharmaceutical Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenchen; Yang, Ping

    2018-02-01

    Due to the needs of human life and health, pharmaceutical industry has made great progress in recent years, but it has also brought about severe environmental problems. The presence of pharmaceuticals in natural waters which might pose potential harm to the ecosystems and humans raised increasing concern worldwide. Pharmaceuticals cannot be effectively removed by conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) owing to the complex composition, high concentration of organic contaminants, high salinity and biological toxicity of pharmaceutical wastewater. Therefore, the development of efficient methods is needed to improve the removal effect of pharmaceuticals. This review provides an overview on three types of treatment technologies including physicochemical, chemical and biological processes and their advantages and disadvantages respectively. In addition, the future perspectives of pharmaceutical wastewater treatment are given.

  18. Radiation processing of biological tissues for nuclear disaster management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Rita

    2012-01-01

    A number of surgical procedures require tissue substitutes to repair or replace damaged or diseased tissues. Biological tissues from human donor like bone, skin, amniotic membrane and other soft tissues can be used for repair or reconstruction of the injured part of the body. Tissues from human donor can be processed and banked for orthopaedic, spinal, trauma and other surgical procedures. Allograft tissues provide an excellent alternative to autografts. The use of allograft tissue avoids the donor site morbidity and reduces the operating time, expense and trauma associated with the acquisition of autografts. Further, allografts have the added advantage of being available in large quantities. This has led to a global increase in allogeneic transplantation and development of tissue banking. However, the risk of infectious disease transmission via tissue allografts is a major concern. Therefore, tissue allografts should be sterilized to make them safe for clinical use. Radiation processing has well appreciated technological advantages and is the most suitable method for sterilization of biological tissues. Radiation processed biological tissues can be provided by the tissue banks for the management of injuries due to a nuclear disaster. A nuclear detonation will result in a large number of casualties due to the heat, blast and radiation effects of the weapon. Skin dressings or skin substitutes like allograft skin, xenograft skin and amniotic membrane can be used for the treatment of thermal burns and radiation induced skin injuries. Bone grafts can be employed for repairing fracture defects, filling in destroyed regions of bone, management of open fractures and joint injuries. Radiation processed tissues have the potential to repair or reconstruct damaged tissues and can be of great assistance in the treatment of injuries due to the nuclear weapon. (author)

  19. Sample handling in surface sensitive chemical and biological sensing: a practical review of basic fluidics and analyte transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgovan, Norbert; Patko, Daniel; Hos, Csaba; Kurunczi, Sándor; Szabó, Bálint; Ramsden, Jeremy J; Horvath, Robert

    2014-09-01

    This paper gives an overview of the advantages and associated caveats of the most common sample handling methods in surface-sensitive chemical and biological sensing. We summarize the basic theoretical and practical considerations one faces when designing and assembling the fluidic part of the sensor devices. The influence of analyte size, the use of closed and flow-through cuvettes, the importance of flow rate, tubing length and diameter, bubble traps, pressure-driven pumping, cuvette dead volumes, and sample injection systems are all discussed. Typical application areas of particular arrangements are also highlighted, such as the monitoring of cellular adhesion, biomolecule adsorption-desorption and ligand-receptor affinity binding. Our work is a practical review in the sense that for every sample handling arrangement considered we present our own experimental data and critically review our experience with the given arrangement. In the experimental part we focus on sample handling in optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy (OWLS) measurements, but the present study is equally applicable for other biosensing technologies in which an analyte in solution is captured at a surface and its presence is monitored. Explicit attention is given to features that are expected to play an increasingly decisive role in determining the reliability of (bio)chemical sensing measurements, such as analyte transport to the sensor surface; the distorting influence of dead volumes in the fluidic system; and the appropriate sample handling of cell suspensions (e.g. their quasi-simultaneous deposition). At the appropriate places, biological aspects closely related to fluidics (e.g. cellular mechanotransduction, competitive adsorption, blood flow in veins) are also discussed, particularly with regard to their models used in biosensing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Continuous downstream processing for high value biological products: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zydney, Andrew L

    2016-03-01

    There is growing interest in the possibility of developing truly continuous processes for the large-scale production of high value biological products. Continuous processing has the potential to provide significant reductions in cost and facility size while improving product quality and facilitating the design of flexible multi-product manufacturing facilities. This paper reviews the current state-of-the-art in separations technology suitable for continuous downstream bioprocessing, focusing on unit operations that would be most appropriate for the production of secreted proteins like monoclonal antibodies. This includes cell separation/recycle from the perfusion bioreactor, initial product recovery (capture), product purification (polishing), and formulation. Of particular importance are the available options, and alternatives, for continuous chromatographic separations. Although there are still significant challenges in developing integrated continuous bioprocesses, recent technological advances have provided process developers with a number of attractive options for development of truly continuous bioprocessing operations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Stochasticity in processes fundamentals and applications to chemistry and biology

    CERN Document Server

    Schuster, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This book has developed over the past fifteen years from a modern course on stochastic chemical kinetics for graduate students in physics, chemistry and biology. The first part presents a systematic collection of the mathematical background material needed to understand probability, statistics, and stochastic processes as a prerequisite for the increasingly challenging practical applications in chemistry and the life sciences examined in the second part. Recent advances in the development of new techniques and in the resolution of conventional experiments at nano-scales have been tremendous: today molecular spectroscopy can provide insights into processes down to scales at which current theories at the interface of physics, chemistry and the life sciences cannot be successful without a firm grasp of randomness and its sources. Routinely measured data is now sufficiently accurate to allow the direct recording of fluctuations. As a result, the sampling of data and the modeling of relevant processes are doomed t...

  2. Process for the biological purification of waste water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1992-01-01

    Process for the biological purification of waste water by the activated sludge method, the waste water being mixed with recirculated sludge and being subjected to an anaerobic treatment, before the waste water thus treated is alternately subjected to anoxic and aerobic treatments and the waste...... water thus treated is led into a clarification zone for settling sludge, which sludge is recirculated in order to be mixed with the crude waste water. As a result, a simultaneous reduction of the content both of nitrogen and phosphorus of the waste water is achieved....

  3. An Evaluation of the Employee Training and Development Process for Nicolet Area Technical College's Basic Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Luis C.

    The adult basic education (ABE) program at Nicolet Area Technical College (NATC) evaluated its training and development (T&D) process for new basic education instructors. The study gathered monitoring and screening criteria that addressed valuable components for use in an instrument for validating effectiveness of the ABE program (T&D)…

  4. Ultra-processed food consumption in children from a Basic Health Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrenberger, Karen; Friedrich, Roberta Roggia; Schiffner, Mariana Dihl; Schuch, Ilaine; Wagner, Mário Bernardes

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the contribution of ultra-processed food (UPF) on the dietary consumption of children treated at a Basic Health Unit and the associated factors. Cross-sectional study carried out with a convenience sample of 204 children, aged 2-10 years old, in Southern Brazil. Children's food intake was assessed using a 24-h recall questionnaire. Food items were classified as minimally processed, processed for culinary use, and ultra-processed. A semi-structured questionnaire was applied to collect socio-demographic and anthropometric variables. Overweight in children was classified using a Z score >2 for children younger than 5 and Z score >+1 for those aged between 5 and 10 years, using the body mass index for age. Overweight frequency was 34% (95% CI: 28-41%). Mean energy consumption was 1672.3 kcal/day, with 47% (95% CI: 45-49%) coming from ultra-processed food. In the multiple linear regression model, maternal education (r=0.23; p=0.001) and child age (r=0.40; pde Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. A finite element simulation of biological conversion processes in landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robeck, M; Ricken, T; Widmann, R

    2011-04-01

    Landfills are the most common way of waste disposal worldwide. Biological processes convert the organic material into an environmentally harmful landfill gas, which has an impact on the greenhouse effect. After the depositing of waste has been stopped, current conversion processes continue and emissions last for several decades and even up to 100years and longer. A good prediction of these processes is of high importance for landfill operators as well as for authorities, but suitable models for a realistic description of landfill processes are rather poor. In order to take the strong coupled conversion processes into account, a constitutive three-dimensional model based on the multiphase Theory of Porous Media (TPM) has been developed at the University of Duisburg-Essen. The theoretical formulations are implemented in the finite element code FEAP. With the presented calculation concept we are able to simulate the coupled processes that occur in an actual landfill. The model's theoretical background and the results of the simulations as well as the meantime successfully performed simulation of a real landfill body will be shown in the following. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A finite element simulation of biological conversion processes in landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robeck, M.; Ricken, T.; Widmann, R.

    2011-01-01

    Landfills are the most common way of waste disposal worldwide. Biological processes convert the organic material into an environmentally harmful landfill gas, which has an impact on the greenhouse effect. After the depositing of waste has been stopped, current conversion processes continue and emissions last for several decades and even up to 100 years and longer. A good prediction of these processes is of high importance for landfill operators as well as for authorities, but suitable models for a realistic description of landfill processes are rather poor. In order to take the strong coupled conversion processes into account, a constitutive three-dimensional model based on the multiphase Theory of Porous Media (TPM) has been developed at the University of Duisburg-Essen. The theoretical formulations are implemented in the finite element code FEAP. With the presented calculation concept we are able to simulate the coupled processes that occur in an actual landfill. The model's theoretical background and the results of the simulations as well as the meantime successfully performed simulation of a real landfill body will be shown in the following.

  7. Neural bases for basic processes in heuristic problem solving: Take solving Sudoku puzzles as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yulin; Xiang, Jie; Wang, Rifeng; Zhou, Haiyan; Li, Kuncheng; Zhong, Ning

    2012-12-01

    Newell and Simon postulated that the basic steps in human problem-solving involve iteratively applying operators to transform the state of the problem to eventually achieve a goal. To check the neural basis of this framework, the present study focused on the basic processes in human heuristic problem-solving that the participants identified the current problem state and then recalled and applied the corresponding heuristic rules to change the problem state. A new paradigm, solving simplified Sudoku puzzles, was developed for an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study in problem solving. Regions of interest (ROIs), including the left prefrontal cortex, the bilateral posterior parietal cortex, the anterior cingulated cortex, the bilateral caudate nuclei, the bilateral fusiform, as well as the bilateral frontal eye fields, were found to be involved in the task. To obtain convergent evidence, in addition to traditional statistical analysis, we used the multivariate voxel classification method to check the accuracy of the predictions for the condition of the task from the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response of the ROIs, using a new classifier developed in this study for fMRI data. To reveal the roles that the ROIs play in problem solving, we developed an ACT-R computational model of the information-processing processes in human problem solving, and tried to predict the BOLD response of the ROIs from the task. Advances in human problem-solving research after Newell and Simon are then briefly discussed. © 2012 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. The relationship between cognitive processing of affective verbal material and the basic personality structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlić Ana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between cognitive processing of affective verbal material and the basic personality structure. For the purposes of research a new experiment was created, where affective priming was measured in a lexical decision task. The term affective priming stands for facilitation in recognition of the stimuli that comes after the presentation of stimuli of the same valence. In this experiment, two words were presented on a screen in front of the subject (stimuli-prime and stimuli-target. Those two words were of the same or different affective valence, and the subject's were instructed to respond whether the second word on the screen had a meaning or not. The basic personality structure was defined by the 'Big five' model and the Disintegration model and measured by NEO PI-R and Delta 10 questionnaires. The results of the affective priming experiment indicated a strong effect of positive facilitation and much weaker effect off negative facilitation. Two significant functions were extracted by quasicanonical correlation analysis. The first function showed correlation between the effect of positive facilitation and all of the subscales of Neuroticism, Extraversion and Conscientiousness (NEO PI-R, as well as all sub dimensions of Disintegration (DELTA 10. The second one indicated to a correlation between the negative facilitation effect and some subscales of Neuroticism, Extraversion and Agreeableness (NEO PI-R, as well as all subscales of Disintegration (DELTA 10.

  9. Adoption: biological and social processes linked to adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotevant, Harold D; McDermott, Jennifer M

    2014-01-01

    Children join adoptive families through domestic adoption from the public child welfare system, infant adoption through private agencies, and international adoption. Each pathway presents distinctive developmental opportunities and challenges. Adopted children are at higher risk than the general population for problems with adaptation, especially externalizing, internalizing, and attention problems. This review moves beyond the field's emphasis on adoptee-nonadoptee differences to highlight biological and social processes that affect adaptation of adoptees across time. The experience of stress, whether prenatal, postnatal/preadoption, or during the adoption transition, can have significant impacts on the developing neuroendocrine system. These effects can contribute to problems with physical growth, brain development, and sleep, activating cascading effects on social, emotional, and cognitive development. Family processes involving contact between adoptive and birth family members, co-parenting in gay and lesbian adoptive families, and racial socialization in transracially adoptive families affect social development of adopted children into adulthood.

  10. Software of image processing system on the JINR basic computers and problems of its further development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V.G.

    1978-01-01

    To process picture information on the basis of BESM-6 and CDC-6500 computers, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research has developed a set of programs which enables the user to restore a spatial picture of measured events and calculate track parameters, as well as kinematically identify the events and to select most probable hypotheses for each event. A wide-scale use of programs which process picture data obtained via various track chambers requires quite a number of different options of each program. For this purpose, a special program, PATCHY editor, has been developed to update, edit and assemble large programs. Therefore, a partitioned structure of the programs has been chosen which considerably reduces programming time. Basic problems of picture processing software are discussed and the fact that availability of terminal equipment for BESM-6 and CDC-6500 computers will help to increase the processing speed and to implement interactive mode is pointed out. It is also planned to develop a training system to help the user learn how to use the programs of the system

  11. Quantum Processes and Dynamic Networks in Physical and Biological Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudziak, Martin Joseph

    Quantum theory since its earliest formulations in the Copenhagen Interpretation has been difficult to integrate with general relativity and with classical Newtonian physics. There has been traditionally a regard for quantum phenomena as being a limiting case for a natural order that is fundamentally classical except for microscopic extrema where quantum mechanics must be applied, more as a mathematical reconciliation rather than as a description and explanation. Macroscopic sciences including the study of biological neural networks, cellular energy transports and the broad field of non-linear and chaotic systems point to a quantum dimension extending across all scales of measurement and encompassing all of Nature as a fundamentally quantum universe. Theory and observation lead to a number of hypotheses all of which point to dynamic, evolving networks of fundamental or elementary processes as the underlying logico-physical structure (manifestation) in Nature and a strongly quantized dimension to macroscalar processes such as are found in biological, ecological and social systems. The fundamental thesis advanced and presented herein is that quantum phenomena may be the direct consequence of a universe built not from objects and substance but from interacting, interdependent processes collectively operating as sets and networks, giving rise to systems that on microcosmic or macroscopic scales function wholistically and organically, exhibiting non-locality and other non -classical phenomena. The argument is made that such effects as non-locality are not aberrations or departures from the norm but ordinary consequences of the process-network dynamics of Nature. Quantum processes are taken to be the fundamental action-events within Nature; rather than being the exception quantum theory is the rule. The argument is also presented that the study of quantum physics could benefit from the study of selective higher-scale complex systems, such as neural processes in the brain

  12. "What if We Were in a Test Tube?" Students' Gendered Meaning Making during a Biology Lesson about the Basic Facts of the Human Genitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlander, Auli Arvola

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores what happens in the encounters between presentations of "basic facts" about the human genitals and 15-year-old students during a biology lesson in a Swedish secondary school. In this paper, meaning making was approached as relational, context-dependent and continually transacted. For this reason the analysis was…

  13. THE BASIC PRINCIPLES OF THE INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT OF THE PROCESS OF ASSEMBLY AND THREADING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Skorkin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of this article is the issues related to the integrated management of assembling operations of fastening and threading elements at all stages of their implementation. The goal is to develop the generalized structure of the data management system of the process of assembly and threading. The objectives are: to justify the principles of managing the assembly and threading process at each stage of the assembly to improve the efficiency of these operations, to study the power, accuracy and performance characteristics of the connections and to draw the conclusion that suggested the theory of assembly management is efficient. The following results are obtained. The article presents the analytical dependencies of the force indexes of threading in the course of the package and sheet assembly, including the tightening force while joining; the assembly of a multilayered package of dissimilar sheet materials was analyzed. On the basis of the theoretical analysis, the dependences of the power indices of threading during the package and sheet assembly were determined. The assembly of the package of sheet materials was investigated, including a multilayered package of dissimilar materials of a “metal-plastic” type. Conclusions. The process of assembling threaded joints with the use of management principles was used; these principles enable increasing the efficiency of the assembly process, reducing the complexity of the basic operations, and improving the quality of the joints obtained. The use adaptive control of the screwing speed on the main threading transitions is suggested for reducing the torque.  The technology of making threaded joints with given properties is developed, the main ways of increasing the efficiency of assembly and threading processes are determined on the basis of the integrated control system for the assembly process.

  14. Coupling of snow and permafrost processes using the Basic Modeling Interface (BMI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K.; Overeem, I.; Jafarov, E. E.; Piper, M.; Stewart, S.; Clow, G. D.; Schaefer, K. M.

    2017-12-01

    We developed a permafrost modeling tool based by implementing the Kudryavtsev empirical permafrost active layer depth model (the so-called "Ku" component). The model is specifically set up to have a basic model interface (BMI), which enhances the potential coupling to other earth surface processes model components. This model is accessible through the Web Modeling Tool in Community Surface Dynamics Modeling System (CSDMS). The Kudryavtsev model has been applied for entire Alaska to model permafrost distribution at high spatial resolution and model predictions have been verified by Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM) in-situ observations. The Ku component uses monthly meteorological forcing, including air temperature, snow depth, and snow density, and predicts active layer thickness (ALT) and temperature on the top of permafrost (TTOP), which are important factors in snow-hydrological processes. BMI provides an easy approach to couple the models with each other. Here, we provide a case of coupling the Ku component to snow process components, including the Snow-Degree-Day (SDD) method and Snow-Energy-Balance (SEB) method, which are existing components in the hydrological model TOPOFLOW. The work flow is (1) get variables from meteorology component, set the values to snow process component, and advance the snow process component, (2) get variables from meteorology and snow component, provide these to the Ku component and advance, (3) get variables from snow process component, set the values to meteorology component, and advance the meteorology component. The next phase is to couple the permafrost component with fully BMI-compliant TOPOFLOW hydrological model, which could provide a useful tool to investigate the permafrost hydrological effect.

  15. Automated force volume image processing for biological samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Polyakov

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Atomic force microscopy (AFM has now become a powerful technique for investigating on a molecular level, surface forces, nanomechanical properties of deformable particles, biomolecular interactions, kinetics, and dynamic processes. This paper specifically focuses on the analysis of AFM force curves collected on biological systems, in particular, bacteria. The goal is to provide fully automated tools to achieve theoretical interpretation of force curves on the basis of adequate, available physical models. In this respect, we propose two algorithms, one for the processing of approach force curves and another for the quantitative analysis of retraction force curves. In the former, electrostatic interactions prior to contact between AFM probe and bacterium are accounted for and mechanical interactions operating after contact are described in terms of Hertz-Hooke formalism. Retraction force curves are analyzed on the basis of the Freely Jointed Chain model. For both algorithms, the quantitative reconstruction of force curves is based on the robust detection of critical points (jumps, changes of slope or changes of curvature which mark the transitions between the various relevant interactions taking place between the AFM tip and the studied sample during approach and retraction. Once the key regions of separation distance and indentation are detected, the physical parameters describing the relevant interactions operating in these regions are extracted making use of regression procedure for fitting experiments to theory. The flexibility, accuracy and strength of the algorithms are illustrated with the processing of two force-volume images, which collect a large set of approach and retraction curves measured on a single biological surface. For each force-volume image, several maps are generated, representing the spatial distribution of the searched physical parameters as estimated for each pixel of the force-volume image.

  16. Sleep Disrupts High-Level Speech Parsing Despite Significant Basic Auditory Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makov, Shiri; Sharon, Omer; Ding, Nai; Ben-Shachar, Michal; Nir, Yuval; Zion Golumbic, Elana

    2017-08-09

    parsing are also preserved. We used a novel approach for studying the depth of speech processing across wakefulness and sleep while tracking neuronal activity with EEG. We found that responses to the auditory sound stream remained intact; however, the sleeping brain did not show signs of hierarchical parsing of the continuous stream of syllables into words, phrases, and sentences. The results suggest that sleep imposes a functional barrier between basic sensory processing and high-level cognitive processing. This paradigm also holds promise for studying residual cognitive abilities in a wide array of unresponsive states. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/377772-10$15.00/0.

  17. Monitoring Biological Modes in a Bioreactor Process by Computer Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Semcheddine

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the general framework of fermentation system modeling and monitoring, focusing on the fermentation of Escherichia coli. Our main objective is to develop an algorithm for the online detection of acetate production during the culture of recombinant proteins. The analysis the fermentation process shows that it behaves like a hybrid dynamic system with commutation (since it can be represented by 5 nonlinear models. We present a strategy of fault detection based on residual generation for detecting the different actual biological modes. The residual generation is based on nonlinear analytical redundancy relations. The simulation results show that the several modes that are occulted during the bacteria cultivation can be detected by residuals using a nonlinear dynamic model and a reduced instrumentation.

  18. Implied Movement in Static Images Reveals Biological Timing Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Carlos Nather

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Visual perception is adapted toward a better understanding of our own movements than those of non-conspecifics. The present study determined whether time perception is affected by pictures of different species by considering the evolutionary scale. Static (“S” and implied movement (“M” images of a dog, cheetah, chimpanzee, and man were presented to undergraduate students. S and M images of the same species were presented in random order or one after the other (S-M or M-S for two groups of participants. Movement, Velocity, and Arousal semantic scales were used to characterize some properties of the images. Implied movement affected time perception, in which M images were overestimated. The results are discussed in terms of visual motion perception related to biological timing processing that could be established early in terms of the adaptation of humankind to the environment.

  19. Development of biology student worksheets to facilitate science process skills of student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahayu, Y. S.; Pratiwi, R.; Indana, S.

    2018-01-01

    This research aims to describe development of Biology student worksheets to facilitate science process skills of student, at the same time to facilitate thinking skills of students in senior high school are equipped with Assesment Sheets. The worksheets development refers to cycle which includes phase analysis (analysis), planning (planning), design (design), development (development), implementation (implementation), evaluation and revision (evaluation and revision). Phase evaluation and revision is an ongoing activity conducted in each phase of the development cycle. That is, after the evaluation of the results of these activities and make revisions at any phase, then continue to the next phase. Based on the test results for grade X, XI, and XII in St. Agnes Surabaya high school, obtained some important findings. The findings are as follows. (1) Developed biology student worksheets could be used to facilitate thinking ability of students in particular skills integrated process that includes components to formulate the problem, formulate hypotheses, determine the study variables, formulate an operational definition of variables, determine the steps in the research, planning data tables, organizing Data in the form of tables/charts, drawing conclusions, (2) Developed biology student worksheets could also facilitate the development of social interaction of students such as working together, listening/respect the opinions of others, assembling equipment and materials, discuss and share information and facilitate the upgrading of skills hands-on student activity. (3) Developed biology worksheets basically could be implemented with the guidance of the teacher step by step, especially for students who have never used a similar worksheet. Guidance at the beginning of this need, especially for worksheets that require special skills or understanding of specific concepts as a prerequisite, such as using a microscope, determine the heart rate, understand the mechanism of

  20. Microbial interactions with chromium: basic biological processes and applications in environmental biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Corona, J F; Romo-Rodríguez, P; Santos-Escobar, F; Espino-Saldaña, A E; Hernández-Escoto, H

    2016-12-01

    Chromium (Cr) is a highly toxic metal for microorganisms as well as plants and animal cells. Due to its widespread industrial use, Cr has become a serious pollutant in diverse environmental settings. The hexavalent form of the metal, Cr(VI), is considered a more toxic species than the relatively innocuous and less mobile Cr(III) form. The study of the interactions between microorganisms and Cr has been helpful to unravel the mechanisms allowing organisms to survive in the presence of high concentrations of Cr(VI) and to detoxify and remove the oxyanion. Various mechanisms of interactions with Cr have been identified in diverse species of bacteria and fungi, including biosorption, bioaccumulation, reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III), and chromate efflux. Some of these systems have been proposed as potential biotechnological tools for the bioremediation of Cr pollution using bioreactors or by in situ treatments. In this review, the interactions of microorganisms with Cr are summarised, emphasising the importance of new research avenues using advanced methodologies, including proteomic, transcriptomic, and metabolomic analyses, as well as the use of techniques based on X-ray absorption spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy.

  1. Stochastic model of template-directed elongation processes in biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilstra, Maria J; Nehaniv, Chrystopher L

    2010-10-01

    We present a novel modular, stochastic model for biological template-based linear chain elongation processes. In this model, elongation complexes (ECs; DNA polymerase, RNA polymerase, or ribosomes associated with nascent chains) that span a finite number of template units step along the template, one after another, with semaphore constructs preventing overtaking. The central elongation module is readily extended with modules that represent initiation and termination processes. The model was used to explore the effect of EC span on motor velocity and dispersion, and the effect of initiation activator and repressor binding kinetics on the overall elongation dynamics. The results demonstrate that (1) motors that move smoothly are able to travel at a greater velocity and closer together than motors that move more erratically, and (2) the rate at which completed chains are released is proportional to the occupancy or vacancy of activator or repressor binding sites only when initiation or activator/repressor dissociation is slow in comparison with elongation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Processing biological literature with customizable Web services supporting interoperable formats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rak, Rafal; Batista-Navarro, Riza Theresa; Carter, Jacob; Rowley, Andrew; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2014-01-01

    Web services have become a popular means of interconnecting solutions for processing a body of scientific literature. This has fuelled research on high-level data exchange formats suitable for a given domain and ensuring the interoperability of Web services. In this article, we focus on the biological domain and consider four interoperability formats, BioC, BioNLP, XMI and RDF, that represent domain-specific and generic representations and include well-established as well as emerging specifications. We use the formats in the context of customizable Web services created in our Web-based, text-mining workbench Argo that features an ever-growing library of elementary analytics and capabilities to build and deploy Web services straight from a convenient graphical user interface. We demonstrate a 2-fold customization of Web services: by building task-specific processing pipelines from a repository of available analytics, and by configuring services to accept and produce a combination of input and output data interchange formats. We provide qualitative evaluation of the formats as well as quantitative evaluation of automatic analytics. The latter was carried out as part of our participation in the fourth edition of the BioCreative challenge. Our analytics built into Web services for recognizing biochemical concepts in BioC collections achieved the highest combined scores out of 10 participating teams. Database URL: http://argo.nactem.ac.uk. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  3. Improving the reviewing process in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grossman, G. D.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available I discuss current issues in reviewing and editorial practices in ecology and evolutionary biology and suggest possible solutions for current problems. The reviewing crisis is unlikely to change unless steps are taken by journals to provide greater inclusiveness and incentives to reviewers. In addition, both journals and institutions should reduce their emphasis on publication numbers (least publishable units and impact factors and focus instead on article synthesis and quality which will require longer publications. Academic and research institutions should consider reviewing manuscripts and editorial positions an important part of a researcher’s professional activities and reward them accordingly. Rewarding reviewers either monetarily or via other incentives such as free journal subscriptions may encourage participation in the reviewing process for both profit and non–profit journals. Reviewer performance will likely be improved by measures that increase inclusiveness, such as sending reviews and decision letters to reviewers. Journals may be able to evaluate the efficacy of their reviewing process by comparing citations of rejected but subsequently published papers with those published within the journal at similar times. Finally, constructive reviews: 1 identify important shortcomings and suggest solutions when possible, 2 distinguish trivial from non–trivial problems, and 3 include editor’s evaluations of the reviews including identification of trivial versus substantive comments (i.e., those that must be addressed.

  4. The method validation step of biological dosimetry accreditation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, L.; Voisin, P.A.; Guillou, A.C.; Busset, A.; Gregoire, E.; Buard, V.; Delbos, M.; Voisin, Ph.

    2006-01-01

    One of the missions of the Laboratory of Biological Dosimetry (L.D.B.) of the Institute for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (I.R.S.N.) is to assess the radiological dose after an accidental overexposure suspicion to ionising radiation, by using radio-induced changes of some biological parameters. The 'gold standard' is the yield of dicentrics observed in patients lymphocytes, and this yield is converted in dose using dose effect relationships. This method is complementary to clinical and physical dosimetry, for medical team in charge of the patients. To obtain a formal recognition of its operational activity, the laboratory decided three years ago, to require an accreditation, by following the recommendations of both 17025 General Requirements for the Competence of Testing and Calibration Laboratories and 19238 Performance criteria for service laboratories performing biological dosimetry by cyto-genetics. Diagnostics, risks analysis were realized to control the whole analysis process leading to documents writing. Purchases, personnel department, vocational training were also included in the quality system. Audits were very helpful to improve the quality system. One specificity of this technique is that it is not normalized therefore apart from quality management aspects, several technical points needed some validations. An inventory of potentially influent factors was carried out. To estimate their real effect on the yield of dicentrics, a Placket-Burman experimental design was conducted. The effect of seven parameters was tested: the BUdr (bromodeoxyuridine), PHA (phytohemagglutinin) and colcemid concentration, the culture duration, the incubator temperature, the blood volume and the medium volume. The chosen values were calculated according to the uncertainties on the way they were measured i.e. pipettes, thermometers, test tubes. None of the factors has a significant impact on the yield of dicentrics. Therefore the uncertainty linked to their use was considered as

  5. The method validation step of biological dosimetry accreditation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, L.; Voisin, P.A.; Guillou, A.C.; Busset, A.; Gregoire, E.; Buard, V.; Delbos, M.; Voisin, Ph. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, LDB, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France)

    2006-07-01

    One of the missions of the Laboratory of Biological Dosimetry (L.D.B.) of the Institute for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (I.R.S.N.) is to assess the radiological dose after an accidental overexposure suspicion to ionising radiation, by using radio-induced changes of some biological parameters. The 'gold standard' is the yield of dicentrics observed in patients lymphocytes, and this yield is converted in dose using dose effect relationships. This method is complementary to clinical and physical dosimetry, for medical team in charge of the patients. To obtain a formal recognition of its operational activity, the laboratory decided three years ago, to require an accreditation, by following the recommendations of both 17025 General Requirements for the Competence of Testing and Calibration Laboratories and 19238 Performance criteria for service laboratories performing biological dosimetry by cyto-genetics. Diagnostics, risks analysis were realized to control the whole analysis process leading to documents writing. Purchases, personnel department, vocational training were also included in the quality system. Audits were very helpful to improve the quality system. One specificity of this technique is that it is not normalized therefore apart from quality management aspects, several technical points needed some validations. An inventory of potentially influent factors was carried out. To estimate their real effect on the yield of dicentrics, a Placket-Burman experimental design was conducted. The effect of seven parameters was tested: the BUdr (bromodeoxyuridine), PHA (phytohemagglutinin) and colcemid concentration, the culture duration, the incubator temperature, the blood volume and the medium volume. The chosen values were calculated according to the uncertainties on the way they were measured i.e. pipettes, thermometers, test tubes. None of the factors has a significant impact on the yield of dicentrics. Therefore the uncertainty linked to their use was

  6. Advances in downstream processing of biologics - Spectroscopy: An emerging process analytical technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüdt, Matthias; Briskot, Till; Hubbuch, Jürgen

    2017-03-24

    Process analytical technologies (PAT) for the manufacturing of biologics have drawn increased interest in the last decade. Besides being encouraged by the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) PAT initiative, PAT promises to improve process understanding, reduce overall production costs and help to implement continuous manufacturing. This article focuses on spectroscopic tools for PAT in downstream processing (DSP). Recent advances and future perspectives will be reviewed. In order to exploit the full potential of gathered data, chemometric tools are widely used for the evaluation of complex spectroscopic information. Thus, an introduction into the field will be given. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Rett syndrome: basic features of visual processing-a pilot study of eye-tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djukic, Aleksandra; Valicenti McDermott, Maria; Mavrommatis, Kathleen; Martins, Cristina L

    2012-07-01

    Consistently observed "strong eye gaze" has not been validated as a means of communication in girls with Rett syndrome, ubiquitously affected by apraxia, unable to reply either verbally or manually to questions during formal psychologic assessment. We examined nonverbal cognitive abilities and basic features of visual processing (visual discrimination attention/memory) by analyzing patterns of visual fixation in 44 girls with Rett syndrome, compared with typical control subjects. To determine features of visual fixation patterns, multiple pictures (with the location of the salient and presence/absence of novel stimuli as variables) were presented on the screen of a TS120 eye-tracker. Of the 44, 35 (80%) calibrated and exhibited meaningful patterns of visual fixation. They looked longer at salient stimuli (cartoon, 2.8 ± 2 seconds S.D., vs shape, 0.9 ± 1.2 seconds S.D.; P = 0.02), regardless of their position on the screen. They recognized novel stimuli, decreasing the fixation time on the central image when another image appeared on the periphery of the slide (2.7 ± 1 seconds S.D. vs 1.8 ± 1 seconds S.D., P = 0.002). Eye-tracking provides a feasible method for cognitive assessment and new insights into the "hidden" abilities of individuals with Rett syndrome. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Basic Information Processing Abilities at 11 years Account for Deficits in IQ Associated with Preterm Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Susan A; Feldman, Judith F; Jankowski, Jeffery J; Van Rossem, Ronan

    2011-07-01

    Although it is well established that preterms as a group do poorly relative to their full-term peers on tests of global cognitive functioning, the basis for this relative deficiency is less understood. The present paper examines preterm deficits in core cognitive abilities and determines their role in mediating preterm/full-term differences in IQ. The performance of 11-year-old children born preterm (birth weight <1750g) and their full-term controls were compared on a large battery of 15 tasks, covering four basic cognitive domains -- memory, attention, speed of processing and representational competence. The validity of these four domains was established using latent variables and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Preterms showed pervasive deficits within and across domains. Additionally, preterm deficits in IQ were completely mediated by these four cognitive domains in a structural equation model involving a cascade from elementary abilities (attention and speed), to more complex abilities (memory and representational competence), to IQ. The similarity of findings to those obtained with this cohort in infancy and toddlerhood suggest that preterm deficits persist - across time, across task, and from the non-verbal to the verbal period.

  9. Synchronizing the tracking eye movements with the motion of a visual target: Basic neural processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffart, Laurent; Bourrelly, Clara; Quinet, Julie

    2017-01-01

    In primates, the appearance of an object moving in the peripheral visual field elicits an interceptive saccade that brings the target image onto the foveae. This foveation is then maintained more or less efficiently by slow pursuit eye movements and subsequent catch-up saccades. Sometimes, the tracking is such that the gaze direction looks spatiotemporally locked onto the moving object. Such a spatial synchronism is quite spectacular when one considers that the target-related signals are transmitted to the motor neurons through multiple parallel channels connecting separate neural populations with different conduction speeds and delays. Because of the delays between the changes of retinal activity and the changes of extraocular muscle tension, the maintenance of the target image onto the fovea cannot be driven by the current retinal signals as they correspond to past positions of the target. Yet, the spatiotemporal coincidence observed during pursuit suggests that the oculomotor system is driven by a command estimating continuously the current location of the target, i.e., where it is here and now. This inference is also supported by experimental perturbation studies: when the trajectory of an interceptive saccade is experimentally perturbed, a correction saccade is produced in flight or after a short delay, and brings the gaze next to the location where unperturbed saccades would have landed at about the same time, in the absence of visual feedback. In this chapter, we explain how such correction can be supported by previous visual signals without assuming "predictive" signals encoding future target locations. We also describe the basic neural processes which gradually yield the synchronization of eye movements with the target motion. When the process fails, the gaze is driven by signals related to past locations of the target, not by estimates to its upcoming locations, and a catch-up is made to reinitiate the synchronization. © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  10. The AAA+ proteins Pontin and Reptin enter adult age: from understanding their basic biology to the identification of selective inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias, Pedro M; Baek, Sung Hee; Bandeiras, Tiago M; Dutta, Anindya; Houry, Walid A; Llorca, Oscar; Rosenbaum, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Pontin and Reptin are related partner proteins belonging to the AAA+ (ATPases Associated with various cellular Activities) family. They are implicated in multiple and seemingly unrelated processes encompassing the regulation of gene transcription, the remodeling of chromatin, DNA damage sensing and repair, and the assembly of protein and ribonucleoprotein complexes, among others. The 2nd International Workshop on Pontin and Reptin took place at the Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica António Xavier in Oeiras, Portugal on October 10-12, 2014, and reported significant new advances on the mechanisms of action of these two AAA+ ATPases. The major points under discussion were related to the mechanisms through which these proteins regulate gene transcription, their roles as co-chaperones, and their involvement in pathophysiology, especially in cancer and ciliary biology and disease. Finally, they may become anticancer drug targets since small chemical inhibitors were shown to produce anti-tumor effects in animal models.

  11. The AAA+ proteins Pontin and Reptin enter adult age: from understanding their basic biology to the identification of selective inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias, Pedro M.; Baek, Sung Hee; Bandeiras, Tiago M.; Dutta, Anindya; Houry, Walid A.; Llorca, Oscar; Rosenbaum, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Pontin and Reptin are related partner proteins belonging to the AAA+ (ATPases Associated with various cellular Activities) family. They are implicated in multiple and seemingly unrelated processes encompassing the regulation of gene transcription, the remodeling of chromatin, DNA damage sensing and repair, and the assembly of protein and ribonucleoprotein complexes, among others. The 2nd International Workshop on Pontin and Reptin took place at the Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica António Xavier in Oeiras, Portugal on October 10–12, 2014, and reported significant new advances on the mechanisms of action of these two AAA+ ATPases. The major points under discussion were related to the mechanisms through which these proteins regulate gene transcription, their roles as co-chaperones, and their involvement in pathophysiology, especially in cancer and ciliary biology and disease. Finally, they may become anticancer drug targets since small chemical inhibitors were shown to produce anti-tumor effects in animal models. PMID:25988184

  12. Carbonation processes of basalts and ultra-basic rocks in subsurface conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daval, D.

    2009-01-01

    For mitigating against rising levels of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in the atmosphere, several ways are envisaged to store it geologically. Among them, mineral trapping by carbonation of basic and ultra-basic rocks is thought to be the safest. However, little is known about the reaction kinetics and mechanisms of the process, which would ultimately make us able to foresee the fate of CO 2 over long time spans, and possibly enhance the efficiency of the mineral trapping. As a consequence, this thesis aimed at bringing new constrains on the weathering processes of (ultra)basic silicates, with (or without) high pCO 2 . Original experimental data of dissolution and carbonation processes were acquired on five silicates: wollastonite (CaSiO 3 ), forsterite (Mg 2 SiO 4 ), diopside (CaMgSi 2 O 6 ), lizardite (Mg 3 Si 2 O 5 (OH) 4 ) and fayalite (Fe 2 SiO 4 ). The main parameters which could affect the rates of carbonation were assessed: role and mechanism of formation of passivating layers, saturation state of the fluid, specific effect of CO 2 and behaviour of iron (II). Each mineral was thought to be relevant to bring new insights on each one of these questions. Wollastonite carbonation was first investigated in batch reactors. At 90 C and pCO 2 = 25 MPa, the reaction reaches completion within a couple of days. The measured carbonation rate is similar to the modelled one, indicating that the rate-limiting step of the process is wollastonite dissolution. Consequently, the thick amorphous silica coatings (≥ 100 μm) that form onto wollastonite surface do not prevent the fluid to reach the pristine mineral. This result is in agreement with the structure of the silica coating, determined to be meso-porous at the nm-scale. Besides, the chemical gradient of calcium across the silica layer suggests that it is formed by a dissolution-precipitation mechanism instead of a solid-state diffusion mechanism. On the other hand, the dissolution of forsteritic olivine is inhibited by the

  13. Crowdsourcing and curation: perspectives from biology and natural language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschman, Lynette; Fort, Karën; Boué, Stéphanie; Kyrpides, Nikos; Islamaj Doğan, Rezarta; Cohen, Kevin Bretonnel

    2016-01-01

    Crowdsourcing is increasingly utilized for performing tasks in both natural language processing and biocuration. Although there have been many applications of crowdsourcing in these fields, there have been fewer high-level discussions of the methodology and its applicability to biocuration. This paper explores crowdsourcing for biocuration through several case studies that highlight different ways of leveraging 'the crowd'; these raise issues about the kind(s) of expertise needed, the motivations of participants, and questions related to feasibility, cost and quality. The paper is an outgrowth of a panel session held at BioCreative V (Seville, September 9-11, 2015). The session consisted of four short talks, followed by a discussion. In their talks, the panelists explored the role of expertise and the potential to improve crowd performance by training; the challenge of decomposing tasks to make them amenable to crowdsourcing; and the capture of biological data and metadata through community editing.Database URL: http://www.mitre.org/publications/technical-papers/crowdsourcing-and-curation-perspectives. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  14. Optimization of electrocoagulation process to treat biologically pretreated bagasse effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirugnanasambandham K.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present study was to investigate the efficiency of electrocoagulation process as a post-treatment to treat biologically pretreated bagasse effluent using iron electrodes. The removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD and total suspended solids (TSS were studied under different operating conditions such as amount of dilution, initial pH, applied current and electrolyte dose by using response surface methodology (RSM coupled with four-factor three-level Box-Behnken experimental design (BBD. The experimental results were analyzed by Pareto analysis of variance (ANOVA and second order polynomial mathematical models were developed with high correlation of efficiency (R2 for COD, TSS removal and electrical energy consumption (EEC. The individual and combined effect of variables on responses was studied using three dimensional response surface plots. Under the optimum operating conditions, such as amount of dilution at 30 %, initial pH of 6.5, applied current of 8 mA cm-2 and electrolyte dose of 740 mg l-1 shows the higher removal efficiency of COD (98 % and TSS (93 % with EEC of 2.40 Wh, which were confirmed by validation experiments.

  15. Microbiology and atmospheric processes: chemical interactions of primary biological aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Deguillaume

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the influence of primary biological aerosols (PBA on atmospheric chemistry and vice versa through microbiological and chemical properties and processes. Several studies have shown that PBA represent a significant fraction of air particulate matter and hence affect the microstructure and water uptake of aerosol particles. Moreover, airborne micro-organisms, namely fungal spores and bacteria, can transform chemical constituents of the atmosphere by metabolic activity. Recent studies have emphasized the viability of bacteria and metabolic degradation of organic substances in cloud water. On the other hand, the viability and metabolic activity of airborne micro-organisms depend strongly on physical and chemical atmospheric parameters such as temperature, pressure, radiation, pH value and nutrient concentrations. In spite of recent advances, however, our knowledge of the microbiological and chemical interactions of PBA in the atmosphere is rather limited. Further targeted investigations combining laboratory experiments, field measurements, and modelling studies will be required to characterize the chemical feedbacks, microbiological activities at the air/snow/water interface supplied to the atmosphere.

  16. "Sickle Cell Anemia: Tracking down a Mutation": An Interactive Learning Laboratory That Communicates Basic Principles of Genetics and Cellular Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Kevin; Williams, Mary; Horn, Spencer; Radford, David; Wyss, J. Michael

    2016-01-01

    "Sickle cell anemia: tracking down a mutation" is a full-day, inquiry-based, biology experience for high school students enrolled in genetics or advanced biology courses. In the experience, students use restriction endonuclease digestion, cellulose acetate gel electrophoresis, and microscopy to discover which of three putative patients…

  17. CONCH: A Visual Basic program for interactive processing of ion-microprobe analytical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, David R.

    2006-11-01

    A Visual Basic program for flexible, interactive processing of ion-microprobe data acquired for quantitative trace element, 26Al- 26Mg, 53Mn- 53Cr, 60Fe- 60Ni and U-Th-Pb geochronology applications is described. Default but editable run-tables enable software identification of secondary ion species analyzed and for characterization of the standard used. Counts obtained for each species may be displayed in plots against analysis time and edited interactively. Count outliers can be automatically identified via a set of editable count-rejection criteria and displayed for assessment. Standard analyses are distinguished from Unknowns by matching of the analysis label with a string specified in the Set-up dialog, and processed separately. A generalized routine writes background-corrected count rates, ratios and uncertainties, plus weighted means and uncertainties for Standards and Unknowns, to a spreadsheet that may be saved as a text-delimited file. Specialized routines process trace-element concentration, 26Al- 26Mg, 53Mn- 53Cr, 60Fe- 60Ni, and Th-U disequilibrium analysis types, and U-Th-Pb isotopic data obtained for zircon, titanite, perovskite, monazite, xenotime and baddeleyite. Correction to measured Pb-isotopic, Pb/U and Pb/Th ratios for the presence of common Pb may be made using measured 204Pb counts, or the 207Pb or 208Pb counts following subtraction from these of the radiogenic component. Common-Pb corrections may be made automatically, using a (user-specified) common-Pb isotopic composition appropriate for that on the sample surface, or for that incorporated within the mineral at the time of its crystallization, depending on whether the 204Pb count rate determined for the Unknown is substantially higher than the average 204Pb count rate for all session standards. Pb/U inter-element fractionation corrections are determined using an interactive log e-log e plot of common-Pb corrected 206Pb/ 238U ratios against any nominated fractionation-sensitive species pair

  18. DESCRIPTION OF THE ORGANIZATIONAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESSES ON THE GROUND OF THE BASIC MODEL OF THE CYCLE OF REORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gazaryan Robert Kamoevich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this scientific research is application of the basic model of interaction between phases of a cycle of reorganization of organizational and technological processes underway at industrial enterprises. The authors describe interactions between all six phases of the process of reorganization within the framework of the basic model of a cycle that contemplates organizational and technological processes. Engineering studies are necessary to check for the feasibility of reorganization of industrial enterprises and application of results extracted from the design documentation with a view to reorganization of production activities and construction operations. Upon completion of the decision-making process concerning the need for reorganization in accordance with the basic model of interaction between phases, there occurs restructuring that incorporates processes of design and construction. The authors have demonstrated that reorganization of the basic model cycle should be used in the design of organizational and technological processes with a view to the integrated consideration of reorganization of enterprises in order to comprehend and improve the efficiency of reorganization at each stage, as well as the control over the reorganization of a construction facility.

