WorldWideScience

Sample records for basic assumptions underlying

  1. Basic assumptions of service employees : Influence on employee job outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Gjerald, Olga

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to contribute to the understanding of employee basic assumptions in the service context, to gain a better knowledge of the dimensionality of the construct, its measurement, and its influence on service employee job performance. This thesis consists of one theoretical paper, three empirical papers, and an overview presenting the theoretical background of the studies, the aims and major findings of the conducted studies, as well as an overall disc...

  2. Assumptions Underlying Agile Software Development Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Turk, Dan; France, Robert; Rumpe, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Agile processes focus on facilitating early and fast production of working code, and are based on software development process models that support iterative, incremental development of software. Although agile methods have existed for a number of years now, answers to questions concerning the suitability of agile processes to particular software development environments are still often based on anecdotal accounts of experiences. An appreciation of the (often unstated) assumptions underlying a...

  3. Basic concepts and assumptions behind the new ICRP recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is given of some of the basic concepts and assumptions behind the current recommendations by the International Commission on Radiological Protection in ICRP Publications 26 and 28, which form the basis for the revision of the Basic Safety Standards jointly undertaken by IAEA, ILO, NEA and WHO. Special attention is given to the assumption of a linear, non-threshold dose-response relationship for stochastic radiation effects such as cancer and hereditary harm. The three basic principles of protection are discussed: justification of practice, optimization of protection and individual risk limitation. In the new ICRP recommendations particular emphasis is given to the principle of keeping all radiation doses as low as is reasonably achievable. A consequence of this is that the ICRP dose limits are now given as boundary conditions for the justification and optimization procedures rather than as values that should be used for purposes of planning and design. The fractional increase in total risk at various ages after continuous exposure near the dose limits is given as an illustration. The need for taking other sources, present and future, into account when applying the dose limits leads to the use of the commitment concept. This is briefly discussed as well as the new quantity, the effective dose equivalent, introduced by ICRP. (author)

  4. Mathematical models of Ebola-Consequences of underlying assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhilan; Zheng, Yiqiang; Hernandez-Ceron, Nancy; Zhao, Henry; Glasser, John W; Hill, Andrew N

    2016-07-01

    Mathematical models have been used to study Ebola disease transmission dynamics and control for the recent epidemics in West Africa. Many of the models used in these studies are based on the model of Legrand et al. (2007), and most failed to accurately project the outbreak's course (Butler, 2014). Although there could be many reasons for this, including incomplete and unreliable data on Ebola epidemiology and lack of empirical data on how disease-control measures quantitatively affect Ebola transmission, we examine the underlying assumptions of the Legrand model, and provide alternate formulations that are simpler and provide additional information regarding the epidemiology of Ebola during an outbreak. We developed three models with different assumptions about disease stage durations, one of which simplifies to the Legrand model while the others have more realistic distributions. Control and basic reproduction numbers for all three models are derived and shown to provide threshold conditions for outbreak control and prevention. PMID:27130854

  5. Primary prevention in public health: an analysis of basic assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliffe, J; Wallack, L

    1985-01-01

    The common definition of primary prevention is straightforward; but how it is transformed into a framework to guide action is based on personal and societal feelings and beliefs about the basis for social organization. This article focuses on the two contending primary prevention strategies of health promotion and health protection. The contention between the two strategies stems from a basic disagreement about disease causality in modern society. Health promotion is based on the "lifestyle" theory of disease causality, which sees individual health status linked ultimately to personal decisions about diet, stress, and drug habits. Primary prevention, from this perspective, entails persuading individuals to forgo their risk-taking, self-destructive behavior. Health protection, on the other hand, is based on the "social-structural" theory of disease causality. This theory sees the health status of populations linked ultimately to the unequal distribution of social resources, industrial pollution, occupational stress, and "anti-health promotion" marketing practices. Primary prevention, from this perspective, requires changing existing social and, particularly, economic policies and structures. In order to provide a basis for choosing between these contending strategies, the demonstrated (i.e., past) impact of each strategy on the health of the public is examined. Two conclusions are drawn. First, the health promotion strategy shows little potential for improving the public health, because it systematically ignores the risk-imposing, other-destructive behavior of influential actors (policy-makers and institutions) in society. And second, effective primary prevention efforts entail an "upstream" approach that results in far-reaching sociopolitical and economic change.

  6. Dynamic Group Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange under standard assumptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bresson, Emmanuel; Chevassut, Olivier; Pointcheval, David

    2002-02-14

    Authenticated Diffie-Hellman key exchange allows two principals communicating over a public network, and each holding public-private keys, to agree on a shared secret value. In this paper we study the natural extension of this cryptographic problem to a group of principals. We begin from existing formal security models and refine them to incorporate major missing details (e.g., strong-corruption and concurrent sessions). Within this model we define the execution of a protocol for authenticated dynamic group Diffie-Hellman and show that it is provably secure under the decisional Diffie-Hellman assumption. Our security result holds in the standard model and thus provides better security guarantees than previously published results in the random oracle model.

  7. Physician-hastened death in young children: Getting to underlying assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Lester; Chan, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    Significant changes are occurring in Canada's health care system regarding physician-hastened death (PHD). In the Netherlands, where the Groningen Protocol is in place, euthanasia in now legal for infants and children. The present article considers whether PHD should be applied to young children in Canada and how these paediatric cases differ from adult cases. The discussion analyzes and critiques the underlying assumptions necessary to believe that PHD is good. The role of worldviews in the deliberation of any moral question and the importance of recognizing personal bias are highlighted. The authors present common issues regarding PHD, including suffering, parental autonomy and future quality of life, and examine the basic assumptions on which these arguments are made. Finally, they conclude that the assumptions required are incorrect and that PHD should not be allowed in the case of children. Instead, policies should continue to strive for the protection and promotion of health in all children. PMID:27429568

  8. A framework for the organizational assumptions underlying safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety culture of the nuclear organization can be addressed at the three levels of culture proposed by Edgar Schein. The industry literature provides a great deal of insight at the artefact and espoused value levels, although as yet it remains somewhat disorganized. There is, however, an overall lack of understanding of the assumption level of safety culture. This paper describes a possible framework for conceptualizing the assumption level, suggesting that safety culture is grounded in unconscious beliefs about the nature of the safety problem, its solution and how to organize to achieve the solution. Using this framework, the organization can begin to uncover the assumptions at play in its normal operation, decisions and events and, if necessary, engage in a process to shift them towards assumptions more supportive of a strong safety culture. (author)

  9. Basic Assumptions of the New Price System and Supplements to the Tariff System for Electricity Sale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article outlines some basic assumptions of the new price system and major elements of the latest proposition for the changes and supplements to the Tariff system for Electricity Sale in the Republic of Croatia, including the analysis of those elements which brought about the present unfavourable and non-productive relations within the electric power system. The paper proposes measures and actions which should by means of a price system and tariff policy improve the present unfavourable relations and their consequences and achieve a desirable consumption structure and characteristics, resulting in rational management and effective power supply-economy relationships within the electric power system as a subsystem of the power supply sector. (author). 2 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  10. Limitations of force-free magnetic field extrapolations: revisiting basic assumptions

    CERN Document Server

    Peter, H; Chitta, L P; Cameron, R H

    2015-01-01

    Force-free extrapolations are widely used to study the magnetic field in the solar corona based on surface measurements. The extrapolations assume that the ratio of internal energy of the plasma to magnetic energy, the plasma-beta is negligible. Despite the widespread use of this assumption observations, models, and theoretical considerations show that beta is of the order of a few percent to more than 10%, and thus not small. We investigate what consequences this has for the reliability of extrapolation results. We use basic concepts starting with the force and the energy balance to infer relations between plasma-beta and free magnetic energy, to study the direction of currents in the corona with respect to the magnetic field, and to estimate the errors in the free magnetic energy by neglecting effects of the plasma (beta<<1). A comparison with a 3D MHD model supports our basic considerations. If plasma-beta is of the order of the relative free energy (the ratio of the free magnetic energy to the total...

  11. Dynamic model for landsliding monitoring under rigid body assumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱建军; 丁晓利; 陈永奇

    2001-01-01

    Based on the assumption that the slope bodies are rigid, the dynamic model of the landsiding (forward model) was put forward. According to the dynamic model, the system equations of Kalman filter were constituted. The mechanical status of a slope was hence combined with the monitoring data by Kalman filter. The model uncertainties or model errors could also be considered through some fictitious observation equations. Different from existed methods, the presented method can make use for not only the statistic information contained in the data but also the information provided by the mechanical and geological aspect of slopes. At last a numerical example was given out to show the feasibility of the method.

  12. Weak convergence of Jacobian determinants under asymmetric assumptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Alberico

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Let $\\Om$ be a bounded open set in $\\R^2$ sufficiently smooth and $f_k=(u_k,v_k$ and $f=(u,v$ mappings belong to the Sobolev space $W^{1,2}(\\Om,\\R^2$. We prove that if the sequence of Jacobians $J_{f_k}$ converges to a measure $\\mu$ in sense of measures andif one allows different assumptions on the two components of $f_k$ and $f$, e.g.$$u_k \\rightharpoonup u \\;\\;\\mbox{weakly in} \\;\\; W^{1,2}(\\Om \\qquad \\, v_k \\rightharpoonup v \\;\\;\\mbox{weakly in} \\;\\; W^{1,q}(\\Om$$for some $q\\in(1,2$, then\\begin{equation}\\label{0}d\\mu=J_f\\,dz.\\end{equation}Moreover, we show that this result is optimal in the sense that conclusion fails for $q=1$.On the other hand, we prove that \\eqref{0} remains valid also if one considers the case $q=1$, but it is necessary to require that $u_k$ weakly converges to $u$ in a Zygmund-Sobolev space with a slightly higher degree of regularity than $W^{1,2}(\\Om$ and precisely$$ u_k \\rightharpoonup u \\;\\;\\mbox{weakly in} \\;\\; W^{1,L^2 \\log^\\alpha L}(\\Om$$for some $\\alpha >1$.    

  13. STRONG APPROXIMATION FOR MOVING AVERAGE PROCESSES UNDER DEPENDENCE ASSUMPTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Let {Xt, t ≥ 1} be a moving average process defined by Xt = ∞Σk=0akξt-k,where {ak,k ≥ 0} is a sequence of real numbers and {ξt,-∞< t <∞} is a doubly infinite sequence of strictly stationary dependent random variables. Under the conditions of {ak, k ≥ 0} which entail that {Xt, t ≥ 1} is either a long memory process or a linear process, the strong approximation of {Xt, t ≥ 1} to a Gaussian process is studied. Finally,the results are applied to obtain the strong approximation of a long memory process to a fractional Brownian motion and the laws of the iterated logarithm for moving average processes.

  14. 'Being Explicit about Underlying Values, Assumptions and Views when Designing for Children in the IDC Community’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbjerg, Helle Marie

    2016-01-01

    In this full-day workshop we want to discuss how the IDC community can make underlying assumptions, values and views regarding children and childhood in making design decisions more explicit. What assumptions do IDC designers and researchers make, and how can they be supported in reflecting...... on those assumptions and the possible influences on their design decisions? How can we make the assumptions explicit, discuss them in the IDC community and use the discussion to develop higher quality design and research? The workshop will support discussion between researchers, designers and practitioners......, and intends to share different approaches for uncovering and reflecting on values, assumptions and views about children and childhood in design....

  15. Limitations of force-free magnetic field extrapolations: revisiting basic assumptions

    OpenAIRE

    Peter, H; Warnecke, J.; Chitta, L. P.; Cameron, R. H.

    2015-01-01

    Force-free extrapolations are widely used to study the magnetic field in the solar corona based on surface measurements. The extrapolations assume that the ratio of internal energy of the plasma to magnetic energy, the plasma-beta is negligible. Despite the widespread use of this assumption observations, models, and theoretical considerations show that beta is of the order of a few percent to more than 10%, and thus not small. We investigate what consequences this has for the reliability of e...

  16. Combustion Effects in Laser-oxygen Cutting: Basic Assumptions, Numerical Simulation and High Speed Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitsev, Alexander V.; Ermolaev, Grigory V.

    Laser-oxygen cutting is very complicated for theoretical description technological process. Iron-oxygen combustion playing a leading role making it highly effective, able to cut thicker plates and, at the same time, producing special types of striations and other defects on the cut surface. In this paper results of numerical simulation based on elementary assumptions on iron-oxygen combustion are verified with high speed visualization of laser-oxygen cutting process. On a base of assumption that iron oxide lost its protective properties after melting simulation of striation formation due cycles of laser induced non self-sustained combustion is proposed. Assumption that reaction limiting factor is oxygen transport from the jet to cutting front allows to calculate reaction intensity by solving Navier - Stokes and diffusion system in gas phase. Influence of oxygen purity and pressure is studied theoretically. The results of numerical simulation are examined with high speed visualization of laser-oxygen cutting of 4-20 mm mild steel plates at cutting conditions close to industrial.

  17. Fostering assumption-based stress-test thinking in managing groundwater systems: learning to avoid failures due to basic dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, Joseph H. A.; El Sawah, Sondoss

    2014-06-01

    Sustainable groundwater resource management can only be achieved if planning processes address the basic dynamics of the groundwater system. Conceptual and distributed groundwater models do not necessarily translate into an understanding of how a plan might operate in reality. Prompted by Australian experiences, `iterative closed-question modelling' has been used to develop a process of iterative dialogue about management options, objectives and knowledge. Simple hypothetical models of basic system dynamics that satisfy agreed assumptions are used to stress-test the ability of a proposed management plan to achieve desired future conditions. Participants learn from models in which a plan succeeds and fails, updating their assumptions, expectations or plan. Their new understanding is tested against further hypothetical models. The models act as intellectual devices that confront users with new scenarios to discuss. This theoretical approach is illustrated using simple one and two-cell groundwater models that convey basic notions of capture and spatial impacts of pumping. Simple extensions can address uncertain climate, managed-aquifer recharge and alternate water sources. Having learnt to address the dynamics captured by these models, participants may be better placed to address local conditions and develop more effective arrangements to achieve management outcomes.

  18. Unrealistic Assumptions in Economics: an Analysis under the Logic of Socioeconomic Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Ivarola

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The realism of assumptions is an ongoing debate within the philosophy of economics. One of the most referenced papers in this matter belongs to Milton Friedman. He defends the use of unrealistic assumptions, not only because of a pragmatic issue, but also the intrinsic difficulties of determining the extent of realism. On the other hand, realists have criticized (and still do today the use of unrealistic assumptions - such as the assumption of rational choice, perfect information, homogeneous goods, etc. However, they did not accompany their statements with a proper epistemological argument that supports their positions. In this work it is expected to show that the realism of (a particular sort of assumptions is clearly relevant when examining economic models, since the system under study (the real economies is not compatible with logic of invariance and of mechanisms, but with the logic of possibility trees. Because of this, models will not function as tools for predicting outcomes, but as representations of alternative scenarios, whose similarity to the real world will be examined in terms of the verisimilitude of a class of model assumptions

  19. Special relativity as the limit of an Aristotelian universal friction theory under Reye's assumption

    OpenAIRE

    Minguzzi, E.

    2014-01-01

    This work explores a classical mechanical theory under two further assumptions: (a) there is a universal dry friction force (Aristotelian mechanics), and (b) the variation of the mass of a body due to wear is proportional to the work done by the friction force on the body (Reye's hypothesis). It is shown that mass depends on velocity as in Special Relativity, and that the velocity is constant for a particular characteristic value. In the limit of vanishing friction the theory satisfies a rela...

  20. Investigation of assumptions underlying current safety guidelines on EM-induced nerve stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Esra; Vogiatzis Oikonomidis, Ioannis; Iacono, Maria Ida; Angelone, Leonardo M.; Kainz, Wolfgang; Kuster, Niels

    2016-06-01

    An intricate network of a variety of nerves is embedded within the complex anatomy of the human body. Although nerves are shielded from unwanted excitation, they can still be stimulated by external electromagnetic sources that induce strongly non-uniform field distributions. Current exposure safety standards designed to limit unwanted nerve stimulation are based on a series of explicit and implicit assumptions and simplifications. This paper demonstrates the applicability of functionalized anatomical phantoms with integrated coupled electromagnetic and neuronal dynamics solvers for investigating the impact of magnetic resonance exposure on nerve excitation within the full complexity of the human anatomy. The impact of neuronal dynamics models, temperature and local hot-spots, nerve trajectory and potential smoothing, anatomical inhomogeneity, and pulse duration on nerve stimulation was evaluated. As a result, multiple assumptions underlying current safety standards are questioned. It is demonstrated that coupled EM-neuronal dynamics modeling involving realistic anatomies is valuable to establish conservative safety criteria.

  1. Investigation of assumptions underlying current safety guidelines on EM-induced nerve stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Esra; Vogiatzis Oikonomidis, Ioannis; Ida Iacono, Maria; Angelone, Leonardo M; Kainz, Wolfgang; Kuster, Niels

    2016-06-21

    An intricate network of a variety of nerves is embedded within the complex anatomy of the human body. Although nerves are shielded from unwanted excitation, they can still be stimulated by external electromagnetic sources that induce strongly non-uniform field distributions. Current exposure safety standards designed to limit unwanted nerve stimulation are based on a series of explicit and implicit assumptions and simplifications. This paper demonstrates the applicability of functionalized anatomical phantoms with integrated coupled electromagnetic and neuronal dynamics solvers for investigating the impact of magnetic resonance exposure on nerve excitation within the full complexity of the human anatomy. The impact of neuronal dynamics models, temperature and local hot-spots, nerve trajectory and potential smoothing, anatomical inhomogeneity, and pulse duration on nerve stimulation was evaluated. As a result, multiple assumptions underlying current safety standards are questioned. It is demonstrated that coupled EM-neuronal dynamics modeling involving realistic anatomies is valuable to establish conservative safety criteria. PMID:27223274

  2. Oil production, oil prices, and macroeconomic adjustment under different wage assumptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a previous paper one of the authors developed a simple model to try to identify the possible macroeconomic adjustment processes arising in an economy experiencing a temporary period of oil production, under alternative wage adjustment assumptions, namely nominal and real wage rigidity. Certain assumptions were made regarding the characteristics of actual production, the permanent revenues generated from that oil production, and the net exports/imports of oil. The role of the price of oil, and possible changes in that price was essentially ignored. Here we attempt to incorporate the price of oil, as well as changes in that price, in conjunction with the production of oil, the objective being to identify the contribution which the price of oil, and changes in it, make to the adjustment process itself. The emphasis in this paper is not given to a mathematical derivation and analysis of the model's dynamics of adjustment or its comparative statics, but rather to the derivation of simulation results from the model, for a specific assumed case, using a numerical algorithm program, conducive to the type of theoretical framework utilized here. The results presented suggest that although the adjustment profiles of the macroeconomic variables of interest, for either wage adjustment assumption, remain fundamentally the same, the magnitude of these adjustments is increased. Hence to derive a more accurate picture of the dimensions of adjustment of these macroeconomic variables, it is essential to include the price of oil as well as changes in that price. (Author)

  3. Maximizing the Delivery of MPR Broadcasting Under Realistic Physical Layer Assumptions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Francois Ingelrest; David Simplot-Ryl

    2008-01-01

    It is now commonly accepted that the unit disk graph used to model the physical layer in wireless network sdoes not reflect real radio transmissions, and that a more realistic model should be considered for experimental simulations.Previous work on realistic scenarios has been focused on unicast, however broadcast requirements are fundamentally different and cannot be derived from the unicast case. There fore, the broadcast protocols must be adapted in order to still be efficient under realistic assumptions. In this paper, we study the well-known multipoint relay broadcast protocol (MPR), in which each node has to choose a set of 1-hop neighbors to act as relays in order to cover the whole 2-hop neighborhood. We giveexperimental results showing that the original strategy used to select these multipoint relays does not suit a realistic model.On the basis of these results, we propose new selection strategies solely based on link quality. One of the key aspects of our solutions is that our strategies do not require any additional hardware and may be implemented at the application layer,which is particularly relevant to the context of ad hoc and sensor networks where energy savings are mandatory. We finall yprovide new experimental results that demonstrate the superiority of our strategies under realistic physical assumptions.

  4. Helping Students to Recognize and Evaluate an Assumption in Quantitative Reasoning: A Basic Critical-Thinking Activity with Marbles and Electronic Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slisko, Josip; Cruz, Adrian Corona

    2013-01-01

    There is a general agreement that critical thinking is an important element of 21st century skills. Although critical thinking is a very complex and controversial conception, many would accept that recognition and evaluation of assumptions is a basic critical-thinking process. When students use simple mathematical model to reason quantitatively…

  5. Special relativity as the limit of an Aristotelian universal friction theory under Reye's assumption

    CERN Document Server

    Minguzzi, E

    2014-01-01

    This work explores a classical mechanical theory under two further assumptions: (a) there is a universal dry friction force (Aristotelian mechanics), and (b) the variation of the mass of a body due to wear is proportional to the work done by the friction force on the body (Reye's hypothesis). It is shown that mass depends on velocity as in Special Relativity, and that the velocity is constant for a particular characteristic value. In the limit of vanishing friction the theory satisfies a relativity principle as bodies do not decelerate and, therefore, the absolute frame becomes unobservable. However, the limit theory is not Newtonian mechanics, with its Galilei group symmetry, but rather Special Relativity. This result suggests to regard Special Relativity as the limit of a theory presenting universal friction and exchange of mass-energy with a reservoir (vacuum). Thus, quite surprisingly, Special Relativity follows from the absolute space (ether) concept and could have been discovered following studies of Ar...

  6. Recursive Subspace Identification of AUV Dynamic Model under General Noise Assumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheping Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A recursive subspace identification algorithm for autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs is proposed in this paper. Due to the advantages at handling nonlinearities and couplings, the AUV model investigated here is for the first time constructed as a Hammerstein model with nonlinear feedback in the linear part. To better take the environment and sensor noises into consideration, the identification problem is concerned as an errors-in-variables (EIV one which means that the identification procedure is under general noise assumption. In order to make the algorithm recursively, propagator method (PM based subspace approach is extended into EIV framework to form the recursive identification method called PM-EIV algorithm. With several identification experiments carried out by the AUV simulation platform, the proposed algorithm demonstrates its effectiveness and feasibility.

  7. Limitations to the Dutch cannabis toleration policy: Assumptions underlying the reclassification of cannabis above 15% THC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Laar, Margriet; Van Der Pol, Peggy; Niesink, Raymond

    2016-08-01

    The Netherlands has seen an increase in Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentrations from approximately 8% in the 1990s up to 20% in 2004. Increased cannabis potency may lead to higher THC-exposure and cannabis related harm. The Dutch government officially condones the sale of cannabis from so called 'coffee shops', and the Opium Act distinguishes cannabis as a Schedule II drug with 'acceptable risk' from other drugs with 'unacceptable risk' (Schedule I). Even in 1976, however, cannabis potency was taken into account by distinguishing hemp oil as a Schedule I drug. In 2011, an advisory committee recommended tightening up legislation, leading to a 2013 bill proposing the reclassification of high potency cannabis products with a THC content of 15% or more as a Schedule I drug. The purpose of this measure was twofold: to reduce public health risks and to reduce illegal cultivation and export of cannabis by increasing punishment. This paper focuses on the public health aspects and describes the (explicit and implicit) assumptions underlying this '15% THC measure', as well as to what extent these are supported by scientific research. Based on scientific literature and other sources of information, we conclude that the 15% measure can provide in theory a slight health benefit for specific groups of cannabis users (i.e., frequent users preferring strong cannabis, purchasing from coffee shops, using 'steady quantities' and not changing their smoking behaviour), but certainly not for all cannabis users. These gains should be weighed against the investment in enforcement and the risk of unintended (adverse) effects. Given the many assumptions and uncertainty about the nature and extent of the expected buying and smoking behaviour changes, the measure is a political choice and based on thin evidence. PMID:27471078

  8. An Algorithm for Determining Database Consistency Under the Coles World Assumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈一栋

    1992-01-01

    It is well-known that there are circumstances where applying Reiter's closed world assumption(CWA)will lead to logical inconsistencies.In this paper,a new characterization of the CA consistency is pesented and an algorithm is proposed for determining whether a datalase without function symbols is consistent with the CWA.The algorithm is shown to be efficient.

  9. Under What Assumptions Do Site-by-Treatment Instruments Identify Average Causal Effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Sean F.; Raudenbush, Stephen W.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing availability of data from multi-site randomized trials provides a potential opportunity to use instrumental variables methods to study the effects of multiple hypothesized mediators of the effect of a treatment. We derive nine assumptions needed to identify the effects of multiple mediators when using site-by-treatment interactions…

  10. Bootstrapping realized volatility and realized beta under a local Gaussianity assumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounyo, Ulrich

    The main contribution of this paper is to propose a new bootstrap method for statistics based on high frequency returns. The new method exploits the local Gaussianity and the local constancy of volatility of high frequency returns, two assumptions that can simplify inference in the high frequency...

  11. Efficient Accountable Authority Identity-Based Encryption under Static Complexity Assumptions

    CERN Document Server

    Libert, Benoît

    2008-01-01

    At Crypto'07, Goyal introduced the concept of Accountable Authority Identity-Based Encryption (A-IBE) as a convenient means to reduce the amount of trust in authorities in Identity-Based Encryption (IBE). In this model, if the Private Key Generator (PKG) maliciously re-distributes users' decryption keys, it runs the risk of being caught and prosecuted. Goyal proposed two constructions: a first one based on Gentry's IBE which relies on strong assumptions (such as q-Bilinear Diffie-Hellman Inversion) and a second one resting on the more classical Decision Bilinear Diffie-Hellman (DBDH) assumption but that is too inefficient for practical use. In this work, we propose a new construction that is secure assuming the hardness of the DBDH problem. The efficiency of our scheme is comparable with that of Goyal's main proposal with the advantage of relying on static assumptions (i.e. the strength of which does not depend on the number of queries allowed to the adversary). By limiting the number of adversarial rewinds i...

  12. Evaluation of Horizontal Electric Field Under Different Lightning Current Models by Perfect Ground Assumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Jianfeng; LI Yanming

    2012-01-01

    Lightning electromagnetics can affect the reliability of the power system or communication system.Therefore,evaluation of electromagnetic fields generated by lightning return stroke is indispensable.Arnold sommerfeld proposed a model to calculate the electromagnetic field,but it involved the time-consuming sommerfeld integral.However,perfect conductor ground assumption can account for fast calculation,thus this paper reviews the perfect ground equation for evaluation of lightning electromagnetic fields,presents three engineering lightning return stroke models,and calculates the horizontal electric field caused by three lightning return stroke models.According to the results,the amplitude of lightning return stroke has a strong impact on horizontal electric fields,and the steepness of lightning return stroke influences the horizontal electric fields.Moreover,the perfect ground method is faster than the sommerfeld integral method.

  13. Estimating Alarm Thresholds for Process Monitoring Data under Different Assumptions about the Data Generating Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Burr

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Process monitoring (PM for nuclear safeguards sometimes requires estimation of thresholds corresponding to small false alarm rates. Threshold estimation dates to the 1920s with the Shewhart control chart; however, because possible new roles for PM are being evaluated in nuclear safeguards, it is timely to consider modern model selection options in the context of threshold estimation. One of the possible new PM roles involves PM residuals, where a residual is defined as residual = data − prediction. This paper reviews alarm threshold estimation, introduces model selection options, and considers a range of assumptions regarding the data-generating mechanism for PM residuals. Two PM examples from nuclear safeguards are included to motivate the need for alarm threshold estimation. The first example involves mixtures of probability distributions that arise in solution monitoring, which is a common type of PM. The second example involves periodic partial cleanout of in-process inventory, leading to challenging structure in the time series of PM residuals.

  14. Predicting stochastic community dynamics in grasslands under the assumption of competitive symmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohier, Théophile; Jabot, Franck; Weigelt, Alexandra; Schmid, Bernhard; Deffuant, Guillaume

    2016-06-21

    Community dynamics is influenced by multiple ecological processes such as environmental spatiotemporal variation, competition between individuals and demographic stochasticity. Quantifying the respective influence of these various processes and making predictions on community dynamics require the use of a dynamical framework encompassing these various components. We here demonstrate how to adapt the framework of stochastic community dynamics to the peculiarities of herbaceous communities, by using a short temporal resolution adapted to the time scale of competition between herbaceous plants, and by taking into account the seasonal drops in plant aerial biomass following winter, harvesting or consumption by herbivores. We develop a hybrid inference method for this novel modelling framework that both uses numerical simulations and likelihood computations. Applying this methodology to empirical data from the Jena biodiversity experiment, we find that environmental stochasticity has a larger effect on community dynamics than demographic stochasticity, and that both effects are generally smaller than observation errors at the plot scale. We further evidence that plant intrinsic growth rates and carrying capacities are moderately predictable from plant vegetative height, specific leaf area and leaf dry matter content. We do not find any trade-off between demographical components, since species with larger intrinsic growth rates tend to also have lower demographic and environmental variances. Finally, we find that our model is able to make relatively good predictions of multi-specific community dynamics based on the assumption of competitive symmetry. PMID:27060673

  15. Uncovering Underlying Assumptions Regarding Education and Technology in Educational Reform Efforts A conversation with Dr. Larry Johnson

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela Melano

    2000-01-01

    Educational systems around the world, and specifically in the United States, have long been awaiting for genuine reform efforts. Technology is often perceived as a panacea, if not as a crucial instrument in any educational reform effort. In a conversation with one of his students, Doctor Johnson discusses how the underlying assumptions embedded in our current schooling practices need to be seriously reviewed before any technology strategy is considered. New understandings, as opposed t...

  16. Evaluating assumptions and parameterization underlying process-based ecosystem models: the case of LPJ-GUESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, C.; Fatichi, S.; Leuzinger, S.; Burlando, P.

    2012-04-01

    Dynamic vegetation models have been widely used for analyzing ecosystem dynamics and climate feedbacks. Their performance has been tested extensively against observations and by model intercomparison studies. In the present study, the LPJ-GUESS state-of-the-art ecosystem model was evaluated with respect to its structure, hypothesis, and parameterization by performing a global sensitivity analysis (GSA). The study aims at examining potential model limitations, particularly with regards to regional and watershed scale applications. A detailed GSA based on variance decomposition is presented to investigate the structural assumptions of the model and to highlight processes and parameters that cause the highest variability in the outputs. First order and total sensitivity indexes were calculated for each of the parameters using Sobol's methodology. In order to elucidate the role of climate on model sensitivity synthetic climate scenarios were generated based on climatic data from Switzerland. The results clearly indicate a very high sensitivity of LPJ-GUESS to photosynthetic parameters. Intrinsic quantum efficiency alone is able to explain about 60% of the variability in vegetation carbon fluxes and pools for most of the investigated climate conditions. Processes related to light were also found important together with parameters affecting plant structure (growth, establishment and mortality). The model shows minor sensitivity to hydrological and soil texture parameters, questioning its skills in representing spatial vegetation heterogeneity at regional or watershed scales. We conclude that LPJ-GUESS' structure and possibly the one of other, structurally similar, dynamic vegetation models may need to be reconsidered. Specifically, the oversensitivity of the photosynthetic component deserves a particular attention, as this seems to contradict an increasing number of observations suggesting that photosynthesis may be a consequence rather than the driver of plant growth.

  17. Multiple change-points estimation of moving-average processes under dependence assumptions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lixin; LI Yunxia

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, some results of convergence for a least-square estimator in the problem of multiple change-points estimation are presented and the moving-average processes of ρ-mixing sequence in the mean shifts are discussed. When the number of change points is known, the consistency of change-points estimator is derived. When the number of changes is unknown, the consistency of the change-points number and the change-points estimator by penalized least-squares method are obtained. The results are also true for φ-mixing, α-mixing, associated and negative associated sequences under suitable conditions.

  18. Newton’s problem of minimal resistance under the single-impact assumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakhov, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    A parallel flow of non-interacting point particles is incident on a body at rest. When hitting the body’s surface, the particles are reflected elastically. Assuming that each particle hits the body at most once (the single impact condition (SIC)), the force of resistance of the body along the flow direction can be written down in a simple analytical form. The problem of minimal resistance within this model was first considered by Newton (Newton 1687 Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica) in the class of bodies with a fixed length M along the flow direction and with a fixed maximum orthogonal cross section Ω , under the additional conditions that the body is convex and rotationally symmetric. Here we solve the problem (first stated in Buttazzo et al 1995 Minimum problems over sets of concave functions and related questions Math. Nachr. 173 71-89) for the wider class of bodies satisfying the SIC and with the additional conditions removed. The scheme of solution is inspired by Besicovitch’s method of solving the Kakeya problem (Besicovitch 1963 The Kakeya problem Am. Math. Mon. 70 697-706). If Ω is a disc, the decrease of resistance as compared with the original Newton problem is more than twofold; the ratio tends to 2 as M\\to 0 and to 20.25 as M\\to ∞ . We also prove that the infimum of resistance is 0 for a wider class of bodies with both single and double reflections allowed.

  19. The philosophy and assumptions underlying exposure limits for ionising radiation, inorganic lead, asbestos and noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A review of the literature relating to exposure to, and exposure limits for, ionising radiation, inorganic lead, asbestos and noise was undertaken. The four hazards were chosen because they were insidious and ubiquitous, were potential hazards in both occupational and environmental settings and had early and late effects depending on dose and dose rate. For all four hazards, the effect of the hazard was enhanced by other exposures such as smoking or organic solvents. In the cases of inorganic lead and noise, there were documented health effects which affected a significant percentage of the exposed populations at or below the [effective] exposure limits. This was not the case for ionising radiation and asbestos. None of the exposure limits considered exposure to multiple mutagens/carcinogens in the calculation of risk. Ionising radiation was the only one of the hazards to have a model of all likely exposures, occupational, environmental and medical, as the basis for the exposure limits. The other three considered occupational exposure in isolation from environmental exposure. Inorganic lead and noise had economic considerations underlying the exposure limits and the exposure limits for asbestos were based on the current limit of detection. All four hazards had many variables associated with exposure, including idiosyncratic factors, that made modelling the risk very complex. The scientific idea of a time weighted average based on an eight hour day, and forty hour week on which the exposure limits for lead, asbestos and noise were based was underpinned by neither empirical evidence or scientific hypothesis. The methodology of the ACGIH in the setting of limits later brought into law, may have been unduly influenced by the industries most closely affected by those limits. Measuring exposure over part of an eight hour day and extrapolating to model exposure over the longer term is not the most effective way to model exposure. The statistical techniques used

  20. Error estimations of dry deposition velocities of air pollutants using bulk sea surface temperature under common assumptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Yung-Yao; Tsuang, Ben-Jei; Keenlyside, Noel; Wang, Shu-Lun; Arthur Chen, Chen-Tung; Wang, Bin-Jye; Liu, Tsun-Hsien

    2010-07-01

    It is well known that skin sea surface temperature (SSST) is different from bulk sea surface temperature (BSST) by a few tenths of a degree Celsius. However, the extent of the error associated with dry deposition (or uptake) estimation by using BSST is not well known. This study tries to conduct such an evaluation using the on-board observation data over the South China Sea in the summers of 2004 and 2006. It was found that when a warm layer occurred, the deposition velocities using BSST were underestimated within the range of 0.8-4.3%, and the absorbed sea surface heat flux was overestimated by 21 W m -2. In contrast, under cool skin only conditions, the deposition velocities using BSST were overestimated within the range of 0.5-2.0%, varying with pollutants and the absorbed sea surface heat flux was underestimated also by 21 W m -2. Scale analysis shows that for a slightly soluble gas (e.g., NO 2, NO and CO), the error in the solubility estimation using BSST is the major source of the error in dry deposition estimation. For a highly soluble gas (e.g., SO 2), the error in the estimation of turbulent heat fluxes and, consequently, aerodynamic resistance and gas-phase film resistance using BSST is the major source of the total error. In contrast, for a medium soluble gas (e.g., O 3 and CO 2) both the errors from the estimations of the solubility and aerodynamic resistance are important. In addition, deposition estimations using various assumptions are discussed. The largest uncertainty is from the parameterizations for chemical enhancement factors. Other important areas of uncertainty include: (1) various parameterizations for gas-transfer velocity; (2) neutral-atmosphere assumption; (3) using BSST as SST, and (4) constant pH value assumption.

  1. Uncovering Underlying Assumptions Regarding Education and Technology in Educational Reform Efforts A conversation with Dr. Larry Johnson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Melano

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Educational systems around the world, and specifically in the United States, have long been awaiting for genuine reform efforts. Technology is often perceived as a panacea, if not as a crucial instrument in any educational reform effort. In a conversation with one of his students, Doctor Johnson discusses how the underlying assumptions embedded in our current schooling practices need to be seriously reviewed before any technology strategy is considered. New understandings, as opposed to mere information, is what schools need to reach in order to transform themselves. Finally, Dr. Johnson provides two brief examples, one in the United States and another in México, were hermeneutical approaches have been used for educational reform endeavors.

  2. Can Total Quality Management Succeed at Your College--Now? (Does Your College Meet the Essential Prerequisites and Underlying Assumptions of TQM?)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammons, James O.

    1994-01-01

    Defines Total Quality Management (TQM) and describes prerequisites for successful implementation, underlying assumptions, and the cultural barriers hindering implementation. Indicates that TQM's long-term benefits outweigh costs at most colleges. Urges practitioners to rate their schools with respect to the prerequisites and assumptions to…

  3. Herd immunity effect of the HPV vaccination program in Australia under different assumptions regarding natural immunity against re-infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korostil, Igor A; Peters, Gareth W; Law, Matthew G; Regan, David G

    2013-04-01

    Deterministic dynamic compartmental transmission models (DDCTMs) of human papillomavirus (HPV) transmission have been used in a number of studies to estimate the potential impact of HPV vaccination programs. In most cases, the models were built under the assumption that an individual who cleared HPV infection develops (life-long) natural immunity against re-infection with the same HPV type (this is known as SIR scenario). This assumption was also made by two Australian modelling studies evaluating the impact of the National HPV Vaccination Program to assist in the health-economic assessment of male vaccination. An alternative view denying natural immunity after clearance (SIS scenario) was only presented in one study, although neither scenario has been supported by strong evidence. Some recent findings, however, provide arguments in favour of SIS. We developed HPV transmission models implementing life-time (SIR), limited, and non-existent (SIS) natural immunity. For each model we estimated the herd immunity effect of the ongoing Australian HPV vaccination program and its extension to cover males. Given the Australian setting, we aimed to clarify the extent to which the choice of model structure would influence estimation of this effect. A statistically robust and efficient calibration methodology was applied to ensure credibility of our results. We observed that for non-SIR models the herd immunity effect measured in relative reductions in HPV prevalence in the unvaccinated population was much more pronounced than for the SIR model. For example, with vaccine efficacy of 95% for females and 90% for males, the reductions for HPV-16 were 3% in females and 28% in males for the SIR model, and at least 30% (females) and 60% (males) for non-SIR models. The magnitude of these differences implies that evaluations of the impact of vaccination programs using DDCTMs should incorporate several model structures until our understanding of natural immunity is improved.

  4. Tale of Two Courthouses: A Critique of the Underlying Assumptions in Chronic Disease Self-Management for Aboriginal People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Ellis

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the assumptions that underpin thecommonly implemented Chronic Disease Self-Managementmodels. Namely that there are a clear set of instructions forpatients to comply with, that all health care providers agreewith; and that the health care provider and the patient agreewith the chronic disease self-management plan that wasdeveloped as part of a consultation. These assumptions areevaluated for their validity in the remote health care context,particularly for Aboriginal people. These assumptions havebeen found to lack validity in this context, therefore analternative model to enhance chronic disease care isproposed.

  5. Using global sensitivity analysis to evaluate the uncertainties of future shoreline changes under the Bruun rule assumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Cozannet, Gonéri; Oliveros, Carlos; Castelle, Bruno; Garcin, Manuel; Idier, Déborah; Pedreros, Rodrigo; Rohmer, Jeremy

    2016-04-01

    Future sandy shoreline changes are often assed by summing the contributions of longshore and cross-shore effects. In such approaches, a contribution of sea-level rise can be incorporated by adding a supplementary term based on the Bruun rule. Here, our objective is to identify where and when the use of the Bruun rule can be (in)validated, in the case of wave-exposed beaches with gentle slopes. We first provide shoreline change scenarios that account for all uncertain hydrosedimentary processes affecting the idealized low- and high-energy coasts described by Stive (2004)[Stive, M. J. F. 2004, How important is global warming for coastal erosion? an editorial comment, Climatic Change, vol. 64, n 12, doi:10.1023/B:CLIM.0000024785.91858. ISSN 0165-0009]. Then, we generate shoreline change scenarios based on probabilistic sea-level rise projections based on IPCC. For scenario RCP 6.0 and 8.5 and in the absence of coastal defenses, the model predicts an observable shift toward generalized beach erosion by the middle of the 21st century. On the contrary, the model predictions are unlikely to differ from the current situation in case of scenario RCP 2.6. To get insight into the relative importance of each source of uncertainties, we quantify each contributions to the variance of the model outcome using a global sensitivity analysis. This analysis shows that by the end of the 21st century, a large part of shoreline change uncertainties are due to the climate change scenario if all anthropogenic greenhousegas emission scenarios are considered equiprobable. To conclude, the analysis shows that under the assumptions above, (in)validating the Bruun rule should be straightforward during the second half of the 21st century and for the RCP 8.5 scenario. Conversely, for RCP 2.6, the noise in shoreline change evolution should continue dominating the signal due to the Bruun effect. This last conclusion can be interpreted as an important potential benefit of climate change mitigation.

  6. Responsive regulation at the Dutch food and commodity authority: an empirical assessment of assumptions underlying the theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Mascini; E. van Wijk

    2009-01-01

    Responsive regulation usually boils down to the assumption that enforcers should not shift to coercing before it has become clear that persuading does not work. This presupposes that it is possible to determine what the correct enforcement style is, that enforcers can apply the most suitable style,

  7. The Basic Assumption of the Theory of Generalized Virtual Microeconomics%论广义虚拟微观经济学的基本假设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小宁

    2014-01-01

    Based on the“psychological needs”, the ifve basic hypotseses and new characteristics of general-ized virtual microeconomics are discussed.%根据心理需求的性质,提出了广义虚拟微观经济学的5条基本假设,并探讨了广义虚拟微观经济学的新范式。

  8. A Study of the Effects of Underlying Assumptions in the Reduction of Multi-Object Photometry of Transiting Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, M. Ryleigh; Silva Martins-Filho, Walter; Griffith, Caitlin Ann; Pearson, Kyle; Zellem, Robert Thomas; AzGOE

    2016-10-01

    The analysis of ground-based photometric observations of planetary transits must treat the effects of the Earth's atmosphere, which exceed the signal of the extrasolar planet. Generally, this is achieved by dividing the signal of the host star and planet from that of nearby field stars to reveal the lightcurve. The lightcurve is then fit to a model of the planet's orbit and physical characteristics, also taking into account the characteristics of the star. The fit to the in and out-of-transit data establish the depth of the lightcurve. The question arises, what is the best way to select and treat reference stars to best characterize and remove the shared atmospheric systematics that plague our transit signal. To explore these questions we examine the effects of several assumptions that underline the calculation of the light curve depth. Our study involves repeated photometric observations of hot Jupiter primary transits in the U and B filters. Data were taken with the University of Arizona's Kuiper 1.55m telescope/Mont4K CCD. Each exoplanet observed offers a unique field with stars of various brightness, spectral types and angular distance from the host star. While these observations are part of a larger study of the Rayleigh scattering signature of hot Jupiter exoplanets, here we study the effects of various choices during reduction, specifically the treatment of reference stars and atmospheric systematics.We calculate the lightcurve for all permutations of reference stars, considering several out-of-transit assumptions (e.g. linear, quadratic or exponential). We assess the sensitivity of the transit depths based on the spread of values. In addition we look for characteristics that minimize the scatter in the reduced lightcurve and analyze the effects of the treatment of individual variables on the resultant lightcurve model. Here we present the results of an in depth statistical analysis that classifies the effect of various parameters and choices involved in

  9. A computer code for forward calculation and inversion of the H/V spectral ratio under the diffuse field assumption

    CERN Document Server

    García-Jerez, Antonio; Sánchez-Sesma, Francisco J; Luzón, Francisco; Perton, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    During a quarter of a century, the main characteristics of the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio of ambient noise HVSRN have been extensively used for site effect assessment. In spite of the uncertainties about the optimum theoretical model to describe these observations, several schemes for inversion of the full HVSRN curve for near surface surveying have been developed over the last decade. In this work, a computer code for forward calculation of H/V spectra based on the diffuse field assumption (DFA) is presented and tested.It takes advantage of the recently stated connection between the HVSRN and the elastodynamic Green's function which arises from the ambient noise interferometry theory. The algorithm allows for (1) a natural calculation of the Green's functions imaginary parts by using suitable contour integrals in the complex wavenumber plane, and (2) separate calculation of the contributions of Rayleigh, Love, P-SV and SH waves as well. The stability of the algorithm at high frequencies is preserv...

