WorldWideScience

Sample records for basic active structures

  1. Polymer Basics: Classroom Activities Manipulating Paper Clips to Introduce the Structures and Properties of Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, Yunusa

    2014-01-01

    A simple and effective hands-on classroom activity designed to illustrate basic polymer concepts is presented. In this activity, students build primary structures of homopolymers and different arrangements of monomers in copolymer using paper clips as monomers. The activity supports formation of a basic understanding of polymer structures,…

  2. LINEAR ACTIVE STRUCTURES AND MODES (Ⅰ)--BASIC CONCEPTS AND PROPERTIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张景绘; 龚靖; 王永刚

    2004-01-01

    Some basic concepts about the active structures were firstly explained, and the main subjects to study in the field of active structure dynamics were synthesized. For the linear active structures, the annotations on the modes were done in detail. The physical meanings of the right and left eigenvectors were explained. The right eigenvectors are the modal shapes and the modal responses of an active structure depend on the left ones. The adjoint structure of an active structure was defined and the reciprocity theorem was interpreted. For two active structures, which are adjoint to each other and with the reciprocal gain-matrices, the right and left eigenvector are reciprocal. The relationship between an active structure and the corresponding passive structure is expressed with the transfer functions, which is employed to resolve the estimation problems.

  3. The development of a knowledge base for basic active structures: an example case of dopamine agonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayashi Taketo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemical compounds affecting a bioactivity can usually be classified into several groups, each of which shares a characteristic substructure. We call these substructures "basic active structures" or BASs. The extraction of BASs is challenging when the database of compounds contains a variety of skeletons. Data mining technology, associated with the work of chemists, has enabled the systematic elaboration of BASs. Results This paper presents a BAS knowledge base, BASiC, which currently covers 46 activities and is available on the Internet. We use the dopamine agonists D1, D2, and Dauto as examples and illustrate the process of BAS extraction. The resulting BASs were reasonably interpreted after proposing a few template structures. Conclusions The knowledge base is useful for drug design. Proposed BASs and their supporting structures in the knowledge base will facilitate the development of new template structures for other activities, and will be useful in the design of new lead compounds via reasonable interpretations of active structures.

  4. Basic structural dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, James C

    2012-01-01

    A concise introduction to structural dynamics and earthquake engineering Basic Structural Dynamics serves as a fundamental introduction to the topic of structural dynamics. Covering single and multiple-degree-of-freedom systems while providing an introduction to earthquake engineering, the book keeps the coverage succinct and on topic at a level that is appropriate for undergraduate and graduate students. Through dozens of worked examples based on actual structures, it also introduces readers to MATLAB, a powerful software for solving both simple and complex structural d

  5. Incorporation of basic side chains into cryptolepine scaffold: structure-antimalarial activity relationships and mechanistic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrado, João; Cabal, Ghislain G; Prudêncio, Miguel; Mota, Maria M; Gut, Jiri; Rosenthal, Philip J; Díaz, Cecília; Guedes, Rita C; dos Santos, Daniel J V A; Bichenkova, Elena; Douglas, Kenneth T; Moreira, Rui; Paulo, Alexandra

    2011-02-10

    The synthesis of cryptolepine derivatives containing basic side-chains at the C-11 position and their evaluations for antiplasmodial and cytotoxicity properties are reported. Propyl, butyl, and cycloalkyl diamine side chains significantly increased activity against chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum strains while reducing cytotoxicity when compared with the parent compound. Localization studies inside parasite blood stages by fluorescence microscopy showed that these derivatives accumulate inside the nucleus, indicating that the incorporation of a basic side chain is not sufficient enough to promote selective accumulation in the acidic digestive vacuole of the parasite. Most of the compounds within this series showed the ability to bind to a double-stranded DNA duplex as well to monomeric hematin, suggesting that these are possible targets associated with the observed antimalarial activity. Overall, these novel cryptolepine analogues with substantially improved antiplasmodial activity and selectivity index provide a promising starting point for development of potent and highly selective agents against drug-resistant malaria parasites.

  6. Organizational structure and basic functions of international convention «SportAссord» activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Dolbysheva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to define and determine the basic functions of International convention “SportAссord” activity within the framework of international sport movement. Materials and Methods: 21 literary sources have been analyzed. Results: International convention “SportAссord” is a nongovernmental sport organization, which unites, supports, coordinates and protects international sport federations and organizations in the international sport movement. “SportAссord” does its activities in accordance with United Nations General Assembly Resolution 1296 (XLIV, provisions of the International Olympic Charter and Code of Ethics, grounding on World Anti-Doping Code. The president is the head of administrative office, with the departments and board of executive body under control. General Assembly is the supreme authority, which carries out the range of basic tasks and grants authority to the management of “SportAccord” and its members for them to fulfill general and special functions. Conclusions: the International convention “SportAccord” activity is aimed at carrying out tasks by fulfilling general and special functions on the basis of international and internal legal documents.

  7. Basic principles of concrete structures

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Xianglin; Zhou, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Based on the latest version of designing codes both for buildings and bridges (GB50010-2010 and JTG D62-2004), this book starts from steel and concrete materials, whose properties are very important to the mechanical behavior of concrete structural members. Step by step, analysis of reinforced and prestressed concrete members under basic loading types (tension, compression, flexure, shearing and torsion) and environmental actions are introduced. The characteristic of the book that distinguishes it from other textbooks on concrete structures is that more emphasis has been laid on the basic theories of reinforced concrete and the application of the basic theories in design of new structures and analysis of existing structures. Examples and problems in each chapter are carefully designed to cover every important knowledge point. As a basic course for undergraduates majoring in civil engineering, this course is different from either the previously learnt mechanics courses or the design courses to be learnt. Compa...

  8. Powerful flaring configurations in solar active regions: magnetic topology via special features of delta-structure phenomenon. I. Basic principles of topological model

    CERN Document Server

    Ikhsanov, R N; Marushin, Yu.V.

    2003-01-01

    The close connection of magnetic field structure on the one hand and observable features of complex ARs with high flare efficiency on the other one is investigated in frames of so-called dynamic classification of flaring magnetic configurations (FMC) and the simple topological model of interacting magnetic complexes (IMC) suggested by Ikhsanov (1982). The primary objective of the present work is to expose general statements of the specified model and classification, the secondary one assumes the critical analysis and logical generalization of several important regularities being frequently observable in evolution stages of a typical complex AR with powerful flares including proton ones. Those cases are basically examined where the development of photospheric situation was marked by the formation of delta-configuration phenomenon described by Kunzel (1960) as one of the most impressive precursors of high flare activity. Without trying to use any additional assumptions and alternative hypotheses, the qualitativ...

  9. Influence of the valine zipper region on the structure and aggregation of the basic leucine zipper (bZIP) domain of activating transcription factor 5 (ATF5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciaccio, Natalie A; Reynolds, T Steele; Middaugh, C Russell; Laurence, Jennifer S

    2012-11-01

    Protein aggregation is a major problem for biopharmaceuticals. While the control of aggregation is critically important for the future of protein pharmaceuticals, mechanisms of aggregate assembly, particularly the role that structure plays, are still poorly understood. Increasing evidence indicates that partially folded intermediates critically influence the aggregation pathway. We have previously reported the use of the basic leucine zipper (bZIP) domain of activating transcription factor 5 (ATF5) as a partially folded model system to investigate protein aggregation. This domain contains three regions with differing structural propensity: a N-terminal polybasic region, a central helical leucine zipper region, and a C-terminal extended valine zipper region. Additionally, a centrally positioned cysteine residue readily forms an intermolecular disulfide bond that reduces aggregation. Computational analysis of ATF5 predicts that the valine zipper region facilitates self-association. Here we test this hypothesis using a truncated mutant lacking the C-terminal valine zipper region. We compare the structure and aggregation of this mutant to the wild-type (WT) form under both reducing and nonreducing conditions. Our data indicate that removal of this region results in a loss of α-helical structure in the leucine zipper and a change in the mechanism of self-association. The mutant form displays increased association at low temperature but improved resistance to thermally induced aggregation.

  10. Basic Education and Policy Support (BEPS) Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creative Associates International, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The Basic Education and Policy Support (BEPS) Activity is a multi-year, worldwide, indefinite quantity contract by which the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Global Bureau Center for Human Capacity (G/HCD) can work to achieve four objectives: (1) improve the quality, efficiency, access, and equity of education, particularly basic…

  11. Egalitarianism, basic structure and rawlsian contextualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristián Fatauros

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses whether it is appropriate to judge individual actions with the same principles of justice applicable to institutions. In order to achieve its aim the paper reviews Rawls` theory of justice and some objections against it. Critics of Rawlsian theory of justice deny that its principles only evaluate basic institutions. Furthermore, they claim that justice does not only require just institutions but just individual actions as well. The background hypothesis of this paper is that some principles suitable for some social contexts are not useful to judge other kind of social interactions. The argument relies on a normative interpretation of the notion of basic structure, which is considered a key element to defend the institutional character of the rawlsian account of justice.

  12. Basic characteristics of active tectonics of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG; Qidong(邓起东); ZHANG; Peizhen(张培震); RAN; Yongkang(冉勇康); YANG; Xiaoping(杨晓平); MIN; Wei(闵伟); CHU; Quanzhi(楚全芝)

    2003-01-01

    During the last 20 years, studies on active tectonics in China have entered a new quantitative research stage and made a great progress. Summing up the quantitative results, a Map of Active Tectonics of China on the scale of 1︰4 million has been compiled. In the map all types of active tectonics and their kinematic parameters are reflected in possible detail, such as active faults, active folds, active basins, active blocks, volcanoes, and earthquakes. This paper summarizes the basic characteristics of active tectonics of China. The Himalaya Mountains and Taiwan Island are major plate boundaries where the slip rates are larger than 15 mm/a. Tectonic activity in the continental intraplate region is characterized by block motion. The crust and lithosphere in the region were dissected into blocks with different orders. Of them the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet), Xin- jiang, and North China block regions exhibit the most recent tectonic activity. The kinematic characteristics of more than 200 active tectonic zones indicate that the intraplate tectonic activity represents a block motion at a limited low rate. Horizontal slip rate along the tectonic boundary belts between the blocks is generally less than 10 mm/a, and 10-15 mm/a in maximum, and hence it does not support the continental escape theory of high rate of slip.

  13. Basic components of construction enterprises’ management marketing activities system

    OpenAIRE

    Seleznova Olha Olexandrivna

    2015-01-01

    This article investigated the basic components of construction enterprises’ management marketing activities system. It is developed the model of the construction enterprises’ management marketing activities system. The article explores the essence of the stages of forming the construction enterprises’ management marketing activities system. The article reveals the basic elements of marketing management – mission, goals, strategy. It describes the basic functions of marketing management system...

  14. Teaching Basic Science Environmentally, The Concept: The cell is basic unit of structure of most organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Phyllis S.

    1985-01-01

    Suggests simple ways to introduce students to the concept that the cell is the basic unit of structure of most organisms. Mentions materials for microscope study that are readily available and easy to handle, e.g., membranes from between the scales of the onion bulb, thin-leaved plants, pond water, and pollen. (JHZ)

  15. Basic Education and Policy Support Activity: Tools and Publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creative Associates International, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The Basic Education and Policy Support (BEPS) Activity is a United States Agency for International Development (USAID)-sponsored, multi-year initiative designed to further improve the quality of, effectiveness of, and access to formal and nonformal basic education. This catalog is one element of the BEPS information dissemination process. The…

  16. An Outcomes Assessment Project: Basic Writing and Essay Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, David; DeRusha, Jeanine; Stanton-Hammond, Gail; Straight, Steve; Sullivan, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors report on an assessment project they recently conducted at their open admissions community college to assess student work at the end of the basic writing sequence. The authors' focus for this project was on the way students used essay structure. They gathered artifacts from students who were deemed "ready" by…

  17. Theory of interpenetrating electromagnetic structural continuua. I. Basic thermomechanical equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suyazov, V.M.

    1977-01-01

    Laws of thermodynamics and the mechanics of a multi-phase and multi-temperature mixture of charged conductor paramagnetic dielectric structural media are formulated in a non-relativistic approach which accounts for phase transformations. The limiting cases of the theory's basic equations for a mixture of micropolar media and mixtures of dipolar continuua are examined. 35 references.

  18. cDNA and deduced primary structure of basic phospholipase A2 with neurotoxic activity from the venom secretion of the Crotalus durissus collilineatus rattlesnake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.H.R. Fagundes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available To illustrate the construction of precursor complementary DNAs, we isolated mRNAs from whole venom samples. After reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, we amplified the cDNA coding for a neurotoxic protein, phospholipase A2 D49 (PLA2 D49, from the venom of Crotalus durissus collilineatus (Cdc PLA2. The cDNA encoding Cdc PLA2 from whole venom was sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence of this cDNA has high overall sequence identity with the group II PLA2 protein family. Cdc PLA2 has 14 cysteine residues capable of forming seven disulfide bonds that characterize this group of PLA2 enzymes. Cdc PLA2 was isolated using conventional Sephadex G75 column chromatography and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC. The molecular mass was estimated using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. We tested the neuromuscular blocking activities on chick biventer cervicis neuromuscular tissue. Phylogenetic analysis of Cdc PLA2 showed the existence of two lines of N6-PLA2, denominated F24 and S24. Apparently, the sequences of the New World’s N6-F24-PLA2 are similar to those of the agkistrodotoxin from the Asian genus Gloydius. The sequences of N6-S24-PLA2 are similar to the sequence of trimucrotoxin from the genus Protobothrops, found in the Old World.

  19. Vibration control of active structures an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Preumont, Andre

    2002-01-01

    This text is an introduction to the dynamics of active structures and to the feedback control of lightly damped flexible structures. The emphasis is placed on basic issues and simple control strategies that work.

  20. Basic structures of reality essays in meta-physics

    CERN Document Server

    McGinn, Colin

    2011-01-01

    In Basic Structures of Reality, Colin McGinn deals with questions of metaphysics, epistemology, and philosophy of mind from the vantage point of physics. Combining general philosophy with physics, he covers such topics as the definition of matter, the nature of space, motion, gravity, electromagnetic fields, the character of physical knowledge, and consciousness and meaning. Throughout, McGinn maintains an historical perspective and seeks to determine how much we really know of the world described by physics. He defends a version of "structuralism": the thesis that our knowledge is p

  1. BASIC Program for the calculation of radioactive activities; Programa BASIC para el calculo de actividades radiactivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortes P, A.; Tejera R, A.; Becerril V, A

    1990-04-15

    When one makes a measure of radioactive activity with a detection system that operates with a gamma radiation detector (Ge or of NaI (Tl) detector), it is necessary to take in account parameters and correction factors that making sufficiently difficult and tedious those calculations to using a considerable time by part of the person that carries out these measures. Also, this frequently, can to take to erroneous results. In this work a computer program in BASIC language that solves this problem is presented. (Author)

  2. Structural Equation Modeling with Mplus Basic Concepts, Applications, and Programming

    CERN Document Server

    Byrne, Barbara M

    2011-01-01

    Modeled after Barbara Byrne's other best-selling structural equation modeling (SEM) books, this practical guide reviews the basic concepts and applications of SEM using Mplus Versions 5 & 6. The author reviews SEM applications based on actual data taken from her own research. Using non-mathematical language, it is written for the novice SEM user. With each application chapter, the author "walks" the reader through all steps involved in testing the SEM model including: an explanation of the issues addressed illustrated and annotated testing of the hypothesized and post hoc models expl

  3. Basic reactions of osteoblasts on structured material surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B�chter A.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess how bone substitute materials determine bone formation in vivo it is useful to understand the mechanisms of the material surface/tissue interaction on a cellular level. Artificial materials are used in two applications, as biomaterials alone or as a scaffold for osteoblasts in a tissue engineering approach. Recently, many efforts have been undertaken to improve bone regeneration by the use of structured material surfaces. In vitro studies of bone cell responses to artificial materials are the basic tool to determine these interactions. Surface properties of materials surfaces as well as biophysical constraints at the biomaterial surface are of major importance since these features will direct the cell responses. Studies on osteoblastlike cell reactivity towards materials will have to focus on the different steps of protein and cell reactions towards defined surface properties. The introduction of new techniques allows nowadays the fabrication of materials with ordered surface structures. This paper gives a review of present knowledge on the various stages of osteoblast reactions on material surfaces, focused on basic cell events under in vitro conditions. Special emphasis is given to cellular reactions towards ordered nano-sized topographies.

  4. Promoting Active Learning in Electrical Engineering Basic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Lehtovuori

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Active learning, project-based teaching, and student collaboration are current trends in engineering education. Incorporating these have also been the goal of the basic studies development project EPOP started at the Aalto University School of Electrical Engineering in 2011. In the project, two obligatory basic courses in circuit analysis and electromagnetic field theory have been taught using interactive engagement during the spring of 2012. This paper presents the implementation of the teaching, including methods and evaluation with several concrete examples. As a result of the novel teaching, motivation and the engagement of students were at a high level during the whole course and learning results were better than those of the students participating the traditional lecture course.

  5. Basic flow structure in saccular aneurysms: a flow visualization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiger, H J; Poll, A; Liepsch, D; Reulen, H J

    1987-01-01

    Basic flow patterns were investigated in a set of glass aneurysm models by means of flow visualization methods. Dye injection and streaming double refraction were used to visualize flow. The circulation inside lateral aneurysms arising at a 90 degree angle from a straight parent conduit could not be visualized by the dye-injection technique but could be demonstrated by streaming double refraction. The inflow was seen to arise from the downstream lip of the orifice and to project to the dome of the aneurysm. Backflow to the parent conduit took place along the walls of the aneurysm. In aneurysms located at bifurcations, flow characteristics depended on the geometry of the bifurcation and the flow ratio between the branches. Relatively little intra-aneurysmal flow was demonstrated in side branch-related aneurysms arising distal to an asymmetric 90 degrees bifurcation of the type encountered at the junction of the internal carotid and posterior communicating arteries. Stagnation of flow at the neck and little intra-aneurysmal circulation were found with terminal aneurysms of the basilar bifurcation type if the outflow through the branches was symmetric. With asymmetric outflow, however, or if the axis of the aneurysm did not coincide with that of the afferent vessel, an active rotation developed in these aneurysms. The size of the aneurysm had no influence on the basic pattern of intra-aneurysmal circulation. The use of pulsatile perfusion did not significantly alter the basic flow patterns observed with steady flow. Locally disturbed laminar flow was observed in certain models at physiological Reynold's numbers, but there were no signs of fully developed turbulence.

  6. [Physical activity in basic and primary prevention of cardiovascular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieszczańska, Małgorzata; Kałka, Dariusz; Pilecki, Witold; Adamus, Jerzy

    2009-06-01

    On account of the frequency of appearing and character of atherosclerosis cardiac vascular disease, one of the most crucial elements of effective fight against it is preparation of complex preventive programs including as vast number of population as possible. Consequently, Benjamin and Smitch suggested attaching the notion of basic prevention to the standard division into primary and secondary one. The basic prevention, carrying out in the general population, should concern genetic predisposition, psychosocial factors, keeping up proper body weight, healthy eating and physical activity. Especially high hopes are connected with high efficiency, simplicity and low money-consumption of preventive activities associated with physical activity modification, which has a crucial influence on reducing negative impact of atherosclerosis hazard. The results of numerous scientific research, carried out in many countries and on various, large groups, proved undoubtedly that at the healthy adult people of both sex the systematic physical activity of moderate intensification plays an essential part in preventing CVD and decreasing the death risk because of that reason as well. Moreover, systematic physical exercises show many other health-oriented actions, thanks to which they have an influence on decreasing premature and total death rate. The risk of incidence of civilization-related diseases such as diabetes type II, hypertension, obesity, osteoporosis, tumors (of large intestine, breast, prostatic gland) and depression has decreased significantly. Unequivocally positive influence has been proved at many observations dedicated to health recreational physical activity and physical activity connected with professional work based on aerobe effort. The positive effects have been also observed at children population and senior population which is more and more numerous and the most at risk. The beneficial action of physical activity is connected with direct effect on organism

  7. Shark myelin basic protein: amino acid sequence, secondary structure, and self-association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, T J; Atkins, A R; Warren, J A; Auton, W P; Smith, R

    1990-09-01

    Myelin basic protein (MBP) from the Whaler shark (Carcharhinus obscurus) has been purified from acid extracts of a chloroform/methanol pellet from whole brains. The amino acid sequence of the majority of the protein has been determined and compared with the sequences of other MBPs. The shark protein has only 44% homology with the bovine protein, but, in common with other MBPs, it has basic residues distributed throughout the sequence and no extensive segments that are predicted to have an ordered secondary structure in solution. Shark MBP lacks the triproline sequence previously postulated to form a hairpin bend in the molecule. The region containing the putative consensus sequence for encephalitogenicity in the guinea pig contains several substitutions, thus accounting for the lack of activity of the shark protein. Studies of the secondary structure and self-association have shown that shark MBP possesses solution properties similar to those of the bovine protein, despite the extensive differences in primary structure.

  8. A structured four-step curriculum in basic laparoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandbygaard, Jeanett; Bjerrum, Flemming; Maagaard, Mathilde

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a 4-step curriculum in basic laparoscopy consisting of validated modules integrating a cognitive component, a practical component and a procedural component.......The objective of this study was to develop a 4-step curriculum in basic laparoscopy consisting of validated modules integrating a cognitive component, a practical component and a procedural component....

  9. p-Chlorophenol adsorption on activated carbons with basic surface properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenc-Grabowska, Ewa; Gryglewicz, Grażyna; Machnikowski, Jacek

    2010-05-01

    The adsorption of p-chlorophenol (PCP) from aqueous solution on activated carbons (ACs) with basic surface properties has been studied. The ACs were prepared by two methods. The first method was based on the modification of a commercial CWZ AC by high temperature treatment in an atmosphere of ammonia, nitrogen and hydrogen. The second approach comprised the carbonization followed by activation of N-enriched polymers and coal tar pitch using CO 2 and steam as activation agent. The resultant ACs were characterized in terms of porous structure, elemental composition and surface chemistry (pH PZC, acid/base titration, XPS). The adsorption of PCP was carried out from an aqueous solution in static conditions. Equilibrium adsorption isotherm was of L2 type for polymer-based ACs, whereas L3-type isotherm was observed for CWZ ACs series. The Langmuir monolayer adsorption capacity was related to the porous structure and the amount of basic sites. A good correlation was found between the adsorption capacity and the volume of micropores with a width < 1.4 nm for polymer-based ACs. Higher nitrogen content, including that in basic form, did not correspond to the enhanced adsorption of PCP from aqueous solution. The competitive effect of water molecule adsorption on the PCP uptake is discussed.

  10. Highly basic CaO nanoparticles in mesoporous carbon materials and their excellent catalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Pradeep Kumar; Chokkalingam, Anand; Priya, Subramaniam V; Balasubramanian, Veerappan V; Benziger, Mercy R; Aldeyab, Salem S; Jayavell, Ramasamy; Ariga, Katsukiho; Vinu, Ajayan

    2012-06-01

    Highly basic CaO nanoparticles immobilized mesoporous carbon materials (CaO-CMK-3) with different pore diameters have been successfully prepared by using wet-impregnation method. The prepared materials were subjected to extensive characterization studies using sophisticated techniques such as XRD, nitrogen adsorption, HRSEM-EDX, HRTEM and temperature programmed desorption of CO2 (TPD of CO2). The physico-chemical characterization results revealed that these materials possess highly dispersed CaO nanoparticles, excellent nanopores with well-ordered structure, high specific surface area, large specific pore volume, pore diameter and very high basicity. We have also demonstrated that the basicity of the CaO-CMK-3 samples can be controlled by simply varying the amount of CaO loading and pore diameter of the carbon support. The basic catalytic performance of the samples was investigated in the base-catalyzed transesterification of ethylacetoacetate by aryl, aliphatic and cyclic primary alcohols. CMK-3 catalyst with higher CaO loading and larger pore diameter was found to be highly active with higher conversion within a very short reaction time. The activity of 30% CaO-CMK3-150 catalyst for transesterification of ethylacetoacetate using different alcohols increases in the following order: octanol > butanol > cyclohexanol > benzyl alcohol > furfuryl alcohol.

  11. Activated Metal Oxide Surfaces as Highly Basic and Reducing Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-21

    Russian J. Phys. Chem., 52, 605 (1978). 28. I. Nieves and K. J. Klabunde, " Materials Chemistry and Physics ," K. Tanabe, editor, Elsevier, in press. 29...Electron Transfer and Bond Breaking Processes," invited book chapter for Advances in Basic Solid Materials- Materials Chemistry and Physics , K. Tanabe

  12. Basic materials and structures aspects for hypersonic transport vehicles (HTV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinheil, E.; Uhse, W.

    A Mach 5 transport design is used to illustrate structural concepts and criteria for materials selections and also key technologies that must be followed in the areas of computational methods, materials and construction methods. Aside from the primary criteria of low weight, low costs, and conceivable risks, a number of additional requirements must be met, including stiffness and strength, corrosion resistance, durability, and a construction adequate for inspection, maintenance and repair. Current aircraft construction requirements are significantly extended for hypersonic vehicles. Additional consideration is given to long-duration temperature resistance of the airframe structure, the integration of large-volume cryogenic fuel tanks, computational tools, structural design, polymer matrix composites, and advanced manufacturing technologies.

  13. A basic approach for wing leading deicing by smart structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struggl, Stephan; Korak, Johannes; Feyrer, Christoph

    2011-04-01

    An investigation regarding de-icing of wing leading edges through the use of smart structures is performed. Piezoelectric actuators are used to excite the structures at their natural frequencies. This vibration excites shear stresses at the surface, which lead to the shedding off of ice. For optimal excitation of the structure, the frequency and the placement of piezo elements are determined, in order to maximize the shear stress. First, experimental investigations on a clamped aluminum plate are carried out. With these findings, the transition to an aluminum sample of a wing leading edge is performed. Practical experiments have been carried out on a sample of an aluminum wing leading edge. First, the structural behavior is determined by a modal analysis so that the natural frequencies and the eigenmodes can be calculated. By FE simulation all parameter combinations can be calculated, so the practical tests can be adapted accordingly. Practical experiments have been carried out under realistic conditions in terms of ice formation in an icing research tunnel. Different types of ice have been considered, which require a different level of shear stresses for the de-icing. Further investigations will concern the determination of the suitable frequency and furthermore an ongoing monitoring of the process to take up account on different icing conditions. The studies point to a further possibility of energy efficient de-icing.

  14. Paired fuzzy sets as a basic structure for knowledge representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montero, Javier; Franco de los Ríos, Camilo; Gómez, Daniel;

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present an unifying approach to a number of fuzzy models that share the existence of two opposite concepts. In particular, we stress that standard structures for knowledge representation are being built from a family of related concepts, paired concepts in case we simply consider...

  15. Focus on Freshman: Basic Instruction Programs Enhancing Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Jarred; Jenkins, Jayne M.; Weatherford, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity sharply decreases after different life stages, particularly high school graduation to beginning university education. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a specifically designed university physical activity class, Exercise Planning for Freshman (EPF), on students' physical activity and group cohesion…

  16. Distinguish Dynamic Basic Blocks by Structural Statistical Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petit, Matthieu; Gotlieb, Arnaud

    Statistical testing aims at generating random test data that respect selected probabilistic properties. A distribution probability is associated with the program input space in order to achieve statistical test purpose: to test the most frequent usage of software or to maximize the probability...... of satisfying a structural coverage criterion for instance. In this paper, we propose a new statistical testing method that generates sequences of random test data that respect the following probabilistic properties: 1) each sequence guarantees the uniform selection of feasible paths only and 2) the uniform...... control flow path) during the test data selection. We implemented this algorithm in a statistical test data generator for Java programs. A first experimental validation is presented...

  17. Interfacial structures of acidic and basic aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, C.; Ji, N.; Waychunas, G.; Shen, Y.R.

    2008-10-20

    Phase-sensitive sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy was used to study water/vapor interfaces of HCl, HI, and NaOH solutions. The measured imaginary part of the surface spectral responses provided direct characterization of OH stretch vibrations and information about net polar orientations of water species contributing to different regions of the spectrum. We found clear evidence that hydronium ions prefer to emerge at interfaces. Their OH stretches contribute to the 'ice-like' band in the spectrum. Their charges create a positive surface field that tends to reorient water molecules more loosely bonded to the topmost water layer with oxygen toward the interface, and thus enhances significantly the 'liquid-like' band in the spectrum. Iodine ions in solution also like to appear at the interface and alter the positive surface field by forming a narrow double-charge layer with hydronium ions. In NaOH solution, the observed weak change of the 'liquid-like' band and disappearance of the 'ice-like' band in the spectrum indicates that OH{sup -} ions must also have excess at the interface. How they are incorporated in the interfacial water structure is however not clear.

  18. Basic and Advanced Bayesian Structural Equation Modeling With Applications in the Medical and Behavioral Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Sik-Yum

    2012-01-01

    This book provides clear instructions to researchers on how to apply Structural Equation Models (SEMs) for analyzing the inter relationships between observed and latent variables. Basic and Advanced Bayesian Structural Equation Modeling introduces basic and advanced SEMs for analyzing various kinds of complex data, such as ordered and unordered categorical data, multilevel data, mixture data, longitudinal data, highly non-normal data, as well as some of their combinations. In addition, Bayesian semiparametric SEMs to capture the true distribution of explanatory latent variables are introduce

  19. Crystal structure of Plasmodium falciparum phosphoglycerate kinase: Evidence for anion binding in the basic patch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Craig D.; Chattopadhyay, Debasish; Pal, Biswajit (UAB)

    2012-11-09

    3-Phosphoglycerate kinase (EC 2.7.2.3) is a key enzyme in the glycolytic pathway and catalyzes an important phosphorylation step leading to the production of ATP. The crystal structure of Plasmodium falciparum phosphoglycerate kinase (PfPGK) in the open conformation is presented in two different groups, namely I222 and P6{sub 1}22. The structure in I222 space group is solved using MAD and refined at 3 {angstrom} whereas that in P6{sub 1}22A is solved using MR and refined at 2.7 {angstrom}. I222 form has three monomers in asymmetric unit whereas P6{sub 1}22 form has two monomers in the asymmetric unit. In both crystal forms a sulphate ion is located at the active site where ATP binds, but no Mg{sup 2+} ion is observed. For the first time another sulphate ion is found at the basic patch where the 3-phosphate of 1,3-biphosphoglycerate normally binds. This was found in both chains of P6{sub 1}22 form but only in chain A of I222 form.

  20. Structure-based design of ligands for protein basic domains: Application to the HIV-1 Tat protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filikov, Anton V.; James, Thomas L.

    1998-05-01

    A methodology has been developed for designing ligands to bind a flexible basic protein domain where the structure of the domain is essentially known. It is based on an empirical binding free energy function developed for highly charged complexes and on Monte Carlo simulations in internal coordinates with both the ligand and the receptor being flexible. HIV-1 encodes a transactivating regulatory protein called Tat. Binding of the basic domain of Tat to TAR RNA is required for efficient transcription of the viral genome. The structure of a biologically active peptide containing the Tat basic RNA-binding domain is available from NMR studies. The goal of the current project is to design a ligand which will bind to that basic domain and potentially inhibit the TAR-Tat interaction. The basic domain contains six arginine and two lysine residues. Our strategy was to design a ligand for arginine first and then a superligand for the basic domain by joining arginine ligands with a linker. Several possible arginine ligands were obtained by searching the Available Chemicals Directory with DOCK 3.5 software. Phytic acid, which can potentially bind multiple arginines, was chosen as a building block for the superligand. Calorimetric binding studies of several compounds to methylguanidine and Arg-/Lys-containing peptides were performed. The data were used to develop an empirical binding free energy function for prediction of affinity of the ligands for the Tat basic domain. Modeling of the conformations of the complexes with both the superligand and the basic domain being flexible has been carried out via Biased Probability Monte Carlo (BPMC) simulations in internal coordinates (ICM 2.6 suite of programs). The simulations used parameters to ensure correct folding, i.e., consistent with the experimental NMR structure of a 25-residue Tat peptide, from a random starting conformation. Superligands for the basic domain were designed by joining together two molecules of phytic acid with

  1. Expanding Public/Private Partnerships For Improving Basic Education through School Sponsorship in the Dominican Republic. Final Report. Basic Education and Policy Support Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Patricia; Kane, Michael

    The Basic Education and Policy Support Activity (BEPS), a new five-year initiative sponsored by United States Agency for International Development's (USAID) Center for Human Capacity Development, is designed to improve the quality, effectiveness, and access to formal and nonformal basic education. BEPS operates through both core funds and buy-ins…

  2. Structure-guided optimization of estrogen receptor binding affinity and antagonist potency of pyrazolopyrimidines with basic side chains.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, H.; Sheng, S.; Compton, D.; Kim, Y.; Joachimiak, A.; Sharma, S.; Carlson, K.; Katzenellenbogen, B.; Nettles, K.; Greene, G.; Katzenellenbogen, J.; Biosciences Division; Univ. of Illinois; Univ. of Chicago; The Scripps Research Inst.

    2007-01-01

    2,3-Diarylpyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines are estrogen receptor (ER) antagonists of modest potency that we have described previously. Guided by the crystal structure of an ER-ligand complex that we have obtained with one of these compounds, we prepared analogs that contain a basic side chain at the 2- or 3-aryl group and quickly found one that, according to the structure-based prediction, shows an increase in binding affinity and antagonist potency and a loss of residual agonist activity.

  3. Utilization of activated carbon for the removal of basic dyes in fixed-bed microcolumn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Qada, Emad N. [Department of Chemical Engineering Technology, Yanbu Industrial College, Yanbu, P.O. Box 30346 (Saudi Arabia); Abdelghany, Emad A.; Magdy, Yehia H. [Chemical Eng. Dept., Faculty of Eng., Minia University, Minia, P.O. Box 61519 (Egypt)

    2013-07-01

    Liquid-phase adsorption processes were performed using basic dyes (methylene blue (MB), basic red (BR) and basic yellow (BY)) in an activated carbon microcolumn. The effects of initial dye concentration, column diameter and particle size were investigated. The performance of the fixed-bed adsorber was evaluated through the concept of breakthrough curves. The Thomas model was employed to predict the breakthrough curves and compared with the experimental breakthrough curves. Furthermore, the Empty Bed Residence Time (EBRT) has been applied to the data to determine the minimum residence time and the minimum adsorbent exhaustion rate. Column studies showed effective use of adsorbents. The results reflected the significance of the experimental parameters on the efficient removal of basic dyes from aqueous solution. The Thomas model predicts the experimental data well.

  4. An Analysis of Taiwanese Eighth Graders' Science Achievement, Scientific Epistemological Beliefs and Cognitive Structure Outcomes After Learning Basic Atomic Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chin-Chung

    1998-01-01

    Explores the interrelationships between students' general science achievement, scientific epistemological beliefs, and cognitive structure outcomes derived from instruction of basic atomic theory. Contains 19 references. (DDR)

  5. Effect of charge at an amino acid of basic fibroblast growth factor on its mitogenic activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The amino acid at the 119th position of human basic fibroblast growth factor(hbFGF),lysine(K119),is a critical component for its mitogenic activity.However,little is known about the effects of the characteristics of this residue including charge on the mitogenic activity of hbFGF.Herein,this basic residue was replaced with neutral glutamine residue and acidic glutamic acid residue to construct mutants hbFGF~(K119Q) and hbFGF~(K119E),respectively.The mutants were produced by BL21(DE3)/pET3c expression sys...

  6. Basic level category structure emerges gradually across human ventral visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordan, Marius Cătălin; Greene, Michelle R; Beck, Diane M; Fei-Fei, Li

    2015-07-01

    Objects can be simultaneously categorized at multiple levels of specificity ranging from very broad ("natural object") to very distinct ("Mr. Woof"), with a mid-level of generality (basic level: "dog") often providing the most cognitively useful distinction between categories. It is unknown, however, how this hierarchical representation is achieved in the brain. Using multivoxel pattern analyses, we examined how well each taxonomic level (superordinate, basic, and subordinate) of real-world object categories is represented across occipitotemporal cortex. We found that, although in early visual cortex objects are best represented at the subordinate level (an effect mostly driven by low-level feature overlap between objects in the same category), this advantage diminishes compared to the basic level as we move up the visual hierarchy, disappearing in object-selective regions of occipitotemporal cortex. This pattern stems from a combined increase in within-category similarity (category cohesion) and between-category dissimilarity (category distinctiveness) of neural activity patterns at the basic level, relative to both subordinate and superordinate levels, suggesting that successive visual areas may be optimizing basic level representations.

  7. Development of the International Spinal Cord Injury Activities and Participation Basic Data Set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Post, M W; Charlifue, S; Biering-Sørensen, F;

    2016-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Consensus decision-making process. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to develop an International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Activities and Participation (A&P) Basic Data Set. SETTING: International working group. METHODS: A committee of experts was established to select and ...

  8. Analysis of Research in Physical Activities of Slovenian Basic School Children in Recent Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klavdija Strniša

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, physical activity is an extremely important segment of a healthy lifestyle not only for children but also for adults. Technological advances allow us to reach our goals with much less physical effort than was required of the individual in the past. Additionally, the fast pace of life and an increasingly sedentary lifestyle also contribute to reduced physical activity among the population. Analysis of published scientific articles in the field of physical activity among basic school students includes 15 research studies. They were included regardless of the origin of the publication and citation frequency. It can be seen that the most common segment of research in children’s physical activity is the gender perspective. Researchers are further interested in the effects of age, educational success, BMI, place of residence, frequency and time spent in physical activity, education and physical activity of parents, as well as the level of organization (organized / unorganized activity. Therefore it can be concluded that children’s physical activities are influenced by external and internal factors. Analysis of published research has shown that physical activity depends upon many internal and external factors. A higher level of physical activity is often detected with boys and children in urban areas, compared to rural ones. Physically active parents have physically more active children. A higher proportion of interviewed basic school students was found to participate in organized forms of exercise in comparison to the unorganized ones.

  9. The Characteristic Class of a Lie Algebra Ideal, Contact Structures and the Poisson Algebra of Basic Functions

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    Some cohomology classes associated with an ideal in a Lie algebra, a Poisson structure on the basic functions algebra of contact structure, its Poisson cohomology and geometric (pre)quantization are considered from the algebraic point of view.

  10. Data Structure Analysis to Represent Basic Models of Finite State Automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Gurenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex system engineering based on the automaton models requires a reasoned data structure selection to implement them. The problem of automaton representation and data structure selection to be used in it has been understudied. Arbitrary data structure selection for automaton model software implementation leads to unnecessary computational burden and reduces the developed system efficiency. This article proposes an approach to the reasoned selection of data structures to represent finite algoristic automaton basic models and gives practical considerations based on it.Static and dynamic data structures are proposed for three main ways to assign Mealy and Moore automatons: a transition table, a matrix of coupling and a transition graph. A thirddimensional array, a rectangular matrix and a matrix of lists are the static structures. Dynamic structures are list-oriented structures: two-level and three-level Ayliff vectors and a multi-linked list. These structures allow us to store all required information about finite state automaton model components - characteristic set cardinalities and data of transition and output functions.A criterion system is proposed for data structure comparative evaluation in virtue of algorithmic features of automata theory problems. The criteria focused on capacitive and time computational complexity of operations performed in tasks such as equivalent automaton conversions, proving of automaton equivalence and isomorphism, and automaton minimization.A data structure comparative analysis based on the criterion system has done for both static and dynamic type. The analysis showed advantages of the third-dimensional array, matrix and two-level Ayliff vector. These are structures that assign automaton by transition table. For these structures an experiment was done to measure the execution time of automation operations included in criterion system.The analysis of experiment results showed that a dynamic structure - two

  11. Regulation of protein kinase Cmu by basic peptides and heparin. Putative role of an acidic domain in the activation of the kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gschwendt, M; Johannes, F J; Kittstein, W; Marks, F

    1997-08-15

    Protein kinase Cmu is a novel member of the protein kinase C (PKC) family that differs from the other isoenzymes in structural and enzymatic properties. No substrate proteins of PKCmu have been identified as yet. Moreover, the regulation of PKCmu activity remains obscure, since a structural region corresponding to the pseudosubstrate domains of other PKC isoenzymes has not been found for PKCmu. Here we show that aldolase is phosphorylated by PKCmu in vitro. Phosphorylation of aldolase and of two substrate peptides by PKCmu is inhibited by various proteins and peptides, including typical PKC substrates such as histone H1, myelin basic protein, and p53. This inhibitory activity seems to depend on clusters of basic amino acids in the protein/peptide structures. Moreover, in contrast to other PKC isoenzymes PKCmu is activated by heparin and dextran sulfate. Maximal activation by heparin is about twice and that by dextran sulfate four times as effective as maximal activation by phosphatidylserine plus 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, the conventional activators of c- and nPKC isoforms. We postulate that PKCmu contains an acidic domain, which is involved in the formation and stabilization of an active state and which, in the inactive enzyme, is blocked by an intramolecular interaction with a basic domain. This intramolecular block is thought to be released by heparin and possibly also by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate/phosphatidylserine, whereas basic peptides and proteins inhibit PKCmu activity by binding to the acidic domain of the active enzyme.