  19. ANALYSIS OF BASIC PSYCHOTROPIC DRUGS IN BIOLOGICAL FLUIDS AND TISSUES BY REVERSED-PHASE HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruczynik, Anna; Waksmundzka-Hajnos, Monika

    2017-03-01

    The review of the RP HPLC analysis of basic psychotropic drugs is presented. It contains sample preparation methods with centrifugation, protein precipitation, liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME), solid-phase extraction (SPE), solid-phase microextraction (SPME), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and RP-HPLC analysis. Chromatographic behavior of basic drugs in aqueous media - eluents used in reversed phase systems is discussed. Methods of blocking of residue surface silanols' interaction are mentioned. Analytical methods used for the analysis are divided into parts according with the above methods: the use of low-pH eluents, the use of high-pH eluents, the use of silanol blockers, special stationary phases for basic analytes. Literature connected with the sample preparation methods and analytical systems for the drug analysis are cited in details and presented also in Table 1.

  20. A simple and rapid chromatographic method to determine unauthorized basic colorants (rhodamine B, auramine O, and pararosaniline) in processed foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatebe, Chiye; Zhong, Xining; Ohtsuki, Takashi; Kubota, Hiroki; Sato, Kyoko; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-09-01

    A simple and rapid high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method to determine basic colorants such as pararosaniline (PA), auramine O (AO), and rhodamine B (RB) in various processed foods was developed. Linearity of the calibration curves ranged from 0.05 to 50 μg/mL for PA and 0.05-100 μg/mL for AO and RB. The detection and quantification limits (LOD and LOQ) of the basic colorants, which were evaluated as signal-to-noise ratios of 3 for LOD and 10 for LOQ, ranged from 0.0125 to 0.05 and 0.025 to 0.125 μg/g, respectively. The recoveries and relative standard deviations of three basic colorants in six processed foods, namely, chili sauce, curry paste, gochujang (hot pepper paste), tandoori chicken (roasted chicken prepared with yogurt and spices), powder soup, and shrimp powder ranged from 70.2% to 102.8% and 0.8% to 8.0%, respectively. The intraday precision of the recovery test ranged from 1.7% to 4.5%, whereas the interday precision ranged from 3.7% to 7.7%. The reported method has been successfully applied to basic colorant determination in various processed foods such as fat-based food matrices (curry paste and tandoori chicken), chili products (gochujang and chili sauce), and protein-based products (shrimp powder and powder soup). Thin layer chromatography and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry methods for the determination of basic colorants in processed foods were also developed for rapid analysis and identification, respectively. These methods are very useful for monitoring unauthorized basic colorants in inspection centers or quarantine laboratories in many countries.

  1. The basic professional knowledge of teachers and suborganizational transformation processes of external pressure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Jens Hansen

    Danish research (Hansen 2009; Lund 2012) have shown, that the basic professional knowledge of the profession of teachers (theoretical and philosophical pedagogy and didactics ) is under press, when different kinds of extern pressure (Scott 2008, Institutions and Organizations) are to be implemented....../transformed into new practice. Reforms and normative expectations (fx evidence based teaching) etc. are constant and increasing demands from the society to the school. When these kinds of external demands are met and transformed with knowledge in the everyday life of schools, other aspects of knowledge than basic...... professional knowledge seem to take over. Furthermore this seems to happen in a paradoxical way, because it happens against an explicit wish in the profession of teachers. Research question: Which practices on a sub organizational level in schools can secure and support that the basic professional knowledge...

  2. A Trip Through the Virtual Ocean: Understanding Basic Oceanic Process Using Real Data and Collaborative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, D. W.

    2012-12-01

    How can we effectively teach undergraduates the fundamentals of physical, chemical and biological processes in the ocean? Understanding physical circulation and biogeochemical processes is essential, yet it can be difficult for an undergraduate to easily grasp important concepts such as using temperature and salinity as conservative tracers, nutrient distribution, ageing of water masses, and thermocline variability. Like many other topics, it is best learned not in a lecture setting, but working with real data: plotting values, making predictions, and making mistakes. Part I: Using temperature and salinity values from any location in the world ocean (World Ocean Atlas), combined with an excellent user interface (http://ferret.pmel.noaa.gov), students are asked to answer a series of specific questions related to ocean circulation. Using established temperature and salinity values to characterize different water masses, students are able to identify various water masses and gain insight to physical circulation processes. Questions related to ocean circulation include: How far south and at what depth does NADW extend into the S. Atlantic? Is deep water formed in the North Pacific? How and why does the depth of the thermocline vary with latitude in the Atlantic Ocean? How deep does the Mediterranean Water descend as it leaves the Straits of Gibraltar? How far into the Atlantic can you see the influence of the Amazon River? Is there any Antarctic Bottom Water in the North Pacific? Collaborating with another student typically leads to increased engagement. Especially in large lecture settings, where one teacher is not able to address student questions or concerns, working in pairs or in groups of three is best. Part II: Using the same web-based viewer and data set students are subsequently assigned one oceanic property (phosphate, nitrate, silicate, O2, or AOU) and asked to construct three different plots: 1) vertical depth profile at one location; 2) latitude vs. depth

  3. Basic Principles of Wastewater Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Von Sperling, Marcos

    2007-01-01

    "Basic Principles of Wastewater Treatment is the second volume in the series Biological Wastewater Treatment, and focusses on the unit operations and processes associated with biological wastewater treatment. The major topics covered are: microbiology and ecology of wastewater treatment reaction kinetics and reactor hydraulics conversion of organic and inorganic matter sedimentation aeration The theory presented in this volume forms the basis upon which the other books...

  4. Students' Ability to Solve Process-Diagram Problems in Secondary Biology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kragten, Marco; Admiraal, Wilfried; Rijlaarsdam, Gert

    2015-01-01

    Process diagrams are important tools in biology for explaining processes such as protein synthesis, compound cycles and the like. The aim of the present study was to measure the ability to solve process-diagram problems in biology and its relationship with prior knowledge, spatial ability and working memory. For this purpose, we developed a test…

  5. Simulating biological processes: stochastic physics from whole cells to colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnest, Tyler M.; Cole, John A.; Luthey-Schulten, Zaida

    2018-05-01

    The last few decades have revealed the living cell to be a crowded spatially heterogeneous space teeming with biomolecules whose concentrations and activities are governed by intrinsically random forces. It is from this randomness, however, that a vast array of precisely timed and intricately coordinated biological functions emerge that give rise to the complex forms and behaviors we see in the biosphere around us. This seemingly paradoxical nature of life has drawn the interest of an increasing number of physicists, and recent years have seen stochastic modeling grow into a major subdiscipline within biological physics. Here we review some of the major advances that have shaped our understanding of stochasticity in biology. We begin with some historical context, outlining a string of important experimental results that motivated the development of stochastic modeling. We then embark upon a fairly rigorous treatment of the simulation methods that are currently available for the treatment of stochastic biological models, with an eye toward comparing and contrasting their realms of applicability, and the care that must be taken when parameterizing them. Following that, we describe how stochasticity impacts several key biological functions, including transcription, translation, ribosome biogenesis, chromosome replication, and metabolism, before considering how the functions may be coupled into a comprehensive model of a ‘minimal cell’. Finally, we close with our expectation for the future of the field, focusing on how mesoscopic stochastic methods may be augmented with atomic-scale molecular modeling approaches in order to understand life across a range of length and time scales.

  6. Documentation control process of Brazilian multipurpose reactor: conceptual design and basic design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kibrit, Eduardo; Prates, Jose Eduardo; Longo, Guilherme Carneiro; Salvetti, Tereza Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Established in the scope of Plan of Action of the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (PACTI/MCTI) in 2007, the construction of the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) is on the way. This type of reactor has a broad spectrum of applications in the nuclear field and related technologies such as the radioisotopes used as supplies in the production of radiopharmaceuticals, with very much benefit to the Brazilian society being, therefore, the main goal of the Project. RMB Project consists of the following stages: site selection and site evaluation; design (conceptual design, basic design, detailed design and experimental design); construction (procurement, manufacturing; civil construction; electromechanical construction and assembling); commissioning; operation and decommissioning. Each stage requires adaptation of human resources for the stage schedule execution. The implementation of a project of this magnitude requires a complex project management, which covers not only technical, but also administrative areas. Licensing, financial resources, quality and document control systems, engineering are some of the areas involved in project success. The development of the conceptual and basic designs involved the participation of three main engineering companies. INTERTECHNE Consultores S.A. was in charge of conceptual and basic designs for conventional systems of buildings and infrastructure. INVAP S.E. was responsible for preparing the basic design of the reactor core and annexes. MRS Estudos Ambientais Ltda. has prepared documents for environmental licensing. This paper describes the procedures used during conceptual and basic design stages to control design documentation and flow of this documentation, involving the analysis and incorporation of comments from experts, control and storage of a volume of approximately 15,000 documents. (author)

  7. Documentation control process of Brazilian multipurpose reactor: conceptual design and basic design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kibrit, Eduardo; Prates, Jose Eduardo; Longo, Guilherme Carneiro; Salvetti, Tereza Cristina, E-mail: ekibrit@ipen.br, E-mail: jeprates@ipen.br, E-mail: glongo@ipen.br, E-mail: salvetti@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Established in the scope of Plan of Action of the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (PACTI/MCTI) in 2007, the construction of the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) is on the way. This type of reactor has a broad spectrum of applications in the nuclear field and related technologies such as the radioisotopes used as supplies in the production of radiopharmaceuticals, with very much benefit to the Brazilian society being, therefore, the main goal of the Project. RMB Project consists of the following stages: site selection and site evaluation; design (conceptual design, basic design, detailed design and experimental design); construction (procurement, manufacturing; civil construction; electromechanical construction and assembling); commissioning; operation and decommissioning. Each stage requires adaptation of human resources for the stage schedule execution. The implementation of a project of this magnitude requires a complex project management, which covers not only technical, but also administrative areas. Licensing, financial resources, quality and document control systems, engineering are some of the areas involved in project success. The development of the conceptual and basic designs involved the participation of three main engineering companies. INTERTECHNE Consultores S.A. was in charge of conceptual and basic designs for conventional systems of buildings and infrastructure. INVAP S.E. was responsible for preparing the basic design of the reactor core and annexes. MRS Estudos Ambientais Ltda. has prepared documents for environmental licensing. This paper describes the procedures used during conceptual and basic design stages to control design documentation and flow of this documentation, involving the analysis and incorporation of comments from experts, control and storage of a volume of approximately 15,000 documents. (author)

  8. Proceedings of the 42nd basic science seminar. (The 7th workshop on neutron crystallography in biology)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niimura, Nobuo

    1996-02-01

    42nd advanced science seminar (the 7th workshop on neutron crystallography in biology) was held on October, 25-26, 1995 at Tokai. Forty three participants from university, research institute and private company took part in the workshop and there were 17 lectures given. The proceedings collect the figures and tables which the speakers used in their lectures. (author)

  9. Proceedings of the 182nd basic science seminar (The workshop on neutron structural biology ) 'New frontiers of structural biology advanced by solution scattering'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Satoru

    2001-03-01

    182nd advanced science seminar (the workshop on neutron structural biology) was held in February 9-10, 2000 at Tokai. Thirty-six participants from universities, research institutes, and private companies took part in the workshop, and total of 24 lectures were given. This proceedings collects abstracts, the figures and tables, which the speakers used in their lectures. The proceedings contains two reviews from the point of view of x-ray and neutron scatterings, and six subjects (21 papers) including neutron and x-ray scattering in the era of structure genomics, structural changes detected with solution scattering, a new way in structural biology opened by neutron crystallography and neutron scattering, x-ray sources and detectors, simulation and solution scattering, and neutron sources and detectors. (Kazumata, Y.)

  10. Proceedings of the 182nd basic science seminar (The workshop on neutron structural biology ) 'New frontiers of structural biology advanced by solution scattering'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, Satoru (ed.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    182nd advanced science seminar (the workshop on neutron structural biology) was held in February 9-10, 2000 at Tokai. Thirty-six participants from universities, research institutes, and private companies took part in the workshop, and total of 24 lectures were given. This proceedings collects abstracts, the figures and tables, which the speakers used in their lectures. The proceedings contains two reviews from the point of view of x-ray and neutron scatterings, and six subjects (21 papers) including neutron and x-ray scattering in the era of structure genomics, structural changes detected with solution scattering, a new way in structural biology opened by neutron crystallography and neutron scattering, x-ray sources and detectors, simulation and solution scattering, and neutron sources and detectors. (Kazumata, Y.)

  11. Benralizumab: From the Basic Mechanism of Action to the Potential Use in the Biological Therapy of Severe Eosinophilic Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado Pelaia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a very frequent chronic airway disease that includes many different clinical phenotypes and inflammatory patterns. In particular, eosinophilic bronchial inflammation is often associated with allergic as well as nonallergic asthma. The most important cytokine involved in the induction, maintenance, and amplification of airway eosinophilia in asthma is interleukin-5 (IL-5, released by both T helper 2 (Th2 lymphocytes and group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2. Hence, IL-5 and its receptor are suitable targets for selective biologic drugs which can play a key role in add-on treatment of severe eosinophilic asthma refractory to corticosteroids. Within such a context, the anti-IL-5 monoclonal antibodies mepolizumab and reslizumab have been developed and approved for biological therapy of uncontrolled eosinophilic asthma. In this regard, on the basis of several successful randomized controlled trials, the anti-IL-5 receptor benralizumab has also recently obtained the approval from US Food and Drug Administration (FDA.

  12. Biological features produced by additive manufacturing processes using vat photopolymerization method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davoudinejad, Ali; Mendez Ribo, Macarena; Pedersen, David Bue

    2017-01-01

    of micro biological features by Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes. The study characterizes the additive manufacturing processes for polymeric micro part productions using the vat photopolymerization method. A specifically designed vat photopolymerization AM machine suitable for precision printing...

  13. Active Interaction Mapping as a tool to elucidate hierarchical functions of biological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farré, Jean-Claude; Kramer, Michael; Ideker, Trey; Subramani, Suresh

    2017-07-03

    Increasingly, various 'omics data are contributing significantly to our understanding of novel biological processes, but it has not been possible to iteratively elucidate hierarchical functions in complex phenomena. We describe a general systems biology approach called Active Interaction Mapping (AI-MAP), which elucidates the hierarchy of functions for any biological process. Existing and new 'omics data sets can be iteratively added to create and improve hierarchical models which enhance our understanding of particular biological processes. The best datatypes to further improve an AI-MAP model are predicted computationally. We applied this approach to our understanding of general and selective autophagy, which are conserved in most eukaryotes, setting the stage for the broader application to other cellular processes of interest. In the particular application to autophagy-related processes, we uncovered and validated new autophagy and autophagy-related processes, expanded known autophagy processes with new components, integrated known non-autophagic processes with autophagy and predict other unexplored connections.

  14. Using Simple Manipulatives to Improve Student Comprehension of a Complex Biological Process: Protein Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Karen; Bartlett, John

    2012-01-01

    Biological systems and living processes involve a complex interplay of biochemicals and macromolecular structures that can be challenging for undergraduate students to comprehend and, thus, misconceptions abound. Protein synthesis, or translation, is an example of a biological process for which students often hold many misconceptions. This article…

  15. Proceeding of the Scientific Meeting and Presentation on Basic Research of Nuclear Science and Technology: Book II. Nuclear Chemistry, Process Technology, and Radioactive Waste Processing and Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-06-01

    The proceeding contains papers presented on Scientific Meeting and Presentation on on Basic Research of Nuclear Science and Technology, held in Yogyakarta, 25-27 April 1995. This proceeding is second part of two books published for the meeting contains papers on nuclear chemistry, process technology, and radioactive waste management and environment. There are 62 papers indexed individually. (ID)

  16. Effects of multiple enzyme–substrate interactions in basic units of cellular signal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seaton, D D; Krishnan, J

    2012-01-01

    Covalent modification cycles are a ubiquitous feature of cellular signalling networks. In these systems, the interaction of an active enzyme with the unmodified form of its substrate is essential for signalling to occur. However, this interaction is not necessarily the only enzyme–substrate interaction possible. In this paper, we analyse the behaviour of a basic model of signalling in which additional, non-essential enzyme–substrate interactions are possible. These interactions include those between the inactive form of an enzyme and its substrate, and between the active form of an enzyme and its product. We find that these additional interactions can result in increased sensitivity and biphasic responses, respectively. The dynamics of the responses are also significantly altered by the presence of additional interactions. Finally, we evaluate the consequences of these interactions in two variations of our basic model, involving double modification of substrate and scaffold-mediated signalling, respectively. We conclude that the molecular details of protein–protein interactions are important in determining the signalling properties of enzymatic signalling pathways. (paper)

  17. Pulsed electrical discharges for medicine and biology techniques, processes, applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kolikov, Victor

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the application of pulsed electrical discharges in water and water dispersions of metal nanoparticles in medicine (surgery, dentistry, and oncology), biology, and ecology. The intensive electrical and shock waves represent a novel technique to destroy viruses and this way to  prepare anti-virus vaccines. The method of pulsed electrical discharges in water allows to decontaminate water from almost all known bacteria and spores of fungi being present in human beings. The nanoparticles used are not genotoxic and mutagenic. This book is useful for researchers and graduate students.

  18. Combining epidemiology with basic biology of sand flies, parasites, and hosts to inform leishmaniasis transmission dynamics and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtenay, Orin; Peters, Nathan C; Rogers, Matthew E; Bern, Caryn

    2017-10-01

    Quantitation of the nonlinear heterogeneities in Leishmania parasites, sand fly vectors, and mammalian host relationships provides insights to better understand leishmanial transmission epidemiology towards improving its control. The parasite manipulates the sand fly via production of promastigote secretory gel (PSG), leading to the "blocked sand fly" phenotype, persistent feeding attempts, and feeding on multiple hosts. PSG is injected into the mammalian host with the parasite and promotes the establishment of infection. Animal models demonstrate that sand flies with the highest parasite loads and percent metacyclic promastigotes transmit more parasites with greater frequency, resulting in higher load infections that are more likely to be both symptomatic and efficient reservoirs. The existence of mammalian and sand fly "super-spreaders" provides a biological basis for the spatial and temporal clustering of clinical leishmanial disease. Sand fly blood-feeding behavior will determine the efficacies of indoor residual spraying, topical insecticides, and bed nets. Interventions need to have sufficient coverage to include transmission hot spots, especially in the absence of field tools to assess infectiousness. Interventions that reduce sand fly densities in the absence of elimination could have negative consequences, for example, by interfering with partial immunity conferred by exposure to sand fly saliva. A deeper understanding of both sand fly and host biology and behavior is essential to ensuring effectiveness of vector interventions.

  19. Degradation alternatives for a commercial fungicide in water: biological, photo-Fenton, and coupled biological photo-Fenton processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Loveira, Elsa; Ariganello, Federico; Medina, María Sara; Centrón, Daniela; Candal, Roberto; Curutchet, Gustavo

    2017-11-01

    Imazalil (IMZ) is a widely used fungicide for the post-harvest treatment of citrus, classified as "likely to be carcinogenic in humans" for EPA, that can be only partially removed by conventional biological treatment. Consequently, specific or combined processes should be applied to prevent its release to the environment. Biological treatment with adapted microorganism consortium, photo-Fenton, and coupled biological photo-Fenton processes were tested as alternatives for the purification of water containing high concentration of the fungicide and the coadjutants present in the commercial formulation. IMZ-resistant consortium with the capacity to degrade IMZ in the presence of a C-rich co-substrate was isolated from sludge coming from a fruit packaging company wastewater treatment plant. This consortium was adapted to resist and degrade the organics present in photo-Fenton-oxidized IMZ water solution. Bacteria colonies from the consortia were isolated and identified. The effect of H 2 O 2 initial concentration and dosage on IMZ degradation rate, average oxidation state (AOS), organic acid concentration, oxidation, and mineralization percentage after photo-Fenton process was determined. The application of biological treatment to the oxidized solutions notably decreased the total organic carbon (TOC) in solution. The effect of the oxidation degree, limited by H 2 O 2 concentration and dosage, on the percentage of mineralization obtained after the biological treatment was determined and explained in terms of changes in AOS. The concentration of H 2 O 2 necessary to eliminate IMZ by photo-Fenton and to reduce TOC and chemical oxygen demand (COD) by biological treatment, in order to allow the release of the effluents to rivers with different flows, was estimated.

  20. Behaviour of radionuclides in biological and non-biological processes at very low concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinnaeve, J.; Frissel, M.J.; Klugt, N. van der; Geijn, S.C. van de.

    1980-01-01

    Four experiments using a 'biological exchange column', i.e. a cut papyrus stem were carried out. Prior to the passage of the labelled solution containing 250 μCi 137 Cs.l -1 , and 1 μCi 134 Cs.l -1 , the exchange sites of the stem were protonated. Two treatments were carried out, the first with 10 -4 M stable caesium in the labelled solution and the second with 10 -4 M potassium. After detection of the front of activity half way up the stem, 5 cm segments of the stem were cut and counted. (Auth.)

  1. THE BASIC LAWS AND FEATURES OF CYTOKINE DYNAMICS IN PROCESS AND EARLY TERMS AFTER CARDIOPULMONARY BYPASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Suskov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic variants of cytokines reactions defining type of organ dysfunctions are revealed in the course of car- diopulmonary bypass and in the early postoperative period. Their character and expression, depends on gravity preoperative an immunodeficiency and initial degree of heart insufficiency. Diphasic dynamics of development of system inflammatory reaction is confirmed after cardiopulmonary bypass: increase of levels proinflammatory cytokines is in the first phase and anti-inflammatory cytokines with development immunodepression and cellular anergy in is the second phase. Also, key role IL-1Ra is revealed in restraint of hyperactivation of system inflam- matory reaction. Blood whey levels IL-6, IL-8, G-CSF, TNF-α and IL-1Ra should be defined to cardiopulmonary bypass, in 10–12 hours, 24 hours and 3 days after cardiopulmonary bypass and may be used as prognostic criteria of development of postoperative complications. 

  2. Basic nuclear processes affected by histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylase inhibitors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Legartová, Soňa; Stixová, Lenka; Strnad, Hynek; Kozubek, Stanislav; Martinet, N.; Dekker, F.J.; Franěk, Michal; Bártová, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 4 (2013), s. 379-396 ISSN 1750-1911 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD11020; GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/10/1022; GA ČR(CZ) GBP302/12/G157; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-07822S; GA ČR(CZ) EE2.3.30.0030 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 ; RVO:68378050 Keywords : cDNA microarray * DNA repair * epi-drug Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics; EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology (UMG-J) Impact factor: 5.215, year: 2013

  3. Lignocellulose Biomass: Constitutive Polymers. Biological Processes of Lignin Degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, C.; Manzanares, P.

    1994-01-01

    The structure of the lignocellulosic materials and the chemical composition of their main constitutive polymers, cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin are described. The most promising transformation processes according to the type of biomass considered: hardwood, softwood an herbaceous and the perspectives of biotechnological processes for bio pulping, bio bleaching and effluents decolorisation in the paper pulp industry are also discussed. (Author) 7 refs

  4. Aerobic Digestion. Biological Treatment Process Control. Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopping, Paul H.

    This unit on aerobic sludge digestion covers the theory of the process, system components, factors that affect the process performance, standard operational concerns, indicators of steady-state operations, and operational problems. The instructor's guide includes: (1) an overview of the unit; (2) lesson plan; (3) lecture outline (keyed to a set of…

  5. The 5 Alpha-Reductase Isozyme Family: A Review of Basic Biology and Their Role in Human Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faris Azzouni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the discovery of 5 alpha-reduction as an enzymatic step in steroid metabolism in 1951, and the discovery that dihydrotestosterone is more potent than testosterone in 1968, the significance of 5 alpha-reduced steroids in human diseases was not appreciated until the discovery of 5 alpha-reductase type 2 deficiency in 1974. Affected males are born with ambiguous external genitalia, despite normal internal genitalia. The prostate is hypoplastic, nonpalpable on rectal examination and approximately 1/10th the size of age-matched normal glands. Benign prostate hyperplasia or prostate cancer does not develop in these patients. At puberty, the external genitalia virilize partially, however, secondary sexual hair remains sparse and male pattern baldness and acne develop rarely. Several compounds have been developed to inhibit the 5 alpha-reductase isozymes and they play an important role in the prevention and treatment of many common diseases. This review describes the basic biochemical properties, functions, tissue distribution, chromosomal location, and clinical significance of the 5 alpha-reductase isozyme family.

  6. The role of basic research in the development of new processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juentgen, H.; Heek, K.H. van; Klein, J.; Knoblauch, K.

    1981-01-01

    In many cases fundamental research is the starting point for the development of technical processes. This development will reach the aims successfully, if during the different phases - laboratory, semitechnical-plant, pilot plant, demonstration - results obtained from fundamental research can be used continuously. Also problems arising during the performance of the projects have to be solved by fundamental research. This interaction is discussed taking as examples the process development in the field of activated carbon application in energy- and environmental protection techniques and a modern coal gasification process development with nuclear process heat. (orig.) [de

  7. Two-way feedback between biology and deep Earth processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sleep, Norman; Bird, Dennis K.; Pope, Emily Catherine

    The presence of the metamorphic products of banded iron formation and black shale indicate that the Earth teemed with life by the time of the earliest preserved rocks, ca. 3.85 Ga. Iron and sulfur-based anoxygenic photosynthesis with full carbon cycles was present by this time. The pH of the ocean...... was ~8. The lack of older rock record cloaks pre-biotic evolution and the origin of life. Nascent and early life obtained energy from chemical disequilibria in rocks rather than sunlight. Appraising putative rock pre-biological environments is difficult in that life has modified the composition...... of the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, and sedimentary rocks. It has greatly affected the composition of crystalline crustal rocks and measurably modified the mantle. Conversely, hard crustal rocks and the mantle likely sequester a very ancient record of last resort. Theory provides additional insight. The Earth...

  8. System for monitoring an industrial or biological process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan W.; Vilim, Rick B.; White, Andrew M.

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for monitoring and responding to conditions of an industrial process. Industrial process signals, such as repetitive manufacturing, testing and operational machine signals, are generated by a system. Sensor signals characteristic of the process are generated over a time length and compared to reference signals over the time length. The industrial signals are adjusted over the time length relative to the reference signals, the phase shift of the industrial signals is optimized to the reference signals and the resulting signals output for analysis by systems such as SPRT.

  9. Systems Biology Graphical Notation: Process Description language Level 1 Version 1.3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodie, Stuart; Le Novère, Nicolas; Demir, Emek; Mi, Huaiyu; Villéger, Alice

    2015-09-04

    The Systems Biological Graphical Notation (SBGN) is an international community effort for standardized graphical representations of biological pathways and networks. The goal of SBGN is to provide unambiguous pathway and network maps for readers with different scientific backgrounds as well as to support efficient and accurate exchange of biological knowledge between different research communities, industry, and other players in systems biology. Three SBGN languages, Process Description (PD), Entity Relationship (ER) and Activity Flow (AF), allow for the representation of different aspects of biological and biochemical systems at different levels of detail. The SBGN Process Description language represents biological entities and processes between these entities within a network. SBGN PD focuses on the mechanistic description and temporal dependencies of biological interactions and transformations. The nodes (elements) are split into entity nodes describing, e.g., metabolites, proteins, genes and complexes, and process nodes describing, e.g., reactions and associations. The edges (connections) provide descriptions of relationships (or influences) between the nodes, such as consumption, production, stimulation and inhibition. Among all three languages of SBGN, PD is the closest to metabolic and regulatory pathways in biological literature and textbooks, but its well-defined semantics offer a superior precision in expressing biological knowledge.

  10. THE TRANSFORMATIONAL PROCESSES INVOLVING MOTOR SKILLS THAT OCCUR UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF BASIC PRELIMINARY TRAINING IN YOUNG HANDBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markovic Sasa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The population from which we extracted a sample of 76 subjects consisted of elementary school students in Kursumlija, all male, aged 12-13, who were divided into a sub-sample consisting of 38 young handball players who took part in the training sessions of a school of handball and another sub-sample consisting of 38 non-athletes, who only took part in their regular physical education classes. The aim of the research was to determine the transformation processes involving motor skills, which occur under the influence of basic preliminary training in young handball players. The subject matter of the study was to examine whether a statistically significant increase in the level of motor skills would occur under the influence of physical exercise as part of basic preliminary training in the final as compared to the initial state. Six motor tests which define the dimensions of explosive and repetitive strength were used. The results of the research indicate that significant transformational processes involving the motor skills of young handball players occurred in the final as compared to the initial measuring, under the influence of basic preliminary training.

  11. Effect of Process-Oriented Guided-Inquiry Learning on Non-majors Biology Students' Understanding of Biological Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, Breann M.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of process-oriented guided-inquiry learning (POGIL) on non-majors college biology students' understanding of biological classification. This study addressed an area of science instruction, POGIL in the non-majors college biology laboratory, which has yet to be qualitatively and quantitatively researched. A concurrent triangulation mixed methods approach was used. Students' understanding of biological classification was measured in two areas: scores on pre and posttests (consisting of 11 multiple choice questions), and conceptions of classification as elicited in pre and post interviews and instructor reflections. Participants were Minnesota State University, Mankato students enrolled in BIOL 100 Summer Session. One section was taught with the traditional curriculum (n = 6) and the other section in the POGIL curriculum (n = 10) developed by the researcher. Three students from each section were selected to take part in pre and post interviews. There were no significant differences within each teaching method (p familiar animal categories and aquatic habitats, unfamiliar organisms, combining and subdividing initial groupings, and the hierarchical nature of classification. The POGIL students were the only group to surpass these challenges after the teaching intervention. This study shows that POGIL is an effective technique at eliciting students' misconceptions, and addressing these misconceptions, leading to an increase in student understanding of biological classification.

  12. In situ single molecule imaging of cell membranes: linking basic nanotechniques to cell biology, immunology and medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Jiang; Jin, Hua; Yang, Fen; Chen, Zheng W.; Cai, Jiye

    2014-10-01

    The cell membrane, which consists of a viscous phospholipid bilayer, different kinds of proteins and various nano/micrometer-sized domains, plays a very important role in ensuring the stability of the intracellular environment and the order of cellular signal transductions. Exploring the precise cell membrane structure and detailed functions of the biomolecules in a cell membrane would be helpful to understand the underlying mechanisms involved in cell membrane signal transductions, which could further benefit research into cell biology, immunology and medicine. The detection of membrane biomolecules at the single molecule level can provide some subtle information about the molecular structure and the functions of the cell membrane. In particular, information obtained about the molecular mechanisms and other information at the single molecule level are significantly different from that detected from a large amount of biomolecules at the large-scale through traditional techniques, and can thus provide a novel perspective for the study of cell membrane structures and functions. However, the precise investigations of membrane biomolecules prompts researchers to explore cell membranes at the single molecule level by the use of in situ imaging methods, as the exact conformation and functions of biomolecules are highly controlled by the native cellular environment. Recently, the in situ single molecule imaging of cell membranes has attracted increasing attention from cell biologists and immunologists. The size of biomolecules and their clusters on the cell surface are set at the nanoscale, which makes it mandatory to use high- and super-resolution imaging techniques to realize the in situ single molecule imaging of cell membranes. In the past few decades, some amazing imaging techniques and instruments with super resolution have been widely developed for molecule imaging, which can also be further employed for the in situ single molecule imaging of cell membranes. In

  13. The Creation of a French Basic Nuclear Installation - Description of the Regulatory Process - 13293

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahe, Carole [CEA Marcoule - BP17171 - 30207 Bagnols-Sur-Ceze (France); Leroy, Christine [CEA Cadarache - 13108 Saint Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    2013-07-01

    CEA is a French government-funded technological research organization. It has to build a medium-level waste interim storage facility because the geological repository will not be available until 2025. This interim storage facility, called DIADEM, has to be available in 2017. These wastes are coming from the research facilities for spent fuel reprocessing and the dismantling of the most radioactive parts of nuclear facilities. The CEA handles the waste management by inventorying the needs and updating them regularly. The conception of the facility is mainly based on this inventory. It provides quantity and characteristics of wastes and it gives the production schedule until 2035. Beyond mass and volume, main characteristics of these radioactive wastes are chemical nature, radioisotopes, radioactivity, radiation dose, the heat emitted, corrosive or explosive gas production, etc. These characteristics provide information to study the repository safety. DIADEM mainly consists of a concrete cell, isolated from the outside, wherein stainless steel welded containers are stored, stacked in a vertical position in the racks. DIADEM is scheduled to store three types of 8 mm-thick, stainless steel cylindrical containers with an outside diameter 498 mm and height from 620 to 2120 mm. DIADEM will be a basic nuclear installation (INB in French) because of overall activity of radioactive substances stored. The creation of a French basic nuclear installation is subject to authorization according to the French law No. 2006-686 of 13 June 2006 on Transparency and Security in the Nuclear Field. The authorization takes into account the technical and financial capacities of the licensee which must allow him to conduct his project in compliance with these interests, especially to cover the costs of decommissioning the installation and conduct remediation work, and to monitor and maintain its location site or, for radioactive waste disposal installations, to cover the definitive shut

  14. The Creation of a French Basic Nuclear Installation - Description of the Regulatory Process - 13293

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahe, Carole; Leroy, Christine

    2013-01-01

    CEA is a French government-funded technological research organization. It has to build a medium-level waste interim storage facility because the geological repository will not be available until 2025. This interim storage facility, called DIADEM, has to be available in 2017. These wastes are coming from the research facilities for spent fuel reprocessing and the dismantling of the most radioactive parts of nuclear facilities. The CEA handles the waste management by inventorying the needs and updating them regularly. The conception of the facility is mainly based on this inventory. It provides quantity and characteristics of wastes and it gives the production schedule until 2035. Beyond mass and volume, main characteristics of these radioactive wastes are chemical nature, radioisotopes, radioactivity, radiation dose, the heat emitted, corrosive or explosive gas production, etc. These characteristics provide information to study the repository safety. DIADEM mainly consists of a concrete cell, isolated from the outside, wherein stainless steel welded containers are stored, stacked in a vertical position in the racks. DIADEM is scheduled to store three types of 8 mm-thick, stainless steel cylindrical containers with an outside diameter 498 mm and height from 620 to 2120 mm. DIADEM will be a basic nuclear installation (INB in French) because of overall activity of radioactive substances stored. The creation of a French basic nuclear installation is subject to authorization according to the French law No. 2006-686 of 13 June 2006 on Transparency and Security in the Nuclear Field. The authorization takes into account the technical and financial capacities of the licensee which must allow him to conduct his project in compliance with these interests, especially to cover the costs of decommissioning the installation and conduct remediation work, and to monitor and maintain its location site or, for radioactive waste disposal installations, to cover the definitive shut

  15. Towards a New Approach of the Economic Intelligence Process: Basic Concepts, Analysis Methods and Informational Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Briciu

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the obvious trends in current business environment is the increased competition. In this context, organizations are becoming more and more aware of the importance of knowledge as a key factor in obtaining competitive advantage. A possible solution in knowledge management is Economic Intelligence (EI that involves the collection, evaluation, processing, analysis, and dissemination of economic data (about products, clients, competitors, etc. inside organizations. The availability of massive quantities of data correlated with advances in information and communication technology allowing for the filtering and processing of these data provide new tools for the production of economic intelligence.The research is focused on innovative aspects of economic intelligence process (models of analysis, activities, methods and informational tools and is providing practical guidelines for initiating this process. In this paper, we try: (a to contribute to a coherent view on economic intelligence process (approaches, stages, fields of application; b to describe the most important models of analysis related to this process; c to analyze the activities, methods and tools associated with each stage of an EI process.

  16. Basic processes and mechanisms of the water-rock system evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Shvartsev, Stepan Lvovich

    2007-01-01

    A new conception of progressive evolution and self-organizing presence in dead matter is developed; inner mechanisms and processes, realizing this development, are revealed. It is proven that the water-rock system satisfy these requirements

  17. Mistaking geography for biology: inferring processes from species distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Dan L; Cardillo, Marcel; Rosauer, Dan F; Bolnick, Daniel I

    2014-10-01

    Over the past few decades, there has been a rapid proliferation of statistical methods that infer evolutionary and ecological processes from data on species distributions. These methods have led to considerable new insights, but they often fail to account for the effects of historical biogeography on present-day species distributions. Because the geography of speciation can lead to patterns of spatial and temporal autocorrelation in the distributions of species within a clade, this can result in misleading inferences about the importance of deterministic processes in generating spatial patterns of biodiversity. In this opinion article, we discuss ways in which patterns of species distributions driven by historical biogeography are often interpreted as evidence of particular evolutionary or ecological processes. We focus on three areas that are especially prone to such misinterpretations: community phylogenetics, environmental niche modelling, and analyses of beta diversity (compositional turnover of biodiversity). Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Computer-based and screencasts approach in the signal processing basics electrical engineering course : does blended-learning work to motivate students?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomez Puente, S.M.; Sommen, P.C.W.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the first experience of the computer-based and screencast approach used in the Signal Processing Basics course to motivate first year electrical engineering students to assess own knowledge and skills. Signal Processing Basics is a freshman course with up to 240 students. With

  19. The transition from pediatric to adult care for youth with epilepsy: Basic biological, sociological, and psychological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camfield, Peter; Camfield, Carol; Busiah, Kanetee; Cohen, David; Pack, Alison; Nabbout, Rima

    2017-04-01

    Transition from pediatric to adult health care for adolescents with epilepsy is challenging for the patient, family, and health care workers. This paper is the first of three that summarize the main findings from the 2nd Symposium on Transition in Epilepsies, held in Paris from June 14-25, 2016. In this paper we describe five basic themes that have an important effect on transition. First, there are important brain changes in adolescence that leave an imbalance between risk taking and pleasure seeking behaviors and frontal executive function compared with adults. Second, puberty is a major change during the transition age. The three most important but separate neuroendocrine axes involved in puberty are gonadarche (activation of the gonads), adrenarche (activation of adrenal androgen production), and activation of the growth hormone-insulin like growth factor. Third, sexual debut occurs during the transition years, and at an earlier age in adolescents with epilepsy than controls. Adult sexual performance is often unsatisfactory. Although AED-induced alterations in sexual hormones and temporal lobe epilepsy may play a role in hyposexuality, depression, anxiety, and other social factors appear most important. Fourth, psychological development is very important with an evolution from an early stage (ages 10-13years) with concrete thinking, to a middle stage (ages 14-17) with analytic and more abstract introspective thinking, and then to a late stage (ages 18-21) with at least the beginnings of adult reasoning. Epilepsy may derail this relatively orderly progression. Adolescents with autistic spectrum disorder may present with severe behavior problems that are sometimes related to undiagnosed epilepsy. Fifth, bone health in adolescence is critical to establish adequate mineralization for all of adult life. While AED interference with Vitamin D metabolism is important, there is evidence that the effects of AEDs on bone are more complex and involve changes in remodeling

  20. Biological processes for the production of aryl sulfates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention generally relates to the field of biotechnology as it applies to the production of aryl sulfates using polypeptides or recombinant cells comprising said polypeptides. More particularly, the present invention pertains to polypeptides having aryl sulfotransferase activity......, recombinant host cells expressing same and processes for the production of aryl sulfates employing these polypeptides or recombinant host cells....

  1. Anaerobic Digestion. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnegie, John W., Ed.

    This student manual contains the textual material for a four-lesson unit on anaerobic digestion control. Areas addressed include: (1) anaerobic sludge digestion (considering the nature of raw sludge, purposes of anaerobic digestion, the results of digestion, types of equipment, and other topics); (2) digester process control (considering feeding…

  2. Assessment of the Biological Treatability of Black Tea Processing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anaerobic degradability of tea beverage processing effluent was assessed using a stationary upflow anaerobic filter. The filter, with an active column of 1.2m height, inner diameter of 100 mm and filled with rock as the attachment medium was operated at room temperature ranging between 20-250C throughout the ...

  3. Basic research on separation control of long life nuclides in fuel reprocessing processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Atsuyuki; Usami, Go [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Maeda, Mitsuru; Fujine, Sachio; Uchiyama, Gunzo; Kihara, Takehiro; Asakura, Toshihide; Hotoku, Shinobu

    1996-01-01

    The behavior of technetium (Tc) in nuclear fuel reprocessing processes has become the subject to be elucidated in the transition to distribution process by coextraction and the catalytic action in distribution process. In order to forecast or control the behavior of Tc in reprocessing processes, it is necessary to understand that at which valence Tc exists stably in respective processes. Tc is stable at 7 valence in nitric acid solution expected in reprocessing. In this research, the reaction speed of the oxidation and reduction reactions of rhenium (Re) which simulates Tc was measured by laser Raman spectroscopy which can do high speed analysis of valence. The experimental method is explained. The Raman spectra of Re in the experimental system of this research were measured in perchloric acid solution and nitric acid solution, and compared with the values in literatures. As the result, the validity of this research was assured. It was confirmed that Re(7) was not reduced by sulfamic acid and ascorbic acid. Re(7) was reduced by thiocyanic acid once, but was oxidized again by the reaction of thiocyanic acid and nitric acid. (K.I.)

  4. A study on the basic CVD process technology for TRISO coated particle fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, D. J.; Cheon, J. H.; Keum, I. S.; Lee, H. S.; Kim, J. G.

    2006-03-01

    Hydrogen energy has many advantages and is suitable as alternative energy of fossil fuel. The study of nuclear hydrogen production has performed at present. For nuclear hydrogen production, it is needed the study of VHTR(Very High Temperature Reactor) and TRISO(TRI-iSOtropic) coated fuel. TRISO coated fuel particle deposited by FBCVD(Fludized Bed CVD) method is composed of three isotropic layers: Inner Pyrolytic Carbon (IPyC), Silicon Carbide (SiC), Outer Pyrolytic Carbon (OPyC) layers. Silicon carbide was chemically vapor deposed on graphite substrate using methyltrichlorosilane (CH 3 SiCl 3 ) as a source in hydrogen atmosphere. The effect of deposition temperature and input gas ratios ( α=Q H2 /Q MTS =P H2 /P MTS ) was investigated in order to find out characteristics of silicon carbide layer. From results of those, SiC-TRISO coating deposition was conducted and achieved. Zirconium carbide layer as an advanced material of silicon carbide layer has studied. In order to find out basic properties and characteristics, studies have conducted using various methods. Zirconium carbide is chemically vapor deposed subliming zirconium tetrachloride(ZrCl 4 ) and using methan(CH 4 ) as a source in hydrogen atmosphere. Many experiments were conducted on graphite substrate about many deposition conditions such as ZrCl 4 heating temperatures and variables of H2 and CH 4 flow rate. but carbon graphite was deposited. For deposition of zirconium carbide, several different methods were approached. so zirconium carbide deposed on ZrO 2 substrate. In this experiments. source subliming type and equipment are no problems. But deposition of zirconium carbide will be continuously studied on graphite substrate approaching views of experimental way and equipment structure

  5. Applications of Structural Biology and Bioinformatics in the Investigation of Oxidative Stress-Related Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bersch, Beate; Groves, Matthew; Johann, Klare; Torda, Andrew; Ortiz, Dario; Laher, I.

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated dysfunction of certain biological processes is implicated in different diseases in humans, including cardiovascular, cancer, or neurodegenerative disorders. Not only human cells and tissues are affected by ROS but also all other biological systems, including

  6. Conserving forest biological diversity: How the Montreal Process helps achieve sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Nelson; Guy Robertson; Kurt. Riitters

    2015-01-01

    Forests support a variety of ecosystems, species and genes — collectively referred to as biological diversity — along with important processes that tie these all together. With the growing recognition that biological diversity contributes to human welfare in a number of important ways such as providing food, medicine and fiber (provisioning services...