  10. Understanding the basic biology underlying the flavor world of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A. MENNELLA, Alison K. VENTURA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Health organizations worldwide recommend that adults and children minimize intakes of excess energy and salty, sweet, and fatty foods (all of which are highly preferred tastes and eat diets richer in whole grains, low- and non- fat dairy products, legumes, fish, lean meat, fruits, and vegetables (many of which taste bitter. Despite such recommendations and the well-established benefits of these foods to human health, adults are not complying, nor are their children. A primary reason for this difficulty is the remarkably potent rewarding properties of the tastes and flavors of foods high in sweetness, saltiness, and fatness. While we cannot easily change children’s basic ingrained biology of liking sweets and avoiding bitterness, we can modulate their flavor preferences by providing early exposure, starting in utero, to a wide variety of flavors within healthy foods, such as fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. Because the flavors of foods mothers eat during pregnancy and lactation also flavor amniotic fluid and breast milk and become preferred by infants, pregnant and lactating women should widen their food choices to include as many flavorful and healthy foods as possible. These experiences, combined with repeated exposure to nutritious foods and flavor variety during the weaning period and beyond, should maximize the chances that children will select and enjoy a healthier diet [Current Zoology 56 (6: 834–841, 2010].

  11. The Almost Sure Central Limit Theorems for the Maxima of Sums under Some New Weak Dependence Assumptions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marcin DUDZI(N)SKI; Przemyslaw G(O)RKA

    2013-01-01

    We prove the almost sure central limit theorems for the maxima of partial sums of r.v.'s under a general condition of dependence due to Doukhan and Louhichi.We will separately consider the centered sequences and the sequences with positive expected values.

  12. A Scalable Method for Regioselective 3-Acylation of 2-Substituted Indoles under Basic Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Karl Henrik; Urruticoechea, Andoni; Larsen, Inna;

    2015-01-01

    Privileged structures such as 2-arylindoles are recurrent molecular scaffolds in bioactive molecules. We here present an operationally simple, high yielding and scalable method for regioselective 3-acylation of 2-substituted indoles under basic conditions using functionalized acid chlorides. The ...

  13. The quantum formulation derived from assumptions of epistemic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helland, Inge S.

    2015-04-01

    Motivated by Quantum Bayesianism I give background for a general epistemic approach to quantum mechanics, where complementarity and symmetry are the only essential features. A general definition of a symmetric epistemic setting is introduced, and for this setting the basic Hilbert space formalism is arrived at under certain technical assumptions. Other aspects of ordinary quantum mechanics will be developed from the same basis elsewhere.

  14. 5 CFR 536.206 - Determining an employee's rate of basic pay under grade retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... entitled to a saved rate under 5 CFR 359.705, the agency must determine the employee's payable rate of... prescribed in the rules governing the covered pay system of the employee's position of record (e.g., 5 CFR... employee's rate of basic pay under grade retention. (a) General. (1) When an employee becomes entitled...

  15. An Unusual N-Boc Deprotection of Benzamides under Basic Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Biaolin; ZHANG Yuanxiu

    2009-01-01

    For the first time,an unusal cleavage of N-tert-butyloxycarbonyl(N-Boc)protection from N-Boc-protected benzamide under basic conditions in excellent yields is reported.The deprotection involves the N-Boc emigration from the benzamide to form 2-O-Boo group followed by O-Boc deprotection on the phenyl ring.

  16. Bioclim Deliverable D6b: application of statistical down-scaling within the BIOCLIM hierarchical strategy: methods, data requirements and underlying assumptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    identified, together with the additional issues which arise in applying these techniques to output from the BIOCLIM simulations. This preliminary work is described in this BIOCLIM technical note. It provides an overview of statistical down-scaling methods, together with their underlying assumptions and advantages/disadvantages. Specific issues relating to their application within the BIOCLIM context (i.e., application to the IPSLCM4D snapshot simulations) are identified, for example, the stationarity issue. The predictor and predictand data sets that would be required to implement these methods within the BIOCLIM hierarchical strategy are also outlined, together with the methodological steps involved. Implementation of these techniques was delayed in order to give priority to the application of the rule-based down-scaling method developed in WP3 to WP2 EMIC output (see Deliverable D8a). This task was not originally planned, but has allowed more comprehensive comparison and evaluation of the BIOCLIM scenarios and down-scaling methods to be undertaken

  17. BASIC PRINCIPLES AND CONCEPTS UNDERLYING RECENT ADVANCES IN MRI OF THE DEVELOPING BRAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Panigrahy, Ashok; Borzage, Matthew; Blüml, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Over the last decade, magnetic resonance imaging has become an essential tool in the evaluation of both in vivo human brain development and perinatal brain injury. Recent technology including MR compatible neonatal incubators, neonatal head coils, advanced MR pulse sequences and 3T field strength magnets allow high quality MR imaging studies to be performed on sick neonates. This article will review basic principles and concepts underlying recent advances in MR spectroscopy, diffusion, perfus...

  18. Monthly values of the standardized precipitation index in the State of São Paulo, Brazil: trends and spectral features under the normality assumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Constantino Blain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe monthly series of the Standardized Precipitation Index obtained from four weather stations of the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The analyses were carried out by evaluating the normality assumption of the SPI distributions, the spectral features of these series and, the presence of climatic trends in these datasets. It was observed that the Pearson type III distribution was better than the gamma 2-parameter distribution in providing monthly SPI series closer to the normality assumption inherent to the use of this standardized index. The spectral analyses carried out in the time-frequency domain did not allow us to establish a dominant mode in the analyzed series. In general, the Mann-Kendall and the Pettitt tests indicated the presence of no significant trend in the SPI series. However, both trend tests have indicated that the temporal variability of this index, observed at the months of October over the last 60 years, cannot be seen as the result of a purely random process. This last inference is due to the concentration of decreasing trends, with a common beginning (1983/84 in the four locations of the study.

  19. The Metaphysics of {D-CTCs}: On the Underlying Assumptions of {Deutsch}'s Quantum Solution to the Paradoxes of Time Travel

    CERN Document Server

    Dunlap, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    I argue that Deutsch's model for the behavior of systems traveling around closed timelike curves (CTCs) relies implicitly on a substantive metaphysical assumption. Deutsch is employing a version of quantum theory with a significantly supplemented ontology of parallel existent worlds, which differ in kind from the many worlds of the Everett interpretation. Standard Everett does not support the existence of multiple identical copies of the world, which the D-CTC model requires. This has been obscured because he often refers to the branching structure of Everett as a "multiverse'', and describes quantum interference by reference to parallel interacting definite worlds. But he admits that this is only an approximation to Everett. The D-CTC model, however, relies crucially on the existence of a multiverse of parallel interacting worlds. Since his model is supplemented by structures that go significantly beyond quantum theory, and play an ineliminable role in its predictions and explanations, it does not represent ...

  20. On testing the missing at random assumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    Most approaches to learning from incomplete data are based on the assumption that unobserved values are missing at random (mar). While the mar assumption, as such, is not testable, it can become testable in the context of other distributional assumptions, e.g. the naive Bayes assumption....... In this paper we investigate a method for testing the mar assumption in the presence of other distributional constraints. We present methods to (approximately) compute a test statistic consisting of the ratio of two profile likelihood functions. This requires the optimization of the likelihood under...... no assumptionson the missingness mechanism, for which we use our recently proposed AI \\& M algorithm. We present experimental results on synthetic data that show that our approximate test statistic is a good indicator for whether data is mar relative to the given distributional assumptions....

  1. Water oxidation catalysis with nonheme iron complexes under acidic and basic conditions: homogeneous or heterogeneous?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Dachao; Mandal, Sukanta; Yamada, Yusuke; Lee, Yong-Min; Nam, Wonwoo; Llobet, Antoni; Fukuzumi, Shunichi

    2013-08-19

    Thermal water oxidation by cerium(IV) ammonium nitrate (CAN) was catalyzed by nonheme iron complexes, such as Fe(BQEN)(OTf)2 (1) and Fe(BQCN)(OTf)2 (2) (BQEN = N,N'-dimethyl-N,N'-bis(8-quinolyl)ethane-1,2-diamine, BQCN = N,N'-dimethyl-N,N'-bis(8-quinolyl)cyclohexanediamine, OTf = CF3SO3(-)) in a nonbuffered aqueous solution; turnover numbers of 80 ± 10 and 20 ± 5 were obtained in the O2 evolution reaction by 1 and 2, respectively. The ligand dissociation of the iron complexes was observed under acidic conditions, and the dissociated ligands were oxidized by CAN to yield CO2. We also observed that 1 was converted to an iron(IV)-oxo complex during the water oxidation in competition with the ligand oxidation. In addition, oxygen exchange between the iron(IV)-oxo complex and H2(18)O was found to occur at a much faster rate than the oxygen evolution. These results indicate that the iron complexes act as the true homogeneous catalyst for water oxidation by CAN at low pHs. In contrast, light-driven water oxidation using [Ru(bpy)3](2+) (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine) as a photosensitizer and S2O8(2-) as a sacrificial electron acceptor was catalyzed by iron hydroxide nanoparticles derived from the iron complexes under basic conditions as the result of the ligand dissociation. In a buffer solution (initial pH 9.0) formation of the iron hydroxide nanoparticles with a size of around 100 nm at the end of the reaction was monitored by dynamic light scattering (DLS) in situ and characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) measurements. We thus conclude that the water oxidation by CAN was catalyzed by short-lived homogeneous iron complexes under acidic conditions, whereas iron hydroxide nanoparticles derived from iron complexes act as a heterogeneous catalyst in the light-driven water oxidation reaction under basic conditions.

  2. Proposal of Comprehensive Model of Teaching Basic Nursing Skills Under Goal-Based Scenario Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sannomiya, Yuri; Muranaka, Yoko; Teraoka, Misako; Suzuki, Sayuri; Saito, Yukie; Yamato, Hiromi; Ishii, Mariko

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to design and develop a comprehensive model of teaching basic nursing skills on GBS theory and Four-Stage Performance Cycle. We designed a basic nursing skill program that consists of three courses: basic, application and multi-tasking. The program will be offered as blended study, utilizing e-learning. PMID:27332480

  3. Testing Our Fundamental Assumptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Science is all about testing the things we take for granted including some of the most fundamental aspects of how we understand our universe. Is the speed of light in a vacuum the same for all photons regardless of their energy? Is the rest mass of a photon actually zero? A series of recent studies explore the possibility of using transient astrophysical sources for tests!Explaining Different Arrival TimesArtists illustration of a gamma-ray burst, another extragalactic transient, in a star-forming region. [NASA/Swift/Mary Pat Hrybyk-Keith and John Jones]Suppose you observe a distant transient astrophysical source like a gamma-ray burst, or a flare from an active nucleus and two photons of different energies arrive at your telescope at different times. This difference in arrival times could be due to several different factors, depending on how deeply you want to question some of our fundamental assumptions about physics:Intrinsic delayThe photons may simply have been emitted at two different times by the astrophysical source.Delay due to Lorentz invariance violationPerhaps the assumption that all massless particles (even two photons with different energies) move at the exact same velocity in a vacuum is incorrect.Special-relativistic delayMaybe there is a universal speed for massless particles, but the assumption that photons have zero rest mass is wrong. This, too, would cause photon velocities to be energy-dependent.Delay due to gravitational potentialPerhaps our understanding of the gravitational potential that the photons experience as they travel is incorrect, also causing different flight times for photons of different energies. This would mean that Einsteins equivalence principle, a fundamental tenet of general relativity (GR), is incorrect.If we now turn this problem around, then by measuring the arrival time delay between photons of different energies from various astrophysical sources the further away, the better we can provide constraints on these

  4. Optimum ratio of upper to lower limb lengths in hand-carrying of a load under the assumption of frequency coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W J; Crompton, R H; Li, Y; Gunther, M M

    2003-02-01

    The ratio of the upper to lower limb lengths [or the intermembral index (IMI)] in the earliest human ancestors is closer to that of the living chimpanzees than to our own, although the former show undoubted adaptations to bipedality. What biomechanical factors could then have led to the phenomenon of genus Homo? This paper proposes and evaluates a relationship between IMI and hand-carrying. Assuming that coordination of limb swing frequencies of the upper and lower limbs would be the subject of positive selection, a mathematical expression was derived and can in part explain the changes in IMI. We found that AL-288-1 [3.6 million years old (MY)], the most complete skeleton of the early hominid Australopithecus afarensis, could only have carried loads equivalent to 15-50% of the upper limb weight while maintaining swing symmetry, but KNM WT-15000, Homo ergaster (1.8MY) and modern humans could both carry loads 3 times heavier than the upper limb while maintaining swing symmetry. The carrying ability of chimpanzees would be inferior to that of AL-288-1. The IMI of modern humans, at 68-70, is the smallest, and is optimal for hand-carrying under our criteria. Under reduced selection pressure for hand-carrying, but unreduced selection for mechanical effectiveness, we might expect humans to evolve a longer upper limb, to improve swing symmetry when unloaded. PMID:12547362

  5. Basic substances under EC 1107/2009 phytochemical regulation: experience with non-biocide and food products as biorationals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchand Patrice A.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Basic Substances are a newly effective category of Plant Protection Product under EC Regulation No 1107/2009. The first approved application of Equisetum arvense L. opened Part C of Implementing Regulation (EU No 540/2011, which lists the basic substance approved. Although E. arvense was described as a fungicide extract, subsequent applications like chitosan were related to non-biocide molecules. Consequently, plant protection product data were collected from research on alternative or traditional crop protection methods. They are notably issued or derived from foodstuffs (plants, plant by-products, plant derived products, substances and derived substances from animal origin. Applications are currently submitted by our Institute, under evaluation at different stages of the approval process or already approved. Remarkably, this Basic Substance category under pesticide EU Regulation was surprisingly designed for these non-biocidal plant protection products. In fact, components described as the “active substance” of most of the actual applications are food products like sugars and lecithin. Basic Substance applications for these foodstuffs are therefore a straightforward way of easily gaining approval for them. Here we describe the approval context and detail the agricultural uses of theses food products as Biological Control Agents (BCAs or biorationals for crop protection. From all deposited or approved Basic Substance Application (BSA, a proof has been provided that non-biocide and food products via physical barrier or lure effects may be effective plant protection products with an acceptable low profile of concern for public and agricultural safety.

  6. Degradation of carbofuran and carbofuran-derivatives in presence of humic substances under basic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Jorge; Manso, José A; Cid, Antonio; Mejuto, Juan C

    2012-11-01

    The influence of humic aggregates in water solution upon the chemical stability of carbofuran (CF) and the carbofuran-derivatives, 3-hydroxy-carbofuran (HCF) and 3-keto-carbofuran (KCF), has been investigated in basic media. An inhibition upon the basic hydrolysis of 3-hydroxy-carbofuran and 3-keto-carbofuran (≈ 1.7 and ≈ 1.5-fold, respectively) was observed and it was rationalized in terms of the micellar pseudophase model. Nevertheless, non-significant effect upon the carbofuran stability was found in the presence of humic substances. These behaviors have been compared with the corresponding ones in other synthetic colloidal aggregates.

  7. New Cryptosystem Using Multiple Cryptographic Assumptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Ismail

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: A cryptosystem is a way for a sender and a receiver to communicate digitally by which the sender can send receiver any confidential or private message by first encrypting it using the receiver’s public key. Upon receiving the encrypted message, the receiver can confirm the originality of the message’s contents using his own secret key. Up to now, most of the existing cryptosystems were developed based on a single cryptographic assumption like factoring, discrete logarithms, quadratic residue or elliptic curve discrete logarithm. Although these schemes remain secure today, one day in a near future they may be broken if one finds a polynomial algorithm that can efficiently solve the underlying cryptographic assumption. Approach: By this motivation, we designed a new cryptosystem based on two cryptographic assumptions; quadratic residue and discrete logarithms. We integrated these two assumptions in our encrypting and decrypting equations so that the former depends on one public key whereas the latter depends on one corresponding secret key and two secret numbers. Each of public and secret keys in our scheme determines the assumptions we use. Results: The newly developed cryptosystem is shown secure against the three common considering algebraic attacks using a heuristic security technique. The efficiency performance of our scheme requires 2Texp+2Tmul +Thash time complexity for encryption and Texp+2Tmul+Tsrt time complexity for decryption and this magnitude of complexity is considered minimal for multiple cryptographic assumptions-like cryptosystems. Conclusion: The new cryptosystem based on multiple cryptographic assumptions offers a greater security level than that schemes based on a single cryptographic assumption. The adversary has to solve the two assumptions simultaneously to recover the original message from the received corresponding encrypted message but this is very unlikely to happen.

  8. Basic Psychological Skills Usage and Competitive Anxiety Responses: Perceived Underlying Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadey, Ross; Hanton, Sheldon

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between basic psychological skills usage (i.e., goal-setting, imagery, self-talk, and relaxation) and the intensity and directional dimensions of competitive anxiety. Semistructured interviews were used on a sample of 15 elite athletes (M age = 24.3 years, SD = 4.2) from a variety of team and individual sports.…

  9. Faulty assumptions for repository requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutcliffe, W G

    1999-06-03

    Long term performance requirements for a geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste are based on assumptions concerning water use and subsequent deaths from cancer due to ingesting water contaminated with radio isotopes ten thousand years in the future. This paper argues that the assumptions underlying these requirements are faulty for a number of reasons. First, in light of the inevitable technological progress, including efficient desalination of water, over the next ten thousand years, it is inconceivable that a future society would drill for water near a repository. Second, even today we would not use water without testing its purity. Third, today many types of cancer are curable, and with the rapid progress in medical technology in general, and the prevention and treatment of cancer in particular, it is improbable that cancer caused by ingesting contaminated water will be a sign&ant killer in the far future. This paper reviews the performance requirements for geological repositories and comments on the difficulties in proving compliance in the face of inherent uncertainties. The already tiny long-term risk posed by a geologic repository is presented and contrasted with contemporary every day risks. A number of examples of technological progress, including cancer treatments, are advanced. The real and significant costs resulting from the overly conservative requirements are then assessed. Examples are given of how money (and political capital) could be put to much better use to save lives today and in the future. It is concluded that although a repository represents essentially no long-term risk, monitored retrievable dry storage (above or below ground) is the current best alternative for spent fuel and high-level nuclear waste.

  10. Energetic and exergetic comparison of basic and ejector expander refrigeration systems operating under the same external conditions and cooling capacities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • An ejector was used as an expander for reducing throttling losses. • Experiments were made under the same external conditions and cooling capacities. • Work recovery in the ejector was achieved about 39–42%. • The exergy efficiency of the R134a cycle was improved by 6.6–11.24%. - Abstract: An experimental study was conducted on vapor compression refrigerators using R134a refrigerant for the purpose of achieving energy recovery and decreasing the effects of irreversibility. An ejector was used as an expander instead of an expansion valve. The coefficient of performance of the ejector refrigeration system and the amount of irreversibility and efficiency of each of its components were determined and compared with those of a basic vapor compression refrigeration system of the same cooling capacity under the same external conditions. It was found that the ejector expander system exhibited a lower total irreversibility in comparison with the basic system. When the ejector was used as the expander in the refrigeration system, the coefficient of performance was higher than in the basic system by 7.34–12.87%, while the exergy efficiency values were 6.6–11.24% higher than in the basic system

  11. Production of aluminum orthophosphate and basic aluminum polyphosphate under hydrothermal conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkhamov, A. A.; Iaroslavskii, I. M.; Popolitov, V. I.; Umarov, B. S.; Iliaev, A. B.

    Berlinite (AlPO4) crystals, which are used in piezoelectronic devices, have been produced by hydrothermal synthesis using the methods proposed by Stanley (1954) and Kolb and Laudise (1978). Also, the possibility of AlPO4 crystallization from metastable aluminophosphate glass has been investigated. It is found that berlinite can be crystallized by slowly raising the temperature in the retrograde solubility region; the crystal growth temperature can be reduced by using metastable aluminophosphate glass. Basic aluminum polyphosphate crystals, which decompose with the formation of Al(PO3)3, have been produced and investigated.

  12. Basic Relations Type of System Dynamics DELAY_N Input-Output Under the Discrete State and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WeiyuanTu

    2004-01-01

    DELAY_N is a kind of important function in system dynamic. Studies about the basic relational type between its input and output under the discrete state have the significant influence and instruction in determination system dynamics model parameter, in debugging model, and in analyzing result. The article has obtained the DELAY_N inputoutput relational expressions, has obtained the input average delay time and the delay variance expression, in this foundution, proposed one method of determination delay functiontype.

  13. THE TRANSFORMATIONAL PROCESSES INVOLVING MOTOR SKILLS THAT OCCUR UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF BASIC PRELIMINARY TRAINING IN YOUNG HANDBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markovic Sasa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The population from which we extracted a sample of 76 subjects consisted of elementary school students in Kursumlija, all male, aged 12-13, who were divided into a sub-sample consisting of 38 young handball players who took part in the training sessions of a school of handball and another sub-sample consisting of 38 non-athletes, who only took part in their regular physical education classes. The aim of the research was to determine the transformation processes involving motor skills, which occur under the influence of basic preliminary training in young handball players. The subject matter of the study was to examine whether a statistically significant increase in the level of motor skills would occur under the influence of physical exercise as part of basic preliminary training in the final as compared to the initial state. Six motor tests which define the dimensions of explosive and repetitive strength were used. The results of the research indicate that significant transformational processes involving the motor skills of young handball players occurred in the final as compared to the initial measuring, under the influence of basic preliminary training.

  14. Extracurricular Business Planning Competitions: Challenging the Assumptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Kayleigh; McGowan, Pauric; Smith, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Business planning competitions [BPCs] are a commonly offered yet under-examined extracurricular activity. Given the extent of sceptical comment about business planning, this paper offers what the authors believe is a much-needed critical discussion of the assumptions that underpin the provision of such competitions. In doing so it is suggested…

  15. Mexican-American Cultural Assumptions and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, E. Lou

    The search for presuppositions of a people's thought is not new. Octavio Paz and Samuel Ramos have both attempted to describe the assumptions underlying the Mexican character. Paz described Mexicans as private, defensive, and stoic, characteristics taken to the extreme in the "pachuco." Ramos, on the other hand, described Mexicans as being…

  16. The cis-trans Isomerisation of Homologous 2-Hydroxycycloalkanecarboxylic Acids under Basic Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GYARMATI, Cs. Zsuzsanna; P(A)LINK(O), István; BOKROS, Attila; MARTINEK, A. Tamás; BERN(A)TH, Gábor

    2006-01-01

    The cis→trans isomerisation of homologous 2-hydroxycycloalkanecarboxylic acids in strongly basic aqueous solution was studied starting from the cis isomers. It was found that the cyclopentane, cyclohexane and cycloheptane homologues afforded synthetically useful amounts of the trans acids and the procedure resulted in relatively small quantities of the corresponding olefinic acids. In contrast, the isomerisation of the cis-2-hydroxycyclooctanecarboxylic acid produced roughly equal amounts of the cis and trans isomers and the 1-cyclooctenecarboxylic acid at equilibrium. Molecular modelling with the PM3 semiempirical method of the reactants, products and the intermediates applying explicit water molecules as reaction medium gave a fair estimate for the rate sequence of the idealised (dehydration-free) isomerisation reactions in aqueous base solution.

  17. Disastrous assumptions about community disasters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dynes, R.R. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States). Disaster Research Center

    1995-12-31

    Planning for local community disasters is compounded with erroneous assumptions. Six problematic models are identified: agent facts, big accident, end of the world, media, command and control, administrative. Problematic assumptions in each of them are identified. A more adequate model centered on problem solving is identified. That there is a discrepancy between disaster planning efforts and the actual response experience seems rather universal. That discrepancy is symbolized by the graffiti which predictably surfaces on many walls in post disaster locations -- ``First the earthquake, then the disaster.`` That contradiction is seldom reduced as a result of post disaster critiques, since the most usual conclusion is that the plan was adequate but the ``people`` did not follow it. Another explanation will be provided here. A more plausible explanation for failure is that most planning efforts adopt a number of erroneous assumptions which affect the outcome. Those assumptions are infrequently changed or modified by experience.

  18. The influence of basic physical properties of soil on its electrical resistivity value under loose and dense condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrical resistivity technique has become a famous alternative tool in subsurface characterization. In the past, several interpretations of electrical resistivity results were unable to be delivered in a strong justification due to lack of appreciation of soil mechanics. Traditionally, interpreters will come out with different conclusion which commonly from qualitative point of view thus creating some uncertainty regarding the result reliability. Most engineers desire to apply any techniques in their project which are able to provide some clear justification with strong, reliable and meaningful results. In order to reduce the problem, this study presents the influence of basic physical properties of soil due to the electrical resistivity value under loose and dense condition. Two different conditions of soil embankment model were tested under electrical resistivity test and basic geotechnical test. It was found that the electrical resistivity value (ERV, ρ) was highly influenced by the variations of soil basic physical properties (BPP) with particular reference to moisture content (w), densities (ρbulk/dry), void ratio (e), porosity (η) and particle grain fraction (d) of soil. Strong relationship between ERV and BPP can be clearly presents such as ρ ∞ 1/w, ρ ∞ 1/ρbulk/dry, ρ ∞ e and ρ ∞ η. This study therefore contributes a means of ERV data interpretation using BPP in order to reduce ambiguity of ERV result and interpretation discussed among related persons such as geophysicist, engineers and geologist who applied these electrical resistivity techniques in subsurface profile assessment.

  19. Comparative Static Analysis of AD-AS Model under the Assumption of Keynes%凯恩斯假设下AD-AS模型的比较静态分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵一博

    2014-01-01

    AD-AS model is a static analysis model in the Keynesian assumption, this paper discusses the impact of fiscal policy and monetary policy on output and prices, interest rates and investment under the hypothesis, the results show that: the fiscal policy and monetary policy has a direct effect on the level of output and labor market unemployment,which is the same under the condition of, but changes with different.%在凯恩斯假设下的AD-AS模型是一个静态分析模型,文章在假设下,讨论了财政政策和货币政策对产出和价格、利率和投资的影响,分析结果表明:财政政策和货币政策对产出水平和劳动力市场的失业率具有直接的影响,结果同的假设下的分析结果相同,不过变动幅度同以上不同。

  20. Mesoporous Structure Control of Silica in Room-Temperature Synthesis under Basic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Wook Seo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Various types of mesoporous silica, such as continuous cubic-phase MCM-48, hexagonal-phase MCM-41, and layer-phase spherical silica particles, have been synthesized at room temperature using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as a surfactant, ethanol as a cosurfactant, tetraethyl orthosilicate as a silica precursor, and ammonia as a condensation agent. Special care must be taken both in the filtering of the resultant solid products and in the drying process. In the drying process, further condensation of the silica after filtering was induced. As the surfactant and cosurfactant concentrations in the reaction mixture increased and the NH3 concentration decreased, under given conditions, continuous cubic MCM-48 and layered silica became the dominant phases. A cooperative synthesis mechanism, in which both the surfactant and silica were involved in the formation of mesoporous structures, provided a good explanation of the experimental results.

  1. Adrenomedullin promotes differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells into myelin-basic-protein expressing oligodendrocytes under pathological conditions in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Takakuni; Takahashi, Yoko; Miyamoto, Nobukazu; Liang, Anna C; Ihara, Masafumi; Lo, Eng H; Arai, Ken

    2015-07-01

    Oligodendrocytes, which are the main cell type in cerebral white matter, are generated from their precursor cells (oligodendrocyte precursor cells: OPCs). However, the differentiation from OPCs to oligodendrocytes is disturbed under stressed conditions. Therefore, drugs that can improve oligodendrocyte regeneration may be effective for white matter-related diseases. Here we show that a vasoactive peptide adrenomedullin (AM) promotes the in vitro differentiation of OPCs under pathological conditions. Primary OPCs were prepared from neonatal rat brains, and differentiated into myelin-basic-protein expressing oligodendrocytes over time. This in vitro OPC differentiation was inhibited by prolonged chemical hypoxic stress induced by non-lethal CoCl(2) treatment. However, AM promoted the OPC differentiation under the hypoxic stress conditions, and the AM receptor antagonist AM(22-52) canceled the AM-induced OPC differentiation. In addition, AM treatment increased the phosphorylation level of Akt in OPC cultures, and correspondingly, the PI3K/Akt inhibitor LY294002 blocked the AM-induced OPC differentiation. Taken together, AM treatment rescued OPC maturation under pathological conditions via an AM-receptor-PI3K/Akt pathway. Oligodendrocytes play critical roles in white matter by forming myelin sheath. Therefore, AM signaling may be a promising therapeutic target to boost oligodendrocyte regeneration in CNS disorders.

  2. Adrenomedullin promotes differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells into myelin-basic-protein expressing oligodendrocytes under pathological conditions in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takakuni Maki

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Oligodendrocytes, which are the main cell type in cerebral white matter, are generated from their precursor cells (oligodendrocyte precursor cells: OPCs. However, the differentiation from OPCs to oligodendrocytes is disturbed under stressed conditions. Therefore, drugs that can improve oligodendrocyte regeneration may be effective for white matter-related diseases. Here we show that a vasoactive peptide adrenomedullin (AM promotes the in vitro differentiation of OPCs under pathological conditions. Primary OPCs were prepared from neonatal rat brains, and differentiated into myelin-basic-protein expressing oligodendrocytes over time. This in vitro OPC differentiation was inhibited by prolonged chemical hypoxic stress induced by non-lethal CoCl2 treatment. However, AM promoted the OPC differentiation under the hypoxic stress conditions, and the AM receptor antagonist AM22–52 canceled the AM-induced OPC differentiation. In addition, AM treatment increased the phosphorylation level of Akt in OPC cultures, and correspondingly, the PI3K/Akt inhibitor LY294002 blocked the AM-induced OPC differentiation. Taken together, AM treatment rescued OPC maturation under pathological conditions via an AM-receptor-PI3K/Akt pathway. Oligodendrocytes play critical roles in white matter by forming myelin sheath. Therefore, AM signaling may be a promising therapeutic target to boost oligodendrocyte regeneration in CNS disorders.

  3. Adrenomedullin promotes differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells into myelin-basic-protein expressing oligodendrocytes under pathological conditions in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Takakuni; Takahashi, Yoko; Miyamoto, Nobukazu; Liang, Anna C; Ihara, Masafumi; Lo, Eng H; Arai, Ken

    2015-07-01

    Oligodendrocytes, which are the main cell type in cerebral white matter, are generated from their precursor cells (oligodendrocyte precursor cells: OPCs). However, the differentiation from OPCs to oligodendrocytes is disturbed under stressed conditions. Therefore, drugs that can improve oligodendrocyte regeneration may be effective for white matter-related diseases. Here we show that a vasoactive peptide adrenomedullin (AM) promotes the in vitro differentiation of OPCs under pathological conditions. Primary OPCs were prepared from neonatal rat brains, and differentiated into myelin-basic-protein expressing oligodendrocytes over time. This in vitro OPC differentiation was inhibited by prolonged chemical hypoxic stress induced by non-lethal CoCl(2) treatment. However, AM promoted the OPC differentiation under the hypoxic stress conditions, and the AM receptor antagonist AM(22-52) canceled the AM-induced OPC differentiation. In addition, AM treatment increased the phosphorylation level of Akt in OPC cultures, and correspondingly, the PI3K/Akt inhibitor LY294002 blocked the AM-induced OPC differentiation. Taken together, AM treatment rescued OPC maturation under pathological conditions via an AM-receptor-PI3K/Akt pathway. Oligodendrocytes play critical roles in white matter by forming myelin sheath. Therefore, AM signaling may be a promising therapeutic target to boost oligodendrocyte regeneration in CNS disorders. PMID:26002630

  4. Quantum Commitments from Complexity Assumptions

    CERN Document Server

    Chailloux, André; Rosgen, Bill

    2010-01-01

    Bit commitment schemes are at the basis of modern cryptography. Since information-theoretic security is impossible both in the classical and the quantum regime, we need to look at computationally secure commitment schemes. In this paper, we study worst-case complexity assumptions that imply quantum bit-commitment schemes. First, we show that QSZK not included in QMA implies a computationally hiding and statistically binding auxiliary-input quantum commitment scheme. Additionally, we give auxiliary-input commitment schemes using quantum advice that depend on the much weaker assumption that QIP is not included in QMA (which is weaker than PSPACE not included in PP). Finally, we find a quantum oracle relative to which honest-verifier QSZK is not contained in QCMA, the class of languages that can be verified using a classical proof in quantum polynomial time.

  5. Do unreal assumptions pervert behaviour?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Verner C.

    After conducting a series of experiments involving economics students Miller concludes: "The experience of taking a course in microeconomics actually altered students' conceptions of the appropriateness of acting in a self-interested manner, not merely their definition of self-interest." Being ta...... business administration in practice, taking up issues relating to business purpose, motivation of employees and managers, goal setting, work performance, and implementation of agency theory.......-interested way nothing will. The purpose of this paper is to take a critical look at some of the assumptions and theories found in economics and discuss their implications for the models and the practices found in the management of business. The expectation is that the unrealistic assumptions of economics have...... become taken for granted and tacitly included into theories and models of management. Guiding business and manage¬ment to behave in a fashion that apparently makes these assumptions become "true". Thus in fact making theories and models become self-fulfilling prophecies. The paper elucidates some...

  6. Impact of actuarial assumptions on pension costs: A simulation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, Shaira; Ibrahim, Rose Irnawaty

    2013-04-01

    This study investigates the sensitivity of pension costs to changes in the underlying assumptions of a hypothetical pension plan in order to gain a perspective on the relative importance of the various actuarial assumptions via a simulation analysis. Simulation analyses are used to examine the impact of actuarial assumptions on pension costs. There are two actuarial assumptions will be considered in this study which are mortality rates and interest rates. To calculate pension costs, Accrued Benefit Cost Method, constant amount (CA) modification, constant percentage of salary (CS) modification are used in the study. The mortality assumptions and the implied mortality experience of the plan can potentially have a significant impact on pension costs. While for interest rate assumptions, it is inversely related to the pension costs. Results of the study have important implications for analyst of pension costs.

  7. Modern Cosmology: Assumptions and Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jai-Chan

    2012-06-01

    Physical cosmology tries to understand the Universe at large with its origin and evolution. Observational and experimental situations in cosmology do not allow us to proceed purely based on the empirical means. We examine in which sense our cosmological assumptions in fact have shaped our current cosmological worldview with consequent inevitable limits. Cosmology, as other branches of science and knowledge, is a construct of human imagination reflecting the popular belief system of the era. The question at issue deserves further philosophic discussions. In Whitehead's words, ``philosophy, in one of its functions, is the critic of cosmologies.'' (Whitehead 1925).

  8. Basic Soil Productivity of Spring Maize in Black Soil Under Long-Term Fertilization Based on DSSAT Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHA Yan; WU Xue-ping; HE Xin-hua; ZHANG Hui-min; GONG Fu-fei; CAI Dian-xiong; ZHU Ping; GAO Hong-jun

    2014-01-01

    Increasing basic farmland soil productivity has signiifcance in reducing fertilizer application and maintaining high yield of crops. In this study, we deifned that the basic soil productivity (BSP) is the production capacity of a farmland soil with its own physical and chemical properties for a speciifc crop season under local environment and ifeld management. Based on 22-yr (1990-2011) long-term experimental data on black soil (Typic hapludoll) in Gongzhuling, Jilin Province, Northeast China, the decision support system for an agro-technology transfer (DSSAT)-CERES-Maize model was applied to simulate the yield by BSP of spring maize (Zea mays L.) to examine the effects of long-term fertilization on changes of BSP and explore the mechanisms of BSP increasing. Five treatments were examined:(1) no-fertilization control (control);(2) chemical nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (NPK); (3) NPK plus farmyard manure (NPKM); (4) 1.5 time of NPKM (1.5NPKM) and (5) NPK plus straw (NPKS). Results showed that after 22-yr fertilization, the yield by BSP of spring maize signiifcantly increased 78.0, 101.2, and 69.4% under the NPKM, 1.5NPKM and NPKS, respectively, compared to the initial value (in 1992), but not signiifcant under NPK (26.9%increase) and the control (8.9%decrease). The contribution percentage of BSP showed a signiifcant rising trend (PNPKM>NPK≈NPKS, indicating that organic manure combined with chemical fertilizers (1.5NPKM and NPKM) could more effectively increase BSP compared with the inorganic fertilizer application alone (NPK) in the black soil. This study showed that soil organic matter (SOM) was the key factor among various fertility factors that could affect BSP in the black soil, and total N, total P and/or available P also played important role in BSP increasing. Compared with the chemical fertilization, a balanced chemical plus manure or straw fertilization (NPKM or NPKS) not only increased the concentrations of soil nutrient, but also improved the

  9. Assumptions for the Annual Energy Outlook 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report serves a auxiliary document to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) publication Annual Energy Outlook 1992 (AEO) (DOE/EIA-0383(92)), released in January 1992. The AEO forecasts were developed for five alternative cases and consist of energy supply, consumption, and price projections by major fuel and end-use sector, which are published at a national level of aggregation. The purpose of this report is to present important quantitative assumptions, including world oil prices and macroeconomic growth, underlying the AEO forecasts. The report has been prepared in response to external requests, as well as analyst requirements for background information on the AEO and studies based on the AEO forecasts

  10. Assumptions of the QALY procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr-Hill, R A

    1989-01-01

    The Quality Adjusted Life Year (QALY) has been proposed as a useful index for those managing the provision of health care because it enables the decision-maker to compare the 'value' of different health care programmes and in a way which, potentially at least, reflects social preferences about the appropriate pattern of provision. The index depends on a combination of a measure of morbidity and the risk of mortality. Methodological debate has tended to concentrate on the technicalities of producing a scale of health; and philosophical argument has concentrated on the ethics of interpersonal comparison. There is little recognition of the fragility of the theoretical assumptions underpinning the proposed combination of morbidity and risk of mortality. The context in which the proposed indices are being developed is examined in Section 2. Whilst most working in the field of health measurement eschew over-simplification, it is clear that the application of micro-economics to management is greatly facilitated if a single index can be agreed. The various approaches to combining morbidity and mortality are described in Section 3. The crucial assumptions concern the measurement and valuation of morbidity; the procedures used for scaling morbidity with mortality; and the role of risk. The nature of the valuations involved are examined in Section 4. It seems unlikely that they could ever be widely acceptable; the combination with death and perfect health poses particular problems; and aggregation across individuals compounds the problem. There are also several technical difficulties of scaling and of allowing for risk which have been discussed elsewhere and so are only considered briefly in Section 5 of this paper.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2762872

  11. Lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin: The basic and clinical science underlying carotenoid-based nutritional interventions against ocular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Paul S; Li, Binxing; Vachali, Preejith P; Gorusupudi, Aruna; Shyam, Rajalekshmy; Henriksen, Bradley S; Nolan, John M

    2016-01-01

    The human macula uniquely concentrates three carotenoids: lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin. Lutein and zeaxanthin must be obtained from dietary sources such as green leafy vegetables and orange and yellow fruits and vegetables, while meso-zeaxanthin is rarely found in diet and is believed to be formed at the macula by metabolic transformations of ingested carotenoids. Epidemiological studies and large-scale clinical trials such as AREDS2 have brought attention to the potential ocular health and functional benefits of these three xanthophyll carotenoids consumed through the diet or supplements, but the basic science and clinical research underlying recommendations for nutritional interventions against age-related macular degeneration and other eye diseases are underappreciated by clinicians and vision researchers alike. In this review article, we first examine the chemistry, biochemistry, biophysics, and physiology of these yellow pigments that are specifically concentrated in the macula lutea through the means of high-affinity binding proteins and specialized transport and metabolic proteins where they play important roles as short-wavelength (blue) light-absorbers and localized, efficient antioxidants in a region at high risk for light-induced oxidative stress. Next, we turn to clinical evidence supporting functional benefits of these carotenoids in normal eyes and for their potential protective actions against ocular disease from infancy to old age. PMID:26541886

  12. Discourses and Theoretical Assumptions in IT Project Portfolio Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kristian; Kræmmergaard, Pernille

    2014-01-01

    DISCOURSES AND THEORETICAL ASSUMPTIONS IN IT PROJECT PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE These years increasing interest is put on IT project portfolio management (IT PPM). Considering IT PPM an interdisciplinary practice, we conduct a concept-based literature review of relevant...... literature, and few contributions represent the three remaining discourses, which unjustifiably leaves out issues that research could and most probably should investigate. In order to highlight research potentials, limitations, and underlying assumptions of each discourse, we develop four IT PPM metaphors...... to articulate and discuss underlying and conflicting assumptions in IT PPM, serving as a basis for adjusting organizations’ IT PPM practices. Keywords: IT project portfolio management or IT PPM, literature review, scientific discourses, underlying assumptions, unintended consequences, epistemological biases...

  13. Scenarios Based on Shared Socioeconomic Pathway Assumptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, J.

    2013-12-01

    A set of new scenarios is being developed by the international scientific community as part of a larger program that was articulated in Moss, et al. (2009), published in Nature. A long series of meetings including climate researchers drawn from the climate modeling, impacts, adaptation and vulnerability (IAV) and integrated assessment modeling (IAM) communities have led to the development of a set of five Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs), which define the state of human and natural societies at a macro scale over the course of the 21st century without regard to climate mitigation or change. SSPs were designed to explore a range of possible futures consistent with greater or lesser challenges to mitigation and challenges to adaptation. They include a narrative storyline and a set of quantified measures--e.g. demographic and economic profiles--that define the high-level state of society as it evolves over the 21st century under the assumption of no significant climate feedback. SSPs can be used to develop quantitative scenarios of human Earth systems using IAMs. IAMs produce information about greenhouse gas emissions, energy systems, the economy, agriculture and land use. Each set of SSPs will have a different human Earth system realization for each IAM. Five groups from the IAM community have begun to explore the implications of SSP assumptions for emissions, energy, economy, agriculture and land use. We report the quantitative results of initial experiments from those groups. A major goal of the Moss, et al. strategy was to enable the use of CMIP5 climate model ensemble products for IAV research. CMIP5 climate scenarios used four Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios, defined in terms of radiative forcing in the year 2100: 2.6, 4.5, 6.0, and 8.5 Wm-2. There is no reason to believe that the SSPs will generate year 2100 levels of radiative forcing that correspond to the four RCP levels, though it is important that at least one SSP produce a

  14. ID-based trapdoor mercurial commitment under one-way functions assumptions%单向函数假设下基于身份的陷门水银承诺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张武军; 刘玉定; 高雅倩; 孙曦; 王育民

    2015-01-01

    The notion of identity‐based trapdoor mercurial commitment incorporates the advantages of both identity‐based trapdoor commitment and trapdoor mercurial commitment . So far , the existing identity‐based trapdoor mercurial commitment schemes are based on the strong Diffie‐Hellman assumption or computational Diffie‐Hellman assumption . One‐way function existence is one of the fundamental assumptions in the cryptography . In this paper , we first propose a general construction for identity‐based trapdoor mercurial commitment based on the one‐way function . Meanwhile , we give a concrete instantiation based on the Boneh‐Boyen signature scheme .%基于身份的陷门水银承诺结合了基于身份的陷门承诺和水银承诺两个概念,它是构造基于身份的零知识集合的基础模块。目前,现有的基于身份的陷门水银承诺方案都是基于强Diffie‐Hellman假设和计算性Diffie‐Hellman假设来构造的。单向函数假设是密码学中最基本的假设,文中基于单向函数假设给出了基于身份的陷门水银承诺的一般性构造方法,并且利用Boneh‐Boyen签名给出了一个具体的例证。

  15. 15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part 740 - Items That May Be Donated To Meet Basic Human Needs Under the Humanitarian License Exception

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Items That May Be Donated To Meet Basic Human Needs Under the Humanitarian License Exception No. Supplement No. 2 to Part 740 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE...