  12. Stability and biological activity evaluations of PEGylated human basic fibroblast growth factor

    OpenAIRE

    Hadadian, Shahin; Shamassebi, Dariush Norouzian; Mirzahoseini, Hasan; Shokrgozar, Mohamad Ali; Bouzari, Saeid; Sepahi, Mina

    2015-01-01

    Background: Human basic fibroblast growth factor (hBFGF) is a heparin-binding growth factor and stimulates the proliferation of a wide variety of cells and tissues causing survival properties and its stability and biological activity improvements have received much attention. Materials and Methods: In the present work, hBFGF produced by engineered Escherichia coli and purified by cation exchange and heparin affinity chromatography, was PEGylated under appropriate condition employing 10 kD pol...

  13. The relationship between cognitive processing of affective verbal material and the basic personality structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlić Ana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between cognitive processing of affective verbal material and the basic personality structure. For the purposes of research a new experiment was created, where affective priming was measured in a lexical decision task. The term affective priming stands for facilitation in recognition of the stimuli that comes after the presentation of stimuli of the same valence. In this experiment, two words were presented on a screen in front of the subject (stimuli-prime and stimuli-target. Those two words were of the same or different affective valence, and the subject's were instructed to respond whether the second word on the screen had a meaning or not. The basic personality structure was defined by the 'Big five' model and the Disintegration model and measured by NEO PI-R and Delta 10 questionnaires. The results of the affective priming experiment indicated a strong effect of positive facilitation and much weaker effect off negative facilitation. Two significant functions were extracted by quasicanonical correlation analysis. The first function showed correlation between the effect of positive facilitation and all of the subscales of Neuroticism, Extraversion and Conscientiousness (NEO PI-R, as well as all sub dimensions of Disintegration (DELTA 10. The second one indicated to a correlation between the negative facilitation effect and some subscales of Neuroticism, Extraversion and Agreeableness (NEO PI-R, as well as all subscales of Disintegration (DELTA 10.

  14. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Basics will introduce you to some of this science, such as: How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic structure of the brain How different parts of the brain communicate and work with each other How changes in the brain ...

  15. Adsorption of basic Red 46 using sea mango (Cerbera odollam) based activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azmi, Nur Azira Iqlima; Zainudin, Nor Fauziah [School of Bioprocess Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Kompleks Pusat Pengajian Jejawi 3, 02600 Arau, Perlis (Malaysia); Ali, Umi Fazara Md [School of Environmental Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Kompleks Pusat Pengajian Jejawi 3, 02600 Arau, Perlis (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    Sea mango or Cerbera Odollam is another source of carbonaceous material that can be found abundantly in Malaysia. In this research, it is used as a new agricultural source of activated carbon. Sea mango activated carbon was prepared by chemical activation using potassium hydroxide (KOH). The sea mango was soaked in KOH at impregnation ratio of 1:1 and followed by carbonization at temperature of 600°C for 1 hour. The sample was then characterized using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) for surface morphology, while Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) was used to study the surface area. The result shown that sea mango activated carbon (SMAC) developed new pores on its surface and the BET surface area measured was 451.87 m{sup 2}/g. The SMAC performance was then tested for the removal of Basic Red 46 in batch process. The removal of Basic Red 46 (50 mg/L, natural pH, 0.1 g SMAC) was more than 99% in 15 minutes where it reached equilibrium in 30 minutes.

  16. Structure and function of the proline-rich region of myelin basic protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, P E; Deber, C M

    1985-08-13

    Myelin basic protein (MBP)--the major extrinsic membrane protein of central nervous system myelin--from several species contains a rarely encountered highly conserved triproline segment as residues 99-101 of its 170-residue sequence. Cis peptide bonds are known to arise at X-Pro junctions in proteins and may be of functional significance in protein folding, chain reversal, and/or maintenance of tertiary structure. We have examined the conformation of this proline-rich region using principally 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (125 MHz) both in intact bovine MBP and in several MBP fragment peptides which we synthesized, including octapeptide 97-104 (Arg-Thr-Pro-Pro-Pro-Ser-Gln-Gly). Results suggested an all-trans conformation in aqueous solution for the triproline segment in MBP hexapeptide (99-104), heptapeptide (98-104), and octapeptide. Comparison with the 13C spectrum of intact MBP (125 MHz) suggested that the proline-rich region, as well as all other X-Pro MBP peptide junctures, was also essentially all trans in aqueous solution. Although experiments in which octapeptide 97-104 was bound to a lipid preparation (4:1 dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine/dimyristoylphosphatidic acid) demonstrated that cis-proline bonds do arise (to the extent of ca. 5%) in the membrane environment, a role of linear chain propagation is suggested for the triproline segment of myelin basic protein.

  17. AMORPHOUS SILICON ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE MODELING AND BASIC ELECTRO-PHYSICAL PARAMETERS CALCULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Golodenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The amorphous semiconductor has any unique processing characteristics and it is perspective material for electronic engineering. However, we have not authentic information about they atomic structure and it is essential knot for execution calculation they electronic states and electro physical properties. The author's methods give to us decision such problem. This method allowed to calculation the amorphous silicon modeling cluster atomics Cartesian coordinates, determined spectrum and density its electronic states and calculation the basics electro physical properties of the modeling cluster. At that determined numerical means of the energy gap, energy Fermi, electron concentration inside valence and conduction band for modeling cluster. The find results provides real ability for purposeful control to type and amorphous semiconductor charge carriers concentration and else provides relation between atomic construction and other amorphous substance physical properties, for example, heat capacity, magnetic susceptibility and other thermodynamic sizes.

  18. Structure activity relationships of spiramycins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, S; Sano, H; Sunazuka, T

    1985-07-01

    Sixty-six derivatives of spiramycin I and neospiramycin I were synthesized and evaluated by four parameters, MIC, affinity to ribosomes (ID50), therapeutic effect in mice and retention time in HPLC. Among the derivatives, 3,3'',4''-tri-O-propionyl- and 3,4''-di-O-acetyl-3''-O-butyrylspiramycin I showed the highest therapeutic effect which was superior to acetylspiramycin. Structure activity relationships of spiramycins are discussed.

  19. Basic Types and Structural Characteristics of Uplifts: An Overview of Sedimentary Basins in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Dengfa; LI Desheng; WU Xiaozhi; WEN Zhu

    2009-01-01

    The uplift is a positive structural unit of the crust. It is an important window for continental dynamics owing to its abundant structural phenomena, such as fault, fold, unconformity and denudation of strata. Meanwhile, it is the very place to store important minerals like oil, natural gas, coal and uranium. Giant and large-scale oil and gas fields in China, such as the Daqing Oilfield, Lunnan-Tahe Oilfield, Penglai 19-3 Oilfield, Puguang Gas Field and Jingbian Gas Field, are developed mainly on uplifts. Therefore, it is the main target both for oil and gas exploration and for geological study. The uplift can be either a basement uplift, or one developed only in the sedimentary cover. Extension, compression and wrench or their combined forces may give rise to uplifts. The development process of uplifting, such as formation, development, dwindling and destruction, can be taken as the uplifting cycle. The uplifts on the giant Precambrian cratons are large in scale with less extensive structural deformation. The uplifts on the medium- and small-sized cratons or neo-cratons are formed in various shapes with strong structural deformation and complicated geological structure. Owing to changes in the geodynamic environment, uplift experiences a multi-stage or multi-cycle development process. Its geological structure is characterized in superposition of multi-structural layers. Based on the basement properties, mechanical stratigraphy and development sequence, uplifts can be divided into three basic types--the succession, superposition and destruction ones. The succession type is subdivided into the maintaining type and the lasting type. The superposition type can he subdivided into the composite anticlinal type, the buried-hill draped type, the faulted uplift type and the migration type according to the different scales and superimposed styles of uplifts in different cycles. The destruction type is subdivided into the tilting type and the negative inverted type. The

  20. Making Large Class Basic Histology Lectures More Interactive: The Use of Draw-Along Mapping Techniques and Associated Educational Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotzé, Sanet Henriët; Mole, Calvin Gerald

    2015-01-01

    At Stellenbosch University, South Africa, basic histology is taught to a combination class of almost 400 first-year medical, physiotherapy, and dietetic students. Many students often find the amount of work in basic histology lectures overwhelming and consequently loose interest. The aim was to determine if a draw-along mapping activity would…

  1. FLPP NGL Structural Subsystems Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaredson, D.; Ramusat, G.; Appel, S.; Cardone, T.; Persson, J.; Baiocco, P.; Lavelle, F.; Bouilly, Th.

    2012-07-01

    The ESA Future Launchers Preparatory Programme (FLPP) is the basis for new paradigms, investigating the key elements, logic and roadmaps to prepare the development of the safe, reliable and low cost next European Launch Vehicle (LV) for access to space (dubbed NGL - Next Generation LV), with an initial operational capability mid-next decade. In addition to carry cargo to conventional GTO or SSO, the European NGL has to be flexible enough to cope with new pioneering institutional missions as well as the evolving commercial payloads market. This achievement is broached studying three main areas relevant to ELVs: System concepts, Propulsion and Core Technology During the preliminary design activity, a number of design alternatives concerning NGL main structural subsystems have been investigated. Technology is one of the ways to meet the NGL challenges to either improve the performances or to reduce the cost or both. The relevant requirements allow to steer a ‘top-down’ approach for their conception and to propose the most effective technologies. Furthermore, all these technology developments represent a significant ‘bottom-up’ approach investment and concern a large range of activities. The structural subsystems portfolio of the FLPP ‘Core Technology’ activity encompasses major cutting-edge challenges for maturation of the various subsystems leading to reduce overall structural mass, increasing structural margins for robustness, metallic and composite containment of cryogenic propellants, significantly reducing fabrication and operations cost, etc. to derive performing upper and booster stages. Application of concurrent engineering methods will allow developments of performing technology demonstrators in terms of need, demonstration objective, size and cost yielding to safe, low-risk technical approaches for a future development. Potential ability of these advanced structural LV technologies to satisfy the system requirements of the NGL and their current

  2. CALCMIN - an EXCEL™ Visual Basic application for calculating mineral structural formulae from electron microprobe analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandelik, Andreas

    2009-07-01

    CALCMIN, an open source Visual Basic program, was implemented in EXCEL™. The program was primarily developed to support geoscientists in their routine task of calculating structural formulae of minerals on the basis of chemical analysis mainly obtained by electron microprobe (EMP) techniques. Calculation programs for various minerals are already included in the form of sub-routines. These routines are arranged in separate modules containing a minimum of code. The architecture of CALCMIN allows the user to easily develop new calculation routines or modify existing routines with little knowledge of programming techniques. By means of a simple mouse-click, the program automatically generates a rudimentary framework of code using the object model of the Visual Basic Editor (VBE). Within this framework simple commands and functions, which are provided by the program, can be used, for example, to perform various normalization procedures or to output the results of the computations. For the clarity of the code, element symbols are used as variables initialized by the program automatically. CALCMIN does not set any boundaries in complexity of the code used, resulting in a wide range of possible applications. Thus, matrix and optimization methods can be included, for instance, to determine end member contents for subsequent thermodynamic calculations. Diverse input procedures are provided, such as the automated read-in of output files created by the EMP. Furthermore, a subsequent filter routine enables the user to extract specific analyses in order to use them for a corresponding calculation routine. An event-driven, interactive operating mode was selected for easy application of the program. CALCMIN leads the user from the beginning to the end of the calculation process.

  3. Synthetic and structure-activity relationship of insecticidal bufadienolides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, Ace Tatang; Zainuddin, Achmad; Dono, Danar; Hermawan, Wawan; Hayashi, Hideo; Supratman, Unang

    2014-07-01

    A new synthetic analog of bufadienolide, methyl isobryophyllinate A (1), and a known synthetic analog, methyl isobersaldegenate-1,3,5-orthoacetate (2), were obtained by methanolysis of bryophyllin A (3) and bersaldegenin-1,3,5-orthoacetate (5) in basic solution. Structure-insecticidal activity relationship studies revealed both orthoacetate and alpha-pyrone moieties seemed to be essential structural elements for exhibiting insecticidal activity, whereas oxygenated substituents in the C ring enhanced the insecticidal activity against the third instar larvae of silkworm (Bombyx mori).

  4. Formation of culture motor activity of pupils of 5-6 classes by means of basic gymnastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyneko A.H.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : methodological conditions justify the use of basic gymnastics in physical education of pupils of secondary schools. The experimental test method creating a culture of motor activity by means of basic gymnastics in the system of physical education students grades 5-9. Material : experiment were selected 109 students. Results : The method comprises three stages: basic, special and profound. The developed method should be applied in the preparatory part of the lesson (15-20 minutes - invariant component of the curriculum. Found that means basic gymnastics culture is the basis for motor activity. Their conscious and correct implementation is a prerequisite to the motivational desire to exercise. Conclusions : It is proposed to evaluate the physical condition of students with criteria: compliance burden of a preparatory lesson preparedness and age of students; lack of fatigue during exercise basic gymnastics; the impact of stress on technique exercises.

  5. Thermal behavior, structure formation and optical characteristics of nanostructured basic fuchsine thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeyada, H.M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science at New Damietta, Damietta University, 34517, New Damietta (Egypt); Makhlouf, M.M., E-mail: m_makhlof@hotmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science at New Damietta, Damietta University, 34517, New Damietta (Egypt); Department of Physics, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences at Turabah Branch, Taif University, 21995 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Physics, Damietta Cancer Institute, Damietta (Egypt); Ismail, M.I.M.; Salama, A.A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Port Said University, Port Said (Egypt)

    2015-08-01

    Thin films of basic fuchsine, BF, are prepared by thermal evaporation technique. The data of thermal gravimetric analysis, TGA, showed that BF has a thermal stability up to the temperature of 265 °C. The structural characteristics of BF thin films are investigated by using X-ray diffraction, and atomic force microscope techniques. BF is polycrystalline in powder form; it becomes nanocrystallites in thin film condition. Annealing temperatures decreased crystallites size and influenced optical constants of BF films. Optical constants of BF films were estimated by using spectrophotometer measurements of transmittance and reflectance in the spectral range from 190 to 2500 nm. The dependence of absorption coefficient on the photon energy and annealing temperatures was determined and the analysis of the results showed that the optical transition in BF films is indirect allowed one. The onset and fundamental energy gap of BF thin films are 1.91 and 3.72 eV, respectively and they decrease by annealing temperatures. The optical dielectric constants and dispersion parameters of BF thin film are calculated and showed remarkable dependence on photon energy and annealing temperatures. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Polycrystalline BF powder becomes nanocrystallites film upon thermal deposition. • BF has thermal stability up to 265 °C. • BF can be applied as optical filter material. • The type of electron transition is indirect allowed with E{sub g} of 1.91 eV. • Annealing temperatures influenced absorption and dispersion parameters of BF films.

  6. The subject of social justice: a defence of the basic structure of society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Paulo de Lucca-Silveira

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In The Idea of Justice (2009, Amartya Sen presents an approach to justice that seeks to make comparisons based on social realizations. This approach focuses attention both on real political-social institutions and on people's behaviour, as well as other potential influences affecting the degree of justice existing in a given society. The new theoretical proposal advanced by Sen (2009 differs then from the theory of justice formulated by John Rawls (1999a and other contemporary theorists. In the eyes of the Indian author, the theory formulated by Rawls searches for solutions to questions of perfect justice and suffers from problems of feasibility and redundancy. In this article, I argue, centring attention on the question of the appropriate primary subject of social justice, that the critique and subsequent proposal for change of the subject of justice presented by Sen (2009 can be judged mistaken. From a liberal-egalitarian perspective, the primary subject of social justice should be the basic structure of society as formulated by Rawls. Hence I explore the idea that Rawls's option to focus on this subject is directly associated with this particular conception of social justice. I also look to show that Sen's (2009 critique of the redundancy of contemporary theories of justice can be considered implausible. I argue that an ideal theory, such as the one formulated by Rawls, is central to practical guidelines for actions that seek to lessen injustices in real life situations.

  7. Active microorganisms as drivers of dynamic processes in soil: integration of basic teaching into research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2013-04-01

    Traditionally lecture courses, seminars and even practical training are disconnected from real experimental studies and from ongoing research projects. As a result students passively participate in lectures and are helpless when they come to the laboratory to prepare their BSc or MSc theses. We introduce a training course, which is developed for Bachelor students to integrate the basic knowledge on soil microbiology and modern microbiological methods in ecological studies. The training course is focused on the importance of active microbial biomass as biogeochemical driver of soil processes. According to our concept soil functioning is closely related to and depends on the microbial activities, and only active microorganisms drive all processes. Despite this importance of active microorganisms, the most of methods are focused on the estimation of the total microbial biomass and fail to evaluate its activity. Our course demonstrates how the active physiological state of soil microorganisms can be related to the activity indicators such as respiration, molecular biomarkers and viable cell compartments (ATP, PLFA, RNA) determined in situ in soil. Each lecture begins with the set of provocative questions "What is wrong?" which help students to activate their knowledge from previous lectures. Information on on-going soil incubation experiments is integrated in the lectures as a special block. The students are required not only to learn the existing methods but to compare them and to evaluate critically the applicability of these methods to explain the results of on-going experiments. The seminars foreseen within training course are focused on critical discussions of the protocols and their adaptations to current experimental tasks. During practical part of training courses the students are associated in small research groups with a certain ecological tasks. Each group uses soil sub-samples from ongoing experiments and thus, the experimental data obtaining during the

  8. Influence of B2O3 and Basicity on Viscosity and Structure of Medium Titanium Bearing Blast Furnace Slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingtao Bian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of B2O3 and basicity (CaO/SiO2 on the viscous behavior and structure of medium titanium bearing blast furnace slag (MTBBFS were investigated. High temperature viscosimeter was applied to measure the viscosities of CaO-SiO2-MgO-TiO2-Al2O3-B2O3 slag system and X-ray diffraction (XRD, NBO/T ratio, and structure parameter Q were employed to analyze its network structure. The results showed that the viscosity decreased and break point temperature increased with increasing basicity to 1.20. However B2O3 addition gave rise to a decrease in slag viscosity and break point temperature inspite of basicity. The more B2O3 content leads to the more pronounced variation, especially for the slag with larger basicity. The conventional NBO/T formula was revised to predict the structure variation of relatively complicated medium Ti bearing slag based on the work of Yanhong Gao and other researchers. The increase of B2O3 content in slag made parameter Q turn from Q2 to Q1, suggesting that network structure became simpler. It was also noticed that the addition of B2O3 could suppress the formation of perovskite.

  9. The structure of Doppler peaks induced by active perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Magueijo, J; Ferreira, P; Coulson, D; Magueijo, Joao; Albrecht, Andreas; Ferreira, Pedro; Coulson, David

    1996-01-01

    We investigate how the qualitative structure of Doppler peaks in the angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave anisotropy is affected by basic assumptions going into theories of structure formation. We define the concepts of ``coherent'' and ``incoherent'' fluctuations, and also of ``active'' and ``passive'' fluctuations. In these terms inflationary fluctuations are passive and coherent while topological defects are active incoherent fluctuations. Causality and scale invariance are shown to have different implementations in theories differing in the above senses. We then extend the formalism of Hu and Sugiyama to treat models with cosmic defects. Using this formalism we show that the existence or absence of secondary Doppler peaks and the rough placing of the primary peak are very sensitive to the fundamental properties defined. We claim therefore that even a rough measurement of the angular power spectrum C_l shape at 100basic ingredients to be used in the ri...

  10. 活动理论视角下协作学习活动的基本要素%The Basic Elements of Collaborative Learning Activity in View of Activity Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余亮; 黄荣怀

    2014-01-01

    协作学习活动设计的核心和关键即是对其基本要素的分析和配置。厘清协作学习活动的基本要素,是分析和设计协作学习活动的基础。以活动理论为视角,论述了协作学习活动的要素,并在此基础上建构了协作学习的结构模型,确立了资源、角色、任务和时序四个基本要素。最后,以此四要素为基本框架,比较和分析了四个协作脚本。%The crux of the design of collaborative learning activity is the analysis and allocation of its basic elements. Designing and analyzing the collaborative learning activity is on the basis of clarifying its basic elements. In the paper, the elements of collaborative learning activity in view of activity theory are discussed, on the basis of which the structure model of collaborative learning activity is built. With the ground on the structure model, task, sequence, role and resource as four basic elements of collaborative learning activity are decided on. In the end, four basic elements are taken as the framework to compare and analyze four collaboration scripts.

  11. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit ... final destination. Chemical signals from other cells guide neurons in forming various brain structures. Neighboring neurons make connections with each other ...

  12. Estructura básica del baile flamenco. Basic structure of flamenco dancing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica González Sánchez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Pautas estructurales aplicables a la hora de coreografiar un baile tradicional flamenco. Las partes principales de las que consta la coreografía de un palo flamenco tradicional son: 1ª Letra; 2ª Letra; Escobilla; y Final. Podemos decir que estas serían partes ineludibles de un palo. En este artículo señalamos además, qué opciones tiene cada elemento que conforma el hecho flamenco (cante-baile-guitarra, esto es, qué puede hacer en cada una de esas partes. Así se proporciona al lector herramientas funcionales a la hora de crear una coreografía flamenca como coreógrafo o intérprete, o bien a la hora de analizarla, como espectador.Se explican las estructuras de algunos palos que por sus particularidades, se diferencian del resto. Uno de ellos es el baile por alegrías, donde señalamos aquellas partes que lo convierten en uno de los palos estructuralmente más definidos. Se hace hincapié en el silencio de alegrías, parte que lo diferencia del resto de cantiñas o cantes de Cádiz. También se propone una estructura para el baile por caña y polo, cuyos cantes tienen una sucesión de ayes característicos que se repiten varias veces en su interpretación. Finalmente se muestra una posible estructura para tangos y bulerías, pero como palos propios no como bailes festeros o final de otros palos.Structural guidelines which are to be applicable at the time to choreograph a traditional flamenco dance.The main parts which the choreography of each traditional variety (or palo of flamenco dance consists of are: 1st lyric, 2nd lyric, broom (or escobilla, and Final. We can say that these should be considered the basic elements all varieties must include. In this article we also point out what role each element that makes up the flamenco (song-dance-guitar plays; that is, what each one of those elements can do. In this way, we provide the reader with functional tools when making flamenco dance, both as a choreographer and a performer; and even

  13. A prospective longitudinal study testing relationships between meaningful activities, basic psychological needs fulfillment, and meaning in life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakman, Aaron M

    2014-01-01

    The current study used a prospective longitudinal design to determine whether change in meaningful activity over an 11-month period could help explain change in meaning in life in a sample of 174 undergraduate and graduate students. The Engagement in Meaningful Activities Survey, Basic Psychological Needs Scales (i.e., autonomy, competence, relatedness), and the Meaning in Life Questionnaire were used as indicators of the constructs of meaningful activity, basic psychological needs fulfillment, and meaning and purpose in life. The findings were in support of the study hypotheses and indicated that change in meaningful activity explained both change in basic psychological needs fulfillment (i.e., autonomy, competence, relatedness) and change in meaning in life. Further, this study reports findings consistent with results from cross-sectional studies in support of the hypothesis that change in meaningful activity may influence change in meaning in life through two pathways: a direct path of influence from meaningful activity to meaning in life and an indirect path through change in basic psychological needs fulfillment. The current study contributes to a growing literature implicating subjective evaluations of day-to-day action (or meaningful activity) as a fruitful means for exploring relationships between occupation and well-being.

  14. Integrated basic treatment of activated carbon for enhanced CO{sub 2} selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adelodun, Adedeji Adebukola; Jo, Young-Min, E-mail: ymjo@khu.ac.kr

    2013-12-01

    We attempted the use of three chemical agents viz nitric acid (HN), calcium nitrate (CaN) and calcium ethanoate (CaEt) to achieve enhanced CO{sub 2} selective adsorption by activated carbon (AC). In dry phase treatment, microporous coconut shell-based carbon (CS) exhibits higher CO{sub 2} capacity than coal-based. However, upon wet-phase pre-treatment, modified CS samples showed lesser CO{sub 2} adsorption efficiency. Surface characterization with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms the presence of calcium and amine species on the samples with integrated treatment (A-CaN). These samples recorded the highest low-level CO{sub 2} capture despite calcinated CaEt-doped samples (C-CaEt) showing the highest value for pure and high level CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities. The slope and linearity values of isobaric desorption were used to estimate the proportion of CO{sub 2} chemisorbed and heterogeneity of the adsorbents’ surfaces respectively. Consequently, integrated basic impregnation provides the most efficient adsorbents for selective adsorption of both indoor and outdoor CO{sub 2} levels.

  15. Structure and activation of rhodopsin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    X Edward ZHOU; Karsten MELCHER; H Eric XU

    2012-01-01

    Rhodopsin is the first G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) with its three-dimensional structure solved by X-ray crystallography.The crystal structure of rhodopsin has revealed the molecular mechanism of photoreception and signal transduction in the visual system.Although several other GPCR crystal structures have been reported over the past few years,the rhodopsin structure remains an important model for understanding the structural and functional characteristics of other GPCRs.This review summarizes the structural features,the photoactivation,and the G protein signal transduction of rhodopsin.

  16. Structure and Profiles of Basic Motor Competencies in the Third Grade-Validation of the Test Instrument MOBAK-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Christian; Seelig, Harald

    2016-11-21

    Basic motor competencies are defined as motor performance dispositions that evolve from specific requirements in sports and exercise. After validating the MOBAK-1 instrument for first graders, we developed the MOBAK-3 for the assessment of basic motor competencies in third graders. We investigated the factorial and diagnostic validity of this instrument in a sample of 323 children (age: M = 9.2 years, SD = .39; sex: boys, n = 158, girls, n = 165). A confirmatory factor analysis verified the theoretical structure with the two factors Locomotion and Object Control. By means of latent class analysis, we identified five latent classes that were connected with external criteria. We concluded that the MOBAK-3 effectively evaluates the basic motor competencies of 8- to 10-year-old students.

  17. Structural Modeling on the Relationship between Basic Psychological Needs, Academic Engagement, and Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maralani, Farnaz Mehdipour; Lavasani, Masoud Gholamali; Hejazi, Elahe

    2016-01-01

    Some of the key issues in educational psychology are the way of students' engagement at school, controlling anxiety, and academic achievement. In line with that, the purpose of the present study is to determine the relationship between variables that are basic psychological needs, academic engagement, and test anxiety with regard to structural…

  18. Basic English Writing: An Experimental Course Structure against Semantic Misinterpretation in Undergraduate Student Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    In, Fan-yu; Liao, Hui-Chuan

    2008-01-01

    Course designs for Basic English Writing classes vary from one course to another. The objective of this study was to investigate the semantic misinterpretation of English words found in the English compositions written by native-Chinese-speaking undergraduate students and to overcome if such a barrier occurred in the process of writing. First,…

  19. Using computerized tomography to determine ionospheric structures. Part 1, Notivation and basic approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vittitoe, C.N.

    1993-08-01

    Properties of the ionosphere are reviewed along with its correlations with other geophysical phenomena and with applications of ionospheric studies to communication, navigation, and surveillance systems. Computer tomography is identified as a method to determine the detailed, three-dimensional distribution of electron density within the ionosphere. Several tomography methods are described, with a basic approach illustrated by an example. Limitations are identified.

  20. The Importance of Computer Based Active Learning for Basic Chemistry in Vocational High Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuğçe GÜNTER

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemistry is a very comprehensive discipline that researches atoms; molecules; the structure of matter in the form of element or compound; combinations, and physical and chemical properties of matter; macroscopic and microscopic transformations of matters; the energy and entropy released or absorbed in the course of these transformations; the structures and functions of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, enzymes, vitamins and minerals in the body. This discipline includes numerous reactions at the macroscopic, microscopic and particulate levels, abstract concepts, three-dimensional structure of molecules, mathematics, and graphics. It is important for students to be trained as scientists to internalize -with meaningful learning - chemistry having much abstract concepts. Especially for students in associate degree programs in Vocational High Schools, taking this integrated course will provide them to be more creative in their future professional work; to cope with and overcome analytical problems; to be self-learners; to fill the gaps concerning chemical analysis originated from secondary education; and to gain critical thinking and self-evaluation skills regarding chemical problems. In the age of developing science and technology, “Computer-Based Active Learning Method” emerged with the introduction of multi-media into education and training. In this context, students will learn difficult and complex mathematical operations and graphics interpretations more meaningfully with computer-based simulations and analogies.

  1. Home Economics--Food Services, Basic Cake Decorating. Kit No. 57. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevard, Eddie, Jr.

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on basic cake decorating are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of home economics (food services). (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home…

  2. Charac terization of anatomical structure and basic physical pro perties of Velenje xylite

    OpenAIRE

    Gorišek, Željko; Čufar, Katarina; Straže, Aleš

    2012-01-01

    Xylite is a lithotype of lignite, mainly used for fuel. The wood from which it was formed in a long term process (duration ca. 2 millions of years) was subjected to drastic changes. We conducted anatomical characterization of xylite, evaluated preservation of wood from which it was formed, defined its basic physical properties, and compared it with modern wood. We recognized ground tissue composed of tracheids, uniseriate and homocellular rays, taxodioid like crossfield pits, and abu...

  3. Control of Melt Structures on Cu-Au Mineralization in Basic-Ultrabasic Complexes of Northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Based on systematic analyses of 72 samples of different basic-ultrabasic rocks, the present paper discusses the relationship between melt strcture and Cu and Au mineralization. It is found that if the NBO/T, NBO, M2+,FeO and MgO values are relatively high and the T, M3+, Fe2O3 and CaO values are low the basic-ultrahasic melt will be favourable to Cu (Ni) mineralization, but if the former are low and the latter are high it is favourable to Au metallization. Cu ions occupy dominantly octahedra in basic-ultrabasic melt and the higher the NBO/T, NBO and M2+ values, the more the octahedra in the melt. Au element mainly takes the form of Au+ions in basic-ultrabasic melt and the Au+ ions constitute tetrahedral sites together with Fe3+ ions. Therefore, low M2+ and high Fe3+, i.e. high oxygen fugacity, can promote the enrichment of Au+ ions and Au mineralization. Components M+ (other than Au+), Al2O3 and SiO2 in basic-ultrabasic melt have no effect on metallogenetic species. As mentioned above, in relevant diagrams distribution areas of the characteristic values of ore-free melt and those of ore-forming melt are overlapped in different degrees, which possibly indicates that not all the magmas have mineralizing ability. It can be well distinguished whather basic-ultrabasic rocks are favourable to Cu or Au mineralization or they are just ore-free rocks by analysing integrated diagrams of the characteristic values of the magmatic melt structure.

  4. Handbook of driver assistance systems basic information, components and systems for active safety and comfort

    CERN Document Server

    Hakuli, Stephan; Lotz, Felix; Singer, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This fundamental work explains in detail systems for active safety and driver assistance, considering both their structure and their function. These include the well-known standard systems such as Anti-lock braking system (ABS), Electronic Stability Control (ESC) or Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC). But it includes also new systems for protecting collisions protection, for changing the lane, or for convenient parking. The book aims at giving a complete picture focusing on the entire system. First, it describes the components which are necessary for assistance systems, such as sensors, actuators, mechatronic subsystems, and control elements. Then, it explains key features for the user-friendly design of human-machine interfaces between driver and assistance system. Finally, important characteristic features of driver assistance systems for particular vehicles are presented: Systems for commercial vehicles and motorcycles.

  5. Basic Principles of the Activity and Synergetic Approach as a Means of Interdisciplinary Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolsunovskaya L.M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the problem of interdisciplinarity as the main tendency of today’s science to unite the methodology and terminology and adapt them to any academic field in order to achieve more objective results in the study of complex phenomena. This article is a descriptive one and it deals with problems of terms’ interpretations and their adaptation to the anthropocentric research viewed by scientists of different academic schools. The main idea of the article is to find the most relevant and systemic definition of the given terms, which could be used as a tool in further linguistic analysis applied to the coming research of the authors. Special attention is paid to the description of the Activity Theory from different aspects of its interpretation: psychological, sociological, linguistic; to the explanation of the correlation between the epistemic structure of knowledge and an open non-linear synergetic bilateral (conceptual and lexical-semantic system influenced and motivated by processual factors to evolution in the modern discourse as the communicative activity of the interpreter and the constructor of discourse.

  6. Active impedance matching of complex structural systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macmartin, Douglas G.; Miller, David W.; Hall, Steven R.

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs on active impedance matching of complex structural systems are presented. Topics covered include: traveling wave model; dereverberated mobility model; computation of dereverberated mobility; control problem: optimal impedance matching; H2 optimal solution; statistical energy analysis (SEA) solution; experimental transfer functions; interferometer actuator and sensor locations; active strut configurations; power dual variables; dereverberation of complex structure; dereverberated transfer function; compensators; and relative power flow.

  7. Structural Antitumoral Activity Relationships of Synthetic Chalcones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverria, Cesar; Santibañez, Juan Francisco; Donoso-Tauda, Oscar; Escobar, Carlos A.; Ramirez-Tagle, Rodrigo

    2009-01-01

    Relationships between the structural characteristic of synthetic chalcones and their antitumoral activity were studied. Treatment of HepG2 cells for 24 h with synthetic 2’-hydroxychalcones resulted in apoptosis induction and dose-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation. The calculated reactivity indexes and the adiabatic electron affinities using the DFT method including solvent effects, suggest a structure-activity relationship between the Chalcones structure and the apoptosis in HepG2 cells. The absence of methoxy substituents in the B ring of synthetic 2’-hydroxychalcones, showed the mayor structure-activity pattern along the series. PMID:19333443

  8. Active damping of unidimensional structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartakovskiy, B. D.

    1973-01-01

    The vibration characteristics of an unidimensional structure are discussed. The cases considered are: (1) a rigid pipe in which a wave propagates, (2) an infinite string along which a transverse wave propagates, (3) a rod along which longitudinal or torsional columns propagate, and (4) generally a unidimensional propagation of some one mode of vibrations which is nondegenerating with distance. Mathematical models are developed to show the performance of the mechanical devices under various damping conditions.

  9. Basic study of magnetic microwires for sensor applications: Variety of magnetic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizhik, Alexander; Zhukov, Arcady; Gonzalez, Julian; Stupakiewicz, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    We examine magnetic glass-coated microwires used for magnetic sensors. Images of domain structures and magnetization reversal were obtained with magneto-optical Kerr microscopy. Of particular importance were temperature-induced transformations of surface magnetic structures. Different surface magnetic domains coexist, characterized by various domain periods, magnetization directions, and nobilities of domain walls.

  10. Stationary waves on nonlinear quantum graphs. II. Application of canonical perturbation theory in basic graph structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnutzmann, Sven; Waltner, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    We consider exact and asymptotic solutions of the stationary cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equation on metric graphs. We focus on some basic example graphs. The asymptotic solutions are obtained using the canonical perturbation formalism developed in our earlier paper [S. Gnutzmann and D. Waltner, Phys. Rev. E 93, 032204 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevE.93.032204]. For closed example graphs (interval, ring, star graph, tadpole graph), we calculate spectral curves and show how the description of spectra reduces to known characteristic functions of linear quantum graphs in the low-intensity limit. Analogously for open examples, we show how nonlinear scattering of stationary waves arises and how it reduces to known linear scattering amplitudes at low intensities. In the short-wavelength asymptotics we discuss how genuine nonlinear effects may be described using the leading order of canonical perturbation theory: bifurcation of spectral curves (and the corresponding solutions) in closed graphs and multistability in open graphs.

  11. Electromyographic activity of the rectus abdominis during a traditional crunch and the basic jackknife exercise with the Ab Lounge™.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Gail A; Bent-Forsythe, Denise A; Roopchand-Martin, Sharmella C

    2012-06-01

    The use of nontraditional exercise devices such as the Ab Lounge™ has been promoted as being as effective as the traditional abdominal crunch in strengthening the abdominal musculature. Evidence for this is lacking, however. The purpose of this study was to compare the degree of activation of the upper and lower rectus abdominis using electromyography (EMG) during a traditional crunch with the basic jackknife using the Ab Lounge™. Twenty-two subjects (6 men and 16 women) were randomly selected from the student population at the University of the West Indies (Mona Campus). The mean age of the participants was 20.5 ± 1.5 years, height 166.4 ± 6.2 cm, weight 64 ± 10.3 kg, and waist-hip ratio 0.7 ± 0.1. Surface EMG was used to assess the muscle activity from the upper and lower rectus abdominis while each exercise was performed. The EMG data were full-wave rectified and normalized using a mathematical model that was set up in Microsoft Excel for Windows XP. Statistical analysis was performed on the data using a univariate analysis of variance with gender as a covariate. Significance was determined by p crunch when compared with the basic jackknife performed on the Ab Lounge™ (F = 4.39, p = 0.04). The traditional crunch produced a higher level of activity in the lower rectus abdominis when compared with the basic jackknife, but this was not statistically significant (F = 0.249, p = 0.62). There was no significant interaction between gender and the effect of the type of exercise on upper and lower rectus abdominis activation. These results suggest that the traditional abdominal crunch is more effective than the basic jackknife is in activating the rectus abdominis musculature.

  12. Secretion by stimulated murine macrophages of a heparin-binding fibroblast growth activity, distinct from basic FGE and IL-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rappolee, D.A.; Banda, M.J.; Werb, Z.

    1986-03-01

    Wound healing requires granulation and formation of neovascularization tissue. These two events require increases in fibroblasts, vascular endothelial, and smooth muscle cells. Macrophages may produce several growth factors which participate in these would healing events. To test this hypothesis they have partially purified a fibroblast growth promoting activity from a murine macrophage cell line (P388 Dl). The activity causes growth in Balb/c and Swiss 3T3 cells as measured by thymidine uptake, nuclear labeling and increase in cell number. PDGF, Basic FGF, and EGF are also mitogenic by thymidine uptake, but purified human IL-1 and recombinant murine IL-1 are not. The activity is pH 2.5-, freeze/thaw-, and dialysis/lyphilyzation-stable. The activity elutes from heparin-Sepharose at 2.0M, but not 0.15m, 0.5M, or 3.0M NaCl. Basic FGF elutes from the same heparin-Sepharose batch at 3.0M, but not at the other three NaCl concentrations. The growth activity is secreted by viable murine macrophage line cells (P388D1, WEHI-3, RAW 264.7) at a 48 hour peak after activating (LPS) or phagocytic stimuli. Unstimulated P388D1 caused growth 1.7 times control whereas stimulation increases the growth 5.1 to 7.1 times control. The optimal activity concentration fails to complement insulin in an assay in which optimal basic FGF concentration complements insulin. These data suggest that the activity may contain a progression factor.

  13. Rapid mitogen-activated protein kinase by basic fibroblast growth factor in rat intestin after ischemia/reperfusion injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Bing Fu; Yin-Hui Yang; Tong-Zhu Sun; Wei Chen; Jun-You Li; Zhi-Yong Sheng

    2003-01-01

    AIM: Previous studies showed that exogenous basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF or FGF-2) could improve physiological dysfunction after intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, the mechanisms of this protective effect of bFGF are still unclear. The present study was to detect the effect of bFGF on the activities of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MlAPK) signaling pathway in rat intestine after I/R injury, and to investigate the protective mechanisms of bFGF on intestinal ischemia injury. METttODS: Rat intestinal I/R injury was produced by clamping the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) for 45minutes and followed by repeffusion for 48 hours. Seventyeight Wistar rats were used and divided randomly into sham-operated group (A), normal saline control group (B),bFGF antibody pre-treated group (C), and bFGF treated group (D). Tn group A, SMA was separated without occlusion. In groups B, C and D, SMA was separated and occluded for 45 minutes, then, released for reperfusion for 48 hours. After the animals were sacrificed, blood and tissue samples were taken from the intestine 45 minutes after ischemia in group A and 2, 6, 24, and 48 hours after reperfusion in the other groups. Phosphorylated forms of p42/p44 MAPK, p38 MAPK and stress activated protein kinase/C-Jun N-terminal kinase (SAPK/JNK) were measured by immunohistochemistry. Plasma levels of D-lactate were examined and histological changes were observed under the light microscope. RESULTS: Intestinal I/R injury induced the expression of p42/p44 MAPK, p38 MAPK, and SAPK/JNK pathways and exogenous bFGF stimulated the early activation of p42/p44 MAPK and p38 MlAPK pathways. The expression of phosphorylated forms of p42/p44 MAPK was primarily localized in the nuclei of crypt cells and in the cytoplasm and nuclei of villus cells. The positive expression of p38MAPK was localized mainly in the nuclei of crypt cells, very few in villus cells. The activities of p42/p44 MAPK and p38MAPK peaked 6 hours after

  14. Crystal structure determination of basic phospholipase A2 from venom of Agkistrodon halys pallas by molecular replacement method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟五一; 林政炯; 周元聪

    1996-01-01

    Basic phospholipase A2 (BPLA2) from the venom of Agkistrodon halys pallas has a strong ability to hemolyze erythrocytes. The asymmetrical unit of P212121 crystal of BPLA2 contains two molecules. Self-rotation function was used to study the orientation relationship of these two molecules. Cross-rotation and translation functions were then used to determine the orientations and positions of the two molecules in the unit cell. The model building and preliminary structure refinement were carried out. The result shows that the two molecules in the asymmetrical unit of orthorhombic crystal are related by a non-crystallographic 2-fold symmetry axis.