  7. Biological removal of metal ions from aqueous process streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shumate, S.E. II; Strandberg, G.W.; Parrott, J.R. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Aqueous waste streams from nuclear fuel processing operations may contain trace quantities of heavy metals such as uranium. Conventional chemical and physical treatment may be ineffective or very expensive when uranium concentrations in the range of 10 to 100 g/m 3 must be reduced to 1 g/m 3 or less. The ability of some microorganisms to adsorb or complex dissolved heavy metals offers an alternative treatment method. Uranium uptake by Saccharomyces cerevisiae NRRL Y-2574 and a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was examined to identify factors which might affect a process for the removal of uranium from wastewater streams. At uranium concentrations in the range of 10 to 500 g/m 3 , where the binding capacity of the biomass was not exceeded, temperature, pH, and initial uranium concentration were found to influence the rate of uranium uptake, but not the soluble uranium concentration at equilibrium. 6 figs

  8. Low cost materials of construction for biological processes: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-13

    The workshop was held, May 1993 in conjunction with the 15th Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals. The purpose of this workshop was to present information on the biomass to ethanol process in the context of materials selection and through presentation and discussion, identify promising avenues for future research. Six technical presentations were grouped into two sessions: process assessment and technology assessment. In the process assessment session, the group felt that the pretreatment area would require the most extensive materials research due the complex chemical, physical and thermal environment. Discussion centered around the possibility of metals being leached into the process stream and their effect on the fermentation mechanics. Linings were a strong option for pretreatment assuming the economics were favorable. Fermentation was considered an important area for research also, due to the unique complex of compounds and dual phases present. Erosion in feedstock handling equipment was identified as a minor concern. In the technology assessment session, methodologies in corrosion analysis were presented in addition to an overview of current coatings/linings technology. Widely practiced testing strategies, including ASTM methods, as well as novel procedures for micro-analysis of corrosion were discussed. Various coatings and linings, including polymers and ceramics, were introduced. The prevailing recommendations for testing included keeping the testing simple until the problem warranted a more detailed approach and developing standardized testing procedures to ensure the data was reproducible and applicable. The need to evaluate currently available materials such as coatings/linings, carbon/stainless steels, or fiberglass reinforced plastic was emphasized. It was agreed that economic evaluation of each material candidate must be an integral part of any research plan.

  9. Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS Process)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walia, D.S.; Srivastava, K.C.

    1994-10-01

    The overall goal of the project is to develop an advanced, clean coal biogasification (MicGAS) Process. The objectives of the research during FY 1993--94 were to: (1) enhance kinetics of methane production (biogasification, biomethanation) from Texas lignite (TxL) by the Mic-1 consortium isolated and developed at ARCTECH, (2) increase coal solids loading, (3) optimize medium composition, and (4) reduce retention time. A closer analysis of the results described here indicate that biomethanation of TxL at >5% solids loading is feasible through appropriate development of nutrient medium and further adaptation of the microorganisms involved in this process. Further understanding of the inhibitory factors and some biochemical manipulations to overcome those inhibitions will hasten the process considerably. Results are discussed on the following: products of biomethanation and enhance of methane production including: bacterial adaptation; effect of nutrient amendment substitutes; effects of solids loading; effect of initial pH of the culture medium; effect of hydrogen donors and carbon balance.

  10. Product, not process! Explaining a basic concept in agricultural biotechnologies and food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliabue, Giovanni

    2017-12-01

    Most life scientists have relentlessly recommended any evaluative approach of agri-food products to be based on examination of the phenotype, i.e. the actual characteristics of the food, feed and fiber varieties: the effects of any new cultivar (or micro-organism, animal) on our health are not dependent on the process(es), the techniques used to obtain it.The so-called "genetically modified organisms" ("GMOs"), on the other hand, are commonly framed as a group with special properties - most frequently seen as dubious, or even harmful.Some social scientists still believe that considering the process is a correct background for science-based understanding and regulation. To show that such an approach is utterly wrong, and to invite scientists, teachers and science communicators to explain this mistake to students, policy-makers and the public at large, we imagined a dialogue between a social scientist, who has a positive opinion about a certain weight that a process-based orientation should have in the risk assessment, and a few experts who offer plenty of arguments against that view. The discussion focuses on new food safety.

  11. Basic study of catalyst aging in the H-coal process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cable, T.L.; Massoth, F.E.; Thomas, M.G.

    1985-04-01

    Samples of CoMo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalysts used in an H-coal process demonstration run were studied to determine causes of catalyst deactivation. Physical and surface properties of the aged and regenerated catalysts were examined. Model compounds were used to assess four catalyst activity functions, viz., hydrodesulfurization (HDS), hydrogenation, cracking and hydrodeoxygenation (HDO). Other tests were performed to study the effects of coke and metals separately on the four catalyst activity functions. Catalyst coke content and metal deposits first increased rapidly, then more gradually with exposure time in the process run. Surface area and pore volume markedly decreased with exposure time. Catalyst activities of aged catalysts showed a rapid decline with exposure time. One-day exposure to coal resulted in significant losses in HDS and hydrogenation activities and nearly complete loss in cracking and HDO activities. Although metal deposits caused some permanent catalyst deactivation, coke had a much greater effect. Regenerated catalysts showed less recovery of catalytic activity as processing time increased. These results agreed well with product inspections from the process run. Oxygen chemisorption on aged-regenerated catalysts decreased with catalyst exposure time, indicating a significant loss of active sites. However, ESCA results showed no evidence of extensive sintering of the active MoS/sub 2/ phase. Permanent deactivation of the longer-time exposed catalysts can be ascribed, at least partly, to lateral growth of the active molybdenum sulfide phase. In addition, some loss in cobalt promotion occurred early in the process, which may account for the rapid loss in HDS and HDO activity in regenerated catalysts. 24 references.

  12. [THE PHYSICAL CHEMICAL, BIOLOGICAL BASICS OF CELLS ABSORPTION OF UNESTERIFIED FATTY ACIDS; ALBUMIN, CAVEOLIN, CLATHRIN AND LIPID-BINDING PROTEINS OF CYTOPLASM (THE LECTURE)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, V N; Shoibonov, B B

    2016-03-01

    From aposition of phylogenetic theory of general pathology, obesity and metabolic syndrome are pathology of fatty cells. However, the first is a pathology of phylogenetically early visceral fatty cells of omentum. They supply with substratum of energy realization of biologic function of trophology, homeostasis, endoecology and adaptation. The visceral fatty cells of omentum have no receptors to insulin and synthesize adaptively insulin and they are not characterized by biologic reaction of proliferation. The obesity is a pathology of late in phylogenesis subcutaneous adpocytes. They are insulin-dependent and supply with substratum of energy realization of one biologic function of locomotion--movement at the expense of constriction of cross-striated miocytes. The adipocytes in terms of adaptation synthesize humoral mediator adponectin and actively implement biologic function of proliferation. Under both aphysiologic conditions increases passive by gradient of concentration, absorption by cells albumin-unbound free fatty acids in unionized form in micellae's composition. The passive aphysiologic absorption of free fatty acids by cells which under intracellular compartmentalization don't oxidize mitochondria results in synthesis, accumulation of triglycerides in cytoplasm of cells which don't implement it physiologically. The aphysiologic absorption of free fatty acids by cells, their etherification in triglyceride, in particular, in phylogenetically late β-cells of islets and either late cardiomyocytes which fatty acids don't synthesize de novo results in development of aphysiologic processes and disorder of function. From position of biology, these cells in vivo are subjected to loss similar to apoptosis. The formation of corpuscles of apoptosis compromise biologic function of endoecology activating biologic reaction of inflammation.

  13. Algorithmic analysis of relational learning processes in instructional technology: Some implications for basic, translational, and applied research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlvane, William J; Kledaras, Joanne B; Gerard, Christophe J; Wilde, Lorin; Smelson, David

    2018-07-01

    A few noteworthy exceptions notwithstanding, quantitative analyses of relational learning are most often simple descriptive measures of study outcomes. For example, studies of stimulus equivalence have made much progress using measures such as percentage consistent with equivalence relations, discrimination ratio, and response latency. Although procedures may have ad hoc variations, they remain fairly similar across studies. Comparison studies of training variables that lead to different outcomes are few. Yet to be developed are tools designed specifically for dynamic and/or parametric analyses of relational learning processes. This paper will focus on recent studies to develop (1) quality computer-based programmed instruction for supporting relational learning in children with autism spectrum disorders and intellectual disabilities and (2) formal algorithms that permit ongoing, dynamic assessment of learner performance and procedure changes to optimize instructional efficacy and efficiency. Because these algorithms have a strong basis in evidence and in theories of stimulus control, they may have utility also for basic and translational research. We present an overview of the research program, details of algorithm features, and summary results that illustrate their possible benefits. It also presents arguments that such algorithm development may encourage parametric research, help in integrating new research findings, and support in-depth quantitative analyses of stimulus control processes in relational learning. Such algorithms may also serve to model control of basic behavioral processes that is important to the design of effective programmed instruction for human learners with and without functional disabilities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Improved biological processes for the production of aryl sulfates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention generally relates to the field of biotechnology as it applies to the production of aryl sulfates using recombinant host cells. More particularly, the present invention pertains to recombinant host cells comprising (e.g., expressing) a polypeptide having aryl sulfotransferase...... activity, wherein said recombinant host cells have been modified to have an increased uptake of sulfate compared to identical host cells that does not carry said modification. Further provided are processes for the production of aryl sulfates, such as zosteric acid, employing such recombinant host cells....

  15. Gasification processes old and new: a basic review of the major technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breault, R. W.

    2010-01-01

    This paper has been put together to provide a single source document that not only reviews the historical development of gasification but also compares the process to combustion. It also provides a short discussion on integrated gasification and combined cycle processes. The major focus of the paper is to describe the twelve major gasifiers being marketed today. Some of these are already fully developed while others are in various stages of development. The hydrodynamics and kinetics of each are reviewed along with the most likely gas composition from each of the technologies when using a variety of fuels under different conditions from air blown to oxygen blown and atmospheric pressure to several atmospheres. (author)

  16. Basic investigations to improve the refinement process of coal. Grundlagenuntersuchungen zur Erhoehung des Veredlungsverhaltens von Kohlen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krug, H; Naundorf, W; Trommer, D

    1985-01-01

    In the four articles in this issue, variants of the process for the effective use and improved refinement of brown coal are described. There are reports on the manufacture of special briquettes from briquette coal slack and on the briquetting behaviour of dry brown coal dust and the briquetting and coking behaviour of hard foreign brown coal containing a lot of ash. The four articles are dealt with separately. With 52 figs., 10 tabs.

  17. Basic number processing in children with specific learning disorders: Comorbidity of reading and mathematics disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Kristina; Göbel, Silke M; Snowling, Margaret J

    2015-01-01

    As well as being the hallmark of mathematics disorders, deficits in number processing have also been reported for individuals with reading disorders. The aim of the present study was to investigate separately the components of numerical processing affected in reading and mathematical disorders within the framework of the Triple Code Model. Children with reading disorders (RD), mathematics disorders (MD), comorbid deficits (RD + MD), and typically developing children (TD) were tested on verbal, visual-verbal, and nonverbal number tasks. As expected, children with MD were impaired across a broad range of numerical tasks. In contrast, children with RD were impaired in (visual-)verbal number tasks but showed age-appropriate performance in nonverbal number skills, suggesting their impairments were domain specific and related to their reading difficulties. The comorbid group showed an additive profile of the impairments of the two single-deficit groups. Performance in speeded verbal number tasks was related to rapid automatized naming, a measure of visual-verbal access in the RD but not in the MD group. The results indicate that deficits in number skills are due to different underlying cognitive deficits in children with RD compared to children with MD: a phonological deficit in RD and a deficit in processing numerosities in MD.

  18. Time ordering of two-step processes in energetic ion-atom collisions: Basic formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolterfoht, N.

    1993-01-01

    The semiclassical approximation is applied in second order to describe time ordering of two-step processes in energetic ion-atom collisions. Emphasis is given to the conditions for interferences between first- and second-order terms. In systems with two active electrons, time ordering gives rise to a pair of associated paths involving a second-order process and its time-inverted process. Combining these paths within the independent-particle frozen orbital model, time ordering is lost. It is shown that the loss of time ordering modifies the second-order amplitude so that its ability to interfere with the first-order amplitude is essentially reduced. Time ordering and the capability for interference is regained, as one path is blocked by means of the Pauli exclusion principle. The time-ordering formalism is prepared for papers dealing with collision experiments of single excitation [Stolterfoht et al., following paper, Phys. Rev. A 48, 2986 (1993)] and double excitation [Stolterfoht et al. (unpublished)

  19. Kinetics of quasi-isoenergetic transition processes in biological macromolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, E.G.; Teslenko, V.I.

    2010-01-01

    A master equation describing the evolution of averaged molecular state occupancies in molecular systems where alternation of molecular energy levels is caused by discrete dichotomous and trichotomous stochastic fields, is derived. This study is focused on the kinetics of quasi-isoenergetic transition processes in the presence of moderately high frequency stochastic field. A novel physical mechanism for temperature-independent transitions in flexible molecular systems is proposed. This mechanism becomes effective when the conformation transitions between quasi-isoenergetic molecular states take place. At room temperatures, stochastic broadening of molecular energy levels predominates the energy of low-frequency vibrations accompanying the transition. This leads to a cancellation of the temperature dependence in the stochastically averaged rate constants. As examples, physical interpretations of the temperature-independent onset of P2X 3 receptor desensitization in neuronal membranes, as well as degradation of PER2 protein in embrionic fibroblasts, are provided.

  20. Kinetics of quasi-isoenergetic transition processes in biological macromolecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, E.G., E-mail: epetrov@bitp.kiev.ua [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Metrologichna Street, 14-b, UA-03680 Kiev (Ukraine); Teslenko, V.I. [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Metrologichna Street, 14-b, UA-03680 Kiev (Ukraine)

    2010-10-05

    A master equation describing the evolution of averaged molecular state occupancies in molecular systems where alternation of molecular energy levels is caused by discrete dichotomous and trichotomous stochastic fields, is derived. This study is focused on the kinetics of quasi-isoenergetic transition processes in the presence of moderately high frequency stochastic field. A novel physical mechanism for temperature-independent transitions in flexible molecular systems is proposed. This mechanism becomes effective when the conformation transitions between quasi-isoenergetic molecular states take place. At room temperatures, stochastic broadening of molecular energy levels predominates the energy of low-frequency vibrations accompanying the transition. This leads to a cancellation of the temperature dependence in the stochastically averaged rate constants. As examples, physical interpretations of the temperature-independent onset of P2X{sub 3} receptor desensitization in neuronal membranes, as well as degradation of PER2 protein in embrionic fibroblasts, are provided.

  1. Heat transfer and fluid flow in biological processes advances and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Sid

    2015-01-01

    Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow in Biological Processes covers emerging areas in fluid flow and heat transfer relevant to biosystems and medical technology. This book uses an interdisciplinary approach to provide a comprehensive prospective on biofluid mechanics and heat transfer advances and includes reviews of the most recent methods in modeling of flows in biological media, such as CFD. Written by internationally recognized researchers in the field, each chapter provides a strong introductory section that is useful to both readers currently in the field and readers interested in learning more about these areas. Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow in Biological Processes is an indispensable reference for professors, graduate students, professionals, and clinical researchers in the fields of biology, biomedical engineering, chemistry and medicine working on applications of fluid flow, heat transfer, and transport phenomena in biomedical technology. Provides a wide range of biological and clinical applications of fluid...

  2. Distortions in processed signals and their application in electronic design - I: Basic and general formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Njau, E.C.

    1987-10-01

    Complete analytical expressions for the distortion signals introduced into analogue signals by sampling and quantization processes are developed. These expressions are made up of terms that are wholely functions of the parameters of the original signals involved and hence are easy to evaluate numerically. It is shown in Parts 2 and 3 of this series that these expressions may be successfully used in the design and development of some electronic devices whose operation depends upon the above-named distortion signals. (author). 7 refs

  3. Poisson Stochastic Process and Basic Schauder and Sobolev Estimates in the Theory of Parabolic Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krylov, N. V.; Priola, E.

    2017-09-01

    We show, among other things, how knowing Schauder or Sobolev-space estimates for the one-dimensional heat equation allows one to derive their multidimensional analogs for equations with coefficients depending only on the time variable with the same constants as in the case of the one-dimensional heat equation. The method is quite general and is based on using the Poisson stochastic process. It also applies to equations involving non-local operators. It looks like no other methods are available at this time and it is a very challenging problem to find a purely analytical approach to proving such results.

  4. Quantum biological information theory

    CERN Document Server

    Djordjevic, Ivan B

    2016-01-01

    This book is a self-contained, tutorial-based introduction to quantum information theory and quantum biology. It serves as a single-source reference to the topic for researchers in bioengineering, communications engineering, electrical engineering, applied mathematics, biology, computer science, and physics. The book provides all the essential principles of the quantum biological information theory required to describe the quantum information transfer from DNA to proteins, the sources of genetic noise and genetic errors as well as their effects. Integrates quantum information and quantum biology concepts; Assumes only knowledge of basic concepts of vector algebra at undergraduate level; Provides a thorough introduction to basic concepts of quantum information processing, quantum information theory, and quantum biology; Includes in-depth discussion of the quantum biological channel modelling, quantum biological channel capacity calculation, quantum models of aging, quantum models of evolution, quantum models o...

  5. Revealing complex function, process and pathway interactions with high-throughput expression and biological annotation data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nitesh Kumar; Ernst, Mathias; Liebscher, Volkmar; Fuellen, Georg; Taher, Leila

    2016-10-20

    The biological relationships both between and within the functions, processes and pathways that operate within complex biological systems are only poorly characterized, making the interpretation of large scale gene expression datasets extremely challenging. Here, we present an approach that integrates gene expression and biological annotation data to identify and describe the interactions between biological functions, processes and pathways that govern a phenotype of interest. The product is a global, interconnected network, not of genes but of functions, processes and pathways, that represents the biological relationships within the system. We validated our approach on two high-throughput expression datasets describing organismal and organ development. Our findings are well supported by the available literature, confirming that developmental processes and apoptosis play key roles in cell differentiation. Furthermore, our results suggest that processes related to pluripotency and lineage commitment, which are known to be critical for development, interact mainly indirectly, through genes implicated in more general biological processes. Moreover, we provide evidence that supports the relevance of cell spatial organization in the developing liver for proper liver function. Our strategy can be viewed as an abstraction that is useful to interpret high-throughput data and devise further experiments.

  6. Research prioritization using the Analytic Hierarchy Process: basic methods. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesely, W.E.; Shafaghi, A.; Gary, I. Jr.; Rasmuson, D.M.

    1983-08-01

    This report describes a systematic approach for prioritizing research needs and research programs. The approach is formally called the Analytic Hierarchy Process which was developed by T.L. Saaty and is described in several of his texts referenced in the report. The Analytic Hierarchy Process, or AHP for short, has been applied to a wide variety of prioritization problems and has a good record of success as documented in Saaty's texts. The report develops specific guidelines for constructing the hierarchy and for prioritizing the research programs. Specific examples are given to illustrate the steps in the AHP. As part of the work, a computer code has been developed and the use of the code is described. The code allows the prioritizations to be done in a codified and efficient manner; sensitivity and parametric studies can also be straightforwardly performed to gain a better understanding of the prioritization results. Finally, as an important part of the work, an approach is developed which utilizes probabilistic risk analyses (PRAs) to systematically identify and prioritize research needs and research programs. When utilized in an AHP framework, the PRA's which have been performed to date provide a powerful information source for focusing research on those areas most impacting risk and risk uncertainty

  7. A straightforward graphical user interface for basic and advanced signal processing of thermographic infrared sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Matthieu T.; Ibarra-Castanedo, Clemente; Maldague, Xavier P.; Bendada, Abdelhakim

    2008-03-01

    IR-View, is a free and open source Matlab software that was released in 1998 at the Computer Vision and Systems Laboratory (CVSL) at Université Laval, Canada, as an answer to many common and recurrent needs in Infrared thermography. IR-View has proven to be a useful tool at CVSL for the past 10 years. The software by itself and/or its concept and functions may be of interest for other laboratories and companies working in research in the IR NDT field. This article describes the functions and processing techniques integrated to IR-View, freely downloadable under the GNU license at http://mivim.gel.ulaval.ca. Demonstration of IR-View functionalities will also be done during the DSS08 SPIE Defense and Security Symposium.

  8. [Abnormal processing characteristics to basic emotional faces in the early phase in children with autism spectrum disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qiong-Xi; Wu, Gui-Hua; Zhang, Ling; Wang, Zeng-Jian; Pan, Ning; Xu, Cai-Juan; Jing, Jin; Jin, Yu

    2018-02-01

    To explore the recognition ability and abnormal processing characteristics to basic emotional faces in the early phase in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Photos of Chinese static faces with four basic emotions (fearful, happy, angry and sad) were used as stimulus. Twenty-five ASD children and twenty-two age- and gender-matched typical developed children (normal controls) were asked to match the emotional faces with words. Event-related potential (ERP) data were recorded concurrently. N170 latencies for total emotion and fearful face in the left temporal region were faster than in the right one in normal controls (P<0.05), but the results were not noted in ASD children. Further, N170 latencies in the left temporal region of ASD children were slower than normal controls for total emotion, fearful and happy faces (P<0.05), and their N170 latencies in the right temporal region were prone to slower than normal controls for angry and fearful faces. The holistic perception speed of emotional faces in the early cognitive processing phase in ASD children is slower than normal controls. The lateralized response in the early phase of recognizing emotional faces may be aberrant in children with ASD.

  9. Chemical and Biological Defense: DOD Needs Consistent Policies and Clear Processes to Address the Survivability of Weapon Systems Against Chemical and Biological Threats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2006-01-01

    DOD, joint, and military service weapon system acquisition policies inconsistently address and do not establish a clear process for considering and testing system chemical and biological survivability...

  10. Historical behavior of the teaching process learning of the basic mathematical contents in the initial formation of the Mathematics teacher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamila Medina-Sánchez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The pedagogical universities in their different denominations, whether as Pedagogical Higher Institutes, Pedagogical Sciences Universities or Eastern University, have had in their center, the training of the teacher in their different specialties. The Mathematics teacher has been the result of training models and curricula in correspondence with the historical moment to which they have responded, all with the purpose of preparing them to impart the mathematical content in the educations that constitute action scenarios. The objective of this paper is to analyze the historical behavior of the learning process of the basic mathematical contents in the training process, because it is understood as the fundamental basis for achieving the objectives. For its development were taken into account the logical historical method, the interview, the survey and the documentary analysis.

  11. Stochastic processes, multiscale modeling, and numerical methods for computational cellular biology

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the modeling and mathematical analysis of stochastic dynamical systems along with their simulations. The collected chapters will review fundamental and current topics and approaches to dynamical systems in cellular biology. This text aims to develop improved mathematical and computational methods with which to study biological processes. At the scale of a single cell, stochasticity becomes important due to low copy numbers of biological molecules, such as mRNA and proteins that take part in biochemical reactions driving cellular processes. When trying to describe such biological processes, the traditional deterministic models are often inadequate, precisely because of these low copy numbers. This book presents stochastic models, which are necessary to account for small particle numbers and extrinsic noise sources. The complexity of these models depend upon whether the biochemical reactions are diffusion-limited or reaction-limited. In the former case, one needs to adopt the framework of s...

  12. Basic processes and factors determining the evolution of collapse sinkholes: a sensitivity study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanov, Douchko; Kaufmann, Georg

    2017-04-01

    Collapse sinkholes appear as closed depressions at the surface. The origin of these karst features is related to the continuous dissolution of the soluble rock caused by a focussed sub-surface flow. Water flowing along a preferential pathway through fissures and fractures within the phreatic part of a karst aquifer is able to dissolve the rock (limestone, gypsum, anhydrite). With time, the dissolved void volume increases and part of the ceiling above the stream can become unstable, collapses, and accumulates as debris in the flow path. The debris partially blocks the flow and thus activates new pathways. Because of the low compaction of the debris (high hydraulic conductivity), the flow and the dissolution rates within this crushed zone remain high. This allows a relatively fast dissolutional and erosional removal of the crushed material and the development of new empty voids. The void volume expands upwards towards the surface until a collapse sinkhole is formed. The collapse sinkholes exhibit a large variety of shapes (cylindrical, cone-, bowl-shaped), depths (from few to few hundred meters) and diameters (meters up to hundreds of meters). Two major processes are responsible for this diversity: a) the karst evolution of the aquifer - responsible for the dissolutional and erosional removal of material; b) the mechanical evolution of the host rock and the existence of structural features, faults for example, which determine the stability and the magnitude of the subsequent collapses. In this work we demonstrate the influence of the host rock type, the hydrological and geological boundary conditions, the chemical composition of the flowing water, and the geometry and the scale of the crushed zone, on the location and the evolution of the growing sinkhole. We demonstrate the ability of the karst evolution models to explain, at least qualitatively, the growth and the morphology of the collapse sinkholes and to roughly predict their shape and location. Implementing

  13. Basic study of influence of radiation defects on tritium release processes from lithium silicates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramenkovs, A.; Tiliks, J.; Kizane, G.; Supe, A. [Latvia Univ., Riga (Latvia). Dept. of Chem.; Grishmanovs, V. [Department of Quantum Engineering and System Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113 (Japan)

    1997-09-01

    The radiolysis of Li{sub 2}SiO{sub 3} and Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} was studied using the chemical scavengers method (CSM), thermoluminescence, lyoluminescence, electron spin resonance and spectrometric methods. The influence of the absorbed dose and many another parameters such as: irradiation conditions, sample preparation conditions and concentration of impurities on the accumulation rate of each type RD and RP were studied. Several possibilities for reducing the radiolysis of silicates were discussed. It has been found that tritium localization on the surface and in grains proceed by two different mechanisms. Tritium thermoextraction from the surface proceeds as chemidesorption of tritiated water, but from the bulk as diffusion. The tritium retention processes were studied. It has been found that tritium retention depends on irradiation conditions. Tritium retention is due to the formation of chemical bonds Li-T and thermal stable {identical_to}Si-T bonds. The accumulation of colloidal silicon and lithium can increase the tritium retention up to 25-35%. (orig.).

  14. Translation-rotation plasticity as basic mechanism of plastic deformation in macro-, micro- and nanoindentation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabco, D; Shikimaka, O; Harea, E

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a brief review of multilateral examinations for the purpose of detection of interrelation between processes occuring in solids at different levels of action of exterior loading, namely, at macro-, micro- and nanoindentation. Convincing arguments supporting the rotation deformation mechanism alongside the recognized dislocation one are adduced. It has been shown that the decrease in dislocation mobility leads at all scales to the intensification of rotation plasticity and to the involvement of other plastic deformation mechanisms, such as appearance and interaction of disclinations, twinning, phase transition and compression of material. The conversion from translation plasticity to the rotation-translation one means transition to the higher level of plastic deformation, the mesolevel, when the possibilities of the previous microscopic level are exhausted. It was established that the plastic deformation zone in the vicinity of indentations could be separated into two main specific regions: (i) peripheral region predominantly with the dislocation deformation mechanism; otherwise, translation mechanism: microlevel, and (ii) quasidestructured region mainly with the disclination or the intergranular sliding mechanism: rotation mechanism, mesolevel

  15. Solid separation and sbr biological process for pig slurry treatment; Depuracion de purines por separacion de solidos y tratamiento biologico en SBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lekuona, A.; Alberdi, M.; Lekue, I.; Lasuen, M.

    2009-07-01

    Egiluze treatment plant in Renteria (Gipuzkoa, spain), has treated around 45 m{sup 3}/day of pig slurry since 2006. During this two years, the plant has been running in order to get a suitable effluent, which fulfills the corresponding parameters to be discharged to municipal drain. The treatment process consists basically of a first solid separation and subsequent nitrification-de-nitrificacion biological process using a Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR). The technical and economic results showed in this article, prove that the process used in Egiluze treatment plant is an effective solution which allows the treatment of pig slurry in an economical and automated way. (Author)

  16. Frequency of Home Numeracy Activities Is Differentially Related to Basic Number Processing and Calculation Skills in Kindergartners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutaf Yıldız, Belde; Sasanguie, Delphine; De Smedt, Bert; Reynvoet, Bert

    2018-01-01

    Home numeracy has been shown to play an important role in children’s mathematical performance. However, findings are inconsistent as to which home numeracy activities are related to which mathematical skills. The present study disentangled between various mathematical abilities that were previously masked by the use of composite scores of mathematical achievement. Our aim was to shed light on the specific associations between home numeracy and various mathematical abilities. The relationships between kindergartners’ home numeracy activities, their basic number processing and calculation skills were investigated. Participants were 128 kindergartners (Mage = 5.43 years, SD = 0.29, range: 4.88–6.02 years) and their parents. The children completed non-symbolic and symbolic comparison tasks, non-symbolic and symbolic number line estimation tasks, mapping tasks (enumeration and connecting), and two calculation tasks. Their parents completed a home numeracy questionnaire. Results indicated small but significant associations between formal home numeracy activities that involved more explicit teaching efforts (i.e., identifying numerals, counting) and children’s enumeration skills. There was no correlation between formal home numeracy activities and non-symbolic number processing. Informal home numeracy activities that involved more implicit teaching attempts, such as “playing games” and “using numbers in daily life,” were (weakly) correlated with calculation and symbolic number line estimation, respectively. The present findings suggest that disentangling between various basic number processing and calculation skills in children might unravel specific relations with both formal and informal home numeracy activities. This might explain earlier reported contradictory findings on the association between home numeracy and mathematical abilities. PMID:29623055

  17. Frequency of Home Numeracy Activities Is Differentially Related to Basic Number Processing and Calculation Skills in Kindergartners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutaf Yıldız, Belde; Sasanguie, Delphine; De Smedt, Bert; Reynvoet, Bert

    2018-01-01

    Home numeracy has been shown to play an important role in children's mathematical performance. However, findings are inconsistent as to which home numeracy activities are related to which mathematical skills. The present study disentangled between various mathematical abilities that were previously masked by the use of composite scores of mathematical achievement. Our aim was to shed light on the specific associations between home numeracy and various mathematical abilities. The relationships between kindergartners' home numeracy activities, their basic number processing and calculation skills were investigated. Participants were 128 kindergartners ( M age = 5.43 years, SD = 0.29, range: 4.88-6.02 years) and their parents. The children completed non-symbolic and symbolic comparison tasks, non-symbolic and symbolic number line estimation tasks, mapping tasks (enumeration and connecting), and two calculation tasks. Their parents completed a home numeracy questionnaire. Results indicated small but significant associations between formal home numeracy activities that involved more explicit teaching efforts (i.e., identifying numerals, counting) and children's enumeration skills. There was no correlation between formal home numeracy activities and non-symbolic number processing. Informal home numeracy activities that involved more implicit teaching attempts , such as "playing games" and "using numbers in daily life," were (weakly) correlated with calculation and symbolic number line estimation, respectively. The present findings suggest that disentangling between various basic number processing and calculation skills in children might unravel specific relations with both formal and informal home numeracy activities. This might explain earlier reported contradictory findings on the association between home numeracy and mathematical abilities.

  18. WE-DE-202-03: Modeling of Biological Processes - What Happens After Early Molecular Damage?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMahon, S.

    2016-01-01

    Radiation therapy for the treatment of cancer has been established as a highly precise and effective way to eradicate a localized region of diseased tissue. To achieve further significant gains in the therapeutic ratio, we need to move towards biologically optimized treatment planning. To achieve this goal, we need to understand how the radiation-type dependent patterns of induced energy depositions within the cell (physics) connect via molecular, cellular and tissue reactions to treatment outcome such as tumor control and undesirable effects on normal tissue. Several computational biology approaches have been developed connecting physics to biology. Monte Carlo simulations are the most accurate method to calculate physical dose distributions at the nanometer scale, however simulations at the DNA scale are slow and repair processes are generally not simulated. Alternative models that rely on the random formation of individual DNA lesions within one or two turns of the DNA have been shown to reproduce the clusters of DNA lesions, including single strand breaks (SSBs), double strand breaks (DSBs) without the need for detailed track structure simulations. Efficient computational simulations of initial DNA damage induction facilitate computational modeling of DNA repair and other molecular and cellular processes. Mechanistic, multiscale models provide a useful conceptual framework to test biological hypotheses and help connect fundamental information about track structure and dosimetry at the sub-cellular level to dose-response effects on larger scales. In this symposium we will learn about the current state of the art of computational approaches estimating radiation damage at the cellular and sub-cellular scale. How can understanding the physics interactions at the DNA level be used to predict biological outcome? We will discuss if and how such calculations are relevant to advance our understanding of radiation damage and its repair, or, if the underlying biological

  19. WE-DE-202-03: Modeling of Biological Processes - What Happens After Early Molecular Damage?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahon, S. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Radiation therapy for the treatment of cancer has been established as a highly precise and effective way to eradicate a localized region of diseased tissue. To achieve further significant gains in the therapeutic ratio, we need to move towards biologically optimized treatment planning. To achieve this goal, we need to understand how the radiation-type dependent patterns of induced energy depositions within the cell (physics) connect via molecular, cellular and tissue reactions to treatment outcome such as tumor control and undesirable effects on normal tissue. Several computational biology approaches have been developed connecting physics to biology. Monte Carlo simulations are the most accurate method to calculate physical dose distributions at the nanometer scale, however simulations at the DNA scale are slow and repair processes are generally not simulated. Alternative models that rely on the random formation of individual DNA lesions within one or two turns of the DNA have been shown to reproduce the clusters of DNA lesions, including single strand breaks (SSBs), double strand breaks (DSBs) without the need for detailed track structure simulations. Efficient computational simulations of initial DNA damage induction facilitate computational modeling of DNA repair and other molecular and cellular processes. Mechanistic, multiscale models provide a useful conceptual framework to test biological hypotheses and help connect fundamental information about track structure and dosimetry at the sub-cellular level to dose-response effects on larger scales. In this symposium we will learn about the current state of the art of computational approaches estimating radiation damage at the cellular and sub-cellular scale. How can understanding the physics interactions at the DNA level be used to predict biological outcome? We will discuss if and how such calculations are relevant to advance our understanding of radiation damage and its repair, or, if the underlying biological

  20. Moving beyond a descriptive aquatic toxicology: the value of biological process and trait information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segner, Helmut

    2011-10-01

    In order to improve the ability to link chemical exposure to toxicological and ecological effects, aquatic toxicology will have to move from observing what chemical concentrations induce adverse effects to more explanatory approaches, that are concepts which build on knowledge of biological processes and pathways leading from exposure to adverse effects, as well as on knowledge on stressor vulnerability as given by the genetic, physiological and ecological (e.g., life history) traits of biota. Developing aquatic toxicology in this direction faces a number of challenges, including (i) taking into account species differences in toxicant responses on the basis of the evolutionarily developed diversity of phenotypic vulnerability to environmental stressors, (ii) utilizing diversified biological response profiles to serve as biological read across for prioritizing chemicals, categorizing them according to modes of action, and for guiding targeted toxicity evaluation; (iii) prediction of ecological consequences of toxic exposure from knowledge of how biological processes and phenotypic traits lead to effect propagation across the levels of biological hierarchy; and (iv) the search for concepts to assess the cumulative impact of multiple stressors. An underlying theme in these challenges is that, in addition to the question of what the chemical does to the biological receptor, we should give increasing emphasis to the question how the biological receptor handles the chemicals, i.e., through which pathways the initial chemical-biological interaction extends to the adverse effects, how this extension is modulated by adaptive or compensatory processes as well as by phenotypic traits of the biological receptor. 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Simulation and Analysis of Complex Biological Processes: an Organisation Modelling Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosse, T.; Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores how the dynamics of complex biological processes can be modelled and simulated as an organisation of multiple agents. This modelling perspective identifies organisational structure occurring in complex decentralised processes and handles complexity of the analysis of the dynamics

  2. On the analysis of complex biological supply chains: From Process Systems Engineering to Quantitative Systems Pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Rohit T; Scherholz, Megerle L; Hartmanshenn, Clara; Bae, Seul-A; Androulakis, Ioannis P

    2017-12-05

    The use of models in biology has become particularly relevant as it enables investigators to develop a mechanistic framework for understanding the operating principles of living systems as well as in quantitatively predicting their response to both pathological perturbations and pharmacological interventions. This application has resulted in a synergistic convergence of systems biology and pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling techniques that has led to the emergence of quantitative systems pharmacology (QSP). In this review, we discuss how the foundational principles of chemical process systems engineering inform the progressive development of more physiologically-based systems biology models.

  3. An Investigation Of The Influence Of Leadership And Processes On Basic Performance Results Using A Decision Model Based On Efqm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Talat İnan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available EFQM Excellence Model is a quality approach that companies benefit in achieving success. EFQM Excellence Model is an assessment tool helping to determine what is competence and missing aspects in achieving excellence.In this study, based on the EFQM Excellence Model, the influence of basic performance results caused by leadership and processes variables in this model of a firm engaged in maintenance and repair services due to a large-scale company. In this work, a survey was conducted that covering the company's employees and managers. The data obtained from this survey was utilized by using SPSS16.0 statistics software in respect of factor analysis, reliability analysis, correlation and regression analysis. The relation between variables was evaluated taking into account the resuşts of analysis.

  4. Formulation of basic principles for innovative combustion and work processes; Projekt Erarbeitung von Grundlagen fuer innovative Brennverfahren und motorische Arbeitsprozesse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barroso, G.; Escher, A.; Boulouchos, K. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Labor fuer Aerothermochemie und Verbrennungssysteme IET, ETH-Zentrum, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    This yearly report for 2004 presents a review of work being done on behalf of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) at the Laboratory for Aero-thermochemistry and Combustion Systems at the Federal Institute of Technology ETH in Zurich, Switzerland, on the development of basic principles for innovative combustion and work processes. A successfully-used approach involving reaction-path analysis, heat-release analysis and the optimisation of bio-inspired algorithms is discussed. Experimental investigations made using the high-pressure, high-temperature cell at the ETH are described and initial results are discussed. The commissioning of a one-stroke Rapid Compression Machine EHT and the results of initial experiments are presented.

  5. A basic experimental study on characteristics of on-line human information processing associated with man-machine interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Nagai, Yoshinori; Kojima, Shin-ichi.

    1990-01-01

    Regarding human factors research on man-machine interface, a basic psychological experiment was conducted to observe psycho-physiological characteristics of on-line human cognitive behavior when cognitive tasks on learning and pattern classification were given to subjects by personal computer using a simple state transition model. During the experiment, three different types of subjects' data were recorded: (i) eye movement data by eye mark recorder, (ii) physio-electric signals by polygraph and (iii) verbal reports. Those subjects' data were analyzed with respect to: (i) the related human cognitive characteristics concerning problem solving strategy, measures of problem difficulty and mental image effect, (ii) observed eye movement characteristics such as saccade, attention, pupil reaction and blinking, etc., and (iii) obtained characteristics of skin potential response and heart rate. It was found that the application of psycho-physiological measurement would serve to objective and detailed analysis of on-line cognitive process. (author)

  6. Visual processing in reading disorders and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and its contribution to basic reading ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibby, Michelle Y; Dyer, Sarah M; Vadnais, Sarah A; Jagger, Audreyana C; Casher, Gabriel A; Stacy, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Whether visual processing deficits are common in reading disorders (RD), and related to reading ability in general, has been debated for decades. The type of visual processing affected also is debated, although visual discrimination and short-term memory (STM) may be more commonly related to reading ability. Reading disorders are frequently comorbid with ADHD, and children with ADHD often have subclinical reading problems. Hence, children with ADHD were used as a comparison group in this study. ADHD and RD may be dissociated in terms of visual processing. Whereas RD may be associated with deficits in visual discrimination and STM for order, ADHD is associated with deficits in visual-spatial processing. Thus, we hypothesized that children with RD would perform worse than controls and children with ADHD only on a measure of visual discrimination and a measure of visual STM that requires memory for order. We expected all groups would perform comparably on the measure of visual STM that does not require sequential processing. We found children with RD or ADHD were commensurate to controls on measures of visual discrimination and visual STM that do not require sequential processing. In contrast, both RD groups (RD, RD/ADHD) performed worse than controls on the measure of visual STM that requires memory for order, and children with comorbid RD/ADHD performed worse than those with ADHD. In addition, of the three visual measures, only sequential visual STM predicted reading ability. Hence, our findings suggest there is a deficit in visual sequential STM that is specific to RD and is related to basic reading ability. The source of this deficit is worthy of further research, but it may include both reduced memory for order and poorer verbal mediation.

  7. Visual processing in reading disorders and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and its contribution to basic reading ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Y. Kibby

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Whether visual processing deficits are common in reading disorders (RD, and related to reading ability in general, has been debated for decades. The type of visual processing affected also is debated, although visual discrimination and short-term memory (STM may be more commonly related to reading ability. Reading disorders are frequently comorbid with ADHD, and children with ADHD often have subclinical reading problems. Hence, children with ADHD were used as a comparison group in this study. ADHD and RD may be dissociated in terms of visual processing. Whereas RD may be associated with deficits in visual discrimination and short-term memory for order, ADHD is associated with deficits in visual-spatial processing. Thus, we hypothesized that children with RD would perform worse than controls and children with ADHD only on a measure of visual discrimination and a measure of visual STM that requires memory for order. We expected all groups would perform comparably on the measure of visual STM that does not require sequential processing. We found children with RD or ADHD were commensurate to controls on measures of visual discrimination and visual STM that do not require sequential processing. In contrast, both RD groups (RD, RD/ADHD performed worse than controls on the measure of visual STM that requires memory for order, and children with comorbid RD/ADHD performed worse than those with ADHD. In addition, of the three visual measures, only sequential visual STM predicted reading ability. Hence, our findings suggest there is a deficit in visual sequential STM that is specific to RD and is related to basic reading ability. The source of this deficit is worthy of further research, but it may include both reduced memory for order and poorer verbal mediation.

  8. Redesign of students’ worksheet on basic physics experiment based on students’ scientific process skills analysis in Melde’s law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugraha, M. G.; Utari, S.; Saepuzaman, D.; Nugraha, F.

    2018-05-01

    Scientific process skills (SPS) are an intellectual skill to build knowledge, solve problems scientifically, train thinking skills as well as a very important part of the inquiry process and contribute to scientific literacy. Therefore, SPS is very important to be developed. This study aims to develop Student Worksheets (SW) that can trace SPS through basic physics experiments (BPE) on Melde’s law. This research uses R&D method involving 18 physics education department students who take the BPE course as a sample. The research instrument uses an SW designed with a SPS approach that have been reviewed and judged by expert, which includes observing, communicating, classifying, measuring, inferring, predicting, identifying variable, constructing hypothesis, defining variable operationally, designing experiment, acquiring and processing data to conclusions. The result of the research shows that the student’s SPS has not been trained optimally, the students’ answers are not derived from the observations and experiments conducted but derived from the initial knowledge of the students, as well as in the determination of experimental variables, inferring and hypothesis. This result is also supported by a low increase of conceptual content on Melde’s law with n-gain of 0.40. The research findings are used as the basis for the redesign of SW.

  9. Work Process Oriented Learning via Mobile Devices – Theoretical Basics and Examples for a (New Didactical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Spöttl

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Two problems can be identified which counteract the need for further training: On the one hand the clientele of skilled workers is not necessarily keen on further training. On the other hand the time and cost pressure within the sector does not offer any room for time-consuming further training measures far away from the workplace. This is why the project “Virtual Learning on the building site – (Vila-b” was realized in cooperation with the project partners of the University of Bremen (Working group »Digital Media« of the Centre for Information Technology as well as from the economy (Arbeitskreis ökologischer Holzbau e. V. and Claus Holm, pm|c. The project team has tested a concept which facilitated learning adapted to the occupational reality and supported by the advantages of digital media. The central didactical elements for the development of this further training course are the contextual and methodological orientation to real work processes as well as the use of digital mobile media which facilitate learning directly at the workplace. The present article starts with a description of the theoretical basics for learning within the work process and discusses the didactical elements which are necessary for work process oriented learning with digital and mobile media.

  10. Health professionals in the process of vaccination against hepatitis B in two basic units of Belo Horizonte: a qualitative evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lages, Annelisa Santos; França, Elisabeth Barboza; Freitas, Maria Imaculada de Fátima

    2013-06-01

    According to the Vaccine Coverage Survey, performed in 2007, the immunization coverage against hepatitis B in Belo Horizonte, for infants under one year old, was below the level proposed by the Brazilian National Program of Immunization. This vaccine was used as basis for evaluating the involvement of health professionals in the process of vaccination in two Basic Health Units (UBS, acronym in Portuguese) in the city. This study is qualitative and uses the notions of Social Representations Theory and the method of Structural Analysis of Narrative to carry out the interviews and data analysis. The results show flaws related to controlling and use of the mirror card and the parent orientation, and also the monitoring of vaccination coverage (VC) and use of VC data as input for planning health actions. It was observed that the working process in the UBS is focused on routine tasks, with low creativity of the professionals, which includes representations that maintain strong tendency to value activities focused on the health of individuals to the detriment of public health actions. In conclusion, the vaccination process fault can be overcome with a greater appreciation of everyday actions and with a much better use of local information about vaccination, and some necessary adjustments within the UBS to improve public health actions.