  16. Comparison of Teachers' and School Psychologists' Accuracy in Assigning Basic Academic Tasks to Underlying CHC-Model Cognitive Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruccelli, Meredith Lohr; Fiorello, Catherine A.; Thurman, S. Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Teacher perceptions of their students' cognitive abilities affect the referrals they make and intervention strategies they implement. In this study, teachers and school psychologists were asked to sort basic academic tasks into categories on the basis of the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) broad cognitive abilities, such as fluid reasoning and…

  17. Different Random Distributions Research on Logistic-Based Sample Assumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Pan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Logistic-based sample assumption is proposed in this paper, with a research on different random distributions through this system. It provides an assumption system of logistic-based sample, including its sample space structure. Moreover, the influence of different random distributions for inputs has been studied through this logistic-based sample assumption system. In this paper, three different random distributions (normal distribution, uniform distribution, and beta distribution are used for test. The experimental simulations illustrate the relationship between inputs and outputs under different random distributions. Thereafter, numerical analysis infers that the distribution of outputs depends on that of inputs to some extent, and this assumption system is not independent increment process, but it is quasistationary.

  18. The Regressivity of the Property Tax. The Incidence of the Property Tax Under Alternative Assumptions of Incidence in Four States--Connecticut, Minnesota, Missouri and South Dakota. Report No. F76-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odden, Allan; Vincent, Phillip E.

    This booklet summarizes the recent debate over the regressivity or progressivity of the property tax and presents some evidence on how the property tax burden is distributed among income classes. Section 1 discusses property tax incidence under both the conventional and new economic views. Discussed specifically are the conditions under which…

  19. How Symmetrical Assumptions Advance Strategic Management Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Hallberg, Hallberg

    2014-01-01

    We develop the case for symmetrical assumptions in strategic management theory. Assumptional symmetry obtains when assumptions made about certain actors and their interactions in one of the application domains of a theory are also made about this set of actors and their interactions in other...... application domains of the theory. We argue that assumptional symmetry leads to theoretical advancement by promoting the development of theory with greater falsifiability and stronger ontological grounding. Thus, strategic management theory may be advanced by systematically searching for asymmetrical...

  20. Degradation of Corn Oil Wastes by Fenton Reaction and Under Mildly Basic Media in the Presence of Oxidants Assisted with Sun Light

    OpenAIRE

    Josefina V.  Sanchez; Susana S.  Martinez; Maria D.F.T.  Hernandez

    2008-01-01

    The degradation of water soluble corn oil wastes was carried out by Fenton reaction and also under mildly basic media in the presence of oxidants, such as hydrogen peroxide and persulfate, assisted with solar light. The degradation efficiency was obtained by analysis of chemical oxygen demand, carbon dioxide and gas chromatography. Over 90% of both chemical oxygen demand abatement and carbon dioxide recovery was accomplished by Fenton reaction. The presence of oxidants during the photodegrada...

  1. Wrong assumptions in the financial crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.B. Aalbers

    2009-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to show how some of the assumptions about the current financial crisis are wrong because they misunderstand what takes place in the mortgage market. Design/methodology/approach - The paper discusses four wrong assumptions: one related to regulation, one to leve

  2. The Self in Guidance: Assumptions and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Richard; Payne, John

    1997-01-01

    Examines the assumptions of "self" made in the professional and managerial discourses of guidance. Suggests that these assumptions obstruct the capacity of guidance workers to explain their own practices. Drawing on contemporary debates over identity, modernity, and postmodernity, argues for a more explicit debate about the self in guidance. (RJM)

  3. 75 FR 69588 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... title IV of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974. PBGC uses the interest assumptions in... CORPORATION 29 CFR Part 4022 Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for...-Employer Plans to prescribe interest assumptions under the regulation for valuation dates in December...

  4. 76 FR 8649 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... title IV of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974. PBGC uses the interest assumptions in... CORPORATION 29 CFR Part 4022 Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for...-Employer Plans to prescribe interest assumptions under the regulation for valuation dates in March...

  5. 76 FR 2578 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... title IV of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974. PBGC uses the interest assumptions in... CORPORATION 29 CFR Part 4022 Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for...-Employer Plans to prescribe interest assumptions under the regulation for valuation dates in February...

  6. 75 FR 63380 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... title IV of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974. ] PBGC uses the interest assumptions in... CORPORATION 29 CFR Part 4022 Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for...-Employer Plans to prescribe interest assumptions under the regulation for valuation dates in November...

  7. Assumptions for the Annual Energy Outlook 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is an auxiliary document to the Annual Energy Outlook 1993 (AEO) (DOE/EIA-0383(93)). It presents a detailed discussion of the assumptions underlying the forecasts in the AEO. The energy modeling system is an economic equilibrium system, with component demand modules representing end-use energy consumption by major end-use sector. Another set of modules represents petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity supply patterns and pricing. A separate module generates annual forecasts of important macroeconomic and industrial output variables. Interactions among these components of energy markets generate projections of prices and quantities for which energy supply equals energy demand. This equilibrium modeling system is referred to as the Intermediate Future Forecasting System (IFFS). The supply models in IFFS for oil, coal, natural gas, and electricity determine supply and price for each fuel depending upon consumption levels, while the demand models determine consumption depending upon end-use price. IFFS solves for market equilibrium for each fuel by balancing supply and demand to produce an energy balance in each forecast year

  8. Adrenomedullin promotes differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells into myelin-basic-protein expressing oligodendrocytes under pathological conditions in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Takakuni Maki; Yoko Takahashi; Nobukazu Miyamoto; Liang, Anna C.; Masafumi Ihara; Eng H Lo; Ken Arai

    2015-01-01

    Oligodendrocytes, which are the main cell type in cerebral white matter, are generated from their precursor cells (oligodendrocyte precursor cells: OPCs). However, the differentiation from OPCs to oligodendrocytes is disturbed under stressed conditions. Therefore, drugs that can improve oligodendrocyte regeneration may be effective for white matter-related diseases. Here we show that a vasoactive peptide adrenomedullin (AM) promotes the in vitro differentiation of OPCs under pathological cond...

  9. A Cmparison of Closed World Assumptions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈一栋

    1992-01-01

    In this Paper.we introduce a notion of the family of closed world assumptions and compare several well-known closed world approaches in the family to the extent to whic an incomplete database is com pleted.

  10. Examining Computational Assumptions For Godiva IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkland, Alexander Matthew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jaegers, Peter James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-11

    Over the course of summer 2016, the effects of several computational modeling assumptions with respect to the Godiva IV reactor were examined. The majority of these assumptions pertained to modeling errors existing in the control rods and burst rod. The Monte Carlo neutron transport code, MCNP, was used to investigate these modeling changes, primarily by comparing them to that of the original input deck specifications.

  11. 新形势下构建高校辅导员工作团队的设想%Assumption on Constructing the Team of University Conselors under New Circumstances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁文香; 陈刚

    2012-01-01

      Working with student affairs is complicated under new circumstances. It is a new challenge for university conselors' work. Because of unclear division of labor, indefinite responsibility and other disadvantages, traditional mode of their work is difficult to adapt to rapid development of work with student affairs and it goes against the development of conselors' specialization. However, based on elaborate division, the mode of teamwork can share the pressure and avoid the conflict among different roles. It also can maintain the justice of performance assessment and promote the specialization and profession of the counselor team.%  新形势下学生工作复杂多变,对辅导员工作了提出了新的挑战。而传统的辅导员工作模式由于分工不明确,职责定位不明晰等存在诸多弊端,难以适应快速发展的学生工作,也不利于辅导员的专业化发展道路。而基于精细分工基础上的团队工作模式具有分担角色压力和避免角色冲突,维护绩效考核的公平公正、促进辅导员队伍专业化和专家化等优势。

  12. Respondent-Driven Sampling – Testing Assumptions: Sampling with Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barash Vladimir D.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Classical Respondent-Driven Sampling (RDS estimators are based on a Markov Process model in which sampling occurs with replacement. Given that respondents generally cannot be interviewed more than once, this assumption is counterfactual. We join recent work by Gile and Handcock in exploring the implications of the sampling-with-replacement assumption for bias of RDS estimators. We differ from previous studies in examining a wider range of sampling fractions and in using not only simulations but also formal proofs. One key finding is that RDS estimates are surprisingly stable even in the presence of substantial sampling fractions. Our analyses show that the sampling-with-replacement assumption is a minor contributor to bias for sampling fractions under 40%, and bias is negligible for the 20% or smaller sampling fractions typical of field applications of RDS.

  13. Volatilization of elemental mercury from fresh blast furnace sludge mixed with basic oxygen furnace sludge under different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Földi, Corinna; Dohrmann, Reiner; Mansfeldt, Tim

    2015-11-01

    Blast furnace sludge (BFS) is a waste with elevated mercury (Hg) content due to enrichment during the production process of pig iron. To investigate the volatilization potential of Hg, fresh samples of BFS mixed with basic oxygen furnace sludge (BOFS; a residue of gas purification from steel making, processed simultaneously in the cleaning devices of BFS and hence mixed with BFS) were studied in sealed column experiments at different temperatures (15, 25, and 35 °C) for four weeks (total Hg: 0.178 mg kg(-1)). The systems were regularly flushed with ambient air (every 24 h for the first 100 h, followed by every 72 h) for 20 min at a flow rate of 0.25 ± 0.03 L min(-1) and elemental Hg vapor was trapped on gold coated sand. Volatilization was 0.276 ± 0.065 ng (x m: 0.284 ng) at 15 °C, 5.55 ± 2.83 ng (x m: 5.09 ng) at 25 °C, and 2.37 ± 0.514 ng (x m: 2.34 ng) at 35 °C. Surprisingly, Hg fluxes were lower at 35 than 25 °C. For all temperature variants, an elevated Hg flux was observed within the first 100 h followed by a decrease of volatilization thereafter. However, the background level of ambient air was not achieved at the end of the experiments indicating that BFS mixed with BOFS still possessed Hg volatilization potential. PMID:26444147

  14. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit of the brain ... specialized for the function of conducting messages. A neuron has three basic parts: Cell body which includes ...

  15. Asthma Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Asthma Basics KidsHealth > For Parents > Asthma Basics Print A ... Asthma Categories en español Asma: aspectos fundamentales About Asthma Asthma is a common lung condition in kids ...

  16. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Basics will introduce you to some of this science, such as: How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic structure of the brain How different parts of ...

  17. Backpack Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Backpack Basics KidsHealth > For Teens > Backpack Basics Print A ... it can cause back problems or even injury. Backpacks Are Best Backpacks can't be beat for ...

  18. Shattering world assumptions: A prospective view of the impact of adverse events on world assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Eric R; Boals, Adriel

    2016-05-01

    Shattered Assumptions theory (Janoff-Bulman, 1992) posits that experiencing a traumatic event has the potential to diminish the degree of optimism in the assumptions of the world (assumptive world), which could lead to the development of posttraumatic stress disorder. Prior research assessed the assumptive world with a measure that was recently reported to have poor psychometric properties (Kaler et al., 2008). The current study had 3 aims: (a) to assess the psychometric properties of a recently developed measure of the assumptive world, (b) to retrospectively examine how prior adverse events affected the optimism of the assumptive world, and (c) to measure the impact of an intervening adverse event. An 8-week prospective design with a college sample (N = 882 at Time 1 and N = 511 at Time 2) was used to assess the study objectives. We split adverse events into those that were objectively or subjectively traumatic in nature. The new measure exhibited adequate psychometric properties. The report of a prior objective or subjective trauma at Time 1 was related to a less optimistic assumptive world. Furthermore, participants who experienced an intervening objectively traumatic event evidenced a decrease in optimistic views of the world compared with those who did not experience an intervening adverse event. We found support for Shattered Assumptions theory retrospectively and prospectively using a reliable measure of the assumptive world. We discuss future assessments of the measure of the assumptive world and clinical implications to help rebuild the assumptive world with current therapies. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. Degradation of Corn Oil Wastes by Fenton Reaction and Under Mildly Basic Media in the Presence of Oxidants Assisted with Sun Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefina V.  Sanchez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The degradation of water soluble corn oil wastes was carried out by Fenton reaction and also under mildly basic media in the presence of oxidants, such as hydrogen peroxide and persulfate, assisted with solar light. The degradation efficiency was obtained by analysis of chemical oxygen demand, carbon dioxide and gas chromatography. Over 90% of both chemical oxygen demand abatement and carbon dioxide recovery was accomplished by Fenton reaction. The presence of oxidants during the photodegradation resulted in high chemical oxygen demand abatement of the oil waste with the disappearance of the majority of the initial fatty acids present in the oil waste before treatment.

  20. Basic design of shield blocks for a spallation neutron source under the high-intensity proton accelerator project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Katsuhiko; Maekawa, Fujio; Takada, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2003-03-01

    Under the JAERI-KEK High-Intensity Proton Accelerator Project (J-PARC), a spallation neutron source driven by a 3 GeV-1 MW proton beam is planed to be constructed as a main part of the Materials and Life Science Facility. Overall dimensions of a biological shield of the neutron source had been determined by evaluation of shielding performance by Monte Carlo calculations. This report describes results of design studies on an optimum dividing scheme in terms of cost and treatment and mechanical strength of shield blocks for the biological shield. As for mechanical strength, it was studied whether the shield blocks would be stable, fall down or move to a horizontal direction in case of an earthquake of seismic intensity of 5.5 (250 Gal) as an abnormal load. For ceiling shielding blocks being supported by both ends of the long blocks, maximum bending moment and an amount of maximum deflection of their center were evaluated. (author)

  1. Root gravitropism: an experimental tool to investigate basic cellular and molecular processes underlying mechanosensing and signal transmission in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonsirichai, K.; Guan, C.; Chen, R.; Masson, P. H.

    2002-01-01

    The ability of plant organs to use gravity as a guide for growth, named gravitropism, has been recognized for over two centuries. This growth response to the environment contributes significantly to the upward growth of shoots and the downward growth of roots commonly observed throughout the plant kingdom. Root gravitropism has received a great deal of attention because there is a physical separation between the primary site for gravity sensing, located in the root cap, and the site of differential growth response, located in the elongation zones (EZs). Hence, this system allows identification and characterization of different phases of gravitropism, including gravity perception, signal transduction, signal transmission, and curvature response. Recent studies support some aspects of an old model for gravity sensing, which postulates that root-cap columellar amyloplasts constitute the susceptors for gravity perception. Such studies have also allowed the identification of several molecules that appear to function as second messengers in gravity signal transduction and of potential signal transducers. Auxin has been implicated as a probable component of the signal that carries the gravitropic information between the gravity-sensing cap and the gravity-responding EZs. This has allowed the identification and characterization of important molecular processes underlying auxin transport and response in plants. New molecular models can be elaborated to explain how the gravity signal transduction pathway might regulate the polarity of auxin transport in roots. Further studies are required to test these models, as well as to study the molecular mechanisms underlying a poorly characterized phase of gravitropism that is independent of an auxin gradient.

  2. 大数据下网络稳定性测试基础研究%Network stability test of basic research under the big data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高加琼

    2015-01-01

    大数据环境下,需要对种类繁多、数量庞大的多样数据中快速进行信息获取,这就使得在大数据环境下对网络稳定性提出了更高的要求.本文将对大数据下网络稳定性测试基础研究.%Under the large data environment, need to get information in the variety, large number of diverse data, which makes in a big data environment put forward higher requirements on the stability of the network. This article wil network stability test of basic research under the big data.

  3. Life Support Baseline Values and Assumptions Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Molly S.; Ewert, Michael K.; Keener, John F.; Wagner, Sandra A.

    2015-01-01

    The Baseline Values and Assumptions Document (BVAD) provides analysts, modelers, and other life support researchers with a common set of values and assumptions which can be used as a baseline in their studies. This baseline, in turn, provides a common point of origin from which many studies in the community may depart, making research results easier to compare and providing researchers with reasonable values to assume for areas outside their experience. With the ability to accurately compare different technologies' performance for the same function, managers will be able to make better decisions regarding technology development.

  4. Managerial and Organizational Assumptions in the CMM's

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jeremy; Aaen, Ivan; Nielsen, Peter Axel

    2008-01-01

    thinking about large production and manufacturing organisations (particularly in America) in the late industrial age. Many of the difficulties reported with CMMI can be attributed basing practice on these assumptions in organisations which have different cultures and management traditions, perhaps...... in different countries operating different economic and social models. Characterizing CMMI in this way opens the door to another question: are there other sets of organisational and management assumptions which would be better suited to other types of organisations operating in other cultural contexts?...

  5. Basic electrotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Ashen, R A

    2013-01-01

    BASIC Electrotechnology discusses the applications of Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC) in engineering, particularly in solving electrotechnology-related problems. The book is comprised of six chapters that cover several topics relevant to BASIC and electrotechnology. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to BASIC, and Chapter 2 talks about the use of complex numbers in a.c. circuit analysis. Chapter 3 covers linear circuit analysis with d.c. and sinusoidal a.c. supplies. The book also discusses the elementary magnetic circuit theory. The theory and performance of two windi

  6. The homogeneous marginal utility of income assumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demuynck, T.

    2015-01-01

    We develop a test to verify if every agent from a population of heterogeneous consumers has the same marginal utility of income function. This homogeneous marginal utility of income assumption is often (implicitly) used in applied demand studies because it has nice aggregation properties and facilit

  7. Assumptive Worldviews and Problematic Reactions to Bereavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currier, Joseph M.; Holland, Jason M.; Neimeyer, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Forty-two individuals who had lost an immediate family member in the prior 2 years and 42 nonbereaved matched controls completed the World Assumptions Scale (Janoff-Bulman, 1989) and the Symptom Checklist-10-Revised (Rosen et al., 2000). Results showed that bereaved individuals were significantly more distressed than nonbereaved matched controls,…

  8. Culturally Biased Assumptions in Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Paul B.

    2003-01-01

    Eight clusters of culturally biased assumptions are identified for further discussion from Leong and Ponterotto's (2003) article. The presence of cultural bias demonstrates that cultural bias is so robust and pervasive that is permeates the profession of counseling psychology, even including those articles that effectively attack cultural bias…

  9. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Brain Basics in Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah ... having trouble coping with the stresses in her life. She began to think of suicide because she ...

  10. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Basics in Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a middle-aged woman who seemed to have it all. She was happily married and successful in business. Then, after a serious setback at work, she lost interest ...

  11. Basic Concurrency Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvengreen, Hans Henrik

    2002-01-01

    In this set of notes, we present some of the basic theory underlying the discipline of programming with concurrent processes/threads. The notes are intended to supplement a standard textbook on concurrent programming.......In this set of notes, we present some of the basic theory underlying the discipline of programming with concurrent processes/threads. The notes are intended to supplement a standard textbook on concurrent programming....

  12. Basic hydraulics

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, P D

    1982-01-01

    BASIC Hydraulics aims to help students both to become proficient in the BASIC programming language by actually using the language in an important field of engineering and to use computing as a means of mastering the subject of hydraulics. The book begins with a summary of the technique of computing in BASIC together with comments and listing of the main commands and statements. Subsequent chapters introduce the fundamental concepts and appropriate governing equations. Topics covered include principles of fluid mechanics; flow in pipes, pipe networks and open channels; hydraulic machinery;

  13. On distributional assumptions and whitened cosine similarities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loog, Marco

    2008-01-01

    Recently, an interpretation of the whitened cosine similarity measure as a Bayes decision rule was proposed (C. Liu, "The Bayes Decision Rule Induced Similarity Measures,'' IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 1086-1090, June 2007. This communication makes th...... the observation that some of the distributional assumptions made to derive this measure are very restrictive and, considered simultaneously, even inconsistent....

  14. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot effectively coordinate the billions ... basic working unit of the brain and nervous system. These cells are highly specialized for the function ...

  15. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  16. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Trials — Participants Statistics Help for Mental Illnesses Outreach Research Priorities Funding Labs at NIMH News About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The ...

  17. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Basics will introduce you to some of this science, such as: How the brain develops How ... cell, and responds to signals from the environment; this all helps the cell maintain its balance with ...

  18. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic structure of the ... inside contents of the cell from its surrounding environment and controls what enters and leaves the cell, ...

  19. Brain Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  20. Cancer Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer? Breast Cancer Colon/Rectum Cancer Lung Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Show All Cancer Types News and Features Cancer Glossary ACS Bookstore Cancer Information Cancer Basics Cancer Prevention & Detection Signs & Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects ...

  1. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses are disorders of the brain, ... learning more about how the brain grows and works in healthy people, and how normal brain development ...

  2. Basic Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittek, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    A discussion of the basic measures of corporate financial strength, and the sources of the information is reported. Considered are: balance sheet, income statement, funds and cash flow, and financial ratios.

  3. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses are disorders of the brain, ... others live with symptoms of mental illness every day. They can be moderate, or serious and cause ...

  4. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the function of conducting messages. A neuron has three basic parts: Cell body which includes the nucleus, ... Plan in 2016 August 31, 2016, 2:00-3:00 PM ET Recovery Month September 2016 National ...

  5. Blood Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Group Links Advocacy Toolkit Home For Patients Blood Basics Blood is a specialized body fluid. It ... about 9 pints. Jump To: The Components of Blood and Their Importance Many people have undergone blood ...

  6. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for the function of conducting messages. A neuron has three basic parts: Cell body which includes the ... disorder (ADHD) . Glutamate —the most common neurotransmitter, glutamate has many roles throughout the brain and nervous system. ...

  7. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... interconnections. neuron —A nerve cell that is the basic, working unit of the brain and nervous system, which processes and transmits information. neurotransmitter —A chemical produced by ...

  8. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit of the ... distant nerve cells (via axons) to form brain circuits. These circuits control specific body functions such as ...

  9. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... science, such as: How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic ... that with brain development in people mental disorders. Genes and environmental cues both help to direct this ...

  10. Body Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about how the body works, what basic human anatomy is, and what happens when parts of the body don't function properly. Blood Bones, Muscles, and Joints Brain and Nervous System Digestive System Endocrine System Eyes Female Reproductive System ...

  11. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a ... blues" from time to time. In contrast, major depression is a serious disorder that lasts for weeks. ...

  12. The basic aerodynamics of floatation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, M.J.; Wood, D.H.

    1983-09-01

    The original derivation of the basic theory governing the aerodynamics of both hovercraft and modern floatation ovens, requires the validity of some extremely crude assumptions. However, the basic theory is surprisingly accurate. It is shown that this accuracy occurs because the final expression of the basic theory can be derived by approximating the full Navier-Stokes equations in a manner that clearly shows the limitations of the theory. These limitations are used in discussing the relatively small discrepancies between the theory and experiment, which may not be significant for practical purposes.

  13. The sufficiency assumption of the reasoned approach to action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Trafimow

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The reasoned action approach to understanding and predicting behavior includes the sufficiency assumption. Although variables not included in the theory may influence behavior, these variables work through the variables in the theory. Once the reasoned action variables are included in an analysis, the inclusion of other variables will not increase the variance accounted for in behavioral intentions or behavior. Reasoned action researchers are very concerned with testing if new variables account for variance (or how much traditional variables account for variance, to see whether they are important, in general or with respect to specific behaviors under investigation. But this approach tacitly assumes that accounting for variance is highly relevant to understanding the production of variance, which is what really is at issue. Based on the variance law, I question this assumption.

  14. Comparative Interpretation of Classical and Keynesian Fiscal Policies (Assumptions, Principles and Primary Opinions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin Oner

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Adam Smith being its founder, in the Classical School, which gives prominence to supply and adopts an approach of unbiased finance, the economy is always in a state of full employment equilibrium. In this system of thought, the main philosophy of which is budget balance, that asserts that there is flexibility between prices and wages and regards public debt as an extraordinary instrument, the interference of the state with the economic and social life is frowned upon. In line with the views of the classical thought, the classical fiscal policy is based on three basic assumptions. These are the "Consumer State Assumption", the assumption accepting that "Public Expenditures are Always Ineffectual" and the assumption concerning the "Impartiality of the Taxes and Expenditure Policies Implemented by the State". On the other hand, the Keynesian School founded by John Maynard Keynes, gives prominence to demand, adopts the approach of functional finance, and asserts that cases of underemployment equilibrium and over-employment equilibrium exist in the economy as well as the full employment equilibrium, that problems cannot be solved through the invisible hand, that prices and wages are strict, the interference of the state is essential and at this point fiscal policies have to be utilized effectively.Keynesian fiscal policy depends on three primary assumptions. These are the assumption of "Filter State", the assumption that "public expenditures are sometimes effective and sometimes ineffective or neutral" and the assumption that "the tax, debt and expenditure policies of the state can never be impartial". 

  15. The Importance of the Assumption of Uncorrelated Errors in Psychometric Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raykov, Tenko; Marcoulides, George A.; Patelis, Thanos

    2015-01-01

    A critical discussion of the assumption of uncorrelated errors in classical psychometric theory and its applications is provided. It is pointed out that this assumption is essential for a number of fundamental results and underlies the concept of parallel tests, the Spearman-Brown's prophecy and the correction for attenuation formulas as well as…

  16. Relevant Assumptions at the basis of the UMAE uncertainty methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with preliminary results of the application of UMAE (Uncertainty Methodology based upon Accuracy Extrapolation) uncertainty procedure to the Uncertainty Methods Study (UMS) proposed by OECD/CSNI. The UMAE allows the evaluation of the error made by a system thermalhydraulic code when predicting a nuclear power plant transient scenario. The UMS is an international activity proposed with the aim of comparing the basic assumptions and the results produced by five uncertainty methodologies. The transient adopted as the object of the analysis is a small break LOCA performed in the Japanese Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF) previously adopted for International Standard Problem 26. The analysis of ten experiments performed in differently scaled facilities have been used as a basis for extrapolation of the accuracy. The hypothesis at the basis of the methodology and the main steps are discussed. (author)

  17. Closed World Assumption for Disjunctive Reasoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Kewen; ZHOU Lizhu

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the relationship between argumentation and closed world reasoning for disjunctive information is studied. In particular, the authors propose a simple and intuitive generalization of the closed world assumption (CWA) for general disjunctive deductive databases (with default negation). This semantics,called DCWA, allows a natural argumentation-based interpretation and can be used to represent reasoning for disjunctive information. We compare DCWA with GCWA and prove that DCWA extends Minker's GCWA to the class of disjunctive databases with default negation. Also we compare our semantics with some related approaches.In addition, the computational complexity of DCWA is investigated.

  18. Low Dose Effects: Testing the Assumptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our work is to investigate the biological responses of cells and animals to low doses and low dose rates of low linear energy transfer radiation and to compare the results to the predictions of the Linear No-Threshold (LNT) hypothesis. These experiments indicate that at low dose, none of the assumptions of the LNT hypothesis were supported by the data, either in cells or in animals. If these results from human and rodent cells, and from other animals, are applicable to humans, the data further indicate that the use of the LNT hypothesis for radiation protection purposes is not conservative but may actually increase the overall risk of cancer

  19. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrook, Harold D

    1971-01-01

    Basic Electronics is an elementary text designed for basic instruction in electricity and electronics. It gives emphasis on electronic emission and the vacuum tube and shows transistor circuits in parallel with electron tube circuits. This book also demonstrates how the transistor merely replaces the tube, with proper change of circuit constants as required. Many problems are presented at the end of each chapter. This book is comprised of 17 chapters and opens with an overview of electron theory, followed by a discussion on resistance, inductance, and capacitance, along with their effects on t

  20. Basic Backwardness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingartner, Charles

    This paper argues that the "back to basics" movement is regressive and that regression is the characteristic mode of fear-ridden personalities. It is argued that many people in American society today have lost their ability to laugh and do not have the sense of humor which is crucial to a healthy mental state. Such topics as necrophilia, mental…

  1. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a middle-aged woman ... new memories. hypothalmic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis —A brain-body ... stress. impulse —An electrical communication signal sent between neurons ...

  2. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Welcome. Brain Basics provides information on how the brain works, how mental illnesses are disorders of the brain, ... highly developed area at the front of the brain that, in humans, plays a role in executive functions such as ...

  3. Ethanol Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-01-30

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  4. Basic Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luparelli, Augustus N.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    These four articles focus on developing basic reading, science, and job search skills: "Reading Program for Vocational Classes" by Augustus Luparelli; "Why Teach Employability Skills?" by Larry Siefferman; "Improving Vocabulary and Reading Skills" by Edythe Conway; and "Science in Everyday Life" by Virginia Eleazer and George Carney. (SK)

  5. What's Love Got to Do with It? Rethinking Common Sense Assumptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trachman, Matthew; Bluestone, Cheryl

    2005-01-01

    One of the most basic tasks in introductory social science classes is to get students to reexamine their common sense assumptions concerning human behavior. This article introduces a shared assignment developed for a learning community that paired an introductory sociology and psychology class. The assignment challenges students to rethink the…

  6. Mixed metal oxide nanocomposites derived from layered double hydroxides as photocatalysts for C.I. Basic Blue 3 degradation under UV light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezvani, Z.; Sarkarat, M. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Basic Sciences, Azarbaijan University of Shahid Madani,Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khataee, A.R. [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nejati, K. [Chemistry Department, Payame Noor University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    In this research we report synthesis of the heterostructure Mg-Al-Zn mixed metal oxide (ZnO/MMO) nanocomposite photocatalysts derived from Zn(OH){sub 2}/Mg-Al-layered double hydroxides (ZLDHs) precursors. The obtained samples were characterized by the X-ray diffraction (XRD), FT-IR, BET surface area, ICP and TG/DTG methods. The chemical compositions and morphology of the synthesized materials were investigated by the energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and the transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results reveal that at the reaction time 96 h, ZLDH has the highest crystalinity which was confirmed by the X-ray diffraction spectra. The calcined samples at 500, 600 and 700 C for 4 h show that the crystallinity of the nanocomposite improves with the increase of calcination temperature. The photocatalytic activities of synthesized nanocomposites were compared for the degradation of C. I. Basic Blue 3 (BB3) dye under UV illumination in aqueous solution. Among the synthesized nanocomposites, ZnO/MMO calcined at 700 C shows the highest efficiency towards the removal of dye. The effect of UV illumination on the stability of ZnO in ZnO/MMO nanocomposite and pure ZnO was also investigated. The results showed that the photostability of ZnO in ZnO/MMO nanocomposite is increased compared to the pure ZnO. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Catalyst Deactivation: Control Relevance of Model Assumptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernt Lie

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Two principles for describing catalyst deactivation are discussed, one based on the deactivation mechanism, the other based on the activity and catalyst age distribution. When the model is based upon activity decay, it is common to use a mean activity developed from the steady-state residence time distribution. We compare control-relevant properties of such an approach with those of a model based upon the deactivation mechanism. Using a continuous stirred tank reactor as an example, we show that the mechanistic approach and the population balance approach lead to identical models. However, common additional assumptions used for activity-based models lead to model properties that may deviate considerably from the correct one.

  8. Assumptions and Challenges of Open Scholarship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Veletsianos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Researchers, educators, policymakers, and other education stakeholders hope and anticipate that openness and open scholarship will generate positive outcomes for education and scholarship. Given the emerging nature of open practices, educators and scholars are finding themselves in a position in which they can shape and/or be shaped by openness. The intention of this paper is (a to identify the assumptions of the open scholarship movement and (b to highlight challenges associated with the movement’s aspirations of broadening access to education and knowledge. Through a critique of technology use in education, an understanding of educational technology narratives and their unfulfilled potential, and an appreciation of the negotiated implementation of technology use, we hope that this paper helps spark a conversation for a more critical, equitable, and effective future for education and open scholarship.

  9. Wavelet basics

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, Y T

    1995-01-01

    Since the study of wavelets is a relatively new area, much of the research coming from mathematicians, most of the literature uses terminology, concepts and proofs that may, at times, be difficult and intimidating for the engineer. Wavelet Basics has therefore been written as an introductory book for scientists and engineers. The mathematical presentation has been kept simple, the concepts being presented in elaborate detail in a terminology that engineers will find familiar. Difficult ideas are illustrated with examples which will also aid in the development of an intuitive insight. Chapter 1 reviews the basics of signal transformation and discusses the concepts of duals and frames. Chapter 2 introduces the wavelet transform, contrasts it with the short-time Fourier transform and clarifies the names of the different types of wavelet transforms. Chapter 3 links multiresolution analysis, orthonormal wavelets and the design of digital filters. Chapter 4 gives a tour d'horizon of topics of current interest: wave...

  10. Human Praxis: A New Basic Assumption for Art Educators of the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodder, Geoffrey S.

    1980-01-01

    After analyzing Vincent Lanier's five characteristic roles of art education, the article briefly explains the pedagogy of Paulo Freire, based on human praxis, and applies it to the existing "oppresive" art education system. The article reduces Lanier's roles to resemble a single Freirean model. (SB)

  11. Leakage-Resilient Circuits without Computational Assumptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dziembowski, Stefan; Faust, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Physical cryptographic devices inadvertently leak information through numerous side-channels. Such leakage is exploited by so-called side-channel attacks, which often allow for a complete security breache. A recent trend in cryptography is to propose formal models to incorporate leakage into the ......Physical cryptographic devices inadvertently leak information through numerous side-channels. Such leakage is exploited by so-called side-channel attacks, which often allow for a complete security breache. A recent trend in cryptography is to propose formal models to incorporate leakage......: (i) in each observation the leakage is bounded, (ii) different parts of the computation leak independently, and (iii) the randomness that is used for certain operations comes from a simple (non-uniform) distribution. In contrast to earlier work on leakage resilient circuit compilers, which relied...... on computational assumptions, our results are purely information-theoretic. In particular, we do not make use of public key encryption, which was required in all previous works...

  12. Regression Basics

    CERN Document Server

    Kahane, Leo H

    2007-01-01

    Using a friendly, nontechnical approach, the Second Edition of Regression Basics introduces readers to the fundamentals of regression. Accessible to anyone with an introductory statistics background, this book builds from a simple two-variable model to a model of greater complexity. Author Leo H. Kahane weaves four engaging examples throughout the text to illustrate not only the techniques of regression but also how this empirical tool can be applied in creative ways to consider a broad array of topics. New to the Second Edition Offers greater coverage of simple panel-data estimation:

  13. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Tayal, DC

    2010-01-01

    The second edition of this book incorporates the comments and suggestions of my friends and students who have critically studied the first edition. In this edition the changes and additions have been made and subject matter has been rearranged at some places. The purpose of this text is to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date study of the principles of operation of solid state devices, their basic circuits and application of these circuits to various electronic systems, so that it can serve as a standard text not only for universities and colleges but also for technical institutes. This book

  14. Experimental Investigation on the Basic Law of the Fracture Spatial Morphology for Water Pressure Blasting in a Drillhole Under True Triaxial Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bingxiang; Li, Pengfeng

    2015-07-01

    The present literature on the morphology of water pressure blasting fractures in drillholes is not sufficient and does not take triaxial confining stress into account. Because the spatial morphology of water pressure blasting fractures in drillholes is not clear, the operations lack an exact basis. Using a large true triaxial water pressure blasting experimental system and an acoustic emission 3-D positioning system, water pressure blasting experiments on cement mortar test blocks (300 mm × 300 mm × 300 mm) were conducted to study the associated basic law of the fracture spatial morphology. The experimental results show that water pressure blasting does not always generate bubble pulsation. After water pressure blasting under true triaxial stress, a crushed compressive zone and a blasting fracture zone are formed from the inside, with the blasting section of the naked drillhole as the center, to the outside. The shape of the outer edges of the two zones is ellipsoidal. The range of the blasting fracture is large in the radial direction of the drillhole, where the surrounding pressure is large, i.e., the range of the blasting fracture in the drillhole radial cross-section is approximately ellipsoidal. The rock near the drillhole wall is affected by a tensile stress wave caused by the test block boundary reflection, resulting in more flake fractures appearing in the fracturing crack surface in the drillhole axial direction and parallel to the boundary surface. The flake fracture is thin, presenting a small-range flake fracture. The spatial morphology of the water pressure blasting fracture in the drillhole along the axial direction is similar to a wide-mouth Chinese bottle: the crack extent is large near the drillhole orifice, gradually narrows inward along the drillhole axial direction, and then increases into an approximate ellipsoid in the internal naked blasting section. Based on the causes of the crack generation, the blasting cracks are divided into three

  15. BPA review of Washington Public Power Supply System, Projects 1 and 3 (WNP 1 and 3), construction schedule and financing assumptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains the following appendices: Data provided By Supply System Regarding Costs and Schedules; Basic Supply System Data and Assumptions; Detailed Modeling of Net Present Values; Origin and Detailed Description of the System Analysis Mode; Decision Analysis Model; Pro Forma Budget Expenditure Levels for Fiscal years 1984 through 1990; Financial Flexibility Analysis - Discretionary/Nondiscretionary Expenditure Levels; Detailed Analysis of BPA's Debt Structure Under the 13 Pro Forma Budget Scenarios for Fiscal Years 1984 through 1990; Wertheim and Co., Inc., August 30, 1984 Letter; Project Considerations and Licensing/Regulatory Issues, Supply System September 15, 1984 Letter; and Summary of Litigation Affecting WNP 1 and 3, and WNP 4 and 5

  16. Post-traumatic stress and world assumptions: the effects of religious coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukerman, Gil; Korn, Liat

    2014-12-01

    Religiosity has been shown to moderate the negative effects of traumatic event experiences. The current study was designed to examine the relationship between post-traumatic stress (PTS) following traumatic event exposure; world assumptions defined as basic cognitive schemas regarding the world; and self and religious coping conceptualized as drawing on religious beliefs and practices for understanding and dealing with life stressors. This study examined 777 Israeli undergraduate students who completed several questionnaires which sampled individual world assumptions and religious coping in addition to measuring PTS, as manifested by the PTSD check list. Results indicate that positive religious coping was significantly associated with more positive world assumptions, while negative religious coping was significantly associated with more negative world assumptions. Additionally, negative world assumptions were significantly associated with more avoidance symptoms, while reporting higher rates of traumatic event exposure was significantly associated with more hyper-arousal. These findings suggest that religious-related cognitive schemas directly affect world assumptions by creating protective shields that may prevent the negative effects of confronting an extreme negative experience.

  17. Time derivatives of the spectrum: Relaxing the stationarity assumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, G. A.; Thomson, D. J.; Vernon, F. L.

    2005-12-01

    Spectrum analysis of seismic waveforms has played a significant role towards the understanding of multiple aspects of Earth structure and earthquake source physics. In recent years the multitaper spectrum estimation approach (Thomson, 1982) has been applied to geophysical problems providing not only reliable estimates of the spectrum, but also estimates of spectral uncertainties (Thomson and Chave, 1991). However, these improved spectral estimates were developed under the assumption of local stationarity and provide an incomplete description of the observed process. It is obvious that due to the intrinsic attenuation of the Earth, the amplitudes, and thus the frequency contents are changing with time as waves pass through a seismic station. There have been incredible improvements in different techniques to analyze non-stationary signals, including wavelet decomposition, Wigner-Ville spectrum and the dual-frequency spectrum. We apply one of the recently developed techniques, the Quadratic Inverse Theory (Thomson, 1990, 1994), combined with the multitaper technique to look at the time derivatives of the spectrum. If the spectrum is reasonably white in a certain bandwidth, using QI theory, we can estimate the derivatives of the spectrum at each frequency. We test synthetic signals to corroborate the approach and apply it the records of small earthquakes at local distances. This is a first approach to try and combine the classical spectrum analysis without the assumption of stationarity that is generally taken.

  18. DDH-like Assumptions Based on Extension Rings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer, Ronald; Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Kiltz, Eike;

    2011-01-01

    generalized to use instead d-DDH, and we show in the generic group model that d-DDH is harder than DDH. This means that virtually any application of DDH can now be realized with the same (amortized) efficiency, but under a potentially weaker assumption. On the negative side, we also show that d-DDH, just like...... DDH, is easy in bilinear groups. This motivates our suggestion of a different type of assumption, the d-vector DDH problems (VDDH), which are based on f(X)= X^d, but with a twist to avoid the problems with reducible polynomials. We show in the generic group model that VDDH is hard in bilinear groups...... and that in fact the problems become harder with increasing d and hence form an infinite hierarchy. We show that hardness of VDDH implies CCA-secure encryption, efficient Naor-Reingold style pseudorandom functions, and auxiliary input secure encryption, a strong form of leakage resilience. This can be seen...

  19. The zero-sum assumption in neutral biodiversity theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etienne, Rampal S.; Alonso, David; McKane, Alan J.

    2007-01-01

    The neutral theory of biodiversity as put forward by Hubbell in his 2001 monograph has received much criticism for its unrealistic simplifying assumptions. These are the assumptions of functional equivalence among different species (neutrality), the assumption of point mutation speciation, and the a

  20. Inflation Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Dan [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2014-03-01

    inflation since metrical fluctuations, both scalar and tensor, are also produced in inflationary models. Thus, the time appears to be appropriate for a very basic and simple exposition of the inflationary model written from a particle physics perspective. Only the simplest scalar model will be explored because it is easy to understand and contains all the basic elements of the inflationary model.

  1. Finite Element Simulations to Explore Assumptions in Kolsky Bar Experiments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crum, Justin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-05

    The chief purpose of this project has been to develop a set of finite element models that attempt to explore some of the assumptions in the experimental set-up and data reduction of the Kolsky bar experiment. In brief, the Kolsky bar, sometimes referred to as the split Hopkinson pressure bar, is an experimental apparatus used to study the mechanical properties of materials at high strain rates. Kolsky bars can be constructed to conduct experiments in tension or compression, both of which are studied in this paper. The basic operation of the tension Kolsky bar is as follows: compressed air is inserted into the barrel that contains the striker; the striker accelerates towards the left and strikes the left end of the barrel producing a tensile stress wave that propogates first through the barrel and then down the incident bar, into the specimen, and finally the transmission bar. In the compression case, the striker instead travels to the right and impacts the incident bar directly. As the stress wave travels through an interface (e.g., the incident bar to specimen connection), a portion of the pulse is transmitted and the rest reflected. The incident pulse, as well as the transmitted and reflected pulses are picked up by two strain gauges installed on the incident and transmitted bars as shown. By interpreting the data acquired by these strain gauges, the stress/strain behavior of the specimen can be determined.