  15. Molecular evolution of myelin basic protein, an abundant structural myelin component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Schanila; Schweitzer, Jörn; Jahn, Olaf; Werner, Hauke B

    2013-08-01

    Rapid nerve conduction in jawed vertebrates is facilitated by the myelination of axons, which evolved in ancient cartilaginous fish. We aim to understand the coevolution of myelin and the major myelin proteins. We found that myelin basic protein (MBP) derived from living cartilaginous fish (sharks and rays) associated with the plasma membrane of glial cells similar to the phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate (PIP₂)-binding marker PH-PLCδ1, and that ionomycin-induced PIP₂-hydrolysis led to its cellular redistribution. We identified two paralogous mbp genes in multiple teleost species, consistent with a genome duplication at the root of the teleost clade. Zebrafish mbpb is organized in a complex transcription unit together with the unrelated gene-of-the-oligodendrocyte-lineage (golli) while mbpa does not encode GOLLI. Moreover, the embryonic expression of mbpa and mbpb differed, indicating functional specialization after duplication. However, both mbpa and mbpb-mRNAs were detected in mature oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells, MBPa and MBPb were mass spectrometrically identified in zebrafish myelin, both associated with the plasma membrane via PIP₂, and the ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous nucleotide-substitution rates (Ka/Ks) was low. Together, this indicates selective pressure to conserve many aspects of the cellular expression and function of MBP across vertebrate species. We propose that the PIP₂-binding function of MBP is evolutionarily old and that its emergence in ancient gnathostomata provided glial cells with the competence to myelinate.

  16. Size effect in composite materials and structures: Basic concepts and design considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweben, Carl

    1994-01-01

    Composite materials display strength characteristics that are similar to those of brittle ceramics, whose strengths are known to decrease with increasing volume for a uniform state of stress (size effect) and also are dependent on stress distribution. These similarities raise the question of whether there is also a size effect in composite materials and structures. There is significant, but inconclusive experimental evidence for the existence of a size effect in composites. Macroscopic and micromechanical statistical models have been developed which predict a size effect and are in general agreement with experimental data. The existence of a significant size effect in composites would be of great importance. For example, it would mean that use of standard test coupons to establish design allowables for large structures could be very nonconservative. Further, it would be necessary to analyze the strength of large composite structures using statistical methods, as is done for ceramics.

  17. Structural Features of Caspase-Activating Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Ho Park

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis, also called programmed cell death, is an orderly cellular suicide program that is critical for the development, immune regulation and homeostasis of a multi-cellular organism. Failure to control this process can lead to serious human diseases, including many types of cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and autoimmununity. The process of apoptosis is mediated by the sequential activation of caspases, which are cysteine proteases. Initiator caspases, such as caspase-2, -8, -9, and -10, are activated by formation of caspase-activating complexes, which function as a platform to recruit caspases, providing proximity for self-activation. Well-known initiator caspase-activating complexes include (1 DISC (Death Inducing Signaling Complex, which activates caspases-8 and 10; (2 Apoptosome, which activates caspase-9; and (3 PIDDosome, which activates caspase-2. Because of the fundamental biological importance of capases, many structural and biochemical studies to understand the molecular basis of assembly mechanism of caspase-activating complexes have been performed. In this review, we summarize previous studies that have examined the structural and biochemical features of caspase-activating complexes. By analyzing the structural basis for the assembly mechanism of the caspase-activating complex, we hope to provide a comprehensive understanding of caspase activation by these important oligomeric complexes.

  18. Structural requirements and basic design concepts for a two-stage winged launcher system (Saenger)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczera, H.; Keller, K.; Kunz, R.

    1988-10-01

    An evaluation is made of materials and structures technologies deemed capable of increasing the mass fraction-to-orbit of the Saenger two-stage launcher system while adequately addressing thermal-control and cryogenic fuel storage insulation problems. Except in its leading edges, nose cone, and airbreathing propulsion system air intakes, Ti alloy-based materials will be the basis of the airframe primary structure. Lightweight metallic thermal-protection measures will be employed. Attention is given to the design of the large lower stage element of Saenger.

  19. Molecular structure of basic oligomeric building units of heparan-sulfate glycosaminoglycans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remko, Milan; Van Duijnen, Piet Th.; Broer, Ria

    2010-01-01

    This study reports in detail the results of systematic large-scale theoretical investigations of the acidic dimeric structural units (D-E, E-F, F-G, and G-H) and pentamer D-E-F-G-H (fondaparinux) of the glycosaminoglycan heparin, and their anionic forms. The geometries and energies of these oligomer

  20. Quantum Mechanics Calculations, Basicity and Crystal Structure: The Route to Transition Metal Complexes of Azahelicenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Natali Sora

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum mechanics density functional calculations provided gas-phase electron distributions and proton affinities for several mono- and diaza[5]helicenes; computational results, together with experimental data concerning crystal structures and propensity to methylation of the nitrogen atom(s, provide a basis for designing azahelicene complexes with transition metal ions.

  1. Active and passive vibration control of structures

    CERN Document Server

    Spelsberg-Korspeter, Gottfried

    2014-01-01

    Active and Passive Vibration Control of Structures form an issue of very actual interest in many different fields of engineering, for example in the automotive and aerospace industry, in precision engineering (e.g. in large telescopes), and also in civil engineering. The papers in this volume bring together engineers of different background, and it fill gaps between structural mechanics, vibrations and modern control theory.  Also links between the different applications in structural control are shown.

  2. Numerical simulation on the adaptation of forms in trabecular bone to mechanical disuse and basic multi-cellular unit activation threshold at menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, He; Fan, Yubo; Zhang, Ming

    2008-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to identify the effects of mechanical disuse and basic multi-cellular unit (BMU) activation threshold on the form of trabecular bone during menopause. A bone adaptation model with mechanical- biological factors at BMU level was integrated with finite element analysis to simulate the changes of trabecular bone structure during menopause. Mechanical disuse and changes in the BMU activation threshold were applied to the model for the period from 4 years before to 4 years after menopause. The changes in bone volume fraction, trabecular thickness and fractal dimension of the trabecular structures were used to quantify the changes of trabecular bone in three different cases associated with mechanical disuse and BMU activation threshold. It was found that the changes in the simulated bone volume fraction were highly correlated and consistent with clinical data, and that the trabecular thickness reduced significantly during menopause and was highly linearly correlated with the bone volume fraction, and that the change trend of fractal dimension of the simulated trabecular structure was in correspondence with clinical observations. The numerical simulation in this paper may help to better understand the relationship between the bone morphology and the mechanical, as well as biological environment; and can provide a quantitative computational model and methodology for the numerical simulation of the bone structural morphological changes caused by the mechanical environment, and/or the biological environment.

  3. Numerical simulation on the adaptation of forms in trabecular bone to mechanical disuse and basic multi-cellular unit activation threshold at menopause

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Gong; Yubo Fan; Ming Zhang

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to identify the effects of mechanical disuse and basic multi-cellular unit (BMU) activation threshold on the form of trabecular bone during menopause. A bone adaptation model with mechanical-biological factors at BMU level was integrated with finite element analysis to simulate the changes of trabecular bone structure during menopause. Mechanical disuse and changes in the BMU activation threshold were applied to the model for the period from 4 years before to 4 years after menopause.The changes in bone volume fraction, trabecular thickness and fractal dimension of the trabecular structures were used to quantify the changes of trabecular bone in three different cases associated with mechanical disuse and BMU activation threshold. It was found that the changes in the simulated bone volume fraction were highly correlated and consistent with clinical data, and that the trabecular thickness reduced signi-ficantly during menopause and was highly linearly correlated with the bone volume fraction, and that the change trend of fractal dimension of the simulated trabecular structure was in correspondence with clinical observations. The numerical simulation in this paper may help to better understand the relationship between the bone morphology and the mecha- nical, as well as biological environment; and can provide a quantitative computational model and methodology for the numerical simulation of the bone structural morphological changes caused by the mechanical environment, and/or the biological environment.

  4. Basic Structure of Some Classes of Neutrosophic Crisp Nearly Open Sets & Possible Application to GIS Topology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Salama

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the world is full of indeterminacy, the neutrosophics found their place into contemporary research. The fundamental concepts of neutrosophic set, introduced by Smarandache and Salama et al. In Geographical information systems (GIS there is a need to model spatial regions with indeterminate boundary and under indeterminacy. In this paper the structure of some classes of neutrosophic crisp nearly open sets are investigated and some applications are given. Finally we generalize the crisp topological and intuitioistic studies to the notion of neutrosophic crisp set. Possible applications to GIS topological rules are touched upon.

  5. Treatment of traumatised refugees with basic body awareness therapy versus mixed physical activity as add-on treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordbrandt, Maja Sticker; Carlsson, Jessica; Lindberg, Laura Glahder

    2015-01-01

    . In clinical studies, physical activity has shown a positive effect on psychiatric illnesses such as depression and anxiety and for patients with chronic pain. However, scientific knowledge about physical activity as part of the treatment for traumatised refugees is very limited and no guidelines exist......-based Cognitive Behavioural Therapy. The first group only receives treatment as usual while the second and the third groups receive either Basic-Body Awareness Therapy or mixed physical activity as add-on treatments. Each physical activity is provided for an individual 1-hour consultation per week......, for the duration of 20 weeks. The study is being conducted at the Competence Centre for Transcultural Psychiatry, Mental Health Centre Ballerup in the Capital Region of Denmark. The primary endpoint of the study is symptoms of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder; the secondary endpoints are depression and anxiety...

  6. Two basic (hydrophilic) regions in the movement protein of Parietaria mottle virus have RNA binding activity and are required for cell-to-cell transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Carolina; Coll-Bonfill, Nuria; Aramburu, Jose; Pallás, Vicente; Aparicio, Frederic; Galipienso, Luis

    2014-05-12

    The movement protein (MP) of parietaria mottle virus (PMoV) is required for virus cell-to-cell movement. Bioinformatics analysis identified two hydrophilic non-contiguous regions (R1 and R2) rich in the basic amino acids lysine and arginine and with the predicted secondary structure of an α-helix. Different approaches were used to determine the implication of the R1 and R2 regions in RNA binding, plasmodesmata (PD) targeting and cell-to-cell movement. EMSA (Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay) showed that both regions have RNA-binding activity whereas that mutational analysis reported that either deletion of any of these regions, or loss of the basic amino acids, interfered with the viral intercellular movement. Subcellular localization studies showed that PMoV MP locates at PD. Mutants designed to impeded cell-to-cell movement failed to accumulate at PD indicating that basic residues in both R1 and R2 are critical for binding the MP at PD.

  7. Basic Mycology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Lilla M.

    1970-01-01

    Discusses activities that can be carried out on a field trip study of mushrooms; follow-up activities in the classroom are suggested. Mushrooms are selected as an introduction to mycology mainly because of their large size and prominent reproductive structures. (BR)

  8. The M Protein of SARS-CoV: Basic Structural and Immunological Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongwu Hu; Jianping Shi; Xiangjun Tian; Feng Jiang; Xiaoqian Zhao; Jun Wang; Siqi Liu; Changqing Zeng; Jian Wang; Huanming Yang; Jie Wen; Lin Tang; Haijun Zhang; Xiaowei Zhang; Yan Li; Jing Wang; Yujun Han; Guoqing Li

    2003-01-01

    We studied structural and immunological properties of the SARS-CoV M (mem-brane) protein, based on comparative analyses of sequence features, phylogeneticinvestigation, and experimental results. The M protein is predicted to contain atriple-spanning transmembrane (TM) region, a single N-glycosylation site near itsN-terminus that is in the exterior of the virion, and a long C-terminal region inthe interior. The M protein harbors a higher substitution rate (0.6% correlated toits size) among viral open reading frames (ORFs) from published data. The foursubstitutions detected in the M protein, which cause non-synonymous changes,can be classified into three types. One of them results in changes of pI (isoelectricpoint) and charge, affecting antigenicity. The second changes hydrophobicity of theTM region, and the third one relates to hydrophilicity of the interior structure.Phylogenetic tree building based on the variations of the M protein appears tosupport the non-human origin of SARS-CoV. To investigate its immunogenicity,we synthesized eight oligopeptides covering 69.2% of the entire ORF and screenedthem by using ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) with sera from SARSpatients. The results confirmed our predictions on antigenic sites.

  9. Source Rock Classification and the Basic Structure of Coal and Kerogen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金奎励; 杨陆武

    2002-01-01

    In accordance with the confusion on classification of source rocks, the authors raised a source rock classification for its enriched and dispersed organic matter types based on both Alpern's idea[1] and maceral genesis/composition. The determined rock type is roughly similar to palynofacies of Combaz[2], whereas it is "rock-maceral facies (for coal viz. coal facies)" in strictly speaking. Therefore, it is necessary to use the organic ingredients classification proposed by the authors so that it can be used for both maceral analysis and environment research[3]. This source rock classification not only shows sedimentology and diagenetic changes but also acquires organic matter type even if hydrocarbon potential derived from maceral's geochemical parameters. So, it is considered as genetic classification. The "rock-maceral facies" may be transformed to sedimentary organic facies[3], which is used as quantitative evaluation means if research being perfect.Now, there are many models in terms of structure either for coal or for kerogen. In our opinion, whatever coal or kerogen ought be polymer, then we follow Combaz's thought[2] and study structure of amorphous kerogens which are accordance with genetic mechanism showing biochemical and geochemical process perfectly. Here, we use the time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOFSIMS) to expand Combaz's models from three to five. They are also models for coal.

  10. Structural Antitumoral Activity Relationships of Synthetic Chalcones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Echeverria

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Relationships between the structural characteristic of synthetic chalcones and their antitumoral activity were studied. Treatment of HepG2 cells for 24 h with synthetic 2’-hydroxychalcones resulted in apoptosis induction and dose-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation. The calculated reactivity indexes and the adiabatic electron affinities using the DFT method including solvent effects, suggest a structure-activity relationship between the Chalcones structure and the apoptosis in HepG2 cells. The absence of methoxy substituents in the B ring of synthetic 2’-hydroxychalcones, showed the mayor structure-activity pattern along the series.

  11. The Importance of Computer Based Active Learning for Basic Chemistry in Vocational High Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Tuğçe GÜNTER; Ebru OFLUOĞLU DEMİR; AKYOL GÜNER, TÜRKAN

    2011-01-01

    Chemistry is a very comprehensive discipline that researches atoms; molecules; the structure of matter in the form of element or compound; combinations, and physical and chemical properties of matter; macroscopic and microscopic transformations of matters; the energy and entropy released or absorbed in the course of these transformations; the structures and functions of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, enzymes, vitamins and minerals in the body. This discipline includes numerous reactions at ...

  12. Basic Psychological Need Satisfaction in Leisure Activities and Adolescents' Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leversen, Ingrid; Danielsen, Anne G.; Birkeland, Marianne S.; Samdal, Oddrun

    2012-01-01

    Participation in leisure activities is an important arena for the positive psychological development of adolescents. The present study set out to examine the relationship between adolescents' satisfaction of the psychological needs for competence, relatedness, and autonomy in their participation in leisure activities and their perceived life…

  13. Mesoporous Structure Control of Silica in Room-Temperature Synthesis under Basic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Wook Seo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Various types of mesoporous silica, such as continuous cubic-phase MCM-48, hexagonal-phase MCM-41, and layer-phase spherical silica particles, have been synthesized at room temperature using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as a surfactant, ethanol as a cosurfactant, tetraethyl orthosilicate as a silica precursor, and ammonia as a condensation agent. Special care must be taken both in the filtering of the resultant solid products and in the drying process. In the drying process, further condensation of the silica after filtering was induced. As the surfactant and cosurfactant concentrations in the reaction mixture increased and the NH3 concentration decreased, under given conditions, continuous cubic MCM-48 and layered silica became the dominant phases. A cooperative synthesis mechanism, in which both the surfactant and silica were involved in the formation of mesoporous structures, provided a good explanation of the experimental results.

  14. Structure and Structure-activity Relationship of Functional Organic Molecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ Research theme The group is made up of junior scientists from the State Key Laboratory of Elemento-organic Chemistry, Nankai University.The scientists focus their studis on the structure and structure-activity relationship of functional organic molecules not only because it has been the basis of their research, but also because the functional study of organic compounds is now a major scientific issue for organic chemists around the world.

  15. [Basic types of respiratory system structure in insect egg envelopes, and genes controlling their formation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omelina, E S; Baricheva, É M; Fedorova, E V

    2012-01-01

    Insects is a taxon surprisingly rich with species and varieties, and its representatives are considered as the most fitted and "evolutionary successful" living things. Insects are distinguished by diversity and abundance of adaptations to environmental conditions, representatives of this class inhabit different ecological niches, they can be found practically in every corner of the Earth and, in particular, in close adjacency to man. Among them are those who man benefits from and those who man struggles against. This determines man's interest in studying peculiarities of their development as well as adaptations formed by them in the course of evolution to become more viable. In the paper, data are presented on morphological structure of respiratory systems in insect egg envelopes that ensure respiration process of developing embryo. Variability of these systems and their dependence on environmental conditions are demonstrated for different insect species. The information about genes controlling development of respiratory systems in fruit fly eggs is brought together, and occurrence of evolutionary conservative genes participating in development of such systems in other insect species is ascertained.

  16. Physiological and Pedagogical Culture as a Basic for Effective Teaching Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirmagambet Z. Ishanov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with new approaches to organization of pedagogical education of a teacher in institutions of higher learning. Here we consider cult urological, personal, multiobjective (dialogic and individual-creative approaches. In this case, pedagogical activity is considered as a form of active correlation to the world, transformation experience of culture into pedagogue’s professional wealth. So, one of the factors determining the university teacher’s effectiveness is his psycho-pedagogical culture.

  17. Peptide Bacteriocins--Structure Activity Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etayash, Hashem; Azmi, Sarfuddin; Dangeti, Ramana; Kaur, Kamaljit

    2015-01-01

    With the growing concerns in the scientific and health communities over increasing levels of antibiotic resistance, antimicrobial peptide bacteriocins have emerged as promising alternatives to conventional small molecule antibiotics. A substantial attention has recently focused on the utilization of bacteriocins in food preservation and health safety. Despite the fact that a large number of bacteriocins have been reported, only a few have been fully characterized and structurally elucidated. Since knowledge of the molecular structure is a key for understanding the mechanism of action and therapeutic effects of peptide, we centered our focus in this review on the structure-activity relationships of bacteriocins with a particular focus in seven bacteriocins, namely, nisin, microcin J25, microcin B17, microcin C, leucocin A, sakacin P, and pediocin PA-1. Significant structural changes responsible for the altered activity of the recent bacteriocin analogues are discussed here.

  18. A tale of two citrullines--structural and functional aspects of myelin basic protein deimination in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harauz, George; Musse, Abdiwahab A

    2007-02-01

    Myelin basic protein (MBP) binds to negatively charged lipids on the cytosolic surface of oligodendrocyte membranes and is responsible for adhesion of these surfaces in the multilayered myelin sheath. The pattern of extensive post-translational modifications of MBP is dynamic during normal central nervous system (CNS) development and during myelin degeneration in multiple sclerosis (MS), affecting its interactions with the myelin membranes and with other molecules. In particular, the degree of deimination (or citrullination) of MBP is correlated with the severity of MS, and may represent a primary defect that precedes neurodegeneration due to autoimmune attack. That the degree of MBP deimination is also high in early CNS development indicates that this modification plays major physiological roles in myelin assembly. In this review, we describe the structural and functional consequences of MBP deimination in healthy and diseased myelin.

  19. Basic Skills and Activities Compendium. Instructional Objectives and Matching Activities for Working with Severely and Profoundly Mentally Retarded Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    City Univ. of New York, NY. Center for Advanced Study in Education.

    The kit contains instructional objectives and matching activities for working with severely and profoundly mentally retarded children. Activities are classified into three color coded skill areas - sensory stimulation, motor development, and language development. Each card includes the name of the activity, objectives, and step-by-step procedures.…

  20. Structural relationships and vasorelaxant activity of monoterpenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardoso Lima Tamires

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose of the study The hypotensive activity of the essential oil of Mentha x villosa and its main constituent, the monoterpene rotundifolone, have been reported. Therefore, our objective was to evaluate the vasorelaxant effect of monoterpenes found in medicinal plants and establish the structure-activity relationship of rotundifolone and its structural analogues on the rat superior mesenteric artery. Methods Contractions of the vessels were induced with 10 μM of phenylephine (Phe in rings with endothelium. During the tonic phase of the contraction, the monoterpenes (10-8 - 10-3, cumulatively were added to the organ bath. The extent of relaxation was expressed as the percentage of Phe-induced contraction. Results The results from the present study showed that both oxygenated terpenes (rotundifolone, (+-limonene epoxide, pulegone epoxide, carvone epoxide, and (+-pulegone and non-oxygenated terpene ((+-limonene exhibit relaxation activity. The absence of an oxygenated molecular structure was not a critical requirement for the molecule to be bioactive. Also it was found that the position of ketone and epoxide groups in the monoterpene structures influence the vasorelaxant potency and efficacy. Major conclusion The results suggest that the presence of functional groups in the chemical structure of rotundifolone is not essential for its vasorelaxant activity.

  1. BASIC SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF SOME PHOSPHORCONTATNING ORGANIC COMPOUNDS CONTAINING FRAGMENTS OF UREA AND TRYHLORETILAMID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gushylyk B.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Data about directions of synthesis and use of the phosphororganic compounds in technics, biology and medicine is presented in the paper. Antimicrobial activity of 51 phosphororganic salts and ilides containing urine and threechlor ethylenamide has been studied. Perspective of the development of effective antimicrobial substances has been determined

  2. Basic Research on Selecting ISDC Activity for Decommissioning Costing in KRR-2 Decommissioning Project Experience Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Chan-Ho; Park, Hee-Seong; Jin, Hyung-Gon; Park, Seung-Kook [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    KAERI is performing research for calculation of expected time of a decommissioning work and evaluation of decommissioning cost and this research calculate a decommissioning work unit productivity based on the experience data of decommissioning activity for KRR-2. The KAERI be used to calculate the decommissioning cost and manage the experience data from the decommissioning activity through the Decommissioning Information Management System (DECOMMIS), Decommissioning Facility Characterization DB System (DEFACS), and Decommissioning Work-unit Productivity Calculation System (DEWOCS). In this paper, the methodology was presented how select the ISDC activities in dismantling work procedures of a 'removal of radioactive concrete'. The reason to select the 'removal of radioactive concrete' is main key activity and generates the amount of radioactive waste. This data will take advantage of the cost estimation after the code for the selected items derived ISDC. There are various efforts for decommissioning costing in each country. In particular, OECD/NEA recommends decommissioning cost estimation using the ISDC and IAEA provides for Cost Estimation for Research Reactors in Excel (CERREX) program that anyone is easy to use the cost evaluation from a limited decommissioning experience in domestic. In the future, for the decommissioning cost evaluation, the ISDC will be used more widely in a strong position. This paper has described a method for selecting the ISDC item from the actual dismantling work procedures.

  3. Chinese Education and Learning Activities outside of Class: What Lies beyond Basic Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jinjin; Jiang, Han

    2016-01-01

    A considerable number of studies have investigated students' learning in class and outside of class across subjects such as English, mathematics, and physical education in China and other countries. Scholars have found that students' activities in class and outside of class are closely related to their learning outcomes, self-regulated learning…

  4. Activity and Structure of Calcined Coal Gangue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Coal gangue was activated by means of calcination in seven temperature ranges. Systematic research was made about activation mechanism and structural evolution. Glycerin-ethanol method, SEM, MIP and XRD were used to determine the variation of structure and activation of coal gangue during the calcination.The experimental results show that because of heat treatment in the range of calcination temperature, mineral composition and microstructure of coal gangue are changed. In addition, its activity is improved evidently. The amount of lime absorbed by the sample calcined at 700 C is 2-4 times that by uncalcined coal gangue in the course of hydration. When NaOH is added to coal gangue-lime system, hydration reaction of the system is sped up and the microstructure of hydrating samples of coal gangue is improved.

  5. GABAA receptors in visual and auditory cortex and neural activity changes during basic visual stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengmin eQin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent imaging studies have demonstrated that levels of resting GABA in the visual cortex predict the degree of stimulus-induced activity in the same region. These studies have used the presentation of discrete visual stimulus; the change from closed eyes to open also represents a simple visual stimulus, however, and has been shown to induce changes in local brain activity and in functional connectivity between regions. We thus aimed to investigate the role of the GABA system, specifically GABAA receptors, in the changes in brain activity between the eyes closed (EC and eyes open (EO state in order to provide detail at the receptor level to complement previous studies of GABA concentrations. We conducted an fMRI study involving two different modes of the change from EC to EO: An EO and EC block design, allowing the modelling of the haemodynamic response, followed by longer periods of EC and EO to allow the measuring of functional connectivity. The same subjects also underwent [18F]Flumazenil PET measure GABAA receptor binding potentials. It was demonstrated that the local-to-global ratio of GABAA receptor binding potential in the visual cortex predicted the degree of changes in neural activity from EC to EO. This same relationship was also shown in the auditory cortex. Furthermore, the local-to-global ratio of GABAA receptor binding potential in the visual cortex also predicts the change of functional connectivity between visual and auditory cortex from EC to EO. These findings contribute to our understanding of the role of GABAA receptors in stimulus-induced neural activity in local regions and in inter-regional functional connectivity.

  6. Structural determinants of MALT1 protease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesmann, Christian; Leder, Lukas; Blank, Jutta; Bernardi, Anna; Melkko, Samu; Decock, Arnaud; D'Arcy, Allan; Villard, Frederic; Erbel, Paulus; Hughes, Nicola; Freuler, Felix; Nikolay, Rainer; Alves, Juliano; Bornancin, Frederic; Renatus, Martin

    2012-05-25

    The formation of the CBM (CARD11-BCL10-MALT1) complex is pivotal for antigen-receptor-mediated activation of the transcription factor NF-κB. Signaling is dependent on MALT1 (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation protein 1), which not only acts as a scaffolding protein but also possesses proteolytic activity mediated by its caspase-like domain. It remained unclear how the CBM activates MALT1. Here, we provide biochemical and structural evidence that MALT1 activation is dependent on its dimerization and show that mutations at the dimer interface abrogate activity in cells. The unliganded protease presents itself in a dimeric yet inactive state and undergoes substantial conformational changes upon substrate binding. These structural changes also affect the conformation of the C-terminal Ig-like domain, a domain that is required for MALT1 activity. Binding to the active site is coupled to a relative movement of caspase and Ig-like domains. MALT1 binding partners thus may have the potential of tuning MALT1 protease activity without binding directly to the caspase domain.

  7. Asthma Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Asthma Basics KidsHealth > For Parents > Asthma Basics A A ... Asthma Categories en español Asma: aspectos fundamentales About Asthma Asthma is a common lung condition in kids ...

  8. Basic Study for New Assistive Technology Based on Brain Activity during Car Driving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Inoue

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, it is necessary to develop a new system which assists driving car and wheelchair as aged society. The final our purpose in this research is to contribute to developing of assistive robot and related-apparatus. In terms of developing a new system, we thought that it is important to examine behaviors as well as spatial recognition. Therefore, experiments have been performed for an examination of human spatial perceptions, especially right and left recognition, during car driving by using NIRS. In previous research, it has been documented that there were significant differences at dorsolateral prefrontal cortex at left hemisphere during virtual driving task and actual driving. In this paper, we performed measuring the brain activity during car driving by using NIRS. And we performed statistical analysis of the brain activity. The purpose of this paper is discovering the brain region which was involved in decision making when human drive a car and considering between human movement and brain activity during car driving.

  9. Autonomy supportive environments and mastery as basic factors to motivate physical activity in children: a controlled laboratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roemmich James N

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Choice promotes the experience of autonomy, which enhances intrinsic motivation. Providing a greater choice of traditional active toys may increase children's activity time. Mastery also increases intrinsic motivation and is designed into exergames, which may increase play time of a single exergame, reducing the need for choice to motivate activity compared to traditional active toys. Providing both choice and mastery could be most efficacious at increasing activity time. The energy expenditure (EE of an active play session is dependent on the duration of play and the rate of EE during play. The rate of EE of exergames and the same game played in traditional fashion is not known. The purpose was to test the basic parameters of choice and mastery on children's physical activity time, activity intensity, and energy expenditure. Methods 44 children were assigned to low (1 toy or high (3 toys choice groups. Children completed 60 min sessions with access to traditional active toys on one visit and exergame versions of the same active toys on another visit. Results Choice had a greater effect on increasing girls' (146% than boys' (23% activity time and on girls' (230% than boys' (minus 24% activity intensity. When provided choice, girls' activity time and intensity were no longer lower than boys' activity time and intensity. The combination of choice and mastery by providing access to 3 exergames produced greater increases in physical activity time (1 toy 22.5 min, 3 toys 41.4 min than choice alone via access to 3 traditional games (1 toy 13.6 min, 3 toys 19.5 min. Energy expenditure was 83% greater when engaging in traditional games than exergames. Conclusions Boys and girls differ in their behavioral responses to autonomy supportive environments. By providing girls with greater autonomy they can be motivated to engage in physical activity equal to boys. An environment that provides both autonomy and mastery is most efficacious at

  10. Effects of active immunisation with myelin basic protein and myelin-derived altered peptide ligand on pain hypersensitivity and neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Chamini J; Lees, Justin G; Duffy, Samuel S; Makker, Preet G S; Fivelman, Brett; Apostolopoulos, Vasso; Moalem-Taylor, Gila

    2015-09-15

    Neuropathic pain is a debilitating condition in multiple sclerosis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Specific myelin basic protein (MBP) peptides are encephalitogenic, and myelin-derived altered peptide ligands (APLs) are capable of preventing and ameliorating EAE. We investigated the effects of active immunisation with a weakly encephalitogenic epitope of MBP (MBP87-99) and its mutant APL (Cyclo-87-99[A(91),A(96)]MBP87-99) on pain hypersensitivity and neuroinflammation in Lewis rats. MBP-treated rats exhibited significant mechanical and thermal pain hypersensitivity associated with infiltration of T cells, MHC class II expression and microglia activation in the spinal cord, without developing clinical signs of paralysis. Co-immunisation with APL significantly decreased pain hypersensitivity and neuroinflammation emphasising the important role of neuroimmune crosstalk in neuropathic pain.

  11. Structuring medication related activities for information management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luukkonen, Irmeli; Mykkänen, Juha; Kivekäs, Eija; Saranto, Kaija

    2014-01-01

    Medication treatment and the related information management are central parts of a patient's health care. As a cross-organizational and cooperative process, medication information management is a complex domain for development activities. We studied medication activities and related information management in a regional project in order to produce a shared broad picture of its processes and to understand the main issues and the needs for improvement. In this paper we provide a summary of the findings in a structured form, based on a six-dimensioned framework for design and analysis of activities and processes.

  12. Estrogenic flavonoids: structural requirements for biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miksicek, R J

    1995-01-01

    A systematic survey of polycyclic phenols has been performed to identify members of this chemical group with estrogenic activity. Twelve compounds were found to be able to stimulate the transcriptional activity of the human estrogen receptor expressed in cultured cells by transient transfection. These natural estrogens belong to several distinct, but chemically related classes including chalcones, flavanones, flavones, flavonols, and isoflavones. Selected examples of estrogenic flavonoids were further analyzed to determine their biological potencies and their relative affinities for binding to the estrogen receptor. These data are interpreted with respect to the molecular structure of polycyclic phenols required for hormonal activity as nonsteroidal estrogens.

  13. Structure-activity relationships of bumetanide derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kasper Lykke; Töllner, Kathrin; Römermann, Kerstin;

    2015-01-01

    of diuretics such as bumetanide. Bumetanide was discovered by screening ∼5000 3-amino-5-sulfamoylbenzoic acid derivatives, long before NKCC2 was identified in the kidney. Therefore, structure-activity studies on effects of bumetanide derivatives on NKCC2 are not available. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: In this study...

  14. Crystal structure of human protein kinase CK2: insights into basic properties of the CK2 holoenzyme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niefind, K; Guerra, B; Ermakowa, I;

    2001-01-01

    subunits, which make no direct contact with one another. Each catalytic subunit interacts with both regulatory chains, predominantly via an extended C-terminal tail of the regulatory subunit. The CK2 structure is consistent with its constitutive activity and with a flexible role of the regulatory subunit......The crystal structure of a fully active form of human protein kinase CK2 (casein kinase 2) consisting of two C-terminally truncated catalytic and two regulatory subunits has been determined at 3.1 A resolution. In the CK2 complex the regulatory subunits form a stable dimer linking the two catalytic...... as a docking partner for various protein kinases. Furthermore it shows an inter-domain mobility in the catalytic subunit known to be functionally important in protein kinases and detected here for the first time directly within one crystal structure....

  15. Activity and basic properties of KOH/mordenite for transesterification of palm oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pisitpong; Intarapong; Sotsanan; Iangthanarat; Pitchaya; Phanthong; Apanee; Luengnaruemitchai; Samai; Jai-In

    2013-01-01

    The catalytic performance of KOH/mordenite has been studied for transesterification of palm oil using a batch reactor and a packed-bed reactor at 60 C and atmospheric pressure.The KOH/mordenite processed transesterification in the batch reactor gave the highest methyl ester yield of96.7%under optimum conditions,while a methyl ester content over 94.5%was obtained in the packed-bed reactor.This comparison indicates that transesterification in a batch-type reactor gives a higher methyl ester yield than that of a continuous-flow reactor.Dealumination was found in the calcined catalysts and had a significant effect on the physical structure and chemical composition of the catalysts.Leaching of the potassium species was negligible,whereas depositing and washing of the reacted mixture with acetone on the catalyst surface were observed by FTIR.

  16. Crossing Active Faults on the Sakhalin II Onshore Pipeline Route: Analysis Methodology and Basic Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitali, Luigino; Mattiozzi, Pierpaolo

    2008-07-01

    Twin oil (20 & 24 inch) and gas (20 & 48 inch) pipeline systems stretching 800 km are being constructed to connect offshore hydrocarbon deposits from the Sakhalin II concession in the North to an LNG plant and oil export terminal in the South of Sakhalin island. The onshore pipeline route follows a regional fault zone and crosses individual active faults at 19 locations. Sakhalin Energy, Design and Construction companies took significant care to ensure the integrity of the pipelines, should large seismic induced ground movements occur during the Operational life of the facilities. Complex investigations including the identification of the active faults, their precise location, their particular displacement values and assessment of the fault kinematics were carried out to provide input data for unique design solutions. Lateral and reverse offset displacements of 5.5 and 4.5 m respectively were determined as the single-event values for the design level earthquake (DLE)—the 1000-year return period event. Within the constraints of a pipeline route largely fixed, the underground pipeline fault crossing design was developed to define the optimum routing which would minimize stresses and strain using linepipe materials which had been ordered prior to the completion of detailed design, and to specify requirements for pipe trenching shape, materials, drainage system, etc. This Paper describes the steps followed to formulate the concept of the special trenches and the analytical characteristics of the Model.

  17. Active structures to reduce torsional vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthias, M.; Schlote, D.; Atzrodt, H.

    2013-03-01

    This paper describes the development of different active measures to reduce torsional vibrations in power trains. The measures are based on concepts developed for active mounts to reduce the transmission of structure-borne sound. To show the potential of these active measures and investigate their mode of operation to influence torsional vibrations, numerical simulations of powertrains with different active measures were done. First experimental results from tests on an experimental (reduced size) power train were used to align the numerical models. The work was done within the project 'LOEWE-Zentrum AdRIA: Adaptronik - Research, Innovation, Application' funded by the German federal state of Hessen, and the Project AKTos: 'Active control of torsional vibrations by coupling elements' placed in the research Framework program 'Navigation and Maritime Technology for the 21st Century' funded by the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology.

  18. Structural analysis of the complex between calmodulin and full-length myelin basic protein, an intrinsically disordered molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majava, Viivi; Wang, Chaozhan; Myllykoski, Matti; Kangas, Salla M; Kang, Sung Ung; Hayashi, Nobuhiro; Baumgärtel, Peter; Heape, Anthony M; Lubec, Gert; Kursula, Petri

    2010-06-01

    Myelin basic protein (MBP) is present between the cytoplasmic leaflets of the compact myelin membrane in both the peripheral and central nervous systems, and characterized to be intrinsically disordered in solution. One of the best-characterized protein ligands for MBP is calmodulin (CaM), a highly acidic calcium sensor. We pulled down MBP from human brain white matter as the major calcium-dependent CaM-binding protein. We then used full-length brain MBP, and a peptide from rodent MBP, to structurally characterize the MBP-CaM complex in solution by small-angle X-ray scattering, NMR spectroscopy, synchrotron radiation circular dichroism spectroscopy, and size exclusion chromatography. We determined 3D structures for the full-length protein-protein complex at different stoichiometries and detect ligand-induced folding of MBP. We also obtained thermodynamic data for the two CaM-binding sites of MBP, indicating that CaM does not collapse upon binding to MBP, and show that CaM and MBP colocalize in myelin sheaths. In addition, we analyzed the post-translational modifications of rat brain MBP, identifying a novel MBP modification, glucosylation. Our results provide a detailed picture of the MBP-CaM interaction, including a 3D model of the complex between full-length proteins.

  19. Basic properties of magnetic flux tubes and restrictions on theories of solar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, E. N.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that the mean longitudinal field in a magnetic flux tube is reduced, rather than enhanced, by twisting the tube to form a rope. It is shown that there is no magnetohydrostatic equilibrium when one twisted rope is wound around another. Instead there is rapid line cutting (neutral point annihilation). It is shown that the twisting increases, and the field strength decreases, along a flux tube extending upward through a stratified atmosphere. These facts are at variance with Piddington's (1975) recent suggestion that solar activity is to be understood as the result of flux tubes which are enormously concentrated by twisting, which consist of several twisted ropes wound around each other, and which came untwisted where they emerge through the photosphere.

  20. Designing Objective Structured Clinical Examination in Basic Community Pharmacy Clerkship Course and Assessment of Its Relationship with Conventional Exam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Kouti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over 90% of pharmacy students’ work in pharmacies after graduation which needs both knowledge and skill, thus one of the most essential courses of their education is pharmacy clerkship. An important part of an educational program is the evaluation of the trainees. Different studies show that conventional written exams are not successful in evaluating the skills of the students and can mostly evaluate their knowledge. Thus Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE is used to evaluate the students in different aspects.Methods: An OSCE and a conventional test were given to a group of students at the end of basic community pharmacy clerkship course. The OSCE test consisted of six different stations (reading prescriptions, identifying drugs, pharmacist’s recommendation, patient education, drug information resources, and drug usage instructions. Two questions were asked at each station by different examiners. The scores and results of these tests were compared and analyzed.Results: There was no significant correlation between OSCE final scores and written test scores (P: = 0.217. No significant correlation between each station’s score and the written test score was found.Conclusion: The absence of significant correlation between OSCE and conventional exams shows that the skills evaluated by OSCE cannot be evaluated by the best possible written tests. This type of examination is not commonly used in Iran’s pharmacy schools but due to the findings of this study, it seems that this multiform method, despite being more difficult to arrange, can be a more suitable and relevant way to evaluate basic community pharmacy clerkship compared to conventional written tests.

  1. Steam tables for pure water as an ActiveX component in Visual Basic 6.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Mahendra P.

    2003-11-01

    The IAPWS-95 formulation for the thermodynamic properties of pure water was implemented as an ActiveX component ( SteamTables) in Visual Basic 6.0. For input parameters as temperature ( T=190-2000 K) and pressure ( P=3.23×10 -8-10,000 MPa) the program SteamTables calculates the following properties: volume ( V), density ( D), compressibility factor ( Z0), internal energy ( U), enthalpy ( H), Gibbs free energy ( G), Helmholtz free energy ( A), entropy ( S), heat capacity at constant pressure ( Cp), heat capacity at constant volume ( Cv), coefficient of thermal expansion ( CTE), isothermal compressibility ( Ziso), velocity of sound ( VelS), partial derivative of P with T at constant V (d Pd T), partial derivative of T with V at constant P (d Td V), partial derivative of V with P at constant T (d Vd P), Joule-Thomson coefficient ( JTC), isothermal throttling coefficient ( IJTC), viscosity ( Vis), thermal conductivity ( ThrmCond), surface tension ( SurfTen), Prandtl number ( PrdNum) and dielectric constant ( DielCons) for the liquid and vapor phases of pure water. It also calculates T as a function of P (or P as a function of T) along the sublimation, saturation and critical isochor curves, depending on the values of P (or T). The SteamTables can be incorporated in a program in any computer language, which supports object link embedding (OLE) in the Windows environment. An application of SteamTables is illustrated in a program in Visual Basic 6.0 to tabulate the values of the thermodynamic properties of water and vapor. Similarly, four functions, Temperature(Press), Pressure(Temp), State(Temp, Press) and WtrStmTbls(Temp, Press, Nphs, Nprop), where Temp, Press, Nphs and Nprop are temperature, pressure, phase number and property number, respectively, are written in Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) to use the SteamTables in a workbook in MS-Excel.