  11. A Semester-Long Project for Teaching Basic Techniques in Molecular Biology Such as Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis to Undergraduate and Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBartolomeis, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    Several reports on science education suggest that students at all levels learn better if they are immersed in a project that is long term, yielding results that require analysis and interpretation. I describe a 12-wk laboratory project suitable for upper-level undergraduates and first-year graduate students, in which the students molecularly locate and map a gene from Drosophila melanogaster called dusky and one of dusky's mutant alleles. The mapping strategy uses restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis; hence, students perform most of the basic techniques of molecular biology (DNA isolation, restriction enzyme digestion and mapping, plasmid vector subcloning, agarose and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, DNA labeling, and Southern hybridization) toward the single goal of characterizing dusky and the mutant allele dusky73. Students work as individuals, pairs, or in groups of up to four students. Some exercises require multitasking and collaboration between groups. Finally, results from everyone in the class are required for the final analysis. Results of pre- and postquizzes and surveys indicate that student knowledge of appropriate topics and skills increased significantly, students felt more confident in the laboratory, and students found the laboratory project interesting and challenging. Former students report that the lab was useful in their careers. PMID:21364104

  12. ``What if we were in a test tube?'' Students' gendered meaning making during a biology lesson about the basic facts of the human genitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlander, Auli Arvola

    2014-06-01

    This paper explores what happens in the encounters between presentations of "basic facts" about the human genitals and 15-year-old students during a biology lesson in a Swedish secondary school. In this paper, meaning making was approached as relational, context-dependent and continually transacted. For this reason the analysis was conducted through a series of close readings of situations where students interacted with each other and the teacher in opening up gaps about alternative ways of discussing gender. Drawing on Foucault's theories about the inclusion and exclusion of knowledge and the subsequent work of Butler and other feminist researchers, the paper illuminates what gendered relations remain tacit in the conversation. It then illustrates possible ways in which these tacit gendered meanings could be made overt and discussed with the students when making meaning about the human genitals. The paper also shows how the ways in which human genitals are transacted in the science classroom have importance for what kind of learning is made available to the students.

  13. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics transport and rate processes in physical, chemical and biological systems

    CERN Document Server

    Demirel, Yasar

    2014-01-01

    Natural phenomena consist of simultaneously occurring transport processes and chemical reactions. These processes may interact with each other and may lead to self-organized structures, fluctuations, instabilities, and evolutionary systems. Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics, 3rd edition emphasizes the unifying role of thermodynamics in analyzing the natural phenomena. This third edition updates and expands on the first and second editions by focusing on the general balance equations for coupled processes of physical, chemical, and biological systems. The new edition contains a new chapte

  14. Electric and mechanical basic parameters to elaborate a process for a technical verification of safety related design modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamuno Fernandez, Mercedes; La Roca Mallofre, GISEL; Bano Azcon, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic process to check a design in order to achieve all the requirements that regulations demand. Nuclear engineers must verify that a design is done according to the safety requirements, and this paper presents how we have elaborated a process to improve the technical project verification. For a faster, better and easier verification process, here we summarize how to select the electric and mechanical basic parameters, which ensure the correct project verification of safety related design modifications. This process considers different aspects, which guarantee that the design preserves the availability, reliability and functional capability of the Structures, Systems and Components needed to operate the Nuclear Power Station with security. Electric and mechanical reference parameters are identified and discussed as well as others related ones, which are critical to safety. The implementation procedure to develop tasks performed in any company that has a quality plan is a requirement. On the engineering business, it is important not to use the personal criteria to do a technical analysis of a project; although, many times it is the checker's criteria and knowledge responsibility to ensure the correct development of a design modification. Then, the checker capabilities are the basis of the modification verification. This kind of procedure's development is not easy, because in an engineering project with important technical contents, there are multiple scenarios, but lots of them have a common basis. If we can identify the technical common basis of these projects, we will make good project verification but there are many difficulties we can encounter along this process. (authors)

  15. Impaired global, and compensatory local, biological motion processing in people with high levels of autistic traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Boxtel, Jeroen J A; Lu, Hongjing

    2013-01-01

    People with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are hypothesized to have poor high-level processing but superior low-level processing, causing impaired social recognition, and a focus on non-social stimulus contingencies. Biological motion perception provides an ideal domain to investigate exactly how ASD modulates the interaction between low and high-level processing, because it involves multiple processing stages, and carries many important social cues. We investigated individual differences among typically developing observers in biological motion processing, and whether such individual differences associate with the number of autistic traits. In Experiment 1, we found that individuals with fewer autistic traits were automatically and involuntarily attracted to global biological motion information, whereas individuals with more autistic traits did not show this pre-attentional distraction. We employed an action adaptation paradigm in the second study to show that individuals with more autistic traits were able to compensate for deficits in global processing with an increased involvement in local processing. Our findings can be interpreted within a predictive coding framework, which characterizes the functional relationship between local and global processing stages, and explains how these stages contribute to the perceptual difficulties associated with ASD.

  16. Impaired global, and compensatory local, biological motion processing in people with high levels of autistic traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen J A Van Boxtel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available People with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD are hypothesized to have poor high-level processing but superior low-level processing, causing impaired social recognition, and a focus on non-social stimulus contingencies. Biological motion perception provides an ideal domain to investigate exactly how ASD modulates the interaction between low and high-level processing, because it involves multiple processing stages, and carries many important social cues. We investigated individual differences among typically developing observers in biological motion processing, and whether such individual differences associate with the number of autistic traits. In Experiment 1, we found that individuals with fewer autistic traits were automatically and involuntarily attracted to global biological motion information, whereas individuals with more autistic traits did not show this pre-attentional distraction. We employed an action adaptation paradigm in the second study to show that individuals with more autistic traits were able to compensate for deficits in global processing with an increased involvement in local processing. Our findings can be interpreted within a predictive coding framework, which characterizes the functional relationship between local and global processing stages, and explains how these stages contribute to the perceptual difficulties associated with ASD.

  17. The Basic Social Process in the Culture of the Self-Sufficient Organization. An Application of Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia CHIRICĂ

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The hereby research encompasses the results of an analysis conducted based on the grounded theory methodology over the qualitative data that were gathered through a national project regarding the organizational development of the mental health institutions. After the finalization of the project, the interest for the grounded theory methodology and the reconsideration of the organizational development notion and of the role of the consultant in this process have all lead to a re-analysis of the qualitative data procured in one of the hospitals included in the project. Our approach resulted in an explanatory model of how the organization works and the factors that can affect various changes during its development. This explanatory model holds at its center a basic psychological and social process that represents the perception of the organizational system as closed on certain coordinates, although structurally open. This very perception and the behavior of maintaining the system within closed coordinates allow only for a dual functioning and so the natural result is the emergence of a self-sufficient culture. The central feature of this particular culture is the replacement of the formal organization and its goal of caring for the mentally challenged with an organization reduced to its sole goal of survival.

  18. Administrative Aspects of the Criticality Controls Used in Programmes for Basic Criticality Research, Reactor Development and Materials Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, D. P.; Giessing, D. F. [Operational Safety Division, USAEC Albuquerque Operations Office, NM (United States)

    1966-05-15

    This paper describes the administrative and procedural aspects of criticality controls used by a field office of the United States Atomic Energy Commission in programmes that include reactor criticals, research and materials testing reactors, and power reactor development. Situations encountered include handling, storing, and processing large quantities of uranium-235 and plutonium-239 of various configurations and compositions in laboratories and operations which gather basic criticality data, processing of fissile material, and varied reactor research and development, programmes including fuel materials. Similar situations exist for uranium-233 and plutonium-238 on a smaller laboratory scale. The administrative controls and interactions of the USAEC field office and the operating contractors, who operate these installations for the USAEC, are outlined. Also, the purpose and scope of the direct examination by USAEC personnel of these contractor facilities are analysed. The programme has been in effect for three years and is believed to be successful in maintaining efficient operations and an acceptable low level of risk of inadvertent criticality. Success of this programme is in good measure due to the close working relationship between the staffs of the USAEC field office and the operating contractors. (author)

  19. Combined heterogeneous Electro-Fenton and biological process for the treatment of stabilized landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiju, Archa; Gandhimathi, R; Ramesh, S T; Nidheesh, P V

    2018-03-15

    Treatment of stabilized landfill leachate is a great challenge due to its poor biodegradability. Present study made an attempt to treat this wastewater by combining electro-Fenton (E-Fenton) and biological process. E-Fenton treatment was applied prior to biological process to enhance the biodegradability of leachate, which will be beneficial for the subsequent biological process. This study also investigates the efficiency of iron molybdophosphate (FeMoPO) nanoparticles as a heterogeneous catalyst in E-Fenton process. The effects of initial pH, catalyst dosage, applied voltage and electrode spacing on Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal efficiency were analyzed to determine the optimum conditions. Heterogeneous E-Fenton process gave 82% COD removal at pH 2, catalyst dosage of 50 mg/L, voltage 5 V, electrode spacing 3 cm and electrode area 25 cm 2 . Combined E-Fenton and biological treatment resulted an overall COD removal of 97%, bringing down the final COD to 192 mg/L. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Rhizosphere Biological Processes of Legume//Cereal Intercropping Systems: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIANG Yuan-yuan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Intercropping, a sustainable planting pattern, was widely used in the wordwide. It not only has the advantages of yield and nutrient acquisition, but also can ensure food security and reduce the risk of crop failures. The majority of intercropping systems involve legume//cereal combinations because of interspecific facilitation or complementarity. The rhizosphere is the interface between plants and soil where there are interactions among a myriad of microorganisms and affect the uptake of nutrients, water and harmful substances. The rhizosphere biologi-cal processes not only determine the amount of nutrients and the availability of nutrients, but also affect crop productivity and nutrient use efficiency. Hence, this paper summarized the progress made on root morphology, rhizosphere microorganisms, root exudates and ecological ef-fect in the perspective of the rhizosphere biological process,which would provide theoretical basis for improving nutrient availability, remov-ing heavy metals, and plant genetic improvements.

  1. Degrading organic micropollutants: The next challenge in the evolution of biological wastewater treatment processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh eSinghal

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Global water scarcity is driving the need for identifying new water source. Wastewater could be a potential water resource if appropriate treatment technologies could be developed. One of the barriers to obtaining high quality water from wastewater arises from the presence of organic micropollutants, which are biologically active at trace levels. Removal of these compounds from wastewater by current physico-chemical technologies is prohibitively expensive. While biological treatment processes are comparatively cheap, current systems are not capable of degrading the wide range of organic micropollutants present in wastewater. As current wastewater treatment processes were developed for treating conventional pollutants present at mg/L levels, degrading the ng/L levels of micropollutants will require a different approach to system design and operation. In this paper we discuss strategies that could be employed to develop biological wastewater treatment systems capable of degrading organic micropollutants.

  2. A two-stage biological gas to liquid transfer process to convert carbon dioxide into bioplastic

    KAUST Repository

    Al Rowaihi, Israa; Kick, Benjamin; Grö tzinger, Stefan W.; Burger, Christian; Karan, Ram; Weuster-Botz, Dirk; Eppinger, Jö rg; Arold, Stefan T.

    2018-01-01

    The fermentation of carbon dioxide (CO2) with hydrogen (H2) uses available low-cost gases to synthesis acetic acid. Here, we present a two-stage biological process that allows the gas to liquid transfer (Bio-GTL) of CO2 into the biopolymer

  3. Fixation and utilization of CO2 by biological and/or chemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiromichi, N.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the carbon dioxide fixation and utilisation by biological and/or chemical processes. It presents research objectives and program contents for the effective fixation of carbon dioxide by micro-organism and its hydrogenation. (TEC). 5 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Investigation of the Nature of Metaconceptual Processes of Pre-Service Biology Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuruk, Nejla; Selvi, Meryem; Yakisan, Mehmet

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of Study: The aim of this study is to investigate the nature of pre-service biology teachers' metaconceptual processes that were active as they participated in metaconceptual teaching activities. Methods: Several instructional activities, including poster drawing, concept mapping, group and class discussions, and journal writing, were…

  5. Phenol wastewater remediation: advanced oxidation processes coupled to a biological treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubalcaba, A; Suárez-Ojeda, M E; Stüber, F; Fortuny, A; Bengoa, C; Metcalfe, I; Font, J; Carrera, J; Fabregat, A

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays, there are increasingly stringent regulations requiring more and more treatment of industrial effluents to generate product waters which could be easily reused or disposed of to the environment without any harmful effects. Therefore, different advanced oxidation processes were investigated as suitable precursors for the biological treatment of industrial effluents containing phenol. Wet air oxidation and Fenton process were tested batch wise, while catalytic wet air oxidation and H2O2-promoted catalytic wet air oxidation processes were studied in a trickle bed reactor, the last two using over activated carbon as catalyst. Effluent characterisation was made by means of substrate conversion (using high liquid performance chromatography), chemical oxygen demand and total organic carbon. Biodegradation parameters (i.e. maximum oxygen uptake rate and oxygen consumption) were obtained from respirometric tests using activated sludge from an urban biological wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The main goal was to find the proper conditions in terms of biodegradability enhancement, so that these phenolic effluents could be successfully treated in an urban biological WWTP. Results show promising research ways for the development of efficient coupled processes for the treatment of wastewater containing toxic or biologically non-degradable compounds.

  6. Diurnal rhythmicity in biological processes involved in bioavailability of functional food factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurusaki, Takashi; Sakakibara, Hiroyuki; Aoshima, Yoshiki; Yamazaki, Shunsuke; Sakono, Masanobu; Shimoi, Kayoko

    2013-05-01

    In the past few decades, many types of functional factors have been identified in dietary foods; for example, flavonoids are major groups widely distributed in the plant kingdom. However, the absorption rates of the functional food factors are usually low, and many of these are difficult to be absorbed in the intact forms because of metabolization by biological processes during absorption. To gain adequate beneficial effects, it is therefore mandatory to know whether functional food factors are absorbed in sufficient quantity, and then reach target organs while maintaining beneficial effects. These are the reasons why the bioavailability of functional food factors has been well investigated using rodent models. Recently, many of the biological processes have been reported to follow diurnal rhythms recurring every 24 h. Therefore, absorption and metabolism of functional food factors influenced by the biological processes may vary with time of day. Consequently, the evaluation of the bioavailability of functional food factors using rodent models should take into consideration the timing of consumption. In this review, we provide a perspective overview of the diurnal rhythm of biological processes involved in the bioavailability of functional food factors, particularly flavonoids.

  7. Do two machine-learning based prognostic signatures for breast cancer capture the same biological processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drier, Yotam; Domany, Eytan

    2011-03-14

    The fact that there is very little if any overlap between the genes of different prognostic signatures for early-discovery breast cancer is well documented. The reasons for this apparent discrepancy have been explained by the limits of simple machine-learning identification and ranking techniques, and the biological relevance and meaning of the prognostic gene lists was questioned. Subsequently, proponents of the prognostic gene lists claimed that different lists do capture similar underlying biological processes and pathways. The present study places under scrutiny the validity of this claim, for two important gene lists that are at the focus of current large-scale validation efforts. We performed careful enrichment analysis, controlling the effects of multiple testing in a manner which takes into account the nested dependent structure of gene ontologies. In contradiction to several previous publications, we find that the only biological process or pathway for which statistically significant concordance can be claimed is cell proliferation, a process whose relevance and prognostic value was well known long before gene expression profiling. We found that the claims reported by others, of wider concordance between the biological processes captured by the two prognostic signatures studied, were found either to be lacking statistical rigor or were in fact based on addressing some other question.

  8. Do two machine-learning based prognostic signatures for breast cancer capture the same biological processes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yotam Drier

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The fact that there is very little if any overlap between the genes of different prognostic signatures for early-discovery breast cancer is well documented. The reasons for this apparent discrepancy have been explained by the limits of simple machine-learning identification and ranking techniques, and the biological relevance and meaning of the prognostic gene lists was questioned. Subsequently, proponents of the prognostic gene lists claimed that different lists do capture similar underlying biological processes and pathways. The present study places under scrutiny the validity of this claim, for two important gene lists that are at the focus of current large-scale validation efforts. We performed careful enrichment analysis, controlling the effects of multiple testing in a manner which takes into account the nested dependent structure of gene ontologies. In contradiction to several previous publications, we find that the only biological process or pathway for which statistically significant concordance can be claimed is cell proliferation, a process whose relevance and prognostic value was well known long before gene expression profiling. We found that the claims reported by others, of wider concordance between the biological processes captured by the two prognostic signatures studied, were found either to be lacking statistical rigor or were in fact based on addressing some other question.

  9. Structures linking physical and biological processes in headwater streams of the Maybeso watershed, Southeast Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason D. Bryant; Takashi Gomi; Jack J. Piccolo

    2007-01-01

    We focus on headwater streams originating in the mountainous terrain of northern temperate rain forests. These streams rapidly descend from gradients greater than 20% to less than 5% in U-shaped glacial valleys. We use a set of studies on headwater streams in southeast Alaska to define headwater stream catchments, link physical and biological processes, and describe...

  10. Radiation biology using synchrotron radiation. In relation to radiation chemistry as an initial process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Katsumi

    1995-01-01

    Radiation biology using synchrotron radiation have been investigated, focusing on the mechanism of the formation of molecular damage. This paper introduces recent outcome of these studies. First, the process from imparted energy to the formation of molecular damage is outlined. The previous studies can be largely categorized as dealing with (1) biological effects of inner-shell ionization on elements composing the living body and (2) X-ray energy dependence of biological effects. Bromine and phosphorus are used as elements for the study of inner-cell ionization. In the study on lethal effects of monochromatic soft X-rays on the BrdUMP-incorporated yeast cells, Auger enhancement was found to occur. The first report on the effects of K-shell absorption of cellular phosphorus atoms has revealed that biological effects on cellular lethality and genetic changes was enhanced by 40%. Plasmid DNA and oligonucleotide have been used to study biological effects of vacuum ultraviolet rays to monochromatic soft X-ray, which makes it possible to study strand breaks. Because experimental production of energy required for the formation of double strand breaks has become possible, synchrotron radiation plays a very important role in radiation biological studies. Finally, future issues are presented. (N.K.)

  11. Modelling biological processes in WWTP; Modelado de procesos biologicos en las EDAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpes, G.

    2009-07-01

    Biological technologies by active sludges are the most used in wastewater treatments. Multiple variants are affected in the characterization of this process, like wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) design, features and concentration of sludge, dissolved oxygen concentration and characteristics of the wastewater, including temperature and nutrients. Mathematical formula applied to WWTP modelling are presented to design its operation and to test the most important parameters, too. It is necessary to optimize the process in WWTP. (Author) 19 refs.

  12. Proceeding of the Scientific Meeting and Presentation on Basic Research in Nuclear of the Scientific and Technology Part II : Nuclear Chemistry; Process Technology and Radioactive Waste Management; Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudjatmoko; Karmanto, Eko Edy; Endang-Supartini

    1996-04-01

    Scientific Meeting and Presentation on Basic Research in Nuclear Science and Technology is a routine activity was held by Yogyakarta Nuclear Research Centre, National Atomic Energy Agency (BATAN) for monitoring the research activity which achieved in BATAN. The Proceeding contains a proposal about basic which has Nuclear Chemistry, Process Technology, Radioactive Waste Management and Environment. This proceeding is the second part from two part which published in series. There are 61 articles which have separated index

  13. Rapid screening of basic colorants in processed vegetables through mass spectrometry using an interchangeable thermal desorption electrospray ionization source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yu-Ying; Chen, Yen-Ling; Lin, Hong-Yi; Huang, Yeou-Lih

    2018-06-20

    Thermal desorption electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry (TD-ESI-MS) employing a quickly interchangeable ionization source is a relatively new ambient ionization mass spectrometric technique that has had, to date, only a limited number of applications related to food safety control. With reallocation of resources, this direct-analysis technique has had wider use in food analysis when operated in dual-working mode (pretreatment-free qualitative screening and conventional quantitative confirmation) after switching to an ambient ionization source from a traditional atmospheric pressure ionization source. Herein, we describe the benefits and challenges associated with the use of a TD-ESI source to detect adulterants in processed vegetables (PVs), as a proof-of-concept for the detection of basic colorants. While TD-ESI can offer direct qualitative screening analyses for PVs with detection capabilities lower than those provided with liquid chromatography/UV detection within 30 s, the use of TD-ESI for semi-quantification is applicable only for homogeneous food matrices. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Mineralization of 2-chlorophenol by sequential electrochemical reductive dechlorination and biological processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arellano-González, Miguel Ángel; González, Ignacio [Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Departamento de Química, Av. San Rafael Atlixco No. 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Texier, Anne-Claire, E-mail: actx@xanum.uam.mx [Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Departamento de Biotecnología, Av. San Rafael Atlixco No. 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Dechlorination of 2-chlorophenol to phenol was 100% efficient on Pd-Ni/Ti electrode. • An ECCOCEL reactor was efficient and selective to obtain phenol from 2-chlorophenol. • Phenol was totally mineralized in a coupled denitrifying biorreactor. • Global time of 2-chlorophenol mineralization in the combined system was 7.5 h. - Abstract: In this work, a novel approach was applied to obtain the mineralization of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) in an electrochemical-biological combined system where an electrocatalytic dehydrogenation process (reductive dechlorination) was coupled to a biological denitrification process. Reductive dechlorination of 2-CP was conducted in an ECCOCEL-type reactor on a Pd-Ni/Ti electrode at a potential of −0.40 V vs Ag/AgCl{sub (s)}/KCl{sub (sat)}, achieving 100 percent transformation of 2-CP into phenol. The electrochemically pretreated effluent was fed to a rotating cylinder denitrifying bioreactor where the totality of phenol was mineralized by denitrification, obtaining CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2} as the end products. The total time required for 2-CP mineralization in the combined electrochemical-biological process was 7.5 h. This value is close to those previously reported for electrochemical and advanced oxidation processes but in this case, an efficient process was obtained without accumulation of by-products or generation of excessive energy costs due to the selective electrochemical pretreatment. This study showed that the use of electrochemical reductive pretreatment combined with biological processes could be a promising technology for the removal of recalcitrant molecules, such as chlorophenols, from wastewaters by more efficient, rapid, and environmentally friendly processes.

  15. Dynamic Model of Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Process Based on Multi-zone Reaction Kinetics: Model Derivation and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, Bapin Kumar; Brooks, Geoff; Rhamdhani, M. Akbar; Li, Zushu; Schrama, Frank N. H.; Sun, Jianjun

    2018-04-01

    A multi-zone kinetic model coupled with a dynamic slag generation model was developed for the simulation of hot metal and slag composition during the basic oxygen furnace (BOF) operation. The three reaction zones (i) jet impact zone, (ii) slag-bulk metal zone, (iii) slag-metal-gas emulsion zone were considered for the calculation of overall refining kinetics. In the rate equations, the transient rate parameters were mathematically described as a function of process variables. A micro and macroscopic rate calculation methodology (micro-kinetics and macro-kinetics) were developed to estimate the total refining contributed by the recirculating metal droplets through the slag-metal emulsion zone. The micro-kinetics involves developing the rate equation for individual droplets in the emulsion. The mathematical models for the size distribution of initial droplets, kinetics of simultaneous refining of elements, the residence time in the emulsion, and dynamic interfacial area change were established in the micro-kinetic model. In the macro-kinetics calculation, a droplet generation model was employed and the total amount of refining by emulsion was calculated by summing the refining from the entire population of returning droplets. A dynamic FetO generation model based on oxygen mass balance was developed and coupled with the multi-zone kinetic model. The effect of post-combustion on the evolution of slag and metal composition was investigated. The model was applied to a 200-ton top blowing converter and the simulated value of metal and slag was found to be in good agreement with the measured data. The post-combustion ratio was found to be an important factor in controlling FetO content in the slag and the kinetics of Mn and P in a BOF process.

  16. Activity build-up on the circulation loops of boiling water reactors: Basics for modelling of transport and deposition processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covelli, B.; Alder, H.P.

    1988-03-01

    In the past 20 years the radiation field of nuclear power plant loops outside the core zone was the object of investigations in many countries. In this context test loops were built and basic research done. At our Institute PSI the installation of a LWR-contamination loop is planned for this year. This experimental loop has the purpose to investigate the complex phenomena of activity deposition from the primary fluid of reactor plants and to formulate analytical models. From the literature the following conclusions can be drawn: The principal correlations of the activity build-up outside the core are known. The plant specific single phenomena as corrosion, crud-transport, activation and deposit of cobalt in the oxide layer are complex and only partially understood. The operational experience of particular plants with low contaminated loops (BWR-recirculation loops) show that in principle the problem is manageable. The reduction of the activity build-up in older plants necessitates a combination of measures to modify the crud balance in the primary circuit. In parallel to the experimental work several simulation models in the form of computer programs were developed. These models have the common feature that they are based on mass balances, in which the exchange of materials and the sedimentation processes are described by global empirical transport coefficients. These models yield satisfactory results and allow parameter studies; the application however is restricted to the particular installation. All programs lack models that describe the thermodynamic and hydrodynamic mechanisms on the surface of deposition layers. Analytical investigations on fouling of process equipment led to models that are also applicable to the activity build-up in reactor loops. Therefore it seems appropriate to combine the nuclear simulation models with the fundamental equations for deposition. 10 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs

  17. Biclustering with Flexible Plaid Models to Unravel Interactions between Biological Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, Rui; Madeira, Sara C

    2015-01-01

    Genes can participate in multiple biological processes at a time and thus their expression can be seen as a composition of the contributions from the active processes. Biclustering under a plaid assumption allows the modeling of interactions between transcriptional modules or biclusters (subsets of genes with coherence across subsets of conditions) by assuming an additive composition of contributions in their overlapping areas. Despite the biological interest of plaid models, few biclustering algorithms consider plaid effects and, when they do, they place restrictions on the allowed types and structures of biclusters, and suffer from robustness problems by seizing exact additive matchings. We propose BiP (Biclustering using Plaid models), a biclustering algorithm with relaxations to allow expression levels to change in overlapping areas according to biologically meaningful assumptions (weighted and noise-tolerant composition of contributions). BiP can be used over existing biclustering solutions (seizing their benefits) as it is able to recover excluded areas due to unaccounted plaid effects and detect noisy areas non-explained by a plaid assumption, thus producing an explanatory model of overlapping transcriptional activity. Experiments on synthetic data support BiP's efficiency and effectiveness. The learned models from expression data unravel meaningful and non-trivial functional interactions between biological processes associated with putative regulatory modules.

  18. Natural physical and biological processes compromise the long-term performance of compacted soil caps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.D.

    1995-01-01

    Compacted soil barriers are components of essentially all caps placed on closed waste disposal sites. The intended functions of soil barriers in waste facility caps include restricting infiltration of water and release of gases and vapors, either independently or in combination with synthetic membrane barriers, and protecting other manmade or natural barrier components. Review of the performance of installed soil barriers and of natural processes affecting their performance indicates that compacted soil caps may function effectively for relatively short periods (years to decades), but natural physical and biological processes can be expected to cause them to fail in the long term (decades to centuries). This paper addresses natural physical and biological processes that compromise the performance of compacted soil caps and suggests measures that may reduce the adverse consequences of these natural failure mechanisms

  19. Beginnings and early history of the International Conferences on Magnetic Resonance in Biological Systems: development of the basic ideas in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardetzky, Oleg

    2010-09-01

    The early history of the principal meeting in the field of biological NMR spectroscopy, the International Conference on Magnetic Resonance in Biological Systems (ICMRBS), is presented from the perspective of one of the founders. (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Grunnleggende ferdigheter for arbeidslivet? Bruk og betydning i restaurant- og matfagyrker: [Basic skills for working life? Use and importance in restaurant and food processing occupations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halvor Spetalen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A framework for basic skills is included in all subjects and curricula throughout the Norwegian school system. These basic skills are defined as reading, numeracy, and oral, written and digital skills. In this article, I question to what extent these basic skills are being used in professional practice within a selection of restaurant and food processing occupations. The empirical data in the article is based on a survey done autumn 2015 (Spetalen, Eben and Jahanlu, 2016. The report shows that basic skills are being used to various degrees. This variation is not only between different restaurant- and food processing trades, but also in relation to certified skilled workers and those with management responsibilities. Data from this survey indicate that managers and skilled professionals correlated significantly when using basic skills for work. Both mangers and skilled professionals make use of basic skills far more often than professionals without managerial responsibility and non-skilled workers, do. Influenced by Michael Young’s (2004 theory, this survey gives valuable input in developing new vocational curricula relating to a reformed structure in Norwegian vocational training, starting autumn 2019.

  1. Hygiene Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hygiene Basics KidsHealth / For Teens / Hygiene Basics What's in this article? Oily Hair Sweat ... smell, anyway? Read below for information on some hygiene basics — and learn how to deal with greasy ...

  2. Biologically-Oriented Processes in the Coastal Sea Ice Zone of the White Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikov, I. A.

    2002-12-01

    The annual advance and retreat of sea ice is a major physical determinant of spatial and temporal changes in the structure and function of marine coastal biological communities. Sea ice biological data obtained in the tidal zone of Kandalaksha Gulf (White Sea) during 1996-2001 period will be presented. Previous observations in this area were mainly conducted during the ice-free summer season. However, there is little information on the ice-covered winter season (6-7 months duration), and, especially, on the sea-ice biology in the coastal zone within tidal regimes. During the January-May period time-series observations were conducted on transects along shorelines with coastal and fast ice. Trends in the annual extent of sea ice showed significant impacts on ice-associated biological communities. Three types of sea ice impact on kelps, balanoides, littorinas and amphipods are distinguished: (i) positive, when sea ice protects these populations from grinding (ii) negative, when ice grinds both fauna and flora, and (iii) a combined effect, when fast ice protects, but anchored ice grinds plant and animals. To understand the full spectrum of ecological problems caused by pollution on the coastal zone, as well as the problems of sea ice melting caused by global warming, an integrated, long-term study of the physical, chemical, and biological processes is needed.

  3. Single amino acid substitution in important hemoglobinopathies does not disturb molecular function and biological process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Viroj WiwanitkitDepartment of Laboratory Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, ThailandAbstract: Hemoglobin is an important protein found in the red cells of many animals. In humans, the hemoglobin is mainly distributed in the red blood cell. Single amino acid substitution is the main pathogenesis of most hemoglobin disorders. Here, the author used a new gene ontology technology to predict the molecular function and biological process of four important hemoglobin disorders with single substitution. The four studied important abnormal hemoglobins (Hb with single substitution included Hb S, Hb E, Hb C, and Hb J-Baltimore. Using the GoFigure server, the molecular function and biological process in normal and abnormal hemoglobins was predicted. Compared with normal hemoglobin, all studied abnormal hemoglobins had the same function and biological process. This indicated that the overall function of oxygen transportation is not disturbed in the studied hemoglobin disorders. Clinical findings of oxygen depletion in abnormal hemoglobin should therefore be due to the other processes rather than genomics, proteomics, and expression levels.Keywords: hemoglobin, amino acid, substitution, function

  4. Group processing in an undergraduate biology course for preservice teachers: Experiences and attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberger, Lauren Brownback

    Group processing is a key principle of cooperative learning in which small groups discuss their strengths and weaknesses and set group goals or norms. However, group processing has not been well-studied at the post-secondary level or from a qualitative or mixed methods perspective. This mixed methods study uses a phenomenological framework to examine the experience of group processing for students in an undergraduate biology course for preservice teachers. The effect of group processing on students' attitudes toward future group work and group processing is also examined. Additionally, this research investigated preservice teachers' plans for incorporating group processing into future lessons. Students primarily experienced group processing as a time to reflect on past performance. Also, students experienced group processing as a time to increase communication among group members and become motivated for future group assignments. Three factors directly influenced students' experiences with group processing: (1) previous experience with group work, (2) instructor interaction, and (3) gender. Survey data indicated that group processing had a slight positive effect on students' attitudes toward future group work and group processing. Participants who were interviewed felt that group processing was an important part of group work and that it had increased their group's effectiveness as well as their ability to work effectively with other people. Participants held positive views on group work prior to engaging in group processing, and group processing did not alter their atittude toward group work. Preservice teachers who were interviewed planned to use group work and a modified group processing protocol in their future classrooms. They also felt that group processing had prepared them for their future professions by modeling effective collaboration and group skills. Based on this research, a new model for group processing has been created which includes extensive

  5. Treatment of winery wastewater by physicochemical, biological and advanced processes: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou, L A; Li Puma, G; Fatta-Kassinos, D

    2015-04-09

    Winery wastewater is a major waste stream resulting from numerous cleaning operations that occur during the production stages of wine. The resulting effluent contains various organic and inorganic contaminants and its environmental impact is notable, mainly due to its high organic/inorganic load, the large volumes produced and its seasonal variability. Several processes for the treatment of winery wastewater are currently available, but the development of alternative treatment methods is necessary in order to (i) maximize the efficiency and flexibility of the treatment process to meet the discharge requirements for winery effluents, and (ii) decrease both the environmental footprint, as well as the investment/operational costs of the process. This review, presents the state-of-the-art of the processes currently applied and/or tested for the treatment of winery wastewater, which were divided into five categories: i.e., physicochemical, biological, membrane filtration and separation, advanced oxidation processes, and combined biological and advanced oxidation processes. The advantages and disadvantages, as well as the main parameters/factors affecting the efficiency of winery wastewater treatment are discussed. Both bench- and pilot/industrial-scale processes have been considered for this review. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. An Evaluation of the Quality of the Desinfection Process in Inanimated Surfaces of Basic Health Units by Biomarkers Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Bandeira Fucci

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Infection Related Health Care – IRHC may occur by exogenous transmission through the contamination of contaminated surfaces. This study aimed at verifying the quality of the process of disinfecting inanimate surfaces of Basic Health Units – BHU in a northeastern city in São Paulo state, through the presence of biomarkers, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. We evaluated 7 UBS in random times and days, covering the following areas: dressing-room doorknob, drinking fountains and faucets, office desk, reception counter. Sterile swabs were rubbed on a 20 cm2 surface and transported to the laboratory in Stuart medium to the Clinical Analyses Didactic Laboratory of UNIFEV. The samples were cultured on Blood agar and MacConkey agar at 35 ± 1oC for 24 hours in aerobic and microaerophilic jar, respectively. Staphylococcus aureus was identified by the production of hemolysin, catalase and coagulase. Escherichia coli was identified using the biochemical tests: TSI, citrate, urease, indole, lysine, ornithine and arginine. Of the 105 samples analyzed, 6.66% of the samples were positive for Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli to 2.85%. The Areas which showed the presence of biomarkers were: the reception booth, booth pharmacy, handles of the dressing room, dressing room faucet and drinking fountain. These results corroborate other studies that show that inanimate surfaces are important sources of contamination in the healthcare environment, contributing to crosscontamination and, consequently, to the increase of infection to the patient who is subjected to procedures in this environment. Within this context, government, by means of public health policies, is responsible for the training of health professionals, contributing to the promotion and prevention of public health

  7. Laser apparatus and method for microscopic and spectroscopic analysis and processing of biological cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourley, P.L.; Gourley, M.F.

    1997-03-04

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for microscopic and spectroscopic analysis and processing of biological cells. The apparatus comprises a laser having an analysis region within the laser cavity for containing one or more biological cells to be analyzed. The presence of a cell within the analysis region in superposition with an activated portion of a gain medium of the laser acts to encode information about the cell upon the laser beam, the cell information being recoverable by an analysis means that preferably includes an array photodetector such as a CCD camera and a spectrometer. The apparatus and method may be used to analyze biomedical cells including blood cells and the like, and may include processing means for manipulating, sorting, or eradicating cells after analysis. 20 figs.

  8. Biological treatment of fish processing wastewater: A case study from Sfax City (Southeastern Tunisia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemli, Meryem; Karray, Fatma; Feki, Firas; Loukil, Slim; Mhiri, Najla; Aloui, Fathi; Sayadi, Sami

    2015-04-01

    The present work presents a study of the biological treatment of fish processing wastewater at salt concentration of 55 g/L. Wastewater was treated by both continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) and membrane bioreactor (MBR) during 50 and 100 days, respectively. These biological processes involved salt-tolerant bacteria from natural hypersaline environments at different organic loading rates (OLRs). The phylogenetic analysis of the corresponding excised DGGE bands has demonstrated that the taxonomic affiliation of the most dominant species includes Halomonadaceae and Flavobacteriaceae families of the Proteobacteria (Gamma-proteobacteria class) and the Bacteroidetes phyla, respectively. The results of MBR were better than those of CSTR in the removal of total organic carbon with efficiencies from 97.9% to 98.6%. Nevertheless, salinity with increasing OLR aggravates fouling that requires more cleaning for a membrane in MBR while leads to deterioration of sludge settleability and effluent quality in CSTR. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. 'TISUCROMA': A Software for Color Processing of Biological Tissue's Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arista Romeu, Eduardo J.; La Rosa Vazquez, Jose Manuel de; Valor, Alma; Stolik, Suren

    2016-01-01

    In this work a software intended to plot and analyze digital image RGB histograms from normal and abnormal regions of biological tissue. The obtained RGB histograms from each zone can be used to show the image in only one color or the mixture of some of them. The Software was developed in Lab View to process the images in a laptop. Some medical application examples are shown. (Author)

  10. Influence of Technological Processes on Biologically Active Compounds of Produced Grapes Juices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tříska, Jan; Balík, J.; Strohalm, J.; Novotná, P.; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Lefnerová, D.; Landfeld, A.; Híc, P.; Tománková, E.; Veverka, J.; Houška, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 3 (2016), s. 421-429 ISSN 1935-5130 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA MZe QJ1210258; GA MZe QI91B094 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Grapevine juices * Thermomaceration * Biologically active compounds * Antioxidative capacity * Total polyphenols * Antimutagenic activity Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 2.576, year: 2016

  11. A short comparison of electron and proton transfer processes in biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertrand, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    The main differences between electron and proton transfers that take place in biological systems are examined. The relation between the distance dependence of the rate constant and the mass of the transferred particle is analyzed in detail. Differences between the two processes have important consequences at the experimental level, which are discussed. The various mechanisms that ensure the coupling between electron and proton transfers are briefly described

  12. Efficient high-throughput biological process characterization: Definitive screening design with the ambr250 bioreactor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Mitchell; Ly, Amanda; Leung, Inne; Nayar, Gautam

    2015-01-01

    The burgeoning pipeline for new biologic drugs has increased the need for high-throughput process characterization to efficiently use process development resources. Breakthroughs in highly automated and parallelized upstream process development have led to technologies such as the 250-mL automated mini bioreactor (ambr250™) system. Furthermore, developments in modern design of experiments (DoE) have promoted the use of definitive screening design (DSD) as an efficient method to combine factor screening and characterization. Here we utilize the 24-bioreactor ambr250™ system with 10-factor DSD to demonstrate a systematic experimental workflow to efficiently characterize an Escherichia coli (E. coli) fermentation process for recombinant protein production. The generated process model is further validated by laboratory-scale experiments and shows how the strategy is useful for quality by design (QbD) approaches to control strategies for late-stage characterization. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  13. Determination of Biological Treatability Processes of Textile Wastewater and Implementation of a Fuzzy Logic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun Akif Kabuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the biological treatability of textile wastewater. For this purpose, a membrane bioreactor (MBR was utilized for biological treatment after the ozonation process. Due to the refractory organic contents of textile wastewater that has a low biodegradability capacity, ozonation was implemented as an advanced oxidation process prior to the MBR system to increase the biodegradability of the wastewater. Textile wastewater, oxidized by ozonation, was fed to the MBR at different hydraulic retention times (HRT. During the process, color, chemical oxygen demand (COD, and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD removal efficiencies were monitored for 24-hour, 12-hour, 6-hour, and 3-hour retention times. Under these conditions, 94% color, 65% COD, and 55% BOD removal efficiencies were obtained in the MBR system. The experimental outputs were modeled with multiple linear regressions (MLR and fuzzy logic. MLR results suggested that color removal is more related to COD removal relative to BOD removal. A surface map of this issue was prepared with a fuzzy logic model. Furthermore, fuzzy logic was employed to the whole modeling of the biological system treatment. Determination coefficients for COD, BOD, and color removal efficiencies were 0.96, 0.97, and 0.92, respectively.

  14. Posttranslational modifications of desmin and their implication in biological processes and pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Daniel L; Paulin, Denise; Mericskay, Mathias; Li, Zhenlin

    2014-01-01

    Desmin, the muscle-specific intermediate filament, is involved in myofibrillar myopathies, dilated cardiomyopathy and muscle wasting. Desmin is the target of posttranslational modifications (PTMs) such as phosphorylation, ADP-ribosylation and ubiquitylation as well as nonenzymatic modifications such as glycation, oxidation and nitration. Several PTM target residues and their corresponding modifying enzymes have been discovered in human and nonhuman desmin. The major effect of phosphorylation and ADP-ribosylation is the disassembly of desmin filaments, while ubiquitylation of desmin leads to its degradation. The regulation of the desmin filament network by phosphorylation and ADP-ribosylation was found to be implicated in several major biological processes such as myogenesis, myoblast fusion, muscle contraction, muscle atrophy, cell division and possibly desmin interactions with its binding partners. Phosphorylation of desmin is also implicated in many forms of desmin-related myopathies (desminopathies). In this review, we summarize the findings on desmin PTMs and their implication in biological processes and pathologies, and discuss the current knowledge on the regulation of the desmin network by PTMs. We conclude that the desmin filament network can be seen as an intricate scaffold for muscle cell structure and biological processes and that its dynamics can be affected by PTMs. There are now precise tools to investigate PTMs and visualize cellular structures that have been underexploited in the study of desminopathies. Future studies should focus on these aspects.

  15. Innovative biological systems for anaerobic treatment of grain and food processing wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, P M

    1986-09-01

    The application of two innovative fixed film and suspended growth anaerobic biological systems to the treatment of grain and food processing wastewaters is discussed. A fluidized bed fixed film system and a suspended growth membrane system are described. The technical and economic factors dictating which system is selected for treatment of a specific industrial wastewater are discussed. Case history results from successful operation of full-scale, demonstration, and pilot-scale systems treating respectively, soy whey, cheese whey, and wheat flour processing wastewaters are presented.

  16. Removal of pharmaceuticals from wastewater by biological processes, hydrodynamic cavitation and UV treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupanc, Mojca; Kosjek, Tina; Petkovšek, Martin; Dular, Matevž; Kompare, Boris; Širok, Brane; Blažeka, Željko; Heath, Ester

    2013-07-01

    To augment the removal of pharmaceuticals different conventional and alternative wastewater treatment processes and their combinations were investigated. We tested the efficiency of (1) two distinct laboratory scale biological processes: suspended activated sludge and attached-growth biomass, (2) a combined hydrodynamic cavitation-hydrogen peroxide process and (3) UV treatment. Five pharmaceuticals were chosen including ibuprofen, naproxen, ketoprofen, carbamazepine and diclofenac, and an active metabolite of the lipid regulating agent clofibric acid. Biological treatment efficiency was evaluated using lab-scale suspended activated sludge and moving bed biofilm flow-through reactors, which were operated under identical conditions in respect to hydraulic retention time, working volume, concentration of added pharmaceuticals and synthetic wastewater composition. The suspended activated sludge process showed poor and inconsistent removal of clofibric acid, carbamazepine and diclofenac, while ibuprofen, naproxen and ketoprofen yielded over 74% removal. Moving bed biofilm reactors were filled with two different types of carriers i.e. Kaldnes K1 and Mutag BioChip™ and resulted in higher removal efficiencies for ibuprofen and diclofenac. Augmentation and consistency in the removal of diclofenac were observed in reactors using Mutag BioChip™ carriers (85%±10%) compared to reactors using Kaldnes carriers and suspended activated sludge (74%±22% and 48%±19%, respectively). To enhance the removal of pharmaceuticals hydrodynamic cavitation with hydrogen peroxide process was evaluated and optimal conditions for removal were established regarding the duration of cavitation, amount of added hydrogen peroxide and initial pressure, all of which influence the efficiency of the process. Optimal parameters resulted in removal efficiencies between 3-70%. Coupling the attached-growth biomass biological treatment, hydrodynamic cavitation/hydrogen peroxide process and UV treatment

  17. Comparative Study on Interaction of Form and Motion Processing Streams by Applying Two Different Classifiers in Mechanism for Recognition of Biological Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Research on psychophysics, neurophysiology, and functional imaging shows particular representation of biological movements which contains two pathways. The visual perception of biological movements formed through the visual system called dorsal and ventral processing streams. Ventral processing stream is associated with the form information extraction; on the other hand, dorsal processing stream provides motion information. Active basic model (ABM) as hierarchical representation of the human object had revealed novelty in form pathway due to applying Gabor based supervised object recognition method. It creates more biological plausibility along with similarity with original model. Fuzzy inference system is used for motion pattern information in motion pathway creating more robustness in recognition process. Besides, interaction of these paths is intriguing and many studies in various fields considered it. Here, the interaction of the pathways to get more appropriated results has been investigated. Extreme learning machine (ELM) has been implied for classification unit of this model, due to having the main properties of artificial neural networks, but crosses from the difficulty of training time substantially diminished in it. Here, there will be a comparison between two different configurations, interactions using synergetic neural network and ELM, in terms of accuracy and compatibility. PMID:25276860

  18. Comparative Study on Interaction of Form and Motion Processing Streams by Applying Two Different Classifiers in Mechanism for Recognition of Biological Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bardia Yousefi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on psychophysics, neurophysiology, and functional imaging shows particular representation of biological movements which contains two pathways. The visual perception of biological movements formed through the visual system called dorsal and ventral processing streams. Ventral processing stream is associated with the form information extraction; on the other hand, dorsal processing stream provides motion information. Active basic model (ABM as hierarchical representation of the human object had revealed novelty in form pathway due to applying Gabor based supervised object recognition method. It creates more biological plausibility along with similarity with original model. Fuzzy inference system is used for motion pattern information in motion pathway creating more robustness in recognition process. Besides, interaction of these paths is intriguing and many studies in various fields considered it. Here, the interaction of the pathways to get more appropriated results has been investigated. Extreme learning machine (ELM has been implied for classification unit of this model, due to having the main properties of artificial neural networks, but crosses from the difficulty of training time substantially diminished in it. Here, there will be a comparison between two different configurations, interactions using synergetic neural network and ELM, in terms of accuracy and compatibility.