  2. Assumption tests regarding the ‘narrow’ rectangles dimensions of the open thin wall sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oanta, E.; Panait, C.; Sabau, A.; Barhalescu, M.; Dascalescu, A. E.

    2016-08-01

    Computer based analytic models that use the strength of materials theory are inheriting the accuracy given by the basic simplifying hypotheses. The according assumptions were rationally conceived hundreds of years ago in an age when there was no computing instrument, therefore the minimization of the necessary volume of calculi was an important requirement. An initial study was an attempt to evaluate how ‘thin’ may be the walls of an open section in order to have accurate results using the analytic calculus method. In this initial study there was compared the calculus of the rectangular sections loaded by twisting moments vs. a narrow section under the same load. Being compared analytic methods applied for a simple shape section, a more thorough study was required. In this way, we consider a thin wall open section loaded by a twisting moment, section which is discretized in ‘narrow’ rectangles. The ratio of the sides of the ‘narrow’ rectangles is the variable of the study. We compare the results of the finite element analysis to the results of the analytic method. The conclusions are important for the development of computer based analytic models which use parametrized sections for which different sets of calculus relations may be used.

  3. Universally composable protocols with relaxed set-up assumptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barak, Boaz; Canetti, Ran; Nielsen, Jesper Buus;

    2004-01-01

    -defined distribution. Furthermore, carrying out many interesting tasks in a UC manner and without honest majority or set-up assumptions is impossible, even if ideally authenticated communication is provided. A natural question is thus whether there exist more relaxed set-up assumptions than the CRS model that still...... allow for UC protocols. We answer this question in the affirmative: we propose alternative and relaxed set-up assumptions and show that they suffice for reproducing the general feasibility results for UC protocols in the CRS model. These alternative assumptions have the flavor of a "public...... if the set-up assumption is violated....

  4. Exploring gravitational statistics not based on quantum dynamical assumptions

    CERN Document Server

    Mandrin, P A

    2016-01-01

    Despite considerable progress in several approaches to quantum gravity, there remain uncertainties on the conceptual level. One issue concerns the different roles played by space and time in the canonical quantum formalism. This issue occurs because the Hamilton-Jacobi dynamics is being quantised. The question then arises whether additional physically relevant states could exist which cannot be represented in the canonical form or as a partition function. For this reason, the author has explored a statistical approach (NDA) which is not based on quantum dynamical assumptions and does not require space-time splitting boundary conditions either. For dimension 3+1 and under thermal equilibrium, NDA simplifies to a path integral model. However, the general case of NDA cannot be written as a partition function. As a test of NDA, one recovers general relativity at low curvature and quantum field theory in the flat space-time approximation. Related paper: arxiv:1505.03719.

  5. Decision-Theoretic Planning: Structural Assumptions and Computational Leverage

    CERN Document Server

    Boutilier, C; Hanks, S; 10.1613/jair.575

    2011-01-01

    Planning under uncertainty is a central problem in the study of automated sequential decision making, and has been addressed by researchers in many different fields, including AI planning, decision analysis, operations research, control theory and economics. While the assumptions and perspectives adopted in these areas often differ in substantial ways, many planning problems of interest to researchers in these fields can be modeled as Markov decision processes (MDPs) and analyzed using the techniques of decision theory. This paper presents an overview and synthesis of MDP-related methods, showing how they provide a unifying framework for modeling many classes of planning problems studied in AI. It also describes structural properties of MDPs that, when exhibited by particular classes of problems, can be exploited in the construction of optimal or approximately optimal policies or plans. Planning problems commonly possess structure in the reward and value functions used to describe performance criteria, in the...

  6. Investigating the Assumptions of Uses and Gratifications Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lometti, Guy E.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Discusses a study designed to determine empirically the gratifications sought from communication channels and to test the assumption that individuals differentiate channels based on gratifications. (MH)

  7. On the scope of the Federal Government to issue orders in plan approval procedures under para. 9b of the Atomic Energy Act as provided by article 85 section 3 of the Basic Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under Paragraph 9b of the Atomic Energy Act the Lower Saxonian Minister of the Environment has the competence for the plan approval procedure concerning the final disposal site Konrad. The plan approval procedure under atomic energy law is a unitary administrative procedure which makes further administrative procedures and administrative decisions superfluous on the strength of its unitary character and without impingement on constitutional law. In conducting the plan approval procedure the Lower Saxonican Minister of the Environment is acting within the framework of Laender administration on behalf of the Federation. To this extent he is subject to the orders of the Federal Minister of the Enviroment under Article 85 Section 3 of The Basic Law with respect to the formation of the procedure and procedural decisions as well as decisions on the merits pending. The concentrating effect of the plan approval procedure under atomic energy law also extends to permits under water law. (orig./HSCH)

  8. On the Impact of the Dutch Educational Supervision Act : Analyzing Assumptions Concerning the Inspection of Primary Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehren, Melanie C. M.; Leeuw, Frans L.; Scheerens, Jaap

    2001-01-01

    This article uses a policy scientific approach to reconstruct assumptions underlying the Dutch Educational Supervision Act.We showan example of howto reconstruct and evaluate a program theory that is based on legislation of inspection. The assumptions explain how inspection leads to school improveme

  9. Examining Assumptions and Limitations of Research on the Effects of Emerging Technologies for Teaching and Learning in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood, Adrian; Price, Linda

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines assumptions and beliefs underpinning research into educational technology. It critically reviews some approaches used to investigate the impact of technologies for teaching and learning. It focuses on comparative studies, performance comparisons and attitudinal studies to illustrate how under-examined assumptions lead to…

  10. Impacts of cloud overlap assumptions on radiative budgets and heating fields in convective regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, XiaoCong; Liu, YiMin; Bao, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Impacts of cloud overlap assumptions on radiative budgets and heating fields are explored with the aid of a cloud-resolving model (CRM), which provided cloud geometry as well as cloud micro and macro properties. Large-scale forcing data to drive the CRM are from TRMM Kwajalein Experiment and the Global Atmospheric Research Program's Atlantic Tropical Experiment field campaigns during which abundant convective systems were observed. The investigated overlap assumptions include those that were traditional and widely used in the past and the one that was recently addressed by Hogan and Illingworth (2000), in which the vertically projected cloud fraction is expressed by a linear combination of maximum and random overlap, with the weighting coefficient depending on the so-called decorrelation length Lcf. Results show that both shortwave and longwave cloud radiative forcings (SWCF/LWCF) are significantly underestimated under maximum (MO) and maximum-random (MRO) overlap assumptions, whereas remarkably overestimated under the random overlap (RO) assumption in comparison with that using CRM inherent cloud geometry. These biases can reach as high as 100 Wm- 2 for SWCF and 60 Wm- 2 for LWCF. By its very nature, the general overlap (GenO) assumption exhibits an encouraging performance on both SWCF and LWCF simulations, with the biases almost reduced by 3-fold compared with traditional overlap assumptions. The superiority of GenO assumption is also manifested in the simulation of shortwave and longwave radiative heating fields, which are either significantly overestimated or underestimated under traditional overlap assumptions. The study also pointed out the deficiency of constant assumption on Lcf in GenO assumption. Further examinations indicate that the CRM diagnostic Lcf varies among different cloud types and tends to be stratified in the vertical. The new parameterization that takes into account variation of Lcf in the vertical well reproduces such a relationship and

  11. Special Theory of Relativity without special assumptions and tachyonic motion

    OpenAIRE

    E. Kapuścik

    2010-01-01

    The most general form of transformations of space-time coordinates in Special Theory of Relativity based solely on physical assumptions is described. Only the linearity of space-time transformations and the constancy of the speed of light are used as assumptions. The application to tachyonic motion is indicated.

  12. 40 CFR 761.2 - PCB concentration assumptions for use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false PCB concentration assumptions for use..., AND USE PROHIBITIONS General § 761.2 PCB concentration assumptions for use. (a)(1) Any person may..., oil-filled cable, and rectifiers whose PCB concentration is not established contain PCBs at < 50...

  13. Special Theory of Relativity without special assumptions and tachyonic motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kapuścik

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The most general form of transformations of space-time coordinates in Special Theory of Relativity based solely on physical assumptions is described. Only the linearity of space-time transformations and the constancy of the speed of light are used as assumptions. The application to tachyonic motion is indicated.

  14. Assumptions and Axioms: Mathematical Structures to Describe the Physics of Rigid Bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Butler, Philip H; Renaud, Peter F

    2010-01-01

    This paper challenges some of the common assumptions underlying the mathematics used to describe the physical world. We start by reviewing many of the assumptions underlying the concepts of real, physical, rigid bodies and the translational and rotational properties of such rigid bodies. Nearly all elementary and advanced texts make physical assumptions that are subtly different from ours, and as a result we develop a mathematical description that is subtly different from the standard mathematical structure. Using the homogeneity and isotropy of space, we investigate the translational and rotational features of rigid bodies in two and three dimensions. We find that the concept of rigid bodies and the concept of the homogeneity of space are intrinsically linked. The geometric study of rotations of rigid objects leads to a geometric product relationship for lines and vectors. By requiring this product to be both associative and to satisfy Pythagoras' theorem, we obtain a choice of Clifford algebras. We extend o...

  15. Ways for basic pension subsidy under new rural social endowment insurance system%新型农村社会养老保险基础养老金补助方式分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪东旭

    2012-01-01

      中国新型农村社会养老保险基础养老金实行地区差别性补助政策,对中西部按中央确定的基础养老金标准给予全额补助,对东部给予50%的补助。差别性补助政策总体上是合理的,但是在基础养老金补助额度上将全国划分为东部和中西部两个部分,忽略了各地区内部的差异,划分宏观,影响了财政补助的地区公平性。通过各省(直辖市)新农保财政负担能力定量研究,提出了完善地区差别性补助的政策建议。%  China has carried out the policy of providing different amounts of basic pension to different areas under the New Social Endowment Insurance System for Rural Residents. Citizens in the central and west China can receive the basic pension in full amount while those in the east 50% of the full amount according to the standards determined by the Central Committee of Chinese Communist Party. Generally speaking, the policy of providing different amounts of basic pension to different areas is rea-sonable. But since the amounts of the basic pension differ only between the east, central and west ar-eas, the differences among all Chinese local areas have been neglected and such basic pension provi-sion method appears to be over-macroscopic, leading to regional injustice in the respect of financial aid provision. Through the quantitative research on the financial affordability of all Chinese provinces (mu-nicipalities directly under the Central Government) under the New Social Endowment Insurance System, suggestions are put forward to perfect the policy of providing different amounts of basic pension to dif-ferent areas in China.

  16. What Is This Substance? What Makes It Different? Mapping Progression in Students' Assumptions about Chemical Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngai, Courtney; Sevian, Hannah; Talanquer, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Given the diversity of materials in our surroundings, one should expect scientifically literate citizens to have a basic understanding of the core ideas and practices used to analyze chemical substances. In this article, we use the term 'chemical identity' to encapsulate the assumptions, knowledge, and practices upon which chemical…

  17. 论新形势下高校学习型基层党组织创建%The Establishment of Learning-type Party Organization at the Basic Level under the New Situation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋冰

    2012-01-01

    The basic-level party organization in university is an important component of party's construction.Depending on the university's cultural superiority,the basic party organization in university can manifest the characteristic of learning-type party organization and it should also become the model of the learning-type party organization.The article expounded the necessity and urgency of creating the basic level learning-type party organization the under the new situation,introduced the theoretical origin and connotation of learning-type party organization,pointed out the principles of establishing the basic level learning-type party organization.The article carried out the preliminary discussion on how to establish the basic level learning-type party organization,so as to further promote the development of the party Construction in colleges and universities work.%高校基层党组织是党建的重要组成部分,依托高校的文化优势,更能体现学习型组织的特点,更应该成为建设学习型党组织的表率。文章阐释了新形势下创建高校学习型基层党组织的必要性与迫切性,介绍了学习型党组织的理论渊源与内涵,指明了创建高校学习型基层党组织的原则,对如何创建高校学习型基层党组织进行了初步探讨,以期进一步推动高校党建工作的发展。

  18. Local Large-Scale Structure and the Assumption of Homogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Ryan C.; Barger, Amy J.; Cowie, Lennox L.

    2016-10-01

    Our recent estimates of galaxy counts and the luminosity density in the near-infrared (Keenan et al. 2010, 2012) indicated that the local universe may be under-dense on radial scales of several hundred megaparsecs. Such a large-scale local under-density could introduce significant biases in the measurement and interpretation of cosmological observables, such as the inferred effects of dark energy on the rate of expansion. In Keenan et al. (2013), we measured the K-band luminosity density as a function of distance from us to test for such a local under-density. We made this measurement over the redshift range 0.01 0.07, we measure an increasing luminosity density that by z ~ 0.1 rises to a value of ~ 1.5 times higher than that measured locally. This implies that the stellar mass density follows a similar trend. Assuming that the underlying dark matter distribution is traced by this luminous matter, this suggests that the local mass density may be lower than the global mass density of the universe at an amplitude and on a scale that is sufficient to introduce significant biases into the measurement of basic cosmological observables. At least one study has shown that an under-density of roughly this amplitude and scale could resolve the apparent tension between direct local measurements of the Hubble constant and those inferred by Planck team. Other theoretical studies have concluded that such an under-density could account for what looks like an accelerating expansion, even when no dark energy is present.

  19. H-INFINITY-OPTIMIZATION WITHOUT ASSUMPTIONS ON FINITE OR INFINITE ZEROS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHERER, C

    1992-01-01

    Explicit algebraic conditions are presented for the suboptimality of some parameter in the H(infinity)-optimization problem by output measurement control. Apart from two strict properness conditions, no artificial assumptions restrict the underlying system. In particular, the plant may have zeros on

  20. On the Necessary and Sufficient Assumptions for UC Computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Nielsen, Jesper Buus; Orlandi, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    We study the necessary and sufficient assumptions for universally composable (UC) computation, both in terms of setup and computational assumptions. We look at the common reference string model, the uniform random string model and the key-registration authority model (KRA), and provide new results......-transfer protocol for the stand-alone model. Since a KRA where the secret keys can be computed from the public keys is useless, and some setup assumption is needed for UC secure computation, this establishes the best we could hope for the KRA model: any non-trivial KRA is sufficient for UC computation. •  We show...

  1. Monitored Geologic Repository Life Cycle Cost Estimate Assumptions Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this assumptions document is to provide general scope, strategy, technical basis, schedule and cost assumptions for the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) life cycle cost estimate and schedule update incorporating information from the Viability Assessment (VA), License Application Design Selection (LADS), 1999 Update to the Total System Life Cycle Cost (TSLCC) estimate and from other related and updated information. This document is intended to generally follow the assumptions outlined in the previous MGR cost estimates and as further prescribed by DOE guidance

  2. MONITORED GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY LIFE CYCLE COST ESTIMATE ASSUMPTIONS DOCUMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this assumptions document is to provide general scope, strategy, technical basis, schedule and cost assumptions for the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) life cycle cost (LCC) estimate and schedule update incorporating information from the Viability Assessment (VA) , License Application Design Selection (LADS), 1999 Update to the Total System Life Cycle Cost (TSLCC) estimate and from other related and updated information. This document is intended to generally follow the assumptions outlined in the previous MGR cost estimates and as further prescribed by DOE guidance

  3. Vocational Didactics: Core Assumptions and Approaches from Denmark, Germany, Norway, Spain and Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gessler

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The design of vocational didactics has to meet special requirements. Six core assumptions are identified: outcome orientation, cultural-historical embedding, horizontal structure, vertical structure, temporal structure, and the changing nature of work. Different approaches and discussions from school-based systems (Spain and Sweden and dual systems (Denmark, Germany and Norway are presented in this special issue. From an inside or national perspective, the solutions show a high cultural-historical dependency. From an outside or cross-national perspective, contingency and alternative possibilities become visible. The combination of both perspectives could enable continuity as well as innovation. This is the basic assumption of the presented collection about vocational didactics.

  4. A statistical test of the stability assumption inherent in empirical estimates of economic depreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriver, K A

    1986-01-01

    Realistic estimates of economic depreciation are required for analyses of tax policy, economic growth and production, and national income and wealth. THe purpose of this paper is to examine the stability assumption underlying the econometric derivation of empirical estimates of economic depreciation for industrial machinery and and equipment. The results suggest that a reasonable stability of economic depreciation rates of decline may exist over time. Thus, the assumption of a constant rate of economic depreciation may be a reasonable approximation for further empirical economic analyses.

  5. Supporting calculations and assumptions for use in WESF safetyanalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hey, B.E.

    1997-03-07

    This document provides a single location for calculations and assumptions used in support of Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) safety analyses. It also provides the technical details and bases necessary to justify the contained results.

  6. Distributed automata in an assumption-commitment framework

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Swarup Mohalik; R Ramanujam

    2002-04-01

    We propose a class of finite state systems of synchronizing distributed processes, where processes make assumptions at local states about the state of other processes in the system. This constrains the global states of the system to those where assumptions made by a process about another are compatible with the commitments offered by the other at that state. We model examples like reliable bit transmission and sequence transmission protocols in this framework and discuss how assumption-commitment structure facilitates compositional design of such protocols. We prove a decomposition theorem which states that every protocol specified globally as a finite state system can be decomposed into such an assumption compatible system. We also present a syntactic characterization of this class using top level parallel composition.

  7. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory installation roadmap assumptions document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a composite of roadmap assumptions developed for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) by the US Department of Energy Idaho Field Office and subcontractor personnel as a key element in the implementation of the Roadmap Methodology for the INEL Site. The development and identification of these assumptions in an important factor in planning basis development and establishes the planning baseline for all subsequent roadmap analysis at the INEL

  8. 联考机制下合训学员军事基础素质综合训练实践探索%Joint Training Students' Basic Military Quality Comprehensive Training Practice under Exam Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐海亮; 李嘉森

    2014-01-01

    文章从理论的角度,结合学校实际,对在联考机制下的海军院校合训学员的军事基础综合训练的相关问题进行了初步探索,提出一些思路以供参考。%This article from the perspective of theory, combined with the actual situation of school, college entrance exam system for the Navy under the joint training of military basic trainees comprehensive training issues related to preliminary exploration, put forward some ideas for reference.

  9. Oil price assumptions in macroeconomic forecasts: should we follow future market expectations?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In macroeconomic forecasting, in spite of its important role in price and activity developments, oil prices are usually taken as an exogenous variable, for which assumptions have to be made. This paper evaluates the forecasting performance of futures market prices against the other popular technical procedure, the carry-over assumption. The results suggest that there is almost no difference between opting for futures market prices or using the carry-over assumption for short-term forecasting horizons (up to 12 months), while, for longer-term horizons, they favour the use of futures market prices. However, as futures market prices reflect market expectations for world economic activity, futures oil prices should be adjusted whenever market expectations for world economic growth are different to the values underlying the macroeconomic scenarios, in order to fully ensure the internal consistency of those scenarios. (Author)

  10. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Experts \\ The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Topics Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 Spinal Cord Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation The Basics ...

  11. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Experts \\ The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Topics Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 Spinal Cord Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation The Basics of Spinal Cord ...

  12. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Experts \\ The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Topics Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 Spinal Cord Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation The Basics of ...

  13. Stem Cell Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Stem Cell Basics Stem Cell Basics: Introduction Stem Cell Information General Information Clinical Trials Funding Information Current Research Policy Glossary Site Map Stem Cell Basics Introduction: What are stem cells, and why ...

  14. Homotopy Method for a General Multiobjective Programming Problem under Generalized Quasinormal Cone Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A combined interior point homotopy continuation method is proposed for solving general multiobjective programming problem. We prove the existence and convergence of a smooth homotopy path from almost any interior initial interior point to a solution of the KKT system under some basic assumptions.

  15. What is a god? Metatheistic assumptions in Old Testament Yahwism(s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J W Gericke

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the author provides a prolegomena to further research attempting to answer a most undamental and basic question � much more so than what has thus far been the case in the disciplines of Old Testament theology and history of Israelite religion. It concerns the implicit assumptions in the Hebrew Bible�s discourse about the fundamental nature of deity. In other words, the question is not, �What is� YHWH like?� but rather , �what, according to the Old Testament texts, is a god?�

  16. ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL DERIVATIVES BY MECHANICAL METHOD (Ⅱ)-BASIC EQUATION OF MARKET PRICE OF OPTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    云天铨

    2001-01-01

    The basic equation of market price of option is formulated by taking assumptions based on the characteristics of option and similar method for formulating basic equations in solid mechanics: hv0 (t) = m1 v0-1 (t) -n1 v0 (t) + F , where h, m1 ,n1 , F are constants.The main assumptions are: the ups and downs of market price v0 (t) are determined by supply and demand of the market;the factors, such as the strike price, tenor, volatility, etc.that affect on v0 (t) are demonstrated by using proportion or inverse proportion relation;opposite rules are used for purchasing and selling respectively. The solutions of the basic equation under various conditions are found and are compared with the solution vf (t) of the basic equation of market price of futures. Furthermore the one-one correspondence between vf and v0 (t) is proved by implicit function theorem, which forms the theoretic base for study of vf affecting on the market price of option v0(t) .

  17. The steady-state assumption in oscillating and growing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimers, Alexandra-M; Reimers, Arne C

    2016-10-01

    The steady-state assumption, which states that the production and consumption of metabolites inside the cell are balanced, is one of the key aspects that makes an efficient analysis of genome-scale metabolic networks possible. It can be motivated from two different perspectives. In the time-scales perspective, we use the fact that metabolism is much faster than other cellular processes such as gene expression. Hence, the steady-state assumption is derived as a quasi-steady-state approximation of the metabolism that adapts to the changing cellular conditions. In this article we focus on the second perspective, stating that on the long run no metabolite can accumulate or deplete. In contrast to the first perspective it is not immediately clear how this perspective can be captured mathematically and what assumptions are required to obtain the steady-state condition. By presenting a mathematical framework based on the second perspective we demonstrate that the assumption of steady-state also applies to oscillating and growing systems without requiring quasi-steady-state at any time point. However, we also show that the average concentrations may not be compatible with the average fluxes. In summary, we establish a mathematical foundation for the steady-state assumption for long time periods that justifies its successful use in many applications. Furthermore, this mathematical foundation also pinpoints unintuitive effects in the integration of metabolite concentrations using nonlinear constraints into steady-state models for long time periods. PMID:27363728

  18. What is this Substance? What Makes it Different? Mapping Progression in Students' Assumptions about Chemical Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngai, Courtney; Sevian, Hannah; Talanquer, Vicente

    2014-09-01

    Given the diversity of materials in our surroundings, one should expect scientifically literate citizens to have a basic understanding of the core ideas and practices used to analyze chemical substances. In this article, we use the term 'chemical identity' to encapsulate the assumptions, knowledge, and practices upon which chemical analysis relies. We conceive chemical identity as a core crosscutting disciplinary concept which can bring coherence and relevance to chemistry curricula at all educational levels, primary through tertiary. Although chemical identity is not a concept explicitly addressed by traditional chemistry curricula, its understanding can be expected to evolve as students are asked to recognize different types of substances and explore their properties. The goal of this contribution is to characterize students' assumptions about factors that determine chemical identity and to map how core assumptions change with training in the discipline. Our work is based on the review and critical analysis of existing research findings on students' alternative conceptions in chemistry education, and historical and philosophical analyses of chemistry. From this perspective, our analysis contributes to the growing body of research in the area of learning progressions. In particular, it reveals areas in which our understanding of students' ideas about chemical identity is quite robust, but also highlights the existence of major knowledge gaps that should be filled in to better foster student understanding. We provide suggestions in this area and discuss implications for the teaching of chemistry.

  19. Lightweight Graphical Models for Selectivity Estimation Without Independence Assumptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tzoumas, Kostas; Deshpande, Amol; Jensen, Christian S.

    2011-01-01

    , propagated exponentially, can lead to severely sub-optimal plans. Modern optimizers typically maintain one-dimensional statistical summaries and make the attribute value independence and join uniformity assumptions for efficiently estimating selectivities. Therefore, selectivity estimation errors in today......’s optimizers are frequently caused by missed correlations between attributes. We present a selectivity estimation approach that does not make the independence assumptions. By carefully using concepts from the field of graphical models, we are able to factor the joint probability distribution of all...

  20. Assumptions behind size-based ecosystem models are realistic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ken Haste; Blanchard, Julia L.; Fulton, Elizabeth A.;

    2016-01-01

    A recent publication about balanced harvesting (Froese et al., ICES Journal of Marine Science; doi:10.1093/icesjms/fsv122) contains several erroneous statements about size-spectrum models. We refute the statements by showing that the assumptions pertaining to size-spectrum models discussed...... by Froese et al. are realistic and consistent. We further show that the assumption about density-dependence being described by a stock recruitment relationship is responsible for determining whether a peak in the cohort biomass of a population occurs late or early in life. Finally, we argue...

  1. Catalyst in Basic Oleochemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Suyenty

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently Indonesia is the world largest palm oil producer with production volume reaching 16 million tones per annum. The high crude oil and ethylene prices in the last 3 – 4 years contribute to the healthy demand growth for basic oleochemicals: fatty acids and fatty alcohols. Oleochemicals are starting to replace crude oil derived products in various applications. As widely practiced in petrochemical industry, catalyst plays a very important role in the production of basic oleochemicals. Catalytic reactions are abound in the production of oleochemicals: Nickel based catalysts are used in the hydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids; sodium methylate catalyst in the transesterification of triglycerides; sulfonic based polystyrene resin catalyst in esterification of fatty acids; and copper chromite/copper zinc catalyst in the high pressure hydrogenation of methyl esters or fatty acids to produce fatty alcohols. To maintain long catalyst life, it is crucial to ensure the absence of catalyst poisons and inhibitors in the feed. The preparation methods of nickel and copper chromite catalysts are as follows: precipitation, filtration, drying, and calcinations. Sodium methylate is derived from direct reaction of sodium metal and methanol under inert gas. The sulfonic based polystyrene resin is derived from sulfonation of polystyrene crosslinked with di-vinyl-benzene. © 2007 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.[Presented at Symposium and Congress of MKICS 2007, 18-19 April 2007, Semarang, Indonesia][How to Cite: E. Suyenty, H. Sentosa, M. Agustine, S. Anwar, A. Lie, E. Sutanto. (2007. Catalyst in Basic Oleochemicals. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 2 (2-3: 22-31.  doi:10.9767/bcrec.2.2-3.6.22-31][How to Link/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.2.2-3.6.22-31 || or local: http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/6

  2. Basic principles of concrete structures

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Xianglin; Zhou, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Based on the latest version of designing codes both for buildings and bridges (GB50010-2010 and JTG D62-2004), this book starts from steel and concrete materials, whose properties are very important to the mechanical behavior of concrete structural members. Step by step, analysis of reinforced and prestressed concrete members under basic loading types (tension, compression, flexure, shearing and torsion) and environmental actions are introduced. The characteristic of the book that distinguishes it from other textbooks on concrete structures is that more emphasis has been laid on the basic theories of reinforced concrete and the application of the basic theories in design of new structures and analysis of existing structures. Examples and problems in each chapter are carefully designed to cover every important knowledge point. As a basic course for undergraduates majoring in civil engineering, this course is different from either the previously learnt mechanics courses or the design courses to be learnt. Compa...

  3. Basic research projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-04-01

    The research programs under the cognizance of the Office of Energy Research (OER) are directed toward discovery of natural laws and new knowledge, and to improved understanding of the physical and biological sciences as related to the development, use, and control of energy. The ultimate goal is to develop a scientific underlay for the overall DOE effort and the fundamental principles of natural phenomena so that these phenomena may be understood, and new principles, formulated. The DOE-OER outlay activities include three major programs: High Energy Physics, Nuclear Physics, and Basic Energy Sciences. Taken together, these programs represent some 30 percent of the Nation's Federal support of basic research in the energy sciences. The research activities of OER involve more than 6,000 scientists and engineers working in some 17 major Federal Research Centers and at more than 135 different universities and industrial firms throughout the United States. Contract holders in the areas of high-energy physics, nuclear physics, materials sciences, nuclear science, chemical sciences, engineering, mathematics geosciences, advanced energy projects, and biological energy research are listed. Funding trends for recent years are outlined. (RWR)

  4. Basic research projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research programs under the cognizance of the Office of Energy Research (OER) are directed toward discovery of natural laws and new knowledge, and to improved understanding of the physical and biological sciences as related to the development, use, and control of energy. The ultimate goal is to develop a scientific underlay for the overall DOE effort and the fundamental principles of natural phenomena so that these phenomena may be understood, and new principles, formulated. The DOE-OER outlay activities include three major programs: High Energy Physics, Nuclear Physics, and Basic Energy Sciences. Taken together, these programs represent some 30 percent of the Nation's Federal support of basic research in the energy sciences. The research activities of OER involve more than 6,000 scientists and engineers working in some 17 major Federal Research Centers and at more than 135 different universities and industrial firms throughout the United States. Contract holders in the areas of high-energy physics, nuclear physics, materials sciences, nuclear science, chemical sciences, engineering, mathematics geosciences, advanced energy projects, and biological energy research are listed. Funding trends for recent years are outlined

  5. Monthly values of the standardized precipitation index in the State of São Paulo, Brazil: trends and spectral features under the normality assumption Valores mensais do índice padronizado de precipitação pluvial no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil: tendência e características espectrais sob o pressuposto da normalidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Constantino Blain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe monthly series of the Standardized Precipitation Index obtained from four weather stations of the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The analyses were carried out by evaluating the normality assumption of the SPI distributions, the spectral features of these series and, the presence of climatic trends in these datasets. It was observed that the Pearson type III distribution was better than the gamma 2-parameter distribution in providing monthly SPI series closer to the normality assumption inherent to the use of this standardized index. The spectral analyses carried out in the time-frequency domain did not allow us to establish a dominant mode in the analyzed series. In general, the Mann-Kendall and the Pettitt tests indicated the presence of no significant trend in the SPI series. However, both trend tests have indicated that the temporal variability of this index, observed at the months of October over the last 60 years, cannot be seen as the result of a purely random process. This last inference is due to the concentration of decreasing trends, with a common beginning (1983/84 in the four locations of the study.O objetivo do trabalho foi descrever séries mensais do Índice Padronizado de Precipitação (SPI, obtidas a partir de quatro estações meteorológicas do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil (1951-2010. As análises foram realizadas avaliando-se o pressuposto de normalidade das distribuições do SPI, as características espectrais dessas séries e a presença de tendências climáticas nessas amostras. Observou-se que a distribuição Pearson tipo III foi melhor que a gama 2-parâmetros em prover séries mensais do SPI mais próximas ao pressuposto de normalidade inerente ao uso desse índice padronizado. As análises espectrais realizadas no domínio tempo-frequência não permitiram o estabelecimento de modo (de frequência dominante nas séries analisadas. De forma geral, os testes de Mann-Kendall e

  6. Uncertainty analysis of channel capacity assumptions in large scale hydraulic modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Alexander; Stroud, Rebecca; Willis, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Flood modelling on national or even global scales is of great interest to re/insurers, governments and other agencies. Channel bathymetry data is not available over large areas which is a major limitation to this scale of modelling. It requires expensive channel surveying and the majority of remotely sensed data cannot see through water. Furthermore, channels represented as 1D models, or as an explicit feature in the model domain is computationally demanding, and so it is often necessary to find ways to reduce computational costs. A more efficient methodology is to make assumptions concerning the capacity of the channel, and then to remove this volume from inflow hydrographs. Previous research have shown that natural channels generally conform to carry flow for a 1-in-2 year return period (QMED). This assumption is widely used in large scale modelling studies across the world. However, channels flowing through high-risk areas, such as urban environments, are often modified to increase their capacity and thus reduce flood risk. Simulated flood outlines are potentially very sensitive to assumptions made regarding these capacities. For example, under the 1-in-2 year assumption, the flooding associated with smaller events might be overestimated, with too much flow being modelled as out of bank. There are requirements to; i) quantify the impact of uncertainty in assumed channel capacity on simulated flooded areas, and ii) to develop more optimal capacity assumptions, depending on specific reach characteristics, so that the effects of channel modification can be better represented in future studies. This work will demonstrate findings from a preliminary uncertainty analysis that seeks to address the former requirement. A set of benchmark tests, using 2D hydraulic models, were undertaken where different estimated return period flows in contrasting catchments are modelled with varying channel capacity parameters. The depth and extent for each benchmark model output were

  7. First assumptions and overlooking competing causes of death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Peter Mygind; Andersen, Anh Thao Nguyen

    2014-01-01

    Determining the most probable cause of death is important, and it is sometimes tempting to assume an obvious cause of death, when it readily presents itself, and stop looking for other competing causes of death. The case story presented in the article illustrates this dilemma. The first assumption...

  8. 7 CFR 1779.88 - Transfers and assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... collateral against loss, and has otherwise fulfilled all of the regulations of this part to the best of the... in the best interest of the Agency. (e) Processing transfers and assumptions. (1) In any transfer and... with prior Agency written concurrence and only when the value of the collateral being transferred is...

  9. 7 CFR 3575.88 - Transfers and assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... determines that such waiver is in the best interest of the Agency. (e) Processing transfers and assumptions... collateral being transferred is at least equal to the amount of the loan, or part of the loan, being assumed..., used due diligence to maintain the collateral against loss, and has otherwise fulfilled all of...

  10. 76 FR 10627 - Assumption Buster Workshop: Trust Anchors Are Invulnerable

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-25

    ...) Committee, an interagency working group that coordinates cyber security research activities in support of... strong and often repeated call for research to provide novel cyber security solutions. The rhetoric of... capable, and that re-examining cyber security solutions in the context of these assumptions will result...

  11. The Assumptive World of Three State Policy Researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroufe, Gerald E.

    1985-01-01

    A critique of a research study regarding policy formation at the state level is presented, focusing on the "assumptive world" of the researchers. While the researchers have created a new vista for study in this area, there is a great need for improved mthodology. (CB)

  12. Woman's Moral Development in Search of Philosophical Assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sichel, Betty A.

    1985-01-01

    Examined is Carol Gilligan's thesis that men and women use different moral languages to resolve moral dilemmas, i.e., women speak a language of caring and responsibility, and men speak a language of rights and justice. Her thesis is not grounded with adequate philosophical assumptions. (Author/RM)

  13. Assessment of Complex Performances: Limitations of Key Measurement Assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delandshere, Ginette; Petrosky, Anthony R.

    1998-01-01

    Examines measurement concepts and assumptions traditionally used in educational assessment, using the Early Adolescence/English Language Arts assessment developed for the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards as a context. The use of numerical ratings in complex performance assessment is questioned. (SLD)

  14. Deep Borehole Field Test Requirements and Controlled Assumptions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Ernest [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This document presents design requirements and controlled assumptions intended for use in the engineering development and testing of: 1) prototype packages for radioactive waste disposal in deep boreholes; 2) a waste package surface handling system; and 3) a subsurface system for emplacing and retrieving packages in deep boreholes. Engineering development and testing is being performed as part of the Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT; SNL 2014a). This document presents parallel sets of requirements for a waste disposal system and for the DBFT, showing the close relationship. In addition to design, it will also inform planning for drilling, construction, and scientific characterization activities for the DBFT. The information presented here follows typical preparations for engineering design. It includes functional and operating requirements for handling and emplacement/retrieval equipment, waste package design and emplacement requirements, borehole construction requirements, sealing requirements, and performance criteria. Assumptions are included where they could impact engineering design. Design solutions are avoided in the requirements discussion. Deep Borehole Field Test Requirements and Controlled Assumptions July 21, 2015 iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This set of requirements and assumptions has benefited greatly from reviews by Gordon Appel, Geoff Freeze, Kris Kuhlman, Bob MacKinnon, Steve Pye, David Sassani, Dave Sevougian, and Jiann Su.

  15. Challenging Our Assumptions: Helping a Baby Adjust to Center Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Enid

    2003-01-01

    Contends that assumptions concerning infants' adjustment to child center care need to be tempered with attention to observation, thought, and commitment to each individual baby. Describes the Options Daycare program for pregnant teens and young mothers. Presents a case study illustrating the need for openness in strategy and planning for…

  16. Exploring five common assumptions on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batstra, Laura; Nieweg, Edo H.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2014-01-01

    The number of children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and treated with medication is steadily increasing. The aim of this paper was to critically discuss five debatable assumptions on ADHD that may explain these trends to some extent. These are that ADHD (i) causes de

  17. Assumptions regarding right censoring in the presence of left truncation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jing; Betensky, Rebecca A

    2014-04-01

    Clinical studies using complex sampling often involve both truncation and censoring, where there are options for the assumptions of independence of censoring and event and for the relationship between censoring and truncation. In this paper, we clarify these choices, show certain equivalences, and provide examples.

  18. A Study on "Basic Accounting" Practical Teaching Reform under the Background of Classified Recruitment%大类招生背景下“基础会计”课程实践教学改革研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董丽; 王嘉发; 朱兆林

    2012-01-01

    Under the background of classified recruitment, before the shunt of professional education, the practical teaching of "Basic Accounting" should aim at training students' perceptual knowledge first, assisted with exercising students' accounting ability: According to this goal, this paper constructs a new practical teaching mode of "Basic Accounting", i. e. , "giving priority to the comprehensive practice inside school, assisted with video teaching; occasionally organizing outside visiting, and simulating practical teaching inside school".%在大类招生培养模式下,专业分流前的“基础会计”实践教学目标应体现基础性,以培养学生对会计的感性认识为主,锻炼学生的核算能力为辅。根据这一目标,本文构建了“校内整合实习为主,实践教学影片为辅助,校外参观为点缀,校内模拟实践教学为拓展”的大类招生模式下“基础会计”实践教学模式。

  19. Quantum cryptography in real-life applications: Assumptions and security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yi

    Quantum cryptography, or quantum key distribution (QKD), provides a means of unconditionally secure communication. The security is in principle based on the fundamental laws of physics. Security proofs show that if quantum cryptography is appropriately implemented, even the most powerful eavesdropper cannot decrypt the message from a cipher. The implementations of quantum crypto-systems in real life may not fully comply with the assumptions made in the security proofs. Such discrepancy between the experiment and the theory can be fatal to the security of a QKD system. In this thesis we address a number of these discrepancies. A perfect single-photon source is often assumed in many security proofs. However, a weak coherent source is widely used in a real-life QKD implementation. Decoy state protocols have been proposed as a novel approach to dramatically improve the performance of a weak coherent source based QKD implementation without jeopardizing its security. Here, we present the first experimental demonstrations of decoy state protocols. Our experimental scheme was later adopted by most decoy state QKD implementations. In the security proof of decoy state protocols as well as many other QKD protocols, it is widely assumed that a sender generates a phase-randomized coherent state. This assumption has been enforced in few implementations. We close this gap in two steps: First, we implement and verify the phase randomization experimentally; second, we prove the security of a QKD implementation without the coherent state assumption. In many security proofs of QKD, it is assumed that all the detectors on the receiver's side have identical detection efficiencies. We show experimentally that this assumption may be violated in a commercial QKD implementation due to an eavesdropper's malicious manipulation. Moreover, we show that the eavesdropper can learn part of the final key shared by the legitimate users as a consequence of this violation of the assumptions.

  20. Basic Research Firing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Basic Research Firing Facility is an indoor ballistic test facility that has recently transitioned from a customer-based facility to a dedicated basic research...

  1. Health Insurance Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Health Insurance Basics KidsHealth > For Teens > Health Insurance Basics Print ... advanced calculus was confusing. What Exactly Is Health Insurance? Health insurance is a plan that people buy ...

  2. Climate Change: Basic Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are here: EPA Home Climate Change Basic Information Climate Change: Basic Information On This Page Climate change ... We can make a difference How is the climate changing in the U.S.? Observations across the United ...

  3. Body Basics Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Friend Who Cuts? About the Body Basics Library KidsHealth > For Teens > About the Body Basics Library Print A A A Text Size Did you ... system, part, and process works. Use this medical library to find out about basic human anatomy, how ...

  4. Basic Cake Decorating Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdany, Mel

    Included in this student workbook for basic cake decorating are the following: (1) Drawings of steps in a basic way to ice a layer cake, how to make a paper cone, various sizes of flower nails, various sizes and types of tin pastry tubes, and special rose tubes; (2) recipes for basic decorating icings (buttercream, rose paste, and royal icing);…

  5. Testing Modeling Assumptions in the West Africa Ebola Outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burghardt, Keith; Verzijl, Christopher; Huang, Junming; Ingram, Matthew; Song, Binyang; Hasne, Marie-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The Ebola virus in West Africa has infected almost 30,000 and killed over 11,000 people. Recent models of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) have often made assumptions about how the disease spreads, such as uniform transmissibility and homogeneous mixing within a population. In this paper, we test whether these assumptions are necessarily correct, and offer simple solutions that may improve disease model accuracy. First, we use data and models of West African migration to show that EVD does not homogeneously mix, but spreads in a predictable manner. Next, we estimate the initial growth rate of EVD within country administrative divisions and find that it significantly decreases with population density. Finally, we test whether EVD strains have uniform transmissibility through a novel statistical test, and find that certain strains appear more often than expected by chance. PMID:27721505

  6. Observing gravitational-wave transient GW150914 with minimal assumptions

    OpenAIRE

    Abbott, B.P.; Abbott, R.; Abernathy, M. R.; Adhikari, R. X; Anderson, S. B.; Arai, K; Araya, M. C.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barish, B. C.; Berger, B. K.; Billingsley, G.; Blackburn, J. K.; Bork, R.; Brooks, A. F.; Cahillane, C.

    2016-01-01

    The gravitational-wave signal GW150914 was first identified on September 14, 2015, by searches for short-duration gravitational-wave transients. These searches identify time-correlated transients in multiple detectors with minimal assumptions about the signal morphology, allowing them to be sensitive to gravitational waves emitted by a wide range of sources including binary black hole mergers. Over the observational period from September 12 to October 20, 2015, these transient searches were s...

  7. The sufficiency assumption of the reasoned approach to action

    OpenAIRE

    David Trafimow

    2015-01-01

    The reasoned action approach to understanding and predicting behavior includes the sufficiency assumption. Although variables not included in the theory may influence behavior, these variables work through the variables in the theory. Once the reasoned action variables are included in an analysis, the inclusion of other variables will not increase the variance accounted for in behavioral intentions or behavior. Reasoned action researchers are very concerned with testing if new variables accou...

  8. Persuasion: Reflections on Economics, Data and the 'Homogeneity Assumption'

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Fforde

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses issues to do with the empirical basis of modern economics and points towards the need to look more closely at the ‘homogeneity assumption’ that underpins much economic theory. It argues that severe problems currently prevent economics from becoming more persuasive to both students of economics and those outside the discipline. The issue involves the management of disciplinary boundaries, and excessive use of the ‘homogeneity assumption.’ Three areas of concern are explore...

  9. DDH-Like Assumptions Based on Extension Rings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer, Ronald; Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Kiltz, Eike;

    2012-01-01

    We introduce and study a new type of DDH-like assumptions based on groups of prime order q. Whereas standard DDH is based on encoding elements of $\\mathbb{F}_{q}$ “in the exponent” of elements in the group, we ask what happens if instead we put in the exponent elements of the extension ring $R...... obtain, in fact, an infinite hierarchy of progressively weaker assumptions whose complexities lie “between” DDH and CDH. This leads to a large number of new schemes because virtually all known DDH-based constructions can very easily be upgraded to be based on d-DDH. We use the same construction...... and security proof but get better security and moreover, the amortized complexity (e.g, computation per encrypted bit) is the same as when using DDH. We also show that d-DDH, just like DDH, is easy in bilinear groups. We therefore suggest a different type of assumption, the d-vector DDH problems (d...