  2. Interplay between Structure and Charge as a Key to Allosteric Modulation of Human 20S Proteasome by the Basic Fragment of HIV-1 Tat Protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Karpowicz

    Full Text Available The proteasome is a giant protease responsible for degradation of the majority of cytosolic proteins. Competitive inhibitors of the proteasome are used against aggressive blood cancers. However, broadening the use of proteasome-targeting drugs requires new mechanistic approaches to the enzyme's inhibition. In our previous studies we described Tat1 peptide, an allosteric inhibitor of the proteasome derived from a fragment of the basic domain of HIV-Tat1 protein. Here, we attempted to dissect the structural determinants of the proteasome inhibition by Tat1. Single- and multiple- alanine walking scans were performed. Tat1 analogs with stabilized beta-turn conformation at positions 4-5 and 8-9, pointed out by the molecular dynamics modeling and the alanine scan, were synthesized. Structure of Tat1 analogs were analyzed by circular dichroism, Fourier transform infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies, supplemented by molecular dynamics simulations. Biological activity tests and structural studies revealed that high flexibility and exposed positive charge are hallmarks of Tat1 peptide. Interestingly, stabilization of a beta-turn at the 8-9 position was necessary to significantly improve the inhibitory potency.

  3. Structural Relationships and Vasorelaxant Activity of Monoterpenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamires Cardoso Lima

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose of the study The hypotensive activity of the essential oil of Mentha x villosa and its main constituent, the monoterpene rotundifolone, have been reported. Therefore, our objective was to evaluate the vasorelaxant effect of monoterpenes found in medicinal plants and establish the structureactivity relationship of rotundifolone and its structural analogues on the rat superior mesenteric artery. Methods:Contractions of the vessels were induced with 10 muM of phenylephine (Phe in rings with endothelium. During the tonic phase of the contraction, the monoterpenes (10-8 - 10-3, cumulatively were added to the organ bath. The extent of relaxation was expressed as the percentage of Phe-induced contraction. Results:The results from the present study showed that both oxygenated terpenes (rotundifolone, (+- limonene epoxide, pulegone epoxide, carvone epoxide, and (+-pulegone and nonoxygenated terpene ((+-limonene exhibit relaxation activity. The absence of an oxygenated molecular structure was not a critical requirement for the molecule to be bioactive. Also it was found that the position of ketone and epoxide groups in the monoterpene structures influence the vasorelaxant potency and efficacy. Major conclusion The results suggest that the presence of functional groups in the chemical structure of rotundifolone is not essential for its vasorelaxant activity.

  4. Heterolytic Activation of Hydrogen Promoted by Ruthenium Nanoparticles immobilized on Basic Supports and Hydrogenation of Aromatic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Minfeng

    Despite the aggressive development and deployment of new renewable and nuclear technologies, petroleum-derived transportation fuels---gasoline, diesel and jet fuels---will continue to dominate the markets for decades. Environmental legislation imposes severe limits on the tolerable proportion of aromatics, sulfur and nitrogen contents in transportation fuels, which is difficult to achieve with current refining technologies. Catalytic hydrogenation plays an important role in the production of cleaner fuels, both as a direct means to reduce the aromatics and as a key step in the hydrodenitrogenation (HDN) and hydrodesulfurization (HDS) processes. However, conventional catalysts require drastic conditions and/or are easily poisoned by S or N aromatics. Therefore, there is still a need for new efficient catalysts for hydrogenation reactions relevant to the production of cleaner fossil fuels. Our catalyst design involves metallic nanoparticles intimately associated with a basic support, with the aim of creating a nanostructure capable of promoting the heterolytic activation of hydrogen and ionic hydrogenation mechanisms, as a strategy to avoid catalyst poisoning and enhance catalytic activity. We have designed and prepared a new nanostructured catalytic material composed of RuNPs immobilized on the basic polymer P4VPy. We have demonstrated that the Ru/P4VPy catalyst can promote heterolytic hydrogen activation and a unique surface ionic hydrogenation mechanism for the efficient hydrogenation of N-aromatics. This is the first time these ionic hydrogenation pathways have been demonstrated on solid surfaces. For the RuNPs surfaces without basic sites in close proximity, the conventional homolytic H2 splitting is otherwise involved. Using the mechanistic concepts from Ru/P4VPy, we have designed and prepared the Ru/MgO catalyst, with the aim to improve the catalytic efficiency for the hydrogenation of heteroatom aromatics operating by the ionic hydrogenation mechanism. The Ru

  5. Unsatisfied basic needs of older patients in emergency care environments - obstacles to an active role in decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nydén, Kristoffer; Petersson, Martin; Nyström, Maria

    2003-03-01

    Little attention is paid in Emergency Care Units (ECUs) in Sweden to the special needs of older people. The aim of this study was thus to analyse older people's basic needs in the emergency care environment. The study was carried out with a life-world interpretative approach, and the theoretical framework for interpretation was Abraham Maslow's theory of motivation and personality. Seven informants aged between 65 and 88 years, with various experiences of being patients with urgent as well as non-urgent health-related problems, were interviewed about their experiences of ECU care. Their basic needs at the lower levels of Maslow's hierarchy were well-represented in the data. Higher needs, such as desire to know and understand, appeared to be totally neglected. Safety needs dominated the whole situation. Our conclusion is that standards of care must be developed in Sweden to make older patients feel safer and more secure in ECUs. Furthermore, the principles of nursing care for older patients need to be defined in order to encourage them to take an active part in their own health process.

  6. Inflation Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Dan [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2014-03-01

    The last few years have yielded remarkable discoveries in physics. In particle physics it appears that a fundamental scalar field exists. The Higgs boson is measured to have a mass of about 126 GeV and to have spin zero and positive parity. The Higgs field is the first fundamental scalar to be discovered in physics. The Cosmic Microwave Background, CMB, is known to have a uniform temperature to parts per 105, but has well measured fluctuations, which are thought to evolve gravitationally to provide the seeds of the current structure of the Universe. In addition, the Universe appears to contain, at present, an unknown “dark energy”, which is presently the majority energy density of the Universe, larger than either matter or radiation. This may, indeed, be a fundamental scalar field like the Higgs. “Big Bang” (BB) cosmology is a very successful “standard model” in cosmology. However, it cannot explain the uniformity of the CMB because the CMB consists of many regions not causally connected in the context of the BB model. In addition, the Universe appears to be spatially flat. However, in BB cosmology the present spatial curvature is not stable, so that the initial conditions for BB cosmology would need to be fantastically fine-tuned in order to successfully predict the presently small value of the observed curvature. These issues for BB cosmology have led to the hypothesis of “inflation” which postulates an unknown scalar field, not presumably the Higgs field or the dark energy, which causes an exponential expansion of the Universe at very early times. This attractive hypothesis can account for the problems in BB cosmology of flatness and causal CMB connectivity. In addition, the quantum fluctuations of this postulated field provide a natural explanation of the CMB fluctuations which are the seeds of the structure of galaxies. Researchers are now searching for gravitational waves imprinted on the CMB. These would be a “smoking gun” for

  7. Inflation Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Dan [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2014-03-01

    The last few years have yielded remarkable discoveries in physics. In particle physics it appears that a fundamental scalar field exists. The Higgs boson is measured to have a mass of about 126 GeV and to have spin zero and positive parity. The Higgs field is the first fundamental scalar to be discovered in physics. The Cosmic Microwave Background, CMB, is known to have a uniform temperature to parts per 105 but has well measured fluctuations which are thought to evolve gravitationally to provide the seeds of the current structure of the Universe. In addition, the Universe appears to contain, at present, an unknown “dark energy” which is presently the majority energy density of the Universe, larger than either matter or radiation. This may, indeed, be a fundamental scalar field like the Higgs. “Big Bang” (BB) cosmology is a very successful “standard model” in cosmology. However, it cannot explain the uniformity of the CMB because the CMB consists of many regions not causally connected in the context of the BB model. In addition, the Universe appears to be spatially flat. However in BB cosmology the present spatial curvature is not stable so that the initial conditions for BB cosmology would need to be fantastically fine-tuned in order to successfully predict the presently small value of the observed curvature. These issues for BB cosmology have led to the hypothesis of “inflation” which postulates an unknown scalar field, not presumably the Higgs field or the dark energy, which causes an exponential expansion of the Universe at very early times. This attractive hypothesis can account for the problems in BB cosmology of flatness and causal CMB connectivity. In addition, the quantum fluctuations of this postulated field provide a natural explanation of the CMB fluctuations which are the seeds of the structure of galaxies. Researchers are now searching for gravitational waves imprinted on the CMB. These would be a “smoking gun” for

  8. Basic electrotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Ashen, R A

    2013-01-01

    BASIC Electrotechnology discusses the applications of Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC) in engineering, particularly in solving electrotechnology-related problems. The book is comprised of six chapters that cover several topics relevant to BASIC and electrotechnology. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to BASIC, and Chapter 2 talks about the use of complex numbers in a.c. circuit analysis. Chapter 3 covers linear circuit analysis with d.c. and sinusoidal a.c. supplies. The book also discusses the elementary magnetic circuit theory. The theory and performance of two windi

  9. Basic digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Lockhart, Gordon B

    1985-01-01

    Basic Digital Signal Processing describes the principles of digital signal processing and experiments with BASIC programs involving the fast Fourier theorem (FFT). The book reviews the fundamentals of the BASIC program, continuous and discrete time signals including analog signals, Fourier analysis, discrete Fourier transform, signal energy, power. The text also explains digital signal processing involving digital filters, linear time-variant systems, discrete time unit impulse, discrete-time convolution, and the alternative structure for second order infinite impulse response (IIR) sections.

  10. STRUCTURIZATION OF OWN FUEL-ENERGY RECOURSES OF THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS IN BASIC DIRECTIONS OF CONSUMPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. N. Rumiantsava

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of an analysis of scientific, reference and encyclopaedic literature, statistical information, and also main documents concerning power engineering policy a composition systemization of «own fuel-energy recourses» and «local fuel-energy recourses» categories in the Republic of Belarus is given in the paper. The paper also contains a structurization of power resources of the mentioned categories in accordance with directions of consumption of fuel-energy resources for generation of heat and electrical energy and usage of fuel-energy resources directly as a fuel.In order to increase an objectivity of actual and forecasting estimations of efficiency in respect of power resources’ usage  the paper proposes to analyze consumption of every fuel-energy resources’ type/group separately in accordance with basic directions of consumption but not as a part of boiler-oven fuel. Local fuel-energy recourses are to be considered not as end in itself, but only as a part of own fuel-energy recourses of the Republic of Belarus.

  11. A Spitzer Survey of Young Stellar Clusters within One Kiloparsec of the Sun: Cluster Core Extraction and Basic Structural Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Gutermuth, R A; Myers, P C; Allen, L E; Pipher, J L; Fazio, G G

    2009-01-01

    We present a uniform mid-infrared imaging and photometric survey of 36 young, nearby, star-forming clusters and groups using {\\it Spitzer} IRAC and MIPS. We have confidently identified and classified 2548 young stellar objects using recently established mid-infrared color-based methods. We have devised and applied a new algorithm for the isolation of local surface density enhancements from point source distributions, enabling us to extract the overdense cores of the observed star forming regions for further analysis. We have compiled several basic structural measurements of these cluster cores from the data, such as mean surface densities of sources, cluster core radii, and aspect ratios, in order to characterize the ranges for these quantities. We find that a typical cluster core is 0.39 pc in radius, has 26 members with infrared excess in a ratio of Class II to Class I sources of 3.7, is embedded in a $A_K$=0.8 mag cloud clump, and has a surface density of 60 pc$^{-2}$. We examine the nearest neighbor dista...

  12. Crystal structure of Sr5Te4O12(OH2, the first basic strontium oxotellurate(IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Weil

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title basic strontium oxotellurate(IV, Sr5Te4O12(OH2 {systematic name pentastrontium tetrakis[oxotellurate(IV] dihydroxide}, comprises three SrII cations (one with site symmetry 2 and two TeIV atoms, as well as seven O atoms. The coordination numbers of the alkaline earth cations to nearby O atoms range from seven (2 × to eight, and the TeIV atoms are surrounded by three oxygen partners in the form of trigonal pyramids. The SrOx polyhedra share corners and edges to build up a three-dimensional framework structure encapsulating channels propagating along [010]. The TeIV atoms flank the framework O atoms and are situated at the outer array of the channels with the 5s2 lone electron pairs protruding into the empty space of the channels (diameter ≃ 4 Å. Although the H atom of the OH group could not be located, bond-valence-sum calculations and typical O...O distances (range 2.81–3.06 Å clearly indicate hydrogen bonding of medium to weak strengths.

  13. Interaction between the C-terminal region of human myelin basic protein and calmodulin: analysis of complex formation and solution structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayashi Nobuhiro

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The myelin sheath is a multilamellar membrane structure wrapped around the axon, enabling the saltatory conduction of nerve impulses in vertebrates. Myelin basic protein, one of the most abundant myelin-specific proteins, is an intrinsically disordered protein that has been shown to bind calmodulin. In this study, we focus on a 19-mer synthetic peptide from the predicted calmodulin-binding segment near the C-terminus of human myelin basic protein. Results The interaction of native human myelin basic protein with calmodulin was confirmed by affinity chromatography. The binding of the myelin basic protein peptide to calmodulin was tested with isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC in different temperatures, and Kd was observed to be in the low μM range, as previously observed for full-length myelin basic protein. Surface plasmon resonance showed that the peptide bound to calmodulin, and binding was accompanied by a conformational change; furthermore, gel filtration chromatography indicated a decrease in the hydrodynamic radius of calmodulin in the presence of the peptide. NMR spectroscopy was used to map the binding area to reside mainly within the hydrophobic pocket of the C-terminal lobe of calmodulin. The solution structure obtained by small-angle X-ray scattering indicates binding of the myelin basic protein peptide into the interlobal groove of calmodulin, while calmodulin remains in an extended conformation. Conclusion Taken together, our results give a detailed structural insight into the interaction of calmodulin with a C-terminal segment of a major myelin protein, the myelin basic protein. The used 19-mer peptide interacts mainly with the C-terminal lobe of calmodulin, and a conformational change accompanies binding, suggesting a novel mode of calmodulin-target protein interaction. Calmodulin does not collapse and wrap around the peptide tightly; instead, it remains in an extended conformation in the solution structure

  14. Dynamic structure of active nematic shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Zhou, Ye; Rahimi, Mohammad; de Pablo, Juan J.

    2016-11-01

    When a thin film of active, nematic microtubules and kinesin motor clusters is confined on the surface of a vesicle, four +1/2 topological defects oscillate in a periodic manner between tetrahedral and planar arrangements. Here a theoretical description of nematics, coupled to the relevant hydrodynamic equations, is presented here to explain the dynamics of active nematic shells. In extensile microtubule systems, the defects repel each other due to elasticity, and their collective motion leads to closed trajectories along the edges of a cube. That motion is accompanied by oscillations of their velocities, and the emergence and annihilation of vortices. When the activity increases, the system enters a chaotic regime. In contrast, for contractile systems, which are representative of some bacterial suspensions, a hitherto unknown static structure is predicted, where pairs of defects attract each other and flows arise spontaneously.

  15. Active structural control by fuzzy logic rules: An introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Yu [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Reactor Engineering Div.; Wu, Kung C. [Texas Univ., El Paso, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering

    1996-12-31

    A zeroth level introduction to fuzzy logic control applied to the active structural control to reduce the dynamic response of structures subjected to earthquake excitations is presented. It is hoped that this presentation will increase the attractiveness of the methodology to structural engineers in research as well as in practice. The basic concept of the fuzzy logic control are explained by examples and by diagrams with a minimum of mathematics. The effectiveness and simplicity of the fuzzy logic control is demonstrated by a numerical example in which the response of a single- degree-of-freedom system subjected to earthquake excitations is controlled by making use of the fuzzy logic controller. In the example, the fuzzy rules are first learned from the results obtained from linear control theory; then they are fine tuned to improve their performance. It is shown that the performance of fuzzy logic control surpasses that of the linear control theory. The paper shows that linear control theory provides experience for fuzzy logic control, and fuzzy logic control can provide better performance; therefore, two controllers complement each other.

  16. Active Structural Acoustic Control in an Original A400M Aircraft Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehne, C.; Sachau, D.; Renger, K.

    2016-09-01

    Low frequency noise has always been a challenge in propeller driven aircraft. At low frequencies passive noise treatments are not as efficient as active noise reduction systems. The Helmut-Schmidt-University has built up a full-scale test rig with an original A400M aircraft structure. This provides a good opportunity to develop and test active noise reduction systems in a realistic environment. The currently installed system consists of mechanical actuators and acoustical sensors. The actuators are called TVAs (Tuneable Vibration Absorber) and contain two spring-mass systems whose natural frequencies are adjusted to the BPFs (Blade Passage Frequency) of the propellers. The TVAs are mounted to the frames and the force direction is normal to the skin. The sensors are condenser microphones which are attached to the primary structure of the airframe. The TVAs are equipped with signal processing devices. These components carry out Fourier transforms and signal amplification for the sensor data and actuator signals. The communication between the TVAs and the central control unit is implemented by the CAN Bus protocol and mainly consists of complex coefficients for the sensor and actuator data. This paper describes the basic structure of the system, the hardware set-up and function tests of the controller.

  17. Activism and the Online Mediation Opportunity Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldam, Julie

    2013-01-01

    The annual United Nations (UN) Framework Convention on Climate Change conferences provides a transnational mediation opportunity structure for activist networks to contest policies that favor market-based models for solving the climate crisis. Online technologies, including commercial social media...... to climate change activism. This impedes possibilities for using online media to protest at the radical end of the climate justice movement spectrum. This article explores this interrelationship between activist demands and (online) modes of action through a focus on the mobilization efforts of London...

  18. Parameter Estimation in Active Plate Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Araujo, A. L.; Lopes, H. M. R.; Vaz, M. A. P.;

    2006-01-01

    In this paper two non-destructive methods for elastic and piezoelectric parameter estimation in active plate structures with surface bonded piezoelectric patches are presented. These methods rely on experimental undamped natural frequencies of free vibration. The first solves the inverse problem...... through gradient based optimization techniques, while the second is based on a metamodel of the inverse problem, using artificial neural networks. A numerical higher order finite element laminated plate model is used in both methods and results are compared and discussed through a simulated...

  19. Basic hydraulics

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, P D

    1982-01-01

    BASIC Hydraulics aims to help students both to become proficient in the BASIC programming language by actually using the language in an important field of engineering and to use computing as a means of mastering the subject of hydraulics. The book begins with a summary of the technique of computing in BASIC together with comments and listing of the main commands and statements. Subsequent chapters introduce the fundamental concepts and appropriate governing equations. Topics covered include principles of fluid mechanics; flow in pipes, pipe networks and open channels; hydraulic machinery;

  20. Structure-activity relationship studies of argiotoxins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette H; Lucas, Simon; Bach, Tinna B;

    2013-01-01

    Argiotoxin-636 (ArgTX-636), a natural product from the spider Argiope lobata, is a potent but nonselective open-channel blocker of ionotropic glutamate (iGlu) receptors. Here, three series of analogues were designed to exploit selectivity among iGlu receptors, taking advantage of a recently devel......, respectively. Thus, the first structure-activity relationship study of ArgTX-636 has been carried out and has provided lead compounds for probing the ion channel region of iGlu receptors....... developed solid-phase synthetic methodology for the synthesis of ArgTX-636 and analogues. Initially, the importance of secondary amino groups in the polyamine chain was studied by the synthesis of systematically modified ArgTX-636 analogues, which were evaluated for pharmacological activity at NMDA and AMPA...

  1. System identification and control of the JPL active structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanson, J. L.; Lurie, B. J.; O'Brien, J. F.; Chu, C.-C.; Smith, R. S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes recent advances in structural quieting technology as applied to active truss structures intended for high precision space based optics applications. Collocated active damping control loops are designed in order to impedance match piezoelectric active members to the structure. Noncollocated control loops are also studied in relation to controlling lightly damped structures.

  2. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are the basic working unit of ... but sometimes give rise to disabilities or diseases. neural circuit —A network of neurons and their interconnections. ...

  3. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Real Life Brain Basics in Real Life—How Depression affects the Brain Meet Sarah Sarah is a ... blues" from time to time. In contrast, major depression is a serious disorder that lasts for weeks. ...

  4. Schizophrenia Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I know with schizophrenia? For More Information Share Schizophrenia Basics Download PDF Download ePub Order a free hardcopy What is schizophrenia? Schizophrenia is a serious mental disorder that affects ...

  5. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  6. Brain Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  7. Fluoridation Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Page Basic Information About Fluoride Benefits: Strong Teeth History of Fluoride in Water Cost: Saves Money, Saves Teeth Fluoride in the Water Today The mineral fluoride occurs naturally on earth and is released from rocks into the soil, ...

  8. Basic Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittek, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    A discussion of the basic measures of corporate financial strength, and the sources of the information is reported. Considered are: balance sheet, income statement, funds and cash flow, and financial ratios.

  9. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... science, such as: How the brain develops How genes and the environment affect the brain The basic ... that with brain development in people mental disorders. Genes and environmental cues both help to direct this ...

  10. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot effectively coordinate the billions ... the basic working unit of the brain and nervous system. These cells are highly specialized for the function ...

  11. Structure design for a Two-DoF myoelectric prosthetic hand to realize basic hand functions in ADLs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshigawa, Suguru; Jiang, Yinlai; Kato, Ryu; Morishita, Soichiro; Nakamura, Tatsuhiro; Yabuki, Yoshiko; Yokoi, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Prosthetic hands are desired by those who have lost a hand or both hands not only for decoration but also for the functions to help them with their activities of daily living (ADL). Prosthetic robotic hands that are developed to fully realize the function of a human hand are usually too expensive to be economically available, difficult to operate and maintain, or over heavy for longtime wearing. The aim of this study is therefore to develop a simplified prosthetic hand (sim-PH), which is to be controlled by myoelectric signals from the user, to realize the most important grasp motions in ADL by trading off the cost and performance. This paper reports the structure design of a two-DoF sim-PH with two motors to drive the CM joint of the thumb and the interlocked MP joints of the other four fingers. In order to optimize the structure, the model of the sim-PH was proposed based on which 7 sim-PHs with different structural parameters were manufactured and tested in a pick-and-place experiment. Correspondence analysis of the experimental results clarified the relationship between the hand functions and the shapes of fingers.

  12. Adsorption of acid and basic dyes by sludge-based activated carbon:Isotherm and kinetic studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鑫; 王广智; 李伟光; 王萍; 宿程远

    2015-01-01

    A batch experiment was conducted to investigate the adsorption of an acid dye (Acid Orange 51) and a basic dye (Safranine) from aqueous solutions by the sludge-based activated carbon (SBAC). The results show that the adsorption of Acid Orange 51 decreases at high pH values, whereas the uptake of Safranine is higher in neutral and alkaline solutions than that in acidic conditions. The adsorption time needed for Safranine to reach equilibrium is shorter than that for Acid Orange 51. The uptakes of the dyes both increase with temperature increasing, indicating that the adsorption process of the dyes onto SBAC is endothermic. The equilibrium data of the dyes are both best represented by the Redlich−Peterson model. At 25 °C, the maximum adsorption capacities of SBAC for Acid Orange 51 and Safranine are 248.70 mg/g and 525.84 mg/g, respectively. The Elovich model is found to best describe the adsorption process of both dyes, indicating that the rate-limiting step involves the chemisorption. It can be concluded that SBAC is a promising material for the removal of Acid Orange 51 and Safranine from aqueous solutions.

  13. Finding Community Structures In Social Activity Data

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chengbin

    2015-05-19

    Social activity data sets are increasing in number and volume. Finding community structure in such data is valuable in many applications. For example, understand- ing the community structure of social networks may reduce the spread of epidemics or boost advertising revenue; discovering partitions in tra c networks can help to optimize routing and to reduce congestion; finding a group of users with common interests can allow a system to recommend useful items. Among many aspects, qual- ity of inference and e ciency in finding community structures in such data sets are of paramount concern. In this thesis, we propose several approaches to improve com- munity detection in these aspects. The first approach utilizes the concept of K-cores to reduce the size of the problem. The K-core of a graph is the largest subgraph within which each node has at least K connections. We propose a framework that accelerates community detection. It first applies a traditional algorithm that is relatively slow to the K-core, and then uses a fast heuristic to infer community labels for the remaining nodes. The second approach is to scale the algorithm to multi-processor systems. We de- vise a scalable community detection algorithm for large networks based on stochastic block models. It is an alternating iterative algorithm using a maximum likelihood ap- proach. Compared with traditional inference algorithms for stochastic block models, our algorithm can scale to large networks and run on multi-processor systems. The time complexity is linear in the number of edges of the input network. The third approach is to improve the quality. We propose a framework for non- negative matrix factorization that allows the imposition of linear or approximately linear constraints on each factor. An example of the applications is to find community structures in bipartite networks, which is useful in recommender systems. Our algorithms are compared with the results in recent papers and their quality and e

  14. Feedback Activation of Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor Signaling via the Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway in Skin Fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Zhu, Yuting; Sun, Congcong; Wang, Tao; Shen, Yingjie; Cai, Wanhui; Sun, Jia; Chi, Lisha; Wang, Haijun; Song, Na; Niu, Chao; Shen, Jiayi; Cong, Weitao; Zhu, Zhongxin; Xuan, Yuanhu; Li, Xiaokun; Jin, Litai

    2017-01-01

    Skin wound healing is a complex process requiring the coordinated behavior of many cell types, especially in the proliferation and migration of fibroblasts. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is a member of the FGF family that promotes fibroblast migration, but the underlying molecular mechanism remains elusive. The present RNA sequencing study showed that the expression levels of several canonical Wnt pathway genes, including Wnt2b, Wnt3, Wnt11, T-cell factor 7 (TCF7), and Frizzled 8 (FZD8) were modified by bFGF stimulation in fibroblasts. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis also showed that Wnt pathway was activated under bFGF treatment. Furthermore, treatment of fibroblasts with lithium chloride or IWR-1, an inducer and inhibitor of the Wnt signaling pathway, respectively, promoted and inhibited cell migration. Also, levels of cytosolic glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta phosphorylated at serine(9) (pGSK3β Ser(9)) and nuclear β-catenin were increased upon exposure to bFGF. Molecular and biochemical assays indicated that phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling activated the GSK3β/β-catenin/Wnt signaling pathway via activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), suggesting that PI3K and JNK act at the upstream of β-catenin. In contrast, knock-down of β-catenin delayed fibroblast cell migration even under bFGF stimulation. RNA sequencing analysis of β-catenin knock-down fibroblasts demonstrated that β-catenin positively regulated the transcription of bFGF and FGF21. Moreover, FGF21 treatment activated AKT and JNK, and accelerated fibroblast migration to a similar extent as bFGF does. In addition, ELISA analysis demonstrated that both of bFGF and FGF21 were auto secretion factor and be regulated by Wnt pathway stimulators. Taken together, our analyses define a feedback regulatory loop between bFGF (FGF21) and Wnt signaling acting through β-catenin in skin fibroblasts.

  15. Effects of basic fibroblast growth factor on superoxide dismutase activity and malondialdehyde content in the rat brain following intracerebral hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongqiao Wei; Juen Huang; Junjie Huang; Bing Li; Qianming Li

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have confirmed that basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) promotes neuronal survival and neurite outgrowth. OBJECTIVE: To compare and verify the effects of bFGF on superoxide dismutase activity and malondialdehyde content in rat brain tissues surrounding a hemorrhagic lesion, as well as the hippocampus at the hemorrhagic side. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: The randomized, controlled, neurobiological study was performed at the Science Experimental Center and Research Laboratory, Guangxi Medical University, China, from September to December 2006. MATERIALS: Ninety-two adult, healthy, Wistar rats of equal gender were used to establish intraeerebral hemorrhage by infusing type VII collagenase into the left internal capsule. Type Ⅶ collagenase (Sigma, USA), superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde kits (Jiancheng, China), and bFGF (Institute of Bioengineering, Ji'nan University, China) were used for this study. METHODS: Ninety successfully lesioned rats were equally and randomly divided into three groups. Rats in the bFGF group were intramuscularly injected daily with bFGF (8μg/kg). Rats in the saline control group received an equal volume of saline. The rats in the model group did not receive other interventions. Superoxide dismutase activity was measured using the xanthine oxidase method. Malondialdehyde contents were detected using the thiobarbituric acid method. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: At 1, 3, and 7 days following intracerebral hemorrhage, superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde were determined in the brain tissue surrounding the hematoma and in the hippocampus in the affected hemisphere. RESULTS: In brain tissue surrounding the hematoma, superoxide dismutase activity was significantly increased in the bFGF group at 3 and 7 days after intracerebral hemorrhage compared with the saline control group, whereas malondialdehyde content was significantly decreased (P 0.05). CONCLUSION: Increased superoxide dismutase activity and decreased

  16. Secondary structural analysis of the mRNA regions encoding the hemagglutinin cleavage site basic amino acids of the avian influenza virus H5N1 subtype samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG SuXia; WANG Xin; CHEN XueFeng; CAO Huai; ZHANG Wen; LIU CiQuan

    2008-01-01

    Here we report the codon bias and the mRNA secondary structural features of the hemagglutinin (HA) cleavage site basic amino acid regions of avian influenza virus H5N1 subtypes. We have developed a dynamic extended folding strategy to predict RNA secondary structure with RNAstructure 4.1 program in an iterative extension process. Statistical analysis of the sequences showed that the HA cleavage site basic amino acids favor the adenine-rich codons, and the corresponding mRNA fragments are mainly in the folding states of single-stranded loops. Our sequential and structural analyses showed that to prevent and control these highly pathogenic viruses, that is, to inhibit the gene expression of avian influenza virus H5N1 subtypes, we should consider the single-stranded loop regions of the HA cleavage site-coding sequences as the targets of RNA interference.

  17. LINEAR ACTIVE STRUCTURES AND MODES (Ⅱ)--DISCRETE SYSTEMS AND BEAMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永刚; 龚靖; 张景绘

    2004-01-01

    The basic concepts about the active structures and some attributes of the modes were presented in paper "Liner Active Structures and Modes ( Ⅰ ) ". The characteristics of the active discrete systems and active beams were discussed, especially, the stability of the active structures and the orthogonality of the eigenvectors. The notes about modes were portrayed by a model of a seven-storeyed building with sensors and actuators. The concept of the adjoint active structure was extended from the discrete systems to the beams that were the representations of the continuous structures. Two types of beams with different placements of the measuring and actuating systems were discussed in detail. One is the beam with the discrete sensors and actuators, and the other is the beam with distributed sensor and actuator function. The orthogonality conditions were derived with the modal shapes of the active beam and its adjoint active beam. An example shows that the variation of eigenvalues with feedback amplitude for the homo-configuration and non-homo-configuration active structures.

  18. Structure-activity relationship of benzophenanthridine alkaloids from Zanthoxylum rhoifolium having antimicrobial activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana de C Tavares

    Full Text Available Zanthoxylum rhoifolium (Rutaceae is a plant alkaloid that grows in South America and has been used in Brazilian traditional medicine for the treatment of different health problems. The present study was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the steam bark crude methanol extract, fractions, and pure alkaloids of Z. rhoifolium. Its stem bark extracts exhibited a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity, ranging from 12.5 to 100 µg/mL using bioautography method, and from 125 to 500 µg/mL in the microdilution bioassay. From the dichloromethane basic fraction, three furoquinoline alkaloids (1-3, and nine benzophenanthridine alkaloids (4-12 were isolated and the antimicrobial activity of the benzophenanthridine alkaloids is discussed in terms of structure-activity relationships. The alkaloid with the widest spectrum of activity was chelerythrine (10, followed by avicine (12 and dihydrochelerythrine (4. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of chelerythrine, of 1.50 µg/mL for all bacteria tested, and between 3.12 and 6.25 µg/mL for the yeast tested, show this compound to be a more powerful antimicrobial agent when compared with the other active alkaloids isolated from Z. rhoifolium. To verify the potential importance of the methylenedioxy group (ring A of these alkaloids, chelerythrine was selected to represent the remainder of the benzophenanthridine alkaloids isolated in this work and was subjected to a demethylation reaction giving derivative 14. Compared to chelerythrine, the derivative (14 was less active against the tested bacteria and fungi. Kinetic measurements of the bacteriolytic activities of chelerythrine against the bacteria Bacillus subtilis (Gram-positive and Escherichia coli (Gram-negative were determined by optical density based on real time assay, suggesting that its mechanism of action is not bacteriolytic. The present study did not detect hemolytic effects of chelerythrine on erythrocytes and found a protective

  19. Basic features of a group selection system modification aimed to sustian regular-uneven-aged stand structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Efremov

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Proposed modification of group selection system is aimed to successfully combine its elements with biological peculiarities (such as sympodial growth, distinct heliotropism and crown growth plasticity, heavy seeds and difficult dissemination, etc. of shade-intolerant and mid-tolerant tree species, stands of which may bemanaged under the same system. Principles, on which the modification is based, are: (i application of well founded extended rotations in order to increase the proportion of tree groups above 90-100 years age in the stand, where upon the height increment and crown side spread by most of the main tree species in Bulgary drop to considerably lower level, and (ii optimum systematic spatial positioning of openings in the stand canopy (and tree groups respectively over the stand area, so that new gaps createdby consecutive selection cuttings adjoin to a minimum number of middle aged (40-80 y. age tree groups. Such clumps of vigorous trees with high growth rates, heliotropism and plasticity carry certain risks of spoiling the target regular-unevenaged stand structure. Factors of significance are discussed by determining the rotationage, size of gaps opened in the stand canopy, selection cutting cycle, a regular uneveaged stand structure design and the minimum area that enables realisation of full selection system cycle. Definitions and determination of selection system elementsin their mutual connections are presented in consecutive steps when designing a particular application of group selection system for exemplary pure stand of common beech (Fagus sylvatica L.. By the proposed group selection system modification the amount of combinations of various factors having impact upon processes inthe tree groups are diminished compared to that by random spatial arrangement of the gaps over the stand area. Silvicultural activities aimed to maintain a stable unevenaged stand structures are thus getting more predictable, easier to schedule and

  20. Basic features of a group selection system modification aimed to sustian regular-uneven-aged stand structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Efremov

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Proposed modification of group selection system is aimed to successfully combine its elements with biological peculiarities (such as sympodial growth, distinct heliotropism and crown growth plasticity, heavy seeds and difficult dissemination, etc. of shade-intolerant and mid-tolerant tree species, stands of which may be managed under the same system. Principles, on which the modification is based, are: (i application of well founded extended rotations in order to increase the proportion of tree groups above 90-100 years age in the stand, where upon the height increment and crown side spread by most of the main tree species in Bulgary drop to considerably lower level, and (ii optimum systematic spatial positioning of openings in the stand canopy (and tree groups respectively over the stand area, so that new gaps created by consecutive selection cuttings adjoin to a minimum number of middle aged (40-80 y. age tree groups. Such clumps of vigorous trees with high growth rates, heliotropism and plasticity carry certain risks of spoiling the target regular-unevenaged stand structure. Factors of significance are discussed by determining the rotation age, size of gaps opened in the stand canopy, selection cutting cycle, a regularuneven- aged stand structure design and the minimum area that enables realisation of full selection system cycle. Definitions and determination of selection system elements in their mutual connections are presented in consecutive steps when designing a particular application of group selection system for exemplary pure stand of common beech (Fagus sylvatica L.. By the proposed group selection system modification the amount of combinations of various factors having impact upon processes in the tree groups are diminished compared to that by random spatial arrangement of the gaps over the stand area. Silvicultural activities aimed to maintain a stable unevenaged stand structures are thus getting more predictable, easier to schedule

  1. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrook, Harold D

    1971-01-01

    Basic Electronics is an elementary text designed for basic instruction in electricity and electronics. It gives emphasis on electronic emission and the vacuum tube and shows transistor circuits in parallel with electron tube circuits. This book also demonstrates how the transistor merely replaces the tube, with proper change of circuit constants as required. Many problems are presented at the end of each chapter. This book is comprised of 17 chapters and opens with an overview of electron theory, followed by a discussion on resistance, inductance, and capacitance, along with their effects on t

  2. [Effect of change in levels of motor activity and innervation on basic and secondary rhythms of rat heart rate and respiration in ontogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursian, A V; Dmitrieva, L E; Sizonov, V A

    2011-01-01

    Changes in the heart basic rhythm, its rhythmical variations on periodograms, and level of spontaneos motor activity were studied on offspring of white rats from newborn to 3-week age at transition from the state of active wakefulness to narcosis as well as under conditions of blockade of M-cholinoreceptors with atropine. It is shown that the endogenous rhythmical activity can be regulated not only by a change in frequency of basic rhythms, but also by action on all parameters and properties of their rhythmical variations and secondary rhythms. The changes in power of the heart secondary rhythms exceed considerably the frequency oscillations of basic rhythms during blockade of cholinergic innervation or a change in the motor activity level that affects both the basic rhythm circulation and respiration and their variations--secondary rhythms. The atropine blockade of M-cholinoreceptors at the studied ages changes the heart beating rhythm within the limits of 10% of bradicardia in newborns to tachycardia in the 3-week old animals. At the same time, power of the cardiac rhythm secondary oscillations changes several times. These data indicate that the cholinergic mechanisms play the key role in formation of the secondary rhythms and their correlation with motor activity.

  3. Lightning activity and precipitation structure of hailstorms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG GuiLi; QIE XiuShu; YUAN Tie; NIU ShuZhen

    2007-01-01

    By using the cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning location data from the lightning detection network of Henan Province, surface Doppler radar data and standard orbit data of PR, TMI and LIS on TRMM satellite, the apatjal and temporal characteristice of CG lightning flashes in 10 severe hailstorms are analyzed. The results show that the percentage of+CG lightning in these hailstorms is high with an average value of 45.5%.There is a distinct increase in CG flash rate during the rapid development stage of hailstorms. The hailstone falling corresponds to an active positive flash period, and the increase of+CG flash rate is generally accompanied with a decrease of-CG flash rate. The flash rate declines rapidly during the dissipating stage of hailstorms. The precipitation structure and lightning activity in two typical hailstorms are studied in detail. It is found that strong convective cells with reflectivity greater than 30dBZ mainly are situated in the front region of hailstorms, whereas the trailing stratiform region is in the rear part of the hailstorme. The maximum heights of echo top are higher than 14km.Convective rain contributes much more rainfall to the total than stratiform rain, and the convective rain takes about 85% and 97% of the total in the two cases, respectively. Total lightning in the hailstorms is very active with the flash rate up to 183 fl/min and 55 fl/min, respectively. The results also indicate that most lightning flashes occurred in the echo region greater than 30dBZ and its immediate periphery. The probability of lightning occurrence is 20 times higher in the convective region than in the stratiform region. The result suggests that the lightning information is helpful to the identification of convective rain region. The linear relationship between flash rate and ice water content is disclosed primarily.

  4. Lightning activity and precipitation structure of hailstorms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    By using the cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning location data from the lightning detection network of He- nan Province, surface Doppler radar data and standard orbit data of PR, TMI and LIS on TRMM satellite, the spatial and temporal characteristics of CG lightning flashes in 10 severe hailstorms are analyzed. The results show that the percentage of +CG lightning in these hailstorms is high with an average value of 45.5%. There is a distinct increase in CG flash rate during the rapid development stage of hailstorms. The hailstone falling corresponds to an active positive flash period, and the increase of +CG flash rate is generally accompanied with a decrease of –CG flash rate. The flash rate declines rapidly during the dissipating stage of hailstorms. The precipitation structure and lightning activity in two typical hail- storms are studied in detail. It is found that strong convective cells with reflectivity greater than 30dBZ mainly are situated in the front region of hailstorms, whereas the trailing stratiform region is in the rear part of the hailstorms. The maximum heights of echo top are higher than 14 km. Convective rain con- tributes much more rainfall to the total than stratiform rain, and the convective rain takes about 85% and 97% of the total in the two cases, respectively. Total lightning in the hailstorms is very active with the flash rate up to 183 fl/min and 55 fl/min, respectively. The results also indicate that most lightning flashes occurred in the echo region greater than 30 dBZ and its immediate periphery. The probability of lightning occurrence is 20 times higher in the convective region than in the stratiform region. The result suggests that the lightning information is helpful to the identification of convective rain region. The linear relationship between flash rate and ice water content is disclosed primarily.