  19. Ten good reasons to consider biological processes in prevention and intervention research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchaine, Theodore P; Neuhaus, Emily; Brenner, Sharon L; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Most contemporary accounts of psychopathology acknowledge the importance of both biological and environmental influences on behavior. In developmental psychopathology, multiple etiological mechanisms for psychiatric disturbance are well recognized, including those operating at genetic, neurobiological, and environmental levels of analysis. However, neuroscientific principles are rarely considered in current approaches to prevention or intervention. In this article, we explain why a deeper understanding of the genetic and neural substrates of behavior is essential for the next generation of preventive interventions, and we outline 10 specific reasons why considering biological processes can improve treatment efficacy. Among these, we discuss (a) the role of biomarkers and endophenotypes in identifying those most in need of prevention; (b) implications for treatment of genetic and neural mechanisms of homotypic comorbidity, heterotypic comorbidity, and heterotypic continuity; (c) ways in which biological vulnerabilities moderate the effects of environmental experience; (d) situations in which Biology x Environment interactions account for more variance in key outcomes than main effects; and (e) sensitivity of neural systems, via epigenesis, programming, and neural plasticity, to environmental moderation across the life span. For each of the 10 reasons outlined we present an example from current literature and discuss critical implications for prevention.

  20. Ten good reasons to consider biological processes in prevention and intervention research

    Science.gov (United States)

    BEAUCHAINE, THEODORE P.; NEUHAUS, EMILY; BRENNER, SHARON L.; GATZKE-KOPP, LISA

    2009-01-01

    Most contemporary accounts of psychopathology acknowledge the importance of both biological and environmental influences on behavior. In developmental psychopathology, multiple etiological mechanisms for psychiatric disturbance are well recognized, including those operating at genetic, neurobiological, and environmental levels of analysis. However, neuroscientific principles are rarely considered in current approaches to prevention or intervention. In this article, we explain why a deeper understanding of the genetic and neural substrates of behavior is essential for the next generation of preventive interventions, and we outline 10 specific reasons why considering biological processes can improve treatment efficacy. Among these, we discuss (a) the role of biomarkers and endophenotypes in identifying those most in need of prevention; (b) implications for treatment of genetic and neural mechanisms of homotypic comorbidity, heterotypic comorbidity, and heterotypic continuity; (c) ways in which biological vulnerabilities moderate the effects of environmental experience; (d) situations in which Biology×Environment interactions account for more variance in key outcomes than main effects; and (e) sensitivity of neural systems, via epigenesis, programming, and neural plasticity, to environmental moderation across the life span. For each of the 10 reasons outlined we present an example from current literature and discuss critical implications for prevention. PMID:18606030

  1. Preliminary degradation process study of infectious biological waste in a 5 k W thermal plasma equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xochihua S M, M.C.

    1997-01-01

    This work is a preliminary study of infectious biological waste degradation process by thermal plasma and was made in Thermal Plasma Applications Laboratory of Environmental Studies Department of the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ). Infectious biological waste degradation process is realized by using samples such polyethylene, cotton, glass, etc., but the present study scope is to analyze polyethylene degradation process with mass and energy balances involved. Degradation method is realized as follow: a polyethylene sample is put in an appropriated crucible localized inside a pyrolysis reactor chamber, the plasma jet is projected to the sample, by the pyrolysis phenomena the sample is degraded into its constitutive particles: carbon and hydrogen. Air was utilized as a recombination gas in order to obtain the higher percent of CO 2 if amount of O 2 is greater in the recombination gas, the CO generation is reduced. The effluent gases of exhaust pyrolysis reactor through are passed through a heat exchanger to get cooled gases, the temperature water used is 15 Centigrade degrees. Finally the gases was tried into absorption tower with water as an absorbent fluid. Thermal plasma degradation process is a very promising technology, but is necessary to develop engineering process area to avail all advantages of thermal plasma. (Author)

  2. Effects of Basicity and MgO in Slag on the Behaviors of Smelting Vanadium Titanomagnetite in the Direct Reduction-Electric Furnace Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Jiang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of basicity and MgO content on reduction behavior and separation of iron and slag during smelting vanadium titanomagnetite by electric furnace were investigated. The reduction behaviors affect the separation of iron and slag in the direct reduction-electric furnace process. The recovery rates of Fe, V, and Ti grades in iron were analyzed to determine the effects of basicity and MgO content on the reduction of iron oxides, vanadium oxides, and titanium oxides. The chemical compositions of vanadium-bearing iron and main phases of titanium slag were detected by XRF and XRD, respectively. The results show that the higher level of basicity is beneficial to the reduction ofiron oxides and vanadium oxides, and titanium content dropped in molten iron with the increasing basicity. As the content of MgO increased, the recovery rate of Fe increased slightly but the recovery rate of V increased considerably. The grades of Ti in molten iron were at a low level without significant change when MgO content was below 11%, but increased as MgO content increased to 12.75%. The optimum conditions for smelting vanadium titanomagnetite were about 11.38% content of MgO and quaternary basicity was about 1.10. The product, vanadium-bearing iron, can be applied in the converter steelmaking process, and titanium slag containing 50.34% TiO2 can be used by the acid leaching method.

  3. The Divergent Thinking of Basic Skills of Sciences Process Skills of Life Aspects on Natural Sciences Subject in Indonesian Elementary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subali, Bambang; Paidi; Mariyam, Siti

    2016-01-01

    This research aims at measuring the divergent thinking of basic skills of science process skills (SPS) of life aspects in Natural Sciences subjects on Elementary School. The test instruments used in this research have been standardized through the development of instruments. In this case, the tests were tried out to 3070 students. The results of…

  4. Mineral CO2 sequestration in basalts and ultra-basic rocks: impact of secondary silicated phases on the carbonation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sissmann, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    The formation of carbonates constitutes a stable option for carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) geological sequestration, and is prone to play a significant role in reducing emissions of anthropic origin. However, our comprehension of the carbonation mechanism, as well as of the kinetics limitations encountered during this chemical reaction, remains poorly developed. Though there is a large number of studies focusing on the dissolution kinetics of basic silicates and on the precipitation of carbonates, few have inquired about the impact that the formation of non-carbonated secondary phases can have on these reaction's kinetics. It is the approach chosen here, as only solid knowledge of the global carbonation mechanism can make this process predictive and efficient. Experimental data on dissolution and carbonation have therefore been determined in batch reactors, on relevant minerals and rocks. Firstly, we studied the carbonation of olivine (a major phase within peridotites and minor within basalts) at 90 deg. C and under pCO 2 of 280 bars. The dissolution of San Carlos olivine (Mg 1.76 Fe 0.24 SiO 4 ) is slowed down by the formation of a surface silica gel, when the fluid reaches equilibrium with amorphous silica. The transport of species to the reactive medium becomes the limiting step of the process, slowing down the dissolution process of San Carlos olivine by 5 orders of magnitude. However, this passivation doesn't occur during the alteration of Ca-olivine (Ca 2 SiO 4 ), though a surface silica layer does form. This comparison suggests that it isn't the structure of the silicate but its chemical composition, which controls the transport properties through the interfacial layer. The second part explores the effects of organic ligands and of temperature variations on the formation of those phases. The addition of citrate at 90 deg. C increases the kinetics of San Carlos olivine by one order of magnitude, and allows the release of enough Mg in the aqueous medium to form

  5. Basic electrotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Ashen, R A

    2013-01-01

    BASIC Electrotechnology discusses the applications of Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC) in engineering, particularly in solving electrotechnology-related problems. The book is comprised of six chapters that cover several topics relevant to BASIC and electrotechnology. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to BASIC, and Chapter 2 talks about the use of complex numbers in a.c. circuit analysis. Chapter 3 covers linear circuit analysis with d.c. and sinusoidal a.c. supplies. The book also discusses the elementary magnetic circuit theory. The theory and performance of two windi

  6. Mind the gap: non-biological processes contributing to soil CO2 efflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Ana

    2015-05-01

    Widespread recognition of the importance of soil CO2 efflux as a major source of CO2 to the atmosphere has led to active research. A large soil respiration database and recent reviews have compiled data, methods, and current challenges. This study highlights some deficiencies for a proper understanding of soil CO2 efflux focusing on processes of soil CO2 production and transport that have not received enough attention in the current soil respiration literature. It has mostly been assumed that soil CO2 efflux is the result of biological processes (i.e. soil respiration), but recent studies demonstrate that pedochemical and geological processes, such as geothermal and volcanic CO2 degassing, are potentially important in some areas. Besides the microbial decomposition of litter, solar radiation is responsible for photodegradation or photochemical degradation of litter. Diffusion is considered to be the main mechanism of CO2 transport in the soil, but changes in atmospheric pressure and thermal convection may also be important mechanisms driving soil CO2 efflux greater than diffusion under certain conditions. Lateral fluxes of carbon as dissolved organic and inorganic carbon occur and may cause an underestimation of soil CO2 efflux. Traditionally soil CO2 efflux has been measured with accumulation chambers assuming that the main transport mechanism is diffusion. New techniques are available such as improved automated chambers, CO2 concentration profiles and isotopic techniques that may help to elucidate the sources of carbon from soils. We need to develop specific and standardized methods for different CO2 sources to quantify this flux on a global scale. Biogeochemical models should include biological and non-biological CO2 production processes before we can predict the response of soil CO2 efflux to climate change. Improving our understanding of the processes involved in soil CO2 efflux should be a research priority given the importance of this flux in the global

  7. Prospects for energy recovery during hydrothermal and biological processing of waste biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber Van Doren, Léda; Posmanik, Roy; Bicalho, Felipe A; Tester, Jefferson W; Sills, Deborah L

    2017-02-01

    Thermochemical and biological processes represent promising technologies for converting wet biomasses, such as animal manure, organic waste, or algae, to energy. To convert biomass to energy and bio-chemicals in an economical manner, internal energy recovery should be maximized to reduce the use of external heat and power. In this study, two conversion pathways that couple hydrothermal liquefaction with anaerobic digestion or catalytic hydrothermal gasification were compared. Each of these platforms is followed by two alternative processes for gas utilization: 1) combined heat and power; and 2) combustion in a boiler. Pinch analysis was applied to integrate thermal streams among unit processes and improve the overall system efficiency. A techno-economic analysis was conducted to compare the feasibility of the four modeled scenarios under different market conditions. Our results show that a systems approach designed to recover internal heat and power can reduce external energy demands and increase the overall process sustainability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Survey of biological processes for odor reduction; Kartlaeggning och studie av biologiska processer foer luktreduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrhenius, Karine; Rosell, Lars [SP Technical Research Inst. of Sweden, Boraas (Sweden); Hall, Gunnar [SIK Swedish Inst. for Food and Biotechnology, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2009-09-15

    This project aims to characterize chemical and subsequently odor emissions from a digester plant located closed to Boraas in Sweden (Boraas Energi och Miljoe AB). The digestion produces mainly 2 by-products, biogas and high quality organic biofertilizer. Biogas is a renewable source of electrical and heat energy and subsequently digester have a promising future. Unfortunately, release of unpleasant odours is one of the problems that may limit development of the technique as odours strongly influence the level of acceptance of the neighbours. The number of complaints due to odours depends mostly, upon the degree of odour release, the weather condition and plant environment (which influence the risks for spreading out), and the tolerance of the neighbours. These parameters are strongly variable. Many processes inside the plant distributed on a large surface may contribute to odour release. Chemical emissions were studied, in this project, by extensive sampling inside the plant. Results were then evaluated regarding risk for odour releases. The goal was to suggest controls and routines to limit releases. The conditions leading to the higher risks for odour emissions were studied by performing sampling at different periods of the year and subsequently different weather conditions. At first, places for measurement were chosen together with personal of the plant. Three zones are considered to mainly contribute to the odour emissions: the landfill region, the cisterns region and the leaching lake region. Totally 13 places were studied with regard to odour and chemical emissions under 2008-2009 at different weather conditions. Some results from a previous project (2007) are also presented here. Results show that the spreading out of can be maintained to an acceptable level as long as the plant is functioning without disturbances. The early stages of the treatment of waste should be confined in locals with closed doors to avoid spreading out of odours. Through controlled

  9. Advanced oxidation process-biological system for wastewater containing a recalcitrant pollutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oller, I; Malato, S; Sánchez-Pérez, J A; Maldonado, M I; Gernjak, W; Pérez-Estrada, L A

    2007-01-01

    Two advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), ozonation and photo-Fenton, combined with a pilot aerobic biological reactor at field scale were employed for the treatment of industrial non-biodegradable saline wastewater (TOC around 200 mgL(-1)) containing a biorecalcitrant compound, alpha-methylphenylglycine (MPG), at a concentration of 500 mgL(-1). Ozonation experiments were performed in a 50-L reactor with constant inlet ozone of 21.9 g m(-3). Solar photo-Fenton tests were carried out in a 75-L pilot plant made up of four compound parabolic collector (CPC) units. The catalyst concentration employed in this system was 20 mgL(-1) of Fe2+ and the H2O2 concentration was kept in the range of 200-500mgL(-1). Complete degradation of MPG was attained after 1,020 min of ozone treatment, while only 195 min were required for photo-Fenton. Samples from different stages of both AOPs were taken for Zahn-Wellens biocompatibility tests. Biodegradability enhancement of the industrial saline wastewater was confirmed (>70% biodegradability). Biodegradable compounds generated during the preliminary oxidative processes were biologically mineralised in a 170-L aerobic immobilised biomass reactor (IBR). The global efficiency of both AOP/biological combined systems was 90% removal of an initial TOC of over 500 mgL(-1).

  10. Removal of dimethyl sulfide by the combination of non-thermal plasma and biological process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Z S; Li, H Q; He, J C; Ye, Q H; Huang, Q R; Luo, Y W

    2013-10-01

    A bench scale system integrated with a non-thermal plasma (NTP) and a biotricking filtration (BTF) unit for the treatment of gases containing dimethyl sulfide (DMS) was investigated. DMS removal efficiency in the integrated system was up to 96%. Bacterial communities in the BTF were assessed by PCR-DGGE, which play the dominant role in the biological processes of metabolism, sulfur oxidation, sulfate-reducing and carbon oxidation. The addition of ozone from NTP made microbial community in BTF more complicated and active for DMS removal. The NTP oxidize DMS to simple compounds such as methanol and carbonyl sulfide; the intermediate organic products and DMS are further oxidized to sulfate, carbon dioxide, water vapors by biological degradation. These results show that NTP-BTF is achievable and open new possibilities for applying the integrated with NTP and BTF to odour gas treatment. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Process of Argumentation in High School Biology Class: A Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, M.; Rakhmawati, E.; Hendarto, P.; Winarni

    2017-02-01

    Argumentation skill can be nurtured by designing a lesson in which students are provided with the opportunity to argue. This research aims to analyse argumentation process in biology class. The participants were students of three biology classes from different high schools in Surakarta Indonesia. One of the classroom was taught by a student teacher, and the rest were instructed by the assigned teachers. Through a classroom observation, oral activities were noted, audio-recorded and video-taped. Coding was done based on the existence of claiming-reasoning-evidence (CRE) process by McNeill and Krajcik. Data was analysed qualitatively focusing on the role of teachers to initiate questioning to support argumentation process. The lesson design of three were also analysed. The result shows that pedagogical skill of teachers to support argumentation process, such as skill to ask, answer, and respond to students’ question and statements need to be trained intensively. Most of the argumentation found were only claiming, without reasoning and evidence. Teachers have to change the routine of mostly posing open-ended questions to students, and giving directly a correct answer to students’ questions. Knowledge and skills to encourage student to follow inquiry-based learning have to be acquired by teachers.

  12. Biological shielding design and qualification of concreting process for construction of electron beam irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petwal, V.C.; Kumar, P.; Suresh, N.; Parchani, G.; Dwivedi, J.; Thakurta, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    A technology demonstration facility for irradiation of food and agricultural products is being set-up by RRCAT at Indore. The facility design is based on linear electron accelerator with maximum beam power of 10 kW and can be operated either in electron mode at 10 MeV or photon modes at 5/7.5 MeV. Biological shielding has been designed in accordance with NCRP 51 to achieve dose rate at all accessible points outside the irradiation vault less than the permissible limit of 0.1 mR/hr. In addition to radiation attenuation property, concrete must have satisfactory mechanical properties to meet the structural requirements. There are number of site specific variables which affect the structural, thermal and radiological properties of concrete, leading to considerable difference in actual values and design values. Hence it is essential to establish a suitable site and environmental specific process to cast the concrete and qualify the process by experimental measurement. For process qualification we have cast concrete test blocks of different thicknesses up to 3.25 m and evaluated the radiological and mechanical properties by radiometry, ultrasonic and mechanical tests. In this paper we describe the biological shielding design of the facility and analyse the results of tests carried out for qualification of the process. (author)

  13. Anesthesia Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Anesthesia Basics KidsHealth / For Teens / Anesthesia Basics What's in ... español Conceptos básicos sobre la anestesia What Is Anesthesia? No doubt about it, getting an operation can ...

  14. BASIC Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Carol Ann

    Designed for use by both secondary- and postsecondary-level business teachers, this curriculum guide consists of 10 units of instructional materials dealing with Beginners All-Purpose Symbol Instruction Code (BASIC) programing. Topics of the individual lessons are numbering BASIC programs and using the PRINT, END, and REM statements; system…

  15. Finding biological process modifications in cancer tissues by mining gene expression correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Storari Sergio

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Through the use of DNA microarrays it is now possible to obtain quantitative measurements of the expression of thousands of genes from a biological sample. This technology yields a global view of gene expression that can be used in several ways. Functional insight into expression profiles is routinely obtained by using Gene Ontology terms associated to the cellular genes. In this paper, we deal with functional data mining from expression profiles, proposing a novel approach that studies the correlations between genes and their relations to Gene Ontology (GO. By using this "functional correlations comparison" we explore all possible pairs of genes identifying the affected biological processes by analyzing in a pair-wise manner gene expression patterns and linking correlated pairs with Gene Ontology terms. Results We apply here this "functional correlations comparison" approach to identify the existing correlations in hepatocarcinoma (161 microarray experiments and to reveal functional differences between normal liver and cancer tissues. The number of well-correlated pairs in each GO term highlights several differences in genetic interactions between cancer and normal tissues. We performed a bootstrap analysis in order to compute false detection rates (FDR and confidence limits. Conclusion Experimental results show the main advantage of the applied method: it both picks up general and specific GO terms (in particular it shows a fine resolution in the specific GO terms. The results obtained by this novel method are highly coherent with the ones proposed by other cancer biology studies. But additionally they highlight the most specific and interesting GO terms helping the biologist to focus his/her studies on the most relevant biological processes.

  16. Effect of ozone on the performance of a hybrid ceramic membrane-biological activated carbon process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jianning; Hu, Jiangyong; Tao, Yi; Zhu, Jia; Zhang, Xihui

    2014-04-01

    Two hybrid processes including ozonation-ceramic membrane-biological activated carbon (BAC) (Process A) and ceramic membrane-BAC (Process B) were compared to treat polluted raw water. The performance of hybrid processes was evaluated with the removal efficiencies of turbidity, ammonia and organic matter. The results indicated that more than 99% of particle count was removed by both hybrid processes and ozonation had no significant effect on its removal. BAC filtration greatly improved the removal of ammonia. Increasing the dissolved oxygen to 30.0 mg/L could lead to a removal of ammonia with concentrations as high as 7.80 mg/L and 8.69 mg/L for Processes A and B, respectively. The average removal efficiencies of total organic carbon and ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm (UV254, a parameter indicating organic matter with aromatic structure) were 49% and 52% for Process A, 51% and 48% for Process B, respectively. Some organic matter was oxidized by ozone and this resulted in reduced membrane fouling and increased membrane flux by 25%-30%. However, pre-ozonation altered the components of the raw water and affected the microorganisms in the BAC, which may impact the removals of organic matter and nitrite negatively. Copyright © 2014 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Measurement method of the distribution coefficient on the sorption process. Basic procedure of the method relevant to the barrier materials used for the deep geological disposal: 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-08-01

    This standard was approved by Atomic Energy Society of Japan after deliberation of the Subcommittee on the Radioactive Waste Management, the Nuclear Cycle Technical Committee and the Standard Committee, and after obtaining about 600 comments from specialists of about 30 persons. This document defines the basic measurement procedure of the distribution coefficient (hereafter referred as Kd) to judge the reliability, reproducibility and applications and to provide the requirements for inter-comparison of Kd for a variety of barrier materials used for deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes. The basic measurement procedure of Kd is standardized, following the preceded standard, 'Measurement Method of the Distribution Coefficient on the Sorption Process - Basic Procedure of Batch Method Relevant to the Barrier Materials Used for the Shallow Land Disposal: 2002 (hereafter referred as Standard for the Shallow Land Disposal)', and considering recent progress after its publication and specific issues to the deep geological disposal. (J.P.N.)

  18. Assessment of biological chromium among stainless steel and mild steel welders in relation to welding processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmé, J L; Shirali, P; Mereau, M; Sobaszek, A; Boulenguez, C; Diebold, F; Haguenoer, J M

    1997-01-01

    Air and biological monitoring were used for assessing external and internal chromium exposure among 116 stainless steel welders (SS welders) using manual metal arc (MMA), metal inert gas (MIG) and tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding processes (MMA: n = 57; MIG: n = 37; TIG: n = 22) and 30 mild steel welders (MS welders) using MMA and MIG welding processes (MMA: n = 14; MIG: n = 16). The levels of atmospheric total chromium were evaluated after personal air monitoring. The mean values for the different groups of SS welders were 201 micrograms/m3 (MMA) and 185 micrograms/m3 (MIG), 52 micrograms/m3 (TIG) and for MS welders 8.1 micrograms/m3 (MMA) and 7.3 micrograms/m3 (MIG). The curve of cumulative frequency distribution from biological monitoring among SS welders showed chromium geometric mean concentrations in whole blood of 3.6 micrograms/l (95th percentile = 19.9), in plasma of 3.3 micrograms/l (95th percentile = 21.0) and in urine samples of 6.2 micrograms/l (95th percentile = 58.0). Among MS welders, mean values in whole blood and plasma were rather more scattered (1.8 micrograms/l, 95th percentile = 9.3 and 1.3 micrograms/l, 95th percentile = 8.4, respectively) and in urine the value was 2.4 micrograms/l (95th percentile = 13.3). The analysis of variance of chromium concentrations in plasma previously showed a metal effect (F = 29.7, P process effect (F = 22.2, P process interaction (F = 1.3, P = 0.25). Concerning urinary chromium concentration, the analysis of variance also showed a metal effect (F = 30, P process effect (F = 72, P process interaction (F = 13.2, P = 0.0004). Throughout the study we noted any significant differences between smokers and non-smokers among welders. Taking in account the relationships between chromium concentrations in whole, plasma or urine and the different welding process. MMA-SS is definitely different from other processes because the biological values are clearly higher. These higher levels are due to the very significant

  19. Intended process water management concept for the mechanical biological treatment of municipal solid waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D. Weichgrebe; S. Maerker; T. Boning; H. Stegemann

    2008-01-01

    Accumulating operational experience in both aerobic and anaerobic mechanical biological waste treatment (MBT) makes it increasingly obvious that controlled water management would substantially reduce the cost of MBT and also enhance resource recovery of the organic and inorganic fraction. The MBT plant at Gescher, Germany, is used as an example in order to determine the quantity and composition of process water and leachates from intensive and subsequent rotting, pressing water from anaerobic digestion and scrubber water from acid exhaust air treatment, and hence prepare an MBT water balance. The potential of, requirements for and limits to internal process water reuse as well as the possibilities of resource recovery from scrubber water are also examined. Finally, an assimilated process water management concept with the purpose of an extensive reduction of wastewater quantity and freshwater demand is presented.

  20. Potential biological hazard of importance for HACCP plans in fresh fish processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baltić Milan Ž.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP system is scientifically based and focused on problem prevention in order to assure the produced food products are safe to consume. Prerequisite programs such as GMP (Good Manufacturing Practices, GHP (Good Hygienic Practices are an essential foundation for the development and implementation of successful HACCP plans. One of the preliminary tasks in the development of HACCP plan is to conduct a hazard analysis. The process of conducting a hazard analysis involves two stages. The first is hazard identification and the second stage is the HACCP team decision which potential hazards must be addressed in the HACCP plan. By definition, the HACCP concept covers all types of potential food safety hazards: biological, chemical and physical, whether they are naturally occurring in the food, contributed by the environment or generated by a mistake in the manufacturing process. In raw fish processing, potential significant biological hazards which are reasonably likely to cause illness of humans are parasites (Trematodae, Nematodae, Cestodae, bacteria (Salmonella, E. coli, Vibrio parahemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium botulinum, Staphyloccocus aureus, viruses (Norwalk virus, Entero virusesi, Hepatitis A, Rotovirus and bio-toxins. Upon completion of hazard analysis, any measure(s that are used to control the hazard(s should be described.

  1. Nanomaterial processing using self-assembly-bottom-up chemical and biological approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiruvengadathan, Rajagopalan; Gangopadhyay, Keshab; Gangopadhyay, Shubhra; Korampally, Venumadhav; Ghosh, Arkasubhra; Chanda, Nripen

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology is touted as the next logical sequence in technological evolution. This has led to a substantial surge in research activities pertaining to the development and fundamental understanding of processes and assembly at the nanoscale. Both top-down and bottom-up fabrication approaches may be used to realize a range of well-defined nanostructured materials with desirable physical and chemical attributes. Among these, the bottom-up self-assembly process offers the most realistic solution toward the fabrication of next-generation functional materials and devices. Here, we present a comprehensive review on the physical basis behind self-assembly and the processes reported in recent years to direct the assembly of nanoscale functional blocks into hierarchically ordered structures. This paper emphasizes assembly in the synthetic domain as well in the biological domain, underscoring the importance of biomimetic approaches toward novel materials. In particular, two important classes of directed self-assembly, namely, (i) self-assembly among nanoparticle–polymer systems and (ii) external field-guided assembly are highlighted. The spontaneous self-assembling behavior observed in nature that leads to complex, multifunctional, hierarchical structures within biological systems is also discussed in this review. Recent research undertaken to synthesize hierarchically assembled functional materials have underscored the need as well as the benefits harvested in synergistically combining top-down fabrication methods with bottom-up self-assembly. (review article)

  2. Combination of Advanced Oxidation Processes and biological treatments for wastewater decontamination-A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oller, I.; Malato, S.; Sanchez-Perez, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays there is a continuously increasing worldwide concern for development of alternative water reuse technologies, mainly focused on agriculture and industry. In this context, Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) are considered a highly competitive water treatment technology for the removal of those organic pollutants not treatable by conventional techniques due to their high chemical stability and/or low biodegradability. Although chemical oxidation for complete mineralization is usually expensive, its combination with a biological treatment is widely reported to reduce operating costs. This paper reviews recent research combining AOPs (as a pre-treatment or post-treatment stage) and bioremediation technologies for the decontamination of a wide range of synthetic and real industrial wastewater. Special emphasis is also placed on recent studies and large-scale combination schemes developed in Mediterranean countries for non-biodegradable wastewater treatment and reuse. The main conclusions arrived at from the overall assessment of the literature are that more work needs to be done on degradation kinetics and reactor modeling of the combined process, and also dynamics of the initial attack on primary contaminants and intermediate species generation. Furthermore, better economic models must be developed to estimate how the cost of this combined process varies with specific industrial wastewater characteristics, the overall decontamination efficiency and the relative cost of the AOP versus biological treatment.

  3. Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn biogeochemical behaviour and biological transfer processes in the Northwestern Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolas, E.; Marty, J.C.; Miquel, J.C.; Fowler, S.W.

    1999-01-01

    Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn concentrations were determined in planktonic organisms (Salps, copepods), their associated faecal pellets and in particles collected at 200 and 2000 m depth in sediment traps moored in the Ligurian Sea. Al and P were also measured and taken as tracers of lithogenic and biogenic components, respectively. The aim of this work was to determine the fluxes of trace metals in the Ligurian Sea and their variations with depth, and to to assess the biogeochemical behaviour of elements having, for some of them, an anthropogenic origin, by the study of biologically-mediated uptake and removal processes

  4. State Estimation for a Biological Phosphorus Removal Process using an Asymptotic Observer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larose, Claude Alain; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated the use of an asymptotic observer for state estimation in a continuous biological phosphorus removal process. The estimated states are the concentration of heterotrophic, autotrophic, and phosphorus accumulating organisms, polyphosphate, glycogen and PHA. The reaction scheme...... if the convergence, driven by the dilution rate, was slow (from 15 to 60 days). The propagation of the measurement noise and a bias in the estimation of glycogen and PHA could be the result of the high condition number of one of the matrices used in the algorithm of the asymptotic observer for the aerated tanks....

  5. Antibiotic abatement in different advanced oxidation processes coupled with a biological sequencing batch biofilm reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esplugas, M.; Gonzalez, O.; Benito, J.; Sans, C.

    2009-01-01

    During the last decade, the lack of fresh water is becoming a major concern. Recently, the present of recalcitrant products such as pharmaceuticals has caused a special interest due to their undefined environmental impact. Among these antibiotics are one of the numerous recalcitrant pollutants present in surface waters that might not be completely removed in the biological stage of sewage treatment plants because of their antibacterial nature. Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) have proved to be highly efficient for the degradation of most organic pollutants in wastewaters. (Author)

  6. Theoretical considerations concerning the effect of relativistic velocities on the rate of biological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heneine, I F

    1997-06-01

    Theoretical considerations were advanced on the reaction rate of biological systems in a rocket accelerated at fractional levels of the velocity of light. The values of mass increase in reacting molecules and length contraction of space under these relativistic velocities attained by the hypothetical rocket were inserted in equations of the absolute reaction rate theory. The equations employed were for the frequency of collisions, and for the internal kinetic energy of molecular reactions. Results of both sets of equations indicated that reduction of reaction rates were correlated to the mass increase. This would imply a general slowing of all chemical, biochemical and biological processes taking place. A human would suffer a related decrease in metabolic rate. Contrary to what is generally accepted, the biological aging of the space traveler under velocities bearable by humans, namely under 0.50c, would follow a pace very similar to that of an observer remaining in the resting frame of reference. With increased increments of the velocity, the space traveler would display a more intense lowering of the metabolic rate, with signs and symptoms comparable to body core hypothermia. Metabolic rates at insufficient levels to maintain the vital functions would be attained at 0.70c and higher, leading swiftly to coma and death. The presence of an endocrine dysfunction such as hypothyroidism or obesity in the space traveler would aggravate the signs and symptoms. Space travel at efficient velocities would be unbearable for a warm-blooded animal.

  7. Microbiology and atmospheric processes: biological, physical and chemical characterization of aerosol particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Georgakopoulos

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The interest in bioaerosols has traditionally been linked to health hazards for humans, animals and plants. However, several components of bioaerosols exhibit physical properties of great significance for cloud processes, such as ice nucleation and cloud condensation. To gain a better understanding of their influence on climate, it is therefore important to determine the composition, concentration, seasonal fluctuation, regional diversity and evolution of bioaerosols. In this paper, we will review briefly the existing techniques for detection, quantification, physical and chemical analysis of biological particles, attempting to bridge physical, chemical and biological methods for analysis of biological particles and integrate them with aerosol sampling techniques. We will also explore some emerging spectroscopy techniques for bulk and single-particle analysis that have potential for in-situ physical and chemical analysis. Lastly, we will outline open questions and further desired capabilities (e.g., in-situ, sensitive, both broad and selective, on-line, time-resolved, rapid, versatile, cost-effective techniques required prior to comprehensive understanding of chemical and physical characterization of bioaerosols.

  8. Supporting cognition in systems biology analysis: findings on users' processes and design implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirel, Barbara

    2009-02-13

    Current usability studies of bioinformatics tools suggest that tools for exploratory analysis support some tasks related to finding relationships of interest but not the deep causal insights necessary for formulating plausible and credible hypotheses. To better understand design requirements for gaining these causal insights in systems biology analyses a longitudinal field study of 15 biomedical researchers was conducted. Researchers interacted with the same protein-protein interaction tools to discover possible disease mechanisms for further experimentation. Findings reveal patterns in scientists' exploratory and explanatory analysis and reveal that tools positively supported a number of well-structured query and analysis tasks. But for several of scientists' more complex, higher order ways of knowing and reasoning the tools did not offer adequate support. Results show that for a better fit with scientists' cognition for exploratory analysis systems biology tools need to better match scientists' processes for validating, for making a transition from classification to model-based reasoning, and for engaging in causal mental modelling. As the next great frontier in bioinformatics usability, tool designs for exploratory systems biology analysis need to move beyond the successes already achieved in supporting formulaic query and analysis tasks and now reduce current mismatches with several of scientists' higher order analytical practices. The implications of results for tool designs are discussed.

  9. The yield, processing, and biological consequences of clustered DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikazono, Naoya; Noguchi, Miho; Fujii, Kentaro; Urushibara, Ayumi; Yokoya, Akinari

    2009-01-01

    After living cells are exposed to ionizing radiation, a variety of chemical modifications of DNA are induced either directly by ionization of DNA or indirectly through interactions with water-derived radicals. The DNA lesions include single strand breaks (SSB), base lesions, sugar damage, and apurinic/apyrimidinic sites (AP sites). Clustered DNA damage, which is defined as two or more of such lesions within one to two helical turns of DNA induced by a single radiation track, is considered to be a unique feature of ionizing radiation. A double strand break (DSB) is a type of clustered DNA damage, in which single strand breaks are formed on opposite strands in close proximity. Formation and repair of DSBs have been studied in great detail over the years as they have been linked to important biological endpoints, such as cell death, loss of genetic material, chromosome aberration. Although non-DSB clustered DNA damage has received less attention, there is growing evidence of its biological significance. This review focuses on the current understanding of (1) the yield of non-DSB clustered damage induced by ionizing radiation (2) the processing, and (3) biological consequences of non-DSB clustered DNA damage. (author)

  10. Principles for integrating reactive species into in vivo biological processes: Examples from exercise physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaritelis, Nikos V; Cobley, James N; Paschalis, Vassilis; Veskoukis, Aristidis S; Theodorou, Anastasios A; Kyparos, Antonios; Nikolaidis, Michalis G

    2016-04-01

    The equivocal role of reactive species and redox signaling in exercise responses and adaptations is an example clearly showing the inadequacy of current redox biology research to shed light on fundamental biological processes in vivo. Part of the answer probably relies on the extreme complexity of the in vivo redox biology and the limitations of the currently applied methodological and experimental tools. We propose six fundamental principles that should be considered in future studies to mechanistically link reactive species production to exercise responses or adaptations: 1) identify and quantify the reactive species, 2) determine the potential signaling properties of the reactive species, 3) detect the sources of reactive species, 4) locate the domain modified and verify the (ir)reversibility of post-translational modifications, 5) establish causality between redox and physiological measurements, 6) use selective and targeted antioxidants. Fulfilling these principles requires an idealized human experimental setting, which is certainly a utopia. Thus, researchers should choose to satisfy those principles, which, based on scientific evidence, are most critical for their specific research question. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Basic hydraulics

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, P D

    1982-01-01

    BASIC Hydraulics aims to help students both to become proficient in the BASIC programming language by actually using the language in an important field of engineering and to use computing as a means of mastering the subject of hydraulics. The book begins with a summary of the technique of computing in BASIC together with comments and listing of the main commands and statements. Subsequent chapters introduce the fundamental concepts and appropriate governing equations. Topics covered include principles of fluid mechanics; flow in pipes, pipe networks and open channels; hydraulic machinery;

  12. Body Basics Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Body Basics articles explain just how each body system, part, and process works. Use this medical library to find out about basic human anatomy, how ... Teeth Skin, Hair, and Nails Spleen and Lymphatic System ... Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...

  13. Comparing biological and thermochemical processing of sugarcane bagasse: An energy balance perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leibbrandt, N.H.; Knoetze, J.H.; Goergens, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    The technical performance of lignocellulosic enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation versus pyrolysis processes for sugarcane bagasse was evaluated, based on currently available technology. Process models were developed for bioethanol production from sugarcane bagasse using three different pretreatment methods, i.e. dilute acid, liquid hot water and steam explosion, at various solid concentrations. Two pyrolysis processes, namely fast pyrolysis and vacuum pyrolysis, were considered as alternatives to biological processing for the production of biofuels from sugarcane bagasse. For bioethanol production, a minimum of 30% solids in the pretreatment reactor was required to render the process energy self-sufficient, which led to a total process energy demand equivalent to roughly 40% of the feedstock higher heating value. Both vacuum pyrolysis and fast pyrolysis could be operated as energy self-sufficient if 45% of the produced char from fast pyrolysis is used to fuel the process. No char energy is required to fuel the vacuum pyrolysis process due to lower process energy demands (17% compared to 28% of the feedstock higher heating value). The process models indicated that effective process heat integration can result in a 10-15% increase in all process energy efficiencies. Process thermal efficiencies between 52 and 56% were obtained for bioethanol production at pretreatment solids at 30% and 50%, respectively, while the efficiencies were 70% for both pyrolysis processes. The liquid fuel energy efficiency of the best bioethanol process is 41%, while that of crude bio-oil production before upgrading is 67% and 56% via fast and vacuum pyrolysis, respectively. Efficiencies for pyrolysis processes are expected to decrease by up to 15% should upgrade to a transportation fuel of equivalent quality to bioethanol be taken into consideration. -- Highlights: → Liquid biofuels can be produced via lignocellulosic enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation or pyrolysis. → A minimum of

  14. Composting of the solid fraction of digestate derived from pig slurry: Biological processes and compost properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tambone, Fulvia, E-mail: fulvia.tambone@unimi.it; Terruzzi, Laura; Scaglia, Barbara; Adani, Fabrizio

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Anaerobic digestion leads to the production of a biologically stable digestate. • Solid–liquid separation produces a solid fraction having high fertilizer value. • Composting process shows low biological activity due to high biological stability of digestate. • Solid digestate fraction can be composted in a short time or used directly as organic fertilizer. - Abstract: The aim of this paper was to assess the characteristics of the solid fractions (SF) obtained by mechanical separation of digestate, their compostability and compost quality. To do so, the SF of digestates obtained from anaerobic digestion of pig slurry, energy crops and agro-industrial residues were sampled in five plants located in Northern Italy. Results obtained indicated that anaerobic digestion by itself promoted the high biological stability of biomasses with a Potential Dynamic Respiration Index (PDRI) close to 1000 mgO{sub 2} kg V S{sup −1} h{sup −1}. Subsequent composting of digestates, with an added bulking agent, did not give remarkably different results, and led only to a slight modification of the characteristics of the initial non-composted mixtures; the composts obtained fully respected the legal limits for high quality compost. Chemical studies of organic matter composition of the biomasses by using CP MAS {sup 13}C NMR, indicated that the compost was composed of a high relative content of O-alkyl-C (71.47% of total C) (cellulose and hemicelluloses) and a low alkyl-C (12.42%) (i.e. volatile fatty acids, steroid-like molecules, aliphatic biopolymers and proteins)

  15. Composting of the solid fraction of digestate derived from pig slurry: Biological processes and compost properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tambone, Fulvia; Terruzzi, Laura; Scaglia, Barbara; Adani, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Anaerobic digestion leads to the production of a biologically stable digestate. • Solid–liquid separation produces a solid fraction having high fertilizer value. • Composting process shows low biological activity due to high biological stability of digestate. • Solid digestate fraction can be composted in a short time or used directly as organic fertilizer. - Abstract: The aim of this paper was to assess the characteristics of the solid fractions (SF) obtained by mechanical separation of digestate, their compostability and compost quality. To do so, the SF of digestates obtained from anaerobic digestion of pig slurry, energy crops and agro-industrial residues were sampled in five plants located in Northern Italy. Results obtained indicated that anaerobic digestion by itself promoted the high biological stability of biomasses with a Potential Dynamic Respiration Index (PDRI) close to 1000 mgO 2 kg V S −1 h −1 . Subsequent composting of digestates, with an added bulking agent, did not give remarkably different results, and led only to a slight modification of the characteristics of the initial non-composted mixtures; the composts obtained fully respected the legal limits for high quality compost. Chemical studies of organic matter composition of the biomasses by using CP MAS 13 C NMR, indicated that the compost was composed of a high relative content of O-alkyl-C (71.47% of total C) (cellulose and hemicelluloses) and a low alkyl-C (12.42%) (i.e. volatile fatty acids, steroid-like molecules, aliphatic biopolymers and proteins)

  16. A biological inspired fuzzy adaptive window median filter (FAWMF) for enhancing DNA signal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Muneer; Jung, Low Tan; Bhuiyan, Al-Amin

    2017-10-01

    Digital signal processing techniques commonly employ fixed length window filters to process the signal contents. DNA signals differ in characteristics from common digital signals since they carry nucleotides as contents. The nucleotides own genetic code context and fuzzy behaviors due to their special structure and order in DNA strand. Employing conventional fixed length window filters for DNA signal processing produce spectral leakage and hence results in signal noise. A biological context aware adaptive window filter is required to process the DNA signals. This paper introduces a biological inspired fuzzy adaptive window median filter (FAWMF) which computes the fuzzy membership strength of nucleotides in each slide of window and filters nucleotides based on median filtering with a combination of s-shaped and z-shaped filters. Since coding regions cause 3-base periodicity by an unbalanced nucleotides' distribution producing a relatively high bias for nucleotides' usage, such fundamental characteristic of nucleotides has been exploited in FAWMF to suppress the signal noise. Along with adaptive response of FAWMF, a strong correlation between median nucleotides and the Π shaped filter was observed which produced enhanced discrimination between coding and non-coding regions contrary to fixed length conventional window filters. The proposed FAWMF attains a significant enhancement in coding regions identification i.e. 40% to 125% as compared to other conventional window filters tested over more than 250 benchmarked and randomly taken DNA datasets of different organisms. This study proves that conventional fixed length window filters applied to DNA signals do not achieve significant results since the nucleotides carry genetic code context. The proposed FAWMF algorithm is adaptive and outperforms significantly to process DNA signal contents. The algorithm applied to variety of DNA datasets produced noteworthy discrimination between coding and non-coding regions contrary

  17. Advances in wastewater nitrogen removal by biological processes: state of the art review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea G. Capodaglio

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes the state-of-the-art of the most recent advances in biological nitrogen removal, including process design criteria and technological innovations. With reference to the Modified Ludzck Ettinger (MLE process (pre-denitrification and nitrification in the activated sludge process, the most common nitrogen removal process used nowadays, a new design equation for the denitrification reactor based on specific denitrification rate (SDNR has been proposed. In addition, factors influencing SDNR (DO in the anoxic reactor; hydrodynamic behavior are analyzed, and technological solutions are proposed. Concerning technological advances, the paper presents a summary of various “deammonification” processes, better known by their patent names like ANAMMOX®, DEMON®, CANON®, ANITA® and others. These processes have already found applications in the treatment of high-strength wastewater such as digested sludge liquor and landfill leachate. Among other emerging denitrification technologies, consideration is given to the Membrane Biofilm Reactors (MBfRs that can be operated both in oxidation and reduction mode.

  18. Basic Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittek, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    A discussion of the basic measures of corporate financial strength, and the sources of the information is reported. Considered are: balance sheet, income statement, funds and cash flow, and financial ratios.