  10. Sampling Assumptions Affect Use of Indirect Negative Evidence in Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    A classic debate in cognitive science revolves around understanding how children learn complex linguistic patterns, such as restrictions on verb alternations and contractions, without negative evidence. Recently, probabilistic models of language learning have been applied to this problem, framing it as a statistical inference from a random sample of sentences. These probabilistic models predict that learners should be sensitive to the way in which sentences are sampled. There are two main types of sampling assumptions that can operate in language learning: strong and weak sampling. Strong sampling, as assumed by probabilistic models, assumes the learning input is drawn from a distribution of grammatical samples from the underlying language and aims to learn this distribution. Thus, under strong sampling, the absence of a sentence construction from the input provides evidence that it has low or zero probability of grammaticality. Weak sampling does not make assumptions about the distribution from which the input is drawn, and thus the absence of a construction from the input as not used as evidence of its ungrammaticality. We demonstrate in a series of artificial language learning experiments that adults can produce behavior consistent with both sets of sampling assumptions, depending on how the learning problem is presented. These results suggest that people use information about the way in which linguistic input is sampled to guide their learning. PMID:27310576

  11. Nuclear non-proliferation: Revisiting the basics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1970 Treaty on the Non- Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), with 188 States party, represents the cornerstone of the global nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament effort -- and despite recent challenges, it has never been more relevant than it is today. But if we are to move forward, it is essential to revisit a number of the basic assumptions and features of the existing regime, and consider a number of new approaches. A key assumption at the core of the NPT was that the asymmetry between nuclear-weapon States and non-nuclear-weapon States would gradually disappear. Progress has been made on the nuclear disarmament front, but much more remains to be done. Nuclear disarmament strategies have for the most part focused on the negotiation of bilateral nuclear arms control agreements between the holders of the two largest nuclear arsenals, and a few multilateral agreements designed to curb the quantitative and qualitative development of nuclear weapons. With the end of the Cold War as an impetus, some progress was made in the early and mid-1990s, but the process unfortunately slowed in the latter part of the decade. The discoveries of a clandestine nuclear weapon programme in Iraq after the 1991 Gulf War made it painfully clear that the IAEA verification system, with its focus on declared nuclear activities and its limited rights of access to information and sites, was not adequate for the IAEA to provide the comprehensive peaceful use assurances required under the NPT. This stark realization prompted the international community to significantly expand the IAEA's verification rights. These new rights were incorporated into a 1997 protocol additional to safeguards agreements, with a request for all States to subscribe to it. For the IAEA to provide the required assurances, it must have the required authority. It is clear that the success of the IAEA verification regime will depend heavily on achieving universal adherence to the required safeguards agreements

  12. Experimental data from irradiation of physical detectors disclose weaknesses in basic assumptions of the δ ray theory of track structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, K. J.; Hansen, Jørgen-Walther

    1985-01-01

    to 20200 MeV.cm2.g-1 using ion beams ranging from protons to sulphur ions. The low-LET reference radiations were beams of fast electrons and of 60Co γ rays. At doses well below saturation the two detectors act upon low-LET radiation in close accordance with the theoretical considerations, but at marginal...

  13. Basics of Bayesian Learning - Basically Bayes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan

    Tutorial presented at the IEEE Machine Learning for Signal Processing Workshop 2006, Maynooth, Ireland, September 8, 2006. The tutorial focuses on the basic elements of Bayesian learning and its relation to classical learning paradigms. This includes a critical discussion of the pros and cons...

  14. How can a basic income be defended?

    OpenAIRE

    Allegre, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    Following the submission of 125,000 signatures collected by organizations (including BIEN Suisse) supporting the establishment of a basic income, Swiss citizens will vote in a referendum on a popular initiative to include the principle of an unconditional basic income in the Swiss Federal Constitution. While a basic income, which is defended by Vanderborght and Van Parijs (2005) under the term "universal allocation", can take many forms, its principles are that it is paid (1) on a universal b...

  15. Basic digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Lockhart, Gordon B

    1985-01-01

    Basic Digital Signal Processing describes the principles of digital signal processing and experiments with BASIC programs involving the fast Fourier theorem (FFT). The book reviews the fundamentals of the BASIC program, continuous and discrete time signals including analog signals, Fourier analysis, discrete Fourier transform, signal energy, power. The text also explains digital signal processing involving digital filters, linear time-variant systems, discrete time unit impulse, discrete-time convolution, and the alternative structure for second order infinite impulse response (IIR) sections.

  16. Basic molecular spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Gorry, PA

    1985-01-01

    BASIC Molecular Spectroscopy discusses the utilization of the Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC) programming language in molecular spectroscopy. The book is comprised of five chapters that provide an introduction to molecular spectroscopy through programs written in BASIC. The coverage of the text includes rotational spectra, vibrational spectra, and Raman and electronic spectra. The book will be of great use to students who are currently taking a course in molecular spectroscopy.

  17. Radiation hormesis and the linear-no-threshold assumption

    CERN Document Server

    Sanders, Charles L

    2009-01-01

    Current radiation protection standards are based upon the application of the linear no-threshold (LNT) assumption, which considers that even very low doses of ionizing radiation can cause cancer. The radiation hormesis hypothesis, by contrast, proposes that low-dose ionizing radiation is beneficial. In this book, the author examines all facets of radiation hormesis in detail, including the history of the concept and mechanisms, and presents comprehensive, up-to-date reviews for major cancer types. It is explained how low-dose radiation can in fact decrease all-cause and all-cancer mortality an

  18. On the role of assumptions in cladistic biogeographical analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Charles Morphy Dias dos Santos

    2011-01-01

    The biogeographical Assumptions 0, 1, and 2 (respectively A0, A1 and A2) are theoretical terms used to interpret and resolve incongruence in order to find general areagrams. The aim of this paper is to suggest the use of A2 instead of A0 and A1 in solving uncertainties during cladistic biogeographical analyses. In a theoretical example, using Component Analysis and Primary Brooks Parsimony Analysis (primary BPA), A2 allows for the reconstruction of the true sequence of disjunction events with...

  19. Models for waste life cycle assessment: Review of technical assumptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentil, Emmanuel; Damgaard, Anders; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky;

    2010-01-01

    , such as the functional unit, system boundaries, waste composition and energy modelling. The modelling assumptions of waste management processes, ranging from collection, transportation, intermediate facilities, recycling, thermal treatment, biological treatment, and landfilling, are obviously critical when comparing......A number of waste life cycle assessment (LCA) models have been gradually developed since the early 1990s, in a number of countries, usually independently from each other. Large discrepancies in results have been observed among different waste LCA models, although it has also been shown that results...

  20. Questioning the foundations of physics which of our fundamental assumptions are wrong?

    CERN Document Server

    Foster, Brendan; Merali, Zeeya

    2015-01-01

    The essays in this book look at way in which the fundaments of physics might need to be changed in order to make progress towards a unified theory. They are based on the prize-winning essays submitted to the FQXi essay competition “Which of Our Basic Physical Assumptions Are Wrong?”, which drew over 270 entries. As Nobel Laureate physicist Philip W. Anderson realized, the key to understanding nature’s reality is not anything “magical”, but the right attitude, “the focus on asking the right questions, the willingness to try (and to discard) unconventional answers, the sensitive ear for phoniness, self-deception, bombast, and conventional but unproven assumptions.” The authors of the eighteen prize-winning essays have, where necessary, adapted their essays for the present volume so as to (a) incorporate the community feedback generated in the online discussion of the essays, (b) add new material that has come to light since their completion and (c) to ensure accessibility to a broad audience of re...

  1. The fiscal incidence of provision of free basic water

    OpenAIRE

    Servaas van der Berg; Ada Jansen; Cobus Burger; Eldridge Moses; Hassan Essop

    2009-01-01

    A policy of free basic services (water, sanitation and electricity) was introduced by the government in 2000 to provide basic services to households unable to afford these services. The policy allows for six kilolitres of water free monthly to all households, irrespective of household size or demographics. The assumption was that water consumption is relatively insensitive to the tariff structure, thus alternative tariff structures were applied to obtain the same amount of revenue for unchang...

  2. The contour method cutting assumption: error minimization and correction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prime, Michael B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kastengren, Alan L [ANL

    2010-01-01

    The recently developed contour method can measure 2-D, cross-sectional residual-stress map. A part is cut in two using a precise and low-stress cutting technique such as electric discharge machining. The contours of the new surfaces created by the cut, which will not be flat if residual stresses are relaxed by the cutting, are then measured and used to calculate the original residual stresses. The precise nature of the assumption about the cut is presented theoretically and is evaluated experimentally. Simply assuming a flat cut is overly restrictive and misleading. The critical assumption is that the width of the cut, when measured in the original, undeformed configuration of the body is constant. Stresses at the cut tip during cutting cause the material to deform, which causes errors. The effect of such cutting errors on the measured stresses is presented. The important parameters are quantified. Experimental procedures for minimizing these errors are presented. An iterative finite element procedure to correct for the errors is also presented. The correction procedure is demonstrated on experimental data from a steel beam that was plastically bent to put in a known profile of residual stresses.

  3. On the role of assumptions in cladistic biogeographical analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Morphy Dias dos Santos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The biogeographical Assumptions 0, 1, and 2 (respectively A0, A1 and A2 are theoretical terms used to interpret and resolve incongruence in order to find general areagrams. The aim of this paper is to suggest the use of A2 instead of A0 and A1 in solving uncertainties during cladistic biogeographical analyses. In a theoretical example, using Component Analysis and Primary Brooks Parsimony Analysis (primary BPA, A2 allows for the reconstruction of the true sequence of disjunction events within a hypothetical scenario, while A0 adds spurious area relationships. A0, A1 and A2 are interpretations of the relationships between areas, not between taxa. Since area relationships are not equivalent to cladistic relationships, it is inappropriate to use the distributional information of taxa to resolve ambiguous patterns in areagrams, as A0 does. Although ambiguity in areagrams is virtually impossible to explain, A2 is better and more neutral than any other biogeographical assumption.

  4. Literal grid map models for animal navigation: Assumptions and predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Rebecca M; Walker, Michael M; Postlethwaite, Claire M

    2016-09-01

    Many animals can navigate from unfamiliar locations to a familiar target location with no outward route information or direct sensory contact with the target or any familiar landmarks. Several models have been proposed to explain this phenomenon, one possibility being a literal interpretation of a grid map. In this paper we systematically compare four such models, which we label: Correct Bicoordinate navigation, both Target and Release site based, Approximate Bicoordinate navigation, and Directional navigation. Predictions of spatial patterns of initial orientation errors and efficiencies depend on a combination of assumptions about the navigation mechanism and the geometry of the environmental coordinate fields used as model inputs. When coordinates axes are orthogonal at the target the predictions from the Correct Bicoordinate (Target based) model and Approximate Bicoordinate model are identical. However, if the coordinate axes are non-orthogonal different regional patterns of initial orientation errors and efficiencies can be expected from these two models. Field anomalies produce high magnitudes of orientation errors close to the target, while region-wide nonlinearity leads to orientation errors increasing with distance from the target. In general, initial orientation error patterns are more useful for distinguishing between different assumption combinations than efficiencies. We discuss how consideration of model predictions may be helpful in the design of experiments. PMID:27266672

  5. Halo-Independent Direct Detection Analyses Without Mass Assumptions

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Adam J; Kahn, Yonatan; McCullough, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Results from direct detection experiments are typically interpreted by employing an assumption about the dark matter velocity distribution, with results presented in the $m_\\chi-\\sigma_n$ plane. Recently methods which are independent of the DM halo velocity distribution have been developed which present results in the $v_{min}-\\tilde{g}$ plane, but these in turn require an assumption on the dark matter mass. Here we present an extension of these halo-independent methods for dark matter direct detection which does not require a fiducial choice of the dark matter mass. With a change of variables from $v_{min}$ to nuclear recoil momentum ($p_R$), the full halo-independent content of an experimental result for any dark matter mass can be condensed into a single plot as a function of a new halo integral variable, which we call $\\tilde{h}(p_R)$. The entire family of conventional halo-independent $\\tilde{g}(v_{min})$ plots for all DM masses are directly found from the single $\\tilde{h}(p_R)$ plot through a simple re...

  6. Economic Growth Assumptions in Climate and Energy Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nir Y. Krakauer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The assumption that the economic growth seen in recent decades will continue has dominated the discussion of future greenhouse gas emissions and the mitigation of and adaptation to climate change. Given that long-term economic growth is uncertain, the impacts of a wide range of growth trajectories should be considered. In particular, slower economic growth would imply that future generations will be relatively less able to invest in emissions controls or adapt to the detrimental impacts of climate change. Taking into consideration the possibility of economic slowdown therefore heightens the urgency of reducing greenhouse gas emissions now by moving to renewable energy sources, even if this incurs short-term economic cost. I quantify this counterintuitive impact of economic growth assumptions on present-day policy decisions in a simple global economy-climate model (Dynamic Integrated model of Climate and the Economy (DICE. In DICE, slow future growth increases the economically optimal present-day carbon tax rate and the utility of taxing carbon emissions, although the magnitude of the increase is sensitive to model parameters, including the rate of social time preference and the elasticity of the marginal utility of consumption. Future scenario development should specifically include low-growth scenarios, and the possibility of low-growth economic trajectories should be taken into account in climate policy analyses.

  7. Stable isotopes and elasmobranchs: tissue types, methods, applications and assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, N E; MacNeil, M A; Olin, J A; McMeans, B C; Kinney, M J; Chapman, D D; Fisk, A T

    2012-04-01

    Stable-isotope analysis (SIA) can act as a powerful ecological tracer with which to examine diet, trophic position and movement, as well as more complex questions pertaining to community dynamics and feeding strategies or behaviour among aquatic organisms. With major advances in the understanding of the methodological approaches and assumptions of SIA through dedicated experimental work in the broader literature coupled with the inherent difficulty of studying typically large, highly mobile marine predators, SIA is increasingly being used to investigate the ecology of elasmobranchs (sharks, skates and rays). Here, the current state of SIA in elasmobranchs is reviewed, focusing on available tissues for analysis, methodological issues relating to the effects of lipid extraction and urea, the experimental dynamics of isotopic incorporation, diet-tissue discrimination factors, estimating trophic position, diet and mixing models and individual specialization and niche-width analyses. These areas are discussed in terms of assumptions made when applying SIA to the study of elasmobranch ecology and the requirement that investigators standardize analytical approaches. Recommendations are made for future SIA experimental work that would improve understanding of stable-isotope dynamics and advance their application in the study of sharks, skates and rays. PMID:22497393

  8. Observation vs. Observable: Maximum Likelihood Estimations according to the Assumption of Generalized Gauss and Laplace Distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorentz JÄNTSCHI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The paper aims to investigate the use of maximum likelihood estimation to infer measurement types with their distribution shape. Material and Methods: A series of twenty-eight sets of observed data (different properties and activities were studied. The following analyses were applied in order to meet the aim of the research: precision, normality (Chi-square, Kolmogorov-Smirnov, and Anderson-Darling tests, the presence of outliers (Grubbs’ test, estimation of the population parameters (maximum likelihood estimation under Laplace, Gauss, and Gauss-Laplace distribution assumptions, and analysis of kurtosis (departure of sample kurtosis from the Laplace, Gauss, and Gauss-Laplace population kurtosis. Results: The mean of most investigated sets was likely to be Gauss-Laplace while the standard deviation of most investigated sets of compound was likely to be Gauss. The MLE analysis allowed making assumptions regarding the type of errors in the investigated sets. Conclusions: The proposed procedure proved to be useful in analyzing the shape of the distribution according to measurement type and generated several assumptions regarding their association.

  9. Testing legal assumptions regarding the effects of dancer nudity and proximity to patron on erotic expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linz, D; Blumenthal, E; Donnerstein, E; Kunkel, D; Shafer, B J; Lichtenstein, A

    2000-10-01

    A field experiment was conducted in order to test the assumptions by the Supreme Court in Barnes v. Glen Theatre, Inc. (1991) and the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals in Colacurcio v. City of Kent (1999) that government restrictions on dancer nudity and dancer-patron proximity do not affect the content of messages conveyed by erotic dancers. A field experiment was conducted in which dancer nudity (nude vs. partial clothing) and dancer-patron proximity (4 feet; 6 in.; 6 in. plus touch) were manipulated under controlled conditions in an adult night club. After male patrons viewed the dances, they completed questionnaires assessing affective states and reception of erotic, relational intimacy, and social messages. Contrary to the assumptions of the courts, the results showed that the content of messages conveyed by the dancers was significantly altered by restrictions placed on dancer nudity and dancer-patron proximity. These findings are interpreted in terms of social psychological responses to nudity and communication theories of nonverbal behavior. The legal implications of rejecting the assumptions made by the courts in light of the findings of this study are discussed. Finally, suggestions are made for future research. PMID:11026209

  10. On the ontological assumptions of the medical model of psychiatry: philosophical considerations and pragmatic tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giordano James

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A common theme in the contemporary medical model of psychiatry is that pathophysiological processes are centrally involved in the explanation, evaluation, and treatment of mental illnesses. Implied in this perspective is that clinical descriptors of these pathophysiological processes are sufficient to distinguish underlying etiologies. Psychiatric classification requires differentiation between what counts as normality (i.e.- order, and what counts as abnormality (i.e.- disorder. The distinction(s between normality and pathology entail assumptions that are often deeply presupposed, manifesting themselves in statements about what mental disorders are. In this paper, we explicate that realism, naturalism, reductionism, and essentialism are core ontological assumptions of the medical model of psychiatry. We argue that while naturalism, realism, and reductionism can be reconciled with advances in contemporary neuroscience, essentialism - as defined to date - may be conceptually problematic, and we pose an eidetic construct of bio-psychosocial order and disorder based upon complex systems' dynamics. However we also caution against the overuse of any theory, and claim that practical distinctions are important to the establishment of clinical thresholds. We opine that as we move ahead toward both a new edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, and a proposed Decade of the Mind, the task at hand is to re-visit nosologic and ontologic assumptions pursuant to a re-formulation of diagnostic criteria and practice.

  11. Positivism in Education: Philosophical, Research, and Organizational Assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peca, Kathy

    The basic concepts of the positivistic paradigm are traced historically in this paper from Aristotle through Comte, the Vienna Circle, empiricism, Durkheim, sociobehavioral theory, and organizational theory. Various concepts have been added, deleted, and transformed through positivism's history, but its fundamental basis has remained the same:…

  12. Sugar Cane Genome Numbers Assumption by Ribosomal DNA FISH Techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thumjamras, S.; Jong, de H.; Iamtham, S.; Prammanee, S.

    2013-01-01

    Conventional cytological method is limited for polyploidy plant genome study, especially sugar cane chromosomes that show unstable numbers of each cultivar. Molecular cytogenetic as fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques were used in this study. A basic chromosome number of sugar cane w

  13. Basic Science Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummel, Clete

    These six learning modules were developed for Lake Michigan College's Basic Science Training Program, a workshop to develop good study skills while reviewing basic science. The first module, which was designed to provide students with the necessary skills to study efficiently, covers the following topics: time management; an overview of a study…

  14. Basic Research Objectives Reaffirmed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Haiyan; Zhao Baohua

    2002-01-01

    @@ As a national institution for scientific research and a component of the national innovation system, CAS should and must make key contributions to the great national rejuvenation of the country. Keeping this in mind, CAS has developed four developmental targets for its basic research. This was revealed at a CAS conference on basic research held June 11-12 in Beijing.

  15. Bracken Basic Concept Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naglieri, Jack A.; Bardos, Achilles N.

    1990-01-01

    The Bracken Basic Concept Scale, for use with preschool and primary-aged children, determines a child's school readiness and knowledge of English-language verbal concepts. The instrument measures 258 basic concepts in such categories as comparisons, time, quantity, and letter identification. This paper describes test administration, scoring and…

  16. Exponentiation: A New Basic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Brent

    2015-01-01

    For centuries, the basic operations of school mathematics have been identified as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. Notably, these operations are "basic," not because they are foundational to mathematics knowledge, but because they were vital to a newly industrialized and market-driven economy several hundred years…

  17. Basic Research Needs for Countering Terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, W.; Michalske, T.; Trewhella, J.; Makowski, L.; Swanson, B.; Colson, S.; Hazen, T.; Roberto, F.; Franz, D.; Resnick, G.; Jacobson, S.; Valdez, J.; Gourley, P.; Tadros, M.; Sigman, M.; Sailor, M.; Ramsey, M.; Smith, B.; Shea, K.; Hrbek, J.; Rodacy, P.; Tevault, D.; Edelstein, N.; Beitz, J.; Burns, C.; Choppin, G.; Clark, S.; Dietz, M.; Rogers, R.; Traina, S.; Baldwin, D.; Thurnauer, M.; Hall, G.; Newman, L.; Miller, D.; Kung, H.; Parkin, D.; Shuh, D.; Shaw, H.; Terminello, L.; Meisel, D.; Blake, D.; Buchanan, M.; Roberto, J.; Colson, S.; Carling, R.; Samara, G.; Sasaki, D.; Pianetta, P.; Faison, B.; Thomassen, D.; Fryberger, T.; Kiernan, G.; Kreisler, M.; Morgan, L.; Hicks, J.; Dehmer, J.; Kerr, L.; Smith, B.; Mays, J.; Clark, S.

    2002-03-01

    To identify connections between technology needs for countering terrorism and underlying science issues and to recommend investment strategies to increase the impact of basic research on efforts to counter terrorism.

  18. Testing surrogacy assumptions: can threatened and endangered plants be grouped by biological similarity and abundances?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy P Che-Castaldo

    Full Text Available There is renewed interest in implementing surrogate species approaches in conservation planning due to the large number of species in need of management but limited resources and data. One type of surrogate approach involves selection of one or a few species to represent a larger group of species requiring similar management actions, so that protection and persistence of the selected species would result in conservation of the group of species. However, among the criticisms of surrogate approaches is the need to test underlying assumptions, which remain rarely examined. In this study, we tested one of the fundamental assumptions underlying use of surrogate species in recovery planning: that there exist groups of threatened and endangered species that are sufficiently similar to warrant similar management or recovery criteria. Using a comprehensive database of all plant species listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act and tree-based random forest analysis, we found no evidence of species groups based on a set of distributional and biological traits or by abundances and patterns of decline. Our results suggested that application of surrogate approaches for endangered species recovery would be unjustified. Thus, conservation planning focused on individual species and their patterns of decline will likely be required to recover listed species.

  19. Directed basic research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In its execution, and in the requirement of no other deliverables than knowledge generation, directed basic research is no different from conventional (self-directed) basic research. The selected areas are determined in a national perspective. Directed Basic Research may be in an area where the knowledge generation would benefit Indian Society in the long term, or it may be in an area where the results of the research would benefit Indian Industry or our strategic interests in the long term. India can become a global innovation leader provided we have technology foresight to make the right technology choices, provided we introduce coherent synergy (a phrase I coined a few years back in this context) in our science and technology related activities and provided we establish an effective innovation ecosystem. We must also selectively promote some technology areas through directed basic research. Sustainable economic development in the future requires strong and increased funding of basic research. While directed basic research should be encouraged, self-directed basic research should also receive substantially increased support. (author)

  20. The Effects of Violating the Beta-Binomial Assumption on Huynh's Estimates of Decision Consistency for Mastery Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Shirley H.; And Others

    A computer simulation was undertaken to determine the effects of using Huynh's single-administration estimates of the decision consistency indices for agreement and coefficient kappa, under conditions that violated the beta-binomial assumption. Included in the investigation were two unimodal score distributions that fit the model and two bimodal…

  1. Guideline for Adopting the Local Reaction Assumption for Porous Absorbers in Terms of Random Incidence Absorption Coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2011-01-01

    Room surfaces have been extensively modeled as locally reacting in room acoustic predictions although such modeling could yield significant errors under certain conditions. Therefore, this study aims to propose a guideline for adopting the local reaction assumption by comparing predicted random i...

  2. Commentary: profiling by appearance and assumption: beyond race and ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapién, Robert E

    2010-04-01

    In this issue, Acquaviva and Mintz highlight issues regarding racial profiling in medicine and how it is perpetuated through medical education: Physicians are taught to make subjective determinations of race and/or ethnicity in case presentations, and such assumptions may affect patient care. The author of this commentary believes that the discussion should be broadened to include profiling on the basis of general appearance. The author reports personal experiences as someone who has profiled and been profiled by appearance-sometimes by skin color, sometimes by other physical attributes. In the two cases detailed here, patient care could have been affected had the author not become aware of his practices in such situations. The author advocates raising awareness of profiling in the broader sense through training. PMID:20354369

  3. Cost and Performance Assumptions for Modeling Electricity Generation Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidball, R.; Bluestein, J.; Rodriguez, N.; Knoke, S.

    2010-11-01

    The goal of this project was to compare and contrast utility scale power plant characteristics used in data sets that support energy market models. Characteristics include both technology cost and technology performance projections to the year 2050. Cost parameters include installed capital costs and operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. Performance parameters include plant size, heat rate, capacity factor or availability factor, and plant lifetime. Conventional, renewable, and emerging electricity generating technologies were considered. Six data sets, each associated with a different model, were selected. Two of the data sets represent modeled results, not direct model inputs. These two data sets include cost and performance improvements that result from increased deployment as well as resulting capacity factors estimated from particular model runs; other data sets represent model input data. For the technologies contained in each data set, the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) was also evaluated, according to published cost, performance, and fuel assumptions.

  4. Linear irreversible heat engines based on local equilibrium assumptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumida, Yuki; Okuda, Koji

    2015-08-01

    We formulate an endoreversible finite-time Carnot cycle model based on the assumptions of local equilibrium and constant energy flux, where the efficiency and the power are expressed in terms of the thermodynamic variables of the working substance. By analyzing the entropy production rate caused by the heat transfer in each isothermal process during the cycle, and using the endoreversible condition applied to the linear response regime, we identify the thermodynamic flux and force of the present system and obtain a linear relation that connects them. We calculate the efficiency at maximum power in the linear response regime by using the linear relation, which agrees with the Curzon-Ahlborn (CA) efficiency known as the upper bound in this regime. This reason is also elucidated by rewriting our model into the form of the Onsager relations, where our model turns out to satisfy the tight-coupling condition leading to the CA efficiency.

  5. Experimental assessment of unvalidated assumptions in classical plasticity theory.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brannon, Rebecca Moss (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT); Burghardt, Jeffrey A. (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT); Bauer, Stephen J.; Bronowski, David R.

    2009-01-01

    This report investigates the validity of several key assumptions in classical plasticity theory regarding material response to changes in the loading direction. Three metals, two rock types, and one ceramic were subjected to non-standard loading directions, and the resulting strain response increments were displayed in Gudehus diagrams to illustrate the approximation error of classical plasticity theories. A rigorous mathematical framework for fitting classical theories to the data, thus quantifying the error, is provided. Further data analysis techniques are presented that allow testing for the effect of changes in loading direction without having to use a new sample and for inferring the yield normal and flow directions without having to measure the yield surface. Though the data are inconclusive, there is indication that classical, incrementally linear, plasticity theory may be inadequate over a certain range of loading directions. This range of loading directions also coincides with loading directions that are known to produce a physically inadmissible instability for any nonassociative plasticity model.

  6. Uncovering Metaethical Assumptions in Bioethical Discourse across Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Laura Specker

    2016-03-01

    Much of bioethical discourse now takes place across cultures. This does not mean that cross-cultural understanding has increased. Many cross-cultural bioethical discussions are marked by entrenched disagreement about whether and why local practices are justified. In this paper, I argue that a major reason for these entrenched disagreements is that problematic metaethical commitments are hidden in these cross-cultural discourses. Using the issue of informed consent in East Asia as an example of one such discourse, I analyze two representative positions in the discussion and identify their metaethical commitments. I suggest that the metaethical assumptions of these positions result from their shared method of ethical justification: moral principlism. I then show why moral principlism is problematic in cross-cultural analyses and propose a more useful method for pursuing ethical justification across cultures.

  7. Unconditionally Secure and Universally Composable Commitments from Physical Assumptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Scafuro, Alessandra

    2013-01-01

    We present a constant-round unconditional black-box compiler that transforms any ideal (i.e., statistically-hiding and statistically-binding) straight-line extractable commitment scheme, into an extractable and equivocal commitment scheme, therefore yielding to UC-security [9]. We exemplify...... the usefulness of our compiler by providing two (constant-round) instantiations of ideal straight-line extractable commitment based on (malicious) PUFs [36] and stateless tamper-proof hardware tokens [26], therefore achieving the first unconditionally UC-secure commitment with malicious PUFs and stateless tokens......, respectively. Our constructions are secure for adversaries creating arbitrarily malicious stateful PUFs/tokens. Previous results with malicious PUFs used either computational assumptions to achieve UC-secure commitments or were unconditionally secure but only in the indistinguishability sense [36]. Similarly...

  8. The Impact of Modeling Assumptions in Galactic Chemical Evolution Models

    CERN Document Server

    Côté, Benoit; Ritter, Christian; Herwig, Falk; Venn, Kim A

    2016-01-01

    We use the OMEGA galactic chemical evolution code to investigate how the assumptions used for the treatment of galactic inflows and outflows impact numerical predictions. The goal is to determine how our capacity to reproduce the chemical evolution trends of a galaxy is affected by the choice of implementation used to include those physical processes. In pursuit of this goal, we experiment with three different prescriptions for galactic inflows and outflows and use OMEGA within a Markov Chain Monte Carlo code to recover the set of input parameters that best reproduces the chemical evolution of nine elements in the dwarf spheroidal galaxy Sculptor. Despite their different degrees of intended physical realism, we found that all three prescriptions can reproduce in an almost identical way the stellar abundance trends observed in Sculptor. While the three models have the same capacity to fit the data, the best values recovered for the parameters controlling the number of Type Ia supernovae and the strength of gal...

  9. Validating modelling assumptions of alpha particles in electrostatic turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Wilkie, George; Highcock, Edmund; Dorland, William

    2014-01-01

    To rigorously model fast ions in fusion plasmas, a non-Maxwellian equilibrium distribution must be used. In the work, the response of high-energy alpha particles to electrostatic turbulence has been analyzed for several different tokamak parameters. Our results are consistent with known scalings and experimental evidence that alpha particles are generally well-confined: on the order of several seconds. It is also confirmed that the effect of alphas on the turbulence is negligible at realistically low concentrations, consistent with linear theory. It is demonstrated that the usual practice of using a high-temperature Maxwellian gives incorrect estimates for the radial alpha particle flux, and a method of correcting it is provided. Furthermore, we see that the timescales associated with collisions and transport compete at moderate energies, calling into question the assumption that alpha particles remain confined to a flux surface that is used in the derivation of the slowing-down distribution.

  10. Sequence diversity under the multispecies coalescent with Yule process and constant population size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heled, Joseph

    2012-03-01

    The study of sequence diversity under phylogenetic models is now classic. Theoretical studies of diversity under the Kingman coalescent appeared shortly after the introduction of the coalescent. In this paper we revisit this topic under the multispecies coalescent, an extension of the single population model to multiple populations. We derive exact formulas for the sequence dissimilarity of two sequences drawn at random under a basic multispecies setup. The multispecies model uses three parameters--the species tree birth rate under the pure birth process (Yule), the species effective population size and the mutation rate. We also discuss the effects of relaxing some of the model assumptions.

  11. Halo-independent direct detection analyses without mass assumptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results from direct detection experiments are typically interpreted by employing an assumption about the dark matter velocity distribution, with results presented in the mχ−σn plane. Recently methods which are independent of the DM halo velocity distribution have been developed which present results in the vmin−g-tilde plane, but these in turn require an assumption on the dark matter mass. Here we present an extension of these halo-independent methods for dark matter direct detection which does not require a fiducial choice of the dark matter mass. With a change of variables from vmin to nuclear recoil momentum (pR), the full halo-independent content of an experimental result for any dark matter mass can be condensed into a single plot as a function of a new halo integral variable, which we call h-til-tilde(pR). The entire family of conventional halo-independent g-tilde(vmin) plots for all DM masses are directly found from the single h-tilde(pR) plot through a simple rescaling of axes. By considering results in h-tilde(pR) space, one can determine if two experiments are inconsistent for all masses and all physically possible halos, or for what range of dark matter masses the results are inconsistent for all halos, without the necessity of multiple g-tilde(vmin) plots for different DM masses. We conduct a sample analysis comparing the CDMS II Si events to the null results from LUX, XENON10, and SuperCDMS using our method and discuss how the results can be strengthened by imposing the physically reasonable requirement of a finite halo escape velocity

  12. Halo-independent direct detection analyses without mass assumptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Adam J.; Fox, Patrick J.; Kahn, Yonatan; McCullough, Matthew

    2015-10-01

    Results from direct detection experiments are typically interpreted by employing an assumption about the dark matter velocity distribution, with results presented in the mχ-σn plane. Recently methods which are independent of the DM halo velocity distribution have been developed which present results in the vmin-tilde g plane, but these in turn require an assumption on the dark matter mass. Here we present an extension of these halo-independent methods for dark matter direct detection which does not require a fiducial choice of the dark matter mass. With a change of variables from vmin to nuclear recoil momentum (pR), the full halo-independent content of an experimental result for any dark matter mass can be condensed into a single plot as a function of a new halo integral variable, which we call tilde h(pR). The entire family of conventional halo-independent tilde g(vmin) plots for all DM masses are directly found from the single tilde h(pR) plot through a simple rescaling of axes. By considering results in tilde h(pR) space, one can determine if two experiments are inconsistent for all masses and all physically possible halos, or for what range of dark matter masses the results are inconsistent for all halos, without the necessity of multiple tilde g(vmin) plots for different DM masses. We conduct a sample analysis comparing the CDMS II Si events to the null results from LUX, XENON10, and SuperCDMS using our method and discuss how the results can be strengthened by imposing the physically reasonable requirement of a finite halo escape velocity.

  13. Halo-independent direct detection analyses without mass assumptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Adam J. [Laboratory for Nuclear Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,77 Massachusetts Avenue, Building 26-505, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Fox, Patrick J. [Theoretical Physics Department, MS 106, Fermilab,PO Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510-0500 (United States); Kahn, Yonatan [Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics,Massachusetts Institute of Technology,77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); McCullough, Matthew [Theory Division, CERN,1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2015-10-06

    Results from direct detection experiments are typically interpreted by employing an assumption about the dark matter velocity distribution, with results presented in the m{sub χ}−σ{sub n} plane. Recently methods which are independent of the DM halo velocity distribution have been developed which present results in the v{sub min}−g-tilde plane, but these in turn require an assumption on the dark matter mass. Here we present an extension of these halo-independent methods for dark matter direct detection which does not require a fiducial choice of the dark matter mass. With a change of variables from v{sub min} to nuclear recoil momentum (p{sub R}), the full halo-independent content of an experimental result for any dark matter mass can be condensed into a single plot as a function of a new halo integral variable, which we call h-til-tilde(p{sub R}). The entire family of conventional halo-independent g-tilde(v{sub min}) plots for all DM masses are directly found from the single h-tilde(p{sub R}) plot through a simple rescaling of axes. By considering results in h-tilde(p{sub R}) space, one can determine if two experiments are inconsistent for all masses and all physically possible halos, or for what range of dark matter masses the results are inconsistent for all halos, without the necessity of multiple g-tilde(v{sub min}) plots for different DM masses. We conduct a sample analysis comparing the CDMS II Si events to the null results from LUX, XENON10, and SuperCDMS using our method and discuss how the results can be strengthened by imposing the physically reasonable requirement of a finite halo escape velocity.

  14. Quantum electronics basic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Fain, V M; Sanders, J H

    1969-01-01

    Quantum Electronics, Volume 1: Basic Theory is a condensed and generalized description of the many research and rapid progress done on the subject. It is translated from the Russian language. The volume describes the basic theory of quantum electronics, and shows how the concepts and equations followed in quantum electronics arise from the basic principles of theoretical physics. The book then briefly discusses the interaction of an electromagnetic field with matter. The text also covers the quantum theory of relaxation process when a quantum system approaches an equilibrium state, and explai

  15. Basic stress analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Iremonger, M J

    1982-01-01

    BASIC Stress Analysis aims to help students to become proficient at BASIC programming by actually using it in an important engineering subject. It also enables the student to use computing as a means of learning stress analysis because writing a program is analogous to teaching-it is necessary to understand the subject matter. The book begins by introducing the BASIC approach and the concept of stress analysis at first- and second-year undergraduate level. Subsequent chapters contain a summary of relevant theory, worked examples containing computer programs, and a set of problems. Topics c

  16. On Constructing Basic Framework of the University Internal Control under the Conditions of Centralized Treasury Payment System%国库集中支付条件下高校内部控制基本框架构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司金山

    2012-01-01

    高校作为中央或地方财政预算单位,现已全面实行国库集中支付制度,高校的财务管理也发生了重大变化。国库集中支付制度实行的好坏,很大程度上取决于国库集中支付制度内部控制的好坏。分析了国库制度实行后高校内部控制方面出现的问题,并结合实际情况综合运用COSO框架来构建国库集中支付条件下地方高校内部控制的基本框架,希望以此来完善高校内部控制体系,保障国库集中支付制度在高校有良好实施效果。%Universities as central or local budget unit is now filly implement centralized treasury payment system, bringing about significant changes in the financial management of universities. Whether the result is good or bad depends largely on its internal control. This paper analyzes the university internal control problems in the implementation of the treasury system, using the COSO framework and combining with the actual situation to build the basic framework of the university internal control under the conditions of eentralized treasury payment system in order to improve the college internal control system and to safeguard the implementation of centralized payment system in the universities.

  17. HIV Treatment: The Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV Treatment HIV Treatment: The Basics (Last updated 3/1/2016; last reviewed 3/1/2016) Key Points Antiretroviral therapy (ART) ... reduces the risk of HIV transmission . How do HIV medicines work? HIV attacks and destroys the infection- ...

  18. Understanding Infertility - The Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... here . Basic Infertility Evaluation 450 x 274 | Running Time: 3 min 40 sec Dr. Roger Lobo of ... Causes of Female Infertility 450 x 274 | Running Time: 2 min 35 sec Dr. Roger Lobo, of ...

  19. Basic Information about Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Basic Information about Mercury On this page: What is mercury? Emissions of ... Consumer products that traditionally contain mercury What is Mercury? Mercury is a naturally-occurring chemical element found ...

  20. Brain Basics: Preventing Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... free mailed brochure Cómo Prevenir un Accidente Cerebrovascular Brain Basics: Preventing Stroke Request free mailed brochure Table ... Americans are protecting their most important asset—their brain. Are you? Stroke ranks as the fourth leading ...

  1. Understanding Infertility - The Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Smoking Cessation Links to Professional Societies and Organizations Home › Understanding Infertility - The Basics A series of patient ... Find a Health Care Provider Back to Top Home | About Us | Reproductive Health Topics | News & Publications | Resources ...

  2. EHR/PHR Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues EHR EHR/PHR Basics Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table of ... information to it. With an electronic health record (EHR) or electronic medical record (EMR), your doctor (or ...

  3. Understanding Infertility - The Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Basic Infertility Evaluation 450 x 274 | Running Time: 3 min 40 sec Dr. Roger Lobo of the ... Coping With Infertility 450 x 274 | Running Time: 3 min 31 sec Dr. Roger Lobo of the ...

  4. Video Screen Capture Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This article is an introduction to video screen capture. Basic information of two software programs, QuickTime for Mac and BlueBerry Flashback Express for PC, are also discussed. Practical applications for video screen capture are given.

  5. Basic Financial Accounting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiborg, Karsten

    This textbook on Basic Financial Accounting is targeted students in the economics studies at universities and business colleges having an introductory subject in the external dimension of the company's economic reporting, including bookkeeping, etc. The book includes the following subjects...

  6. Underlying Policy Assumptions of Charter School Reform: The Multiple Meanings of a Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Amy Stuart; Grutzik, Cynthia; Carnochan, Sibyll; Slayton, Julie; Vasudeva, Ash

    1999-01-01

    Based on interviews with state-level policy makers in six states, examines the policies of charter-school reform, arguing that the bipartisan support for these schools masks often-opposing viewpoints regarding the purpose of the reform. Identifies three salient and conflicting themes that emerge from the policy makers' explanations of their…

  7. The Perceptions of High-Level Officers in Cyprus about Intercultural Education and Their Underlying Assumptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajisoteriou, Christina; Neophytou, Lefkios; Angelides, Panayiotis

    2015-01-01

    Since 2004, the Ministry of Education and Culture in Cyprus has launched an educational reform. The Ministry highlighted Cyprus' participation in the European context and, by extension, the turning-into-multicultural character of the Cypriot society as the most important reasons, which necessitated such a reform. This paper seeks to examine…

  8. Relativizing linguistic relativity : Investigating underlying assumptions about language in the neo-Whorfian literature

    OpenAIRE

    Björk, Ingrid

    2008-01-01

    This work concerns the linguistic relativity hypothesis, also known as the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, which, in its most general form claims that ‘lan-guage’ influences ‘thought’. Past studies into linguistic relativity have treated various aspects of both thought and language, but a growing body of literature has recently emerged, in this thesis referred to as neo-Whorfian, that empirically investigates thought and language from a cross-linguistic perspective and claims that the grammar or lexi...

  9. Questioning the Behavioral Assumption Underlying Wigmorean Absolutism in the Law of Evidentiary Privileges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward J. Imwinkelried

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available From society’s perspective, the rules governing privileged communications such as those between a client and his or her attorney are arguably the most important doctrines in evidence law. Most evidentiary doctrines relate to the court’s institutional concerns. By way of example, the best evidence and hearsay rules are largely designed to enhance the reliability of the evidence on which the trier of fact bases his or her findings. The primary impact of these rules is on the in-court behavior of witnesses, attorneys, and judges.

  10. Manifestation of Coupled Geometric Complexity in Urban Road Networks under Mono-Centric Assumption

    CERN Document Server

    Peiravian, Farideddin

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes the complex geometry of urban transportation networks as a gateway to understanding their encompassing urban systems. Using a proposed ring-buffer approach and applying it to 50 urban areas in the United States, we measure road lengths in concentric rings from carefully-selected urban centers and study how the trends evolve as we move away from these centers. Overall, we find that the complexity of urban transportation networks is naturally coupled, consisting of two distinct patterns: (1) a fractal component (i.e., power law) that represent a uniform grid, and (2) a second component that can be exponential, power law, or logarithmic that captures changes in road density. From this second component, we introduce two new indices, density index and decay index, which jointly capture essential characteristics of urban systems and therefore can help us gain new insights into how cities evolve.

  11. Complete Moment Convergence of Weighted Sums for Processes under Asymptotically almost Negatively Associated Assumptions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jun An

    2014-05-01

    For weighted sums of sequences of asymptotically almost negatively associated (AANA) random variables, we study the complete moment convergence by using the Rosenthal type moment in equalities. Our results extend the corresponding ones for sequences of independently identically distributed random variables of Chow [4].

  12. Close-Form Pricing of Benchmark Equity Default Swaps Under the CEV Assumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campi, L.; Sbuelz, A.

    2005-01-01

    Equity Default Swaps are new equity derivatives designed as a product for credit investors.Equipped with a novel pricing result, we provide closedform values that give an analytic contribution to the viability of cross-asset trading related to credit risk.

  13. Basics of Quantum Computation

    OpenAIRE

    Vedral, Vlatko; Martin B. Plenio

    1998-01-01

    Quantum computers require quantum logic, something fundamentally different to classical Boolean logic. This difference leads to a greater efficiency of quantum computation over its classical counter-part. In this review we explain the basic principles of quantum computation, including the construction of basic gates, and networks. We illustrate the power of quantum algorithms using the simple problem of Deutsch, and explain, again in very simple terms, the well known algorithm of Shor for fac...