  5. A Novel DNA Binding Mechanism for maf Basic Region-Leucine Zipper Factors Inferred from a MafA-DNA Complex Structure and Binding Specificities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Xun; Guanga, Gerald P; Wan, Cheng; Rose, Robert B [Z; (W Elec.); (NCSU)

    2012-11-13

    MafA is a proto-oncoprotein and is critical for insulin gene expression in pancreatic β-cells. Maf proteins belong to the AP1 superfamily of basic region-leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors. Residues in the basic helix and an ancillary N-terminal domain, the Extended Homology Region (EHR), endow maf proteins with unique DNA binding properties: binding a 13 bp consensus site consisting of a core AP1 site (TGACTCA) flanked by TGC sequences and binding DNA stably as monomers. To further characterize maf DNA binding, we determined the structure of a MafA–DNA complex. MafA forms base-specific hydrogen bonds with the flanking G–5C–4 and central C0/G0 bases, but not with the core-TGA bases. However, in vitro binding studies utilizing a pulse–chase electrophoretic mobility shift assay protocol revealed that mutating either the core-TGA or flanking-TGC bases dramatically increases the binding off rate. Comparing the known maf structures, we propose that DNA binding specificity results from positioning the basic helix through unique phosphate contacts. The EHR does not contact DNA directly but stabilizes DNA binding by contacting the basic helix. Collectively, these results suggest a novel multistep DNA binding process involving a conformational change from contacting the core-TGA to contacting the flanking-TGC bases.

  6. Ethanol Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-01-30

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  7. Body Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more about how the body works, what basic human anatomy is, and what happens when parts of the body don't function properly. Blood Bones, Muscles, and Joints Brain and Nervous System Digestive System Endocrine System Eyes Female Reproductive System Heart and Circulatory System Immune ...

  8. Insulin Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ≡ Are You At Risk? Diabetes Basics Living with Diabetes Food & Fitness In My ... Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy ...

  9. Starch Products. Learning Activity Pack and Instructor's Guide 5.9. Commercial Foods and Culinary Arts Competency-Based Series. Section 5: Basic Food Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Center for Studies in Vocational Education.

    This document consists of a learning activity packet (LAP) for the student and an instructor's guide for the teacher. The LAP is intended to acquaint occupational home economics students with some basic information about starches and with three starch products found throughout the world: cereals and rice, potatoes, and pasta. Illustrated…

  10. Exercise Motivation of College Students in Online, Face-to-Face, and Blended Basic Studies Physical Activity and Wellness Course Delivery Formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidman, Cara Lynn; Fiala, Kelly Ann; D'Abundo, Michelle Lee

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess exercise motivation among college students self-selected into 4 online (OL) and face-to-face (F2F) basic studies' physical activity and wellness course delivery formats. Participants/Methods: Out of 1,037 enrolled students during the Spring 2009 semester, 602 responded online to demographic…

  11. Wavelet basics

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, Y T

    1995-01-01

    Since the study of wavelets is a relatively new area, much of the research coming from mathematicians, most of the literature uses terminology, concepts and proofs that may, at times, be difficult and intimidating for the engineer. Wavelet Basics has therefore been written as an introductory book for scientists and engineers. The mathematical presentation has been kept simple, the concepts being presented in elaborate detail in a terminology that engineers will find familiar. Difficult ideas are illustrated with examples which will also aid in the development of an intuitive insight. Chapter 1 reviews the basics of signal transformation and discusses the concepts of duals and frames. Chapter 2 introduces the wavelet transform, contrasts it with the short-time Fourier transform and clarifies the names of the different types of wavelet transforms. Chapter 3 links multiresolution analysis, orthonormal wavelets and the design of digital filters. Chapter 4 gives a tour d'horizon of topics of current interest: wave...

  12. Dynamic active earth pressure on retaining structures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Deepankar Choudhury; Santiram Chatterjee

    2006-12-01

    Earth-retaining structures constitute an important topic of research in civil engineering, more so under earthquake conditions. For the analysis and design of retaining walls in earthquake-prone zones, accurate estimation of dynamic earth pressures is very important. Conventional methods either use pseudo-static approaches of analysis even for dynamic cases or a simple single-degree of freedom model for the retaining wall–soil system. In this paper, a simplified two-degree of freedom mass–spring–dashpot (2-DOF) dynamic model has been proposed to estimate the active earth pressure at the back of the retaining walls for translation modes of wall movement under seismic conditions. The horizontal zone of influence on dynamic earth force on the wall is estimated. Results in terms of displacement, velocity and acceleration-time history are presented for some typical cases, which show the final movement of the wall in terms of wall height, which is required for the design. The non-dimensional design chart proposed in the present study can be used to compute the total dynamic earth force on the wall under different input ground motion and backfill conditions. Finally, the results obtained have been compared with those of the available Scott model and the merits of the present results have been discussed.

  13. Structural Analysis Extended with Active Fault Isolation - Methods and Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelso, Esteban R.; Blanke, Mogens

    2009-01-01

    on system inputs can considerably enhance fault isolability. This paper investigates this possibility of active fault isolation from a structural point of view. While such extension of the structural analysis approach was suggested earlier, algorithms and case studies were needed to explore this theory....... The paper develops algorithms for investigation of the possibilities of active structural isolation and it offers illustrative examples and a larger case study to explore the properties of active structural isolability ideas....

  14. Factorial Structure of Cognitive Activity Using a Neuropsychological Test Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ardila

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A general neuropsychological test battery was assembled and individually given to a 98-subject sample, aged 11–12 years old. The battery included some basic and common tests routinely used in the evaluation of language, memory, spatial abilities, concept formation, and praxic abilities. Twenty-five different scores were calculated. A factor analysis with varimax rotation disclosed nine different factors, accounting for about 70% of the variance. Factor I was measured by a Sequential Verbal Memory test and Verbal Fluency subtests (“verbal factor”. Factor II was measured by the Wechsler Memory Scale Visual Memory subtests (immediate and delayed reproduction, and the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure (copy and immediate reproduction (“non-verbal memory and constructional factor”. Factor III was measured by the WMS Logical Memory subtests (immediate and delayed; “verbal memory factor”. Factor IV was associated with fine movements (tapping subtests, right and left hand; “fine movements factor”. Factor V was specially measured by the Information subtest of the WMS and the Boston Naming Test (“verbal knowledge”. Factor VI represented a “praxic ability factor” (ideomotor praxis tests. Delayed Associative Learning subtest measured Factor VII; and Digits measured Factor VIII. Factor IX was a “mental control factor” (Mental Control subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale. The implications of these results to theories relating to the structure of cognitive activity are discussed.

  15. Back to Basics – The Influence of DNA Extraction and Primer Choice on Phylogenetic Analysis of Activated Sludge Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Mads; Karst, Søren Michael; Ziegler, Anja Sloth

    2015-01-01

    DNA extraction and primer choice have a large effect on the observed community structure in allmicrobial amplicon sequencing analyses. Although the biases are well known, no com- prehensive analysis has been conducted in activated sludge communities. In this study we systematically explored...... and metatranscriptomics. Quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization was used as a DNA extraction-independent method for qualitative comparison. In general, an effect on the observed community was found on all parameters tested, although bead beating and primer choice had the largest effect. The effect of bead...... the impact of a number of parameters on the observed microbial community: bead beating intensity, primer choice, extracellular DNA removal, and various PCR settings. In total, 176 samples were subjected to 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, and selected samples were investigated throughmetagenomics...

  16. Back to basics – the influence of DNA extraction and primer choice on phylogenetic analysis in activated sludge communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Mads; Karst, Søren Michael; Ziegler, Anja Sloth

    DNA extraction and primer choice have a large effect on the observed community structure in all phylogenetic analyses. Although the biases are well known, no comprehensive analysis have been conducted in activated sludge communities. In this study we investigated the effect of bead beating...... intensity and primer choice on the observed community using 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing. Quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (qFISH) was used as a DNA extraction independent method to evaluate the results. The bead beating intensity correlated with cell-wall strength and showed...... that the manufacture recommended settings were insufficient to retrieve a large part of the community. In addition, the in silico “best” primer set was found to greatly underestimate a number of important phyla when compared to qFISH results. The findings underline the need for sample specific and DNA extraction...

  17. Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor Contributes to a Shift in the Angioregulatory Activity of Retinal Glial (Müller) Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yafai, Yousef; Iandiev, Ianors; Lange, Johannes; Yang, Xiu Mei; Wiedemann, Peter; Bringmann, Andreas; Eichler, Wolfram

    2013-01-01

    Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is a pleiotropic cytokine with pro-angiogenic and neurotrophic effects. The angioregulatory role of this molecule may become especially significant in retinal neovascularization, which is a hallmark of a number of ischemic eye diseases. This study was undertaken to reveal expression characteristics of bFGF, produced by retinal glial (Müller) cells, and to determine conditions under which glial bFGF may stimulate the proliferation of retinal microvascular endothelial cells. Immunofluorescence labeling detected bFGF in Müller cells of the rat retina and in acutely isolated Müller cells with bFGF levels, which increased after ischemia-reperfusion in postischemic retinas. In patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy or myopia, the immunoreactivity of bFGF co-localized to glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive cells in surgically excised retinal tissues. RT-PCR and ELISA analyses indicated that cultured Müller cells produce bFGF, which is elevated under hypoxia or oxidative stress, as well as under stimulation with various growth factors and cytokines, including pro-inflammatory factors. When retinal endothelial cells were cultured in the presence of media from hypoxia (0.2%)-conditioned Müller cells, a distinct picture of endothelial cell proliferation emerged. Media from 24-h cultured Müller cells inhibited proliferation, whereas 72-h conditioned media elicited a stimulatory effect. BFGF-neutralizing antibodies suppressed the enhanced endothelial cell proliferation to a similar extent as anti-VEGF antibodies. Furthermore, phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK−1/−2) in retinal endothelial cells was increased when the cells were cultured in 72-h conditioned media, while neutralizing bFGF attenuated the activation of this signaling pathway. These data provide evidence that retinal (glial) Müller cells are major sources of bFGF in the ischemic retina. Müller cells under

  18. Basic fibroblast growth factor contributes to a shift in the angioregulatory activity of retinal glial (Muller cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef Yafai

    Full Text Available Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF is a pleiotropic cytokine with pro-angiogenic and neurotrophic effects. The angioregulatory role of this molecule may become especially significant in retinal neovascularization, which is a hallmark of a number of ischemic eye diseases. This study was undertaken to reveal expression characteristics of bFGF, produced by retinal glial (Müller cells, and to determine conditions under which glial bFGF may stimulate the proliferation of retinal microvascular endothelial cells. Immunofluorescence labeling detected bFGF in Müller cells of the rat retina and in acutely isolated Müller cells with bFGF levels, which increased after ischemia-reperfusion in postischemic retinas. In patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy or myopia, the immunoreactivity of bFGF co-localized to glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP-positive cells in surgically excised retinal tissues. RT-PCR and ELISA analyses indicated that cultured Müller cells produce bFGF, which is elevated under hypoxia or oxidative stress, as well as under stimulation with various growth factors and cytokines, including pro-inflammatory factors. When retinal endothelial cells were cultured in the presence of media from hypoxia (0.2%-conditioned Müller cells, a distinct picture of endothelial cell proliferation emerged. Media from 24-h cultured Müller cells inhibited proliferation, whereas 72-h conditioned media elicited a stimulatory effect. BFGF-neutralizing antibodies suppressed the enhanced endothelial cell proliferation to a similar extent as anti-VEGF antibodies. Furthermore, phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK-1/-2 in retinal endothelial cells was increased when the cells were cultured in 72-h conditioned media, while neutralizing bFGF attenuated the activation of this signaling pathway. These data provide evidence that retinal (glial Müller cells are major sources of bFGF in the ischemic retina. Müller cells under

  19. Structure of "Ventilation and Warming" in Notes on Nursing Written by Florence Nightingale in 19th Century: Introduction of Basic Physics to Nursing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogoh, Kazutoshi

    "Basic Natural Science" for freshmen at Miyazaki Prefectural Nursing University has a component including physics. Here students learn three principles of thermal transfer; conduction, radiation, and convection through a series of experiments. The purpose of these experiments is to understand the structure of a method for the caring of breathing and temperature of patients as written in "Ventilation and Warming", the first chapter of F. Nightingale's Notes on Nursing. Students can then apply this structure to retain fresh air in today's hospital rooms, and can then appreciate studying real physics incorporated into fundamental knowledge for nursing practice.

  20. Channels Active in the Excitability of Nerves and Skeletal Muscles across the Neuromuscular Junction: Basic Function and Pathophysiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Barbara E.

    2008-01-01

    Ion channels are essential for the basic physiological function of excitable cells such as nerve, skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle cells. Mutations in genes that encode ion channels have been identified to cause various diseases and disorders known as channelopathies. An understanding of how individual ion channels are involved in the…

  1. A Murine Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) Receptor Expressed in CHO Cells is Activated by Basic FGF and Kaposi FGF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansukhani, Alka; Moscatelli, David; Talarico, Daniela; Levytska, Vera; Basilico, Claudio

    1990-06-01

    We have cloned a murine cDNA encoding a tyrosine kinase receptor with about 90% similarity to the chicken fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor and the human fms-like gene (FLG) tyrosine kinase. This mouse receptor lacks 88 amino acids in the extracellular portion, leaving only two immunoglobulin-like domains compared to three in the chicken FGF receptor. The cDNA was cloned into an expression vector and transfected into receptor-negative CHO cells. We show that cells expressing the receptor can bind both basic FGF and Kaposi FGF. Although the receptor binds basic FGF with a 15- to 20-fold higher affinity, Kaposi FGF is able to induce down-regulation of the receptor to the same extent as basic FGF. The receptor is phosphorylated upon stimulation with both FGFs, DNA synthesis is stimulated, and a proliferative response is produced in cells expressing the receptor, whereas cells expressing the cDNA in the antisense orientation show none of these responses to basic FGF or Kaposi FGF. Thus this receptor can functionally interact with two growth factors of the FGF family.

  2. PCR typing of two short tandem repeat (STR) structures upstreams of the human myelin basic protein (MBP) gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nellemann, L J; Frederiksen, J; Morling, N

    1995-01-01

    We investigated two short tandem tetranucleotide (TGGA) repeat polymorphisms upstreams of the myelin basic protein (MBP) gene. The region was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the two repeat systems were separated by cutting with the restriction enzyme NlaIII. The lengths...... of the DNA fragments were analyzed by vertical electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels followed by silver staining. We compared the DNA fragment frequencies of the two MBP regions in 34 patients suffering from multiple sclerosis and in 78 suffering from monosymptomatic idiopathic optic neuritis to those...

  3. Basic research on lattice structures focused on the reliance of the cross sectional area and additional coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kessler Julia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This scientific survey is about periodic lattice structures which are made by Selective Laser Melting (SLM. Selective laser melting is based on Additive Manufacturing. The increased use and increasing demand of lattice structures in different fields of applications forms the necessity of a closer look on complex structures. Lattice structures can be found in different fields of applications for example in lightweight applications, filters and heat exchangers. Because of the expanding of application areas and thus arising requirements, the quality improvement is indispensable. Additive manufacturing and especially the SLM process enable the manufacturing of highly complex shapes and structures. Further it allows the integration of lightweight structures within to be manufactured applications. These high performance structures and applications need specific boundary and process conditions [1-3]. The main aim of this survey is an extraction of important parameters concerning the shape of lattices. A first focus will be on mechanical properties and the therefore necessary tensile tests.

  4. Basic and clinical research on the regulation of the intestinal barrier by Lactobacillus and its active protein components: a review with experience of one center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-Hua; Kang, Liang; Wang, Jian-Ping

    2014-12-01

    Probiotics got protective effects on the intestinal barrier. Our present study is to review the basic and clinical progress on the regulation of the intestinal barrier by Lactobacillus and its active protein components, combing the study of our center. Our study have isolated the active component of micro integral membrane protein (MIMP) within the media place of the integral membrane protein of Lactobacillus plantarum, which was verified about the protective effects against the intestinal epithelial dysfunction. On the other hand, we also found the effects of perioperative use of probiotics in the prevention and treatment of postoperative intestinal barrier dysfunction, and reduction of the postoperative infective complications. In this review, we would like to report the founding of our center, involving in the basic and clinical research progress of regulation of intestinal barrier by Lactobacillus and its active protein component MIMP. Furthermore, we may also promote our following studies about the MIMP and its clinical verification.

  5. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Tayal, DC

    2010-01-01

    The second edition of this book incorporates the comments and suggestions of my friends and students who have critically studied the first edition. In this edition the changes and additions have been made and subject matter has been rearranged at some places. The purpose of this text is to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date study of the principles of operation of solid state devices, their basic circuits and application of these circuits to various electronic systems, so that it can serve as a standard text not only for universities and colleges but also for technical institutes. This book

  6. Regression Basics

    CERN Document Server

    Kahane, Leo H

    2007-01-01

    Using a friendly, nontechnical approach, the Second Edition of Regression Basics introduces readers to the fundamentals of regression. Accessible to anyone with an introductory statistics background, this book builds from a simple two-variable model to a model of greater complexity. Author Leo H. Kahane weaves four engaging examples throughout the text to illustrate not only the techniques of regression but also how this empirical tool can be applied in creative ways to consider a broad array of topics. New to the Second Edition Offers greater coverage of simple panel-data estimation:

  7. Structural location determines functional roles of the basic amino acids of KR-12, the smallest antimicrobial peptide from human cathelicidin LL-37.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Biswajit; Epand, Raquel F; Epand, Richard M; Wang, Guangshun

    2013-11-14

    Cationic antimicrobial peptides are recognized templates for developing a new generation of antimicrobials to combat superbugs. Human cathelicidin LL-37 is an essential host defense molecule in human innate immunity. Previously, we identified KR-12 as the smallest antibacterial peptide of LL-37. KR-12 has a narrow activity spectrum since it is active against Gram-negative Escherichia coli but not Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus. The functional roles of the basic amino acids of KR-12, however, have not yet been elucidated. An alanine scan of cationic amino acids of KR-12 provided evidence for their distinct roles in the activities of the peptides. Bacterial killing and membrane permeation experiments indicate that the R23A and K25A mutants, as well as the lysine-to-arginine mutant, were more potent than KR-12. Another three cationic residues (K18, R19, and R29) of KR-12, which are located in the hydrophilic face of the amphiphathic helix, appeared to be more important in clustering anionic lipids or hemolysis than R23 and K25 in the interfacial region. While the loss of interfacial R23 or K25 reduced peptide helicity, underscoring its important role in membrane binding, the overall increase in peptide activity of KR-12 could be ascribed to the increased peptide hydrophobicity that outweighed the role of basic charge in this case. In contrast, the mutations of interfacial R23 or K25 reduced peptide bactericidal activity of GF-17, an overlapping, more hydrophobic and potent peptide also derived from LL-37. Thus, the hydrophobic context of the peptide determines whether an alanine substitution of an interfacial basic residue increases or decreases membrane permeation and peptide activity.

  8. Engaging Students in a Bioinformatics Activity to Introduce Gene Structure and Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara J. May

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Bioinformatics spans many fields of biological research and plays a vital role in mining and analyzing data. Therefore, there is an ever-increasing need for students to understand not only what can be learned from this data, but also how to use basic bioinformatics tools.  This activity is designed to provide secondary and undergraduate biology students to a hands-on activity meant to explore and understand gene structure with the use of basic bioinformatic tools.  Students are provided an “unknown” sequence from which they are asked to use a free online gene finder program to identify the gene. Students then predict the putative function of this gene with the use of additional online databases.

  9. Resolving the Structure of Active Sites on Platinum Catalytic Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, Lan Yun; Barnard, Amanda S.; Gontard, Lionel Cervera

    2010-01-01

    Accurate understanding of the structure of active sites is fundamentally important in predicting catalytic properties of heterogeneous nanocatalysts. We present an accurate determination of both experimental and theoretical atomic structures of surface monatomic steps on industrial platinum...

  10. Structural Damage Detection with Piezoelectric Wafer Active Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurgiutiu, Victor

    2011-07-01

    Piezoelectric wafer active sensors (PWAS) are lightweight and inexpensive enablers for a large class of damage detection and structural health monitoring (SHM) applications. This paper starts with a brief review of PWAS physical principles and basic modelling and continues by considering the various ways in which PWAS can be used for damage detection: (a) embedded guided-wave ultrasonics, i.e., pitch-catch, pulse-echo, phased arrays, thickness mode; (b) high-frequency modal sensing, i.e., the electro-mechanical (E/M) impedance method; (c) passive detection, i.e., acoustic emission and impact detection. An example of crack-like damage detection and localization with PWAS phased arrays on a small metallic plate is given. The modelling of PWAS detection of disbond damage in adhesive joints is achieved with the analytical transfer matrix method (TMM). The analytical methods offer the advantage of fast computation which enables parameter studies and carpet plots. A parametric study of the effect of crack size and PWAS location on disbond detection is presented. The power and energy transduction between PWAS and structure is studied analytically with a wave propagation method. Special attention is given to the mechatronics modeling of the complete transduction cycle from electrical excitation into ultrasonic acoustic waves by the piezoelectric effect, the transfer through the structure, and finally reverse piezoelectric transduction to generate the received electric signal. It is found that the combination of PWAS size and wave frequency/wavelength play an important role in identifying transduction maxima and minima that could be exploited to achieve an optimum power-efficient design. The multi-physics finite element method (MP-FEM), which permits fine discretization of damaged regions and complicated structural geometries, is used to study the generation of guided waves in a plate from an electrically excited transmitter PWAS and the capture of these waves as electric

  11. Structural Damage Detection with Piezoelectric Wafer Active Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giurgiutiu, Victor, E-mail: victorg@sc.edu [University of South Carolina, SC 29205 (United States)

    2011-07-19

    Piezoelectric wafer active sensors (PWAS) are lightweight and inexpensive enablers for a large class of damage detection and structural health monitoring (SHM) applications. This paper starts with a brief review of PWAS physical principles and basic modelling and continues by considering the various ways in which PWAS can be used for damage detection: (a) embedded guided-wave ultrasonics, i.e., pitch-catch, pulse-echo, phased arrays, thickness mode; (b) high-frequency modal sensing, i.e., the electro-mechanical (E/M) impedance method; (c) passive detection, i.e., acoustic emission and impact detection. An example of crack-like damage detection and localization with PWAS phased arrays on a small metallic plate is given. The modelling of PWAS detection of disbond damage in adhesive joints is achieved with the analytical transfer matrix method (TMM). The analytical methods offer the advantage of fast computation which enables parameter studies and carpet plots. A parametric study of the effect of crack size and PWAS location on disbond detection is presented. The power and energy transduction between PWAS and structure is studied analytically with a wave propagation method. Special attention is given to the mechatronics modeling of the complete transduction cycle from electrical excitation into ultrasonic acoustic waves by the piezoelectric effect, the transfer through the structure, and finally reverse piezoelectric transduction to generate the received electric signal. It is found that the combination of PWAS size and wave frequency/wavelength play an important role in identifying transduction maxima and minima that could be exploited to achieve an optimum power-efficient design. The multi-physics finite element method (MP-FEM), which permits fine discretization of damaged regions and complicated structural geometries, is used to study the generation of guided waves in a plate from an electrically excited transmitter PWAS and the capture of these waves as electric

  12. Activity Landscape Plotter: A Web-based Application for the Analysis of Structure-Activity Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Medina, Mariana; Méndez-Lucio, Oscar; Medina-Franco, Jose Luis

    2017-02-24

    Activity landscape modeling is a powerful method for the quantitative analysis of structure-activity relationships. This cheminformatics area is in continuous growth and several quantitative and visual approaches are constantly being developed. However, these approaches often fall into disuse due to their limited access. Herein, we present Activity Landscape Plotter as the first freely available web-based tool to automatically analyze structure-activity relationships of compound data sets. Based on the concept of activity landscape modeling, the online service performs pair-wise structure and activity relationships from an input data set supplied by the user. For visual analysis, Activity Landscape Plotter generates Structure-Activity Similarity and Dual Activity Difference maps. The user can interactively navigate through the maps and export all the pairwise structure-activity information as comma delimited files. Activity Landscape Plotter is freely accessible at https://unam-shiny-difacquim.shinyapps.io/ActLSmaps/.

  13. Weapon System Costing Methodology for Aircraft Airframes and Basic Structures Volume II - Estimating Handbook and User’s Manual, Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-05-01

    asic structure. b. Material costs for secondary structure. c. Basic structure assembly material costs. c. ("om]X)nent assembly material costs. The...LAGS till GFrtf-’ ^Y^M HOURS ? " ASIC STOUCTURt TnoLIMG u t, 6 7 8 HAS 1 £ 3 (♦ F 7 «i R.I T TP? MTL • 7r. O.𔃻...UJ O O O l ( o tJ o «■ J O CJ ’t.- (Ji I J O O C) O cni en tjoD«JtTCJ o C3c_itr»f)t3t3t3tj c czt j in U"- Uŕ i.^ iD

  14. Basic Nuclear Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    Basic concepts of nuclear structures, radiation, nuclear reactions, and health physics are presented in this text, prepared for naval officers. Applications to the area of nuclear power are described in connection with pressurized water reactors, experimental boiling water reactors, homogeneous reactor experiments, and experimental breeder…

  15. FREE-RADICAL OXIDATION ACTIVITY IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION WITHOUT Q WAVE TREATED WITH EPROSARTAN OR ENALAPRIL ADDITIONALLY TO THE BASIC THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. G. Zaylobidinov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To compare effects of eprosartan and enalapril on free-radical oxidation in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI without Q wave.Material and methods. 50 patients (aged 52,8±3,3 y.o. with AMI without Q were involved into the study. Patients were randomized on 2 groups. The first group consisted of 24 patients (51,1±2,4 y.o. which received basic therapy and enalapril (10 mg daily. The second group consisted of 26 patients (53,1±3,0 y.o. which received basic therapy and eprosartan (600 mg daily. Basic therapy included anticoagulants, antiplatelets, beta-blockers, nitrates and statins. Intensity of free-radical oxidation was evaluated by change of serum malonic dialdehyde (MDD concentration. Functional activity of serum enzymes of antioxidatic system (AOS was evaluated by rate of reaction of superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CT.Results. The intensity of free-radical oxidation increased in patients with AMI without Q: high level of MDD and peroxinitrite (ONOO-. Besides activity of AOS enzymes (SOD and CT decreased. Eprosartan reduced intensity of peroxide oxidation more prominently in comparison with enalapril. Both drugs preserved low activity of SOD and CT.Conclusion. Eprosartan was significantly more effective than enalapril in reduction of serum free-radical oxidation in patients with AMI without Q wave during 10 days after hospital admission.

  16. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... related to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of the nervous system. When the brain cannot ... their final destination. Chemical signals from other cells guide neurons in forming various brain structures. Neighboring neurons ...

  17. Translation of myelin basic protein mRNA in oligodendrocytes is regulated by integrin activation and hnRNP-K

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Lisbeth Schmidt; Chan, Colin W; ffrench-Constant, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Myelination in the central nervous system provides a unique example of how cells establish asymmetry. The myelinating cell, the oligodendrocyte, extends processes to and wraps multiple axons of different diameter, keeping the number of wraps proportional to the axon diameter. Local regulation...... translation of a key sheath protein, myelin basic protein (MBP), by reversing the inhibitory effect of the mRNA 3′UTR. During oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination α6β1-integrin interacts with hnRNP-K, an mRNA-binding protein, which binds to MBP mRNA and translocates from the nucleus to the myelin...

  18. LDR structural technology activities at JPL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Ben

    1988-01-01

    The status of the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) technology requirements and the availability of that technology in the next few years are summarized. The research efforts at JPL related to these technology needs are also discussed. LDR requires that a large and relatively stiff truss-type backup structure have a surface accurate to 100 microns in space (initial position with thermal distortions) and the dynamic characteristics predictable and/or measurable by on-orbit system identification for micron level motion. This motion may result from the excitation of the lower modes or from wave-type motions. It is also assumed that the LDR structure can be ground tested to validate its ability to meet mission requirements. No program manager will commit a structural design based solely on analysis, unless the analysis is backed by a validation test program.

  19. Active Structural Fibers for Multifunctional Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-06

    Sebald [3] used extrusion methods to produce fibers with a platinum core surrounded by a PNN-PZT/ polymer binder which was fired to leave a platinum/PNN...researchers have developed composite piezoelectric devices consisting of an active piezoceramic fiber embedded in a polymer matrix. The polymer matrix acts...active fibers are embedded in a polymer matrix, the rule of mixtures can be applied again a second time by taking the piezoelectric shell to be an

  20. UV irradiation-induced apoptosis leads to activation of a 36-kDa myelin basic protein kinase in HL-60 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, M.L.; Sato, Mitsuhiro; Cao, Boliang; Richie, J.P. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    1996-08-20

    UV irradiation induces apoptosis (or programmed cell death) in HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells within 3 h. UV-induced apoptosis is accompanied by activation of a 36-kDa myelin basic protein kinase (p36 MBP kinase). This kinase is also activated by okadaic acid and retinoic acid-induced apoptosis. Irrespective of the inducing agent, p36 MBP kinase activation is restricted to the subpopulation of cells actually undergoing apoptosis. Activation of p36 MBP kinase occurs in enucleated cytoplasts, indicating no requirements for a nucleus or fragmented DNA in signaling. We also demonstrate the activation of p36 kinase in tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}-and serum starvation-induced cell death using the human prostatic tumor cell line LNCap and NIH 3T3 fibroblasts, respectively. We postulate that p36 MBP kinase is a common component in diverse signaling pathways leading to apoptosis. 40 refs., 5 figs.

  1. ERT basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butters, M. [MBC Energy and Environment, Ottawa, ON (Canada)]|[National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    ERT is an economic instrument which helps power companies achieve emission reduction compliance cost-effectively. This paper presents the basics of ERT with reference to trading concepts, types of systems and types of emissions. The paper also describes the state of the Canadian energy market regarding greenhouse gases (GHG), nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide and volatile organic compounds. The association between ERT and district energy is also explained. By 2010, the global market for GHG trading is expected to be worth $10 billion to $3 trillion U.S. Canada has committed to reducing its GHG to 6 per cent below 1990 levels by 2012, but currently emits 705 Mt per year. This is expected to increase to 770 Mt by 2010. Therefore, in order to meet its commitment, GHGs will have to be reduced 200 Mt per year. Canada is currently considering ratifying the Kyoto agreement and a trading system is being developed. There are several abatement technologies currently under consideration for district energy systems, including adding scrubbers, improving efficiency, and fuel switching. The marginal cost of abatement was also discussed. tabs., figs.

  2. Backpack Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... back and abdominal muscles. Weight training , pilates , and yoga are all activities that can be effective in strengthening these core muscles. Following these tips is the best way to avoid back pain and other problems. Reviewed by: Steven Dowshen, MD ...

  3. The Basic Study on the Method of Acoustic Emission Signal Processing for the Failure Detection in the NPP Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Hyun; Kim, Jae Seong; Lee, Bo Young [Korea Aerospace University, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung; Kwag, No Gwon [SAEAN, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    The thermal fatigue crack(TFC) is one of the life-limiting mechanisms at the nuclear power plant operating conditions. In order to evaluate the structural integrity, various non-destructive test methods such as radiographic test, ultrasonic test and eddy current are used in the industrial field. However, these methods have restrictions that defect detection is possible after the crack growth. For this reason, acoustic emission testing(AET) is becoming one of powerful inspection methods, because AET has an advantage that possible to monitor the structure continuously. Generally, every mechanism that affects the integrity of the structure or equipment is a source of acoustic emission signal. Therefore the noise filtering is one of the major works to the almost AET researchers. In this study, acoustic emission signal was collected from the pipes which were in the successive thermal fatigue cycles. The data were filtered based on the results from previous experiments. Through the data analysis, the signal characteristics to distinguish the effective signal from the noises for the TFC were proven as the waveform difference. The experiment results provide preliminary information for the acoustic emission technique to the continuous monitoring of the structure failure detection

  4. Computational Strategies for the Architectural Design of Bending Active Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Nicholas, Paul

    2013-01-01

    with the design of bending-active structures, through computational strategies. We report three built structures that develop architecturally oriented design methods for bending-active systems using composite materials. These projects demonstrate the application and limits of the introduction of advanced...

  5. The methodical statutes monitoring of activity by innovative structures

    OpenAIRE

    Stoianovskii, Andrii; Baranovska, Sofia; Stoianovska, Iryna

    2012-01-01

    In the article it is suggested to perfect methodical recommendations in relation to monitoring of activity of innovative structures, which, among other, allow to mark off the results of activity of leading organ of management and contractors of innovative projects, registered in her limits an innovative structure.

  6. ACOSS SEVEN (Active Control of Space Structures)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    system’s secondary optical element. f. FLEXIBLE FLYER (Trusses, beams, struts & ties) This structural concept consists of a primary plantar truss with...The axial components of the centrifugal forces are re cted by a single, com- pression element (mast) that is coincidental with the axis of rotation

  7. Make Math Merry - I: An Instructional Activities Guide for Teaching Basic Mathematics Skills in Grades 3, 4, 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Sue; And Others

    These materials were designed to help remedial students increase mathematics proficiency on topics found in the Regents Competency Testing Program. The activities developed come complete with questions, "cards," and/or sample gameboards. Included in each activity is a list of materials needed. Several different activities often use the…

  8. Semi-Active Friction Damping of Large Space Truss Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Gaul

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The present approach for vibration suppression of flexible structures is based on friction damping in semi-active joints. At optimal locations conventional rigid connections of a large truss structure are replaced by semi-active friction joints. Two different concepts for the control of the normal forces in the friction interfaces are implemented. In the first approach each semi-active joint has its own local feedback controller, whereas the second concept uses a global, clipped-optimal controller. Simulation results of a 10-bay truss structure show the potential of the proposed semi-active concept.

  9. BASIC APPROACH TO ANALYZING THE ESSENCE AND STRUCTURE OF INTELLIGENCE OF THE FUTURE OFFICERS OF INTERIOR MINISTRY TROOPS RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Valerevich Orlenko

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article, based on an analysis of various scientific sources, presented results of a study the problem of formation and development of future intelligence officers, consideration of the main approaches to the analysis of the nature and structure of the phenomenon. The authors substantiate the relevance of such work, consider the results lead the views of various authors on the subject. On the basis of these conclusions are drawn, which can be used in educational practice of military high school.

  10. A Basic Study of Metaheuristics Based on Higher Level Structure in Solution Space of Combinatorial Optimization Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Takahiko; Yasuda, Keiichiro

    Metaheuristics is a new paradigm that aims to obtain an approximate solution within a feasible computation time. To design the effective metaheuristics, strategies of intensification and diversification are essential. This paper proposes an algorithm that has long term policy for realizing intensification and diversification based on higher level structure in solution space. In order to verify the performance, the proposed algorithm is applied to some traveling salesman problems which are typical combinatorial optimization problems.

  11. On a Singular Solution in Higgs Field (1)- Basic equation and structure for SM Higgs boson mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazawa, Kazuyoshi

    2011-04-01

    A formula for mass of SM Higgs boson (H0) is derived by considering certain asymptotic behavior for singular solution of EOM of Higgs field via Euler-Lagrange equation, in which MH0 is shown as a rest mass of Higgs boson mass of the field, which maintains Lorentz invariance. Where the asymptotic formula extracts a proper information near the singular solution. By modifying the mass formula with H0 production scheme of W/Z-fusion process, the value of MH0 is determined at 120.611 GeV/c2. Then the mass structure of H0 is discussed by top quark decay processes in electroweak and quark sectors with newly enlarged equation of motion (Non-Linear Klein-Gordon), calculating the mass value of top quark as 171.266 GeV/c2. And from the difference between the value by assuming that H0 is a virtual bound state of top quark- pair ((t t)*) itself with the mass formula obtained by requirement of minimal mass production and the theoretical mass value of H0 (120.611 GeV/c2), it is expected that H0 is to be a composite scalar meson after emitting one photon from the (t t)* through radiative decay. Finally, a mass structure of H0 which is composed of all spin 0 mesons' masses, is proposed. Where the truncated-Octahedron mass structure is recursively (doubly) seen.

  12. Conception on the Structure Optimization of Basic Party Organizations in University%优化高校基层党组织结构的设想

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      目前高校基层党组织设置存在支部党员规模太大或党支部数过多的问题,制约了支部作用的发挥。针对这些问题,可以建立一种三级组织结构,并通过制度创新、提高党建队伍管理水平、完善内涵建设等方面促进高校基层党组织结构的优化。%There are problems with the installation of the basic party organizations in university presently:the scope or number of the party branch so large that the function was limited. To solve these problems, the structure of the third class should be estab-lished. The system innovation, improve management level of party affairs worker troop and perfect the inner construction and so on may help to promote the structure optimization of the basic party organizations in university.

  13. Evolution of Substrate Specificity within a Diverse Family of [beta/alpha]-Barrel-fold Basic Amino Acid Decarboxylases X-ray Structure Determination of Enzymes with Specificity for L-Arginine and Carboxynorspermidine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Xiaoyi; Lee, Jeongmi; Michael, Anthony J.; Tomchick, Diana R.; Goldsmith, Elizabeth J.; Phillips, Margaret A. (Sungkyunkwan); (UTSMC)

    2010-08-26

    Pyridoxal 5{prime}-phosphate (PLP)-dependent basic amino acid decarboxylases from the {beta}/{alpha}-barrel-fold class (group IV) exist in most organisms and catalyze the decarboxylation of diverse substrates, essential for polyamine and lysine biosynthesis. Herein we describe the first x-ray structure determination of bacterial biosynthetic arginine decarboxylase (ADC) and carboxynorspermidine decarboxylase (CANSDC) to 2.3- and 2.0-{angstrom} resolution, solved as product complexes with agmatine and norspermidine. Despite low overall sequence identity, the monomeric and dimeric structures are similar to other enzymes in the family, with the active sites formed between the {beta}/{alpha}-barrel domain of one subunit and the {beta}-barrel of the other. ADC contains both a unique interdomain insertion (4-helical bundle) and a C-terminal extension (3-helical bundle) and it packs as a tetramer in the asymmetric unit with the insertions forming part of the dimer and tetramer interfaces. Analytical ultracentrifugation studies confirmed that the ADC solution structure is a tetramer. Specificity for different basic amino acids appears to arise primarily from changes in the position of, and amino acid replacements in, a helix in the {beta}-barrel domain we refer to as the 'specificity helix.' Additionally, in CANSDC a key acidic residue that interacts with the distal amino group of other substrates is replaced by Leu{sup 314}, which interacts with the aliphatic portion of norspermidine. Neither product, agmatine in ADC nor norspermidine in CANSDC, form a Schiff base to pyridoxal 5{prime}-phosphate, suggesting that the product complexes may promote product release by slowing the back reaction. These studies provide insight into the structural basis for the evolution of novel function within a common structural-fold.

  14. Positive Control Mutations in the MyoD Basic Region Fail to Show Cooperative DNA Binding and Transcriptional Activation in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengal, Eyal; Flores, Osvaldo; Rangarajan, Pundi N.; Chen, Amy; Weintraub, Harold; Verma, Inder M.

    1994-06-01

    An in vitro transcription system from HeLa cells has been established in which MyoD and E47 proteins activate transcription both as homodimers and heterodimers. However, heterodimers activate transcription more efficiently than homodimers, and function synergistically from multiple binding sites. Positive control mutants in the basic region of MyoD that have previously been shown to be defective in initiating the myogenic program, can bind DNA but have lost their ability to function as transcriptional activators in vitro. Additionally, positive control mutants, unlike wild-type MyoD, fail to bind cooperatively to DNA. We propose that binding of MyoD complexes to high affinity MyoD binding sites induces conformational changes that facilitate cooperative binding to multiple sites and promote transcriptional activation.

  15. Antiproliferative and Structure Activity Relationships of Amaryllidaceae Alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedrón, Juan C; Ravelo, Ángel G; León, Leticia G; Padrón, José M; Estévez-Braun, Ana

    2015-07-30

    The antiproliferative activity of a set of seven natural Amaryllidaceae alkaloids and 32 derivatives against four cancer cell lines (A2780, SW1573, T47-D and WiDr) was determined. The best antiproliferative activities were achieved with alkaloids derived from pancracine (2), haemanthamine (6) and haemantidine (7). For each skeleton, some structure-activity relationships were outlined.

  16. Impact of Structured Movement Time on Preschoolers' Physical Activity Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Kara K.; Matsuyama, Abigail L.; Robinson, Leah E.

    2017-01-01

    Preschool-aged children are not meeting national physical activity recommendations. This study compares preschoolers' physical activity engagement during two different physical activity opportunities: outdoor free play or a structured movement session. Eighty-seven children served as participants: 40 children participated in outdoor free play and…

  17. Autonomy supportive environments and mastery as basic factors to motivate physical activity in children: a controlled laboratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background Choice promotes the experience of autonomy, which enhances intrinsic motivation. Providing a greater choice of traditional active toys may increase children’s activity time. Mastery also increases intrinsic motivation and is designed into exergames, which may increase play time of a singl...