  19. A novel theory: biological processes mostly involve two types of mediators, namely general and specific mediators Endogenous small radicals such as superoxide and nitric oxide may play a role of general mediator in biological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Jian

    2005-01-01

    A great number of papers have shown that free radicals as well as bioactive molecules can play a role of mediator in a wide spectrum of biological processes, but the biological actions and chemical reactivity of the free radicals are quite different from that of the bioactive molecules, and that a wide variety of bioactive molecules can be easily modified by free radicals due to having functional groups sensitive to redox, and the significance of the interaction between the free radicals and the bioactive molecules in biological processes has been confirmed by the results of some in vitro and in vivo studies. Based on these evidence, this article presented a novel theory about the mediators of biological processes. The essentials of the theory are: (a) mediators of biological processes can be classified into general and specific mediators; the general mediators include two types of free radicals, namely superoxide and nitric oxide; the specific mediators include a wide variety of bioactive molecules, such as specific enzymes, transcription factors, cytokines and eicosanoids; (b) a general mediator can modify almost any class of the biomolecules, and thus play a role of mediator in nearly every biological process via diverse mechanisms; a specific mediator always acts selectively on certain classes of the biomolecules, and may play a role of mediator in different biological processes via a same mechanism; (c) biological processes are mostly controlled by networks of their mediators, so the free radicals can regulate the last consequence of a biological process by modifying some types of the bioactive molecules, or in cooperation with these bioactive molecules; the biological actions of superoxide and nitric oxide may be synergistic or antagonistic. According to this theory, keeping the integrity of these networks and the balance between the free radicals and the bioactive molecules as well as the balance between the free radicals and the free radical scavengers

  20. Controlled Carbon Source Addition to an Alternating Nitrification-Denitrification Wastewater Treatment Process Including Biological P Removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaacs, Steven Howard; Henze, Mogens

    1995-01-01

    The paper investigates the effect of adding an external carbon source on the rate of denitrification in an alternating activated sludge process including biological P removal. Two carbon sources were examined, acetate and hydrolysate derived from biologically hydrolyzed sludge. Preliminary batch ...

  1. Robust analysis of the hydrophobic basic analytes loratadine and desloratadine in pharmaceutical preparations and biological fluids by sweeping-cyclodextrin-modified micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Awady, Mohamed; Belal, Fathalla; Pyell, Ute

    2013-09-27

    The analysis of hydrophobic basic analytes by micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) is usually challenging because of the tendency of these analytes to be adsorbed onto the inner capillary wall in addition to the difficulty to separate these compounds as they exhibit extremely high retention factors. A robust and reliable method for the simultaneous determination of loratadine (LOR) and its major metabolite desloratadine (DSL) is developed based on cyclodextrin-modified micellar electrokinetic chromatography (CD-MEKC) with acidic sample matrix and basic background electrolyte (BGE). The influence of the sample matrix on the reachable focusing efficiency is studied. It is shown that the application of a low pH sample solution mitigates problems associated with the low solubility of the hydrophobic basic analytes in aqueous solution while having advantages with regard to on-line focusing. Moreover, the use of a basic BGE reduces the adsorption of these analytes in the separation compartment. The separation of the studied analytes is achieved in less than 7min using a BGE consisting of 10mmolL(-1) disodium tetraborate buffer, pH 9.30 containing 40mmolL(-1) SDS and 20mmolL(-1) hydroxypropyl-β-CD while the sample solution is composed of 10mmolL(-1) phosphoric acid, pH 2.15. A full validation study of the developed method based on the pharmacopeial guidelines is performed. The method is successfully applied to the analysis of the studied drugs in tablets without interference of tablet additives as well as the analysis of spiked human urine without any sample pretreatment. Furthermore, DSL can be detected as an impurity in LOR bulk powder at the stated pharmacopeial limit (0.1%, w/w). The selectivity of the developed method allows the analysis of LOR and DSL in combination with the co-formulated drug pseudoephedrine. It is shown that in CD-MEKC with basic BGE, solute-wall interactions are effectively suppressed allowing the development of efficient and precise

  2. Biological effects of radiation and chemical agents with special regard to repair processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altmann, H.; Wottawa, A.

    1980-01-01

    It is reasonably certain that the introduction or increase of pollutants in the environment can augment mutagenic and carcinogenic effects. These effects are operationally definable, but the genetic organization and the underlying mechanisms of DNA repair, mutagenesis and carcinogenesis are so complex as to make the extrapolation of results from mutagenicity test data to carcinogenicity somewhat uncertain. The subject is reviewed. Recent discoveries in gene organization and expression include overlapping genes in bacteriophages, split genes, processing of RNA and splicing, translocation of genes in eukaryotes, inactivation of the X-chromosome in mammals, etc. Apart from the genetic regulation, plasmids, insertion sequences and mutators can additionally affect mutation frequency. Cancers due to gene mutations, viruses, chemicals and physical agents are known. However, little is known about the epigenetic mechanisms involved. The value of mutagenicity test data is beyond question, but in view of the extraordinary complexities encountered our extrapolations will be more sound if the data have the underpinning of basic information. (author)

  3. Processing of biological waste. Ecological efficiency and potential; Behandlung von Bioabfaellen. Oekoeffizienz und Potenziale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitschke, Thorsten; Peche, Rene; Tronecker, Dieter; Kreibe, Siegfried [bifa Umweltinstitut GmbH, Augsburg (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The sustainable usage of biological wastes has to be focused on the targets protection of resources and minimization of environmental impact. The only focus on the energy inventory is not sufficient. The following recommendations are summarized: separated bio-waste collection is usually more eco-efficient; the optimized bio-waste processing should be available according to the biodegradability; anaerobic degradation for biogas production and subsequent aerobic degradation of the fermentation product for compost can be combined; low-emission operational standards should be mandatory, innovation and investment should be promoted b reliable boundary conditions; ecological aspects should be equivalent to low-cost considerations; regulatory measures should be implemented for separated bio-waste collection and processing.

  4. Signal processing for molecular and cellular biological physics: an emerging field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Max A; Jones, Nick S

    2013-02-13

    Recent advances in our ability to watch the molecular and cellular processes of life in action--such as atomic force microscopy, optical tweezers and Forster fluorescence resonance energy transfer--raise challenges for digital signal processing (DSP) of the resulting experimental data. This article explores the unique properties of such biophysical time series that set them apart from other signals, such as the prevalence of abrupt jumps and steps, multi-modal distributions and autocorrelated noise. It exposes the problems with classical linear DSP algorithms applied to this kind of data, and describes new nonlinear and non-Gaussian algorithms that are able to extract information that is of direct relevance to biological physicists. It is argued that these new methods applied in this context typify the nascent field of biophysical DSP. Practical experimental examples are supplied.

  5. Distorted wave calculations for electron loss process induced by bare ion impact on biological targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monti, J.M.; Tachino, C.A.; Hanssen, J.; Fojón, O.A.; Galassi, M.E.; Champion, C.; Rivarola, R.D.

    2014-01-01

    Distorted wave models are employed to investigate the electron loss process induced by bare ions on biological targets. The two main reactions which contribute to this process, namely, the single electron ionization as well as the single electron capture are here studied. In order to further assess the validity of the theoretical descriptions used, the influence of particular mechanisms are studied, like dynamic screening for the case of electron ionization and energy deposition on the target by the impacting projectile for the electron capture one. Results are compared with existing experimental data. - Highlights: ► Distorted wave models are used to investigate ion-molecule collisions. ► Differential and total cross-sections for capture and ionization are evaluated. ► The influence of dynamic screening is determined. ► Capture reaction dominates the mean energy deposited by the projectile on the target

  6. Dispensing processes impact apparent biological activity as determined by computational and statistical analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Ekins

    Full Text Available Dispensing and dilution processes may profoundly influence estimates of biological activity of compounds. Published data show Ephrin type-B receptor 4 IC50 values obtained via tip-based serial dilution and dispensing versus acoustic dispensing with direct dilution differ by orders of magnitude with no correlation or ranking of datasets. We generated computational 3D pharmacophores based on data derived by both acoustic and tip-based transfer. The computed pharmacophores differ significantly depending upon dispensing and dilution methods. The acoustic dispensing-derived pharmacophore correctly identified active compounds in a subsequent test set where the tip-based method failed. Data from acoustic dispensing generates a pharmacophore containing two hydrophobic features, one hydrogen bond donor and one hydrogen bond acceptor. This is consistent with X-ray crystallography studies of ligand-protein interactions and automatically generated pharmacophores derived from this structural data. In contrast, the tip-based data suggest a pharmacophore with two hydrogen bond acceptors, one hydrogen bond donor and no hydrophobic features. This pharmacophore is inconsistent with the X-ray crystallographic studies and automatically generated pharmacophores. In short, traditional dispensing processes are another important source of error in high-throughput screening that impacts computational and statistical analyses. These findings have far-reaching implications in biological research.

  7. A MODELING AND SIMULATION LANGUAGE FOR BIOLOGICAL CELLS WITH COUPLED MECHANICAL AND CHEMICAL PROCESSES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, Endre; Glazier, James A

    2017-04-01

    Biological cells are the prototypical example of active matter. Cells sense and respond to mechanical, chemical and electrical environmental stimuli with a range of behaviors, including dynamic changes in morphology and mechanical properties, chemical uptake and secretion, cell differentiation, proliferation, death, and migration. Modeling and simulation of such dynamic phenomena poses a number of computational challenges. A modeling language describing cellular dynamics must naturally represent complex intra and extra-cellular spatial structures and coupled mechanical, chemical and electrical processes. Domain experts will find a modeling language most useful when it is based on concepts, terms and principles native to the problem domain. A compiler must then be able to generate an executable model from this physically motivated description. Finally, an executable model must efficiently calculate the time evolution of such dynamic and inhomogeneous phenomena. We present a spatial hybrid systems modeling language, compiler and mesh-free Lagrangian based simulation engine which will enable domain experts to define models using natural, biologically motivated constructs and to simulate time evolution of coupled cellular, mechanical and chemical processes acting on a time varying number of cells and their environment.

  8. Wavelet data processing of micro-Raman spectra of biological samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerlingo, C.; Zenone, F.; Gaeta, G. M.; Riccio, R.; Lepore, M.

    2006-02-01

    A wavelet multi-component decomposition algorithm is proposed for processing data from micro-Raman spectroscopy (μ-RS) of biological tissue. The μ-RS has been recently recognized as a promising tool for the biopsy test and in vivo diagnosis of degenerative human tissue pathologies, due to the high chemical and structural information contents of this spectroscopic technique. However, measurements of biological tissues are usually hampered by typically low-level signals and by the presence of noise and background components caused by light diffusion or fluorescence processes. In order to overcome these problems, a numerical method based on discrete wavelet transform is used for the analysis of data from μ-RS measurements performed in vitro on animal (pig and chicken) tissue samples and, in a preliminary form, on human skin and oral tissue biopsy from normal subjects. Visible light μ-RS was performed using a He-Ne laser and a monochromator with a liquid nitrogen cooled charge coupled device equipped with a grating of 1800 grooves mm-1. The validity of the proposed data procedure has been tested on the well-characterized Raman spectra of reference acetylsalicylic acid samples.

  9. Mathematical modeling of heat treatment processes conserving biological activity of plant bioresources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodionova, N. S.; Popov, E. S.; Pozhidaeva, E. A.; Pynzar, S. S.; Ryaskina, L. O.

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a mathematical model of the heat exchange process of LT-processing to estimate the dynamics of temperature field changes and optimize the regime parameters, due to the non-stationarity process, the physicochemical and thermophysical properties of food systems. The application of LT-processing, based on the use of low-temperature modes in thermal culinary processing of raw materials with preliminary vacuum packaging in a polymer heat- resistant film is a promising trend in the development of technics and technology in the catering field. LT-processing application of food raw materials guarantees the preservation of biologically active substances in food environments, which are characterized by a certain thermolability, as well as extend the shelf life and high consumer characteristics of food systems that are capillary-porous bodies. When performing the mathematical modeling of the LT-processing process, the packet of symbolic mathematics “Maple” was used, as well as the mathematical packet flexPDE that uses the finite element method for modeling objects with distributed parameters. The processing of experimental results was evaluated with the help of the developed software in the programming language Python 3.4. To calculate and optimize the parameters of the LT processing process of polycomponent food systems, the differential equation of non-stationary thermal conductivity was used, the solution of which makes it possible to identify the temperature change at any point of the solid at different moments. The present study specifies data on the thermophysical characteristics of the polycomponent food system based on plant raw materials, with the help of which the physico-mathematical model of the LT- processing process has been developed. The obtained mathematical model allows defining of the dynamics of the temperature field in different sections of the LT-processed polycomponent food systems on the basis of calculating the

  10. Studies of Basic Electronic Properties of CdTe-Based Solar Cells and Their Evolution During Processing and Stress: Final Technical Report, 16 October 2001 - 31 August 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaydanov, V. I.; Ohno, T. R.

    2007-02-01

    This report describes basic issues behind CdTe/CdS cell performance and stability, such as the nature and electronic properties of impurities and defects that control the majority carrier concentration, mechanisms of dopant compensation, recombination processes, their nature and properties, migration and transformation of defects under various processing, stress, and operating conditions. We believe that a better basic understanding of the specific influence of grain boundaries, especially for fine-grain materials such as those making up CdTe-based cells, is now one of the most important issues we must address. We need to clarify the role of grain boundaries in forming the film electronic properties, as well as those of the p-n junction.

  11. Improving the biological nitrogen removal process in pharmaceutical wastewater treatment plants: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrijos, M; Carrera, J; Lafuente, J

    2004-04-01

    The Biological Nitrogen Removal (BNR) process of some pharmaceutical wastewater treatment plants has important operational problems. This study shows that, in order to solve these problems, the design of industrial BNR processes should start by analysing three key parameters: the characteristics of the wastewater load, the determination of the maximum TKN removal rate and the detection of toxic or inhibitory compounds in the wastewater. A case study of this analysis in pharmaceutical wastewater is presented here. In this case, the conventional TKN analytical method does not make an accurate characterisation of the wastewater load because it measures a concentration of 100 mg TKN l(-1) whereas the real concentration, determined with a modified TKN analytical method, is 150-500 mg TKN l(-1). Also, the TKN removal of the treatment system is insufficient in some periods because it falls below legal requirements. This problem might be a consequence of the wrong characterisation of wastewater during the design process. The maximum TKN removal at 27 degrees C (24 mg N g VSS(-1) d(-1) or 197 mg N l(-1) d(-1)) was evaluated in a pilot-scale plant. This value is six times greater than the average NLR applied in the full-scale plant. Finally, some of the components of the wastewater, such as p-phenylenediamine, might have inhibitory or toxic effects on the biological process. P-phenylenediamine causes a large decrease in the nitrification rate. This effect was determined by respirometry. This methodology shows that the effect is mainly inhibitory with a contact time of 30 min and if the contact time is longer, 14 hours, a toxic effect is observed.

  12. Proceeding on the scientific meeting and presentation on basic research of nuclear science and technology (book II): chemical, waste processing technology and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prayitno; Syarip; Samin; Darsono; Agus Taftazani; Sudjatmoko; Tri Mardji Atmono; Dwi Biyantoro; Gede Sutresna W; Tjipto Sujitno; Slamet Santosa; Herry Poernomo; Bambang Siswanto; Eko Edy Karmanto; Endro Kismolo; Budi Setiawan; Prajitno; Jumari; Wahini Nurhayati

    2015-06-01

    Scientific Meeting and Presentation on Basic Research in Nuclear Science and Technology is an annual activity held by Centre for Accelerator Science and Technology, National Nuclear Energy Agency, in Yogyakarta, for monitoring research activities achieved by the Agency. The papers presented in the meeting were collected into proceedings which were divided into two groups that are chemistry, environmental and waste treatment technology process . The proceedings consists of three articles from keynote speakers and 24 articles from BATAN and others participants.(PPIKSN)

  13. Proceedings of the Scientific Meeting and Presentation on Basic Researchin Nuclear Science and Technology part II: Nuclear Chemistry, Process Technology, Radioactive Waste Management and Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukarsono, R.; Karmanto, Eko-Edy; Suradjijo, Ganang

    2000-01-01

    Scientific Meeting and Presentation on Basic Research in Nuclear Scienceand Technology is an annual activity held by Centre for Research and Development of Advanced Technology, National Nuclear Energy Agency, for monitoring research activities achieved by the Agency. The papers presented in the meeting were collected into proceedings. These are the second part of the proceedings that contain 71 articles in the fields of nuclear chemistry, process technology, radioactive waste management, and environment (PPIN).

  14. Effects of aerobic and anaerobic biological processes on leaching of heavy metals from soil amended with sewage sludge compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wen; Wei, Yonghong; Liu, Jianguo; Kosson, David S; van der Sloot, Hans A; Zhang, Peng

    2016-12-01

    The risk from leaching of heavy metals is a major factor hindering land application of sewage sludge compost (SSC). Understanding the change in heavy metal leaching resulting from soil biological processes provides important information for assessing long-term behavior of heavy metals in the compost amended soil. In this paper, 180days aerobic incubation and 240days anaerobic incubation were conducted to investigate the effects of the aerobic and anaerobic biological processes on heavy metal leaching from soil amended with SSC, combined with chemical speciation modeling. Results showed that leaching concentrations of heavy metals at natural pH were similar before and after biological process. However, the major processes controlling heavy metals were influenced by the decrease of DOC with organic matter mineralization during biological processes. Mineralization of organic matter lowered the contribution of DOC-complexation to Ni and Zn leaching. Besides, the reducing condition produced by biological processes, particularly by the anaerobic biological process, resulted in the loss of sorption sites for As on Fe hydroxide, which increased the potential risk of As release at alkaline pH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Flipped Classroom: Teaching the Basic Science Process Skills to High-Performing 2nd Grade Students of Miriam College Lower School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Kenneth Camiling

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Technology has greatly shaped pedagogical practices over time. However scholars posit that the developing technology-aided, -based, and -oriented instructional practices still need scholarly and systematic studies to prove their effectiveness. An emerging teaching strategy that highlights technology tools and programs is Flipped Learning: a strategy where technology redirects learning from large groups to individuals. The research described here hypothesizes that there is a significant difference between the basic science process skills test score means of elementary students in a Flipped classroom and those in a traditional classroom. To test this hypothesis, an experimental design was used as the participants were divided the into two groups: experimental and control. An instructional design was crafted to simultaneously teach both control and experimental groups within a one (1 hour schedule. The experimental group was asked to watch at home researcher-made videos that teach the basic science process skills. In class, these participants deepened understanding of the skills through varied activities. The control group was taught using the traditional method operationalized as 5E Inquiry-Based Model.Both pre- and post-tests were administered to check the relative test scores. A Mann Whitney U test was conducted to evaluate the difference between the basic process skills test mean scores. It is concluded that there is a statistically significant difference (at α=0.05, r = 0.42 with a large effect size between the two variables.

  16. Development of a computational system for management of risks in radiosterilization processes of biological tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya, Cynara Viterbo

    2009-01-01

    Risk management can be understood to be a systematic management which aims to identify record and control the risks of a process. Applying risk management becomes a complex activity, due to the variety of professionals involved. In order to execute risk management the following are requirements of paramount importance: the experience, discernment and judgment of a multidisciplinary team, guided by means of quality tools, so as to provide standardization in the process of investigating the cause and effects of risks and dynamism in obtaining the objective desired, i.e. the reduction and control of the risk. This work aims to develop a computational system of risk management (software) which makes it feasible to diagnose the risks of the processes of radiosterilization of biological tissues. The methodology adopted was action-research, according to which the researcher performs an active role in the establishment of the problems found, in the follow-up and in the evaluation of the actions taken owing to the problems. The scenario of this action-research was the Laboratory of Biological Tissues (LTB) in the Radiation Technology Center IPEN/CNEN-SP - Sao Paulo/Brazil. The software developed was executed in PHP and Flash/MySQL language, the server (hosting), the software is available on the Internet (www.vcrisk.com.br), which the user can access from anywhere by means of the login/access password previously sent by email to the team responsible for the tissue to be analyzed. The software presents friendly navigability whereby the user is directed step-by-step in the process of investigating the risk up to the means of reducing it. The software 'makes' the user comply with the term and present the effectiveness of the actions taken to reduce the risk. Applying this system provided the organization (LTB/CTR/IPEN) with dynamic communication, effective between the members of the multidisciplinary team: a) in decision-making; b) in lessons learned; c) in knowing the new risk

  17. Remediation of a winery wastewater combining aerobic biological oxidation and electrochemical advanced oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Francisca C; Boaventura, Rui A R; Brillas, Enric; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2015-05-15

    Apart from a high biodegradable fraction consisting of organic acids, sugars and alcohols, winery wastewaters exhibit a recalcitrant fraction containing high-molecular-weight compounds as polyphenols, tannins and lignins. In this context, a winery wastewater was firstly subjected to a biological oxidation to mineralize the biodegradable fraction and afterwards an electrochemical advanced oxidation process (EAOP) was applied in order to mineralize the refractory molecules or transform them into simpler ones that can be further biodegraded. The biological oxidation led to above 97% removals of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), but was inefficient on the degradation of a bioresistant fraction corresponding to 130 mg L(-1) of DOC, 380 mg O2 L(-1) of COD and 8.2 mg caffeic acid equivalent L(-1) of total dissolved polyphenols. Various EAOPs such as anodic oxidation with electrogenerated H2O2 (AO-H2O2), electro-Fenton (EF), UVA photoelectro-Fenton (PEF) and solar PEF (SPEF) were then applied to the recalcitrant effluent fraction using a 2.2 L lab-scale flow plant containing an electrochemical cell equipped with a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and a carbon-PTFE air-diffusion cathode and coupled to a photoreactor with compound parabolic collectors (CPCs). The influence of initial Fe(2+) concentration and current density on the PEF process was evaluated. The relative oxidative ability of EAOPs increased in the order AO-H2O2 < EF < PEF ≤ SPEF. The SPEF process using an initial Fe(2+) concentration of 35 mg L(-1), current density of 25 mA cm(-2), pH of 2.8 and 25 °C reached removals of 86% on DOC and 68% on COD after 240 min, regarding the biologically treated effluent, along with energy consumptions of 45 kWh (kg DOC)(-1) and 5.1 kWh m(-3). After this coupled treatment, color, odor, COD, BOD5, NH4(+), NO3(-) and SO4(2-) parameters complied with the legislation targets and, in addition, a total

  18. Open Water Processes of the San Francisco Estuary: From Physical Forcing to Biological Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Kimmerer

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the current state of knowledge of the open waters of the San Francisco Estuary. This estuary is well known for the extent to which it has been altered through loss of wetlands, changes in hydrography, and the introduction of chemical and biological contaminants. It is also one of the most studied estuaries in the world, with much of the recent research effort aimed at supporting restoration efforts. In this review I emphasize the conceptual foundations for our current understanding of estuarine dynamics, particularly those aspects relevant to restoration. Several themes run throughout this paper. First is the critical role physical dynamics play in setting the stage for chemical and biological responses. Physical forcing by the tides and by variation in freshwater input combine to control the movement of the salinity field, and to establish stratification, mixing, and dilution patterns throughout the estuary. Many aspects of estuarine dynamics respond to interannual variation in freshwater flow; in particular, abundance of several estuarine-dependent species of fish and shrimp varies positively with flow, although the mechanisms behind these relationships are largely unknown. The second theme is the importance of time scales in determining the degree of interaction between dynamic processes. Physical effects tend to dominate when they operate at shorter time scales than biological processes; when the two time scales are similar, important interactions can arise between physical and biological variability. These interactions can be seen, for example, in the response of phytoplankton blooms, with characteristic time scales of days, to stratification events occurring during neap tides. The third theme is the key role of introduced species in all estuarine habitats; particularly noteworthy are introduced waterweeds and fishes in the tidal freshwater reaches of the estuary, and introduced clams there and in brackish water. The

  19. Introducing Basic Molecular Biology to Turkish Rural and Urban Primary School Children via Hands-on PCR and Gel Electrophoresis Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selli, Cigdem; Yildirim, Gokce; Kaymak, Aysegul; Karacicek, Bilge; Ogut, Deniz; Gungor, Turkan; Erem, Erdem; Ege, Mehmet; Bümen, Nilay; Tosun, Metiner

    2014-01-01

    This study includes the results of a 2-day education project titled "Molecular Biology Laboratory Summer School, MoBiLYO." The project was held at a University Research Center by scientists from Department of Pharmacology and graduate students. The project was composed of introductory lectures, model construction, DNA isolation,…

  20. A Converter from the Systems Biology Markup Language to the Synthetic Biology Open Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tramy; Roehner, Nicholas; Zundel, Zach; Myers, Chris J

    2016-06-17

    Standards are important to synthetic biology because they enable exchange and reproducibility of genetic designs. This paper describes a procedure for converting between two standards: the Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) and the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL). SBML is a standard for behavioral models of biological systems at the molecular level. SBOL describes structural and basic qualitative behavioral aspects of a biological design. Converting SBML to SBOL enables a consistent connection between behavioral and structural information for a biological design. The conversion process described in this paper leverages Systems Biology Ontology (SBO) annotations to enable inference of a designs qualitative function.

  1. Proceedings of the Scientific Meeting and Presentation on Basic Research in Nuclear of the Science and Technology part II : Nuclear Chemistry and Process Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamsul Abraha; Yateman Arryanto; Sri Jauhari S; Agus Taftazani; Kris Tri Basuki; Djoko Sardjono, Ign.; Sukarsono, R.; Samin; Syarip; Suryadi, MS; Sardjono, Y.; Tri Mardji Atmono; Dwiretnani Sudjoko; Tjipto Sujitno, BA.

    2007-08-01

    The Scientific Meeting and Presentation on Basic Research in Nuclear Science and Technology is a routine activity held by Centre for Accelerator Technology and Material Process, National Nuclear Energy Agency, for monitoring the research activity which achieved in National Nuclear Energy Agency. The Meeting was held in Yogyakarta on July 10, 2007. The proceedings contains papers presented on the meeting about Nuclear Chemistry and Process Technology and there are 47 papers which have separated index. The proceedings is the second part of the three parts which published in series. (PPIN)

  2. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrook, Harold D

    1971-01-01

    Basic Electronics is an elementary text designed for basic instruction in electricity and electronics. It gives emphasis on electronic emission and the vacuum tube and shows transistor circuits in parallel with electron tube circuits. This book also demonstrates how the transistor merely replaces the tube, with proper change of circuit constants as required. Many problems are presented at the end of each chapter. This book is comprised of 17 chapters and opens with an overview of electron theory, followed by a discussion on resistance, inductance, and capacitance, along with their effects on t

  3. Low-voltage electrically-enhanced microextraction as a novel technique for simultaneous extraction of acidic and basic drugs from biological fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidi, Shahram; Yamini, Yadollah; Rezazadeh, Maryam; Esrafili, Ali

    2012-06-22

    In the present work, for the first time a new set-up was presented for simultaneous extraction of acidic and basic drugs using a recent novel electrically-enhanced microextraction technique, termed electromembrane extraction at low voltages followed by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. Nalmefene (NAL) as a basic drug and diclofenac (DIC) as an acidic drug were extracted from 24 mL aqueous sample solutions at neutral pH into 10 μL of each acidified (HCl 50 mM) and basic (NaOH 50 mM) acceptor solution, respectively. Supported liquid membranes including 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether containing 5% di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate and 1-octanol were used to ensure efficient extraction of NAL and DIC, respectively. Low voltage of 40 V was applied over the SLMs during 14 min extraction time. The influences of fundamental parameters affecting the transport of target drugs were optimized using experimental design. Under optimal conditions, NAL and DIC were extracted with extraction recoveries of 12.5 and 14.6, respectively, which corresponded to preconcentration factors of 300 and 350, respectively. The proposed technique provided good linearity with correlation coefficient values higher than 0.9956 over a concentration range of 8-500 μg L⁻¹ and 12-500 μg L⁻¹ for NAL and DIC, respectively. Limits of detection and quantifications, and intra-day precisions (n=3) were less than 4 μg L⁻¹, 12 μg L⁻¹, and 10.1%, respectively. Extraction and determination of NAL and DIC in human urine samples were successfully performed. In light of the data obtained in the present work, this new set-up for EME with low voltages has a future potential as a simple, selective, and fast sample preparation technique for simultaneous extraction and determination of acidic and basic drugs in different complicated matrices. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Simulation and optimization of a coking wastewater biological treatment process by activated sludge models (ASM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaohui; Yang, Yang; Wu, Gaoming; Mao, Juan; Zhou, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Applications of activated sludge models (ASM) in simulating industrial biological wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are still difficult due to refractory and complex components in influents as well as diversity in activated sludges. In this study, an ASM3 modeling study was conducted to simulate and optimize a practical coking wastewater treatment plant (CWTP). First, respirometric characterizations of the coking wastewater and CWTP biomasses were conducted to determine the specific kinetic and stoichiometric model parameters for the consecutive aeration-anoxic-aeration (O-A/O) biological process. All ASM3 parameters have been further estimated and calibrated, through cross validation by the model dynamic simulation procedure. Consequently, an ASM3 model was successfully established to accurately simulate the CWTP performances in removing COD and NH4-N. An optimized CWTP operation condition could be proposed reducing the operation cost from 6.2 to 5.5 €/m(3) wastewater. This study is expected to provide a useful reference for mathematic simulations of practical industrial WWTPs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluating the feasibility of biological waste processing for long term space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, J. L.; Alazraki, M. P.; Atkinson, C. F.; Finger, B. W.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Recycling waste products during orbital (e.g., International Space Station) and planetary missions (e.g., lunar base, Mars transit mission, Martian base) will reduce storage and resupply costs. Wastes streams on the space station will include human hygiene water, urine, faeces, and trash. Longer term missions will contain human waste and inedible plant material from plant growth systems used for atmospheric regeneration, food production, and water recycling. The feasibility of biological and physical-chemical waste recycling is being investigated as part of National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program. In-vessel composting has lower manpower requirements, lower water and volume requirements, and greater potential for sanitization of human waste compared to alternative bioreactor designs such as continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR). Residual solids from the process (i.e. compost) could be used a biological air filter, a plant nutrient source, and a carbon sink. Potential in-vessel composting designs for both near- and long-term space missions are presented and discussed with respect to the unique aspects of space-based systems.

  6. Extended morphological processing: a practical method for automatic spot detection of biological markers from microscopic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimori, Yoshitaka; Baba, Norio; Morone, Nobuhiro

    2010-07-08

    A reliable extraction technique for resolving multiple spots in light or electron microscopic images is essential in investigations of the spatial distribution and dynamics of specific proteins inside cells and tissues. Currently, automatic spot extraction and characterization in complex microscopic images poses many challenges to conventional image processing methods. A new method to extract closely located, small target spots from biological images is proposed. This method starts with a simple but practical operation based on the extended morphological top-hat transformation to subtract an uneven background. The core of our novel approach is the following: first, the original image is rotated in an arbitrary direction and each rotated image is opened with a single straight line-segment structuring element. Second, the opened images are unified and then subtracted from the original image. To evaluate these procedures, model images of simulated spots with closely located targets were created and the efficacy of our method was compared to that of conventional morphological filtering methods. The results showed the better performance of our method. The spots of real microscope images can be quantified to confirm that the method is applicable in a given practice. Our method achieved effective spot extraction under various image conditions, including aggregated target spots, poor signal-to-noise ratio, and large variations in the background intensity. Furthermore, it has no restrictions with respect to the shape of the extracted spots. The features of our method allow its broad application in biological and biomedical image information analysis.

  7. Comprehension of complex biological processes by analytical methods: how far can we go using mass spectrometry?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerner, C.

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive understanding of complex biological processes is the basis for many biomedical issues of great relevance for modern society including risk assessment, drug development, quality control of industrial products and many more. Screening methods provide means for investigating biological samples without research hypothesis. However, the first boom of analytical screening efforts has passed and we again need to ask whether and how to apply screening methods. Mass spectrometry is a modern tool with unrivalled analytical capacities. This applies to all relevant characteristics of analytical methods such as specificity, sensitivity, accuracy, multiplicity and diversity of applications. Indeed, mass spectrometry qualifies to deal with complexity. Chronic inflammation is a common feature of almost all relevant diseases challenging our modern society; these diseases are apparently highly diverse and include arteriosclerosis, cancer, back pain, neurodegenerative diseases, depression and other. The complexity of mechanisms regulating chronic inflammation is the reason for the practical challenge to deal with it. The presentation shall give an overview of capabilities and limitations of the application of this analytical tool to solve critical questions with great relevance for our society. (author)

  8. The relative contributions of biological and abiotic processes to carbon dynamics in subarctic sea ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Dorte Haubjerg; Thomas, David; Rysgaard, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge on the relative effects of biological activity and precipitation/dissolution of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in influencing the air-ice CO2 exchange in sea-ice-covered season is currently lacking. Furthermore, the spatial and temporal occurrence of CaCO3 and other biogeochemical parameters...... in sea ice are still not well described. Here we investigated autotrophic and heterotrophic activity as well as the precipitation/dissolution of CaCO3 in subarctic sea ice in South West Greenland. Integrated over the entire ice season (71 days), the sea ice was net autotrophic with a net carbon fixation...... and CaCO3 precipitation. The net biological production could only explain 4 % of this sea-ice-driven CO2 uptake. Abiotic processes contributed to an air-sea CO2 uptake of 1.5 mmol m(-2) sea ice day(-1), and dissolution of CaCO3 increased the air-sea CO2 uptake by 36 % compared to a theoretical estimate...

  9. Critical operational parameters for zero sludge production in biological wastewater treatment processes combined with sludge disintegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seong-Hoon; Lee, Sangho

    2005-09-01

    Mathematical models were developed to elucidate the relationships among process control parameters and the effect of these parameters on the performance of anoxic/oxic biological wastewater processes combined with sludge disintegrators (A/O-SD). The model equations were also applied for analyses of activated sludge processes hybrid with sludge disintegrators (AS-SD). Solubilization ratio of sludge in the sludge disintegrator, alpha, hardly affected sludge reduction efficiencies if the biomass was completely destructed to smaller particulates. On the other hand, conversion efficiency of non-biodegradable particulates to biodegradable particulates, beta, significantly affected sludge reduction efficiencies because beta was directly related to the accumulation of non-biodegradable particulates in bioreactors. When 30% of sludge in the oxic tank was disintegrated everyday and beta was 0.5, sludge reduction was expected to be 78% and 69% for the A/O-SD and AS-SD processes, respectively. Under this condition, the sludge disintegration number (SDN), which is the amount of sludge disintegrated divided by the reduced sludge, was calculated to be around 4. Due to the sludge disintegration, live biomass concentration decreased while other non-biodegradable particulates concentration increased. As a consequence, the real F/M ratio was expected to be much higher than the apparent F/M. The effluent COD was maintained almost constant for the range of sludge disintegration rate considered in this study. Nitrogen removal efficiencies of the A/O-SD process was hardly affected by the sludge disintegration until daily sludge disintegration reaches 40% of sludge in the oxic tank. Above this level of sludge disintegration, autotrophic biomass concentration decreases overly and TKN in the effluent increases abruptly in both the A/O-SD and AS-SD processes. Overall, the trends of sludge reduction and effluent quality according to operation parameters matched well with experimental results

  10. Novel MBR_based main stream biological nutrient removal process: high performance and microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuanyi; Xu, Xinhai; Zhao, Kuixia; Tang, Lianggang; Zou, Siqi; Yuan, Limei

    2018-02-01

    For municipal wastewater treatment, main stream biological nutrient removal (BNR) process is becoming more and more important. This lab-scale study, novel MBR_based BNR processes (named A 2 N-MBR and A 2 NO-MBR) were built. Comparison of the COD removal, results obtained demonstrated that COD removal efficiencies were almost the same in three processes, with effluent concentration all bellowed 30 mg L -1 . However, the two-sludge systems (A 2 N-MBR and A 2 NO-MBR) had an obvious advantage over the A 2 /O for denitrification and phosphorus removal, with the average TP removal rates of 91.20, 98.05% and TN removal rates of 73.00, 79.49%, respectively, higher than that of 86.45 and 61.60% in A 2 /O process. Illumina Miseq sequencing revealed that Candidatus_Accumulibacter, which is capable of using nitrate as an electron acceptor for phosphorus and nitrogen removal simultaneously, was the dominant phylum in both A 2 N-MBR and A 2 NO-MBR process, accounting for 28.74 and 23.98%, respectively. Distinguishingly, major organism groups related to nitrogen and phosphorus removal in A 2 /O system were Anaerolineaceae_uncultured, Saprospiraceae_uncultured and Thauera, with proportions of 11.31, 8.56 and 5.00%, respectively. Hence, the diversity of dominant PAOs group was likely responsible for the difference in nitrogen and phosphorus removal in the three processes.

  11. Birth/birth-death processes and their computable transition probabilities with biological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Lam Si Tung; Xu, Jason; Crawford, Forrest W; Minin, Vladimir N; Suchard, Marc A

    2018-03-01

    Birth-death processes track the size of a univariate population, but many biological systems involve interaction between populations, necessitating models for two or more populations simultaneously. A lack of efficient methods for evaluating finite-time transition probabilities of bivariate processes, however, has restricted statistical inference in these models. Researchers rely on computationally expensive methods such as matrix exponentiation or Monte Carlo approximation, restricting likelihood-based inference to small systems, or indirect methods such as approximate Bayesian computation. In this paper, we introduce the birth/birth-death process, a tractable bivariate extension of the birth-death process, where rates are allowed to be nonlinear. We develop an efficient algorithm to calculate its transition probabilities using a continued fraction representation of their Laplace transforms. Next, we identify several exemplary models arising in molecular epidemiology, macro-parasite evolution, and infectious disease modeling that fall within this class, and demonstrate advantages of our proposed method over existing approaches to inference in these models. Notably, the ubiquitous stochastic susceptible-infectious-removed (SIR) model falls within this class, and we emphasize that computable transition probabilities newly enable direct inference of parameters in the SIR model. We also propose a very fast method for approximating the transition probabilities under the SIR model via a novel branching process simplification, and compare it to the continued fraction representation method with application to the 17th century plague in Eyam. Although the two methods produce similar maximum a posteriori estimates, the branching process approximation fails to capture the correlation structure in the joint posterior distribution.

  12. Assessment of the removal of estrogenicity in biological nutrient removal wastewater treatment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogunlaja, O.O.; Parker, W.J.

    2015-01-01

    The removal of estrogenicity in a University of Cape Town-biological nutrient removal (UCT-BNR) wastewater treatment process was investigated using pilot and bench scale systems, batch experiments and mathematical modeling. In the pilot BNR process, 96 ± 5% of the estrogenicity exerted by the influent wastewater was removed by the treatment process. The degradation efficiencies in the anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic zones of the pilot BNR bioreactor were 11 ± 9%, 18 ± 2% and 93 ± 10%, respectively. In order to further understand the performance of the BNR process in the removal of estrogenicity from wastewater, a bench scale BNR process was operated with synthetic wastewater dosed with E1 and E2. The removal of estrogenicity in the bench scale system (95 ± 5%) was comparable to the pilot BNR process and the degradation efficiencies were estimated to be 8 ± 0.8%, 38 ± 4% and 85 ± 22% in the anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic zones, respectively. A biotransformation model developed to predict the fate of E1 and E2 in batch tests using the sludge from the BNR process was calibrated using the data from the experiments. The biotransformation rate constants for the transformation of E2 to E1 were estimated as 71 ± 1.5, 31 ± 3.3 and 1 ± 0.9 L g COD −1 d −1 for the aerobic, anoxic and anaerobic batch tests, respectively, while the corresponding biotransformation rate constants for the transformation of E1 were estimated to be 7.3 ± 1.0, 3 ± 2.0, and 0.85 ± 0.6 L·g COD −1 d −1 . A steady state mass balance model formulated to describe the interactions between E2 and E1 in BNR activated sludge reasonably described the fate of E1 and E2 in the BNR process. - Highlights: • Comparable estrogenicity removal was observed from two BNR processes. • Pseudo first order model described the transformation of E2 and E1 in BNR process. • Biotransformation of E1 in BNR activated sludge controls the degradation of E2

  13. Assessment of the removal of estrogenicity in biological nutrient removal wastewater treatment processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogunlaja, O.O., E-mail: oogunlaj@uwaterloo.ca; Parker, W.J., E-mail: wjparker@uwaterloo.ca

    2015-05-01

    The removal of estrogenicity in a University of Cape Town-biological nutrient removal (UCT-BNR) wastewater treatment process was investigated using pilot and bench scale systems, batch experiments and mathematical modeling. In the pilot BNR process, 96 ± 5% of the estrogenicity exerted by the influent wastewater was removed by the treatment process. The degradation efficiencies in the anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic zones of the pilot BNR bioreactor were 11 ± 9%, 18 ± 2% and 93 ± 10%, respectively. In order to further understand the performance of the BNR process in the removal of estrogenicity from wastewater, a bench scale BNR process was operated with synthetic wastewater dosed with E1 and E2. The removal of estrogenicity in the bench scale system (95 ± 5%) was comparable to the pilot BNR process and the degradation efficiencies were estimated to be 8 ± 0.8%, 38 ± 4% and 85 ± 22% in the anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic zones, respectively. A biotransformation model developed to predict the fate of E1 and E2 in batch tests using the sludge from the BNR process was calibrated using the data from the experiments. The biotransformation rate constants for the transformation of E2 to E1 were estimated as 71 ± 1.5, 31 ± 3.3 and 1 ± 0.9 L g COD{sup −1} d{sup −1} for the aerobic, anoxic and anaerobic batch tests, respectively, while the corresponding biotransformation rate constants for the transformation of E1 were estimated to be 7.3 ± 1.0, 3 ± 2.0, and 0.85 ± 0.6 L·g COD{sup −1} d{sup −1}. A steady state mass balance model formulated to describe the interactions between E2 and E1 in BNR activated sludge reasonably described the fate of E1 and E2 in the BNR process. - Highlights: • Comparable estrogenicity removal was observed from two BNR processes. • Pseudo first order model described the transformation of E2 and E1 in BNR process. • Biotransformation of E1 in BNR activated sludge controls the degradation of E2.

  14. Study on human-factors-engineering properties of reactor maintenance workers with protection suits, (2). Basic research on various biological characteristics in reactor maintenance simulation tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshino, K; Ishii, K; Nakasa, H [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Shigeta, S

    1980-11-01

    To ensure the safety of reactor maintenance workers and to reduce the radiation exposure through the enhancement of labor efficiency, it is needed to evaluate quantitatively work-stress levels of workers with radiation-protection suits. This paper presents the results of reactor-maintenance simulation tests in which the relationship between the work stress and biological characteristics is investigated for 5 pinds of model works done by testees without protection suits in an artificial climate chamber. Major results obtained are: (1) the selected model works are mostly evaluated to be relatively heavy through the measurement of RMR (Relative Metabolic Rate). (2) biological characteristics such as heart rate and respiratory volume under the model works have close relationship to RMR which is the cumulative quantity in relatively long time, and then they may become the real-time indicator for the work stress level. (3) such biological characteristics are greatly affected by the high-temperature work-environment which is often seen in workers with protection suits.

  15. Comparative biology approaches for charged particle exposures and cancer development processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronenberg, Amy; Gauny, Stacey; Kwoh, Ely; Sudo, Hiroko; Wiese, Claudia; Dan, Cristian; Turker, Mitchell

    Comparative biology studies can provide useful information for the extrapolation of results be-tween cells in culture and the more complex environment of the tissue. In other circumstances, they provide a method to guide the interpretation of results obtained for cells from differ-ent species. We have considered several key cancer development processes following charged particle exposures using comparative biology approaches. Our particular emphases have been mutagenesis and genomic instability. Carcinogenesis requires the accumulation of mutations and most of htese mutations occur on autosomes. Two loci provide the greatest avenue for the consideration of charged particle-induced mutation involving autosomes: the TK1 locus in human cells and the APRT locus in mouse cells. Each locus can provide information on a wide variety of mutational changes, from small intragenic mutations through multilocus dele-tions and extensive tracts of mitotic recombination. In addition, the mouse model can provide a direct measurement of chromosome loss which cannot be accomplished in the human cell system. Another feature of the mouse APRT model is the ability to examine effects for cells exposed in vitro with those obtained for cells exposed in situ. We will provide a comparison of the results obtained for the TK1 locus following 1 GeV/amu Fe ion exposures to the human lymphoid cells with those obtained for the APRT locus for mouse kidney epithelial cells (in vitro or in situ). Substantial conservation of mechanisms is found amongst these three exposure scenarios, with some differences attributable to the specific conditions of exposure. A similar approach will be applied to the consideraiton of proton-induced autosomal mutations in the three model systems. A comparison of the results obtained for Fe ions vs. protons in each case will highlight LET-specificc differences in response. Another cancer development process that is receiving considerable interest is genomic instability. We

  16. Telemetry System of Biological Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Spisak

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The mobile telemetry system of biological parameters serves for reading and wireless data transfer of measured values of selected biological parameters to an outlying computer. It concerns basically long time monitoring of vital function of car pilot.The goal of this projects is to propose mobile telemetry system for reading, wireless transfer and processing of biological parameters of car pilot during physical and psychical stress. It has to be made with respect to minimal consumption, weight and maximal device mobility. This system has to eliminate signal noise, which is created by biological artifacts and disturbances during the data transfer.