  14. Observing gravitational-wave transient GW150914 with minimal assumptions

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2016-01-01

    The gravitational-wave signal GW150914 was first identified on Sept 14 2015 by searches for short-duration gravitational-wave transients. These searches identify time-correlated transients in multiple detectors with minimal assumptions aboutthe signal morphology, allowing them to be sensitive to gravitational waves emitted by a wide range of sources including binary black-hole mergers. Over the observational period from September 12th to October 20th 2015, these transient searches were sensitive to binary black-hole mergers similar to GW150914 to an average distance of $\\sim 600$ Mpc. In this paper, we describe the analyses that first detected GW150914 as well as the parameter estimation and waveform reconstruction techniques that initially identified GW150914 as the merger of two black holes. We find that the reconstructed waveform is consistent with the signal from a binary black-hole merger with a chirp mass of $\\sim 30 \\, M_\\odot$ and a total mass before merger of $\\sim 70 \\, M_\\odot$ in the detector fram...

  15. PKreport: report generation for checking population pharmacokinetic model assumptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jun

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Graphics play an important and unique role in population pharmacokinetic (PopPK model building by exploring hidden structure among data before modeling, evaluating model fit, and validating results after modeling. Results The work described in this paper is about a new R package called PKreport, which is able to generate a collection of plots and statistics for testing model assumptions, visualizing data and diagnosing models. The metric system is utilized as the currency for communicating between data sets and the package to generate special-purpose plots. It provides ways to match output from diverse software such as NONMEM, Monolix, R nlme package, etc. The package is implemented with S4 class hierarchy, and offers an efficient way to access the output from NONMEM 7. The final reports take advantage of the web browser as user interface to manage and visualize plots. Conclusions PKreport provides 1 a flexible and efficient R class to store and retrieve NONMEM 7 output, 2 automate plots for users to visualize data and models, 3 automatically generated R scripts that are used to create the plots; 4 an archive-oriented management tool for users to store, retrieve and modify figures, 5 high-quality graphs based on the R packages, lattice and ggplot2. The general architecture, running environment and statistical methods can be readily extended with R class hierarchy. PKreport is free to download at http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/PKreport/index.html.

  16. Nuclear multifragmentation: Basic concepts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Chaudhuri; S Mallik; S Das Gupta

    2014-05-01

    We present a brief overview of nuclear multifragmentation reaction. Basic formalism of canonical thermodynamical model based on equilibrium statistical mechanics is described. This model is used to calculate basic observables of nuclear multifragmentation like mass distribution, fragment multiplicity, isotopic distribution and isoscaling. Extension of canonical thermodynamical model to a projectile fragmentation model is outlined. Application of the projectile fragmentation model for calculating average number of intermediate mass fragments and the average size of the largest cluster at different bound, differential charge distribution and cross-section of neutron-rich nuclei of different projectile fragmentation reactions at different energies are described. Application of nuclear multifragmentation reaction in basic research as well as in other domains is outlined.

  17. Basic Electromagnetism and Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Moliton, André

    2007-01-01

    Basic Electromagnetism and Materials is the product of many years of teaching basic and applied electromagnetism. This textbook can be used to teach electromagnetism to a wide range of undergraduate science majors in physics, electrical engineering or materials science. However, by making lesser demands on mathematical knowledge than competing texts, and by emphasizing electromagnetic properties of materials and their applications, this textbook is uniquely suited to students of materials science. Many competing texts focus on the study of propagation waves either in the microwave or optical domain, whereas Basic Electromagnetism and Materials covers the entire electromagnetic domain and the physical response of materials to these waves. Professor André Moliton is Director of the Unité de Microélectronique, Optoélectronique et Polymères (Université de Limoges, France), which brings together three groups studying the optoelectronics of molecular and polymer layers, micro-optoelectronic systems for teleco...

  18. Decontamination: back to basics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Susan J; Sjorgen, Geoff

    2008-07-01

    My invitation from this Journal's Editor, Felicia Cox, to provide a paper for this themed issue, included the sentence 'I was wondering if you or a colleague would like to contribute a back to basics article on the relevant standards and guidelines for decontamination, including what is compliance?'. The reason it is so interesting to me is that the term 'back to basics' implies reverting to a simpler time in life - when by just sticking to the rules, life became easier. However, with decontamination this is not actually true.

  19. Basic set theory

    CERN Document Server

    Levy, Azriel

    2002-01-01

    An advanced-level treatment of the basics of set theory, this text offers students a firm foundation, stopping just short of the areas employing model-theoretic methods. Geared toward upper-level undergraduate and graduate students, it consists of two parts: the first covers pure set theory, including the basic motions, order and well-foundedness, cardinal numbers, the ordinals, and the axiom of choice and some of it consequences; the second deals with applications and advanced topics such as point set topology, real spaces, Boolean algebras, and infinite combinatorics and large cardinals. An

  20. Basic properties of semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Landsberg, PT

    2013-01-01

    Since Volume 1 was published in 1982, the centres of interest in the basic physics of semiconductors have shifted. Volume 1 was called Band Theory and Transport Properties in the first edition, but the subject has broadened to such an extent that Basic Properties is now a more suitable title. Seven chapters have been rewritten by the original authors. However, twelve chapters are essentially new, with the bulk of this work being devoted to important current topics which give this volume an almost encyclopaedic form. The first three chapters discuss various aspects of modern band theory and the

  1. Comprehensive basic mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Veena, GR

    2005-01-01

    Salient Features As per II PUC Basic Mathematics syllabus of Karnataka. Provides an introduction to various basic mathematical techniques and the situations where these could be usefully employed. The language is simple and the material is self-explanatory with a large number of illustrations. Assists the reader in gaining proficiency to solve diverse variety of problems. A special capsule containing a gist and list of formulae titled ''REMEMBER! Additional chapterwise arranged question bank and 3 model papers in a separate section---''EXAMINATION CORNER''.

  2. The assumption of equilibrium in models of migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachter, J; Althaus, P G

    1993-02-01

    In recent articles Evans (1990) and Harrigan and McGregor (1993) (hereafter HM) scrutinized the equilibrium model of migration presented in a 1989 paper by Schachter and Althaus. This model used standard microeconomics to analyze gross interregional migration flows based on the assumption that gross flows are in approximate equilibrium. HM criticized the model as theoretically untenable, while Evans summoned empirical as well as theoretical objections. HM claimed that equilibrium of gross migration flows could be ruled out on theoretical grounds. They argued that the absence of net migration requires that either all regions have equal populations or that unsustainable regional migration propensities must obtain. In fact some moves are inter- and other are intraregional. It does not follow, however, that the number of interregional migrants will be larger for the more populous region. Alternatively, a country could be divided into a large number of small regions that have equal populations. With uniform propensities to move, each of these analytical regions would experience in equilibrium zero net migration. Hence, the condition that net migration equal zero is entirely consistent with unequal distributions of population across regions. The criticisms of Evans were based both on flawed reasoning and on misinterpretation of the results of a number of econometric studies. His reasoning assumed that the existence of demand shifts as found by Goldfarb and Yezer (1987) and Topel (1986) invalidated the equilibrium model. The equilibrium never really obtains exactly, but economic modeling of migration properly begins with a simple equilibrium model of the system. A careful reading of the papers Evans cited in support of his position showed that in fact they affirmed rather than denied the appropriateness of equilibrium modeling. Zero net migration together with nonzero gross migration are not theoretically incompatible with regional heterogeneity of population, wages, or

  3. Uniform background assumption produces misleading lung EIT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) estimates an image of conductivity change within a body from stimulation and measurement at body surface electrodes. There is significant interest in EIT for imaging the thorax, as a monitoring tool for lung ventilation. To be useful in this application, we require an understanding of if and when EIT images can produce inaccurate images. In this paper, we study the consequences of the homogeneous background assumption, frequently made in linear image reconstruction, which introduces a mismatch between the reference measurement and the linearization point. We show in simulation and experimental data that the resulting images may contain large and clinically significant errors. A 3D finite element model of thorax conductivity is used to simulate EIT measurements for different heart and lung conductivity, size and position, as well as different amounts of gravitational collapse and ventilation-associated conductivity change. Three common linear EIT reconstruction algorithms are studied. We find that the asymmetric position of the heart can cause EIT images of ventilation to show up to 60% undue bias towards the left lung and that the effect is particularly strong for a ventilation distribution typical of mechanically ventilated patients. The conductivity gradient associated with gravitational lung collapse causes conductivity changes in non-dependent lung to be overestimated by up to 100% with respect to the dependent lung. Eliminating the mismatch by using a realistic conductivity distribution in the forward model of the reconstruction algorithm strongly reduces these undesirable effects. We conclude that subject-specific anatomically accurate forward models should be used in lung EIT and extra care is required when analysing EIT images of subjects whose background conductivity distribution in the lungs is known to be heterogeneous or exhibiting large changes. (paper)

  4. Footbridge Response Predictions and Their Sensitivity to Stochastic Load Assumptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars; Frier, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge about footbridges response to actions of walking is important in assessments of vibration serviceability. In a number of design codes for footbridges, the vibration serviceability limit state is assessed using a walking load model in which the walking parameters (step frequency......, pedestrian mass, dynamic load factor, etc.) are modelled deterministically. This is a simplification of matters, as the walking parameters are basically stochastic as they will be different from one pedestrian to the next. The present paper considers a stochastic approach to modelling the action...... of pedestrians for predicting footbridge response, which is meaningful, and a step forward. Modelling walking parameters stochastically, however, requires decisions to be made in terms of their statistical distribution and the parameters describing the statistical distribution. The paper investigates...

  5. Research into basic rocks types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) has carried out research into basic rock types in Finland. The research programme has been implemented in parallel with the preliminary site investigations for radioactive waste disposal in 1991-1993. The program contained two main objectives: firstly, to study the properties of the basic rock types and compare those with the other rock types under the investigation; secondly, to carry out an inventory of rock formations consisting of basic rock types and suitable in question for final disposal. A study of environmental factors important to know regarding the final disposal was made of formations identified. In total 159 formations exceeding the size of 4 km2 were identified in the inventory. Of these formations 97 were intrusive igneous rock types and 62 originally extrusive volcanic rock types. Deposits consisting of ore minerals, industrial minerals or building stones related to these formations were studied. Environmental factors like natural resources, protected areas or potential for restrictions in land use were also studied

  6. 國中教師以學習共同體啟動新學習型態之研究 Adopting a Learning Community in a Junior High School under the 12-Year Basic Education System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    薛雅慈(曉華) Ya-Ci (Hsiao-Hua Selena Hsueh

    2014-03-01

    of learning through a learning community, and numerous schools have participated in this learning community program. The traditional learning style of speaking while students listen is expected to change. In this qualitative study, student experiences and how they changed under the guidance of a learning community were investigated by conducting interviews, and potential problems in the learning method were identified. Five teachers from a junior high school, in which the learning community method was adopted in their classes, participated in this study. The results of positivist analysis indicate that the implementation of a learning community is expected to be a valuable educational method under the 12-Year Basic Education system. Both the researcher and the teachers observed changes in student learning caused by the use of various teaching strategies. Six crucial findings were derived from this research. (1 The methods used by junior high school teachers for promoting collaborative learning in their classes are comprehensive and diversified. (2 Based on the learning community proposed by Professor Manabu Sato, the most widely used method in practice among junior high school teachers is collaborative learning. (3 The collaborative learning technique used by junior high school teachers is typically cooperative learning, which focuses on group discussion and expression rather than on listening, connecting, and referring to the text, as argued by Sato. (4 Regarding junior high school students, the greatest benefit produced by collaborative learning is the cultivation of motivation and teamwork. (5 Inferior students who were previously unacquainted with their classmates attained achievements through collaborative learning. (6 Overall, the teachers enhanced student learning, and changed the learning style of the students in a positive manner.

  7. Basic Drafting: Book Two.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Ronald; And Others

    The second of a two-book course in drafting, this manual consists of 12 topics in the following units: sketching techniques, geometric constructions, orthographic views, dimensioning procedures, basic tolerancing, auxiliary views, sectional views, inking tools and techniques, axonometrics, oblique, perspective, and computer-aided drafting.…

  8. Basic Drafting: Book One.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Ronald; And Others

    The first of a two-book course in drafting, this manual consists of 13 topics in the following units: introduction to drafting, general safety, basic tools and lines, major equipment, applying for a job, media, lettering, reproduction, drawing sheet layout, architect's scale usage, civil engineer's scale usage, mechanical engineer's scale usage,…

  9. Basic Microfluidics Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Winnie Edith

    2015-01-01

    ,000 m−1, which is a huge difference and has a large impact on flow behavior. In this chapter the basic microfluidic theory will be presented, enabling the reader to gain a comprehensive understanding of how liquids behave at the microscale, enough to be able to engage in design of micro systems...

  10. Basic physics for all

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, B N

    2012-01-01

    This is a simple, concise book for both student and non-physics students, presenting basic facts in straightforward form and conveying fundamental principles and theories of physics. This book will be helpful as a supplement to class teaching and to aid those who have difficulty in mastering concepts and principles.

  11. Ethanol Basics (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  12. Hindi Basic Reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harter, J. Martin; And Others

    This reader is intended to accompany the Basic Course in Spoken Hindi. Following an outline of the Devanagari script, 20 lessons are presented. Each consists of a reading selection, several illustrative sentences in English and Hindi, and a series of questions. Most of the reading selections were adapted from the magazine "Bal-Bharati." (RM)

  13. FULA BASIC COURSE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SWIFT, LLOYD B.; AND OTHERS

    THIS BEGINNING COURSE IS AN INTRODUCTION TO FULA (KNOWN VARIOUSLY AS FULANI, FUL, PEUL, OR PHEUL), A NIGER-CONGO LANGUAGE SPOKEN THROUGHOUT THE GRASSLAND AREAS OF WEST AFRICA FROM THE ATLANTIC TO CAMEROUN. THE TEXT IS ONE OF A SERIES OF SHORT BASIC COURSES IN SELECTED AFRICAN LANGUAGES BEING PREPARED BY THE FOREIGN SERVICE INSTITUTE. IT IS…

  14. Basic bioreactor design.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riet, van 't K.; Tramper, J.

    1991-01-01

    Based on a graduate course in biochemical engineering, provides the basic knowledge needed for the efficient design of bioreactors and the relevant principles and data for practical process engineering, with an emphasis on enzyme reactors and aerated reactors for microorganisms. Includes exercises.

  15. Portuguese Basic Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This basic course in Brazilian Portuguese consists of 75 lessons in six volumes. Volume I is in two parts, with the dialogs, questions and exercises presented in Portuguese in the first part, and the intonation patterns and English translations presented in the second. The general format follows the Defense Language Institute format, employing…

  16. IGBO, BASIC COURSE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SWIFT, LLOYD B.; AND OTHERS

    A BASIC COURSE WAS PREPARED ON THE SPEECH OF TWO MEMBERS OF THE EZINEHITE GROUP OF IGBOS IN EASTERN NIGERIA. THE ESSENTIAL PHONOLOGICAL AND GRAMMATICAL STRUCTURES OF IGBO ARE PRESENTED WITHIN A SMALL VOCABULARY OF APPROXIMATELY 600 ITEMS. THE COURSE MATERIALS CONSIST OF (1) TONE DRILLS, (2) 24 UNITS OF DIALOGS, NOTES, AND DRILLS, (3) SIX UNITS OF…

  17. Basic Tuberculosis Facts

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-12

    In this podcast, Dr. Kenneth Castro, Director of the Division of Tuberculosis Elimination, discusses basic TB prevention, testing, and treatment information.  Created: 3/12/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 3/12/2012.

  18. Regularly Controlled Bidirectional Linear Basic Grammars

    OpenAIRE

    Hogendorp, Jan Anne

    1990-01-01

    We investigate the bidirectional application of grammar productions -- i.e., using the productions in the reversed direction too -- to linear basic grammars. As in the case of regularly controlled bidirectional context-free grammars (or RCB grammars), we provide bidirectional linear basic grammars with a regular control language over the rules (i.e., productions and their corresponding reductions). Our main result shows that under the so-called RS/B/f-mode of derivation, bidirectionality give...

  19. School Principals' Assumptions about Human Nature: Implications for Leadership in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabanci, Ali

    2008-01-01

    This article considers principals' assumptions about human nature in Turkey and the relationship between the assumptions held and the leadership style adopted in schools. The findings show that school principals hold Y-type assumptions and prefer a relationship-oriented style in their relations with assistant principals. However, both principals…

  20. Philosophy of Technology Assumptions in Educational Technology Leadership: Questioning Technological Determinism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Mark David

    2013-01-01

    Scholars have emphasized that decisions about technology can be influenced by philosophy of technology assumptions, and have argued for research that critically questions technological determinist assumptions. Empirical studies of technology management in fields other than K-12 education provided evidence that philosophy of technology assumptions,…

  1. Basic method of collecting the data of the crowds under evacuation and its application%人群疏散基础数据采集方法及其应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛晓霞

    2013-01-01

    人群疏散基础数据的采集方法是关系到数据精准程度的关键.根据人群数据特点及数据采集的需要提出了数据采集场地应具备的条件及现场布置的具体方法,指出了最佳观测角度的选取方式和在不同时间段获取基础数据应涵盖的人群特性指标.针对所获取的视频资料,提出了按照行人运动轨迹计算行走距离的方法,并在此基础上进一步规范了行走速度、人流密度和通行系数的数据处理方法.利用该方法分别对某地铁站中的人群在水平通道及楼梯上的速度进行采集.结果表明,该方法所得数据与国外研究数据有较好的一致性.%The paper is to present a basic method we have worked out involving the data collection of the crowd of people evacuated and its application in rescue practice of fire or other accidents.According to the demands of the crowd evacuation characteristics and data acquisition,we have carefully discussed the rationality of the method selection for observation from a definite angle,while pointing out the choice of the observation period.Our study shows that the observation perspective should be chosen and fixed on a position with an open view and a certain changeable height and breadth for a broad-view observation.Once the observation period was decided,close attention should be attached into the basic data which can be acquired from the different observation periods and can cover a variety of the characteristic indexes of the crowd under excavation.In addition,the observation point should be chosen at the top of the observatory area,so as to form a vantage perspective.For example,it is recommended to use a grid of 60 mm × 60 mm to divide the field,so that the data be easy to collect,sort out for prompt analysis.According to the video data that can be obtained on the observation spot,we have adopted the method to work out the passing distances of the evacuated crowd so as to draw their moving

  2. Local Large-Scale Structure and the Assumption of Homogeneity

    CERN Document Server

    Keenan, Ryan C; Cowie, Lennox L

    2014-01-01

    Our recent estimates of galaxy counts and the luminosity density in the near-infrared (Keenan et al. 2010, 2012) indicated that the local universe may be under-dense on radial scales of several hundred megaparsecs (Mpc). Such a large-scale local under-density could introduce significant biases in the measurement and interpretation of cosmological observables, such as the inferred effects of dark energy on the rate of expansion. In Keenan et al. (2013), we measured the K-band luminosity density as a function of distance from us to test for such a local under-density. We made this measurement over the redshift range 0.01 0.07, we measure an increasing luminosity density that by z~ 0.1 rises to a value of ~1.5 times higher than that measured locally. This implies that the stellar mass density follows a similar trend. Assuming that the underlying dark matter distribution is traced by this luminous matter, this suggests that the local mass density may be lower than the global mass density of the universe at an am...

  3. The necessary distinction between methodology and philosophical assumptions in healthcare research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesel, Terje

    2013-09-01

    Methodological discussions within healthcare research have traditionally described a methodological dichotomy between qualitative and quantitative methods. The aim of this article is to demonstrate that such a dichotomy presents unnecessary obstacles for good research design and is methodologically and philosophically unsustainable. The issue of incommensurability is not a question of method but rather a question of the philosophical premises underpinning a given method. Thus, transparency on the philosophical level is important for validity and consistency as well as for attempts to integrate or establish an interface to other research. I argue that it is necessary to make a distinction between methodology and philosophical assumptions and to ensure consistency in these correlations. Furthermore, I argue that the question of incommensurability is best answered at this basic philosophical level. The complexity of health care calls for methodological pluralism and creativity that utilises the strength of both qualitative and quantitative approaches. Transparency and consistency on the philosophical level can facilitate new mixed methods research designs that may be promising methodological assets for healthcare research. I believe we are ill served by fortified positions that continue to uphold old battle lines. Empirical research begins in the field of practice and requires a certain amount of pragmatism. However, this pragmatism must be philosophically informed. PMID:22935081

  4. Indoor Slope and Edge Detection by using Two-Dimensional EKF-SLAM with Orthogonal Assumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jixin Lv

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In an indoor environment, slope and edge detection is an important problem in simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM, which is a basic requirement for mobile robot autonomous navigation. Slope detection allows the robot to find areas that are more traversable while the edge detection can prevent robot from falling. Three-dimensional (3D solutions usually require a large memory and high computational costs. This study proposes an efficient two-dimensional (2D solution to combine slope and edge detection with a line-segment-based extended Kalman filter SLAM (EKF-SLAM in a structured indoor area. The robot is designed to use two fixed 2D laser range finders (LRFs to perform horizontal and vertical scans. With local area orthogonal assumption, the slope and edge are modelled into line segments swiftly from each vertical scan, and then are merged into the EKF-SLAM framework. The EKF-SLAM framework features an optional prediction model that can automatically decide whether the application of iterative closest point (ICP is necessary to compensate for the dead reckoning error. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is capable of building an accurate 2D map swiftly, which contains crucial information of the edge and slope.

  5. The necessary distinction between methodology and philosophical assumptions in healthcare research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesel, Terje

    2013-09-01

    Methodological discussions within healthcare research have traditionally described a methodological dichotomy between qualitative and quantitative methods. The aim of this article is to demonstrate that such a dichotomy presents unnecessary obstacles for good research design and is methodologically and philosophically unsustainable. The issue of incommensurability is not a question of method but rather a question of the philosophical premises underpinning a given method. Thus, transparency on the philosophical level is important for validity and consistency as well as for attempts to integrate or establish an interface to other research. I argue that it is necessary to make a distinction between methodology and philosophical assumptions and to ensure consistency in these correlations. Furthermore, I argue that the question of incommensurability is best answered at this basic philosophical level. The complexity of health care calls for methodological pluralism and creativity that utilises the strength of both qualitative and quantitative approaches. Transparency and consistency on the philosophical level can facilitate new mixed methods research designs that may be promising methodological assets for healthcare research. I believe we are ill served by fortified positions that continue to uphold old battle lines. Empirical research begins in the field of practice and requires a certain amount of pragmatism. However, this pragmatism must be philosophically informed.

  6. Basics of RF electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Gallo, A

    2011-01-01

    RF electronics deals with the generation, acquisition and manipulation of high-frequency signals. In particle accelerators signals of this kind are abundant, especially in the RF and beam diagnostics systems. In modern machines the complexity of the electronics assemblies dedicated to RF manipulation, beam diagnostics, and feedbacks is continuously increasing, following the demands for improvement of accelerator performance. However, these systems, and in particular their front-ends and back-ends, still rely on well-established basic hardware components and techniques, while down-converted and acquired signals are digitally processed exploiting the rapidly growing computational capability offered by the available technology. This lecture reviews the operational principles of the basic building blocks used for the treatment of high-frequency signals. Devices such as mixers, phase and amplitude detectors, modulators, filters, switches, directional couplers, oscillators, amplifiers, attenuators, and others are d...

  7. Basic plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Basudev

    2014-01-01

    Basic Plasma Physics is designed to serve as an introductory compact textbook for advanced undergraduate, postgraduate and research students taking plasma physics as one of their subject of study for the first time. It covers the current syllabus of plasma physics offered by the most universities and technical institutions. The book requires no background in plasma physics but only elementary knowledge of basic physics and mathematics. Emphasis has been given on the analytical approach. Topics are developed from first principle so that the students can learn through self-study. One chapter has been devoted to describe some practical aspects of plasma physics. Each chapter contains a good number of solved and unsolved problems and a variety of review questions, mostly taken from recent examination papers. Some classroom experiments described in the book will surely help students as well as instructors.

  8. Basic linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Blyth, T S

    2002-01-01

    Basic Linear Algebra is a text for first year students leading from concrete examples to abstract theorems, via tutorial-type exercises. More exercises (of the kind a student may expect in examination papers) are grouped at the end of each section. The book covers the most important basics of any first course on linear algebra, explaining the algebra of matrices with applications to analytic geometry, systems of linear equations, difference equations and complex numbers. Linear equations are treated via Hermite normal forms which provides a successful and concrete explanation of the notion of linear independence. Another important highlight is the connection between linear mappings and matrices leading to the change of basis theorem which opens the door to the notion of similarity. This new and revised edition features additional exercises and coverage of Cramer's rule (omitted from the first edition). However, it is the new, extra chapter on computer assistance that will be of particular interest to readers:...

  9. Basic electronic circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Buckley, P M

    1980-01-01

    In the past, the teaching of electricity and electronics has more often than not been carried out from a theoretical and often highly academic standpoint. Fundamentals and basic concepts have often been presented with no indication of their practical appli­ cations, and all too frequently they have been illustrated by artificially contrived laboratory experiments bearing little relationship to the outside world. The course comes in the form of fourteen fairly open-ended constructional experiments or projects. Each experiment has associated with it a construction exercise and an explanation. The basic idea behind this dual presentation is that the student can embark on each circuit following only the briefest possible instructions and that an open-ended approach is thereby not prejudiced by an initial lengthy encounter with the theory behind the project; this being a sure way to dampen enthusiasm at the outset. As the investigation progresses, questions inevitably arise. Descriptions of the phenomena encounte...

  10. Basics of statistical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Müller-Kirsten, Harald J W

    2013-01-01

    Statistics links microscopic and macroscopic phenomena, and requires for this reason a large number of microscopic elements like atoms. The results are values of maximum probability or of averaging. This introduction to statistical physics concentrates on the basic principles, and attempts to explain these in simple terms supplemented by numerous examples. These basic principles include the difference between classical and quantum statistics, a priori probabilities as related to degeneracies, the vital aspect of indistinguishability as compared with distinguishability in classical physics, the differences between conserved and non-conserved elements, the different ways of counting arrangements in the three statistics (Maxwell-Boltzmann, Fermi-Dirac, Bose-Einstein), the difference between maximization of the number of arrangements of elements, and averaging in the Darwin-Fowler method. Significant applications to solids, radiation and electrons in metals are treated in separate chapters, as well as Bose-Eins...

  11. Emulsion Science Basic Principles

    CERN Document Server

    Leal-Calderon, Fernando; Schmitt, Véronique

    2007-01-01

    Emulsions are generally made out of two immiscible fluids like oil and water, one being dispersed in the second in the presence of surface-active compounds.They are used as intermediate or end products in a huge range of areas including the food, chemical, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, paint, and coating industries. Besides the broad domain of technological interest, emulsions are raising a variety of fundamental questions at the frontier between physics and chemistry. This book aims to give an overview of the most recent advances in emulsion science. The basic principles, covering aspects of emulsions from their preparation to their destruction, are presented in close relation to both the fundamental physics and the applications of these materials. The book is intended to help scientists and engineers in formulating new materials by giving them the basics of emulsion science.

  12. Basics of Computer Networking

    CERN Document Server

    Robertazzi, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Springer Brief Basics of Computer Networking provides a non-mathematical introduction to the world of networks. This book covers both technology for wired and wireless networks. Coverage includes transmission media, local area networks, wide area networks, and network security. Written in a very accessible style for the interested layman by the author of a widely used textbook with many years of experience explaining concepts to the beginner.

  13. Basic Financial Accounting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiborg, Karsten

    This textbook on Basic Financial Accounting is targeted students in the economics studies at universities and business colleges having an introductory subject in the external dimension of the company's economic reporting, including bookkeeping, etc. The book includes the following subjects......: business entities, the transformation process, types of businesses, stakeholders, legislation, the annual report, the VAT system, double-entry bookkeeping, inventories, and year-end cast flow analysis....

  14. Risk communication basics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In low-trust, high-concern situations, 50% of your credibility comes from perceived empathy and caring, demonstrated in the first 30 s you come in contact with someone. There is no second chance for a first impression. These and other principles contained in this paper provide you with a basic level of understanding of risk communication. The principles identified are time-tested caveats and will assist you in effectively communicating technical information

  15. Basic concepts in oceanography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic concepts in oceanography include major wind patterns that drive ocean currents, and the effects that the earth's rotation, positions of land masses, and temperature and salinity have on oceanic circulation and hence global distribution of radioactivity. Special attention is given to coastal and near-coastal processes such as upwelling, tidal effects, and small-scale processes, as radionuclide distributions are currently most associated with coastal regions. (author)

  16. Risk communication basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corrado, P.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    In low-trust, high-concern situations, 50% of your credibility comes from perceived empathy and caring, demonstrated in the first 30 s you come in contact with someone. There is no second chance for a first impression. These and other principles contained in this paper provide you with a basic level of understanding of risk communication. The principles identified are time-tested caveats and will assist you in effectively communicating technical information.

  17. Decision support basics

    CERN Document Server

    Power, Daniel J

    2009-01-01

    This book is targeted to busy managers and MBA students who need to grasp the basics of computerized decision support. Some of the topics covered include: What is a DSS? What do managers need to know about computerized decision support? And how can managers identify opportunities to create innovative DSS? Overall the book addresses 35 fundamental questions that are relevant to understanding computerized decision support.

  18. 经济学的理性假设辨析%Analysis on the Rationality Assumption of Economics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李佩; 张宇

    2014-01-01

    理性历来是经济学研究秉持的最基本的行为假设,然而自从其概念诞生以来,经济学家们对它的理解与解释却众说纷纭。理性的框架应界定为:利己性、最优化与偏好一致性。对理性假设应该采取秉持实证主义思想,维持理性假设的态度与措施;当理论与现实矛盾时,谨慎地适当地扩展理论模型或环境假设,扩展的底限是维持理性的内在一致性,上限则取决于理论的一般性与现实性的权衡。%Rationality has always being the most basic behavioral assumption in Economics research. However, since the con-cept was born, economists have proposed lots of understanding and interpretation. Rational framework should be defined as:self-interest, optimization and preferences consistency. Assumption of rational positivism should be taken to uphold the idea of positivism, maintaining a rational assumption that attitudes and measures; when theory and reality contradictions cautiously properly extended theoretical models or environmental assumptions, the bottom line is to maintain a rational extension of inter-nal consistency, the upper limit depending on the general and the reality of trade-off theory.

  19. Error analysis of the converted wave deduced by equivalent velocity assumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Yun; Yin, Junjie; Gao, Xing

    2012-05-01

    Based on the assumption of the equivalent velocity and offset, the converted wave travel-time equation, which has a double square root due to the asymmetric ray-path of the down-going P-wave and the up-coming S-wave, can be transformed into a single square root equation if the common scatterpoint (CSP) gathers are binned. This method simplifies the equation and decreases the errors of converted wave migration transferred by P-wave velocity error, compared to the equivalent offset method (EOM) migration proposed by Bancroft, Geiger and Foltinek . In this paper, the errors caused by the introduction of equivalent velocity for the PS-wave are analysed in detail. The discrete errors and effects introduced by discretization of the equivalent offset are presented, and finally the conditions for applying CSP gathers for PS-wave processing under the control of reasonable error limits are derived.

  20. In the minds of OSCE examiners: uncovering hidden assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahine, Saad; Holmes, Bruce; Kowalewski, Zbigniew

    2016-08-01

    The Objective Structured Clinical Exam (OSCE) is a widely used method of assessment in medical education. Rater cognition has become an important area of inquiry in the medical education assessment literature generally, and in the OSCE literature specifically, because of concerns about potential compromises of validity. In this study, a novel approach to mixed methods that combined Ordinal Logistic Hierarchical Linear Modeling and cognitive interviews was used to gain insights about what examiners were thinking during an OSCE. This study is based on data from the 2010 to 2014 administrations of the Clinician Assessment for Practice Program OSCE for International Medical Graduates (IMGs) in Nova Scotia. An IMG is a physician trained outside of Canada who was a licensed practitioner in a different country. The quantitative data were examined alongside four follow-up cognitive interviews of examiners conducted after the 2014 administration. The quantitative results show that competencies of (1) Investigation and Management and (2) Counseling were highly predictive of the Overall Global score. These competencies were also described in the cognitive interviews as the most salient parts of OSCE. Examiners also found Communication Skills and Professional Behavior to be relevant but the quantitative results revealed these to be less predictive of the Overall Global score. The interviews also reveal that there is a tacit sequence by which IMGs are expected to proceed in an OSCE, starting with more basic competencies such as History Taking and building up to Investigation Management and Counseling. The combined results confirm that a hidden pattern exists with respect to how examiners rate candidates. This study has potential implications for research into rater cognition, and the design and scoring of practice-ready OSCEs. PMID:26661783

  1. Conditions for the validity of the incompressible assumption for the ballooning instability in the long-thin magnetospheric equilibrium

    OpenAIRE

    Miura, Akira

    2000-01-01

    Conditions under which the compressibility can be neglected for the magnetospheric ballooning instability, which arises in the shear Alfvén branch, are clarified in the context of ideal magnetohydrodynamic plasmas and stochastic plasmas by using the normal mode analysis and the energy principle. An expansion in the small parameter, which is equal to the ratio of the ∇⊥ B 0 scale length to the field line curvature radius, shows that the incompressible assumption is valid for the ballooning ins...

  2. Topographic controls on shallow groundwater levels in a steep, prealpine catchment: When are the TWI assumptions valid?

    OpenAIRE

    Rinderer, Michael; H. J. van Meerveld; Seibert, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Topographic indices like the Topographic Wetness Index (TWI) have been used to predict spatial patterns of average groundwater levels and to model the dynamics of the saturated zone during events (e.g., TOPMODEL). However, the assumptions underlying the use of the TWI in hydrological models, of which the most important is that groundwater level variation can be approximated by a series of steady state situations, are rarely tested. It is also not clear how well findings from existing hillslop...

  3. Basic Radar Altimetry Toolbox & Tutorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmorduc, Vinca; Benveniste, Jerome; Breebaart, Leo; Bronner, Emilie; Dinardo, Salvatore; Earith, Didier; Lucas, Bruno Manuel; Niejmeier, Sander; Picot, Nicolas

    2010-12-01

    The Basic Radar Altimetry Toolbox is an "all-altimeter" collection of tools, tutorials and documents designed to facilitate the use of radar altimetry data, including the last mission launched, CryoSat. It has been available from April 2007, and had been demonstrated during training courses and scientific meetings. Nearly 1200 people downloaded it (as of end of June 2010), with many "newcomers" to altimetry among them. Users' feedbacks, developments in altimetry, and practice, showed that new interesting features could be added. Some have been added and/or improved in version 2. Others are ongoing, some are in discussion. The Basic Radar Altimetry Toolbox is able: - to read most distributed radar altimetry data, from ERS-1 & 2, Topex/Poseidon, Geosat Follow-on, Jason- 1, Envisat, Jason- 2, CryoSat and also the future Saral and Sentinel 3 missions, - to perform some processing, data editing and statistic, - and to visualize the results. It can be used at several levels/several ways: - as a data reading tool, with APIs for C, Fortran, Matlab and IDL - as processing/extraction routines, through the on-line command mode - as an educational and a quick-look tool both, with the graphical user interface As part of the Toolbox, a Radar Altimetry Tutorial gives general information about altimetry, the technique involved and its applications, as well as an overview of past, present and future missions, including information on how to access data, additional software and documentation. It also presents a series of data use cases, covering all uses of altimetry over ocean, cryosphere and land, showing the basic methods for some of the most frequent manners of using altimetry data. BRAT is developed under contract with ESA and CNES. It is available at http://www.altimetry.info and http://earth.esa.int/brat/

  4. Electrical installation calculations basic

    CERN Document Server

    Kitcher, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    All the essential calculations required for basic electrical installation workThe Electrical Installation Calculations series has proved an invaluable reference for over forty years, for both apprentices and professional electrical installation engineers alike. The book provides a step-by-step guide to the successful application of electrical installation calculations required in day-to-day electrical engineering practice. A step-by-step guide to everyday calculations used on the job An essential aid to the City & Guilds certificates at Levels 2 and 3Fo

  5. Machine shop basics

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Rex

    2004-01-01

    Use the right tool the right wayHere, fully updated to include new machines and electronic/digital controls, is the ultimate guide to basic machine shop equipment and how to use it. Whether you're a professional machinist, an apprentice, a trade student, or a handy homeowner, this fully illustrated volume helps you define tools and use them properly and safely. It's packed with review questions for students, and loaded with answers you need on the job.Mark Richard Miller is a Professor and Chairman of the Industrial Technology Department at Texas A&M University in Kingsville, T

  6. Basic heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Bacon, D H

    2013-01-01

    Basic Heat Transfer aims to help readers use a computer to solve heat transfer problems and to promote greater understanding by changing data values and observing the effects, which are necessary in design and optimization calculations.The book is concerned with applications including insulation and heating in buildings and pipes, temperature distributions in solids for steady state and transient conditions, the determination of surface heat transfer coefficients for convection in various situations, radiation heat transfer in grey body problems, the use of finned surfaces, and simple heat exc

  7. Basic Verbs of Possession

    OpenAIRE

    Viberg, Åke

    2010-01-01

    Verbs of possession such as HAVE and GIVE have been extensively studied both typologically and from a cognitive linguistic perspective. The present study presents an analysis of possession verbs as a semantic field with a focus on the most basic verbs. It combines a corpus-based contrastive analysis with a sketch of a general lexical typology of possession verbs. The contrastive part consists of an analysis primarily of the Swedish verbs ge ‘give’, få ‘get’ and ta ‘take’ and their corresponde...

  8. Basic structural dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, James C

    2012-01-01

    A concise introduction to structural dynamics and earthquake engineering Basic Structural Dynamics serves as a fundamental introduction to the topic of structural dynamics. Covering single and multiple-degree-of-freedom systems while providing an introduction to earthquake engineering, the book keeps the coverage succinct and on topic at a level that is appropriate for undergraduate and graduate students. Through dozens of worked examples based on actual structures, it also introduces readers to MATLAB, a powerful software for solving both simple and complex structural d

  9. Back to BASICs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The world economy is in a state of flux. While most OECD countries struggle to minimize the damage of the global financial crisis, a few countries maintain positive economic growth rates and are thus changing global power configurations. Among the most important emerging economies for international...... development are the BASIC countries: Brazil, South Africa, India and China. This article analyses why these countries have rejuvenated development cooperation, what they actually do in Africa, and how they do it. It argues that the most important aspect of the rejuvenation of non-traditional donors...

  10. Basic genetics for dermatologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthu Sendhil Kumaran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During the past few decades, advances in the field of molecular genetics have enriched us in understanding the pathogenesis of diseases, their identification, and appropriate therapeutic interventions. In the last 20 years, genetic basis of more than 350 monogenic skin diseases have been elucidated and is counting. The widespread use of molecular genetics as a tool in diagnosis is not practiced routinely due to genetic heterogenicity, limited access and low sensitivity. In this review, we have presented the very basics of genetics so as to enable dermatologists to have working understanding of medical genetics.

  11. Back to basics audio

    CERN Document Server

    Nathan, Julian

    1998-01-01

    Back to Basics Audio is a thorough, yet approachable handbook on audio electronics theory and equipment. The first part of the book discusses electrical and audio principles. Those principles form a basis for understanding the operation of equipment and systems, covered in the second section. Finally, the author addresses planning and installation of a home audio system.Julian Nathan joined the audio service and manufacturing industry in 1954 and moved into motion picture engineering and production in 1960. He installed and operated recording theaters in Sydney, Austra

  12. 新形势下院系教务干事的基本素质和队伍建设%The basic quality and team construction of teaching secretary under new situation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓伟宁

    2013-01-01

    Teaching secretary plays an important role in the teaching management of higher schools, this paper expounds the basic qualities in the new situation, as well as the effective way to strengthen the team construction of college teaching secretary.%教务干事在高等学校教学管理工作中具有极其重要的作用,本文阐述了在新形势下应具备的基本素质,以及加强院系教务干事队伍建设的有效途径。

  13. Immobilization of L-Lysine on Zeolite 4A as an Organic-Inorganic Composite Basic Catalyst for Synthesis of α,β-Unsaturated Carbonyl Compounds under Mild Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamani, Farzad; Rezapour, Mehdi; Kianpour, Sahar [Islamic Azad Univ., Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    Lysine (Lys) immobilized on zeolite 4A was prepared by a simple adsorption method. The physical and chemical properties of Lys/zeolite 4A were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), FT-IR, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-vis. The obtained organic-inorganic composite was effectively employed as a heterogeneous basic catalyst for synthesis of α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds. No by-product formation, high yields, short reaction times, mild reaction conditions, operational simplicity with reusability of the catalyst are the salient features of the present catalyst.

  14. Basic and clinical immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinen, Javier; Shearer, William T.

    2003-01-01

    Progress in immunology continues to grow exponentially every year. New applications of this knowledge are being developed for a broad range of clinical conditions. Conversely, the study of primary and secondary immunodeficiencies is helping to elucidate the intricate mechanisms of the immune system. We have selected a few of the most significant contributions to the fields of basic and clinical immunology published between October 2001 and October 2002. Our choice of topics in basic immunology included the description of T-bet as a determinant factor for T(H)1 differentiation, the role of the activation-induced cytosine deaminase gene in B-cell development, the characterization of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells, and the use of dynamic imaging to study MHC class II transport and T-cell and dendritic cell membrane interactions. Articles related to clinical immunology that were selected for review include the description of immunodeficiency caused by caspase 8 deficiency; a case series report on X-linked agammaglobulinemia; the mechanism of action, efficacy, and complications of intravenous immunoglobulin; mechanisms of autoimmunity diseases; and advances in HIV pathogenesis and vaccine development. We also reviewed two articles that explore the possible alterations of the immune system caused by spaceflights, a new field with increasing importance as human space expeditions become a reality in the 21st century.

  15. On basic equation of statistical physics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢修三

    1996-01-01

    Considering that thermodynamic irreversibility, the principle of entropy increase and hydrodynamic equations cannot be derived rigorously and in a unified way from the Liouville equations, the anomalous Langevin equation in Liouville space or its equivalent generalized Liouville equation is proposed as a basic equation of statistical physics. This equation reflects the fact that the law of motion of statistical thermodynamics is stochastic, but not deterministic. From that the nonequilibrium entropy, the principle of entropy increase, the theorem of minimum entropy production and the BBGKY diffusion equation hierarchy have been derived. The hydrodynamic equations, such as the generalized Navier-Stokes equation and the mass drift-diffusion equation, etc. have been derived from the BBGKY diffusion equation hierarchy. This equation has the same equilibrium solution as that of the Liouville equation. All these are unified and rigorous without adding any extra assumption. But it is difficult to prove that th

  16. CRITICAL ASSUMPTIONS IN THE F-TANK FARM CLOSURE OPERATIONAL DOCUMENTATION REGARDING WASTE TANK INTERNAL CONFIGURATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hommel, S.; Fountain, D.