  18. Basic amphipathic model peptides: Structural investigations in solution, studied by circular dichroism, fluorescence, analytical ultracentrifugation and molecular modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangavel, C.; Sy, D.; Reynaud, J. A.

    1999-05-01

    A twenty amino acid residue long amphipathic peptide made of ten leucine and ten lysine residues and four derivatives, in which a tryptophan, as a fluorescent probe, is substituted for a leucine, are studied. The peptides in water are mainly in an unordered conformation (~90%), and undergo a two state reversible transition upon heating, leading to a partially helical conformation (cold denaturation). Time resolved fluorescence results show that fluorescence decay for the four Trp containing peptides is best described by triple fluorescence decay kinetics. In TFE/water mixture, peptides adopt a single α-helix conformation but the Leu-Trp9 substitution leads to an effective helix destabilizing effect. In salted media, the peptides are fully helical and present a great tendency to self associate by bringing the hydrophobic faces of helices into close contact. This proceeds in non-cooperative multisteps leading to the formation of α helix aggregates with various degrees of complexation. Using modelling, the relative hydrophobic surface areas accessible to water molecules in n-mer structures are calculated and discussed. Nous avons étudié un peptide amphipathique composé de dix lysine et dix leucine, ainsi que quatre dérivés comportant un résidu tryptophane pour les études par fluorescence. Dans l'eau, les peptides ne sont pas structurés (~90%), et se structurent partiellement en hélice α par chauffage (dénaturation froide). Les mesures de déclin de fluorescence font apparaître une cinétique à trois temps de vie. Dans un mélange eau/TFE, les peptides adoptent une conformation en hélice α, mais la substitution Leu-Trp9 possède un effet déstabilisant. En mileu salin, les peptides sont totalement hélicoïdaux et ont tendance à s'agréger de façon à regrouper leur face hydrophobe. Ce processus se fait en plusieurs étapes avec des agrégats de taille variable. L'existence de tels agrégats est discutée sur la base de la modélisation mol

  19. Basic Analysis of Two-Coils Structure Based on Magnetically-Coupled Resonant Technology for SWIPT Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Biyun; CHEN Boheng; LI Sumei; WANG Yide; WEI Gang

    2015-01-01

    The Magnetically-coupled resonant (MCR) technology is exploited in this paper to realize Synchronous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) func-tion, which means that the power carriers also transmit information. The circuit structure of SWIPT system is ana-lyzed and the existence of two optimal frequencies in power efficiency under small resistance circumstance is proved. The physical parameters having influences on the two op-timal frequencies are discussed, such as the distance be-tween coils, impedance characteristics of coils and loads. These results provide a way to increase the bandwidth of MCR technology, while maintaining high power efficiency to realize SWIPT function. Simulations and experimental results are presented to verify the feasibility of the pro-posed system and obtained theoretical expressions.

  20. Origami-inspired active structures: a synthesis and review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peraza-Hernandez, Edwin A.; Hartl, Darren J.; Malak, Richard J., Jr.; Lagoudas, Dimitris C.

    2014-09-01

    Origami, the ancient art of paper folding, has inspired the design of engineering devices and structures for decades. The underlying principles of origami are very general, which has led to applications ranging from cardboard containers to deployable space structures. More recently, researchers have become interested in the use of active materials (i.e., those that convert various forms of energy into mechanical work) to effect the desired folding behavior. When used in a suitable geometry, active materials allow engineers to create self-folding structures. Such structures are capable of performing folding and/or unfolding operations without being kinematically manipulated by external forces or moments. This is advantageous for many applications including space systems, underwater robotics, small scale devices, and self-assembling systems. This article is a survey and analysis of prior work on active self-folding structures as well as methods and tools available for the design of folding structures in general and self-folding structures in particular. The goal is to provide researchers and practitioners with a systematic view of the state-of-the-art in this important and evolving area. Unifying structural principles for active self-folding structures are identified and used as a basis for a quantitative and qualitative comparison of numerous classes of active materials. Design considerations specific to folded structures are examined, including the issues of crease pattern identification and fold kinematics. Although few tools have been created with active materials in mind, many of them are useful in the overall design process for active self-folding structures. Finally, the article concludes with a discussion of open questions for the field of origami-inspired engineering.

  1. Structural Determinants of Sleeping Beauty Transposase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrusán, György; Yant, Stephen R; Szilágyi, András; Marsh, Joseph A; Mátés, Lajos; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna; Barabás, Orsolya; Ivics, Zoltán

    2016-08-01

    Transposases are important tools in genome engineering, and there is considerable interest in engineering more efficient ones. Here, we seek to understand the factors determining their activity using the Sleeping Beauty transposase. Recent work suggests that protein coevolutionary information can be used to classify groups of physically connected, coevolving residues into elements called "sectors", which have proven useful for understanding the folding, allosteric interactions, and enzymatic activity of proteins. Using extensive mutagenesis data, protein modeling and analysis of folding energies, we show that (i) The Sleeping Beauty transposase contains two sectors, which span across conserved domains, and are enriched in DNA-binding residues, indicating that the DNA binding and endonuclease functions of the transposase coevolve; (ii) Sector residues are highly sensitive to mutations, and most mutations of these residues strongly reduce transposition rate; (iii) Mutations with a strong effect on free energy of folding in the DDE domain of the transposase significantly reduce transposition rate. (iv) Mutations that influence DNA and protein-protein interactions generally reduce transposition rate, although most hyperactive mutants are also located on the protein surface, including residues with protein-protein interactions. This suggests that hyperactivity results from the modification of protein interactions, rather than the stabilization of protein fold.

  2. [Intensity of apoptotic processes, aconitate hydratase activity and citrate level in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated steatohepatitis under application of epifamin at basic therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, S S; Pashkov, A N; Agarkov, A A; Shulgin, K K

    2015-01-01

    DNA fragmentation, caspase-1 and caspase-3, aconitate hydratase (AH) activities, and citrate content have been investigated in the blood of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated by steatohepatitis. These indicators of apoptotic processes intensity and oxidative stress development were estimated after basic treatment and a combined therapy including epifamin. Before treatment DNA fragmentation blood leukocytes, decrease of AH activity and increase of caspases activities in the serum of patients were detected. Treatment with epifamin provided more pronounced changes in the investigated parameters towards control values as compared to basis therapy. Epifamin caused a positive effect on the citrate content in the serum of patients. Epifamin inclusion to the basic therapy was accompanied by a more pronounced changes towards the normal values of such biochemical parameters as ALT, AST, b-lipoproteins, cholesterol, fasting glucose and postprandial glucose levels. All these changes may be obviously attributed to epifamin-induced correction of the melatonin level and manifestation of adaptogenic properties and antioxidant effects of the hormone.

  3. Designing and simulation smart multifunctional continuous logic device as a basic cell of advanced high-performance sensor systems with MIMO-structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasilenko, Vladimir G.; Nikolskyy, Aleksandr I.; Lazarev, Alexander A.

    2015-01-01

    We have proposed a design and simulation of hardware realizations of smart multifunctional continuous logic devices (SMCLD) as advanced basic cells of the sensor systems with MIMO- structure for images processing and interconnection. The SMCLD realize function of two-valued, multi-valued and continuous logics with current inputs and current outputs. Such advanced basic cells realize function nonlinear time-pulse transformation, analog-to-digital converters and neural logic. We showed advantages of such elements. It's have a number of advantages: high speed and reliability, simplicity, small power consumption, high integration level. The conception of construction of SMCLD consists in the use of a current mirrors realized on 1.5μm technology CMOS transistors. Presence of 50÷70 transistors, 1 PD and 1 LED makes the offered circuits quite compact. The simulation results of NOT, MIN, MAX, equivalence (EQ), normalize summation, averaging and other functions, that implemented SMCLD, showed that the level of logical variables can change from 0.1μA to 10μA for low-power consumption variants. The SMCLD have low power consumption <1mW and processing time about 1÷11μS at supply voltage 2.4÷3.3V.

  4. Thermodynamics - basic conception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wee, Eul Bok

    1979-08-15

    This book tells of basic conception of thermodynamics, condition and property of matter, work and power, thermal efficiency, the principle of the conservation of energy, relationship between work and heat, enthalpy, Jouel's law, complete gasification, the second low of thermodynamics such as thermal efficiency and quality factor, carnot cycle, and entropy, condensation of gas like press of internal combustion engine, vapor, steam power plant and structure, internal combustion cycle, freeze cycle, flow of fluid, combustion and heat transfer.

  5. Examining Activity-Based Learning (ABL) Practices in Public Basic Schools in the Northern Region of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nudzor, Hope P.; Dare, Albert; Oduro, George K. T.; Bosu, Rosemary; Addy, Nii

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ghana has been the testing ground for many teaching and learning initiatives over the past 15-20 years. These initiatives, largely funded by donors, have sought to improve learning by introducing and reinforcing valuable teaching skills, materials and approaches, most of them child-friendly, learner-centred and involving activity-based…

  6. Partitioning and lipophilicity in quantitative structure-activity relationships.

    OpenAIRE

    Dearden, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    The history of the relationship of biological activity to partition coefficient and related properties is briefly reviewed. The dominance of partition coefficient in quantitation of structure-activity relationships is emphasized, although the importance of other factors is also demonstrated. Various mathematical models of in vivo transport and binding are discussed; most of these involve partitioning as the primary mechanism of transport. The models describe observed quantitative structure-ac...

  7. Proceedings of the 182nd basic science seminar (The workshop on neutron structural biology ) 'New frontiers of structural biology advanced by solution scattering'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, Satoru (ed.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    182nd advanced science seminar (the workshop on neutron structural biology) was held in February 9-10, 2000 at Tokai. Thirty-six participants from universities, research institutes, and private companies took part in the workshop, and total of 24 lectures were given. This proceedings collects abstracts, the figures and tables, which the speakers used in their lectures. The proceedings contains two reviews from the point of view of x-ray and neutron scatterings, and six subjects (21 papers) including neutron and x-ray scattering in the era of structure genomics, structural changes detected with solution scattering, a new way in structural biology opened by neutron crystallography and neutron scattering, x-ray sources and detectors, simulation and solution scattering, and neutron sources and detectors. (Kazumata, Y.)

  8. GABA(A) receptors in visual and auditory cortex and neural activity changes during basic visual stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Pengmin; Duncan, Niall W; Wiebking, Christine; Gravel, Paul; Lyttelton, Oliver; Hayes, Dave J; Verhaeghe, Jeroen; Kostikov, Alexey; Schirrmacher, Ralf; Reader, Andrew J; Northoff, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Recent imaging studies have demonstrated that levels of resting γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the visual cortex predict the degree of stimulus-induced activity in the same region. These studies have used the presentation of discrete visual stimulus; the change from closed eyes to open also represents a simple visual stimulus, however, and has been shown to induce changes in local brain activity and in functional connectivity between regions. We thus aimed to investigate the role of the GABA system, specifically GABA(A) receptors, in the changes in brain activity between the eyes closed (EC) and eyes open (EO) state in order to provide detail at the receptor level to complement previous studies of GABA concentrations. We conducted an fMRI study involving two different modes of the change from EC to EO: an EO and EC block design, allowing the modeling of the haemodynamic response, followed by longer periods of EC and EO to allow the measuring of functional connectivity. The same subjects also underwent [(18)F]Flumazenil PET to measure GABA(A) receptor binding potentials. It was demonstrated that the local-to-global ratio of GABA(A) receptor binding potential in the visual cortex predicted the degree of changes in neural activity from EC to EO. This same relationship was also shown in the auditory cortex. Furthermore, the local-to-global ratio of GABA(A) receptor binding potential in the visual cortex also predicted the change in functional connectivity between the visual and auditory cortex from EC to EO. These findings contribute to our understanding of the role of GABA(A) receptors in stimulus-induced neural activity in local regions and in inter-regional functional connectivity.

  9. Structure-Activity Relationships in Nitro-Aromatic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, R. A.; Rahman, S.; Crespo-Hernández, C. E.

    Many nitro-aromatic compounds show mutagenic and carcinogenic properties, posing a potential human health risk. Despite this potential health hazard, nitro-aromatic compounds continue to be emitted into ambient air from municipal incinerators, motor vehicles, and industrial power plants. As a result, understanding the structural and electronic factors that influence mutagenicity in nitro-aromatic compounds has been a long standing objective. Progress toward this goal has accelerated over the years, in large part due to the synergistic efforts among toxicology, computational chemistry, and statistical modeling of toxicological data. The concerted influence of several structural and electronic factors in nitro-aromatic compounds makes the development of structure-activity relationships (SARs) a paramount challenge. Mathematical models that include a regression analysis show promise in predicting the mutagenic activity of nitro-aromatic compounds as well as in prioritizing compounds for which experimental data should be pursued. A major challenge of the structure-activity models developed thus far is their failure to apply beyond a subset of nitro-aromatic compounds. Most quantitative structure-activity relationship papers point to statistics as the most important confirmation of the validity of a model. However, the experimental evidence shows the importance of the chemical knowledge in the process of generating models with reasonable applicability. This chapter will concisely summarize the structural and electronic factors that influence the mutagenicity in nitro-aromatic compounds and the recent efforts to use quantitative structure-activity relationships to predict those physicochemical properties.

  10. Effects of steam activation on the pore structure and surface chemistry of activated carbon derived from bamboo waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yan-Juan [School of Chemical Engineering, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105 (China); Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 36102 (China); Xing, Zhen-Jiao [Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 36102 (China); Duan, Zheng-Kang [School of Chemical Engineering, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105 (China); Meng Li [Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 36102 (China); Wang, Yin, E-mail: yinwang@iue.ac.cn [Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 36102 (China)

    2014-10-01

    The effects of steam activation on the pore structure evolution and surface chemistry of activated carbon (AC) obtained from bamboo waste were investigated. Nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms revealed that higher steam activation temperatures and/or times promoted the creation of new micropores and widened the existing micropores, consequently decreasing the surface area and total pore volume. Optimum conditions included an activation temperature of 850 °C, activation time of 120 min, and steam flush generated from deionized water of 0.2 cm{sup 3} min{sup −1}. Under these conditions, AC with a BET surface area of 1210 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} and total pore volume of 0.542 cm{sup −3} g{sup −1}was obtained. Changes in surface chemistry were determined through Boehm titration, pH measurement, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Results revealed the presence of a large number of basic groups on the surface of the pyrolyzed char and AC. Steam activation did not affect the species of oxygen-containing groups but changed the contents of these species when compared with pyrolyzed char. Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe the surface morphology of the products. AC obtained under optimum conditions showed a monolayer adsorption capacity of 330 mg g{sup −1} for methylene blue (MB), which demonstrates its excellent potential for MB adsorption applications.

  11. Effects of steam activation on the pore structure and surface chemistry of activated carbon derived from bamboo waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-Juan; Xing, Zhen-Jiao; Duan, Zheng-Kang; Li, Meng; Wang, Yin

    2014-10-01

    The effects of steam activation on the pore structure evolution and surface chemistry of activated carbon (AC) obtained from bamboo waste were investigated. Nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms revealed that higher steam activation temperatures and/or times promoted the creation of new micropores and widened the existing micropores, consequently decreasing the surface area and total pore volume. Optimum conditions included an activation temperature of 850 °C, activation time of 120 min, and steam flush generated from deionized water of 0.2 cm3 min-1. Under these conditions, AC with a BET surface area of 1210 m2 g-1 and total pore volume of 0.542 cm-3 g-1was obtained. Changes in surface chemistry were determined through Boehm titration, pH measurement, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Results revealed the presence of a large number of basic groups on the surface of the pyrolyzed char and AC. Steam activation did not affect the species of oxygen-containing groups but changed the contents of these species when compared with pyrolyzed char. Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe the surface morphology of the products. AC obtained under optimum conditions showed a monolayer adsorption capacity of 330 mg g-1 for methylene blue (MB), which demonstrates its excellent potential for MB adsorption applications.

  12. Finite element models applied in active structural acoustic control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Nijhuis, Marco H.H.; Boer, de André; Rao, Vittal S.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the modeling of systems for active structural acoustic control. The finite element method is applied to model structures including the dynamics of piezoelectric sensors and actuators. A model reduction technique is presented to make the finite element model suitable for controll

  13. Eliciting Production of L2 Target Structures through Priming Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Kim; Trofimovich, Pavel; Neumann, Heike

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the pedagogical applications of structural priming research in an English for academic purposes (EAP) context, investigating whether priming activities are an effective tool for eliciting production of target grammatical structures. University students across four EAP classes carried out a total of 6 information-exchange…

  14. Toward real time detection of the basic living activity in home using a wearable sensor and smart home sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Sunlee; Kim, Minho; Song, Sa-Kwang; Park, Soo-Jun

    2008-01-01

    As the elderly people living alone are enormously increasing recently, we need the system inferring activities of daily living (ADL) for maintaining healthy life and recognizing emergency. The system should be constructed with sensors, which are used to associate with people's living while remaining as non intrusive views as possible. To do this, the proposed system use a triaxial accelerometer sensor and environment sensors indicating contact with subject in home. Particularly, in order to robustly infer ADLs, we present component ADL, which is decided with conjunction of human motion together, not just only contacted object identification. It is an important component in inferring ADL. In special, component ADL decision firstly refines misclassified initial activities, which improves the accuracy of recognizing ADL. Preliminary experiments results for proposed system provides overall recognition rate of over 97% over 8 component ADLs, which can be effectively applicable to recognize the final ADLs.

  15. Basic properties of Fedosov supermanifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Geyer, B

    2004-01-01

    Basic properties of even (odd) supermanifolds endowed with a connection respecting a given symplectic structure are studied. Such supermanifolds can be considered as generalization of Fedosov manifolds to the supersymmetric case.

  16. Effects of patient education on compliance with basic treatment regimens and health in recent onset active rheumatoid arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brus, H.; van de Laar, M. A F J; Taal, E.; Rasker, J.; Wiegman, O.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To determine the effects of patient education on compliance and on health in patients with active, recent onset rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
METHODS—A randomised, controlled, assessor blinded, one year trial. The experimental group followed an education programme. All patients started on sulphasalazine therapy. Compliance with sulphasalazine was measured by pill counting. Compliance rates with regimens of physical exercise, endurance activities, and energy conservation were measured by questionnaires. Compliance with prescriptions of joint protection was scored using a test for joint protection performance. Health was measured by a Disease Activity Score (function of erythrocyte sedimentation rate, Ritchie score, and number of swollen joints), C reactive protein, Dutch-AIMS scores, and M-HAQ scores, range of motion of shoulder, elbow, and knee joints. Parameters were scored at baseline and after three, six, and 12 months.
RESULTS—Sixty of 65 patients gave informed consent, five of them withdrew from follow up. Compliance with sulphasalazine exceeded 80% with no differences between groups. Compliance with physical exercise (at three months), energy conservation (at three and at 12 months), and joint protection (at three months) improved significantly more in the experimental group. The improvements of health were not different in the groups.
CONCLUSION—Compliance with sulphasalazine among patients with active, recent onset RA is high, whether formal patient education is followed or not. Compliance with physical exercise, energy conservation, and joint protection was increased by patient education. Formal patient education did not improve health status.

 Keywords: rheumatoid arthritis; compliance; health status; patient education PMID:9640129

  17. Characterization of the acidic and basic limbs of a bell-shaped pH profile in the inhibitory activity of bromelain inhibitor VI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, Ken-ichi; Sawano, Yoriko; Miyakawa, Takuya; Tanokura, Masaru

    2006-03-01

    Bromelain inhibitor VI (BI-VI) is a cysteine proteinase inhibitor from pineapple stem and a unique two-chain inhibitor composed of two distinct domains. BI-VI's inhibitory activity toward the target enzyme bromelain is maximal at pH 4 and shows a bell-shaped pH profile with pKa values of about 2.5 and 5.3. This pH profile is quite different from that of bromelain, which is optimally active around pH 7. In the present article, to characterize the acidic limb, we first expressed the recombinant inhibitors designed to lose two putative hydrogen bonds of Ser7(NH)-Asp28(beta-CO2H) and Lys38(NH)-Asp51(beta-CO2H) and confirmed the existence of the hydrogen bonds by two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Moreover, it was revealed that these hydrogen bonds are not the essential electrostatic factor and some ionizable groups would be responsible for the acidic limb in the pH-inhibition profile. On the other hand, to characterize the basic limb, we examined the pH-dependent inhibition using the cysteine proteinase papain, some of whose properties differ from those of bromelain, and compared the data with the corresponding data for bromelain. The result suggests that the basic limb would be affected by some electrostatic factors, probably some carboxyl groups in the target proteinase.

  18. Basic Learning Processes in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Hayne W.

    This book is an introduction to the psychological study of basic learning processes in children. Written for students who are not majors in psychology and who do not have much familiarity with the technical vocabulary of psychology, it has two themes: even the most basic kinds of learning are included by cognitive processes or mental activities;…

  19. Purification and antifungal activity of a basic 34 kDa beta-1,3-glucanase from soybean hypocotyls inoculated with Phytophthora sojae f. sp. glycines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, S Y; Hwang, B K

    1997-06-30

    Inoculation of soybean (Glycine max L. cv. Jangyup) hypocotyls with Phytophthora sojae f. sp. glycines results in a marked accumulation of some pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins. A basic beta-1,3-glucanase (34 kDa) was purified from soybean hypocotyls infected by an incompatible race of P. sojae f. sp. glycines using CM-cellulose cation exchange chromatography and Bio-gel P-60 gel filtration. The purified soybean beta-1,3-glucanase cross-reacted with polyclonal antibody raised against a tomato beta-1,3-glucanase. The activity of beta-1,3-glucanase was much higher in the infected soybean hypocotyls than the healthy ones. The beta-1, 3-glucanase purified from soybean inhibited spore germination and hyphal growth of the chitin-negative fungus P. sojae f. sp. glycines, but did not show any antifungal activity against the chitin-containing fungi Alternaria mali, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, and Magnaporthe grisea.

  20. A genetic algorithm for structure-activity relationships: software implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Jantschi, Lorentz

    2009-01-01

    The design and the implementation of a genetic algorithm are described. The applicability domain is on structure-activity relationships expressed as multiple linear regressions and predictor variables are from families of structure-based molecular descriptors. An experiment to compare different selection and survival strategies was designed and realized. The genetic algorithm was run using the designed experiment on a set of 206 polychlorinated biphenyls searching on structure-activity relationships having known the measured octanol-water partition coefficients and a family of molecular descriptors. The experiment shows that different selection and survival strategies create different partitions on the entire population of all possible genotypes.

  1. BASIC ACTIVITIES OF THE HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN ENSURING STAFF FOR S.C. ROMLUX S.A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SECARĂ CARMEN-GABRIELA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Within the analysis conducted, the main activities in the field of human resource management has been assessed, such as: human resource planning; recruitment and selection of staff; assessment of individual professional performances; initial and continuing training; evaluation of human resources management costs; motivation. However, there have also been reviewed with a lower degree of detailing, other issues of interest, such as: human resources assessment; promotion of staff. Following the integration of conclusions of analysis conducted for the business areas listed, it resulted the picture of the most important elements with generalizing value.

  2. Structure-activity relationships of benzothiazole GPR35 antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalhameed, Manahil M; Zhao, Pingwei; Hurst, Dow P; Reggio, Patricia H; Abood, Mary E; Croatt, Mitchell P

    2017-02-01

    The first structure-activity relationships for a benzothiazole scaffold acting as an antagonist at GPR35 is presented. Analogues were designed based on a lead compound that was previously determined to have selective activity as a GPR35 antagonist. The synthetic route was modular in nature to independently explore the role of the middle and both ends of the scaffold. The activities of the analogues illustrate the importance of all three segments of the compound.

  3. Active control of noise radiation from vibrating structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkholt, Jakob

    The thesis is concerned with the active control of randomly vibrating structures by means of feedback control, with particular emphasis on reducing the sound radiation from such structures. A time domain model of the structural and radiation dynamics of an actively controlled plate has been...... developed, based on the theory of radiation filters for estimating the sound radiation from multimodal vibrations. This model has then been used in simulations of optimal feedback control, with special emphasis of the stability margins of the optimal control scheme. Two different methods of designing...... optimal and robust discrete-time feedback controllers for active vibration control of multimodal structures have been compared. They have been showed to yield controllers with identical frequency response characteristics, even though they employ completely different methods of numerical solutions...

  4. Distributing Correlation Coefficients of Linear Structure-Activity/Property Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorana D. BOLBOACA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative structure-activity/property relationships are mathematical relationships linking chemical structure and activity/property in a quantitative manner. These in silico approaches are frequently used to reduce animal testing and risk-assessment, as well as to increase time- and cost-effectiveness in characterization and identification of active compounds. The aim of our study was to investigate the pattern of correlation coefficients distribution associated to simple linear relationships linking the compounds structure with their activities. A set of the most common ordnance compounds found at naval facilities with a limited data set with a range of toxicities on aquatic ecosystem and a set of seven properties was studied. Statistically significant models were selected and investigated. The probability density function of the correlation coefficients was investigated using a series of possible continuous distribution laws. Almost 48% of the correlation coefficients proved fit Beta distribution, 40% fit Generalized Pareto distribution, and 12% fit Pert distribution.

  5. Structure-activity study of the antibacterial peptide fallaxin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Sandra Lerche; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; Kragelund, Birthe Brandt

    2007-01-01

    , and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Here, we report a structure-activity study of fallaxin based on 65 analogs, including a complete alanine scan and a full set of N- and C-terminal truncated analogs. The fallaxin analogs were tested for hemolytic activity and antibacterial activity against methicillin...... and inactive analogs according to mean hydrophobicity H and mean hydrophobic moment µH . Far-UV CD-spectroscopy experiments on fallaxin and several analogs in buffer, in TFE, and in membrane mimetic environments (small unilamellar vesicles) indicated that a coiled-coil conformation could be an important...... structural trait for antibacterial activity. This study provides data that support fallaxin analogs as promising lead structures in the development of new antibacterial agents....

  6. Impact Of Using Joint Productive Activity Approach On Second Language Learners’ Performance In Reading Comprehension At The Basic Education Level In Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HANNA ONYI YUSUF

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the impact of using joint productive activity on the performance of second language learners in reading comprehension at the basic education level in Nigeria. A sample of forty (40 Junior Secondary II students from Kaduna North and South were used for the study. The study was quasi experimental. Government Junior Secondary School Doka was used as the experimental group while Government Junior Secondary School Makera was used as the control group. Both groups were assessed after six weeks of teaching using two reading comprehension tests. T-test was used to test the hypothesis raised in the study. The findings revealed significant differences in the performance of students taught reading comprehension using joint productive activity. Based on the findings teachers are encouraged to use joint productive activities in teaching reading comprehension. This is a positive deviation from the traditional practice in Nigeria where a teacher is regarded as the sole custodian of knowledge and students are empty tabula rasa who should be passive during class teaching. Teachers need to exploit this new approach by designing teaching comprehension activities that will require second language learners’ collaboration and active participation in accomplishing tasks jointly in class with the teacher.

  7. Building structure-activity insights through patent mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Meihua; Pfefferkorn, Jeffrey A; Guzman-Perez, Angel; Filipski, Kevin J

    2012-11-01

    One gap in current patent-mining practice is the lack of tools to build SAR knowledge. Here, we report a novel technique that enabled us to derive useful SAR information from the exemplified structures of a series of patents. In our approach, exemplified chemical structures were extracted from patent documents. They were grouped into structural series based on similarity and binding mode, after which the R-group table was generated. By analyzing R-group usages over time, we were able to build insights into SAR of a structural series, even though the biological activities were not available.

  8. Basics of Structural Equation Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Maruyama, Dr Geoffrey M

    1997-01-01

    With the availability of software programs, such as LISREL, EQS, and AMOS, modeling (SEM) techniques have become a popular tool for formalized presentation of the hypothesized relationships underlying correlational research and test for the plausibility of hypothesizing for a particular data set. Through the use of careful narrative explanation, Maruyama's text describes the logic underlying SEM approaches, describes how SEM approaches relate to techniques like regression and factor analysis, analyzes the strengths and shortcomings of SEM as compared to alternative methodologies, and explores

  9. Insula and inferior frontal triangularis activations distinguish between conditioned brain responses using emotional sounds for basic BCI communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda evan der Heiden

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to enable communication through a brain-computer interface (BCI, it is necessary to discriminate between distinct brain responses. As a first step, we probed the possibility to discriminate between affirmative (yes and negative (no responses using a semantic classical conditioning paradigm, within an fMRI setting.Subjects were presented with congruent and incongruent word-pairs as conditioned stimuli (CS, respectively eliciting affirmative and negative responses. Incongruent word-pairs were associated to an unpleasant unconditioned stimulus (scream, US1 and congruent word-pairs were associated to a pleasant unconditioned stimulus (baby-laughter, US2, in order to elicit emotional conditioned responses (CR. The aim was to discriminate between affirmative and negative responses, enabled by their association with the positive and negative affective stimuli. In the late acquisition phase, when the US were not present anymore, there was a strong significant differential activation for incongruent and congruent word-pairs in a cluster comprising the left insula and the inferior frontal triangularis. This association was not found in the habituation phase. These results suggest that the difference in affirmative and negative brain responses was established as an effect of conditioning, allowing to further investigate the possibility of using this paradigm for a binary choice BCI.

  10. Primary structure of a 14 kDa basic structural protein (Lm-76) from the cuticle of the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens S.; Andersen, S O; Højrup, P

    1993-01-01

    The complete amino acid sequence of a 14 kDa structural protein (LM-76) isolated from pharate cuticle of the locust, Locusta migratoria, was determined by Edman degradation of the intact protein and enzymatically derived peptides. Plasma desorption and electrospray mass spectrometry was used...... region surrounded by two hydrophobic regions with 7 repeats of a (Tyr)-Ala-Ala-Pro-Ala/Val motif. The conservation around the prolyl residues within this sequence motif is demonstrated for the hitherto sequenced presumptive exocuticle proteins from L. migratoria. The N-terminal region of protein Lm-76...

  11. Pregnenolone sulfate activates basic region leucine zipper transcription factors in insulinoma cells: role of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels and transient receptor potential melastatin 3 channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Isabelle; Rössler, Oliver G; Thiel, Gerald

    2011-12-01

    The neurosteroid pregnenolone sulfate activates a signaling cascade in insulinoma cells involving activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase and enhanced expression of the transcription factor Egr-1. Here, we show that pregnenolone sulfate stimulation leads to a significant elevation of activator protein-1 (AP-1) activity in insulinoma cells. Expression of the basic region leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors c-Jun and c-Fos is up-regulated in insulinoma cells and pancreatic β-cells in primary culture after pregnenolone sulfate stimulation. Up-regulation of a chromatin-embedded c-Jun promoter/luciferase reporter gene transcription in pregnenolone sulfate-stimulated insulinoma cells was impaired when the AP-1 binding sites were mutated, indicating that these motifs function as pregnenolone sulfate response elements. In addition, phosphorylation of cAMP response element (CRE)-binding protein is induced and transcription of a CRE-controlled reporter gene is stimulated after pregnenolone sulfate treatment, indicating that the CRE functions as a pregnenolone sulfate response element as well. Pharmacological and genetic experiments revealed that both L-type Ca(2+) channels and transient receptor potential melastatin 3 (TRPM3) channels are essential for connecting pregnenolone sulfate stimulation with enhanced AP-1 activity and bZIP-mediated transcription in insulinoma cells. In contrast, pregnenolone sulfate stimulation did not enhance AP-1 activity or c-Jun and c-Fos expression in pituitary corticotrophs that express functional L-type Ca(2+) channels but only trace amounts of TRPM3. We conclude that expression of L-type Ca(2+) channels is not sufficient to activate bZIP-mediated gene transcription by pregnenolone sulfate. Rather, additional expression of TRPM3 or depolarization of the cells is required to connect pregnenolone sulfate stimulation with enhanced gene transcription.

  12. Emulsion Science Basic Principles

    CERN Document Server

    Leal-Calderon, Fernando; Schmitt, Véronique

    2007-01-01

    Emulsions are generally made out of two immiscible fluids like oil and water, one being dispersed in the second in the presence of surface-active compounds.They are used as intermediate or end products in a huge range of areas including the food, chemical, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, paint, and coating industries. Besides the broad domain of technological interest, emulsions are raising a variety of fundamental questions at the frontier between physics and chemistry. This book aims to give an overview of the most recent advances in emulsion science. The basic principles, covering aspects of emulsions from their preparation to their destruction, are presented in close relation to both the fundamental physics and the applications of these materials. The book is intended to help scientists and engineers in formulating new materials by giving them the basics of emulsion science.

  13. Molecular Descriptors Family on Structure Activity Relationships 2. Insecticidal Activity of Neonicotinoid Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorana BOLBOACĂ

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The neonicotinoids are the newest major class of insecticides modeled after the basic nicotine molecule having improved insecticide activity and generally low toxicity. The insecticidal activities of neonicotinoids were previous studied using 3D and standard partial least squares regression models. The paper describes the ability of the MDF SAR methodology in prediction of insecticidal activities of neonicotinoid compounds. The best MDF SAR bi-varied model was validated on training and test sets and its ability on prediction of insecticidal activity was compared with previous reported models. Even if the MDF SAR methodology is complex and time consuming the results worth the effort because they are statistical significant better then previous reported results.

  14. Intermolecular recognition revealed by the complex structure of human CLOCK-BMAL1 basic helix-loop-helix domains with E-box DNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zixi Wang; Yaling Wu; Lanfen Li; Xiao-Dong Su

    2013-01-01

    CLOCK (circadian locomotor output cycles kaput) and BMAL1 (brain and muscle ARNT-like 1) are both transcription factors of the circadian core loop in mammals.Recently published mouse CLOCK-BMAL1 bHLH (basic helix-loop-helix)-PAS (period-ARNT-single-minded) complex structure sheds light on the mechanism for heterodimer formation,but the structural details of the protein-DNA recognition mechanisms remain elusive.Here we have elucidated the crystal structure of human CLOCK-BMAL1 bHLH domains bound to a canonical E-box DNA.We demonstrate that CLOCK and BMAL1 bHLH domains can be mutually selected,and that hydrogen-bonding networks mediate their E-box recognition.We identified a hydrophobic contact between BMAL1 Ile80 and a fianking thymine nucleotide,suggesting that CLOCK-BMAL1 actually reads 7-bp DNA and not the previously believed 6-bp DNA.To find potential non-canonical E-boxes that could be recognized by CLOCK-BMAL1,we constructed systematic single-nucleotide mutations on the E-box and measured their relevant affinities.We defined two non-canonical E-box patterns with high affinities,AACGTGA and CATGTGA,in which the flanking A7-T7' base pair is indispensable for recognition.These results will help us to identify functional CLOCK-BMAL1-binding sites in vivo and to search for clock-controlled genes.Furthermore,we assessed the inhibitory role of potential phosphorylation sites in bHLH regions.We found that the phospho-mimicking mutation on BMAL1 Ser78 could efficiently block DNA binding as well as abolish normal circadian oscillation in cells.We propose that BMAL1 Ser78 should be a key residue mediating input signal-regulated transcriptional inhibition for external cues to entrain the circadian clock by kinase cascade.

  15. The effects of physical activity on brain structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam eThomas

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Aerobic activity is a powerful stimulus for improving mental health and for generating structural changes in the brain. We review the literature documenting these structural changes and explore exactly where in the brain these changes occur as well as the underlying substrates of the changes including neural, glial, and vasculature components. Aerobic activity has been shown to produce different types of changes in the brain. The presence of novel experiences or learning is an especially important component in how these changes are manifest. We also discuss the distinct time courses of structural brain changes with both aerobic activity and learning as well as how these effects might differ in diseased and elderly groups.

  16. Basic organic chemistry association (SCOB): strengthen the competitiveness while waiting the renewal of activities; SCOB: consolider la competitivite en attendant la reprise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2003-08-01

    'For a lot of reasons, the petrochemistry sector has been revealed very problematical last year' has revealed the new president of basic organic chemistry association (SCOB), Andre Renoux, during the usual press conference he has done. After a year 2001, already morose for the petrochemistry sector, the some positive renewal signals that seemed to appear at the beginning of the year 2002 have rapidly disappeared. For taking stock of the situation, 'the year 2002 is a second disappointing year for the monomers sector, with low results and a year always unsatisfying for the polymers activity' has commented Andre Renoux. In this unstable economic environment, petrochemistry continue to reaffirm its priority given to safety, backbone of a real lasting development. Waiting for a reversal of tendency involved for the second middle of the year. (O.M.)

  17. Designing CNC Knit for Hybrid Membrane And Bending Active Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Holden Deleuran, Anders; Gengnagel, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in computation allow for the integration of design and simulation of highly interrelated systems, such as hybrids of structural membranes and bending active elements. The engaged complexities of forces and logistics can be mediated through the development of materials with project...... means to design, specify, make and test CNC knit as material for hybrid structures in architectural scale. This paper shares the developed process, identifies challenges, potentials and future work...

  18. Structure and Pozzolanic Activity of Calcined Coal Gangue during the Process of Mechanical Activation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Wei; LI Dongxu; CHEN Jianhua; YANG Nanru

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of analyzing coal gangue's chemical and mineral compositions, the structure change of coal gangue during the mechanical activation was investigated by XRD, FTIR,NMR, and the mechanical strength of the cement doped coal gangue with various specific surface area was tested. The experimental results indicate that, the lattice structure of metakaolin in coal gangue samples calcined at 700 ℃ disorganizes gradually and becomes disordered, and the lattice structure of α-quartz is distorted slightly. The pozzolanic activity of the coal gangue increases obviously with its structural disorganization.

  19. Aspartate and glutamate mimetic structures in biologically active compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanic, Peter; Dolenc, Marija Sollner

    2004-04-01

    Glutamate and aspartate are frequently recognized as key structural elements for the biological activity of natural peptides and synthetic compounds. The acidic side-chain functionality of both the amino acids provides the basis for the ionic interaction and subsequent molecular recognition by specific receptor sites that results in the regulation of physiological or pathophysiological processes in the organism. In the development of new biologically active compounds that possess the ability to modulate these processes, compounds offering the same type of interactions are being designed. Thus, using a peptidomimetic design approach, glutamate and aspartate mimetics are incorporated into the structure of final biologically active compounds. This review covers different bioisosteric replacements of carboxylic acid alone, as well as mimetics of the whole amino acid structure. Amino acid analogs presented include those with different distances between anionic moieties, and analogs with additional functional groups that result in conformational restriction or alternative interaction sites. The article also provides an overview of different cyclic structures, including various cycloalkane, bicyclic and heterocyclic analogs, that lead to conformational restriction. Higher di- and tripeptide mimetics in which carboxylic acid functionality is incorporated into larger molecules are also reviewed. In addition to the mimetic structures presented, emphasis in this article is placed on their steric and electronic properties. These mimetics constitute a useful pool of fragments in the design of new biologically active compounds, particularly in the field of RGD mimetics and excitatory amino acid agonists and antagonists.

  20. Impact of active controls technology on structural integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Thomas; Austin, Edward; Donley, Shawn; Graham, George; Harris, Terry

    1991-01-01

    This paper summarizes the findings of The Technical Cooperation Program to assess the impact of active controls technology on the structural integrity of aeronautical vehicles and to evaluate the present state-of-the-art for predicting the loads caused by a flight-control system modification and the resulting change in the fatigue life of the flight vehicle. The potential for active controls to adversely affect structural integrity is described, and load predictions obtained using two state-of-the-art analytical methods are given.

  1. Synthesis, crystal structure and biological activity of novel diester cyclophanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Pengfei; Yang, Bingqin; Fang, Xianwen; Cheng, Zhao; Yang, Meipan, E-mail: yangbq@nwu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry, Northwest University, Shaanxi (China)

    2012-10-15

    A series of novel diester cyclophanes was synthesized by esterification of 1,2-benzenedicarbonyl chloride with eight different diols under high dilution conditions. The structures of the compounds were verified by elemental analysis, {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), IR spectroscopy and high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). The crystal structures of two compounds were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffractometry (XRD). All the new cyclophanes were evaluated for biological activities and the results showed that some of these compounds have low antibacterial or antifungal activities (author)

  2. Active stabilization of thin-wall structures under compressive loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welham, Jared; Calius, Emilio P.; Chase, J. Geoffrey

    2003-08-01

    The active suppression of elastic buckling instability has the potential to significantly increase the effective strength of thin-wall structures. Despite all the interest in smart structures, the active suppression of buckling has received comparatively little attention. This paper addresses the effects of embedded actuation on the compression buckling strength of laminated composite plates through analysis and simulation. Numerical models are formulated that include the influence of essential features such as sensor uncertainty and noise, actuator saturation and control architecture on the buckling process. Silicon-based strain sensors and diffuse laser distance sensors are both considered for use in the detection of incipient buckling behavior due to their increased sensitivity. Actuation is provided by paired distributions of piezo-electric material incorporated into both sides of the laminate. Optimal controllers are designed to command the structure to deform in ways that interfere with the development of buckling mode shapes. Commercial software packages are used to solve the resulting non-linear equations, and some of the tradeoffs are enumerated. Overall, the results show that active buckling control can considerably enhance resistance to instability under compressive loads. These buckling load predictions demonstrate the viability of optimal control and piezo-electric actuation for implementing active buckling control. Due to the importance of early detection, the relative effectiveness of active buckling control is shown to be strongly dependent on the performance of the sensing scheme, as well as on the characteristics of the structure.