  17. Basic concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorner, B.

    1999-01-01

    The basic concepts of neutron scattering as a tool for studying the structure and the dynamics of condensed matter. Theoretical aspects are outlined, the two different cases of coherent and incoherent scattering are presented. The issue of resolution, coherence volume and the role of monochromators are also discussed. (K.A.)

  18. Body Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... learn more about how the body works, what basic human anatomy is, and what happens when parts of ... consult your doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All rights reserved. Images provided by The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Veer, Shutterstock, and Clipart.com.

  19. Basic Thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duthil, P

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to present a general thermodynamic basis that is useable in the context of superconductivity and particle accelerators. The first part recalls the purpose of thermodynamics and summarizes its important concepts. Some applications, from cryogenics to magnetic systems, are covered. In the context of basic thermodynamics, only thermodynamic equilibrium is considered

  20. Basic Thermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duthil, P [Orsay, IPN (France)

    2014-07-01

    The goal of this paper is to present a general thermodynamic basis that is useable in the context of superconductivity and particle accelerators. The first part recalls the purpose of thermodynamics and summarizes its important concepts. Some applications, from cryogenics to magnetic systems, are covered. In the context of basic thermodynamics, only thermodynamic equilibrium is considered.

  1. Ethanol Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-01-30

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  2. Long-term sea surface temperature baselines - time series, spatial covariation and implications for biological processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Schiedek, D.

    2007-01-01

    to 2 years. These differences suggest that spatial variations in physical oceanographic phenomena and sampling heterogeneities associated with opportunistic sampling could affect perceptions of biological responses to temperature fluctuations. The documentation that the coastally measured temperatures...... questions at large spatial scales, such as the response of species distributions and phenologies to climate change. In this study we investigate the spatial synchrony of long-term sea surface temperatures in the North Sea-Baltic Sea region as measured daily at four coastal sites (Marsdiep, Netherlands...... at coastal sites co-varied strongly with each other and with opportunistically measured offshore temperatures despite separation distances between measuring locations of 20-1200 km. This covariance is probably due to the influence of large-scale atmospheric processes on regional temperatures...

  3. Study on substrate metabolism process of saline waste sludge and its biological hydrogen production potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zengshuai; Guo, Liang; Li, Qianqian; Zhao, Yangguo; Gao, Mengchun; She, Zonglian

    2017-07-01

    With the increasing of high saline waste sludge production, the treatment and utilization of saline waste sludge attracted more and more attention. In this study, the biological hydrogen production from saline waste sludge after heating pretreatment was studied. The substrate metabolism process at different salinity condition was analyzed by the changes of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), carbohydrate and protein in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), and dissolved organic matters (DOM). The excitation-emission matrix (EEM) with fluorescence regional integration (FRI) was also used to investigate the effect of salinity on EPS and DOM composition during hydrogen fermentation. The highest hydrogen yield of 23.6 mL H 2 /g VSS and hydrogen content of 77.6% were obtained at 0.0% salinity condition. The salinity could influence the hydrogen production and substrate metabolism of waste sludge.

  4. Facilitating a More Efficient Commercial Review Process for Pediatric Drugs and Biologics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan D. Rykhus

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two decades, the biopharmaceutical industry has seen unprecedented expansion and innovation in concert with significant technological advancements. While the industry has experienced marked growth, the regulatory system in the United States still operates at a capacity much lower than the influx of new drug and biologic candidates. As a result, it has become standard for months or even years of waiting for commercial approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. These regulatory delays have generated a system that stifles growth and innovation due to the exorbitant costs associated with awaiting approval from the nation’s sole regulatory agency. The recent re-emergence of diseases that impact pediatric demographics represents one particularly acute reason for developing a regulatory system that facilitates a more efficient commercial review process. Herein, we present a range of initiatives that could represent early steps toward alleviating the delays in approving life-saving therapeutics.

  5. Application of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in stabilization process of biological molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossien Salmani

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: Co-precipitation method is an easy way to prepare magnetic nanoparticles of iron with a large surface and small particle size, which increases the ability of these particles to act as a suitable carrier for enzyme stabilization. Adequate modification of the surface of these nanoparticles enhances their ability to bind to biological molecules. The immobilized protein or enzyme on magnetic nanoparticles are more stable against structural changes, temperature and pH in comparison with un-stabilized structures, and it is widely used in various sciences, including protein isolation and purification, pharmaceutical science, and food analysis. Stabilization based on the covalent bonds and physical absorption is nonspecific, which greatly limits their functionality. The process of stabilization through bio-mediums provide a new method to overcome the selectivity problem.

  6. Composting of biological waste. Processes and utilisation. Summary report; Bioabfallkompostierung. Verfahren und Verwertung. Kurzfassung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gronauer, A.; Claassen, N.; Ebertseder, T.; Fischer, P.; Gutser, R.; Helm, M.; Popp, L.; Schoen, H.

    1997-12-31

    The project investigated environmentally compatible concepts for processing and utilisation of biological waste by means of composting and spreading on agriculataural and gardening plots. The project comprised three parts: Composting techniques, applications of compost in agriculture and gardening, and applications in landscaping. This volume comprises the summaries of the three part-projects. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Die umweltschonende Aufbereitung und Verwertung von Bioabfall durch Kompostierung und Rueckfuehrung auf landwirtschaftliche und gaertnerische Flaechen wurde untersucht. Dieses Projekt war dreigeteilt in die Bereiche der Kompostierung selbst, der Anwendung des Komposts in der Landwirtschaft und seiner Anwendung im Gartenbau sowie im Garten- und Landschaftsbau (GaLa-Bau). Die vorliegende Schrift enthaelt die Zusammenfassung der genannten drei Teilberichte. (orig./SR)

  7. Biological impact of preschool music classes on processing speech in noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strait, Dana L; Parbery-Clark, Alexandra; O'Connell, Samantha; Kraus, Nina

    2013-10-01

    Musicians have increased resilience to the effects of noise on speech perception and its neural underpinnings. We do not know, however, how early in life these enhancements arise. We compared auditory brainstem responses to speech in noise in 32 preschool children, half of whom were engaged in music training. Thirteen children returned for testing one year later, permitting the first longitudinal assessment of subcortical auditory function with music training. Results indicate emerging neural enhancements in musically trained preschoolers for processing speech in noise. Longitudinal outcomes reveal that children enrolled in music classes experience further increased neural resilience to background noise following one year of continued training compared to nonmusician peers. Together, these data reveal enhanced development of neural mechanisms undergirding speech-in-noise perception in preschoolers undergoing music training and may indicate a biological impact of music training on auditory function during early childhood. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Spies and Bloggers: New Synthetic Biology Tools to Understand Microbial Processes in Soils and Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiello, C. A.; Silberg, J. J.; Cheng, H. Y.; Del Valle, I.; Fulk, E. M.; Gao, X.; Bennett, G. N.

    2017-12-01

    Microbes can be programmed through synthetic biology to report on their behavior, informing researchers when their environment has triggered changes in their gene expression (e.g. in response to shifts in O2 or H2O), or when they have participated in a specific step of an elemental cycle (e.g. denitrification). This use of synthetic biology has the potential to significantly improve our understanding of microbes' roles in elemental and water cycling, because it allows reporting on the environment from the perspective of a microbe, matching the measurement scale exactly to the scale that a microbe experiences. However, synthetic microbes have not yet seen wide use in soil and sediment laboratory experiments because synthetic organisms typically report by fluorescing, making their signals difficult to detect outside the petri dish. We are developing a new suite of microbial programs that report instead by releasing easily-detected gases, allowing the real-time, noninvasive monitoring of behaviors in sediments and soils. Microbial biosensors can, in theory, be programmed to detect dynamic processes that contribute to a wide range of geobiological processes, including C cycling (biofilm production, methanogenesis, and synthesis of extracellular enzymes that degrade organic matter), N cycling (expression of enzymes that underlie different steps of the N cycle) and potentially S cycling. We will provide an overview of the potential uses of gas-reporting biosensors in soil and sediment lab experiments, and will report the development of the systematics of these sensors. Successful development of gas biosensors for laboratory use will require addressing issues including: engineering the intensity and selectivity of microbial gas production to maximize the signal to noise ratio; normalizing the gas reporter signal to cell population size, managing gas diffusion effects on signal shape; and developing multiple gases that can be used in parallel.

  9. Biological treatment processes for PCB contaminated soil at a site in Newfoundland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punt, M.; Cooper, D.; Velicogna, D.; Mohn, W.; Reimer, K.; Parsons, D.; Patel, T.; Daugulis, A.

    2002-01-01

    SAIC Canada is conducting a study under the direction of a joint research and development contract between Public Works and Government Services Canada and Environment Canada to examine the biological options for treating PCB contaminated soil found at a containment cell at a former U.S. Military Base near Stephenville, Newfoundland. In particular, the study examines the feasibility of using indigenous microbes for the degradation of PCBs. The first phase of the study involved the testing of the microbes in a bioreactor. The second phase, currently underway, involves a complete evaluation of possible microbes for PCB degradation. It also involves further study into the biological process options for the site. Suitable indigenous and non-indigenous microbes for PCB dechlorination and biphenyl degradation are being identified and evaluated. In addition, the effectiveness and economics of microbial treatment in a conventional bioreactor is being evaluated. The conventional bioreactor used in this study is the two-phase partitioning bioreactor (TPPB) using a biopile process. Results thus far will be used to help Public Works and Government Services Canada to choose the most appropriate remedial technology. Preliminary results suggest that the use of soil classification could reduce the volume of soil requiring treatment. The soil in the containment cell contains microorganisms that could grow in isolation on biphenyl, naphthalene and potentially Aroclor 1254. Isolated native microbes were inoculated in the TPPB for growth. The TPPB was also run successfully under anaerobic conditions. Future work will involve lab-scale evaluation of microbes for PCB dechlorination and biphenyl degradation using both indigenous and non-indigenous microbes. The next phase of study may also involve field-scale demonstration of treatment methods. 2 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs

  10. Biological processes for concentrating trace elements from uranium mine waters. Technical completion report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brierley, C.L.; Brierley, J.A.

    1981-12-01

    Waste water from uranium mines in the Ambrosia Lake district near Grants, New Mexico, USA, contains uranium, selenium, radium and molybdenum. The Kerr-McGee Corporation has a novel treatment process for waters from two mines to reduce the concentrations of the trace contaminants. Particulates are settled by ponding, and the waters are passed through an ion exchange resin to remove uranium; barium chloride is added to precipitate sulfate and radium from the mine waters. The mine waters are subsequently passed through three consecutive algae ponds prior to discharge. Water, sediment and biological samples were collected over a 4-year period and analyzed to assess the role of biological agents in removal of inorganic trace contaminants from the mine waters. Some of the conclusions derived from this study are: (1) The concentrations of soluble uranium, selenium and molybdenum were not diminished in the mine waters by passage through the series of impoundments which constituted the mine water treatment facility. Uranium concentrations were reduced but this was due to passage of the water through an ion exchange column. (2) The particulate concentrations of the mine water were reduced at least ten-fold by passage of the waters through the impoundments. (3) The sediments were anoxic and enriched in uranium, molybdenum and selenium. The deposition of particulates and the formation of insoluble compounds were proposed as mechanisms for sediment enrichment. (4) The predominant algae of the treatment ponds were the filamentous Spirogyra and Oscillatoria, and the benthic alga, Chara. (5) Adsorptive processes resulted in the accumulation of metals in the algae cells. (6) Stimulation of sulfate reduction by the bacteria resulted in retention of molybdenum, selenium, and uranium in sediments. 1 figure, 16 tables

  11. Utilization of the cyanobacteria Anabaena sp CH1 in biological carbon dioxide mitigation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, C.L.; Lee, C.M.; Chen, P.C. [Hungkuang University, Taichung (Taiwan)

    2011-05-15

    Before switching totally to alternative fuel stage, CO{sub 2} mitigation process has considered a transitional strategy for combustion of fossil fuels inevitably. In comparison to other CO{sub 2} mitigation options, such as oceanic or geologic injection, the biological photosynthetic process would present a far superior and sustainable solution under both environmental and social considerations. The utilization of the cyanobacteria Anabaena sp. CH1 in carbon dioxide mitigation processes is analyzed in our research. It was found that an original developed photobioreactor with internal light source exhibits high light utilization. Anabaena sp. CH1 demonstrates excellent CO{sub 2} tolerance even at 15% CO{sub 2} level. This enables flue gas from power plant to be directly introduced to Anabaena sp. CH1 culture. Double light intensity and increased 47% CO{sub 2} bubble retention time could enhance CO{sub 2} removal efficiencies by 79% and 67%, respectively. A maximum CO{sub 2} fixation rate of 1.01 g CO{sub 2} L{sup -1} day{sup -1} was measured experimentally.

  12. Learning how scientists work: experiential research projects to promote cell biology learning and scientific process skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DebBurman, Shubhik K

    2002-01-01

    Facilitating not only the mastery of sophisticated subject matter, but also the development of process skills is an ongoing challenge in teaching any introductory undergraduate course. To accomplish this goal in a sophomore-level introductory cell biology course, I require students to work in groups and complete several mock experiential research projects that imitate the professional activities of the scientific community. I designed these projects as a way to promote process skill development within content-rich pedagogy and to connect text-based and laboratory-based learning with the world of contemporary research. First, students become familiar with one primary article from a leading peer-reviewed journal, which they discuss by means of PowerPoint-based journal clubs and journalism reports highlighting public relevance. Second, relying mostly on primary articles, they investigate the molecular basis of a disease, compose reviews for an in-house journal, and present seminars in a public symposium. Last, students author primary articles detailing investigative experiments conducted in the lab. This curriculum has been successful in both quarter-based and semester-based institutions. Student attitudes toward their learning were assessed quantitatively with course surveys. Students consistently reported that these projects significantly lowered barriers to primary literature, improved research-associated skills, strengthened traditional pedagogy, and helped accomplish course objectives. Such approaches are widely suited for instructors seeking to integrate process with content in their courses.

  13. Functional knowledge transfer for high-accuracy prediction of under-studied biological processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Y Park

    Full Text Available A key challenge in genetics is identifying the functional roles of genes in pathways. Numerous functional genomics techniques (e.g. machine learning that predict protein function have been developed to address this question. These methods generally build from existing annotations of genes to pathways and thus are often unable to identify additional genes participating in processes that are not already well studied. Many of these processes are well studied in some organism, but not necessarily in an investigator's organism of interest. Sequence-based search methods (e.g. BLAST have been used to transfer such annotation information between organisms. We demonstrate that functional genomics can complement traditional sequence similarity to improve the transfer of gene annotations between organisms. Our method transfers annotations only when functionally appropriate as determined by genomic data and can be used with any prediction algorithm to combine transferred gene function knowledge with organism-specific high-throughput data to enable accurate function prediction. We show that diverse state-of-art machine learning algorithms leveraging functional knowledge transfer (FKT dramatically improve their accuracy in predicting gene-pathway membership, particularly for processes with little experimental knowledge in an organism. We also show that our method compares favorably to annotation transfer by sequence similarity. Next, we deploy FKT with state-of-the-art SVM classifier to predict novel genes to 11,000 biological processes across six diverse organisms and expand the coverage of accurate function predictions to processes that are often ignored because of a dearth of annotated genes in an organism. Finally, we perform in vivo experimental investigation in Danio rerio and confirm the regulatory role of our top predicted novel gene, wnt5b, in leftward cell migration during heart development. FKT is immediately applicable to many bioinformatics

  14. Basic concepts on threat, vulnerability and risk associated to a process of massive use of gaseous fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ospina G, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    The massive use of gaseous fuels, natural gas and liquefied gas of the oil or G.L.P., demands the implementation and complex technologies utilization in each one of the technical activities operative that transportation, distribution and consumption of these fuels requires, in order to accomplish each one of they in the form most efficient and possible insurance. Natural phenomena (earthquakes, landslides) and technical phenomena and caused by the man (terrorism, not appropriate designs of transportation and distribution net, wrong manipulation of the gas equipment) represent a latent danger for the distributors as well as for the users of the gas, generating a threat, of large proportions, for the normal development of the program of massive use of the gas, in any geographical environment where this is implemented. In this article are described the disaster concepts, threat, vulnerability and risk and the form as are related to the project of massive use of the gas, basically to transportation areas, distribution and final use

  15. Basic processes in reading aloud and colour naming: towards a better understanding of the role of spatial attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robidoux, Serje; Rauwerda, Derek; Besner, Derek

    2014-05-01

    Whether or not lexical access from print requires spatial attention has been debated intensively for the last 30 years. Studies involving colour naming generally find evidence that "unattended" words are processed. In contrast, reading-based experiments do not find evidence of distractor processing. One theory ascribes the discrepancy to weaker attentional demands for colour identification. If colour naming does not capture all of a subject's attention, the remaining attentional resources can be deployed to process the distractor word. The present study combined exogenous spatial cueing with colour naming and reading aloud separately and found that colour naming is less sensitive to the validity of a spatial cue than is reading words aloud. Based on these results, we argue that colour naming studies do not effectively control attention so that no conclusions about unattended distractor processing can be drawn from them. Thus we reiterate the consistent conclusion drawn from reading aloud and lexical decision studies: There is no word identification without (spatial) attention.

  16. Clarification of basic factorization identity is for the almost semi-continuous latticed Poisson processes on the Markov chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerich M. S.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Let ${xi(t, x(t}$ be a homogeneous semi-continuous lattice Poisson process on the Markov chain.The jumps of one sign are geometrically distributed, and jumps of the opposite sign are arbitrary latticed distribution. For a suchprocesses the relations for the components of two-sided matrix factorization are established.This relations define the moment genereting functions for extremumf of the process and their complements.

  17. Magnetic nanoparticles based dispersive micro-solid-phase extraction as a novel technique for coextraction of acidic and basic drugs from biological fluids and waste water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgharinezhad, Ali Akbar; Mollazadeh, Narges; Ebrahimzadeh, Homeira; Mirbabaei, Fatemeh; Shekari, Nafiseh

    2014-04-18

    The coextraction of acidic and basic drugs from different samples is a considerable and disputable concept in sample preparation strategies. In this study, for the first time, simultaneous extraction of acidic and basic drugs with magnetic nanoparticles based dispersive micro-solid phase extraction followed by high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection was introduced. Cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide-coated Fe3O4@decanoic acid as an efficient sorbent was successfully applied to adsorb diclofenac (DIC) as an acidic and diphenhydramine (DPH) as a basic model compound. First, appropriate amount of synthetic Fe3O4@decanoic acid nanoparticles was added to aqueous solution of drugs. After adjusting the pH of the solution, cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) was added to the mixture being stirred at a constant rate. After the adsorption of drugs and decantation of supernatant with a magnetic field, the sorbent was eluted with methanol by fierce vortex. The parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were optimized and obtained as: pH of the sample=9, concentration of CTAB=0.2mmolL(-1), amount of sorbent=10mg, extraction time=5min, no salt addition to sample, type and volume of the eluent=50μL methanol, and desorption time=1min. Under the optimum conditions detection limits and linear dynamic ranges were achieved in the range of 1.8-3.0, 5-1500μgL(-1) for DPH and 1.5-3.5, 5-1500μgL(-1) for DIC, respectively. The percent of extraction recovery and relative standard deviations (n=5) were in the range of 47.3-60, 5.2-9.0 for DPH and 64-76.7, 5.1-5.8 for DIC, respectively. Ultimately, the applicability of the method was successfully confirmed by the extraction and determination of DIC and DPH in human urine, plasma and waste water samples in the range of microgram per liter and satisfactory results were obtained. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The first success of glass eel production in the world: basic biology on fish reproduction advances new applied technology in aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, Hirohiko; Tanaka, Hideki; Ohta, Hiromi; Unuma, Tatsuya; Nomura, Kazuharu

    2005-04-01

    The eel has long been esteemed as an important food fish in the world, especially in Japan, and has been used as an experimental fish for many fields of fish physiology. However, the decreases in eel resources have been a serious concern in recent years. The catches of glass eels as seedlings for aquaculture have shown a long-term decrease in both Europe and East Asia. To increase eel resources, the development of techniques for artificial induction of maturation and spawning and rearing their larvae have been eagerly desired. Recent progress of reproductive physiology of fish, especially mechanisms of oocyte maturation and ovulation in female and of spermatozoa maturation in male, facilitate to establish techniques for hormonal induction of maturation and spawning in sexually immature eels. With persistent effort to development of rearing techniques of larvae, we have first succeeded to produce glass eel. These applied techniques are may contribute to understand the basic reproductive physiology of the eel.

  19. Basic Study of Establishment of Quality Assurance Processes to Develop an Integrated Quality Assurance System for Nuclear Power Plant Construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Byungki; Moon, Byeongsuk; Lee, Jae Kyoung

    2014-01-01

    An integrated quality assurance system has necessitated carrying out quality assurance programs in a systematic manner because the opportunities to expand business in overseas markets have increased since the export of a nuclear power plant to UAE in 2009. In this study, we use PDCA method to systematically analyze the quality assurance procedures that were used in previous projects for constructing nuclear power plants. We reached a classification system of quality assurance processes at each phase of nuclear power plant construction by integrating similar work related to quality such as planning, design, equipment manufacturing, construction and start-up. We also established a hierarchy of quality assurance processes to develop an integrated quality assurance system as a technology goal to be developed later. To obtain most updated quality assurance activities, a quality assurance process is structured by integrating similar works analyzed from quality assurance procedures through PDCA cycle method. At the implementation phase of Hierarchy of quality processes and sequence of processes for constructing nuclear power plant are established in this study. Integrated quality assurance system is to be developed by connecting organizations as well as stakeholders such as owners, Architect engineering, suppliers, contractors, and sub-contractors to carry out assigned work efficiently

  20. Basic Study of Establishment of Quality Assurance Processes to Develop an Integrated Quality Assurance System for Nuclear Power Plant Construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Byungki; Moon, Byeongsuk; Lee, Jae Kyoung [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    An integrated quality assurance system has necessitated carrying out quality assurance programs in a systematic manner because the opportunities to expand business in overseas markets have increased since the export of a nuclear power plant to UAE in 2009. In this study, we use PDCA method to systematically analyze the quality assurance procedures that were used in previous projects for constructing nuclear power plants. We reached a classification system of quality assurance processes at each phase of nuclear power plant construction by integrating similar work related to quality such as planning, design, equipment manufacturing, construction and start-up. We also established a hierarchy of quality assurance processes to develop an integrated quality assurance system as a technology goal to be developed later. To obtain most updated quality assurance activities, a quality assurance process is structured by integrating similar works analyzed from quality assurance procedures through PDCA cycle method. At the implementation phase of Hierarchy of quality processes and sequence of processes for constructing nuclear power plant are established in this study. Integrated quality assurance system is to be developed by connecting organizations as well as stakeholders such as owners, Architect engineering, suppliers, contractors, and sub-contractors to carry out assigned work efficiently.

  1. Wavelet basics

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, Y T

    1995-01-01

    Since the study of wavelets is a relatively new area, much of the research coming from mathematicians, most of the literature uses terminology, concepts and proofs that may, at times, be difficult and intimidating for the engineer. Wavelet Basics has therefore been written as an introductory book for scientists and engineers. The mathematical presentation has been kept simple, the concepts being presented in elaborate detail in a terminology that engineers will find familiar. Difficult ideas are illustrated with examples which will also aid in the development of an intuitive insight. Chapter 1 reviews the basics of signal transformation and discusses the concepts of duals and frames. Chapter 2 introduces the wavelet transform, contrasts it with the short-time Fourier transform and clarifies the names of the different types of wavelet transforms. Chapter 3 links multiresolution analysis, orthonormal wavelets and the design of digital filters. Chapter 4 gives a tour d'horizon of topics of current interest: wave...

  2. Education: The Basics. The Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Kay

    2011-01-01

    Everyone knows that education is important, we are confronted daily by discussion of it in the media and by politicians, but how much do we really know about education? "Education: The Basics" is a lively and engaging introduction to education as an academic subject, taking into account both theory and practice. Covering the schooling system, the…

  3. A compact and versatile microfluidic probe for local processing of tissue sections and biological specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cors, J. F.; Lovchik, R. D.; Delamarche, E.; Kaigala, G. V.

    2014-03-01

    The microfluidic probe (MFP) is a non-contact, scanning microfluidic technology for local (bio)chemical processing of surfaces based on hydrodynamically confining nanoliter volumes of liquids over tens of micrometers. We present here a compact MFP (cMFP) that can be used on a standard inverted microscope and assist in the local processing of tissue sections and biological specimens. The cMFP has a footprint of 175 × 100 × 140 mm3 and can scan an area of 45 × 45 mm2 on a surface with an accuracy of ±15 μm. The cMFP is compatible with standard surfaces used in life science laboratories such as microscope slides and Petri dishes. For ease of use, we developed self-aligned mounted MFP heads with standardized "chip-to-world" and "chip-to-platform" interfaces. Switching the processing liquid in the flow confinement is performed within 90 s using a selector valve with a dead-volume of approximately 5 μl. We further implemented height-compensation that allows a cMFP head to follow non-planar surfaces common in tissue and cellular ensembles. This was shown by patterning different macroscopic copper-coated topographies with height differences up to 750 μm. To illustrate the applicability to tissue processing, 5 μm thick M000921 BRAF V600E+ melanoma cell blocks were stained with hematoxylin to create contours, lines, spots, gradients of the chemicals, and multiple spots over larger areas. The local staining was performed in an interactive manner using a joystick and a scripting module. The compactness, user-friendliness, and functionality of the cMFP will enable it to be adapted as a standard tool in research, development and diagnostic laboratories, particularly for the interaction with tissues and cells.

  4. [Water-exchange processes in hyaline cartilage and its basic components in a normal state and in osteoarthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaeva, S S; Chkhol, K Z; Bykov, V A; Roshchina, A A; Iakovleva, L V; Koroleva, O A; Omel'ianenko, N P; Rebrov, L B

    2000-01-01

    The content of different forms of tissue water was studied in the normal articular cartilage and osteoarthrosis cartilage and its structural components: collagen, potassium hyaluronate, sodium chondroitinsulphate and its complexes. In the components of cartilage matrix a few of fractions of bound water different in the strength of binding are present. At the maximal humidity, all water in collagen binds with the active groups of biopolymers and in the glycosaminoglycans, in addition to bound water, are present, two crystal forms of freezing water (free water) at least. The quantity of free water in the collagen-chondroitin sulphat membrane, is increased with the increase of chondroitin sulphate. In the collagen-hyaluronate complex, fraction of free water is found only at the low concentration of hyaluronate kalium. It was shown that in the hyalin cartilage, in different from the other connective tissue (skin, achilles tendon), the most part of water is free water and its quantity is increased in the osteoarthrosis. It is supposed that the rearrangement of binding and free-water fractions in the osteoarthrosis is the result of deficiency of hyaluronic acid and therefore this may be regarded in the improvement of methods of treatment. This scientific and methodical approach allow to receive information on the forms and binding energy of water in the biological tissues, which is absorbed from fluids and steam phase and determine characters of the pathological changes.

  5. Interconnection of reactive oxygen species chemistry across the interfaces of atmospheric, environmental, and biological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglada, Josep M; Martins-Costa, Marilia; Francisco, Joseph S; Ruiz-López, Manuel F

    2015-03-17

    Oxidation reactions are ubiquitous and play key roles in the chemistry of the atmosphere, in water treatment processes, and in aerobic organisms. Ozone (O3), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), hydrogen polyoxides (H2Ox, x > 2), associated hydroxyl and hydroperoxyl radicals (HOx = OH and HO2), and superoxide and ozonide anions (O2(-) and O3(-), respectively) are the primary oxidants in these systems. They are commonly classified as reactive oxygen species (ROS). Atmospheric chemistry is driven by a complex system of chain reactions of species, including nitrogen oxides, hydroxyl and hydroperoxide radicals, alkoxy and peroxy radicals, and ozone. HOx radicals contribute to keeping air clean, but in polluted areas, the ozone concentration increases and creates a negative impact on plants and animals. Indeed, ozone concentration is used to assess air quality worldwide. Clouds have a direct effect on the chemical composition of the atmosphere. On one hand, cloud droplets absorb many trace atmospheric gases, which can be scavenged by rain and fog. On the other hand, ionic species can form in this medium, which makes the chemistry of the atmosphere richer and more complex. Furthermore, recent studies have suggested that air-cloud interfaces might have a significant impact on the overall chemistry of the troposphere. Despite the large differences in molecular composition, concentration, and thermodynamic conditions among atmospheric, environmental, and biological systems, the underlying chemistry involving ROS has many similarities. In this Account, we examine ROS and discuss the chemical characteristics common to all of these systems. In water treatment, ROS are key components of an important subset of advanced oxidation processes. Ozonation, peroxone chemistry, and Fenton reactions play important roles in generating sufficient amounts of hydroxyl radicals to purify wastewater. Biochemical processes within living organisms also involve ROS. These species can come from pollutants in

  6. Quantum electronics basic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Fain, V M; Sanders, J H

    1969-01-01

    Quantum Electronics, Volume 1: Basic Theory is a condensed and generalized description of the many research and rapid progress done on the subject. It is translated from the Russian language. The volume describes the basic theory of quantum electronics, and shows how the concepts and equations followed in quantum electronics arise from the basic principles of theoretical physics. The book then briefly discusses the interaction of an electromagnetic field with matter. The text also covers the quantum theory of relaxation process when a quantum system approaches an equilibrium state, and explai

  7. Morphology of Filamentous Fungi: Linking Cellular Biology to Process Engineering Using Aspergillus niger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krull, Rainer; Cordes, Christiana; Horn, Harald; Kampen, Ingo; Kwade, Arno; Neu, Thomas R.; Nörtemann, Bernd

    In various biotechnological processes, filamentous fungi, e.g. Aspergillus niger, are widely applied for the production of high value-added products due to their secretion efficiency. There is, however, a tangled relationship between the morphology of these microorganisms, the transport phenomena and the related productivity. The morphological characteristics vary between freely dispersed mycelia and distinct pellets of aggregated biomass. Hence, advantages and disadvantages for mycel or pellet cultivation have to be balanced out carefully. Due to this inadequate understanding of morphogenesis of filamentous microorganisms, fungal morphology, along with reproducibility of inocula of the same quality, is often a bottleneck of productivity in industrial production. To obtain an optimisation of the production process it is of great importance to gain a better understanding of the molecular and cell biology of these microorganisms as well as the approaches in biochemical engineering and particle technique, in particular to characterise the interactions between the growth conditions, cell morphology, spore-hyphae-interactions and product formation. Advances in particle and image analysis techniques as well as micromechanical devices and their applications to fungal cultivations have made available quantitative morphological data on filamentous cells. This chapter provides the ambitious aspects of this line of action, focussing on the control and characterisation of the morphology, the transport gradients and the approaches to understand the metabolism of filamentous fungi. Based on these data, bottlenecks in the morphogenesis of A. niger within the complex production pathways from gene to product should be identified and this may improve the production yield.

  8. Photo-induced regeneration of hormones by electron transfer processes: Potential biological and medical consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getoff, Nikola; Hartmann, Johannes; Schittl, Heike; Gerschpacher, Marion; Quint, Ruth Maria

    2011-08-01

    Based on the previous results concerning electron transfer processes in biological substances, it was of interest to investigate if hormone transients resulting by e.g. electron emission can be regenerated. The presented results prove for the first time that the hormone transients originating by the electron emission process can be successfully regenerated by the transfer of electrons from a potent electron donor, such as vitamin C (VitC). Investigations were performed using progesterone (PRG), testosterone (TES) and estrone (E1) as representatives of hormones. By irradiation with monochromatic UV light (λ=254 nm) in a media of 40% water and 60% ethanol, the degradation as well as the regeneration of the hormones was studied with each hormone individually and in the mixture with VitC as a function of the absorbed UV dose, using HPLC. Calculated from the obtained initial yields, the determined regeneration of PRG amounted to 52.7%, for TES to 58.6% and for E1 to 90.9%. The consumption of VitC was determined in the same way. The reported results concerning the regeneration of hormones by the transfer of electrons from an electron donor offer a new, promising method for the therapy with hormones. As a consequence of the regeneration of hormones, a decreased formation of carcinogenic metabolites is expected.

  9. Photo-induced regeneration of hormones by electron transfer processes: Potential biological and medical consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Getoff, Nikola, E-mail: nikola.getoff@univie.ac.a [Section of Radiation Biology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Hartmann, Johannes [Department of Gynecologic Endocrinology and Reproduction, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Schittl, Heike [Section of Radiation Biology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Gerschpacher, Marion [Department of Gynecologic Endocrinology and Reproduction, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Quint, Ruth Maria [Section of Radiation Biology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2011-08-15

    Based on the previous results concerning electron transfer processes in biological substances, it was of interest to investigate if hormone transients resulting by e.g. electron emission can be regenerated. The presented results prove for the first time that the hormone transients originating by the electron emission process can be successfully regenerated by the transfer of electrons from a potent electron donor, such as vitamin C (VitC). Investigations were performed using progesterone (PRG), testosterone (TES) and estrone (E1) as representatives of hormones. By irradiation with monochromatic UV light ({lambda}=254 nm) in a media of 40% water and 60% ethanol, the degradation as well as the regeneration of the hormones was studied with each hormone individually and in the mixture with VitC as a function of the absorbed UV dose, using HPLC. Calculated from the obtained initial yields, the determined regeneration of PRG amounted to 52.7%, for TES to 58.6% and for E1 to 90.9%. The consumption of VitC was determined in the same way. The reported results concerning the regeneration of hormones by the transfer of electrons from an electron donor offer a new, promising method for the therapy with hormones. As a consequence of the regeneration of hormones, a decreased formation of carcinogenic metabolites is expected.

  10. Photo-induced regeneration of hormones by electron transfer processes: Potential biological and medical consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Getoff, Nikola; Hartmann, Johannes; Schittl, Heike; Gerschpacher, Marion; Quint, Ruth Maria

    2011-01-01

    Based on the previous results concerning electron transfer processes in biological substances, it was of interest to investigate if hormone transients resulting by e.g. electron emission can be regenerated. The presented results prove for the first time that the hormone transients originating by the electron emission process can be successfully regenerated by the transfer of electrons from a potent electron donor, such as vitamin C (VitC). Investigations were performed using progesterone (PRG), testosterone (TES) and estrone (E1) as representatives of hormones. By irradiation with monochromatic UV light (λ=254 nm) in a media of 40% water and 60% ethanol, the degradation as well as the regeneration of the hormones was studied with each hormone individually and in the mixture with VitC as a function of the absorbed UV dose, using HPLC. Calculated from the obtained initial yields, the determined regeneration of PRG amounted to 52.7%, for TES to 58.6% and for E1 to 90.9%. The consumption of VitC was determined in the same way. The reported results concerning the regeneration of hormones by the transfer of electrons from an electron donor offer a new, promising method for the therapy with hormones. As a consequence of the regeneration of hormones, a decreased formation of carcinogenic metabolites is expected.

  11. Roles of extracellular polymeric substances in enhanced biological phosphorus removal process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Wei; Zhang, Hai-Ling; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Yu, Han-Qing

    2015-12-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process is known to mainly rely on the ability of phosphorus-accumulating organisms to take up, transform and store excess amount of phosphorus (P) inside the cells. However, recent studies have revealed considerable accumulation of P also in the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of sludge, implying a non-negligible role of EPS in P removal by EBPR sludge. However, the contribution of EPS to P uptake and the forms of accumulated extracellular P vary substantially in different studies, and the underlying mechanism of P transformation and transportation in EPS remains poorly understood. This review provides a new recognition into the P removal process in EBPR system by incorporating the role of EPS. It overviews on the characteristics of P accumulation in EPS, explores the mechanism of P transformation and transportation in EBPR sludge and EPS, summarizes the main influential factors for the P-accumulation properties of EPS, and discusses the remaining knowledge gaps and needed future efforts that may lead to better understanding and use of such an EPS role for maximizing P recovery from wastewater. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. In vitro biological outcome of laser application for modification or processing of titanium dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindy, Ahmed; Farahmand, Farzam; Tabatabaei, Fahimeh Sadat

    2017-07-01

    There are numerous functions for laser in modern implant dentistry including surface treatment, surface coating, and implant manufacturing. As laser application may potentially improve osseointegration of dental implants, we systematically reviewed the literature for in vitro biological responses to laser-modified or processed titanium dental implants. The literature was searched in PubMed, ISI Web, and Scopus, using keywords "titanium dental implants," "laser," "biocompatibility," and their synonyms. After screening the 136 references obtained, 28 articles met the inclusion criteria. We found that Nd:YAG laser was the most commonly used lasers in the treatment or processing of titanium dental implants. Most of the experiments used cell attachment and cell proliferation to investigate bioresponses of the implants. The most commonly used cells in these assays were osteoblast-like cells. Only one study was conducted in stem cells. These in vitro studies reported higher biocompatibility in laser-modified titanium implants. It seems that laser radiation plays a vital role in cell response to dental implants; however, it is necessary to accomplish more studies using different laser types and parameters on various cells to offer a more conclusive result.

  13. Process simulation and comparison of biological conversion of syngas and hydrogen in biogas plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awais Salman, Chaudhary; Schwede, Sebastian; Thorin, Eva; Yan, Jinyue

    2017-11-01

    Organic waste is a good source of clean energy. However, different fractions of waste have to be utilized efficiently. One way is to find pathways to convert waste into useful products via various available processes (gasification, pyrolysis anaerobic digestion, etc.) and integrate them to increase the combined efficiency of the process. The syngas and hydrogen produced from the thermal conversion of biomass can be upgraded to biomethane via biological methanation. The current study presents the simulation model to predict the amount of biomethane produced by injecting the hydrogen and syngas. Hydrogen injection is modelled both in-situ and ex-situ while for syngas solely the ex-situ case has been studied. The results showed that 85% of the hydrogen conversion was achieved for the ex-situ reactor while 81% conversion rate was achieved for the in-situ reactor. The syngas could be converted completely in the bio-reactor. However, the addition of syngas resulted in an increase of carbon dioxide. Simulation of biomethanation of gas addition showed a biomethane concentration of 87% while for hydrogen addition an increase of 74% and 80% for in-situ and ex-situ addition respectively.

  14. Application of a biological process for decontamination of soils in the far north

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouliot, Y.; Sansregret, J.-L.

    1994-01-01

    The site of a diesel-fuelled power station in the extreme north of Quebec (62 degree latitude) was contaminated with hydrocarbons. The site was characterized by typical Arctic conditions: presence of permafrost, limited land transport facilities, restricted availability of machinery and equipment, and scarcity of skilled labor and specialized services. To remediate the site, it was decided to excavate the contaminated soil and subject it to a biological treatment process. The soil was piled on an impermeable base inside of the old power station building and the following parameters were controlled in order to optimize the biodegradation of the hydrocarbons: temperature, humidity, pH, presence of hydrocarbon degrading microorganisms, and concentrations of oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus in the soil. Samples were analyzed to monitor the performance of the biodegradation process. In less than 12 weeks, of treatment, an inital hydrocarbon content estimated at 6,400 mg/kg of oils and greases was reduced to 750 mg/kg, corresponding to a level acceptable for residential areas. Indigenous microorganisms capable of degrading hydrocarbons were already present in the native soil in sufficient quantity, and their performance improved when the soil conditions were optimized. 1 fig., 3 tabs

  15. Effect of residual H2O2 from advanced oxidation processes on subsequent biological water treatmen : A laboratory batch study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, F.; van Halem, D.; Liu, G.; Lekkerkerker-Teunissen, K.; van der Hoek, J.P.

    2017-01-01

    H2O2 residuals from advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) may have critical impacts on the microbial ecology and performance of subsequent biological treatment processes, but little is known. The objective of this study was to evaluate how H2O2 residuals influence sand systems with an emphasis on

  16. Basic technologies of web services framework for research, discovery, and processing the disparate massive Earth observation data from heterogeneous sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savorskiy, V.; Lupyan, E.; Balashov, I.; Burtsev, M.; Proshin, A.; Tolpin, V.; Ermakov, D.; Chernushich, A.; Panova, O.; Kuznetsov, O.; Vasilyev, V.

    2014-04-01

    Both development and application of remote sensing involves a considerable expenditure of material and intellectual resources. Therefore, it is important to use high-tech means of distribution of remote sensing data and processing results in order to facilitate access for as much as possible number of researchers. It should be accompanied with creation of capabilities for potentially more thorough and comprehensive, i.e. ultimately deeper, acquisition and complex analysis of information about the state of Earth's natural resources. As well objective need in a higher degree of Earth observation (EO) data assimilation is set by conditions of satellite observations, in which the observed objects are uncontrolled state. Progress in addressing this problem is determined to a large extent by order of the distributed EO information system (IS) functioning. Namely, it is largely dependent on reducing the cost of communication processes (data transfer) between spatially distributed IS nodes and data users. One of the most effective ways to improve the efficiency of data exchange processes is the creation of integrated EO IS optimized for running procedures of distributed data processing. The effective EO IS implementation should be based on specific software architecture.

  17. Basic Auditory Processing Deficits in Dyslexia: Systematic Review of the Behavioral and Event-Related Potential/Field Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämäläinen, Jarmo A.; Salminen, Hanne K.; Leppänen, Paavo H. T.

    2013-01-01

    A review of research that uses behavioral, electroencephalographic, and/or magnetoencephalographic methods to investigate auditory processing deficits in individuals with dyslexia is presented. Findings show that measures of frequency, rise time, and duration discrimination as well as amplitude modulation and frequency modulation detection were…

  18. Evaluation of the processing of dry biological ferment for gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabundjian, Ingrid Traete

    2007-01-01

    The developed work had with objectives to demonstrate if it had alteration in the growth of UFC in plate and in the viability of yeasts and total bacteria when dry biological ferment was dealt with by different doses to gamma radiation and under different times storage, to determine the D10 dose for total bacteria and yeasts in this product and to analyzed the processing of this product it promoted some benefit without causing unfeasibility of exactly. The different samples of dry biological ferment had been irradiated at IPEN in a Gammacell - 220 source at 0.5; 1; 2 and 3 kGy doses (dose rate of 3.51 kGy/h). This procedure referring samples to each dose of radiation had been after destined to the microbiological analysis and the test of viability while excessively the samples had been stored the ambient temperature (23 degree C). The increase of the dose of radiation caused a reduction in the counting of yeasts growth, of total bacteria growth and also in the frequency of viable yeast cells, demonstrated by FDA-EB fluorescent method. Beyond of radiation the storage time also it influenced in counting reduction of total bacteria and reduction of frequency of viable cells. According with the analysis of simple linear regression, the dose of radiation necessary to eliminate 90% of the yeast population was between 1.10 and 2.23 kGy and for the bacterial population varied between 2.31 and 2.95 kGy. These results demonstrated clearly the negative points of the application of ionizing radiation in dry biological ferment; therefore the interval of D10 found for total bacteria is superior to found for yeasts. Being thus, the use of this resource for the improvement of the product quality becomes impracticable, since to reduce significantly the bacterial population necessarily we have that to diminish the population of yeasts. With yeasts reduction of we will go significantly to modify the quality and the viability of product. (author)

  19. Functional anthology of intrinsic disorder. 1. Biological processes and functions of proteins with long disordered regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hongbo; Vucetic, Slobodan; Iakoucheva, Lilia M; Oldfield, Christopher J; Dunker, A Keith; Uversky, Vladimir N; Obradovic, Zoran

    2007-05-01

    statistical approach, outlines the major findings, and provides illustrative examples of biological processes and functions positively and negatively correlated with intrinsic disorder.

  20. Functional Anthology of Intrinsic Disorder. I. Biological Processes and Functions of Proteins with Long Disordered Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hongbo; Vucetic, Slobodan; Iakoucheva, Lilia M.; Oldfield, Christopher J.; Dunker, A. Keith; Uversky, Vladimir N.; Obradovic, Zoran

    2008-01-01

    approach, outlines the major findings and provides illustrative examples of biological processes and functions positively and negatively correlated with intrinsic disorder. PMID:17391014

  1. Altered processing of rewarding and aversive basic taste stimuli in symptomatic women with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa: An fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteleone, Alessio Maria; Monteleone, Palmiero; Esposito, Fabrizio; Prinster, Anna; Volpe, Umberto; Cantone, Elena; Pellegrino, Francesca; Canna, Antonietta; Milano, Walter; Aiello, Marco; Di Salle, Francesco; Maj, Mario

    2017-07-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have displayed a dysregulation in the way in which the brain processes pleasant taste stimuli in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). However, exactly how the brain processes disgusting basic taste stimuli has never been investigated, even though disgust plays a role in food intake modulation and AN and BN patients exhibit high disgust sensitivity. Therefore, we investigated the activation of brain areas following the administration of pleasant and aversive basic taste stimuli in symptomatic AN and BN patients compared to healthy subjects. Twenty underweight AN women, 20 symptomatic BN women and 20 healthy women underwent fMRI while tasting 0.292 M sucrose solution (sweet taste), 0.5 mM quinine hydrochloride solution (bitter taste) and water as a reference taste. In symptomatic AN and BN patients the pleasant sweet stimulus induced a higher activation in several brain areas than that induced by the aversive bitter taste. The opposite occurred in healthy controls. Moreover, compared to healthy controls, AN patients showed a decreased response to the bitter stimulus in the right amygdala and left anterior cingulate cortex, while BN patients showed a decreased response to the bitter stimulus in the right amygdala and left insula. These results show an altered processing of rewarding and aversive taste stimuli in ED patients, which may be relevant for understanding the pathophysiology of AN and BN. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A Study of Human Computing on Solving Process of Basic Problems in Exercises for learning by Brain Wave

    OpenAIRE

    山口, 有美; 山口, 晴久

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the comparative experiments to the students on solving process of problems on typical school teaching material knowledge (caluculation, geometry, Kanji dictations, typewriting, drawing ) in exercises in both in VDT works and on desktop works by frequency analysis of Brain Wave. The cognitive states of each mental working were compared on brain waves. And α reduction rate in brain waves in each mental work (calculation, geometry, Kanji dictations, typewriting, drawin...