    2012-03-28

    The intent of this document is to provide clarification of critical assumptions regarding the internal configurations of liquid waste tanks at operational closure, with respect to F-Tank Farm (FTF) closure documentation. For the purposes of this document, FTF closure documentation includes: (1) Performance Assessment for the F-Tank Farm at the Savannah River Site (hereafter referred to as the FTF PA) (SRS-REG-2007-00002), (2) Basis for Section 3116 Determination for Closure of F-Tank Farm at the Savannah River Site (DOE/SRS-WD-2012-001), (3) Tier 1 Closure Plan for the F-Area Waste Tank Systems at the Savannah River Site (SRR-CWDA-2010-00147), (4) F-Tank Farm Tanks 18 and 19 DOE Manual 435.1-1 Tier 2 Closure Plan Savannah River Site (SRR-CWDA-2011-00015), (5) Industrial Wastewater Closure Module for the Liquid Waste Tanks 18 and 19 (SRRCWDA-2010-00003), and (6) Tank 18/Tank 19 Special Analysis for the Performance Assessment for the F-Tank Farm at the Savannah River Site (hereafter referred to as the Tank 18/Tank 19 Special Analysis) (SRR-CWDA-2010-00124). Note that the first three FTF closure documents listed apply to the entire FTF, whereas the last three FTF closure documents listed are specific to Tanks 18 and 19. These two waste tanks are expected to be the first two tanks to be grouted and operationally closed under the current suite of FTF closure documents and many of the assumptions and approaches that apply to these two tanks are also applicable to the other FTF waste tanks and operational closure processes.

  17. Cost Sharing in Medicaid: Assumptions, Evidence, and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Victoria; Saloner, Brendan; Sabik, Lindsay M

    2016-08-01

    Several states have received waivers to expand Medicaid to poor adults under the Affordable Care Act using more cost sharing than the program traditionally allows. We synthesize literature on the effects of cost sharing, focusing on studies of low-income U.S. populations from 1995 to 2014. Literature suggests that cost sharing has a deterrent effect on initiation of treatments, and can reduce utilization of ongoing treatments. Furthermore, cost sharing may be difficult for low-income populations to understand, patients often lack sufficient information to choose medical treatment, and cost sharing may be difficult to balance within the budgets of poor adults. Gaps in the literature include evidence of long-term effects of cost sharing on health and financial well-being, evidence related to effectiveness of cost sharing combined with patient education, and evidence related to targeted programs that use financial incentives for wellness. Literature underscores the need for evaluation of the effects of cost sharing on health status and spending, particularly among the poorest adults. PMID:26602175

  18. Foundations, fallacies, and assumptions of science for livestock in development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecular genetics is a new scientific discipline offering the technology to transfer exotic genes into livestock species. Scientific and business interests aim to apply this technology in the near future to make genetically modified (GM) livestock for the food chain. In Europe there is a strong move by citizens against milk and meat products from GM livestock. The possibility of using the technology on livestock in the developing world is under consideration as advocates claim that it would be a major contributor to world food security. This paper presents the opposite view. There are several sets of reasons against using this new technology at this time that are explored here. First, scientific knowledge of the mammalian genome is inadequate and a vast amount of research is needed before success will be ensured without negative consequences for humans and animals. Second, livestock are an essential resource for survival of billions of rural poor in the developing world and they should not be exposed to risk. Third, ethical considerations are not evident but are essential because the plans are so radical and affect public interest at many levels. Scientists today show lack of wisdom in failing to see the consequences of using their limited knowledge. Reasons for this absence of wisdom are explored in a brief review of the historic development of science. Livestock scientists need to learn lessons from the sagas of GM crops and mad cow disease (BSE). Other ways to empower the poor to increase food security are described. Scientists are urged to continue research and to seek a moratorium against GM livestock being used for food until objective and tested results enable stakeholders to decide. (author)

  19. Basic real analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Sohrab, Houshang H

    2014-01-01

    This expanded second edition presents the fundamentals and touchstone results of real analysis in full rigor, but in a style that requires little prior familiarity with proofs or mathematical language. The text is a comprehensive and largely self-contained introduction to the theory of real-valued functions of a real variable. The chapters on Lebesgue measure and integral have been rewritten entirely and greatly improved. They now contain Lebesgue’s differentiation theorem as well as his versions of the Fundamental Theorem(s) of Calculus. With expanded chapters, additional problems, and an expansive solutions manual, Basic Real Analysis, Second Edition, is ideal for senior undergraduates and first-year graduate students, both as a classroom text and a self-study guide. Reviews of first edition: The book is a clear and well-structured introduction to real analysis aimed at senior undergraduate and beginning graduate students. The prerequisites are few, but a certain mathematical sophistication is required. ....

  20. Magnetism basics and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Stefanita, Carmen-Gabriela

    2012-01-01

    This textbook is aimed at engineering students who are likely to come across magnetics applications in their professional practice. Whether designing lithography equipment containing ferromagnetic brushes, or detecting defects in aeronautics, some basic knowledge of 21st century magnetism is needed. From the magnetic tape on the pocket credit card to the read head in a personal computer, people run into magnetism in many products. Furthermore, in a variety of disciplines tools of the trade exploit magnetic principles, and many interdisciplinary laboratory research areas cross paths with magnetic phenomena that may seem mysterious to the untrained mind. Therefore, this course offers a broad coverage of magnetism topics encountered more often in this millenium, revealing key concepts on which many practical applications rest. Some traditional subjects in magnetism are discussed in the first half of the book, followed by areas likely to spark the curiosity of those more interested in today’s technological achi...

  1. Atomic Basic Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheler, Fabian; Mitzlaff, Martin; Schröder-Preikschat, Wolfgang

    Die Entscheidung, einen zeit- bzw. ereignisgesteuerten Ansatz für ein Echtzeitsystem zu verwenden, ist schwierig und sehr weitreichend. Weitreichend vor allem deshalb, weil diese beiden Ansätze mit äußerst unterschiedlichen Kontrollflussabstraktionen verknüpft sind, die eine spätere Migration zum anderen Paradigma sehr schwer oder gar unmöglich machen. Wir schlagen daher die Verwendung einer Zwischendarstellung vor, die unabhängig von der jeweils verwendeten Kontrollflussabstraktion ist. Für diesen Zweck verwenden wir auf Basisblöcken basierende Atomic Basic Blocks (ABB) und bauen darauf ein Werkzeug, den Real-Time Systems Compiler (RTSC) auf, der die Migration zwischen zeit- und ereignisgesteuerten Systemen unterstützt.

  2. Cloud computing basics

    CERN Document Server

    Srinivasan, S

    2014-01-01

    Cloud Computing Basics covers the main aspects of this fast moving technology so that both practitioners and students will be able to understand cloud computing. The author highlights the key aspects of this technology that a potential user might want to investigate before deciding to adopt this service. This book explains how cloud services can be used to augment existing services such as storage, backup and recovery. Addressing the details on how cloud security works and what the users must be prepared for when they move their data to the cloud. Also this book discusses how businesses could prepare for compliance with the laws as well as industry standards such as the Payment Card Industry.

  3. 42 CFR 406.20 - Basic requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... amount allowed under the social security regulations pertaining to “substantial gainful activity” (20 CFR... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basic requirements. 406.20 Section 406.20 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE...

  4. Tremor (Beyond the Basics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... finger, or to show a sample of your handwriting. Seeing how the tremor changes under these circumstances ... normal. Likewise, people whose tremor is caused by Parkinson disease sometimes improve when they begin treatment for ...

  5. Insomnia Treatments (Beyond the Basics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... education: Daytime sleepiness (The Basics) Patient education: Jet lag (The Basics) Patient education: What is a sleep ... use by UpToDate, but only for the clinical, educational or research purposes of the Institution. Further, access ...

  6. 论新形势下高校辅导员队伍应当具备的基本职业能力%Under the New Situation of University Instructor Team Should be the Basic Professional Ability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    富显韬

    2011-01-01

    Pick to students' ideological and political education work, to be "the best sermon in rational, teach by example tangible and often teach square, group of powerful" and need to teach the less said, do not speak the truth, the popular slanting reason empty, speak deeply truth, raise the theme of ideological and political work. In order to adapt to the social development and the change of the value demand more students, the problem must have their own strong basic ability, improve the work skills, skilled in the use of the new communication, communication tools, the new object. A higher vocational ability, is the basic of university counselors to ideological and political education work young students the premise and foundation.%学生思想政治教育工作中要做到"言教有理、身教有形、常教有方、群教有力",需要辅导员少说小道理,不讲空道理,批驳歪道理,讲透大道理,扬起思想政治工作的主旋律。为适应社会发展和学生日益变幻的价值需求,高校辅导员必须具备自身强有力的基本能力,不断提高工作技能,熟练使用新的传播、交流工具,研究新的工作对象。具备较高的基本职业能力,是高校辅导员做好青年学生思想政治教育工作的前提和基础。

  7. Removal of chromium complex dye from aqueous solutions using strongly basic and weakly basic anion exchangers

    OpenAIRE

    Kauspediene, D.; Kazlauskiene E.; Selskiene, A.

    2010-01-01

    Removal of chromium complex dye from aqueous solutions by sorption onto a weakly basic, acrylic matrix anion exchanger Purolite A845 and a strongly basic, polystyrene matrix anion exchanger Purolite A 500P has been investigated under various experimental conditions: the initial dye concentration, pH and temperature. The sorption of chromium complex dye proceeds as a result of miscellaneous interactions between the dye and anion exchanger: ion exchange and physical sorption. The removal effici...

  8. Basics of aerothermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Hirschel, Ernst Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    This successful book gives an introduction to the basics of aerothermodynamics, as applied in particular to winged re-entry vehicles and airbreathing hypersonic cruise and acceleration vehicles. The book gives a review of the issues of transport of momentum, energy and mass, real-gas effects as well as inviscid and viscous flow phenomena. In this second, revised edition the chapters with the classical topics of aerothermodynamics more or less were left untouched. The access to some single topics of practical interest was improved. Auxiliary chapters were put into an appendix. The recent successful flights of the X-43A and the X-51A indicate that the dawn of sustained airbreathing hypersonic flight now has arrived. This proves that the original approach of the book to put emphasis on viscous effects and the aerothermodynamics of radiation-cooled vehicle surfaces was timely. This second, revised edition even more accentuates these topics. A new, additional chapter treats examples of viscous thermal surface eff...

  9. Nanodesign: some basic questions

    CERN Document Server

    Schommers, Wolfram

    2013-01-01

    There is no doubt that nanoscience will be the dominant direction for technology in this century, and that this science will influence our lives to a large extent as well as open completely new perspectives on all scientific and technological disciplines. To be able to produce optimal nanosystems with tailor-made properties, it is necessary to analyze and construct such systems in advance by adequate theoretical and computational methods. Since we work in nanoscience and nanotechnology at the ultimate level, we have to apply the basic laws of physics. What methods and tools are relevant here? The book gives an answer to this question. The background of the theoretical methods and tools is critically discussed, and also the world view on which these physical laws are based. Such a debate is not only of academic interest but is of highly general concern, and this is because we constantly move in nanoscience and nanotechnology between two extreme poles, between infinite life and total destruction . On the one ...

  10. Basic operator theory

    CERN Document Server

    Gohberg, Israel

    2001-01-01

    rii application of linear operators on a Hilbert space. We begin with a chapter on the geometry of Hilbert space and then proceed to the spectral theory of compact self adjoint operators; operational calculus is next presented as a nat­ ural outgrowth of the spectral theory. The second part of the text concentrates on Banach spaces and linear operators acting on these spaces. It includes, for example, the three 'basic principles of linear analysis and the Riesz­ Fredholm theory of compact operators. Both parts contain plenty of applications. All chapters deal exclusively with linear problems, except for the last chapter which is an introduction to the theory of nonlinear operators. In addition to the standard topics in functional anal­ ysis, we have presented relatively recent results which appear, for example, in Chapter VII. In general, in writ­ ing this book, the authors were strongly influenced by re­ cent developments in operator theory which affected the choice of topics, proofs and exercises. One ...

  11. Basic Data on Biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Renewable gases such as biogas and biomethane are considered as key energy carrier when the society is replacing fossil fuels with renewable alternatives. In Sweden, almost 80 % of the fossil fuels are used in the transport sector. Therefore, the focus in Sweden has been to use the produced biogas in this sector as vehicle gas. Basic Data on Biogas contains an overview of production, utilisation, climate effects etc. of biogas from a Swedish perspective. The purpose is to give an easy overview of the current situation in Sweden for politicians, decision makers and interested public. 1.4 TWh of biogas is produced annually in Sweden at approximately 230 facilities. The 135 wastewater treatment plants that produce biogas contribute with around half of the production. In order to reduce the sludge volume, biogas has been produced at wastewater treatment plants for decades. New biogas plants are mainly co-digestion plants and farm plants. The land filling of organic waste has been banned since 2005, thus the biogas produced in landfills is decreasing.

  12. Basic Social Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser, PhD, Hon. PhD

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of grounded theory is to generate a theory that accounts for a pattern of behavior that is relevant and problematic for those involved. The goal is not voluminous description, nor clever verification. As with all grounded theory, the generation of a basic social process (BSP theory occurs around a core category. While a core category is always present in a grounded research study, a BSP may not be.BSPs are ideally suited to generation by grounded theory from qualitative research because qualitative research can pick up process through fieldwork that continues over a period of time. BSPs are a delight to discover and formulate since they give so much movement and scope to the analyst’s perception of the data. BSPs such as cultivating, defaulting, centering, highlighting or becoming, give the feeling of process, change and movement over time. They also have clear, amazing general implications; so much so, that it is hard to contain them within the confines of a single substantive study. The tendency is to refer to them as a formal theory without the necessary comparative development of formal theory. They are labeled by a “gerund”(“ing” which both stimulates their generation and the tendency to over-generalize them.

  13. Basic neutronics. Neutrons migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents the basic neutronics necessary for the understanding of the operation of the different types of nuclear reactors: 1 - introduction to neutronics: principle of fission chain reactions, fast neutron reactors and thermal neutron reactors, capture, neutron status, variations with the reactor lattices; 2 - Boltzmann equation: neutrons population, neutrons migration, characterization of neutrons population and reactions, integral form of the Boltzmann equation, integral-differential form, equivalence between the two forms; 3 - reactor kinetics: fast neutrons and delayed neutrons, kinetic equations in punctual model, Nordheim equation, reactivity jumps, reactivity ramp; 4 - diffusion equation: local neutron status, Fick's law, diffusion equation, initial, boundary and interface conditions, nuclei in infinite and homogenous medium, some examples of solutions, developments in Eigenmodes; 5 - one-group theory: equation of the 'one-group - diffusion' theory, critical condition of the naked and homogenous reactor, critical condition of a reactor with reflectors, generalizations; 6 - neutrons moderation: different moderation mechanisms, elastic shock laws, moderation equation, some examples of solutions; 7 - resonance absorption of neutrons: advantage of the discontinuous moderation character, advantage of an heterogenous disposition, classical formula of the anti-trap factor in homogenous and heterogenous situation; 8 - neutrons thermalization: notions of thermalization mechanisms, thermalization equation, Maxwell spectrum, real spectrum, classical formula of the thermal utilisation factor, classical formula of the reproduction factor, moderation optimum. (J.S.)

  14. Back to basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    In an effort to educate the public about the long road from obscure experiment to life-changing discovery, the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) has been enlisting prominent researchers, science writers, and scientific organizations such as the AGU. More than two years in development, the NAS basic science initiative “Beyond Discovery: The Path From Research to Human Benefits” is an attempt to translate peer-review-quality science papers into general-interest science articles and booklets.As conceived by NAS vice-president Jack Halpern and a host of representatives from the scientific community, the Beyond Discovery initiative will “develop case studies that identify and trace the origins of important technological and medical advances.” These case studies will be written by scientists in a style publishable in a journal such as the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science. The articles are intended to be understandable to educators, college students, and the scientifically literate public. The case studies then will be further distilled by science writers into articles for a wider audience of policy makers and the general public.

  15. 77 FR 24516 - Solicitation of Comments on Request for United States Assumption of Concurrent Federal Criminal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    .... Department of Justice Regulation Implementing 18 U.S.C. 1162(d) On December 6, 2011, 76 FR 76037 the... Solicitation of Comments on Request for United States Assumption of Concurrent Federal Criminal Jurisdiction... Assumption of Concurrent Federal Criminal Jurisdiction recently submitted to the Office of Tribal...

  16. Food-based dietary guidelines : some assumptions tested for the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Löwik, M.R.H.; Hulshof, K.F.A.M.; Brussaard, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    Recently, the concept of food-based dietary guidelines has been introduced by WHO and FAO. For this concept, several assumptions were necessary. The validity and potential consequences of some of these assumptions are discussed in this paper on the basis of the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey

  17. Psychometrics in Psychiatry: Basic Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Gülec

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding human mental process as a natural event is the mainstay for positive science. Measurement or scaling these processes is the basic component of positive science. If we call the science of psychometrics as “mind measuring”, then the scales should be remarked as the tools of “mind meter”. Besides, if science is considered as a play in which your assertions are only within the limit of your measurements, and then the book of rules ought to be written precisely and updated regularly. In the history of science, there are many incidents in which different tools which had been marked to measure several variables or things were later found to be unable to implement the measurement it had been assigned. Thus the book of rules should set the boundaries of measurements, where to start and to finish, by preventing any confounding factors. Validity and especially construct validity of the scales set the basic conceptual framework. But, positive science should present the proof of reliability before providing the validity. Reliability –how you measure- is considered to put an upper limit on validity because any problem in reliability makes it harder to detect a valid “signal”. Another important step in measurement is to apply same directives to all participants to assure standardization. Thereby, we could ensure that the entire world keep same standard in the evaluation and application of the scale. Other process is to obtain normative value according to related variables in order to prevent confounding possible cultural factors. All of these steps has been comprised under the title of standardization. With this article, we would like to make sense to the reader concerning what is meant by psychometric properties of scales and focus on the process of standardization and its components.

  18. Insomnia (Beyond the Basics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sleepiness ● Forgetfulness ● Poor concentration ● Irritability ● Anxiety ● Depression ● Reduced motivation or energy ● Increased errors or accidents ● Ongoing worry ... entering into this Agreement for use of its employees, (ii) an individual purchasing an UpToDate subscription under ...

  19. Basic Retention Mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bror Skytte; Jensen, H.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of multiple cation competition on the adsorption of Sr onto two synthetic ion-exchange resins, i. e. DOWEX 50W and DOWEX CCR-2, as well as onto the clay mineral, kaolinite has been studied. The results for DOWEX 50W, and under certain experimental conditions also for DOWEX CCR-2 were i...

  20. Assessing the assumption of symmetric proximity measures in the context of multidimensional scaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Ken

    2004-01-01

    Applications of multidimensional scaling often make the assumption of symmetry for the population matrix of proximity measures. Although the likelihood of such an assumption holding true varies from one area of research to another, formal assessment of such an assumption has received little attention. The present article develops a nonparametric procedure that can be used in a confirmatory fashion or in an exploratory fashion in order to probabilistically assess the assumption of population symmetry for proximity measures in a multidimensional scaling context. The proposed procedure makes use of the bootstrap technique and alleviates the assumptions of parametric statistical procedures. Computer code for R and S-Plus is included in an appendix in order to carry out the proposed procedures.

  1. Assumptions about Ecological Scale and Nature Knowing Best Hiding in Environmental Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Seekamp

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Assumptions about nature are embedded in people’s preferences for environmental policy and management. The people we interviewed justified preservationist policies using four assumptions about nature knowing best: nature is balanced, evolution is progressive, technology is suspect, and the Creation is perfect. They justified interventionist policies using three assumptions about nature: it is dynamic, inefficient, and robust. Unstated assumptions about temporal, spatial, and organizational scales further confuse discussions about nature. These findings confirm and extend findings from previous research. Data for our study were derived from interviews with people actively involved in negotiating the fate of forest ecosystems in southwest Virginia: landowners, forest advisors, scientists, state and federal foresters, loggers, and leaders in non-governmental environmental organizations. We argue that differing assumptions about nature constrain people’s vision of what environmental conditions can and should exist, thereby constraining the future that can be negotiated. We recommend promoting ecological literacy and a biocultural approach to ecological science.

  2. 北京奥运会团体新赛制下我国乒乓球基础训练对策%Basic table tennis training countermeasures under new format of Beijing Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秋芬

    2009-01-01

    The international Table Tennis Federation modified the game rules and team game format of the 2008 Beijing Olympic Game. These changes makes more requirements on the athletes, coaches and table tennis management organizations. The paper also analyses the features of the new format and proposes countermeasures of tactics, technical policies and basic training strategies.%国际乒联对08年北京奥运会乒乓球比赛的比赛规程和团体赛赛制进行了重大修改,体现了其"变中求生"的思想.这些变革对运动员和教练员以及乒乓球运动管理机构均提出了更高的要求.对奥运会新赛制的特点.进行了深入细致的分析,从备战奥运会的战略战术、技术政策、基础训练策略等方面提出了对策和建议.

  3. An Embedded Technology Basic Course that Cooperates with Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Yoshinori; Nakajima, Takayuki; Nirei, Masami

    Nagano National College of Technology cooperates with regions of Nagano prefecture that concluded an agreement and holds an embedded technology basic course. This basic course developed by the authors, and its teaching materials have been developed based on author‧s teaching experience in Nagano National College of Technology. The basic course intends for engineers who have no experience on the embedded technology and are willing to learn its foundation again. Thus the authors constituted the curriculum based on assumption that some of engineers attending the course have not enough knowledge of the C language either. This paper describes concept of the course and detail of its teaching materials, and also describes results of an examination and a questionnaire.

  4. Research on the Basic Education in Rural Areas under the Perspective of Practical Ability%可行能力视角下的农村基础教育问题探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡章平

    2014-01-01

    根据印度经济学家阿玛蒂亚·森的可行能力理论研究发现,当前中国农村基础教育中存在师资力量短缺、教育经费不足、办学条件差以及辍学率高等问题,这是由于权利保障不平衡、城乡发展差距大、城乡二元结构化、教育信息公开化程度不高以及政府对农村教育关注度不够等因素所造成。运用阿玛蒂亚·森的工具性自由理论探析,这些问题要通过提高农民的可行能力来解决。%According to the Indian economist Amartya sen's theory of practical ability, the problems that exist in research analysis of the current China's rural basic education are the shortage of qualified teachers, inadequate education funds , poor school conditions and high dropout rates which are caused by the unbalanced safeguard right, the gap between urban and rural development, the different structured policies between urban and rural areas , the lower level of education information disclosure and the government ’s insufficient attention on the rural education. By applying Sen's tool freedom theory, these problems can be solved by promoting farmers' practical ability .

  5. Implications of the homogeneous turbulence assumption on the aero-optic linking equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugo, Ronald J.; Jumper, Eric J.

    1995-09-01

    This paper investigates the validity of applying the simplified (under the assumptions of isotropic and homogeneous turbulence) aero-optic linking equation to a flowfield that is known to consist of anisotropic and nonhomogeneous turbulence. The investigation is performed in the near nozzle-region of a heated two-dimensional jet, and the study makes use of a conditional sampling experiment to acquire a spatio-temporal temperature field data base for the heated jet flowfield. After compensating for the bandwidth limitations of constant-current-wire temperature measurements, the temperature field data base is applied to the computation of optical degradation through both direct methods and indirect methods relying on the aero-optic linking equation. The simplified version of the linking equation was found to provide very good agreement with direct calculations provided that the length scale of the density fluctuations was interpreted as being the integral scale, with the limits of the integration being the two first zero crossings of the covariance coefficient function.

  6. [Assumption of medical risks and the problem of medical liability in ancient Roman law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Váradi, Agnes

    2008-11-01

    The claim of an individual to assure his health and life, to assume and compensate the damage from diseases and accidents, had already appeared in the system of the ancient Roman law in the form of many singular legal institutions. In lack of a unified archetype of regulation, we have to analyse the damages caused in the health or corporal integrity of different personal groups: we have to mention the legal interpretation of the diseases or injuries suffered by serves, people under manus or patria potestas and free Roman citizens. The fragments from the Digest od Justinian do not only demonstrate concrete legal problems, but they can serve as a starting point for further theoretical analyses. For example: if death is the consequence of a medical failure, does the doctor have any kind of liability? Was after-care part of the healing process according to the Roman law? Examining these questions, we should not forget to talk about the complex liability system of the Roman law, the compensation of the damages caused in a contractual or delictual context and about the lex Aquilia. Although these conclusions have no direct relation with the present legal regulation of risk assumption, we have to see that analysing the examples of the Roman law can be useful for developing our view of a certain theoretical problem, like that of the modern liability concept in medicine as well.

  7. The European Water Framework Directive: How Ecological Assumptions Frame Technical and Social Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Ollivier

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The European Water Framework Directive (WFD is built upon significant cognitive developments in the field of ecological science but also encourages active involvement of all interested parties in its implementation. The coexistence in the same policy text of both substantive and procedural approaches to policy development stimulated this research as did our concerns about the implications of substantive ecological visions within the WFD policy for promoting, or not, social learning processes through participatory designs. We have used a qualitative analysis of the WFD text which shows the ecological dimension of the WFD dedicates its quasi-exclusive attention to a particular current of thought in ecosystems science focusing on ecosystems status and stability and considering human activities as disturbance factors. This particular worldview is juxtaposed within the WFD with a more utilitarian one that gives rise to many policy exemptions without changing the general underlying ecological model. We discuss these policy statements in the light of the tension between substantive and procedural policy developments. We argue that the dominant substantive approach of the WFD, comprising particular ecological assumptions built upon "compositionalism," seems to be contradictory with its espoused intention of involving the public. We discuss that current of thought in regard to more functionalist thinking and adaptive management, which offers greater opportunities for social learning, i.e., place a set of interdependent stakeholders in an intersubjective position in which they operate a "social construction" of water problems through the co-production of knowledge.

  8. Numerical simulation of flow in mechanical heart valves: grid resolution and the assumption of flow symmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Liang; Jones, S Casey; Sotiropoulos, Fotis; Healy, Timothy M; Yoganathan, Ajit P

    2003-10-01

    A numerical method is developed for simulating unsteady, 3-D, laminar flow through a bileaflet mechanical heart valve with the leaflets fixed. The method employs a dual-time-stepping artificial-compressibility approach together with overset (Chimera) grids and is second-order accurate in space and time. Calculations are carried out for the full 3-D valve geometry under steady inflow conditions on meshes with a total number of nodes ranging from 4 x 10(5) to 1.6 x 10(6). The computed results show that downstream of the leaflets the flow is dominated by two pairs of counter-rotating vortices, which originate on either side of the central orifice in the aortic sinus and rotate such that the common flow of each pair is directed away from the aortic wall. These vortices intensify with Reynolds number, and at a Reynolds number of approximately 1200 their complex interaction leads to the onset of unsteady flow and the break of symmetry with respect to both geometric planes of symmetry. Our results show the highly 3-D structure of the flow; question the validity of computationally expedient assumptions of flow symmetry; and demonstrate the need for highly resolved, fully 3-D simulations if computational fluid dynamics is to accurately predict the flow in prosthetic mechanical heart valves.

  9. An Exploration of Dental Students' Assumptions About Community-Based Clinical Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Nicole; McQuistan, Michelle R

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain which assumptions dental students recalled feeling prior to beginning community-based clinical experiences and whether those assumptions were fulfilled or challenged. All fourth-year students at the University of Iowa College of Dentistry & Dental Clinics participate in community-based clinical experiences. At the completion of their rotations, they write a guided reflection paper detailing the assumptions they had prior to beginning their rotations and assessing the accuracy of their assumptions. For this qualitative descriptive study, the 218 papers from three classes (2011-13) were analyzed for common themes. The results showed that the students had a variety of assumptions about their rotations. They were apprehensive about working with challenging patients, performing procedures for which they had minimal experience, and working too slowly. In contrast, they looked forward to improving their clinical and patient management skills and knowledge. Other assumptions involved the site (e.g., the equipment/facility would be outdated; protocols/procedures would be similar to the dental school's). Upon reflection, students reported experiences that both fulfilled and challenged their assumptions. Some continued to feel apprehensive about treating certain patient populations, while others found it easier than anticipated. Students were able to treat multiple patients per day, which led to increased speed and patient management skills. However, some reported challenges with time management. Similarly, students were surprised to discover some clinics were new/updated although some had limited instruments and materials. Based on this study's findings about students' recalled assumptions and reflective experiences, educators should consider assessing and addressing their students' assumptions prior to beginning community-based dental education experiences. PMID:26933101

  10. Basic Education Reform in China

    OpenAIRE

    Chengzhi Wang; Quanhua Zhou

    2002-01-01

    China's recent basic education reform followed and, in a certain way, imitated its economic reform. The economic reform merged the experimental dual (planned and market) price systems into a free market economy and yielded phenomenal success. Basic education reform, however, has not succeeded in transforming the introductory dual-track (key school and regular school) systems into a universal one. This article briefly examines the general process and outcomes of basic education reform. It disc...

  11. Visual Basic 2012 programmer's reference

    CERN Document Server

    Stephens, Rod

    2012-01-01

    The comprehensive guide to Visual Basic 2012 Microsoft Visual Basic (VB) is the most popular programming language in the world, with millions of lines of code used in businesses and applications of all types and sizes. In this edition of the bestselling Wrox guide, Visual Basic expert Rod Stephens offers novice and experienced developers a comprehensive tutorial and reference to Visual Basic 2012. This latest edition introduces major changes to the Visual Studio development platform, including support for developing mobile applications that can take advantage of the Windows 8 operating system

  12. Basic Education Reform in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengzhi Wang

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available China's recent basic education reform followed and, in a certain way, imitated its economic reform. The economic reform merged the experimental dual (planned and market price systems into a free market economy and yielded phenomenal success. Basic education reform, however, has not succeeded in transforming the introductory dual-track (key school and regular school systems into a universal one. This article briefly examines the general process and outcomes of basic education reform. It discusses the following questions: Is basic education reform also a story of success? What significant lessons can the Chinese reform experience offer to other comparable developing countries?

  13. Design of a 100 MW blast furnace gas power station under consideration of fuel specific and application specific basic conditions; Auslegung eines 100 MW - Hochofengaskraftwerkes unter Beruecksichtigung der brennstoff- und anwendungsspezifischen Rahmenbedingungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bies, Dietmar; Mueller, Robert [Evonik New Energies GmbH (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Blast furnace gas develops with the pig iron production. Due to the increasing energy prices and due to the discussions on the climate the energetic utilization of blast furnace gas as a non-standard fuel increasingly gains in importance. The ROGESA Roheisengesellschaft Saar mbH (Dillingen, Federal Republic of Germany) initiated a project for the construction of a blast furnace gas power station and a project company. With its most modern equipment technology, the blast furnace gas power station contributes to the efficient power supply of the steel-plant site Dillingen. The contribution under consideration describes the realized plant concept and considerations which led to this plant concept.

  14. BasicS oli Physicochemical Properties and Soil Fungal Diversti y under Different Forest Ty pes of Urban Forest%城市森林不同林型下土壤基本理化特性及土壤真菌多样性1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高微微; 康颖; 卢宏; 王秋玉

    2016-01-01

    .mongolica, Pinus tabulaeformis var.mukdensis, Picea koraiensis, and forest edge grassland as control to de-termine the main soil physicochemical properties including soil pH , relative water content and electrical conductivity , and detected the soil fungal metagenomics diversity .There were significant variation among different soil samples in three soil basic properties, such as 4.597-7.393 for pH value,4.11%-10.90%for relative water content, 953.000-3 443.333μs· cm-1 for soil electrical conductivity .The pH value and soil electrical conductivity were highest for soil of Juglans mandshu-rica plantation, and the lowest for Larix gmelinii plantation.There were great difference in soil fungal metagenomics among eight soil samples.Total of 362 species, 211 genera, 124 families, 63 orders and 24 classes, 8 eumycota were in all soil samples.There were clear changes in the level of Eumycophyta and Eumycetes , including Ascomycota , Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota , Zygomycota , and Glomeromycota .An ancient mycorrhizal fungi of Ascomycota newly discovered in recent years was found in the forest soil of Pinus tabulaeformis var.Mukdensis, while Agaricostibomycete fungi of pucciniomycoti-na, Basidiomycota were detected in the control samples and Glomeromycota fungi in the forest soil of Juglans mandshurica and Fraxinus mandshurica, Exobasidiomycete fungi of Ustilaginomycotina Basidiomycota were only detected in the forest soil of Picea koraiensis and control. The dominant species were the fungi of Ascomycota phylum in the forest soil of Juglans mandshurica, Fraxinus mandshurica, Larix gmelinii, Pinus sylvestris var.mongolica, and Basidiomycota fungi in the forest soil of Betula platyphylla, Pinus tabulaeformis var.Mukdensis, Picea koraiensis in Eumycophyta level .The dominate spe-cies in Eumycetes level were mainly Agaricomycetes fungi , in which sordariomycetes fungi of Pezizomycotina , Ascomycota as the dominate species were only found in the soil sample of Fraxinus mandshurica.

  15. China's top 10 events in basic research in 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Under the joint auspices of the Ministry of Sciences & Technology (MOST) and China Association for Science & Technology, more than 1,600 Chinese scholars including CAS and CAE members, chief scientists of the National Basic Research Program (dubbed 973 Program) and directors of national key labs, have voted for China's top 10 events in basic research in 2007.

  16. 38 CFR 21.142 - Adult basic education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adult basic education. 21...) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 31 Special Rehabilitation Services § 21.142 Adult basic education. (a) Definition. The term adult...

  17. Metrology concept design of the GAIA basic angle monitoring system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veggel, M. van; Vink, R.; Rosielle, N.; Nijmeijer, H.; Wielders, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    The GAIA satellite, scheduled for launch in 2010, will make a highly accurate map of our Galaxy. It will measure the position of stars with an accuracy of 50 prad using two telescopes, which are positioned under a 'basic' angle between the the lines-of-sight of the telescopes of 106°. With a Basic A

  18. 不同认识视角下的社区体育公共服务基本属性研究%On the Basic Attribute of Community Sports’ Public Service under the Different Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚绩伟; 丁秀诗; 梁金辉; 许文鑫; 王占坤

    2013-01-01

    后奥运时代尤其是《全民健身计划(2011-2015年)》颁布实施以来,社区体育公共服务问题已成为国家政府深切关怀和社会广泛关注的民生问题之一,对社区体育公共服务的基本属性进行客观认识和准确定位将有助于其服务体系的建设与完善。基于政府视角,社区体育公共服务应是一个政府科学决策、积极主导、正确引导、相对支持、职能转变和简政放权的公共服务提供过程;基于新公共服务视角,社区体育公共服务既是一项惠及全民的服务,同时又是一项社会基本公共服务,其应具备将公民置于整个服务体系的中心位置和强调为公民服务的属性;基于公众合理期望视角,强调广大公众应以一定地区经济社会发展的实际情况和阶段性特征为现实前提,对社区体育公共服务享有的同等权利、水平均等和机会公平等进行理性期望。%In the Post-Olympic Era, community sports’ public service has become one of the people’s livelihood issues that our nation and government show loving care for it and the social pay widespread attention to it, especially since the issuing and implementation of “National Fitness plan (2011-2015)”. It will make a contribution to the construction and improvement of its service system if we make an objective understanding and accurate location to the basic attribute of community sports’ public service. Based on the perspective of government, community sports’ public service is a providing process and these services including the governmental scientific decision-making, positive leading, correct guidance, relative support, change of function, and reduce of decentralization. Based on the new perspective of the new public service, it should have the attribute, which can put citizens at the center of the whole service system and show emphasis to service for citizens, for community sports’ public service is not

  19. Washington International Renewable Energy Conference (WIREC) 2008 Pledges. Methodology and Assumptions Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babiuch, Bill [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bilello, Daniel E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cowlin, Shannon C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mann, Margaret [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wise, Alison [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2008-08-01

    This report describes the methodology and assumptions used by NREL in quantifying the potential CO2 reductions resulting from more than 140 governments, international organizations, and private-sector representatives pledging to advance the uptake of renewable energy.

  20. Who needs the assumption of opportunistic behavior? Transaction cost economics does not!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Carsten Allan

    2000-01-01

    The assumption of opportunistic behavior, familiar from transaction cost economics, has been and remains highly controversial. But opportunistic behavior, albeit undoubtedly an extremely important form of motivation, is not a necessary condition for the contractual problems studied by transaction...

  1. Life Detection with Minimal Assumptions — Setting an Abiotic Background for Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, A.

    2016-05-01

    I set out a strategy for life detection on Mars with minimal assumptions and review the state of knowledge of Martian organic carbon in martian meteorites. Analyses of martian meteorites represents an invaluable "analogue" suite of samples for study.

  2. Analytic review of modeling studies of ARV Based PrEP interventions reveals strong influence of drug-resistance assumptions on the population-level effectiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobromir Dimitrov

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Four clinical trials have shown that oral and topical pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP based on tenofovir may be effective in preventing HIV transmission. The expected reduction in HIV transmission and the projected prevalence of drug resistance due to PrEP use vary significantly across modeling studies as a result of the broad spectrum of assumptions employed. Our goal is to quantify the influence of drug resistance assumptions on the predicted population-level impact of PrEP. METHODS: All modeling studies which evaluate the impact of oral or topical PrEP are reviewed and key assumptions regarding mechanisms of generation and spread of drug-resistant HIV are identified. A dynamic model of the HIV epidemic is developed to assess and compare the impact of oral PrEP using resistance assumptions extracted from published studies. The benefits and risks associated with ten years of PrEP use are evaluated under identical epidemic, behavioral and intervention conditions in terms of cumulative fractions of new HIV infections prevented, resistance prevalence among those infected with HIV, and fractions of infections in which resistance is transmitted. RESULTS: Published models demonstrate enormous variability in resistance-generating assumptions and uncertainty in parameter values. Depending on which resistance parameterization is used, a resistance prevalence between 2% and 44% may be expected if 50% efficacious oral PrEP is used consistently by 50% of the population over ten years. We estimated that resistance may be responsible for up to a 10% reduction or up to a 30% contribution to the fraction of prevented infections predicted in different studies. CONCLUSIONS: Resistance assumptions used in published studies have a strong influence on the projected impact of PrEP. Modelers and virologists should collaborate toward clarifying the set of resistance assumptions biologically relevant to the PrEP products which are already in use or soon to

  3. Shake gas. Basic information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-08-15

    The ongoing improvement of production technologies has enabled access to unconventional gas resources present in source rocks. Whether Poland is going to see a gas revolution depends chiefly on the geological conditions. At this point it is difficult to estimate the actual size of Poland's shale gas resources and commercialization of shale gas production. First results will be known in the next four or five years, when operators complete the work under exploration and appraisal licences granted to them by the Ministry of the Environment. Polish government is offering licences on exceptionally favourable terms as an incentive for research on unconventional gas resources. Such an approach is driven by the strategic objective of ending Poland's reliance on foreign sources of natural gas in the future. Shale gas will not change Poland's and the region's energy landscape instantaneously. As in the case of all commodity and energy revolutions, changes occur slowly, but shale gas development offers huge opportunities for a permanent shift in the Polish and European energy sectors. Poland stands a chance of becoming fully independent on natural gas imports, and Polish companies - a chance of improving their international standing.

  4. Children and Their Basic Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Debra Lindsey; Howard, Esther M.

    2002-01-01

    Describes obstacles presented by poverty in the fulfillment of the basic needs of children. Individually addresses Maslow's five basic needs with regard to children reared in poverty: (1) physiological needs; (2) safety needs; (3) belonging and love needs; (4) self-esteem needs; and (5) self-actualization needs. (Author/SD)

  5. Benchmarking Biological Nutrient Removal in Wastewater Treatment Plants:Influence of Mathematical Model Assumptions

    OpenAIRE

    Flores-Alsina, Xavier; Gernaey, Krist; Jeppsson, Ulf

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of different model assumptions when describing biological nutrient removal (BNR) by the activated sludge models (ASM) 1, 2d & 3. The performance of a nitrogen removal (WWTP1) and a combined nitrogen and phosphorus removal (WWTP2) benchmark wastewater treatment plant was compared for a series of model assumptions. Three different model approaches describing BNR are considered. In the reference case, the original model implementations are used to simulate WWTP...

  6. Modelling product returns in inventory control - exploring the validity or general assumptions

    OpenAIRE

    Brito, Marisa; Dekker, Rommert

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThe literature on stochastic models for inventory control with product returns commonly makes the following simplifying assumptions: demand and returns are each a homogeneous (compound) Poisson process, and the processes are independent of each other. In this paper we explore the validity of these assumptions by analysing real data on return flows. In addition, we discuss practical implications of our findings and we provide insights on information management for inventory systems...

  7. The Avalanche Hypothesis and Compression of Morbidity: Testing Assumptions through Cohort-Sequential Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan Silberman; Chun Wang; Shawn T Mason; Schwartz, Steven M.; Matthew Hall; Morrissette, Jason L.; Tu, Xin M.; Janet Greenhut

    2015-01-01

    Background The compression of morbidity model posits a breakpoint in the adult lifespan that separates an initial period of relative health from a subsequent period of ever increasing morbidity. Researchers often assume that such a breakpoint exists; however, this assumption is hitherto untested. Purpose To test the assumption that a breakpoint exists—which we term a morbidity tipping point—separating a period of relative health from a subsequent deterioration in health status. An analogous t...

  8. Assumptions for Including Organic Food in the Gastronomic Offering of Istrian Agritourism

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlo Ružić; Ivana Medica

    2009-01-01

    The authors of this research analyze assumptions to including organic food in the gastronomic offering of Istrians agritourism. They assume that gastronomic offering of Istrian agritourism that includes organic food would be more acceptable and competitive on the tourist market. The authors analyzed their assumptions using surveys conducted in 2007 and 2008 on tourists in Istra to learn whether they prefer organic food, does organic food match modern tourist trends, and are they willing to pa...

  9. Assumptions for Including Organic Food in the Gastronomic Offering of Istrian Agritourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlo Ružić

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors of this research analyze assumptions to including organic food in the gastronomic offering of Istrians agritourism. They assume that gastronomic offering of Istrian agritourism that includes organic food would be more acceptable and competitive on the tourist market. The authors analyzed their assumptions using surveys conducted in 2007 and 2008 on tourists in Istra to learn whether they prefer organic food, does organic food match modern tourist trends, and are they willing to pay more for it.

  10. Shattering Man’s Fundamental Assumptions in Don DeLillo’s Falling Man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazim Adnan Hashim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study addresses effects of traumatic events such as the September 11 attacks on victims’ fundamental assumptions. These beliefs or assumptions provide individuals with expectations about the world and their sense of self-worth. Thus, they ground people’s sense of security, stability, and orientation. The September 11 terrorist attacks in the U.S.A. were very tragic for Americans because this fundamentally changed their understandings about many aspects in life. The attacks led many individuals to build new kind of beliefs and assumptions about themselves and the world. Many writers have written about the human ordeals that followed this incident. Don DeLillo’s Falling Man reflects the traumatic repercussions of this disaster on Americans’ fundamental assumptions. The objective of this study is to examine the novel from the traumatic perspective that has afflicted the victims’ fundamental understandings of the world and the self. Individuals’ fundamental understandings could be changed or modified due to exposure to certain types of events like war, terrorism, political violence or even the sense of alienation. The Assumptive World theory of Ronnie Janoff-Bulman will be used as a framework to study the traumatic experience of the characters in Falling Man. The significance of the study lies in providing a new perception to the field of trauma that can help trauma victims to adopt alternative assumptions or reshape their previous ones to heal from traumatic effects.Keywords: benevolence, meaningfulness, self-worthiness, trauma, post-traumatic stress disorder

  11. Nonparametric statistical tests for the continuous data: the basic concept and the practical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahm, Francis Sahngun

    2016-02-01

    Conventional statistical tests are usually called parametric tests. Parametric tests are used more frequently than nonparametric tests in many medical articles, because most of the medical researchers are familiar with and the statistical software packages strongly support parametric tests. Parametric tests require important assumption; assumption of normality which means that distribution of sample means is normally distributed. However, parametric test can be misleading when this assumption is not satisfied. In this circumstance, nonparametric tests are the alternative methods available, because they do not required the normality assumption. Nonparametric tests are the statistical methods based on signs and ranks. In this article, we will discuss about the basic concepts and practical use of nonparametric tests for the guide to the proper use. PMID:26885295

  12. Transient Ischemic Attack (Beyond the Basics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and diagnosis (Beyond the Basics)" and "Patient information: Hemorrhagic stroke treatment (Beyond the Basics)" and "Patient information: Ischemic ... symptoms and diagnosis (Beyond the Basics) Patient information: Hemorrhagic stroke treatment (Beyond the Basics) Patient information: Ischemic stroke ...