  3. Shaping inhibition: activity dependent structural plasticity of GABAergic synapses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen E Flores

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Inhibitory transmission through the neurotransmitter Ɣ-aminobutyric acid (GABA shapes network activity in the mammalian cerebral cortex by filtering synaptic incoming information and dictating the activity of principal cells. The incredibly diverse population of cortical neurons that use GABA as neurotransmitter shows an equally diverse range of mechanisms that regulate changes in the strength of GABAergic synaptic transmission and allow them to dynamically follow and command the activity of neuronal ensembles. Similarly to glutamatergic synaptic transmission, activity-dependent functional changes in inhibitory neurotransmission are accompanied by alterations in GABAergic synapse structure that range from morphological reorganization of postsynaptic density to de novo formation and elimination of inhibitory contacts. Here we review several aspects of structural plasticity of inhibitory synapses, including its induction by different forms of neuronal activity, behavioral and sensory experience and the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways involved. We discuss the functional consequences of GABAergic synapse structural plasticity for information processing and memory formation in view of the heterogenous nature of the structural plasticity phenomena affecting inhibitory synapses impinging on somatic and dendritic compartments of cortical and hippocampal neurons.

  4. Structural complexities in the active layers of organic electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stephanie S; Loo, Yueh-Lin

    2010-01-01

    The field of organic electronics has progressed rapidly in recent years. However, understanding the direct structure-function relationships between the morphology in electrically active layers and the performance of devices composed of these materials has proven difficult. The morphology of active layers in organic electronics is inherently complex, with heterogeneities existing across multiple length scales, from subnanometer to micron and millimeter range. A major challenge still facing the organic electronics community is understanding how the morphology across all of the length scales in active layers collectively determines the device performance of organic electronics. In this review we highlight experiments that have contributed to the elucidation of structure-function relationships in organic electronics and also point to areas in which knowledge of such relationships is still lacking. Such knowledge will lead to the ability to select active materials on the basis of their inherent properties for the fabrication of devices with prespecified characteristics.

  5. Structure-Activity Relationship of Fluoroquinolones Against K. pneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-hong; Zhang, Rui-zhou; Cheng, Xin-lu; Yang, Xiang-dong

    2007-04-01

    The structure-activity relationship of fluoroquinolones, which show anti-K. pneumoniae activity, was studied by using principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). The PCA results showed that the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy, energy difference between the highest occupied and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital, dipole moment, net atomic charge on atom I, molecular polarizability, partition coefficient and molecular refractivity of these compounds are responsible for the separation between high-activity and low-activity groups. The HCA results were similar to those obtained with PCA. By using the chemometric results, four synthetic compounds were analyzed through PCA and HCA, and three of them are proposed as active molecules against K. pneumoniae which is consistent with the results of clinical experiments. The methodologies of PCA and HCA provide a reliable rule for classifying new fluoroquinolones with anti-K. pneumoniae activity.

  6. The basic anaesthesia machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurudatt, Cl

    2013-09-01

    After WTG Morton's first public demonstration in 1846 of use of ether as an anaesthetic agent, for many years anaesthesiologists did not require a machine to deliver anaesthesia to the patients. After the introduction of oxygen and nitrous oxide in the form of compressed gases in cylinders, there was a necessity for mounting these cylinders on a metal frame. This stimulated many people to attempt to construct the anaesthesia machine. HEG Boyle in the year 1917 modified the Gwathmey's machine and this became popular as Boyle anaesthesia machine. Though a lot of changes have been made for the original Boyle machine still the basic structure remains the same. All the subsequent changes which have been brought are mainly to improve the safety of the patients. Knowing the details of the basic machine will make the trainee to understand the additional improvements. It is also important for every practicing anaesthesiologist to have a thorough knowledge of the basic anaesthesia machine for safe conduct of anaesthesia.

  7. Active rejection of persistent disturbances in flexible space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Cheng-Neng; Jayasuriya, Suhada; Parlos, Alexander G.; Sunkel, John W.

    1990-01-01

    A dynamic compensator for active rejection of persistent disturbances in flexible space structures is designed on the principle of the H(infinity)-optimization of the sensitivity transfer function matrix. A general state space solution is formulated to the multiinput multioutput H(infinity)-optimal control problem, allowing the use of the H(infinity)-optimal synthesis algorithm for the state-space models of space structures that result from model order reduction. Disturbances encountered in flexible space structures, such as shuttle docking, are investigated using the high-mode and the reduced-order models of a cantilevered two-bay truss, demonstrating the applicability of the H(infinity)-optimal approach.

  8. Active vibration control of structures undergoing bending vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pla, Frederic G. (Inventor); Rajiyah, Harindra (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    An active vibration control subassembly for a structure (such as a jet engine duct or a washing machine panel) undergoing bending vibrations caused by a source (such as the clothes agitator of the washing machine) independent of the subassembly. A piezoceramic actuator plate is vibratable by an applied electric AC signal. The plate is connected to the structure such that vibrations in the plate induced by the AC signal cause canceling bending vibrations in the structure and such that the plate is compressively pre-stressed along the structure when the structure is free of any bending vibrations. The compressive prestressing increases the amplitude of the canceling bending vibrations before the critical tensile stress level of the plate is reached. Preferably, a positive electric DC bias is also applied to the plate in its poling direction.

  9. Active disturbance rejection in large flexible space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlos, Alexander G.; Sunkel, John W.

    1990-01-01

    The design of an active control law for the rejection of persistent disturbances, in large space structures is presented. The control system design approach is based on a deterministic model of the disturbances and it optimizes the magnitude of the disturbance that the structure can tolerate without violating certain predetermined constraints. In addition to closed-loop stability, the explicit treatment of state, control, and control rate constraints, such as structural displacement and control actuator effort, guarantees that the final design will exhibit desired performance characteristics. The technique is applied to a simple two-bay truss structure, and its response is compared with that obtained using a linear-quadratic-Gaussian/loop-transfer-recovery (LQG/LTR) compensator. Preliminary results indicate that the proposed control system can reject persistent disturbances of greater magnitude by utilizing most of the available control, while limiting the structural displacements to within desired tolerances.

  10. [Structure and Activity of Fungal Lipases in Bile Salt Solutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanova, L R; Bakirova, D R; Valiullina, Yu A; Idiyatullin, B Z; Faizullin, D A; Zueva, O S; Zuev, Yu F

    2016-01-01

    The changes in structure and catalytic properties of fungal lipases (Candida rugosa, Rhizomucor miehei, Mucor javanicus) were investigated in micellar solutions of bile salts that differ in hydrophilic-lypophilic balance and reaction medium properties. The methods of circular dichroism and tryptophan fluorescence were applied to estimate the changes in peptide structure within complexes with bile salt micelles. Bile salts do not exert a significant influence on the structure of the enzymes under study: in Rh. miehei and M. javanicus lipases the alpha helix content slightly decreased, the influence of bile salts on the C. rugosa structure was not revealed. Despite negligible structural modifications in the enzymes, in bile salt solutions a considerable change in their catalytic properties was observed: an abrupt decrease in catalytic effectiveness. Substrate-bile salts micelles complex formation was demonstrated by the NMR self-diffusion method. The model of a regulation of fungal lipase activity was proposed.

  11. Stem Cell Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tips Info Center Research Topics Federal Policy Glossary Stem Cell Information General Information Clinical Trials Funding Information Current ... Basics » Stem Cell Basics I. Back to top Stem Cell Basics I. Introduction: What are stem cells, and ...

  12. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Donate Experts \\ The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Topics Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 Spinal ... Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Preventing ...

  13. Structural Dynamics Experimental Activities in Ultra-Lightweight and Inflatable Space Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappa, Richard S.; Lassiter, John O.; Ross, Brian P.

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports recently completed structural dynamics experimental activities with new ultralightweight and inflatable space structures (a.k.a., "Gossamer" spacecraft) at NASA Langley Research Center, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Nine aspects of this work are covered, as follows: 1) inflated, rigidized tubes, 2) active control experiments, 3) photogrammetry, 4) laser vibrometry, 5) modal tests of inflatable structures, 6) in-vacuum modal tests, 7) tensioned membranes, 8) deployment tests, and 9) flight experiment support. Structural dynamics will play a major role in the design and eventual in-space deployment and performance of Gossamer spacecraft, and experimental R&D work such as this is required now to validate new analytical prediction methods. The activities discussed in the paper are pathfinder accomplishments, conducted on unique components and prototypes of future spacecraft systems.

  14. Inspection of reinforcement concrete structures with active infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanik, Barbara; Chady, Tomasz; Frankowski, Paweł

    2017-02-01

    In this article the reinforced concrete non-destructive evaluation using active thermography is discussed. There are several aspects of possible non-destructive testing of mentioned structures. One of them is the detection and assessment of the reinforcement itself. In case of active thermography, the external energy source has to be used to induce the thermal response of the inspected specimen. Here, authors propose two different techniques: microwave heating and induction heating. In this article authors will present several experimental results which will allow to compare mentioned two techniques of heating. suitability of each one to assess the reinforced concrete by using the active thermography will be discussed.

  15. Exploratory Topology Modelling of Form-Active Hybrid Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holden Deleuran, Anders; Pauly, Mark; Tamke, Martin;

    2016-01-01

    The development of novel form-active hybrid structures (FAHS) is impeded by a lack of modelling tools that allow for exploratory topology modelling of shaped assemblies. We present a flexible and real-time computational design modelling pipeline developed for the exploratory modelling of FAHS tha...

  16. Structure activity relationship of selective GABA uptake inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogensen, Stine Byskov; Jørgensen, Lars; Madsen, Karsten K;

    2015-01-01

    A series of β-amino acids with lipophilic diaromatic side chain was synthesized and characterized pharmacologically on mouse γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) transporter subtypes mGAT1-4 in order to investigate structure activity relationships (SAR) for mGAT2 (corresponding to hBGT-1). Variation...

  17. Dual-wavelength polymer laser based on an active/inactive/active sandwich-like structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Tianrui; Wu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Meng; Tong, Fei; Li, Songtao; Ma, Yanbin; Deng, Jinxiang; Zhang, Xinping

    2016-09-01

    Dual-wavelength laser emission is achieved by using an active/inactive/active sandwich-like structure, which can be conveniently fabricated using spin coating technique. Poly [(9, 9-dioctylfluorenyl-2, 7-diyl)-alt-co-(1, 4-benzo-(2, 1', 3) -thiadiazole)] and polyvinyl alcohol are employed as the active and the inactive materials, respectively. Two laser wavelengths are simultaneously observed, which are attributed to the difference of the surrounding refractive index of two active waveguides in the sandwich-like structure. Each wavelength is controlled by the respective waveguide structure, meaning that multi-wavelength laser can be designed by stacking the active/inactive layer pair. These results provide more flexibility to design compact laser sources.

  18. Structure and dynamics of a constitutively active neurotensin receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krumm, Brian E. [National Inst. of Health (NIH), Rockville, MD (United States). National Inst. of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Dept. of Health and Human Services; Lee, Sangbae [Beckman Research Inst. of the City of Hope, Duarte, CA (United States). Dept. of Molecular Immunology; Bhattacharya, Supriyo [Beckman Research Inst. of the City of Hope, Duarte, CA (United States). Dept. of Molecular Immunology; Botos, Istvan [National Inst. of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD (United States). National Inst. of Diabetes and; White, Courtney F. [National Inst. of Health (NIH), Rockville, MD (United States). National Inst. of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Dept. of Health and Human Services; Du, Haijuan [National Inst. of Health (NIH), Rockville, MD (United States). National Inst. of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Dept. of Health and Human Services; Vaidehi, Nagarajan [Beckman Research Inst. of the City of Hope, Duarte, CA (United States). Dept. of Molecular Immunology; Grisshammer, Reinhard [National Inst. of Health (NIH), Rockville, MD (United States). National Inst. of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Dept. of Health and Human Services

    2016-12-07

    Many G protein-coupled receptors show constitutive activity, resulting in the production of a second messenger in the absence of an agonist; and naturally occurring constitutively active mutations in receptors have been implicated in diseases. To gain insight into mechanistic aspects of constitutive activity, we report here the 3.3 Å crystal structure of a constitutively active, agonist-bound neurotensin receptor (NTSR1) and molecular dynamics simulations of agonist-occupied and ligand-free receptor. Comparison with the structure of a NTSR1 variant that has little constitutive activity reveals uncoupling of the ligand-binding domain from conserved connector residues, that effect conformational changes during GPCR activation. Furthermore, molecular dynamics simulations show strong contacts between connector residue side chains and increased flexibility at the intracellular receptor face as features that coincide with robust signalling in cells. The loss of correlation between the binding pocket and conserved connector residues, combined with altered receptor dynamics, possibly explains the reduced neurotensin efficacy in the constitutively active NTSR1 and a facilitated initial engagement with G protein in the absence of agonist.

  19. Pore structure of the activated coconut shell charcoal carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budi, E.; Nasbey, H.; Yuniarti, B. D. P.; Nurmayatri, Y.; Fahdiana, J.; Budi, A. S.

    2014-09-01

    The development of activated carbon from coconut shell charcoal has been investigated by using physical method to determine the influence of activation parameters in term of temperature, argon gas pressure and time period on the pore structure of the activated carbon. The coconut shell charcoal was produced by pyrolisis process at temperature of about 75 - 150 °C for 6 hours. The charcoal was activated at various temperature (532, 700 and 868 °C), argon gas pressure (6.59, 15 and 23.4 kgf/cm2) and time period of (10, 60 and 120 minutes). The results showed that the pores size were reduced and distributed uniformly as the activation parameters are increased.

  20. Active sensors for health monitoring of aging aerospace structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GIURGIUTIU,VICTOR; REDMOND,JAMES M.; ROACH,DENNIS P.; RACKOW,KIRK A.

    2000-02-29

    A project to develop non-intrusive active sensors that can be applied on existing aging aerospace structures for monitoring the onset and progress of structural damage (fatigue cracks and corrosion) is presented. The state of the art in active sensors structural health monitoring and damage detection is reviewed. Methods based on (a) elastic wave propagation and (b) electro-mechanical (E/M) impedance technique are cited and briefly discussed. The instrumentation of these specimens with piezoelectric active sensors is illustrated. The main detection strategies (E/M impedance for local area detection and wave propagation for wide area interrogation) are discussed. The signal processing and damage interpretation algorithms are tuned to the specific structural interrogation method used. In the high-frequency E/M impedance approach, pattern recognition methods are used to compare impedance signatures taken at various time intervals and to identify damage presence and progression from the change in these signatures. In the wave propagation approach, the acousto-ultrasonic methods identifying additional reflection generated from the damage site and changes in transmission velocity and phase are used. Both approaches benefit from the use of artificial intelligence neural networks algorithms that can extract damage features based on a learning process. Design and fabrication of a set of structural specimens representative of aging aerospace structures is presented. Three built-up specimens (pristine, with cracks, and with corrosion damage) are used. The specimen instrumentation with active sensors fabricated at the University of South Carolina is illustrated. Preliminary results obtained with the E/M impedance method on pristine and cracked specimens are presented.

  1. CO2 capture performance of bi-functional activated bleaching earth modified with basic-alcoholic solution and functionalization with monoethanolamine: isotherms, kinetics and thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongstabodee, Sangobtip; Pornaroontham, Phuwadej; Pintuyothin, Nuthapol; Pootrakulchote, Nuttapol; Thouchprasitchai, Nutthavich

    2016-10-01

    CO2 capture performance of bifunctional activated bleaching earth (ABE) was investigated at atmospheric pressure. The sorbents were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), Caron-Hydrogen-Nitrogen analysis (CHN), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The CO2 capacity was enhanced via basic-modification and monoethanolamine (MEA) loading of the ABE sorbent to obtain a bifunctional surface property. Here, basic-modified calcined ABE with a 30wt.% MEA loading (SAB-30) showed the highest CO2 capture capacity, but this was decreased with excess MEA loading (>30wt.%). At a 10% (V/V) initial CO2 concentration feed, the maximum capacity of SAB-30 increased from 2.71mmol/g at 30°C (without adding moisture to the feed) to 3.3mmol/g at 50°C when adding 10% (V/V) moisture to the feed. Increasing the moisture concentration further reduced the maximum CO2 capacity due to the blocking effect of the excess moisture on the sorbent surface. However, SAB-30 could completely capture CO2 even in a 100% (V/V) initial CO2 concentration feed. A maximum CO2 capacity of 5.7mmol/g for SAB-30 was achieved at 30°C. Varying the ratio of sorbent weight to total flow rate of the gas stream had no discernible effect on the equilibrium CO2 capture capacity. Avrami's equation and Toth's isotherm model provided a good fitting for the data and suggested the presence of more than one reaction pathway in the CO2 capture process and the heterogeneous adsorption surface of SAB-30. Thermodynamics studies revealed that CO2 capture on the bifunctional SAB-30 is feasible, spontaneous and exothermic in nature.

  2. Polysaccharides of higher fungi: Biological role, structure, and antioxidative activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozarski Maja S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal polysaccharides attract a lot of attention due to their multiple challenging biological properties, such as: anti-tumor, anti-viral, anticomplementary, anticoagulant, hypolipidemic and immunomodulatory and immune-stimulatory activities, which all together make them suitable for application in many quite distinctive areas, such as food industry, biomedicine, cosmetology, agriculture, environmental protection and waste water management. This article presents results with respect to biological properties, structure and procedures related to the isolation and activation of polysaccharides of higher fungi. It is considered and presented along with a review of the critical antioxidative activity and possible influence of the structural composition of polysaccharide extracts (isolated from these higher fungi upon their antioxidative properties.

  3. Quantitative structure-activity relationship of estrogen activities of bisphenol A analogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Shihai; LIU Shushen; YANG Jing; WANG Xiaodong; WANG Liansheng

    2006-01-01

    The molecular electronegativity-distance vector (MEDV) is employed to describe the chemical structure of bisphenol A analogs and their correlated estrogen activities. The result shows that the constructed models have good predictability and indicates substructures that may influence estrogen activities of chemicals.

  4. Neuritogenic activity of gangliosides from echinoderms and their structure-activity relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Masafumi; Yamada, Koji; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Inagaki, Masanori; Higuchi, Ryuichi

    2007-03-01

    The effects of the gangliosides isolated from echinoderms on the neuritogenesis of a rat pheochromocytoma cell line (PC-12 cells) in the presence of nerve growth factor were investigated. The results show that they displayed neuritogenic activity. Based on the observed results, a structure-activity relationship has been established.

  5. Local structural modeling for implementation of optimal active damping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaurock, Carl A.; Miller, David W.

    1993-09-01

    Local controllers are good candidates for active control of flexible structures. Local control generally consists of low order, frequency benign compensators using collocated hardware. Positive real compensators and plant transfer functions ensure that stability margins and performance robustness are high. The typical design consists of an experimentally chosen gain on a fixed form controller such as rate feedback. The resulting compensator performs some combination of damping (dissipating energy) and structural modification (changing the energy flow paths). Recent research into structural impedance matching has shown how to optimize dissipation based on the local behavior of the structure. This paper investigates the possibility of improving performance by influencing global energy flow, using local controllers designed using a global performance metric.

  6. Synthesis, structure and biological properties of active spirohydantoin derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazić Anita M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spirohidantoins represent an pharmacologically important class of heterocycles since many derivatives have been recognized that display interesting activities against a wide range of biological targets. First synthesis of cycloalkanespiro-5-hydantoins was performed by Bucherer and Lieb 1934 by the reaction of cycloalkanone, potassium cyanide and ammonium-carbonate at reflux in a mixture of ethanol and water. QSAR (Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship studies showed that a wide range of biological activities of spirohydantoin derivatives strongly depend upon their structure. This paper describes different methods of synthesis of spirohydantoin derivatives, their physico-chemical properties and biological activity. It emphasizes the importance of cycloalkanespiro-5-hydantoins with anticonvulsant, antiproliferative, antipsychotic, antimicrobial and antiinflammatory properties as well as their importance in the treatment of diabetes. Numerous spirohydantoin compounds exhibit physiological activity such as serotonin and fibrinogen antagonist, inhibitors of the glycine binding site of the NMDA receptor also, antagonist of leukocyte cell adhesion, acting as allosteric inhibitors of the protein-protein interactions. Some spirohydantoin derivatives have been identified as antitumor agents. Their activity depends on the substituent presented at position N-3 of the hydantoin ring and increases in order alkene > ester > ether. Besides that, compounds that contain two electron withdrawing groups (e.g. fluorine or chlorine on the third and fourth position of the phenyl ring are better antitumor agents than compounds with a single electron withdrawing group. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172013

  7. Passive and Active Sensing Technologies for Structural Health Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Richard

    A combination of passive and active sensing technologies is proposed as a structural health monitoring solution for several applications. Passive sensing is differentiated from active sensing in that with the former, no energy is intentionally imparted into the structure under test; sensors are deployed in a pure detection mode for collecting data mined for structural health monitoring purposes. In this thesis, passive sensing using embedded fiber Bragg grating optical strain gages was used to detect varying degrees of impact damage using two different classes of features drawn from traditional spectral analysis and auto-regressive time series modeling. The two feature classes were compared in detail through receiver operating curve performance analysis. The passive detection problem was then augmented with an active sensing system using ultrasonic guided waves (UGWs). This thesis considered two main challenges associated with UGW SHM including in-situ wave propagation property determination and thermal corruption of data. Regarding determination of wave propagation properties, of which dispersion characteristics are the most important, a new dispersion curve extraction method called sparse wavenumber analysis (SWA) was experimentally validated. Also, because UGWs are extremely sensitive to ambient temperature changes on the structure, it significantly affects the wave propagation properties by causing large errors in the residual error in the processing of the UGWs from an array. This thesis presented a novel method that compensates for uniform temperature change by considering the magnitude and phase of the signal separately and applying a scalable transformation.

  8. Association between Family Structure and Physical Activity of Chinese Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study examines the association between family structure and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA of adolescents in China. Methods. The participants included 612 adolescents (317 boys and 295 girls from Shanghai with ages ranging from 10 to 16 years. Accelerometers were used to measure the duration of MVPA of adolescents, and questionnaires on family structure were completed by the parents of these adolescents. Results. Findings suggested that family structure significantly increased the likelihood of adolescents engaging in physical activity (PA and explained 6% of MPVA variance. Adolescents living in single-parent households and step families were more physically active than those living in two-parent homes and with biological parents, respectively. However, adolescents residing with grandparents were less active than those living with neither grandparent. No significant difference was found in MVPA time between adolescents living with one sibling and those without siblings. Conclusion. Family environment may be considered in the development of PA interventions and policies, and adolescents living with their grandparents may be targeted in PA promotion.

  9. Repression and activation by multiprotein complexes that alter chromatin structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, R E; Bunker, C A; Imbalzano, A N

    1996-04-15

    Recent studies have provided strong evidence that macromolecular complexes are used in the cell to remodel chromatin structure during activation and to create an inaccessible structure during repression, Although there is not yet any rigorous demonstration that modification of chromatin structure plays a direct, causal role in either activation or repression, there is sufficient smoke to indicate the presence of a blazing inferno nearby. It is clear that complexes that remodel chromatin are tractable in vitro; hopefully this will allow the establishment of systems that provide a direct analysis of the role that remodeling might play in activation. These studies indicate that establishment of functional systems to corroborate the elegant genetic studies on repression might also be tractable. As the mechanistic effects of these complexes are sorted out, it will become important to understand how the complexes are regulated. In many of the instances discussed above, the genes whose products make up these complexes were identified in genetic screens for effects on developmental processes. This implies a regulation of the activity of these complexes in response to developmental cues and further implies that the work to fully understand these complexes will occupy a generation of scientists.

  10. Basic research projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-04-01

    The research programs under the cognizance of the Office of Energy Research (OER) are directed toward discovery of natural laws and new knowledge, and to improved understanding of the physical and biological sciences as related to the development, use, and control of energy. The ultimate goal is to develop a scientific underlay for the overall DOE effort and the fundamental principles of natural phenomena so that these phenomena may be understood, and new principles, formulated. The DOE-OER outlay activities include three major programs: High Energy Physics, Nuclear Physics, and Basic Energy Sciences. Taken together, these programs represent some 30 percent of the Nation's Federal support of basic research in the energy sciences. The research activities of OER involve more than 6,000 scientists and engineers working in some 17 major Federal Research Centers and at more than 135 different universities and industrial firms throughout the United States. Contract holders in the areas of high-energy physics, nuclear physics, materials sciences, nuclear science, chemical sciences, engineering, mathematics geosciences, advanced energy projects, and biological energy research are listed. Funding trends for recent years are outlined. (RWR)

  11. "Math Starring the Dominoes": Activities Using Dominoes Designed to Reinforce Basic Facts and to Stimulate Strategic Thinking for Problem Solving. (Grades 1-4.) Title I Elementary Mathematics Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronert, Joie; Marshall, Sally

    Activities and games which use dominoes to reinforce basic arithmetic skills are presented. Instructions and materials are provided for the activities and games, most of which involve addition and subtraction. Other skill areas which are covered include recognition and matching of domino patterns, multiplication, and division. A seven-item list of…

  12. Activation and micropore structure of carbon-fiber composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagtoyen, M.; Derbyshire, F.; Kimber, G. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research

    1997-12-01

    Rigid, high surface area activated carbon fiber composites have been produced with high permeabilities for environmental applications in gas and water purification. The project involves a collaboration between the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER), University of Kentucky. The main focus of recent work has been to find a satisfactory means to uniformly activate large samples of carbon fiber composites to produce controlled pore structures. Processes have been developed using activation in steam and CO{sub 2}, and a less conventional method involving oxygen chemisorption and subsequent heat treatment. Another objective has been to explore applications for the activated composites in environmental applications related to fossil energy production.

  13. Effect of structural modifications on the activity of the leadzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartrand, P; Usman, N; Cedergren, R

    1997-03-18

    The structure/function properties of functional groups in the leadzyme have been studied by assaying the activity of analog ribozymes generated by the systematic substitution of modified nucleotides in the internal loop region of the ribozyme. Guanosine analogs introduced at positions 4 and 7 occupied by guanosine in the wild-type molecule severely diminished cleavage. The substitution of deoxycytidine for cytidine at the cleavage site completely eliminated the activity of the leadzyme, as expected if the adjacent 2'-OH were the nucleophile in the cleavage reaction. On the other hand, substitution of an abasic nucleotide for adenosine at position 8 did not affect the activity of the ribozyme. An analysis of the activity of these analogs gives rise to the proposal of a triple-base pair motif implicating C1, G4, and G7.

  14. Structural role of Cu in the soil active glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Wacławska

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Glasses from the SiO2-P2O5-K2O-CaO-MgO-CuO system acting as slow release fertilizers were synthesized by the melt-quenching technique. Influence of copper addition on structure of the glasses was evaluated by XRD, SEM, FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy. Chemical activity of the glasses in 2 wt.% citric acid solutions was measured by ICP-AES method. It has been found that increasing content of phosphorous increased solubility of copper in the structure of the studied glasses which was the result of formation of P-O-Cu bonds.

  15. Class I Microcins: Their Structures, Activities, and Mechanisms of Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severinov, Konstantin; Semenova, Ekaterina; Kazakov, Teymur

    Microcin J25, microcin B17, and microcin C7-C51 are the three known members of class I posttranslationally modified microcins (heavily posttranslationally modified antibacterial peptides produced by Enterobacteriaceae with molecular weights of less than 5 kDa). The three microcins are unrelated to each other; they have structures that are highly atypical for ribosomally synthesized peptides and target essential molecular machines that are validated drug targets. In this chapter, available data on mechanisms of action, structure-activity relationships, and immunity mechanisms for class I microcins and related compounds are discussed.

  16. A state-of-the-art assessment of active structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    A state-of-the-art assessment of active structures with emphasis towards the applications in aeronautics and space is presented. It is felt that since this technology area is growing at such a rapid pace in many different disciplines, it is not feasible to cover all of the current research but only the relevant work as relates to aeronautics and space. Research in smart actuation materials, smart sensors, and control of smart/intelligent structures is covered. In smart actuation materials, piezoelectric, magnetostrictive, shape memory, electrorheological, and electrostrictive materials are covered. For sensory materials, fiber optics, dielectric loss, and piezoelectric sensors are examined. Applications of embedded sensors and smart sensors are discussed.

  17. Substitutions mimicking deimination and phosphorylation of 18.5-kDa myelin basic protein exert local structural effects that subtly influence its global folding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassall, Kenrick A; Bamm, Vladimir V; Jenkins, Andrew D; Velte, Caroline J; Kattnig, Daniel R; Boggs, Joan M; Hinderberger, Dariush; Harauz, George

    2016-06-01

    Intrinsically-disordered proteins (IDPs) present a complex interplay of conformational variability and multifunctionality, modulated by environment and post-translational modifications. The 18.5-kDa myelin basic protein (MBP) is essential to the formation of the myelin sheath of the central nervous system and is exemplary in this regard. We have recently demonstrated that the unmodified MBP-C1 component undergoes co-operative global conformational changes in increasing concentrations of trifluoroethanol, emulating the decreasing dielectric environment that the protein encounters upon adsorption to the oligodendrocyte membrane [K.A. Vassall et al., Journal of Molecular Biology, 427, 1977-1992, 2015]. Here, we extended this study to the pseudo-deiminated MBP-C8 charge component, one found in greater proportion in developing myelin and in multiple sclerosis. A similar tri-conformational distribution as for MBP-C1 was observed with slight differences in Gibbs free energy. A more dramatic difference was observed by cathepsin D digestion of the protein in both aqueous and membrane environments, which showed significantly greater accessibility of the F42-F43 cut site of MBP-C8, indicative of a global conformational change. In contrast, this modification caused little change in the protein's density of packing on myelin-mimetic membranes as ascertained by double electron-electron resonance spectroscopy [D.R. Kattnig et al., Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (Biomembranes), 1818, 2636-2647, 2012], or in its affinity for Ca(2+)-CaM. Site-specific threonyl pseudo-phosphorylation at residues T92 and/or T95 did not appreciably affect any of the thermodynamic mechanisms of conformational transitions, susceptibility to cathepsin D, or affinity for Ca(2+)-CaM, despite previously having been shown to affect local structure and disposition on the membrane surface.

  18. Microbial Community Structure and Enzyme Activities in Semiarid Agricultural Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Martinez, V. A.; Zobeck, T. M.; Gill, T. E.; Kennedy, A. C.

    2002-12-01

    The effect of agricultural management practices on the microbial community structure and enzyme activities of semiarid soils of different textures in the Southern High Plains of Texas were investigated. The soils (sandy clay loam, fine sandy loam and loam) were under continuous cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) or in rotations with peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) or wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and had different water management (irrigated or dryland) and tillage (conservation or conventional). Microbial community structure was investigated using fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis by gas chromatography and enzyme activities, involved in C, N, P and S cycling of soils, were measured (mg product released per kg soil per h). The activities of b-glucosidase, b-glucosaminidase, alkaline phosphatase, and arylsulfatase were significantly (Pconservation tillage in comparison to continuous cotton under conventional tillage. Principal component analysis showed FAME profiles of these soils separated distinctly along PC1 (20 %) and PC2 (13 %) due to their differences in soil texture and management. No significant differences were detected in FAME profiles due to management practices for the same soils in this sampling period. Enzyme activities provide early indications of the benefits in microbial populations and activities and soil organic matter under crop rotations and conservation tillage in comparison to the typical practices in semiarid regions of continuous cotton and conventional tillage.

  19. Study on pore structure properties of steam activated biomass chars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, Tong; Lu, Fei; Wang, Qinchao; Lu, Ping [Nanjing Normal Univ. (China). School of Energy and Mechanical Engineering

    2013-07-01

    Wheat straw and rice husk chars were prepared in a fixed bed reactor at different pyrolysis temperatures (673, 873 and 1,073K) and different pyrolysis procedure. The steam activated chars were also prepared in a fixed bed reactor at the following conditions: activation temperature is 1,073K, the flow rate of N{sub 2} is 5L/min, and N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O molar ratio is 1:1. The specific surface area, pore structure and micro-morphology of different kinds of prepared biomass chars were measured by NOVA1000e analysis instrument and JSM-5610LV scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. Results indicated that the internal structure was improved significantly by steam activation through enlarging the specific surface area and enriching the porosity. The wheat straw char prepared by both rapid pyrolysis at 873K and activation by steam is better than others, whose DR surface area increases from 3.10 to 1099.99m{sup 2}/g. The N{sub 2} adsorption volume of steam activated biomass chars has been significant promoted.

  20. A Structure-Activity Study of Antibacterial Diterpenoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loretta Vásquez

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the antibacterial activities of 15 terpenoids, eleven of which werepreviously described by us and four were extracted from the literature, suggested twostructural requirements for activity of these and related compounds: a hydrophobic moiety,consisting of a substituted decalin skeleton, and a hydrophilic region possessing onehydrogen-bond-donor group. These structural requirements are responsible for an optimalinsertion of these and related compounds into cell membranes, as suggested by the resultsof docking some of these compounds into a model phospholipid bilayer.

  1. Magnetic structure of an activated filament in a flaring active region

    CERN Document Server

    Sasso, C; Solanki, S K

    2013-01-01

    While the magnetic field in quiescent prominences has been widely investigated, less is known about the field in activated prominences. We introduce observational results on the magnetic field structure of an activated filament in a flaring active region. We study, in particular, its magnetic structure and line-of-sight flows during its early activated phase, shortly before it displays signs of rotation. We invert the Stokes profiles of the chromospheric He I 10830 A triplet and the photospheric Si I 10827 A line observed in this filament by the VTT on Tenerife. Using these inversion results we present and interpret the first maps of velocity and magnetic field obtained in an activated filament, both in the photosphere and the chromosphere. Up to 5 different magnetic components are found in the chromospheric layers of the filament, while outside the filament a single component is sufficient to reproduce the observations. Magnetic components displaying an upflow are preferentially located towards the centre of...

  2. Change in basic motor abilities, quality of movement and everyday activities following intensive, goal-directed, activity-focused physiotherapy in a group setting for children with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaale Helga K

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of intensive training for children with cerebral palsy (CP remain uncertain. The aim of the study was to investigate the impact on motor function, quality of movements and everyday activities of three hours of goal-directed activity-focused physiotherapy in a group setting, five days a week for a period of three weeks. Methods A repeated measures design was applied with three baseline and two follow up assessments; immediately and three weeks after intervention. Twenty-two children with hemiplegia (n = 7, diplegia (n = 11, quadriplegia (n = 2 and ataxia (n = 2 participated, age ranging 3-9 y. All levels of Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS and Manual Ability Classification System (MACS were represented. Parents and professionals participated in goal setting and training. ANOVA was used to analyse change over repeated measures. Results A main effect of time was shown in the primary outcome measure; Gross Motor Function Measure-66 (GMFM-66, mean change being 4.5 (p Conclusions Basic motor abilities and self-care improved in young children with CP after goal-directed activity-focused physiotherapy with involvement of their local environment, and their need for caregiver assistance in self-care and mobility decreased. The individualized training within a group context during a limited period of time was feasible and well-tolerated. The coherence between acquisition of basic motor abilities and quality of movement should be further examined.

  3. Integrated Structural Health Assessment Using Piezoelectric Active Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannette R. Wait

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper illustrates an integrated approach for identifying structural damage. The method presented utilizes piezoelectric (PZT materials to actuate/sense the dynamic response of the structures. Two damage identification techniques are integrated in this study, including impedance methods and Lamb wave propagations. The impedance method monitors the variations in structural mechanical impedance, which is coupled with the electrical impedance of the PZT patch. In Lamb wave propagations, one PZT patch acting as an actuator launches an elastic wave through the structure, and responses are measured by an array of PZT sensors. The changes in both wave attenuation and reflection are used to detect and locate the damage. Both the Lamb wave and impedance methods operate in high frequency ranges at which there are measurable changes in structural responses even for incipient damage such as small cracks, debonding, or loose connections. The combination of the local impedance method with the wave propagation based approach allows a better characterization of the system’s structural integrity. The paper concludes with experimental results to demonstrate the feasibility of this integrated active sensing technology.

  4. Active structural control with stable fuzzy PID techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Wen

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a detailed discussion of intelligent techniques to measure the displacement of buildings when they are subjected to vibration. It shows how these techniques are used to control active devices that can reduce vibration 60–80% more effectively than widely used passive anti-seismic systems. After introducing various structural control devices and building-modeling and active structural control methods, the authors propose offset cancellation and high-pass filtering techniques to solve some common problems of building-displacement measurement using accelerometers. The most popular control algorithms in industrial settings, PD/PID controllers, are then analyzed and then combined with fuzzy compensation. The stability of this combination is proven with standard weight-training algorithms. These conditions provide explicit methods for selecting PD/PID controllers. Finally, fuzzy-logic and sliding-mode control are applied to the control of wind-induced vibration. The methods described are support...

  5. Crustal structure and active tectonics in the Eastern Alps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brückl, E.; Behm, M.; Decker, K.;

    2010-01-01

    fragment (PA), was interpreted and a triple junction was inferred. The goal of this study has been to relate these deep crustal structures to active tectonics. We used elastic plate modeling to reconsider the Moho fragmentation. We interpret subduction of EU below AD and PA from north to south...... and underthusting of AD mantle below PA from southwest to northeast. The Moho fragmentation correlates well with major upper crustal structures and is supported by gravity, seismic, and geodetic data. An analysis of crustal thickening suggests that active convergence is associated with continued thrusting...... and lateral extrusion in the central Eastern Alps and thickening of the Adriatic indenter under the Southern Alps. According to the velocity relations at the triple junction, PA moves relative to EU and AD along ENE and SE striking faults, mainly by strike slip. An eastward directed extensional component...

  6. Structure-Dependent Immune Modulatory Activity of Protegrin-1 Analogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susu M. Zughaier

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Protegrins are porcine antimicrobial peptides (AMPs that belong to the cathelicidin family of host defense peptides. Protegrin-1 (PG-1, the most investigated member of the protegrin family, is an arginine-rich peptide consisting of 18 amino acid residues, its main chain adopting a β-hairpin structure that is linked by two disulfide bridges. We report on the immune modulatory activity of PG-1 and its analogs in neutralizing bacterial endotoxin and capsular polysaccharides, consequently inhibiting inflammatory mediators’ release from macrophages. We demonstrate that the β-hairpin structure motif stabilized with at least one disulfide bridge is a prerequisite for the immune modulatory activity of this type of AMP.

  7. Basic rhythm of myoelectric activities of sphcter of Oddi and its biological significance%Oddi括约肌肌电活动的基本方式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李虎城; 董家鸿; 陈飞; 邹一平; 李为民

    2010-01-01

    Objective To observe the basic rhythm of myoelectrie activities of sphcter of Oddi (SO)and explore its biological significance.Methods Healthy adult rabbits(n=32)were randomized into 4 groups with 8 in each.The first group was for recording of myoelectric activities of SO after keeping fast for 18 hours.The second group was manipulated to observe the myoelectric activities of SO after food infusion through the stoma in stomach.The myoelectric activities of SO in the third group were monitored after the classical Nardi test was performed on these rabbits.The fourth group was used to observe the myoelectric activities of SO after the cholinergic receptors had been blocked.Using the double claw metal electrodes which were put into SO and duodenum through the plasma membrance,the myoelectric signal were recorded with RM6240 multi-channel physiologic recording and signal processing system and non-stop recording was conducted for 120-150 mins.Results 1)Spike Potentials of SO with the frequency was observed in rabbits that had been fasting.2)Myoelectronic activity of SO was observed in rabbits infused with 50 ml milk through stoma.3)After the administration of 1 mg morphine and 1 mg neostigmine i.v,the myoelectric activities of SO were noted as long-lasting persistent MASO.4)Administration of anisodamine 1 mg(i.v.)in the empty abdomen group dismissed SPSO and MASO.This state lasted for 120 min before SPSO gradually reconverted to the state of empty abdomen.Conclusion There are four patterns of myoelectric activities of SO,i.e,tensional waves under empty abdomen indicating a state in which the SO kept a basic tension level.Peristaltic waves under intake of food.Spastic waves under the stimulation of drugs and relaxant waves under the post-ganglionic block of cholinergic receptors were observed in the present study.Correspondingly,their mechanic locomotion is inferred as the basic tensional state to faciliate the deposition and condensation of bile,the peristalsis for the

  8. Structure-activity relationship of crustacean peptide hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Hidekazu

    2016-01-01

    In crustaceans, various physiological events, such as molting, vitellogenesis, and sex differentiation, are regulated by peptide hormones. To understanding the functional sites of these hormones, many structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies have been published. In this review, the author focuses the SAR of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone-family peptides and androgenic gland hormone and describes the detailed results of our and other research groups. The future perspectives will be also discussed.