  3. Processes that Drove the Transition from Chemistry to Biology: Concepts and Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohorille, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    above background was evolved in vitro. This enzyme does not look like any contemporary protein. It is very flexible and its structure is kept together just by a single salt bridge between a charged residue and a coordinating zinc. A similar picture emerges from studies of simple transmembrane channels that mimic those in ancestral cells. Again, they are extremely flexible and do not form a conventional pore. Yet, they efficiently mediate ion transport. Studies on simple proteins that are on-going in several laboratories hold promise of revealing crucial links between chemical and biological catalysis and other ubiquitous cell functions. Interaction between composition, growth and division of protobiologically relevant vesicles and metabolic reactions that they encapsulate is an example of coupling between simple functions that promotes reproduction and evolution. Recent studies have demonstrated possible mechanisms by which vesicles might have evolved their composition from fatty acids to phospholipids, thus facilitating a number of new cellular functions. Conversely, it has been also demonstrated that an encapsulated metabolism might drive vesicle division. These are, again, examples of processes that might have driven the transition from chemistry to biology.

  4. Basic principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, P.D.

    1996-01-01

    Some basic explanations are given of the principles underlying the nuclear fuel cycle, starting with the physics of atomic and nuclear structure and continuing with nuclear energy and reactors, fuel and waste management and finally a discussion of economics and the future. An important aspect of the fuel cycle concerns the possibility of ''closing the back end'' i.e. reprocessing the waste or unused fuel in order to re-use it in reactors of various kinds. The alternative, the ''oncethrough'' cycle, discards the discharged fuel completely. An interim measure involves the prolonged storage of highly radioactive waste fuel. (UK)

  5. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Tayal, DC

    2010-01-01

    The second edition of this book incorporates the comments and suggestions of my friends and students who have critically studied the first edition. In this edition the changes and additions have been made and subject matter has been rearranged at some places. The purpose of this text is to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date study of the principles of operation of solid state devices, their basic circuits and application of these circuits to various electronic systems, so that it can serve as a standard text not only for universities and colleges but also for technical institutes. This book

  6. An integrated methodological approach to the computer-assisted gas chromatographic screening of basic drugs in biological fluids using nitrogen selective detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugal, R; Massé, R; Sanchez, G; Bertrand, M J

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents the methodological aspects of a computerized system for the gas-chromatographic screening and primary identification of central nervous system stimulants and narcotic analgesics (including some of their respective metabolites) extracted from urine. The operating conditions of a selective nitrogen detector for optimized analytical functions are discussed, particularly the effect of carrier and fuel gas on the detector's sensitivity to nitrogen-containing molecules and discriminating performance toward biological matrix interferences. Application of simple extraction techniques, combined with rapid derivatization procedures, computer data acquisition, and reduction of chromatographic data are presented. Results show that this system approach allows for the screening of several drugs and their metabolites in a short amount of time. The reliability and stability of the system have been tested by analyzing several thousand samples for doping control at major international sporting events and for monitoring drug intake in addicts participating in a rehabilitation program. Results indicate that these techniques can be used and adapted to many different analytical toxicology situations.

  7. Reproductive Behavior and Basic Biology of the Oriental Bamboo-Inhabiting Anoplomus rufipes and a Comparison with Frugivorous Dacinae Fruit Flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Kovac

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive behaviors and mating systems of the fruit-infesting species of the Dacinae tribes Ceratitidini and Dacini are increasingly well understood, while in the non-frugivorous tribe Gastrozonini, data are lacking. In the present study, the reproductive behavior of Anoplomus rufipes from North Thailand was studied in the field, other behaviors also in the laboratory. A. rufipes mated on young bamboo plants growing in areas destroyed by fire. Exudates of extrafloral nectaries produced by the young bamboo plants provided food for the females. Factors affecting the choice of the mating site were favorable microclimatic conditions and food. Courtship behavior was performed on the upper sides of bamboo leaves and included pheromone calling (abdominal elevation, anal pouch eversion, abdominal pleural distention, anal dabbing, looping flights and a specific lofting/body swaying behavior. The males searched individually for females or formed leks containing up to four males. The reproductive behaviors and lek formation of A. rufipes are compared to other Dacinae (Ceratitis, Bactrocera, and their functions are discussed. Hitherto unknown data on the general biology of A. rufipes are also included. A. rufipes larvae infested living bamboo shoots of Cephalostachyum pergracile, and the observed behaviors of the adults included locomotion, grooming, feeding, oral droplet deposition, bubbling and agonistic behavior.

  8. Removal of Refractory Organics from Biologically Treated Landfill Leachate by Microwave Discharge Electrodeless Lamp Assisted Fenton Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuyi Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biologically treated leachate usually contains considerable amount of refractory organics and trace concentrations of xenobiotic pollutants. Removal of refractory organics from biologically treated landfill leachate by a novel microwave discharge electrodeless lamp (MDEL assisted Fenton process was investigated in the present study in comparison to conventional Fenton and ultraviolet Fenton processes. Conventional Fenton and ultraviolet Fenton processes could substantially remove up to 70% of the refractory organics in a membrane bioreactor treated leachate. MDEL assisted Fenton process achieved excellent removal performance of the refractory components, and the effluent chemical oxygen demand concentration was lower than 100 mg L−1. Most organic matters were transformed into smaller compounds with molecular weights less than 1000 Da. Ten different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were detected in the biologically treated leachate, most of which were effectively removed by MDEL-Fenton treatment. MDEL-Fenton process provides powerful capability in degradation of refractory and xenobiotic organic pollutants in landfill leachate and could be adopted as a single-stage polishing process for biologically treated landfill leachate to meet the stringent discharge limit.

  9. Biological effects of ion implantation on processing tomato and eggplant seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Peihong; Zeng Xianxian; Jin Xiang

    2004-01-01

    The seed of processing tomato '87-5' (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) were implanted by the low energy nitrogen ion (N + ) with 6 different doses. The rate of emergence was little reduced in M1 generation, but the fruiting number per plant was increased and it's maturing earlier 20 days than the control. The precocity, disease resistance and stronger growth vigor were shown in M2 generation. Experimental results of two years showed that, according to synthetic analysis in factors such as precocity, disease resistance, high yield and quality, the N + dose of 6 x 10 16 cm -2 (60 times of pulse) for tomato seed '87-5' had been proved to have notable biological effects on M1 and M2 generation. The seed of eggplant 'Wuyeqie' (Solanum melongena L.) was also implanted by the low energy nitrogen ion (N + ) with 2 different doses. Multi-vertical channel fruits were obtained in variable M1 generation, which liked the pomelo without peel. The seed of these variable eggplants was taken and planted in the next year. The meaningful variable fruits, the characters of disease-resistance, purple-peel, small-navel, lantern-form, large-scale, etc. were obtained in beneficial M2 generation. The biggest single-fruit weight reached 1.53 kg, providing valuable germplasm resource for breeding. (authors)

  10. BioModels Database: a repository of mathematical models of biological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelliah, Vijayalakshmi; Laibe, Camille; Le Novère, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    BioModels Database is a public online resource that allows storing and sharing of published, peer-reviewed quantitative, dynamic models of biological processes. The model components and behaviour are thoroughly checked to correspond the original publication and manually curated to ensure reliability. Furthermore, the model elements are annotated with terms from controlled vocabularies as well as linked to relevant external data resources. This greatly helps in model interpretation and reuse. Models are stored in SBML format, accepted in SBML and CellML formats, and are available for download in various other common formats such as BioPAX, Octave, SciLab, VCML, XPP and PDF, in addition to SBML. The reaction network diagram of the models is also available in several formats. BioModels Database features a search engine, which provides simple and more advanced searches. Features such as online simulation and creation of smaller models (submodels) from the selected model elements of a larger one are provided. BioModels Database can be accessed both via a web interface and programmatically via web services. New models are available in BioModels Database at regular releases, about every 4 months.

  11. Impacts of Environmental Nanoparticles on Chemical, Biological and Hydrological Processes in Terrestrial Ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qafoku, Nikolla

    2012-01-01

    This chapter provides insights on nanoparticle (NP) influence or control on the extent and timescales of single or coupled physical, chemical, biological and hydrological reactions and processes that occur in terrestrial ecosystems. Examples taken from the literature that show how terrestrial NPs may determine the fate of the aqueous and sorbed (adsorbed or precipitated) chemical species of nutrients and contaminants, are also included in this chapter. Specifically, in the first section, chapter objectives, term definitions and discussions on size-dependent properties, the origin and occurrence of NP in terrestrial ecosystems and NP toxicity, are included. In the second section, the topic of the binary interactions of NPs of different sizes, shapes, concentrations and ages with the soil solution chemical species is covered, focusing on NP formation, stability, aggregation, ability to serve as sorbents, or surface-mediated precipitation catalysts, or electron donors and acceptors. In the third section, aspects of the interactions in the ternary systems composed of environmental NP, nutrient/contaminant chemical species, and the soil/sediment matrix are discussed, focusing on the inhibitory and catalytic effects of environmental NP on nutrient/contaminant advective mobility and mass transfer, adsorption and desorption, dissolution and precipitation and redox reactions that occur in terrestrial ecosystems. These three review sections are followed by a short summary of future research needs and directions, the acknowledgements, the list of the references, and the figures.

  12. Treatment of bromoamine acid wastewater using combined process of micro-electrolysis and biological aerobic filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Li; Ni, Jinren; Wu, Yanjun; Zhang, Yongyong

    2009-03-15

    The wastewater originated from the production of bromoamine acid was treated in a sequential system of micro-electrolysis (ME) and biological aerobic filter (BAF). Decolorization and COD(Cr) removal rate of the proposed system was investigated with full consideration of the influence of two major controlling factors such as organic loading rate (OLR) and hydraulic retention time (HRT). The removal rate of COD(Cr) was 81.2% and that of chrominance could be up to 96.6% at an OLR of 0.56 kg m(-3)d(-1) when the total HRT was 43.4h. Most of the chrominance was removed by the ME treatment, however, the BAF process was more effective for COD(Cr) removal. The GC-MS and HPLC-MS analysis of the contaminants revealed that 1-aminoanthraquinone, bromoamine acid and mono-sulfonated 1,2-dichlorobenzene were the main organic components in the wastewater. The reductive transformation of the anthraquinone derivatives in the ME reactor improved the biodegradability of the wastewater, and rendered the decolorization. After long-term of operation, it was observed that the predominant microorganisms immobilized on the BAF carriers were rod-shaped and globular. Four bacterial strains with apparent 16S rDNA fragments in the Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles of BAF samples were identified as Variovorax sp., Sphingomonas sp., Mycobacterium sp., and Microbacterium sp.

  13. Treatment of bromoamine acid wastewater using combined process of micro-electrolysis and biological aerobic filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan Li [Shenzhen Graduate School, Peking University, Key Laboratory for Environmental and Urban Sciences, Guang Dong 518055 (China); Department of Environmental Engineering, Peking University, Key Laboratory of Water and Sediment Sciences, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100871 (China); Ni Jinren [Shenzhen Graduate School, Peking University, Key Laboratory for Environmental and Urban Sciences, Guang Dong 518055 (China); Department of Environmental Engineering, Peking University, Key Laboratory of Water and Sediment Sciences, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100871 (China)], E-mail: nijinren@iee.pku.edu.cn; Wu Yanjun; Zhang Yongyong [Shenzhen Graduate School, Peking University, Key Laboratory for Environmental and Urban Sciences, Guang Dong 518055 (China); Department of Environmental Engineering, Peking University, Key Laboratory of Water and Sediment Sciences, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2009-03-15

    The wastewater originated from the production of bromoamine acid was treated in a sequential system of micro-electrolysis (ME) and biological aerobic filter (BAF). Decolorization and COD{sub Cr} removal rate of the proposed system was investigated with full consideration of the influence of two major controlling factors such as organic loading rate (OLR) and hydraulic retention time (HRT). The removal rate of COD{sub Cr} was 81.2% and that of chrominance could be up to 96.6% at an OLR of 0.56 kg m{sup -3} d{sup -1} when the total HRT was 43.4 h. Most of the chrominance was removed by the ME treatment, however, the BAF process was more effective for COD{sub Cr} removal. The GC-MS and HPLC-MS analysis of the contaminants revealed that 1-aminoanthraquinone, bromoamine acid and mono-sulfonated 1,2-dichlorobenzene were the main organic components in the wastewater. The reductive transformation of the anthraquinone derivatives in the ME reactor improved the biodegradability of the wastewater, and rendered the decolorization. After long-term of operation, it was observed that the predominant microorganisms immobilized on the BAF carriers were rod-shaped and globular. Four bacterial strains with apparent 16S rDNA fragments in the Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles of BAF samples were identified as Variovorax sp., Sphingomonas sp., Mycobacterium sp., and Microbacterium sp.

  14. Treatment of bromoamine acid wastewater using combined process of micro-electrolysis and biological aerobic filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Li; Ni Jinren; Wu Yanjun; Zhang Yongyong

    2009-01-01

    The wastewater originated from the production of bromoamine acid was treated in a sequential system of micro-electrolysis (ME) and biological aerobic filter (BAF). Decolorization and COD Cr removal rate of the proposed system was investigated with full consideration of the influence of two major controlling factors such as organic loading rate (OLR) and hydraulic retention time (HRT). The removal rate of COD Cr was 81.2% and that of chrominance could be up to 96.6% at an OLR of 0.56 kg m -3 d -1 when the total HRT was 43.4 h. Most of the chrominance was removed by the ME treatment, however, the BAF process was more effective for COD Cr removal. The GC-MS and HPLC-MS analysis of the contaminants revealed that 1-aminoanthraquinone, bromoamine acid and mono-sulfonated 1,2-dichlorobenzene were the main organic components in the wastewater. The reductive transformation of the anthraquinone derivatives in the ME reactor improved the biodegradability of the wastewater, and rendered the decolorization. After long-term of operation, it was observed that the predominant microorganisms immobilized on the BAF carriers were rod-shaped and globular. Four bacterial strains with apparent 16S rDNA fragments in the Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles of BAF samples were identified as Variovorax sp., Sphingomonas sp., Mycobacterium sp., and Microbacterium sp

  15. A two-stage biological gas to liquid transfer process to convert carbon dioxide into bioplastic

    KAUST Repository

    Al Rowaihi, Israa

    2018-03-06

    The fermentation of carbon dioxide (CO2) with hydrogen (H2) uses available low-cost gases to synthesis acetic acid. Here, we present a two-stage biological process that allows the gas to liquid transfer (Bio-GTL) of CO2 into the biopolymer polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB). Using the same medium in both stages, first, acetic acid is produced (3.2 g L−1) by Acetobacterium woodii from 5.2 L gas-mixture of CO2:H2 (15:85 v/v) under elevated pressure (≥2.0 bar) to increase H2-solubility in water. Second, acetic acid is converted to PHB (3 g L−1 acetate into 0.5 g L−1 PHB) by Ralstonia eutropha H16. The efficiencies and space-time yields were evaluated, and our data show the conversion of CO2 into PHB with a 33.3% microbial cell content (percentage of the ratio of PHB concentration to cell concentration) after 217 h. Collectively, our results provide a resourceful platform for future optimization and commercialization of a Bio-GTL for PHB production.

  16. Fuzzy logic for plant-wide control of biological wastewater treatment process including greenhouse gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santín, I; Barbu, M; Pedret, C; Vilanova, R

    2018-06-01

    The application of control strategies is increasingly used in wastewater treatment plants with the aim of improving effluent quality and reducing operating costs. Due to concerns about the progressive growth of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), these are also currently being evaluated in wastewater treatment plants. The present article proposes a fuzzy controller for plant-wide control of the biological wastewater treatment process. Its design is based on 14 inputs and 6 outputs in order to reduce GHG emissions, nutrient concentration in the effluent and operational costs. The article explains and shows the effect of each one of the inputs and outputs of the fuzzy controller, as well as the relationship between them. Benchmark Simulation Model no 2 Gas is used for testing the proposed control strategy. The results of simulation results show that the fuzzy controller is able to reduce GHG emissions while improving, at the same time, the common criteria of effluent quality and operational costs. Copyright © 2018 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Feasibility of a two-stage biological aerated filter for depth processing of electroplating-wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Yan, Dongdong; Wang, Qi; Li, Song; Yang, Shaogui; Wu, Wenfei

    2009-09-01

    A "two-stage biological aerated filter" (T-SBAF) consisting of two columns in series was developed to treat electroplating-wastewater. Due to the low BOD/CODcr values of electroplating-wastewater, "twice start-up" was employed to reduce the time for adaptation of microorganisms, a process that takes up of 20 days. Under steady-state conditions, the removal of CODcr and NH(4)(+)-N increased first and then decreased while the hydraulic loadings increased from 0.75 to 1.5 m(3) m(-2) h(-1). The air/water ratio had the same influence on the removal of CODcr and NH(4)(+)-N when increasing from 3:1 to 6:1. When the hydraulic loadings and air/water ratio were 1.20 m(3) m(-2) h(-1) and 4:1, the optimal removal of CODcr, NH(4)(+)-N and total-nitrogen (T-N) were 90.13%, 92.51% and 55.46%, respectively. The effluent steadily reached the wastewater reuse standard. Compared to the traditional BAF, the period before backwashing of the T-SBAF could be extended to 10days, and the recovery time was considerably shortened.

  18. The microbial community in a high-temperature enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Hui Ong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR process operated at a relatively high temperature, 28 °C, removed 85% carbon and 99% phosphorus from wastewater over a period of two years. This study investigated its microbial community through fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH and clone library generation. Through FISH, considerably more Candidatus “Accumulibacter phosphatis” (Accumulibacter-polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs than Candidatus ‘Competibacter phosphatis’ (Competibacter-glycogen accumulating organisms were detected in the reactor, at 36 and 7% of total bacterial population, respectively. A low ratio of Glycogen/Volatile Fatty Acid of 0.69 further indicated the dominance of PAOs in the reactor. From clone library generated, 26 operational taxonomy units were retrieved from the sludge and a diverse population was shown, comprising Proteobacteria (69.6%, Actinobacteria (13.7%, Bacteroidetes (9.8%, Firmicutes (2.94%, Planctomycetes (1.96%, and Acidobacteria (1.47%. Accumulibacter are the only recognized PAOs revealed by the clone library. Both the clone library and FISH results strongly suggest that Accumulibacter are the major PAOs responsible for the phosphorus removal in this long-term EBPR at relatively high temperature.

  19. Mechanical Biological Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilitewski, B-; Oros, Christiane; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    The basic processes and technologies of composting and anaerobic digestion, as described in the previous chapters, are usually used for specific or source-separated organic waste flows. However, in the 1990s mechanical biological waste treatment technologies (MBT) were developed for unsorted...... or residual waste (after some recyclables removed at the source). The concept was originally to reduce the amount of waste going to landfill, but MBT technologies are today also seen as plants recovering fuel as well as material fractions. As the name suggests the technology combines mechanical treatment...... technologies (screens, sieves, magnets, etc.) with biological technologies (composting, anaerobic digestion). Two main technologies are available: Mechanical biological pretreatment (MBP), which first removes an RDF fraction and then biologically treats the remaining waste before most of it is landfilled...

  20. Nutritional Systems Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kasper

    and network biology has the potential to increase our understanding of how small molecules affect metabolic pathways and homeostasis, how this perturbation changes at the disease state, and to what extent individual genotypes contribute to this. A fruitful strategy in approaching and exploring the field...... biology research. The paper also shows as a proof-of-concept that a systems biology approach to diet is meaningful and demonstrates some basic principles on how to work with diet systematic. The second chapter of this thesis we developed the resource NutriChem v1.0. A foodchemical database linking...... sites of diet on the disease pathway. We propose a framework for interrogating the critical targets in colon cancer process and identifying plant-based dietary interventions as important modifiers using a systems chemical biology approach. The fifth chapter of the thesis is on discovering of novel anti...

  1. Generating quantitative models describing the sequence specificity of biological processes with the stabilized matrix method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sette Alessandro

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many processes in molecular biology involve the recognition of short sequences of nucleic-or amino acids, such as the binding of immunogenic peptides to major histocompatibility complex (MHC molecules. From experimental data, a model of the sequence specificity of these processes can be constructed, such as a sequence motif, a scoring matrix or an artificial neural network. The purpose of these models is two-fold. First, they can provide a summary of experimental results, allowing for a deeper understanding of the mechanisms involved in sequence recognition. Second, such models can be used to predict the experimental outcome for yet untested sequences. In the past we reported the development of a method to generate such models called the Stabilized Matrix Method (SMM. This method has been successfully applied to predicting peptide binding to MHC molecules, peptide transport by the transporter associated with antigen presentation (TAP and proteasomal cleavage of protein sequences. Results Herein we report the implementation of the SMM algorithm as a publicly available software package. Specific features determining the type of problems the method is most appropriate for are discussed. Advantageous features of the package are: (1 the output generated is easy to interpret, (2 input and output are both quantitative, (3 specific computational strategies to handle experimental noise are built in, (4 the algorithm is designed to effectively handle bounded experimental data, (5 experimental data from randomized peptide libraries and conventional peptides can easily be combined, and (6 it is possible to incorporate pair interactions between positions of a sequence. Conclusion Making the SMM method publicly available enables bioinformaticians and experimental biologists to easily access it, to compare its performance to other prediction methods, and to extend it to other applications.

  2. Determination of Basic Structure-Property Relations for Processing and Modeling in Advanced Nuclear Fuel: Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, Kirk; Parra, Manuel; Peralta, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    The project objective is to study structure-property relations in solid solutions of nitrides and oxides with surrogate elements to simulate the behavior of fuels of inert matrix fuels of interest to the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), with emphasis in zirconium-based materials. Work with actual fuels will be carried out in parallel in collaboration with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Three key aspects will be explored: microstructure characterization through measurement of global texture evolution and local crystallographic variations using Electron Backscattering Diffraction (EBSD); determination of mechanical properties, including fracture toughness, quasi-static compression strength, and hardness, as functions of load and temperature, and, finally, development of structure-property relations to describe mechanical behavior of the fuels based on experimental data. Materials tested will be characterized to identify the mechanisms of deformation and fracture and their relationship to microstructure and its evolution. New aspects of this research are the inclusion of crystallographic information into the evaluation of fuel performance and the incorporation of statistical variations of microstructural variables into simplified models of mechanical behavior of fuels that account explicitly for these variations. The work is expected to provide insight into processing conditions leading to better fuel performance and structural reliability during manufacturing and service, as well as providing a simplified testing model for future fuel production

  3. Unity and disunity in evolutionary sciences: process-based analogies open common research avenues for biology and linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, Johann-Mattis; Pathmanathan, Jananan Sylvestre; Lopez, Philippe; Bapteste, Eric

    2016-08-20

    For a long time biologists and linguists have been noticing surprising similarities between the evolution of life forms and languages. Most of the proposed analogies have been rejected. Some, however, have persisted, and some even turned out to be fruitful, inspiring the transfer of methods and models between biology and linguistics up to today. Most proposed analogies were based on a comparison of the research objects rather than the processes that shaped their evolution. Focusing on process-based analogies, however, has the advantage of minimizing the risk of overstating similarities, while at the same time reflecting the common strategy to use processes to explain the evolution of complexity in both fields. We compared important evolutionary processes in biology and linguistics and identified processes specific to only one of the two disciplines as well as processes which seem to be analogous, potentially reflecting core evolutionary processes. These new process-based analogies support novel methodological transfer, expanding the application range of biological methods to the field of historical linguistics. We illustrate this by showing (i) how methods dealing with incomplete lineage sorting offer an introgression-free framework to analyze highly mosaic word distributions across languages; (ii) how sequence similarity networks can be used to identify composite and borrowed words across different languages; (iii) how research on partial homology can inspire new methods and models in both fields; and (iv) how constructive neutral evolution provides an original framework for analyzing convergent evolution in languages resulting from common descent (Sapir's drift). Apart from new analogies between evolutionary processes, we also identified processes which are specific to either biology or linguistics. This shows that general evolution cannot be studied from within one discipline alone. In order to get a full picture of evolution, biologists and linguists need to

  4. Raman scattering in GaN, AlN and AlGaN. Basic material properties, processing and devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, J.M.

    2002-05-01

    GaN, AIN and AIGaN are very promising materials for high-power, high-temperature and high-frequency electronic device applications but many of their material properties and the effects of processing steps for device fabrication have not yet been fully investigated. AIGaN/GaN films were annealed at temperatures of 800 to 1300 deg C in different ambient atmospheres. The films were then analysed by micro-Raman spectroscopy. Compressive stress was found in films annealed in oxygen containing atmospheres which was significantly enhanced by the presence of water vapour in the annealing atmosphere. No stress was detected after annealing in nitrogen even at temperatures close to the thermal decomposition temperature and in the presence of water vapour. Thermal decomposition can be prevented by the use of high-pressure atmospheres during annealing. Mg/P implanted and non-implanted GaN films annealed at temperatures up to 1500 deg C with nitrogen over-pressures of 1-1.5 GPa were analysed by micro-Raman spectroscopy. Annealing temperatures of 1400-1500 deg C resulted in the nearly full recovery of the crystalline quality of the ion-implanted GaN. Ultraviolet Raman spectroscopy showed that no significant surface degradation occurred during the annealing. High-quality bulk AIN crystals were studied by micro-Raman spectroscopy. The pressure dependence of the phonon frequencies was measured in the range 0 GPa to 9.5 GPa determining the mode-Grueneisen parameters. The temperature dependence of the phonon frequencies and lifetimes was measured from 10 K to 1275 K. Empirical fitting and theoretical modelling of the temperature dependence was performed. The results have application for the monitoring of temperature in (Ga/AI)N. The E 2 (high) phonon frequency of GaN measured by micro-Raman spectroscopy was used to monitor local temperatures in active AIGaN/GaN hetero-structure field effect transistor devices (HFETs). The temperature rise in the active area of devices on sapphire

  5. Biological and geochemical processes involved during denitrification in Callovo-Oxfordian clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ollivier, P.; Parmentier, M.; Joulian, C.; Pauwels, H.; Albrecht, A.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The clay-rich Callovo-Oxfordian (COx) formation has been selected for the disposal of medium and high level, long-lived radioactive waste. After waste cell closure and degradation of package some intermediate-level waste will release nitrate. The latter is likely to diffuse into the surrounding environment (engineered barriers and geological host formation) and interact with a variety compounds present in the barrier components and the rocks. These interactions may result in modification of chemical conditions and impact storage conditions and radionuclide retention. Our work is focused on the understanding of the fate of nitrates released during and after degradation of waste package. We developed a coupled approach considering both geochemical and biological processes of nitrate reduction to simulate reactions occurring at the interface of the engineered barrier and the clay-rich COx formation. Laboratory experiments have been carried out in order to acquire data on kinetics of denitrification coupled with a molecular approach using enzymatic and metabolic activities as a tool for an accurate estimation of biomass. Denitrification has been monitored in a synthetic solution comparable to COx pore water supplemented with acetate and nitrate and amended with a heterotrophic denitrifying strain, Pseudomonas mandelii. Several conditions are applied considering different acetate/nitrate ratios in the presence or absence of COx clay. Before the beginning of experiments, the headspace is flushed with N 2 gas to remove oxygen from flasks. Acetylene is used to stop denitrification reaction after the production of N 2 O gas and thus avoid the formation of N 2 gas. Two successive redox reactions are thus expected to occur in experiments. Samples are regularly collected to analyze physical and chemical parameters as well as biological parameters. Biomass is estimated and monitored using both optical microscopy and

  6. Gene-ontology enrichment analysis in two independent family-based samples highlights biologically plausible processes for autism spectrum disorders.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Anney, Richard J L

    2012-02-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have implicated a range of genes from discrete biological pathways in the aetiology of autism. However, despite the strong influence of genetic factors, association studies have yet to identify statistically robust, replicated major effect genes or SNPs. We apply the principle of the SNP ratio test methodology described by O\\'Dushlaine et al to over 2100 families from the Autism Genome Project (AGP). Using a two-stage design we examine association enrichment in 5955 unique gene-ontology classifications across four groupings based on two phenotypic and two ancestral classifications. Based on estimates from simulation we identify excess of association enrichment across all analyses. We observe enrichment in association for sets of genes involved in diverse biological processes, including pyruvate metabolism, transcription factor activation, cell-signalling and cell-cycle regulation. Both genes and processes that show enrichment have previously been examined in autistic disorders and offer biologically plausibility to these findings.

  7. Physics and biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frauenfelder, H.

    1988-01-01

    The author points out that the coupling between physics and biology is becoming closer as time goes on. He tries to show that physical studies on biological systems not only yield insight into biology but also provide results of interest to physics. Biological systems are extremly complex system. Ideally one would like to understand the behavior of such systems in terms of the behavior of its constituent atoms. Since in small organisms this may be 10 20 atoms, it is clear these are not simple many-body systems. He reviews the basic elements of cells and then considers the broader questions of structure, complexity, and function, which must be looked at on levels from the cell to the organism. Despite the vast amount of observational material already in existence, biophysics and biological physics are only at a beginning. We can expect that physics will continue to interact strongly with biology. Actually, the connection also includes chemistry and mathematics. New tools that become available in physics will continue to be applied to biological problems. We can expect that the flow of information will not be one way; biological systems will provide new information on many old and new parts of physics, from reaction theory and transport phenomena to complexity, cooperativity, and nonlinear processes

  8. Atypical biological motion kinematics are represented by complementary lower-level and top-down processes during imitation learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Spencer J; Dutoy, Chris A; Elliott, Digby; Gowen, Emma; Bennett, Simon J

    2016-01-01

    Learning a novel movement requires a new set of kinematics to be represented by the sensorimotor system. This is often accomplished through imitation learning where lower-level sensorimotor processes are suggested to represent the biological motion kinematics associated with an observed movement. Top-down factors have the potential to influence this process based on the social context, attention and salience, and the goal of the movement. In order to further examine the potential interaction between lower-level and top-down processes in imitation learning, the aim of this study was to systematically control the mediating effects during an imitation of biological motion protocol. In this protocol, we used non-human agent models that displayed different novel atypical biological motion kinematics, as well as a control model that displayed constant velocity. Importantly the three models had the same movement amplitude and movement time. Also, the motion kinematics were displayed in the presence, or absence, of end-state-targets. Kinematic analyses showed atypical biological motion kinematics were imitated, and that this performance was different from the constant velocity control condition. Although the imitation of atypical biological motion kinematics was not modulated by the end-state-targets, movement time was more accurate in the absence, compared to the presence, of an end-state-target. The fact that end-state targets modulated movement time accuracy, but not biological motion kinematics, indicates imitation learning involves top-down attentional, and lower-level sensorimotor systems, which operate as complementary processes mediated by the environmental context. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A Case Study Documenting the Process by Which Biology Instructors Transition from Teacher-Centered to Learner-Centered Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marbach-Ad, Gili; Hunt Rietschel, Carly

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we used a case study approach to obtain an in-depth understanding of the change process of two university instructors who were involved with redesigning a biology course. Given the hesitancy of many biology instructors to adopt evidence-based, learner-centered teaching methods, there is a critical need to understand how biology instructors transition from teacher-centered (i.e., lecture-based) instruction to teaching that focuses on the students. Using the innovation-decision model for change, we explored the motivation, decision-making, and reflective processes of the two instructors through two consecutive, large-enrollment biology course offerings. Our data reveal that the change process is somewhat unpredictable, requiring patience and persistence during inevitable challenges that arise for instructors and students. For example, the change process requires instructors to adopt a teacher-facilitator role as opposed to an expert role, to cover fewer course topics in greater depth, and to give students a degree of control over their own learning. Students must adjust to taking responsibility for their own learning, working collaboratively, and relinquishing the anonymity afforded by lecture-based teaching. We suggest implications for instructors wishing to change their teaching and administrators wishing to encourage adoption of learner-centered teaching at their institutions. © 2016 G. Marbach-Ad and C. H. Rietschel. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  10. La modelización en morfología y biología celular en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje en las ciencias básicas en la formación médica / Modeling in morphology and cellular biology as a teaching-learning activity in basic sciences in the medical formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Marina Cano Molano

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Los procesos de enseñanza aprendizaje de las ciencias básicas tienen diferentes estrategias didácticas que permiten el desarrollo de las competencias de las asignaturas para la formación médica. Con el estudio teórico toda la tarea recae sobre la memoria y la imaginación, al contrario de lo que sucede si el trabajo se realiza de forma activa y las diferentes actividades realizadas requieren de todas las habilidades y sentidos. Objetivos: Evaluar el desempeño académico del estudiante cuando construye y sustenta un modelo tridimensional en las áreas de Biología Celular y Morfofisiología correlacionándolo con el examen oral. Métodos: Se realizó una encuesta de percepción estudiantil y se comparó con un t-student que permitió evaluar el impacto de la modelización en el rendimiento académico de los estudiantes. Resultados: La mediana del modelo fue de 3.38 y la mediana del examen oral fue de 3.75; existiendo una correlación del 84% entre la nota del modelo y el examen oral, con un coeficiente correlación de Pearson 0.85 con una p=0.000, estadísticamente significativa. Conclusión: La actividad académica de construcción de modelos tridimensionales en las áreas de Biología Celular y Morfofisiología para el desarrollo de la compresión de estructuras complejas mejora la capacidad de integración y argumentación de los contenidos de estas asignaturas. Introduction: The learning processes of the basic sciences have different teaching strategies that allow the development of the competences of the subjects for the training of practioners. With the theoreti-cal study, the whole task falls on memory and imagination, unlike what happens if the work is done in an active way and the different activities performed require all the skills and senses. Aims: To evaluate the student's academic performance when constructing and sustaining a three-dimensional model in the areas of Cell Biology and Morphology and correlate

  11. Enhanced biological processes associated with alopecia in polar bears (Ursus maritimus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Lizabeth; Miles, A. Keith; Stott, Jeffrey L.; Waters, Shannon C.; Atwood, Todd C.

    2015-01-01

    Populations of wildlife species worldwide experience incidents of mass morbidity and mortality. Primary or secondary drivers of these events may escape classical detection methods for identifying microbial insults, toxin exposure, or additional stressors. In 2012, 28% of polar bears sampled in a study in the southern Beaufort Sea region of Alaska had varying degrees of alopecia that was concomitant with reduced body condition. Concurrently, elevated numbers of sick or dead ringed seals were detected in the southern Beaufort, Chukchi, and Bering seas in 2012, resulting in the declaration of an unusual mortality event (UME) by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The primary and possible ancillary causative stressors of these events are unknown, and related physiological changes within individual animals have been undetectable using classical diagnostic methods. Here we present an emerging technology as a potentially guiding investigative approach aimed at elucidating the circumstances responsible for the susceptibility of certain polar bears to observed conditions. Using transcriptomic analysis we identified enhanced biological processes including immune response, viral defense, and response to stress in polar bears with alopecia. Our results support an alternative mechanism of investigation into the causative agents that, when used proactively, could serve as an early indicator for populations and species at risk. We suggest that current or classical methods for investigation into events of unusual morbidity and mortality can be costly, sometimes unfocused, and often inconclusive. Advances in technology allow for implementation of a holistic system of surveillance and investigation that could provide early warning of health concerns in wildlife species important to humans.

  12. Biological efficacy and toxic effect of emergency water disinfection process based on advanced oxidation technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yiping; Yuan, Xiaoli; Xu, Shujing; Li, Rihong; Zhou, Xinying; Zhang, Zhitao

    2015-12-01

    An innovative and removable water treatment system consisted of strong electric field discharge and hydrodynamic cavitation based on advanced oxidation technologies was developed for reactive free radicals producing and waterborne pathogens eliminating in the present study. The biological efficacy and toxic effects of this advanced oxidation system were evaluated during water disinfection treatments. Bench tests were carried out with synthetic microbial-contaminated water, as well as source water in rainy season from a reservoir of Dalian city (Liaoning Province, China). Results showed that high inactivation efficiency of Escherichia coli (>5 log) could be obtained for synthetic contaminated water at a low concentration (0.5-0.7 mg L(-1)) of total oxidants in 3-10 s. The numbers of wild total bacteria (108 × 10(3) CFU mL(-1)) and total coliforms (260 × 10(2) MPN 100 mL(-1)) in source water greatly reduced to 50 and 0 CFU mL(-1) respectively after treated by the advanced oxidation system, which meet the microbiological standards of drinking water, and especially that the inactivation efficiency of total coliforms could reach 100%. Meanwhile, source water qualities were greatly improved during the disinfection processes. The values of UV254 in particular were significantly reduced (60-80%) by reactive free radicals. Moreover, the concentrations of possible disinfection by-products (formaldehyde and bromide) in treated water were lower than detection limits, indicating that there was no harmful effect on water after the treatments. These investigations are helpful for the ecotoxicological studies of advanced oxidation system in the treatments of chemical polluted water or waste water. The findings of this work suggest that the developed water treatment system is ideal in the acute phases of emergencies, which also could offer additional advantages over a wide range of applications in water pollution control.

  13. Oil refinery wastewater treatment using coupled electrocoagulation and fixed film biological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Laura S.; Rodriguez, Oscar M.; Reyna, Silvia; Sánchez-Salas, José Luis; Lozada, J. Daniel; Quiroz, Marco A.; Bandala, Erick R.

    2016-02-01

    Oil refinery wastewater was treated using a coupled treatment process including electrocoagulation (EC) and a fixed film aerobic bioreactor. Different variables were tested to identify the best conditions using this procedure. After EC, the effluent was treated in an aerobic biofilter. EC was capable to remove over 88% of the overall chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the wastewater under the best working conditions (6.5 V, 0.1 M NaCl, 4 electrodes without initial pH adjustment) with total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) removal slightly higher than 80%. Aluminum release from the electrodes to the wastewater was found an important factor for the EC efficiency and closely related with several operational factors. Application of EC allowed to increase the biodegradability of the sample from 0.015, rated as non-biodegradable, up to 0.5 widely considered as biodegradable. The effluent was further treated using an aerobic biofilter inoculated with a bacterial consortium including gram positive and gram negative strains and tested for COD and TPH removal from the EC treated effluent during 30 days. Cell count showed the typical bacteria growth starting at day three and increasing up to a maximum after eight days. After day eight, cell growth showed a plateau which agreed with the highest decrease on contaminant concentration. Final TPHs concentration was found about 600 mgL-1 after 30 days whereas COD concentration after biological treatment was as low as 933 mgL-1. The coupled EC-aerobic biofilter was capable to remove up to 98% of the total TPH amount and over 95% of the COD load in the oil refinery wastewater.

  14. Enhanced biological processes associated with alopecia in polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Lizabeth; Miles, A Keith; Stott, Jeffrey; Waters, Shannon; Atwood, Todd

    2015-10-01

    Populations of wildlife species worldwide experience incidents of mass morbidity and mortality. Primary or secondary drivers of these events may escape classical detection methods for identifying microbial insults, toxin exposure, or additional stressors. In 2012, 28% of polar bears sampled in a study in the southern Beaufort Sea region of Alaska had varying degrees of alopecia that was concomitant with reduced body condition. Concurrently, elevated numbers of sick or dead ringed seals were detected in the southern Beaufort, Chukchi, and Bering seas in 2012, resulting in the declaration of an unusual mortality event (UME) by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The primary and possible ancillary causative stressors of these events are unknown, and related physiological changes within individual animals have been undetectable using classical diagnostic methods. Here we present an emerging technology as a potentially guiding investigative approach aimed at elucidating the circumstances responsible for the susceptibility of certain polar bears to observed conditions. Using transcriptomic analysis we identified enhanced biological processes including immune response, viral defense, and response to stress in polar bears with alopecia. Our results support an alternative mechanism of investigation into the causative agents that, when used proactively, could serve as an early indicator for populations and species at risk. We suggest that current or classical methods for investigation into events of unusual morbidity and mortality can be costly, sometimes unfocused, and often inconclusive. Advances in technology allow for implementation of a holistic system of surveillance and investigation that could provide early warning of health concerns in wildlife species important to humans. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Biological Carbon Dioxide Assimilation Process Using Marine Phytoplankton Tetraselmis suecica and Bivalve Perna viridis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirichai Dharmvanij

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Biological CO2 assimilation process using marine phytoplankton and marine bivalve was evaluated by carbon assimilation of the green mussel Perna viridis fed with Tetraselmis suecica under laboratory condition. Incorporation of carbon dioxide into phytoplankton biomass was performed through aeration. The experiment consisted of three treatments i.e. mussels without feeding (Control, mussels fed with T. suecica cultured with air (Treatment 1: T-Air, and mussels fed with T. suecica cultured with 1.5% CO2 in air (Treatment 2: T-CO2. The results showed that growth of mussels in T-Air and T-CO2 was 22.4 ± 4.0 mg/individual/day and 28.9 ± 12.3 mg/individual/day, respectively, which was significantly higher than control (mussels without feeding. Growth of mussels in T-Air was significantly lower than in T-CO2. Carbon content in shell (15.59 ± 0.57 % D.W. and meat (38.28 ± 1.72 % D.W. of mussels fed with aerated T. suecica (T-Air was significantly higher than that found in mussels fed with 1.5% CO2 T. suecica (14.2 ± 0.47 and 36.61± 0.43 % D.W. in shell and in meat, respectively (p≤0.05. With T-Air, 1.95±0.27 and 9.36±1.24% of carbon from T. suecica cells was assimilated into shell and meat of the mussel, respectively, while in T-CO2 , carbon assimilation from T. suecica cells in shell and meat was 2.19±0.55 and 11.22±2.76% respectively.

  16. Inflation Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Dan [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2014-03-01

    inflation since metrical fluctuations, both scalar and tensor, are also produced in inflationary models. Thus, the time appears to be appropriate for a very basic and simple exposition of the inflationary model written from a particle physics perspective. Only the simplest scalar model will be explored because it is easy to understand and contains all the basic elements of the inflationary model.

  17. Inflation Basics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Dan

    2014-01-01

    waves imprinted on the CMB. These would be a ''smoking gun'' for inflation since metrical fluctuations, both scalar and tensor, are also produced in inflationary models. Thus, the time appears to be appropriate for a very basic and simple exposition of the inflationary model written from a particle physics perspective. Only the simplest scalar model will be explored because it is easy to understand and contains all the basic elements of the inflationary model.

  18. A Case Study Documenting the Process by Which Biology Instructors Transition from Teacher-Centered to Learner-Centered Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marbach-Ad, Gili; Hunt Rietschel, Carly

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we used a case study approach to obtain an in-depth understanding of the change process of two university instructors who were involved with redesigning a biology course. Given the hesitancy of many biology instructors to adopt evidence-based, learner-centered teaching methods, there is a critical need to understand how biology instructors transition from teacher-centered (i.e., lecture-based) instruction to teaching that focuses on the students. Using the innovation-decision model for change, we explored the motivation, decision-making, and reflective processes of the two instructors through two consecutive, large-enrollment biology course offerings. Our data reveal that the change process is somewhat unpredictable, requiring patience and persistence during inevitable challenges that arise for instructors and students. For example, the change process requires instructors to adopt a teacher-facilitator role as opposed to an expert role, to cover fewer course topics in greater depth, and to give students a degree of control over their own learning. Students must adjust to taking responsibility for their own learning, working collaboratively, and relinquishing the anonymity afforded by lecture-based teaching. We suggest implications for instructors wishing to change their teaching and administrators wishing to encourage adoption of learner-centered teaching at their institutions. PMID:27856550

  19. Basic Number Processing Deficits in ADHD: A Broad Examination of Elementary and Complex Number Processing Skills in 9- to 12-Year-Old Children with ADHD-C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Liane; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph

    2008-01-01

    ADHD (attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder) and academic difficulties are frequently associated, but to date this link is poorly understood. In order to explore which components of number processing and calculation skills may be disturbed in children with ADHD we presented a series of respective tasks to 9- to 12-year-old children with…

  20. Biological processes in the water column of the South Atlantic bight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paffenhoefer, G.A.; Yoder, J.A.

    1980-01-31

    Progress is reported on research conducted during 1979 on the biological oceanography of the South Atlantic Bight. The presentation consists of a number of published articles and abstracts of oral presentations. (ACR)