  13. Basic entwinements: unassuming analogue inserts in basic digital modeling (courses)

    OpenAIRE

    Wiesner, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Ubiquitous, basic digital modelling tools are currently deployed with relative ease in architecture schools during the course of first year studies. While these first architectural projects essays sometimes communicate matter with already quite impressive professional outlooks, a certain disparity between the various intentions and the student’s actual grasp of the many basic architectural element’s interplays of form and space can become apparent. To alleviate, calibrate and cognitively fine...

  14. Cloud-turbulence interactions: Sensitivity of a general circulation model to closure assumptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several approaches to parameterize the turbulent transport of momentum, heat, water vapour and cloud water for use in a general circulation model (GCM) have been tested in one-dimensional and three-dimensional model simulations. The schemes differ with respect to their closure assumptions (conventional eddy diffusivity model versus turbulent kinetic energy closure) and also regarding their treatment of cloud-turbulence interactions. The basis properties of these parameterizations are discussed first in column simulations of a stratocumulus-topped atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) under a strong subsidence inversion during the KONTROL experiment in the North Sea. It is found that the K-models tend to decouple the cloud layer from the adjacent layers because the turbulent activity is calculated from local variables. The higher-order scheme performs better in this respect because internally generated turbulence can be transported up and down through the action of turbulent diffusion. Thus, the TKE-scheme provides not only a better link between the cloud and the sub-cloud layer but also between the cloud and the inversion as a result of cloud-top entrainment. In the stratocumulus case study, where the cloud is confined by a pronounced subsidence inversion, increased entrainment favours cloud dilution through enhanced evaporation of cloud droplets. In the GCM study, however, additional cloud-top entrainment supports cloud formation because indirect cloud generating processes are promoted through efficient ventilation of the ABL, such as the enhanced moisture supply by surface evaporation and the increased depth of the ABL. As a result, tropical convection is more vigorous, the hydrological cycle is intensified, the whole troposphere becomes warmer and moister in general and the cloudiness in the upper part of the ABL is increased. (orig.)

  15. Assessing pricing assumptions for weather index insurance in a changing climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D. Daron

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Weather index insurance is being offered to low-income farmers in developing countries as an alternative to traditional multi-peril crop insurance. There is widespread support for index insurance as a means of climate change adaptation but whether or not these products are themselves resilient to climate change has not been well studied. Given climate variability and climate change, an over-reliance on historical climate observations to guide the design of such products can result in premiums which mislead policyholders and insurers alike, about the magnitude of underlying risks. Here, a method to incorporate different sources of climate data into the product design phase is presented. Bayesian Networks are constructed to demonstrate how insurers can assess the product viability from a climate perspective, using past observations and simulations of future climate. Sensitivity analyses illustrate the dependence of pricing decisions on both the choice of information, and the method for incorporating such data. The methods and their sensitivities are illustrated using a case study analysing the provision of index-based crop insurance in Kolhapur, India. We expose the benefits and limitations of the Bayesian Network approach, weather index insurance as an adaptation measure and climate simulations as a source of quantitative predictive information. Current climate model output is shown to be of limited value and difficult to use by index insurance practitioners. The method presented, however, is shown to be an effective tool for testing pricing assumptions and could feasibly be employed in the future to incorporate multiple sources of climate data.

  16. The French bioethics public consultation and the anonymity doctrine: empirical ethics and normative assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spranzi, Marta; Brunet, Laurence

    2015-03-01

    The French bioethics laws of 1994 contain the principles of the anonymity and non commodification of all donations of body parts and products including gametes in medically assisted reproduction. The two revisions of the law, in 2004 and 2011 have upheld the rule. In view of the latest revision process, the French government organized a large public consultation in 2009 ("Etats généraux de la bioéthique"). Within the event a "consensus conference" was held in Rennes about different aspects of assisted reproduction (access, anonymity, gratuity and surrogacy). In what follows we shall first describe the anonymity clause for gamete donations in the French law and the debates surrounding it. We shall then analyse the procedure used for the 2009 public consultation and the related consensus conference, as well as its upshot concerning the anonymity doctrine. In this respect we shall compare the citizens' own recommendations on the gamete anonymity issue and its translation in the consultation's final report drafted by a philosopher mandated by the organizing committee. Whereas the final report cited some fundamental ethical arguments as reason for upholding the provisions of the law-most notably the refusal of the 'all biological' approach to reproductive issues-citizens were more careful and tentative in their position although they also concluded that for pragmatic reasons the anonymity rule should continue to hold. We shall argue that the conservative upshot of the public consultation is due to some main underlying presuppositions concerning the citizens' role and expertise as well as to the specific design of the consensus conference. Our conclusion will be that public consultations and consensus conferences can only serve as an empirical support for devising suitable bioethics norms by using second-order normative assumptions. PMID:25783454

  17. Evaluating abundance estimate precision and the assumptions of a count-based index for small mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiewel, A.S.; Adams, A.A.Y.; Rodda, G.H.

    2009-01-01

    Conservation and management of small mammals requires reliable knowledge of population size. We investigated precision of markrecapture and removal abundance estimates generated from live-trapping and snap-trapping data collected at sites on Guam (n 7), Rota (n 4), Saipan (n 5), and Tinian (n 3), in the Mariana Islands. We also evaluated a common index, captures per unit effort (CPUE), as a predictor of abundance. In addition, we evaluated cost and time associated with implementing live-trapping and snap-trapping and compared species-specific capture rates of selected live- and snap-traps. For all species, markrecapture estimates were consistently more precise than removal estimates based on coefficients of variation and 95 confidence intervals. The predictive utility of CPUE was poor but improved with increasing sampling duration. Nonetheless, modeling of sampling data revealed that underlying assumptions critical to application of an index of abundance, such as constant capture probability across space, time, and individuals, were not met. Although snap-trapping was cheaper and faster than live-trapping, the time difference was negligible when site preparation time was considered. Rattus diardii spp. captures were greatest in Haguruma live-traps (Standard Trading Co., Honolulu, HI) and Victor snap-traps (Woodstream Corporation, Lititz, PA), whereas Suncus murinus and Mus musculus captures were greatest in Sherman live-traps (H. B. Sherman Traps, Inc., Tallahassee, FL) and Museum Special snap-traps (Woodstream Corporation). Although snap-trapping and CPUE may have utility after validation against more rigorous methods, validation should occur across the full range of study conditions. Resources required for this level of validation would likely be better allocated towards implementing rigorous and robust methods.

  18. Pancreatic Cancer (Beyond the Basics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Terms of Use ©2016 UpToDate, Inc. Patient information: Pancreatic cancer (Beyond the Basics) Author David P Ryan, MD ... pancreatic juice to the intestines. This type of pancreatic cancer, called "pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma," is discussed in this ...

  19. Some basic aspects of knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abhary, K; Adriansen, H K; Begovac, F;

    2009-01-01

    of some basic epistemological, ontological and didactic concepts significantly contribute to the ambiguities and other impediments in knowledge processing. Examples of such misconceptions are presented and a mitigation strategy discussed. Interaction between computerised media and humans such as the rise...

  20. Bell's Palsy (Beyond the Basics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... changes caused by Bell's palsy will affect the appearance of your face, including how you smile. These ... are comfortable with some medical jargon. Patient information: Genital herpes (Beyond the Basics) Patient information: Shingles (Beyond ...

  1. Basic concept in plasma diagnostics

    OpenAIRE

    Rai, V. N.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the basic concept of various plasma diagnostics used for the study of plasma characteristics in different plasma experiments ranging from low temperature to high energy density plasma.

  2. French Basic Course. Grammatical Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This index is intended for use with Volumes 1 through 8 of the French Basic Course. It facilitates the finding of grammatical references in those volumes. The items are cross-referenced and arranged in alphabetical order. (Author/AMH)

  3. Basic HIV/AIDS Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV/AIDS Basic Statistics Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... HIV. Interested in learning more about CDC's HIV statistics? Terms, Definitions, and Calculations Used in CDC HIV ...

  4. The invariance assumption in process-dissociation models: an evaluation across three domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauer, Karl Christoph; Dittrich, Kerstin; Scholtes, Christine; Voss, Andreas

    2015-02-01

    The class of process-dissociation models, a subset of the class of multinomial processing-tree models, is one of the best understood classes of models used in experimental psychology. A number of prominent debates have addressed fundamental assumptions of process-dissociation models, leading, in many cases, to conceptual clarifications and extended models that address identified issues. One issue that has so far defied empirical clarification is how to evaluate the invariance assumption for the dominant process. Violations of the invariance assumption have, however, the potential to bias conventional process-dissociation analyses in different ways, and they can cause misleading theoretical interpretations and conclusions. Based on recent advances in multinomial modeling, we propose new approaches to examine the invariance assumption empirically and apply them in 6 studies to 3 prominent fields of application of process-dissociation models: to the Stroop task, to the interplay of recollection and habit in cued recall, and to the study of racial bias in the weapon task. In each of these content domains, the invariance assumption is found to be violated to a considerable extent. PMID:25528668

  5. World assumptions, posttraumatic stress and quality of life after a natural disaster: A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nygaard Egil

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in world assumptions are a fundamental concept within theories that explain posttraumatic stress disorder. The objective of the present study was to gain a greater understanding of how changes in world assumptions are related to quality of life and posttraumatic stress symptoms after a natural disaster. Methods A longitudinal study of 574 Norwegian adults who survived the Southeast Asian tsunami in 2004 was undertaken. Multilevel analyses were used to identify which factors at six months post-tsunami predicted quality of life and posttraumatic stress symptoms two years post-tsunami. Results Good quality of life and posttraumatic stress symptoms were negatively related. However, major differences in the predictors of these outcomes were found. Females reported significantly higher quality of life and more posttraumatic stress than men. The association between level of exposure to the tsunami and quality of life seemed to be mediated by posttraumatic stress. Negative perceived changes in the assumption “the world is just” were related to adverse outcome in both quality of life and posttraumatic stress. Positive perceived changes in the assumptions “life is meaningful” and “feeling that I am a valuable human” were associated with higher levels of quality of life but not with posttraumatic stress. Conclusions Quality of life and posttraumatic stress symptoms demonstrate differences in their etiology. World assumptions may be less specifically related to posttraumatic stress than has been postulated in some cognitive theories.

  6. Basic petroleum research. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of projects in the field of basic petroleum research (PetroForsk) is presented. A brief presentation of some of the projects is included, as well as political comments on the value of these projects. The research program Basic Petroleum Research (PetroForsk) was established in 1998 and ended in 2004. The program has been part of the Research Council of Norway's long-term effort in petroleum research (ml)

  7. Low-Frequency Radioastronomy Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarka, P.

    2011-04-01

    With the many large instruments in construction or in project, the present epoch corresponds to a renewal of low-frequency radioastronomy. The field will attract new researchers and students not expert of the radioastronomy techniques. With this audience in mind, we present here a very brief introduction to radioastronomy basics, including propagation and polarization of low-frequency radio waves as well as instrumental aspects. Basic formulas are given. The references and internet links will allow the interested reader to go further.

  8. Visual Basic in easy steps

    CERN Document Server

    McGrath, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Visual Basic in Easy Steps begins by describing the installation process, then introduces form controls, application properties, the programming language, and problem-solving techniques. It illustrates how to build and deploy a complete Windows application and how to create macros for Microsoft Office and web pages for Internet Explorer. By the end of this book, readers will have gained a sound understanding of Visual Basic - even without previous knowledge of programming languate - and be able to create their own interactive applications.

  9. Complementary Basic Education in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Otsu, Kazuko

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses current development in the Complementary Basic Education program (COBET), which aims to contribute to the provision of alternative learning opportunities for out-of-school children, particularly girls in a non-formal setting. The Ministry of Education and Culture started the program as part of the Basic Education Master Plan (BEMP) in 1999. Unlike traditional primary schools, the COBET centers have no school fees, no uniforms, no corporal punishment and no child labou...

  10. Basic analysis of regularized series and products

    CERN Document Server

    Jorgenson, Jay A

    1993-01-01

    Analytic number theory and part of the spectral theory of operators (differential, pseudo-differential, elliptic, etc.) are being merged under amore general analytic theory of regularized products of certain sequences satisfying a few basic axioms. The most basic examples consist of the sequence of natural numbers, the sequence of zeros with positive imaginary part of the Riemann zeta function, and the sequence of eigenvalues, say of a positive Laplacian on a compact or certain cases of non-compact manifolds. The resulting theory is applicable to ergodic theory and dynamical systems; to the zeta and L-functions of number theory or representation theory and modular forms; to Selberg-like zeta functions; andto the theory of regularized determinants familiar in physics and other parts of mathematics. Aside from presenting a systematic account of widely scattered results, the theory also provides new results. One part of the theory deals with complex analytic properties, and another part deals with Fourier analys...

  11. The Determinants of the Asymmetric Power Effects in the context of Public-Private Partnership negotiation (PPP): theoretical Analysis and basic assumptions.

    OpenAIRE

    FAKHRI, ISSAOUI; TORKIA, BOUSSIF

    2016-01-01

    The principal aim of this paper is to present the problematic of the asymmetric power effect on public-private partnership. To do this we have mixed the works on PPP and those focusing on asymmetric power on commercial negotiation. This methodology allows us to determine the theoretical variables (in the form of hypothesis) which can be linked to the asymmetric power effect, on PPP negotiation.

  12. Strategy under uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, H; Kirkland, J; Viguerie, P

    1997-01-01

    At the heart of the traditional approach to strategy lies the assumption that by applying a set of powerful analytic tools, executives can predict the future of any business accurately enough to allow them to choose a clear strategic direction. But what happens when the environment is so uncertain that no amount of analysis will allow us to predict the future? What makes for a good strategy in highly uncertain business environments? The authors, consultants at McKinsey & Company, argue that uncertainty requires a new way of thinking about strategy. All too often, they say, executives take a binary view: either they underestimate uncertainty to come up with the forecasts required by their companies' planning or capital-budging processes, or they overestimate it, abandon all analysis, and go with their gut instinct. The authors outline a new approach that begins by making a crucial distinction among four discrete levels of uncertainty that any company might face. They then explain how a set of generic strategies--shaping the market, adapting to it, or reserving the right to play at a later time--can be used in each of the four levels. And they illustrate how these strategies can be implemented through a combination of three basic types of actions: big bets, options, and no-regrets moves. The framework can help managers determine which analytic tools can inform decision making under uncertainty--and which cannot. At a broader level, it offers executives a discipline for thinking rigorously and systematically about uncertainty and its implications for strategy.

  13. Critical appraisal of assumptions in chains of model calculations used to project local climate impacts for adaptation decision support—the case of Baakse Beek

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sluijs, Jeroen P.; Arjan Wardekker, J.

    2015-04-01

    In order to enable anticipation and proactive adaptation, local decision makers increasingly seek detailed foresight about regional and local impacts of climate change. To this end, the Netherlands Models and Data-Centre implemented a pilot chain of sequentially linked models to project local climate impacts on hydrology, agriculture and nature under different national climate scenarios for a small region in the east of the Netherlands named Baakse Beek. The chain of models sequentially linked in that pilot includes a (future) weather generator and models of respectively subsurface hydrogeology, ground water stocks and flows, soil chemistry, vegetation development, crop yield and nature quality. These models typically have mismatching time step sizes and grid cell sizes. The linking of these models unavoidably involves the making of model assumptions that can hardly be validated, such as those needed to bridge the mismatches in spatial and temporal scales. Here we present and apply a method for the systematic critical appraisal of model assumptions that seeks to identify and characterize the weakest assumptions in a model chain. The critical appraisal of assumptions presented in this paper has been carried out ex-post. For the case of the climate impact model chain for Baakse Beek, the three most problematic assumptions were found to be: land use and land management kept constant over time; model linking of (daily) ground water model output to the (yearly) vegetation model around the root zone; and aggregation of daily output of the soil hydrology model into yearly input of a so called ‘mineralization reduction factor’ (calculated from annual average soil pH and daily soil hydrology) in the soil chemistry model. Overall, the method for critical appraisal of model assumptions presented and tested in this paper yields a rich qualitative insight in model uncertainty and model quality. It promotes reflectivity and learning in the modelling community, and leads to

  14. Basics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Instructor, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Recommended activities include: (1) etymology exercises for elementary school students; (2) a search for information about Alexander the Great; (3) monthly inspections of the school yard to observe environmental changes; and (4) an art history unit on Cro-Magnon cave drawings. An interdisciplinary unit on transportation is included. (PP)

  15. CCN predictions using simplified assumptions of organic aerosol composition and mixing state: a synthesis from six different locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ervens

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available An accurate but simple quantification of the fraction of aerosol particles that can act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN is needed for implementation in large-scale models. Data on aerosol size distribution, chemical composition, and CCN concentration from six different locations have been analyzed to explore the extent to which simple assumptions of composition and mixing state of the organic fraction can reproduce measured CCN number concentrations.

    Fresher pollution aerosol as encountered in Riverside, CA, and the ship channel in Houston, TX, cannot be represented without knowledge of more complex (size-resolved composition. For aerosol that has experienced processing (Mexico City, Holme Moss (UK, Point Reyes (CA, and Chebogue Point (Canada, CCN can be predicted within a factor of two assuming either externally or internally mixed soluble organics although these simplified compositions/mixing states might not represent the actual properties of ambient aerosol populations, in agreement with many previous CCN studies in the literature. Under typical conditions, a factor of two uncertainty in CCN concentration due to composition assumptions translates to an uncertainty of ~15% in cloud drop concentration, which might be adequate for large-scale models given the much larger uncertainty in cloudiness.

  16. Expressing Environment Assumptions and Real-time Requirements for a Distributed Embedded System with Shared Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjell, Simon; Fernandes, João Miguel

    2008-01-01

    discusses how to create a Colored Petri Nets (CPN) model that formally expresses the following elements in a clearly separated structure: (1) assumptions about the behavior of the environment of the component, (2) real-time requirements for the component, and (3) a possible solution in terms of an algorithm...... for the component. The CPN model can be used to validate the environment assumptions and the requirements. The validation is performed by execution of the model during which traces of events and states are automatically generated and evaluated against the requirements....

  17. Sensitivity of Rooftop PV Projections in the SunShot Vision Study to Market Assumptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drury, E.; Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.

    2013-01-01

    The SunShot Vision Study explored the potential growth of solar markets if solar prices decreased by about 75% from 2010 to 2020. The SolarDS model was used to simulate rooftop PV demand for this study, based on several PV market assumptions--future electricity rates, customer access to financing, and others--in addition to the SunShot PV price projections. This paper finds that modeled PV demand is highly sensitive to several non-price market assumptions, particularly PV financing parameters.

  18. Back to Basics under JTPA. A Policy Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Council on Employment Policy, Washington, DC.

    The competencies of the nation's workers have been improving steadily. However, the improvements have not kept pace with the increased skill demands imposed by technological advancement and the shift toward a service-based economy. Academic and functional literacy problems can only be alleviated by balancing school improvement efforts with…

  19. A BAYES COMPARISON OF TWO DIFFERENT CANCER THERAPIES UNDER THE ASSUMPTION OF WEIBULL SURVIVAL MODEL OR ITS SUBFAMILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puja Arora

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a group of patients suffering from leukemia B non-small lung cancer. Suchpatients are generally suggested to undergo for either radiotherapy or chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy.The objective of the paper is to compare the two therapies based on survival functions of the patients assumingWeibull survival model for each therapy. The paper further examines the feasibility of a subfamily of Weibullmodel, namely the exponential distribution, for a date set available from a clinical trial experiment. Thisfeasibility is judged based on Bayes information criterion by comparing the Weibull model with its subfamily.The model compatibility study with the data based on posterior p-values has also been given to ensure thesuitability of the two models. Finally, the recommendations are made accordingly.

  20. Theory- and evidence based interventions for children with conduct problems : exploring applicability and underlying assumptions in real world settings

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Severe child conduct problems (aggressive, disruptive, destructive, oppositional, non-compliant and antisocial behavior) are predictive of serious and violent offences, substance use problems, mental health problems and domestic violence later in life (Moffitt, 2006). Left untreated, as many as 50% to 75% of the children with severe and early conduct problems will exhibit antisocial behavior in adolescence (Nixon, 2002). However, early trajectories of conduct problems can be altered (Brestan ...

  1. Estimating the position of illuminants in paintings under weak model assumptions: an application to the works of two Baroque masters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, David; Stork, David G.

    2009-02-01

    The problems of estimating the position of an illuminant and the direction of illumination in realist paintings have been addressed using algorithms from computer vision. These algorithms fall into two general categories: In model-independent methods (cast-shadow analysis, occluding-contour analysis, ...), one does not need to know or assume the three-dimensional shapes of the objects in the scene. In model-dependent methods (shape-fromshading, full computer graphics synthesis, ...), one does need to know or assume the three-dimensional shapes. We explore the intermediate- or weak-model condition, where the three-dimensional object rendered is so simple one can very confidently assume its three-dimensional shape and, further, that this shape admits an analytic derivation of the appearance model. Specifically, we can assume that floors and walls are flat and that they are horizontal and vertical, respectively. We derived the maximum-likelihood estimator for the two-dimensional spatial location of a point source in an image as a function of the pattern of brightness (or grayscale value) over such a planar surface. We applied our methods to two paintings of the Baroque, paintings for which the question of the illuminant position is of interest to art historians: Georges de la Tour's Christ in the carpenter's studio (1645) and Caravaggio's The calling of St. Matthew (1599-1600). Our analyses show that a single point source (somewhat near to the depicted candle) is a slightly better explanation of the pattern of brightness on the floor in Christ than are two point sources, one in place of each of the figures. The luminance pattern on the rear wall in The calling implies the source is local, a few meters outside the picture frame-not the infinitely distant sun. Both results are consistent with previous rebuttals of the recent art historical claim that these paintings were executed by means of tracing optically projected images. Our method is the first application of such weak-model methods for inferring the location of illuminants in realist paintings and should find use in other questions in the history of art.

  2. Calibration plot for proteomics: A graphical tool to visually check the assumptions underlying FDR control in quantitative experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giai Gianetto, Quentin; Combes, Florence; Ramus, Claire; Bruley, Christophe; Couté, Yohann; Burger, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In MS-based quantitative proteomics, the FDR control (i.e. the limitation of the number of proteins that are wrongly claimed as differentially abundant between several conditions) is a major postanalysis step. It is classically achieved thanks to a specific statistical procedure that computes the adjusted p-values of the putative differentially abundant proteins. Unfortunately, such adjustment is conservative only if the p-values are well-calibrated; the false discovery control being spuriously underestimated otherwise. However, well-calibration is a property that can be violated in some practical cases. To overcome this limitation, we propose a graphical method to straightforwardly and visually assess the p-value well-calibration, as well as the R codes to embed it in any pipeline. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002370 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD002370).

  3. E-Basics: Online Basic Training in Program Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silliman, Ben

    2016-01-01

    E-Basics is an online training in program evaluation concepts and skills designed for youth development professionals, especially those working in nonformal science education. Ten hours of online training in seven modules is designed to prepare participants for mentoring and applied practice, mastery, and/or team leadership in program evaluation.…

  4. Basic research for environmental restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the midst of a major environmental restoration effort to reduce the health and environmental risks resulting from past waste management and disposal practices at DOE sites. This report describes research needs in environmental restoration and complements a previously published document, DOE/ER-0419, Evaluation of Mid-to-Long Term Basic Research for Environmental Restoration. Basic research needs have been grouped into five major categories patterned after those identified in DOE/ER-0419: (1) environmental transport and transformations; (2) advanced sampling, characterization, and monitoring methods; (3) new remediation technologies; (4) performance assessment; and (5) health and environmental effects. In addition to basic research, this document deals with education and training needs for environmental restoration. 2 figs., 6 tabs

  5. The basic aerodynamics of floatation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, M. J.; Wood, D. H.

    1983-09-01

    It is pointed out that the basic aerodynamics of modern floatation ovens, in which the continuous, freshly painted metal strip is floated, dried, and cured, is the two-dimensional analog of that of hovercraft. The basic theory for the static lift considered in connection with the study of hovercraft has had spectacular success in describing the experimental results. This appears surprising in view of the crudity of the theory. The present investigation represents an attempt to explore the reasons for this success. An outline of the basic theory is presented and an approach is shown for deriving the resulting expressions for the lift from the full Navier-Stokes equations in a manner that clearly indicates the limitations on the validity of the expressions. Attention is given to the generally good agreement between the theory and the axisymmetric (about the centerline) results reported by Jaumotte and Kiedrzynski (1965).

  6. Basic research for environmental restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the midst of a major environmental restoration effort to reduce the health and environmental risks resulting from past waste management and disposal practices at DOE sites. This report describes research needs in environmental restoration and complements a previously published document, DOE/ER-0419, Evaluation of Mid-to-Long Term Basic Research for Environmental Restoration. Basic research needs have been grouped into five major categories patterned after those identified in DOE/ER-0419: (1) environmental transport and transformations; (2) advanced sampling, characterization, and monitoring methods; (3) new remediation technologies; (4) performance assessment; and (5) health and environmental effects. In addition to basic research, this document deals with education and training needs for environmental restoration. 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. General relativity basics and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Date, Ghanashyam

    2015-01-01

    A Broad Perspective on the Theory of General Relativity and Its Observable Implications General Relativity: Basics and Beyond familiarizes students and beginning researchers with the basic features of the theory of general relativity as well as some of its more advanced aspects. Employing the pedagogical style of a textbook, it includes essential ideas and just enough background material needed for readers to appreciate the issues and current research. Basics The first five chapters form the core of an introductory course on general relativity. The author traces Einstein’s arguments and presents examples of space-times corresponding to different types of gravitational fields. He discusses the adaptation of dynamics in a Riemannian geometry framework, the Einstein equation and its elementary properties, and different phenomena predicted or influenced by general relativity. Beyond Moving on to more sophisticated features of general relativity, the book presents the physical requirements of a well-defined de...

  8. Examining recent expert elicitation, judgment guidelines: Value assumptions and the prospects for rationality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, P.A. [Creighton Univ., Omaha, NE (United States). Dept. of Philosophy

    1999-12-01

    Any examination of the role of values in decisions on risk must take into consideration the increasing reliance on the expert judgment method. Today, reliance on expert judgment is conspicuously present in the documents and work associated with site characterization of Yucca Mountain as a host for the United States' first high level nuclear waste repository. The NRC encourages the use of probabilistic risk assessment's state of the art technology as a complement to deterministic approaches to nuclear regulatory activities. It considers expert judgment as one of those technologies. At the last International Conference on High-Level Nuclear Waste Development several presentations report on the use of expert elicitation sessions held during 1997 at Yucca Mountain. Over a decade ago, few guidelines existed for Department of Energy work in expert judgment. In an analysis of these guidelines, I described the author-advocate's view of the role of values in this method of risk assessment. I suggested that the guidelines assume naive positivism. I noted that the creators of these guidelines also tend toward scientific realism in their apologetic tone that expert judgment falls short of representing the way nature is. I also pointed to a tendency toward what I call a heightened or super-realism. Normal science represents the way the world is and for expert judgment this is only likely so. Expert judgment method, however, is capable of truly capturing expertise in a representative sense. The purpose of this paper is to examine new guidelines from the Department of Energy and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, with a view to eliciting the epistemological assumptions about the role of values and the status of objectivity claimed for this method. Do these new guidelines also adopt naive positivism? Does the inability to encounter raw, pure, value-neutral expert judgment, reveal itself in these guidelines? Or do these guidelines adopt the belief that values are not

  9. Quantifying the Importance of the Statistical Assumption in Statistical X-ray CT Image Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingyan; Tsui, Benjamin M W

    2014-01-01

    Statistical image reconstruction (SIR) is a promising approach to reducing radiation dose in clinical computerized tomography (CT) scans. Clinical CT scanners use energy-integrating detectors. The CT signal follows a compound Poisson distribution, its probability density function (PDF) does not have an analytical form hence cannot be used in an SIR method. The goal of this work is to quantify the effects of using an approximate statistical assumption in SIR methods for clinical CT applications. We apply a pseudo-Ideal Observer (pIO) to simulated CT projection data of the fanbeam geometry at different dose levels. The simulation models the polychromatic X-ray tube spectrum, the effects of the bowtie filter, and the energy-integrating detectors. The pIO uses a pseudo likelihood function (pLF) to calculate the pseudo likelihood ratio, which is the decision variable used by the pIO in a binary detection task. The pLF is an approximation to the true LF of the underlying data. The pIO has inferior performance than the IO unless the pLF coincides with the LF; this performance difference quantifies the closeness between the pseudo likelihood and the exact one. Using lesion detectability in a signal known exactly, background known exactly binary detection task as a figure-of-merit, our results show that at down to 0.1% of a reference tube current level I0, the pIO that uses a Poisson approximation, or a matched variance Gaussian approximation in either the transmission or the line integral domain, achieves 99% the performance of the IO. The constant variance Gaussian approximation has only 70%-80% of the IO performance. At tube currents lower than 0.1% I0, the performance difference is more substantial. We conclude that at current clinical dose levels, it is important to account for the mean-dependent variance in CT projection data in SIR problem formulation, the exact PDF of the CT signal is not as important. PMID:24001989

  10. Examining recent expert elicitation, judgment guidelines: Value assumptions and the prospects for rationality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Any examination of the role of values in decisions on risk must take into consideration the increasing reliance on the expert judgment method. Today, reliance on expert judgment is conspicuously present in the documents and work associated with site characterization of Yucca Mountain as a host for the United States' first high level nuclear waste repository. The NRC encourages the use of probabilistic risk assessment's state of the art technology as a complement to deterministic approaches to nuclear regulatory activities. It considers expert judgment as one of those technologies. At the last International Conference on High-Level Nuclear Waste Development several presentations report on the use of expert elicitation sessions held during 1997 at Yucca Mountain. Over a decade ago, few guidelines existed for Department of Energy work in expert judgment. In an analysis of these guidelines, I described the author-advocate's view of the role of values in this method of risk assessment. I suggested that the guidelines assume naive positivism. I noted that the creators of these guidelines also tend toward scientific realism in their apologetic tone that expert judgment falls short of representing the way nature is. I also pointed to a tendency toward what I call a heightened or super-realism. Normal science represents the way the world is and for expert judgment this is only likely so. Expert judgment method, however, is capable of truly capturing expertise in a representative sense. The purpose of this paper is to examine new guidelines from the Department of Energy and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, with a view to eliciting the epistemological assumptions about the role of values and the status of objectivity claimed for this method. Do these new guidelines also adopt naive positivism? Does the inability to encounter raw, pure, value-neutral expert judgment, reveal itself in these guidelines? Or do these guidelines adopt the belief that values are not (and should

  11. Modelling product returns in inventory control - exploring the validity or general assumptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. de Brito (Marisa); R. Dekker (Rommert)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThe literature on stochastic models for inventory control with product returns commonly makes the following simplifying assumptions: demand and returns are each a homogeneous (compound) Poisson process, and the processes are independent of each other. In this paper we explore the validit

  12. SOME CONCEPTIONS AND MISCONCEPTIONS ON REALITY AND ASSUMPTIONS IN FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING

    OpenAIRE

    Stanley C. W. Salvary

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses two problematic issues arising from the importation of terms into financial accounting: (1) the nature of economic reality; and (2) the role of assumptions. These two issues have stirred a lot of controversy relating to financial accounting measurements and affect attestation reports. This paper attempts to provide conceptual clarity on these two issues.

  13. 76 FR 17158 - Assumption Buster Workshop: Distributed Data Schemes Provide Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    ... group that coordinates cyber security research activities in support of national security systems, is...: There is a strong and often repeated call for research to provide novel cyber security solutions. The... capable, and that re-examining cyber security solutions in the context of these assumptions will result...

  14. Tests of the frozen-flux and tangentially geostrophic assumptions using magnetic satellite data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chulliat, A.; Olsen, Nils; Sabaka, T.

    In 1984, Jean-Louis Le Mouël published a paper suggesting that the flow at the top of the Earth’s core is tangentially geostrophic, i.e., the Lorentz force is much smaller than the Coriolis force in this particular region of the core. This new assumption wassubsequently used to discriminate among...

  15. Comparison of Three Common Experimental Designs to Improve Statistical Power When Data Violate Parametric Assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Andrew C.; McSweeney, Maryellen

    A Monte Carlo technique was used to investigate the small sample goodness of fit and statistical power of several nonparametric tests and their parametric analogues when applied to data which violate parametric assumptions. The motivation was to facilitate choice among three designs, simple random assignment with and without a concomitant variable…

  16. Letters: Milk and Mortality : Study used wrong assumption about galactose content of fermented dairy products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hettinga, K.A.

    2014-01-01

    Michaëlsson and colleagues’ proposed mechanism for the effect of milk intake on the risk of mortality and fractures is based on the assumption that fermented dairy products (which had the opposite effects to those of non-fermented milk) are free of galactose.1 For most fermented dairy products, howe

  17. An Examination of the Representativeness Assumption for Twin Studies of Eating Pathology and Internalizing Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Munn-Chernoff, Melissa A.; von Ranson, Kristin M.; Culbert, Kristen M.; Larson, Christine L.; Burt, S. Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L.

    2013-01-01

    Little research has investigated whether the twin representativeness assumption (that results from twin research generalize to singletons) holds for eating pathology and internalizing symptoms. This study compared disordered eating, depression, and anxiety among young adult female twins versus singletons. Participants included 292 twins and 997 singletons in three samples. Questionnaires included the Minnesota Eating Behavior Survey, Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire, Beck Depression ...

  18. 77 FR 24517 - Solicitation of Comments on Request for United States Assumption of Concurrent Federal Criminal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ....S.C. 1162(d) On December 6, 2011, 76 FR 76037 the Department published final regulations that... Solicitation of Comments on Request for United States Assumption of Concurrent Federal Criminal Jurisdiction... Criminal Jurisdiction recently submitted to the Office of Tribal Justice, Department of Justice by...

  19. 77 FR 24222 - Solicitation of Comments on Request for United States Assumption of Concurrent Federal Criminal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-23

    ... Justice Regulation Implementing 18 U.S.C. 1162(d) On December 6, 2011, 76 FR 76037 the Department... Solicitation of Comments on Request for United States Assumption of Concurrent Federal Criminal Jurisdiction... Criminal Jurisdiction recently submitted to the Office of Tribal Justice, Department of Justice by...

  20. 78 FR 16867 - Solicitation of Comments on Request for United States Assumption of Concurrent Federal Criminal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-19

    ... 18 U.S.C. 1162(d) On December 6, 2011, 76 FR 76037 the Department published final regulations that... Solicitation of Comments on Request for United States Assumption of Concurrent Federal Criminal Jurisdiction... Federal Criminal Jurisdiction recently submitted to the Office of Tribal Justice, ] Department of...

  1. 77 FR 64548 - Solicitation of Comments on Request for United States Assumption of Concurrent Federal Criminal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... of Justice Regulation Implementing 18 U.S.C. 1162(d) On December 6, 2011, 76 FR 76037 the Department... Solicitation of Comments on Request for United States Assumption of Concurrent Federal Criminal Jurisdiction... Criminal Jurisdiction recently submitted to the Office of Tribal Justice, Department of Justice by...

  2. 77 FR 32998 - Solicitation of Comments on Request for United States Assumption of Concurrent Federal Criminal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... Justice Regulation Implementing 18 U.S.C. 1162(d) On December 6, 2011, 76 FR 76037 the Department... Solicitation of Comments on Request for United States Assumption of Concurrent Federal Criminal Jurisdiction... Criminal Jurisdiction recently submitted to the Office of Tribal Justice, Department of Justice by the...

  3. 77 FR 27080 - Solicitation of Comments on Request for United States Assumption of Concurrent Federal Criminal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Solicitation of Comments on Request for United States Assumption of Concurrent Federal Criminal Jurisdiction; Hoopa Valley Tribe Correction In notice document 2012-09731 beginning on page 24517 the issue of...

  4. 77 FR 64547 - Solicitation of Comments on Request for United States Assumption of Concurrent Federal Criminal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... Regulation Implementing 18 U.S.C. 1162(d) On December 6, 2011, 76 FR 76037 the Department published final... Solicitation of Comments on Request for United States Assumption of Concurrent Federal Criminal Jurisdiction... Federal Criminal Jurisdiction recently submitted to the Office of Tribal Justice, Department of Justice...

  5. 12 CFR 563.22 - Merger, consolidation, purchase or sale of assets, or assumption of liabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Merger, consolidation, purchase or sale of assets, or assumption of liabilities. 563.22 Section 563.22 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS-OPERATIONS Operation and Structure § 563.22 Merger, consolidation, purchase or sale of assets,...

  6. Knaves, Knights or Networks: Which Assumption of Lecturer and Manager Motivation Should Underlie Further Education Policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boocock, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Julian Le Grand, a well-known economist, identifies two types of public sector employee: knights (with altruistic motives) and knaves (with self-interested motives). He argues that the quasi-market, predicated on the assumption of knavish behaviour (or agent self-interest), is the most effective way of directing school managers and teachers…

  7. The Impact of Feedback Frequency on Learning and Task Performance: Challenging the "More Is Better" Assumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chak Fu; DeRue, D. Scott; Karam, Elizabeth P.; Hollenbeck, John R.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research on feedback frequency suggests that more frequent feedback improves learning and task performance (Salmoni, Schmidt, & Walter, 1984). Drawing from resource allocation theory (Kanfer & Ackerman, 1989), we challenge the "more is better" assumption and propose that frequent feedback can overwhelm an individual's cognitive resource…

  8. South African AIDS Orphans: Examining Assumptions around Vulnerability from the Perspective of Rural Children and Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Patricia C.

    2006-01-01

    The article examines assumptions circulating in development or interventionist discourse concerning the vulnerabilities of AIDS orphans in South Africa. Ongoing ethnographic research, begun in March 2003, with 31 rural children and youth between the ages of 14 and 22, in Magangangozi, KwaZulu-Natal, points to the ways in which global terms may…

  9. 76 FR 76037 - Office of the Attorney General; Assumption of Concurrent Federal Criminal Jurisdiction in Certain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... Jurisdiction in Certain Areas of Indian Country, 76 FR 29675 (May 23, 2011), with a comment period through July... Part 50 RIN 1105-AB38 Office of the Attorney General; Assumption of Concurrent Federal Criminal Jurisdiction in Certain Areas of Indian Country AGENCY: Office of the Attorney General, Department of...

  10. Investigating assumptions of crown archetypes for modelling LiDAR returns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calders, K.; Lewis, P.; Disney, M.; Verbesselt, J.; Herold, M.

    2013-01-01

    LiDAR has the potential to derive canopy structural information such as tree height and leaf area index (LAI), via models of the LiDAR signal. Such models often make assumptions regarding crown shape to simplify parameter retrieval and crown archetypes are typically assumed to contain a turbid mediu

  11. 7 CFR 1951.230 - Transfer of security and assumption of loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Community and Direct Business Programs Loans and Grants § 1951.230 Transfer of security and assumption of... Public Law 103-354 442-3, “Balance Sheet,” and budget and cash flow information using Form FmHA or its... Security,” will be used, and will be modified as appropriate before execution. (6) Consideration will...

  12. Credit Transfer amongst Students in Contrasting Disciplines: Examining Assumptions about Wastage, Mobility and Lifelong Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Paolo, Terry; Pegg, Ann

    2013-01-01

    While arrangements for credit transfer exist across the UK higher education sector, little is known about credit-transfer students or why they re-engage with study. Policy makers have cited credit transfer as a mechanism for reducing wastage and drop-out, but this paper challenges this assumption and instead examines how credit transfer serves…

  13. Monitoring long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) durability to validate net serviceable life assumptions, in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hakizimana, E.; Cyubahiro, B.; Rukundo, A.; Kabayiza, A.; Mutabazi, A.; Beach, R.; Patel, R.; Tongren, J.E.; Karema, C.

    2014-01-01

    Background To validate assumptions about the length of the distribution–replacement cycle for long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) in Rwanda, the Malaria and other Parasitic Diseases Division, Rwanda Ministry of Health, used World Health Organization methods to independently confirm the three-year

  14. Net Generation at Social Software: Challenging Assumptions, Clarifying Relationships and Raising Implications for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtonen, Teemu; Dillon, Patrick; Hacklin, Stina; Vaisanen, Pertti

    2010-01-01

    This paper takes as its starting point assumptions about use of information and communication technology (ICT) by people born after 1983, the so called net generation. The focus of the paper is on social networking. A questionnaire survey was carried out with 1070 students from schools in Eastern Finland. Data are presented on students' ICT-skills…

  15. 42 CFR 417.120 - Fiscally sound operation and assumption of financial risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... liability claims, fire, theft, fraud, embezzlement, and other casualty risks. (2) Financial plan requirement... financial risk. 417.120 Section 417.120 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT...: Organization and Operation § 417.120 Fiscally sound operation and assumption of financial risk. (a)...

  16. World assumptions, religiosity, and PTSD in survivors of intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilly, Michelle M; Howell, Kathryn H; Graham-Bermann, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is among the most frequent types of violence annually affecting women. One frequent outcome of violence exposure is posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The theory of shattered world assumptions represents one possible explanation for adverse mental health outcomes following trauma, contending that trauma disintegrates individuals' core assumptions that the world is safe and meaningful, and that the self is worthy. Research that explores world assumptions in relationship to survivors of IPV has remained absent. A more consistent finding in research on IPV suggests that religiosity is strongly associated with survivors' reactions to, and recovery from, IPV. The present study found that world assumptions was a significant mediator of the relationship between IPV exposure and PTSD symptoms. Religiosity was also significantly, positively related to PTSD symptoms, but was not significantly related to amount of IPV exposure. Though African American women reported more IPV exposure and greater religiosity than European American women in the sample, there were no interethnic differences in PTSD symptom endorsement. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  17. Mutual assumptions and facts about nondisclosure among clinical supervisors and students in group supervision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Geir Høstmark; Skjerve, Jan; Jacobsen, Claus Haugaard;

    2009-01-01

    In the two preceding papers of this issue of Nordic Psychology the authors report findings from a study of nondisclosure among student therapists and clinical supervisors. The findings were reported separately for each group. In this article, the two sets of findings are held together and compared......, so as to draw a picture of mutual assumptions and facts about nondisclosure among students and supervisors....

  18. "What You See Is [Not Always] What You Get!" Dispelling Race and Gender Leadership Assumptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Latish; Evans, Andrea E.

    2008-01-01

    Race and gender affect the way in which African-American female principals perceive and enact their roles in predominantly African-American urban schools. Using empirical data drawn from a larger qualitative study, this article examines and challenges racial and gendered assumptions about African-American leadership, and specifically American…

  19. Is a "Complex" Task Really Complex? Validating the Assumption of Cognitive Task Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasayama, Shoko

    2016-01-01

    In research on task-based learning and teaching, it has traditionally been assumed that differing degrees of cognitive task complexity can be inferred through task design and/or observations of differing qualities in linguistic production elicited by second language (L2) communication tasks. Without validating this assumption, however, it is…

  20. Post Stereotypes: Deconstructing Racial Assumptions and Biases through Visual Culture and Confrontational Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yuha

    2015-01-01

    The Post Stereotypes project embodies confrontational pedagogy and involves postcard artmaking designed to both solicit expression of and deconstruct students' racial, ethnic, and cultural stereotypes and assumptions. As part of the Cultural Diversity in American Art course, students created postcard art that visually represented their personal…