  9. An absorbing phase transition from a structured active particle phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Cristobal [Instituto Mediterraneo de Estudios Avanzados IMEDEA (CSIC-UIB), Campus de la Universidad de las Islas Baleares, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Ramos, Francisco [Departamento de Electromagnetismo y Fisica de la Materia and Instituto de Fisica Teorica y Computacional Carlos I, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); Hernandez-GarcIa, Emilio [Instituto Mediterraneo de Estudios Avanzados IMEDEA (CSIC-UIB), Campus de la Universidad de las Islas Baleares, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)

    2007-02-14

    In this work we study the absorbing state phase transition of a recently introduced model for interacting particles with neighbourhood-dependent reproduction rates. The novelty of the transition is that as soon as the active phase is reached by increasing a control parameter a periodically arranged structure of particle clusters appears. A numerical study in one and two dimensions shows that the system falls into the directed percolation universality class.

  10. Structural Analysis of Polysaccharide from Cladonia furcatar and Its Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Qian; LIN Xin; CAI YuJun; LI ZhiXiao

    2001-01-01

    @@ Cladonia furcatar is a member of the lichens genus Cladonia. Japanese scientific researchers [1] made a great achievement in selecting lichens as anticancer agent and polysaccharides are generally considered to be their main bioactive constituents. Recently, Iacomini et al[2] have investigated the members of the genus Cladonia, a mannose-containing polysaccharide was isolated from Cladoniafurcatar. We now report the new chemical structure of polysaccharide from Cladoniafurcatar and its activities.

  11. Structural Analysis of Polysaccharide from Cladonia furcatar and Its Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Qian

    2001-01-01

    Cladonia furcatar is a member of the lichens genus Cladonia. Japanese scientific researchers [1] made a great achievement in selecting lichens as anticancer agent and polysaccharides are generally considered to be their main bioactive constituents. Recently, Iacomini et al[2] have investigated the members of the genus Cladonia, a mannose-containing polysaccharide was isolated from Cladoniafurcatar. We now report the new chemical structure of polysaccharide from Cladoniafurcatar and its activities.  ……

  12. Antimicrobial Activity of Xanthohumol and Its Selected Structural Analogues

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Stompor; Barbara Żarowska

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of structural analogues of xanthohumol 1, a flavonoid compound found in hops (Humulus lupulus). The agar-diffusion method using filter paper disks was applied. Biological tests performed for selected strains of Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria, fungi (Alternaria sp.), and yeasts (Rhodotorula rubra, Candida albicans) revealed that compounds with at least one hydroxyl group—...

  13. In vitro anti-Mycobacterium avium activities of quinolones: predicted active structures and mechanistic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopman, G; Li, J Y; Wang, S; Pearson, A J; Chang, K; Jacobs, M R; Bajaksouzian, S; Ellner, J J

    1994-08-01

    The relationship between the structures of quinolones and their anti-Mycobacterium avium activities has been previously derived by using the Multiple Computer-Automated Structure Evaluation program. A number of substructural constraints required to overcome the resistance of most of the strains have been identified. Nineteen new quinolones which qualify under these substructural requirements were identified by the program and subsequently tested. The results show that the substructural attributes identified by the program produced a successful a priori prediction of the anti-M. avium activities of the new quinolones. All 19 quinolones were found to be active, and 4 of them are as active or better than ciprofloxacin. With these new quinolones, the updated multiple computer-automated structure evaluation program structure-activity relationship analysis has helped to uncover additional information about the nature of the substituents at the C5 and C7 positions needed for optimal inhibitory activity. A possible explanation of drug resistance based on the observation of suicide inactivation of bacterial cytochrome P-450 by the cyclopropylamine moiety has also been proposed and is discussed in this report. Furthermore, we confirm the view that the amount of the uncharged form present in a neutral pH solution plays a crucial role in the drug's penetration ability.

  14. Cyclooxygenase active bioflavonoids from Balaton tart cherry and their structure activity relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Nair, M G; Strasburg, G M; Booren, A M; Gray, I; Dewitt, D L

    2000-03-01

    Several flavonoids and isoflavonoids isolated from Balaton tart cherry were assayed for prostaglandin H endoperoxide synthase (PGHS-1) enzyme or cyclooxygenase isoform-1 (COX-1) activity. Genistein showed the highest COX-1 inhibitory activity among the isoflavonoids studied, with an IC50 value of 80 microM. Kaempferol gave the highest COX-1 inhibitory activity among the flavonoids tested, with an IC50 value of 180 microM. The structure-activity relationships of flavonoids and isoflavonoids revealed that hydroxyl groups at C4', C5 and C7 in isoflavonoids were essential for appreciable COX-1 inhibitory activity. Also, the C2-C3 double bond in flavonoids is important for COX-1 inhibitory activity. However, a hydroxyl group at the position decreased COX-1 inhibitory activity by flavonoids.

  15. Anatomical structure of moss leaves and their photosynthetic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Krupa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The photosynthetic activity of the leaf area unit increases depending on the degree of differentiation of the anatomical structure of the leaves of six chosen moss species. There is a correlation between the leaf area and the degree of differentiation of the anatomical structure resulting in enlargement of the area of contact of the assimilating cells with air. The leaves of Catharinea undulata having a one-layer blade and provided with several lamellae show a higher photosynthesis per 1 cm2 of their surface than the one-layer leaves of Mniurnm or Funaria. Aloina leaves are the smallest in area among those of the moss species discussed, however, their photosynthetic rate is almost 4.5 times higher than in Funaria leaves. By analogy to the structure of leaves and their function in vascular, plants, these changes and correlations may be considered as attempts of primeval adaptation of mosses to terrestrial conditions of living.

  16. Antiplasmodial Activity, Cytotoxicity and Structure-Activity Relationship Study of Cyclopeptide Alkaloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmy Tuenter

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Cyclopeptide alkaloids are polyamidic, macrocyclic compounds, containing a 13-, 14-, or 15-membered ring. The ring system consists of a hydroxystyrylamine moiety, an amino acid, and a β-hydroxy amino acid; attached to the ring is a side chain, comprised of one or two more amino acid moieties. In vitro antiplasmodial activity was shown before for several compounds belonging to this class, and in this paper the antiplasmodial and cytotoxic activities of ten more cyclopeptide alkaloids are reported. Combining these results and the IC50 values that were reported by our group previously, a library consisting of 19 cyclopeptide alkaloids was created. A qualitative SAR (structure-activity relationship study indicated that a 13-membered macrocyclic ring is preferable over a 14-membered one. Furthermore, the presence of a β-hydroxy proline moiety could correlate with higher antiplasmodial activity, and methoxylation (or, to a lesser extent, hydroxylation of the styrylamine moiety could be important for displaying antiplasmodial activity. In addition, QSAR (quantitative structure-activity relationship models were developed, using PLS (partial least squares regression and MLR (multiple linear regression. On the one hand, these models allow for the indication of the most important descriptors (molecular properties responsible for the antiplasmodial activity. Additionally, predictions made for interesting structures did not contradict the expectations raised in the qualitative SAR study.

  17. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor inhibits osmotic swelling of rat retinal glial (Müller) and bipolar cells by activation of basic fibroblast growth factor signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, B-A; Vogler, S; Pannicke, T; Kuhrt, H; Garcia, T B; Wiedemann, P; Reichenbach, A; Seeger, J; Bringmann, A

    2015-06-04

    Water accumulation in retinal glial (Müller) and neuronal cells resulting in cellular swelling contributes to the development of retinal edema and neurodegeneration. Intravitreal administration of neurotrophins such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is known to promote survival of retinal neurons. Here, we show that exogenous BDNF inhibits the osmotic swelling of Müller cell somata induced by superfusion of rat retinal slices or freshly isolated cells with a hypoosmotic solution containing barium ions. BDNF also inhibited the osmotic swelling of bipolar cell somata in retinal slices, but failed to inhibit the osmotic soma swelling of freshly isolated bipolar cells. The inhibitory effect of BDNF on Müller cell swelling was mediated by activation of tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) and transactivation of fibroblast growth factor receptors. Exogenous basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) fully inhibited the osmotic swelling of Müller cell somata while it partially inhibited the osmotic swelling of bipolar cell somata. Isolated Müller cells displayed immunoreactivity of truncated TrkB, but not full-length TrkB. Isolated rod bipolar cells displayed immunoreactivities of both TrkB isoforms. Data suggest that the neuroprotective effect of exogenous BDNF in the retina is in part mediated by prevention of the cytotoxic swelling of retinal glial and bipolar cells. While BDNF directly acts on Müller cells by activation of TrkB, BDNF indirectly acts on bipolar cells by inducing glial release of factors like bFGF that inhibit bipolar cell swelling.

  18. Structural Characterization and Property Study on the Activated Alumina-activated Carbon Composite Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yan-Qing; WU Ren-Ping; YE Xian-Feng

    2012-01-01

    AlCl3,NH3·H2O,HNO3 and activated carbon were used as raw materials to prepare one new type of activated alumina-activated carbon composite material.The influence of heat treatment conditions on the structure and property of this material was discussed;The microstructures of the composite material were characterized by XRD,SEM,BET techniques;and its formaldehyde adsorption characteristic was also tested.The results showed that the optimal heat treatment temperature of the activated alumina-activated carbon composite material was 450 ℃,iodine adsorption value was 441.40 mg/g,compressive strength was 44 N,specific surface area was 360.07 m2/g,average pore size was 2.91 nm,and pore volume was 0.26 m3/g.According to the BET pore size distribution diagram,the composite material has dual-pore size distribution structure,the micro-pore distributes in the range of 0.6-1.7 nm,and the meso-pore in the range of 3.0-8.0 nm.The formaldehyde adsorption effect of the activated alumina-activated carbon composite material was excellent,much better than that of the pure activated carbon or activated alumina,and its saturated adsorption capacity was 284.19 mg/g.

  19. The complete structure of an activated open sodium channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sula, Altin; Booker, Jennifer; Ng, Leo C. T.; Naylor, Claire E.; DeCaen, Paul G.; Wallace, B. A.

    2017-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (Navs) play essential roles in excitable tissues, with their activation and opening resulting in the initial phase of the action potential. The cycling of Navs through open, closed and inactivated states, and their closely choreographed relationships with the activities of other ion channels lead to exquisite control of intracellular ion concentrations in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Here we present the 2.45 Å resolution crystal structure of the complete NavMs prokaryotic sodium channel in a fully open conformation. A canonical activated conformation of the voltage sensor S4 helix, an open selectivity filter leading to an open activation gate at the intracellular membrane surface and the intracellular C-terminal domain are visible in the structure. It includes a heretofore unseen interaction motif between W77 of S3, the S4–S5 interdomain linker, and the C-terminus, which is associated with regulation of opening and closing of the intracellular gate. PMID:28205548

  20. A near atomic structure of the active human apoptosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tat Cheung; Hong, Chuan; Akey, Ildikó V; Yuan, Shujun; Akey, Christopher W

    2016-01-01

    In response to cell death signals, an active apoptosome is assembled from Apaf-1 and procaspase-9 (pc-9). Here we report a near atomic structure of the active human apoptosome determined by cryo-electron microscopy. The resulting model gives insights into cytochrome c binding, nucleotide exchange and conformational changes that drive assembly. During activation an acentric disk is formed on the central hub of the apoptosome. This disk contains four Apaf-1/pc-9 CARD pairs arranged in a shallow spiral with the fourth pc-9 CARD at lower occupancy. On average, Apaf-1 CARDs recruit 3 to 5 pc-9 molecules to the apoptosome and one catalytic domain may be parked on the hub, when an odd number of zymogens are bound. This suggests a stoichiometry of one or at most, two pc-9 dimers per active apoptosome. Thus, our structure provides a molecular framework to understand the role of the apoptosome in programmed cell death and disease. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17755.001

  1. Secondary Vocational Maths Should Pay Attention to the Experience Accumulation of Basic Activities%中职数学要关注基本活动经验的积累

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仲林; 王志成

    2015-01-01

    数学基本活动经验,即学生在经历和感悟、探究和构建等数学基本活动过程中积淀而成的具有个体认知特征的思维模式。在中职数学教学中,除了重视数学知识与技能的学习,更应该重视数学意识、数学思想方法、基本活动经验等方面的培养,为学生的后续学习和可持续发展奠定基础。本文首先分析了“基本活动经验”的理论基础,进而提出在实践中促进学生获得基本活动经验的有效途径,最后提出在教学实践中要注意优化获得基本活动经验的操作过程。%Mathematical basic activities of experience, that students experience and insights, explore and build basic math and other activities in the process of accumulation mode of thinking from individuals with cognitive features. In Maths tea-ching, in addition to emphasis on math knowledge and skills learning, we should pay attention to mathematical awareness, foster mathematical thinking, experience and other aspects of basic activities, lay the foundation for subsequent learning of students and sustainable development. This paper analyzes the"basic activities Experience"theoretical basis, and then come up with effective ways to promote student access to basic activity in practice experience. Finally, in teaching practice, we should pay attention to the optimization procedure to obtain the basic activities of experience.

  2. Active Vibration Control of a Monopile Offshore Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Thesbjerg, L.

    1996-01-01

    , it can be necessary to use an active or a passive vibration control system. However, for a monopile with severe space problems it can be difficult to locate a passive control system such as e.g. a tuned mass damper. Therefore, in order to active control wave introduced vibrations of a monopile structure...... platforms have been developed for approximately 35 m water depth and to be remotely operated. However, there has recently been a wish to use the monopile concept on 75 m water depth. Using monopiles in such water depths can imply significantly dynamic problems. Therefore, in order to reduce the vibrations...... an active control technique has been proposed in corporation with the consulting company Rambøll, Esbjerg, Denmark. The proposed control technique is based on the relationship between the position of the separation points of the boundary layer flow and the drag term in the wave force on the cylinder...

  3. Theoretical elucidation of structure-activity relationship of flavonoid antioxidants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红雨

    1999-01-01

    AM1 method was employed to calculate flavonoid antioxidants, and the results obtained are as follows. Firstly, flavonoid hydroxyls at ortho position were more active than the hydroxyls at meta position in scavenging oxygen-free radicals, which resulted from the facts that (ⅰ) the former were stabilized by forming intramolecular hydrogen bond and (ⅱ) ortho benzoquinone formed in the former structures through resonance, which resulted in large percentage of distribution of spin density on ortho oxygen and low internal energy. Secondly, electron-attracting effect of ring C of chromone-flavonoids showed some passive effects on hydroxyls of ring A, making the OH less active. As ring C had little effect on ring B and hydroxyls of ring B in most flavonoids were at ortho position, the rule summarized from experiments showing that hydroxyls of ring B were more active in scavenging oxygen-free radicals was elucidated.

  4. Structural Determinants of Clostridium difficile Toxin A Glucosyltransferase Activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruitt, Rory N.; Chumbler, Nicole M.; Rutherford, Stacey A.; Farrow, Melissa A.; Friedman, David B.; Spiller, Ben; Lacy, D. Borden (Vanderbilt)

    2012-03-28

    The principle virulence factors in Clostridium difficile pathogenesis are TcdA and TcdB, homologous glucosyltransferases capable of inactivating small GTPases within the host cell. We present crystal structures of the TcdA glucosyltransferase domain in the presence and absence of the co-substrate UDP-glucose. Although the enzymatic core is similar to that of TcdB, the proposed GTPase-binding surface differs significantly. We show that TcdA is comparable with TcdB in its modification of Rho family substrates and that, unlike TcdB, TcdA is also capable of modifying Rap family GTPases both in vitro and in cells. The glucosyltransferase activities of both toxins are reduced in the context of the holotoxin but can be restored with autoproteolytic activation and glucosyltransferase domain release. These studies highlight the importance of cellular activation in determining the array of substrates available to the toxins once delivered into the cell.

  5. Structural dynamics of troponin during activation of skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusi, Luca; Brunello, Elisabetta; Sevrieva, Ivanka R.; Sun, Yin-Biao; Irving, Malcolm

    2014-01-01

    Time-resolved changes in the conformation of troponin in the thin filaments of skeletal muscle were followed during activation in situ by photolysis of caged calcium using bifunctional fluorescent probes in the regulatory and the coiled-coil (IT arm) domains of troponin. Three sequential steps in the activation mechanism were identified. The fastest step (1,100 s−1) matches the rate of Ca2+ binding to the regulatory domain but also dominates the motion of the IT arm. The second step (120 s−1) coincides with the azimuthal motion of tropomyosin around the thin filament. The third step (15 s−1) was shown by three independent approaches to track myosin head binding to the thin filament, but is absent in the regulatory head. The results lead to a four-state structural kinetic model that describes the molecular mechanism of muscle activation in the thin filament–myosin head complex under physiological conditions. PMID:24616505

  6. The structure-activity relationship in herbicidal monosubstituted sulfonylureas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zheng-Ming; Ma, Yi; Guddat, Luke; Cheng, Pei-Quan; Wang, Jian-Guo; Pang, Siew S; Dong, Yu-Hui; Lai, Cheng-Ming; Wang, Ling-Xiu; Jia, Guo-Feng; Li, Yong-Hong; Wang, Su-Hua; Liu, Jie; Zhao, Wei-Guang; Wang, Bao-Lei [Nankai; (Queens); (Chinese Aca. Sci.)

    2012-05-24

    The herbicide sulfonylurea (SU) belongs to one of the most important class of herbicides worldwide. It is well known for its ecofriendly, extreme low toxicity towards mammals and ultralow dosage application. The original inventor, G Levitt, set out structure-activity relationship (SAR) guidelines for SU structural design to attain superhigh bioactivity. A new approach to SU molecular design has been developed. After the analysis of scores of SU products by X-ray diffraction methodology and after greenhouse herbicidal screening of 900 novel SU structures synthesized in the authors laboratory, it was found that several SU structures containing a monosubstituted pyrimidine moiety retain excellent herbicidal characteristics, which has led to partial revision of the Levitt guidelines. Among the novel SU molecules, monosulfuron and monosulfuron-ester have been developed into two new herbicides that have been officially approved for field application and applied in millet and wheat fields in China. A systematic structural study of the new substrate-target complex and the relative mode of action in comparison with conventional SU has been carried out. A new mode of action has been postulated.

  7. Xenoestrogenic gene expression: structural features of active polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, T Wayne; Sinks, Glendon D

    2002-04-01

    Estrogenicity was assessed using the Saccharomyces cerevisiae-based Lac-Z reporter assay and was reported as the logarithm of the inverse of the 50% molar beta-galactosidase activity (log[EC50(-1)]). In an effort to quantify the relationship between molecular structure of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and estrogenic gene expression, a series of PAHs were evaluated. With noted exceptions, the results of these studies indicate that the initial two-dimensional structural warning for estrogenicity, the superpositioning of a hydroxylated aromatic system on the phenolic A-ring of 17-beta-estradiol, can be extended to the PAHs. This two-dimensional-alignment criterion correctly identified estrogenicity of 22 of the 29 PAHs evaluated. Moreover, the estrogenic potency of these compounds was directly related to the size of the hydrophobic backbone. The seven compounds classified incorrectly by this structural feature were either dihydroxylated naphthalenes or aromatic nitrogen-heterocyclic compounds; all such compounds were false positives. Results with dihydroxylated naphthalenes reveal derivatives that were nonestrogenic when superimposed on the phenolic A-ring of 17-beta-estradiol had the second hydroxyl group in the position of the C-ring or were catechol-like in structure. Structural alerts for nitrogen-heterocyclic compounds must take into account the position of the hydroxyl group and the in-ring nitrogen atom; compounds with the hydroxyl group and nitrogen atom involved with the same ring were observed to be nonactive.

  8. Basic real analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Sohrab, Houshang H

    2014-01-01

    This expanded second edition presents the fundamentals and touchstone results of real analysis in full rigor, but in a style that requires little prior familiarity with proofs or mathematical language. The text is a comprehensive and largely self-contained introduction to the theory of real-valued functions of a real variable. The chapters on Lebesgue measure and integral have been rewritten entirely and greatly improved. They now contain Lebesgue’s differentiation theorem as well as his versions of the Fundamental Theorem(s) of Calculus. With expanded chapters, additional problems, and an expansive solutions manual, Basic Real Analysis, Second Edition, is ideal for senior undergraduates and first-year graduate students, both as a classroom text and a self-study guide. Reviews of first edition: The book is a clear and well-structured introduction to real analysis aimed at senior undergraduate and beginning graduate students. The prerequisites are few, but a certain mathematical sophistication is required. ....

  9. Basic and clinical immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinen, Javier; Shearer, William T.

    2003-01-01

    Progress in immunology continues to grow exponentially every year. New applications of this knowledge are being developed for a broad range of clinical conditions. Conversely, the study of primary and secondary immunodeficiencies is helping to elucidate the intricate mechanisms of the immune system. We have selected a few of the most significant contributions to the fields of basic and clinical immunology published between October 2001 and October 2002. Our choice of topics in basic immunology included the description of T-bet as a determinant factor for T(H)1 differentiation, the role of the activation-induced cytosine deaminase gene in B-cell development, the characterization of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells, and the use of dynamic imaging to study MHC class II transport and T-cell and dendritic cell membrane interactions. Articles related to clinical immunology that were selected for review include the description of immunodeficiency caused by caspase 8 deficiency; a case series report on X-linked agammaglobulinemia; the mechanism of action, efficacy, and complications of intravenous immunoglobulin; mechanisms of autoimmunity diseases; and advances in HIV pathogenesis and vaccine development. We also reviewed two articles that explore the possible alterations of the immune system caused by spaceflights, a new field with increasing importance as human space expeditions become a reality in the 21st century.

  10. Ectopic expression of a basic helix-loop-helix gene transactivates parallel pathways of proanthocyanidin biosynthesis. structure, expression analysis, and genetic control of leucoanthocyanidin 4-reductase and anthocyanidin reductase genes in Lotus corniculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolocci, Francesco; Robbins, Mark P; Madeo, Laura; Arcioni, Sergio; Martens, Stefan; Damiani, Francesco

    2007-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are plant secondary metabolites and are composed primarily of catechin and epicatechin units in higher plant species. Due to the ability of PAs to bind reversibly with plant proteins to improve digestion and reduce bloat, engineering this pathway in leaves is a major goal for forage breeders. Here, we report the cloning and expression analysis of anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) and leucoanthocyanidin 4-reductase (LAR), two genes encoding enzymes committed to epicatechin and catechin biosynthesis, respectively, in Lotus corniculatus. We show the presence of two LAR gene families (LAR1 and LAR2) and that the steady-state levels of ANR and LAR1 genes correlate with the levels of PAs in leaves of wild-type and transgenic plants. Interestingly, ANR and LAR1, but not LAR2, genes produced active proteins following heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and are affected by the same basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that promotes PA accumulation in cells of palisade and spongy mesophyll. This study provides direct evidence that the same subclass of transcription factors can mediate the expression of the structural genes of both branches of PA biosynthesis.

  11. Structural properties of cyanase. Denaturation, renaturation, and role of sulfhydryls and oligomeric structure in catalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, R M; Anderson, P M

    1987-07-25

    Cyanase is an inducible enzyme in Escherichia coli that catalyzes bicarbonate-dependent decomposition of cyanate to give ammonia and bicarbonate. The enzyme is composed of 8-10 identical subunits (Mr = 17,008). The objective of this study was to clarify some of the structural properties of cyanase for the purpose of understanding the relationship between oligomeric structure and catalytic activity. Circular dichroism studies showed that cyanase has a significant amount of alpha-helix and beta-sheet structure. The one sulfhydryl group per subunit does not react with 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB) unless cyanase is denatured. Denaturation is apparently complete in 10 M urea or 6 M guanidine hydrochloride, but is significantly reduced in 10 M urea by the presence of azide (analog of cyanate) and is incomplete in 8 M urea. Denatured cyanase could be renatured and reactivated (greater than 85%) by removal of denaturants. Reactivation was greatly facilitated by the presence of certain anions, particularly bicarbonate, and by high ionic strength and protein concentration. The catalytic activity of renatured cyanase was associated only with oligomer. Cyanase that had been denatured in the presence of DTNB to give a cyanase-DTNB derivative could also be renatured at 26 degrees C to give active cyanase-DTNB oligomer. The active oligomeric form of the cyanase-DTNB derivative could be converted reversibly to inactive dimer by lowering the temperature to 4 degrees C or by reduction of the ionic strength and removal of monoanions. These results provide evidence that free sulfhydryl groups are not required for catalytic activity and that catalytic activity may be dependent upon oligomeric structure.

  12. Synthesis, insecticidal activity, and structure-activity relationship (SAR) of anthranilic diamides analogs containing oxadiazole rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuhao; Zhu, Hongjun; Chen, Kai; Liu, Rui; Khallaf, Abdalla; Zhang, Xiangning; Ni, Jueping

    2013-06-28

    A series of anthranilic diamides analogs (3–11, 16–24) containing 1,2,4- or 1,3,4-oxadiazole rings were synthesized and characterized by (1)H NMR, MS and elemental analyses. The structure of 3-bromo-N-(2-(3-(4-bromophenyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl)-4-chloro-6-methylphenyl)-1-(3-chloropyridin-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole-5-carboxamide (18, CCDC-) was determined by X-ray diffraction crystallography. The insecticidal activities against Plutella xylostella and Spodoptera exigua were evaluated. The results showed that most of title compounds displayed good larvicidal activities against P. xylostella, especially compound 3-bromo-N-(4-chloro-2-methyl-6-(5-(methylthio)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)phenyl)-1-(3-chloropyridin-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole-5-carboxamide (6), which displayed 71.43% activity against P. xylostella at 0.4 μg mL(-1) and 33.33% against S. exigua at 1 μg mL(-1). The structure-activity relationship showed that compounds decorated with a 1,3,4-oxadiazole were more potent than compounds decorated with a 1,2,4-oxadiazole, and different substituents attached to the oxadiazole ring also affected the insecticidal activity. This work provides some hints for further structure modification and the enhancement of insecticidal activity.

  13. Investigation on the Basic Frame of Bamboo Structural Engineering Material Standard System of China%我国竹质结构工程材料标准体系基本框架初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李辉; 李新功; 李晓华; 任海青; 邢新婷

    2013-01-01

    基于我国竹质结构工程材料标准的发展现状和特点,分析了竹质结构工程材料标准体系的基本构成以及发展趋势,重点研究了竹质结构工程材料标准体系的构建思路,并列出基本结构框架图,为竹质结构工程材料标准体系的构建奠定基础.%Based on development situation and characteristics of bamboo structural engineering material standards, this paper analyzes its basic structures and development tendency, focuses on the thoughts of constructing the standards system,and lists the basic frame,which provides the theoretical basis for constructing the bamboo structural engineering material standard system.

  14. Basic Research Firing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Basic Research Firing Facility is an indoor ballistic test facility that has recently transitioned from a customer-based facility to a dedicated basic research...

  15. The Structural Basis of Cholesterol Activity in Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Brett N.; Bielska, Agata; Lee, Tiffany; Daily, Michael D.; Covey, Douglas F.; Schlesinger, Paul H.; Baker, Nathan A.; Ory, Daniel S.

    2013-10-15

    Although the majority of free cellular cholesterol is present in the plasma membrane, cholesterol homeostasis is principally regulated through sterol-sensing proteins that reside in the cholesterol-poor endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In response to acute cholesterol loading or depletion, there is rapid equilibration between the ER and plasma membrane cholesterol pools, suggesting a biophysical model in which the availability of plasma membrane cholesterol for trafficking to internal membranes modulates ER membrane behavior. Previous studies have predominantly examined cholesterol availability in terms of binding to extramembrane acceptors, but have provided limited insight into the structural changes underlying cholesterol activation. In this study, we use both molecular dynamics simulations and experimental membrane systems to examine the behavior of cholesterol in membrane bilayers. We find that cholesterol depth within the bilayer provides a reasonable structural metric for cholesterol availability and that this is correlated with cholesterol-acceptor binding. Further, the distribution of cholesterol availability in our simulations is continuous rather than divided into distinct available and unavailable pools. This data provide support for a revised cholesterol activation model in which activation is driven not by saturation of membrane-cholesterol interactions but rather by bulk membrane remodeling that reduces membrane-cholesterol affinity.

  16. Proton currents constrain structural models of voltage sensor activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Aaron L; Mokrab, Younes; Bennett, Ashley L; Sansom, Mark SP; Ramsey, Ian Scott

    2016-01-01

    The Hv1 proton channel is evidently unique among voltage sensor domain proteins in mediating an intrinsic ‘aqueous’ H+ conductance (GAQ). Mutation of a highly conserved ‘gating charge’ residue in the S4 helix (R1H) confers a resting-state H+ ‘shuttle’ conductance (GSH) in VGCs and Ci VSP, and we now report that R1H is sufficient to reconstitute GSH in Hv1 without abrogating GAQ. Second-site mutations in S3 (D185A/H) and S4 (N4R) experimentally separate GSH and GAQ gating, which report thermodynamically distinct initial and final steps, respectively, in the Hv1 activation pathway. The effects of Hv1 mutations on GSH and GAQ are used to constrain the positions of key side chains in resting- and activated-state VS model structures, providing new insights into the structural basis of VS activation and H+ transfer mechanisms in Hv1. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18017.001 PMID:27572256

  17. Body Basics Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness About the Body Basics Library KidsHealth > For Teens > About the Body Basics Library A A A Did you ever wonder what ... system, part, and process works. Use this medical library to find out about basic human anatomy, how ...

  18. Body Basics Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness About the Body Basics Library KidsHealth > For Teens > About the Body Basics Library Print A A A Did you ever wonder ... system, part, and process works. Use this medical library to find out about basic human anatomy, how ...

  19. Basic Cake Decorating Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdany, Mel

    Included in this student workbook for basic cake decorating are the following: (1) Drawings of steps in a basic way to ice a layer cake, how to make a paper cone, various sizes of flower nails, various sizes and types of tin pastry tubes, and special rose tubes; (2) recipes for basic decorating icings (buttercream, rose paste, and royal icing);…

  20. Structural mechanism of trimeric HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin E H Tran

    Full Text Available HIV-1 infection begins with the binding of trimeric viral envelope glycoproteins (Env to CD4 and a co-receptor on target T-cells. Understanding how these ligands influence the structure of Env is of fundamental interest for HIV vaccine development. Using cryo-electron microscopy, we describe the contrasting structural outcomes of trimeric Env binding to soluble CD4, to the broadly neutralizing, CD4-binding site antibodies VRC01, VRC03 and b12, or to the monoclonal antibody 17b, a co-receptor mimic. Binding of trimeric HIV-1 BaL Env to either soluble CD4 or 17b alone, is sufficient to trigger formation of the open quaternary conformation of Env. In contrast, VRC01 locks Env in the closed state, while b12 binding requires a partial opening in the quaternary structure of trimeric Env. Our results show that, despite general similarities in regions of the HIV-1 gp120 polypeptide that contact CD4, VRC01, VRC03 and b12, there are important differences in quaternary structures of the complexes these ligands form on native trimeric Env, and potentially explain differences in the neutralizing breadth and potency of antibodies with similar specificities. From cryo-electron microscopic analysis at ∼9 Å resolution of a cleaved, soluble version of trimeric Env, we show that a structural signature of the open Env conformation is a three-helix motif composed of α-helical segments derived from highly conserved, non-glycosylated N-terminal regions of the gp41 trimer. The three N-terminal gp41 helices in this novel, activated Env conformation are held apart by their interactions with the rest of Env, and are less compactly packed than in the post-fusion, six-helix bundle state. These findings suggest a new structural template for designing immunogens that can elicit antibodies targeting HIV at a vulnerable, pre-entry stage.

  1. Inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme activity by flavonoids: structure-activity relationship studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Guerrero

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated that certain flavonoids can have an inhibitory effect on angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE activity, which plays a key role in the regulation of arterial blood pressure. In the present study, 17 flavonoids belonging to five structural subtypes were evaluated in vitro for their ability to inhibit ACE in order to establish the structural basis of their bioactivity. The ACE inhibitory (ACEI activity of these 17 flavonoids was determined by fluorimetric method at two concentrations (500 µM and 100 µM. Their inhibitory potencies ranged from 17 to 95% at 500 µM and from 0 to 57% at 100 µM. In both cases, the highest ACEI activity was obtained for luteolin. Following the determination of ACEI activity, the flavonoids with higher ACEI activity (i.e., ACEI >60% at 500 µM were selected for further IC(50 determination. The IC(50 values for luteolin, quercetin, rutin, kaempferol, rhoifolin and apigenin K were 23, 43, 64, 178, 183 and 196 µM, respectively. Our results suggest that flavonoids are an excellent source of functional antihypertensive products. Furthermore, our structure-activity relationship studies show that the combination of sub-structures on the flavonoid skeleton that increase ACEI activity is made up of the following elements: (a the catechol group in the B-ring, (b the double bond between C2 and C3 at the C-ring, and (c the cetone group in C4 at the C-ring. Protein-ligand docking studies are used to understand the molecular basis for these results.

  2. INFLUENCE OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE AGENTS ON A STRUCTURAL STATE AND THE ENZYMATIC ACTIVITY OF BLACK ORDINARY CARBONATED SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lychman V. A.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The results of a long-term research of the influence of various biologically active agents (a humic preparation Lignogumat and microbiological Baikal EM fertilizer on a structural state and the enzymatic activity of ordinary carbonated black soil are presented. It has been established that biologically active substances contribute to increased enzymatic activity, humus and improve the soil structure

  3. Survey of Active Structural Control and Repair Using Piezoelectric Patches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abuzaid

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The piezoelectric actuator has gained popularity over the last few years. Attention has been directed towards the study of their electromechanical response in active repair and the control of damaged structures. This has been made possible through the development of various numerical and analytical techniques for such studies. The shift of focus towards the piezoelectric based approaches has been due to their advantages, which include strategic cost benefits in maintenance, as well as an increase in the life cycle of the repaired structures. Furthermore, adhesively bonded joints are widely used in the manufacturing and repairing of structures in many industries, especially automotive and aerospace engineering. This is due to the requirement for lightweight materials as well as the potential adhesive used to join materials with different characteristics. The piezoelectric actuator has also shown the capacity in controlling and lowering the shear stress concentration and joint edge peel in adhesively bonded joint systems. The structure’s control of stress and repair can generally be viewed as a reinforcement that influences the structure’s damage tolerance. Therefore, the interest of this review is on the applications of the piezoelectric actuators in both structural damage and the bonded adhesive joint system. The specific goal is to recognize the contemporary scientific challenges, including future opportunities.

  4. Basic principles of electronics thermionics

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, J

    2013-01-01

    Basic Principles of Electronics, Volume I: Thermionics covers topics related to thermionic devices. The book starts by providing a physical background about electronics, including structure of matter, ionic, chemical and covalent combination, crystalline structure, conductors and insulators, and thermionic emission. The text then discusses electron dynamics; the characteristics and properties of electrons in solids; electron emission; and thermionic emission in a vacuum diode or triode. The development of the vacuum triode; gas-filled valves; and power amplifiers are also considered. The book

  5. Passive and Active Vibration Control of Renewable Energy Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zili

    The present thesis deals with fundamental researches on passive and active vibration control of renewable energy structures, and provides useful models for practical applications. Effective and robust vibration control methods have been explored for mitigating the lightly damped edgewise blade...... vibration and lateral tower vibration, with the main focus on structural control devices. Rigorous theoretical modeling of different dynamic system has been established, based on which detailed design and analysis of the proposed control devices can be carried out. This thesis also explores technical...... solutions for wave energy point absorbers, in order to maximize the mean absorbed power and to deliver more smooth power to the grid. A novel suboptimal causal control law has been established for controlling the motion of the point absorber, and a new type of point absorber has also been proposed...

  6. Continuous Molecular Fields Approach Applied to Structure-Activity Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Baskin, Igor I

    2013-01-01

    The Method of Continuous Molecular Fields is a universal approach to predict various properties of chemical compounds, in which molecules are represented by means of continuous fields (such as electrostatic, steric, electron density functions, etc). The essence of the proposed approach consists in performing statistical analysis of functional molecular data by means of joint application of kernel machine learning methods and special kernels which compare molecules by computing overlap integrals of their molecular fields. This approach is an alternative to traditional methods of building 3D structure-activity and structure-property models based on the use of fixed sets of molecular descriptors. The methodology of the approach is described in this chapter, followed by its application to building regression 3D-QSAR models and conducting virtual screening based on one-class classification models. The main directions of the further development of this approach are outlined at the end of the chapter.

  7. Differential effects of myelin basic protein-activated Th1 and Th2 cells on the local immune microenvironment of injured spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jian-Guo; Shi, Ling-Ling; Chen, Yue-Juan; Xie, Xiu-Mei; Zhang, Nan; Zhu, An-You; Jiang, Zheng-Song; Feng, Yi-Fan; Zhang, Chen; Xi, Jin; Lü, He-Zuo

    2016-03-01

    Myelin basic protein (MBP) activated T cells (MBP-T) play an important role in the damage and repair process of the central nervous system (CNS). However, whether these cells play a beneficial or detrimental role is still a matter of debate. Although some studies showed that MBP-T cells are mainly helper T (Th) cells, their subtypes are still not very clear. One possible explanation for MBP-T immunization leading to conflicting results may be the different subtypes of T cells are responsible for distinct effects. In this study, the Th1 and Th2 type MBP-T cells (MBP-Th1 and -Th2) were polarized in vitro, and their effects on the local immune microenvironment and tissue repair of spinal cord injury (SCI) after adoptive immunization were investigated. In MBP-Th1 cell transferred rats, the high levels of pro-inflammatory cells (Th1 cells and M1 macrophages) and cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α, -β, IL-1β) were detected in the injured spinal cord; however, the anti-inflammatory cells (Th2 cells, regulatory T cells, and M2 macrophages) and cytokines (IL-4, -10, and -13) were found in MBP-Th2 cell transferred animals. MBP-Th2 cell transfer resulted in decreased lesion volume, increased myelination of axons, and preservation of neurons. This was accompanied by significant locomotor improvement. These results indicate that MBP-Th2 adoptive transfer has beneficial effects on the injured spinal cord, in which the increased number of Th2 cells may alter the local microenvironment from one primarily populated by Th1 and M1 cells to another dominated by Th2, Treg, and M2 cells and is conducive for SCI repair.

  8. The relationship between sarcopenia, undernutrition, physical mobility and basic activities of daily living in a group of elderly women of Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Consuelo Velázquez Alva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sarcopenia is a geriatric syndrome, which affects the functional status and mobility of individuals. Objective: To identify the prevalence of sarcopenia and undernutrition, and to assess the association between sarcopenia and mobility, and sarcopenia and basic activities of daily living (ADL in a group of elderly women. Subjects and methods: A cross-sectional study was performed in patients attending a geriatric service at a government hospital in Mexico City. Sarcopenia was identified applying Baumgartner's equation by obtaining skeletal muscle mass index (SMI and undernutrition was diagnosed using mininutritional assessment instrument (MNA. The SENECA questionnaire and Katz index were used to evaluate mobility and ADL, respectively. Statistical analysis: lineal regression models were constructed fitting SMI as a dependent variable and SENECA, and ADL scores as independent variables, adjusted for age. Results: 90 women with a mean age of 78.2 (± 6.8 were studied. Undernutrition was identified in 15.5% of the patients. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 41.1%. Patients with sarcopenia presented a high prevalence of undernutrition (p < 0.001. Sarcopenia was associated with difficulty in climbing stairs (OR = 2.63, p = 0.03, adjusted for age. The mobility score was associated with sarcopenia, in the group without sarcopenia the mean score was 16.3, and with sarcopenia it was 18.3, (p = 0.04. Regarding ADL, 64.9% of the patients with intermediate independence and dependence had sarcopenia, while 35.1% with total independence presented sarcopenia (p < 0.001. Conclusions: The elder women with sarcopenia had a higher prevalence of undernutrition. Sarcopenia was associated with difficulties in mobility, particularly difficulties in climbing stairs.

  9. Studying longterm effects of micro gravity on basic immune functions - The development of an application based on the measuring of phagocytosis activity of Blue Mussel hemocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unruh, Eckehardt

    The immunsystem of astronauts exposed to microgravity is declining. Whether this effect is caused by microgravity or in combination with cosmic radiation is so far not clear. The immune system of vertebrates has several defence strategies but the basic immune response (Phagocytosis) is present as well in invertebrates. Phagocytotic cells are drawn by chemotaxis to the origin of an infection. By adhesion, ingestion and phagosome formation foreign particles, bacteria etc are transported inside of a cell were they are destroyed by native powerful biocides. Related to this biocide production is the formation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). ROS can be measured by luminescence. The effects of microgravity will be simultaneously tested by exposure of phagocytotic hemocytes on orbit under microgravity, artificial gravity and, on ground under natural gravity. To address this purpose defined pools of Blue Mussel (Mytilus edulis) hemocytes will be launched frozen to the ISS. References for all batches will stay on ground. Shortly after arrival and then in three-month intervals batches of the same pool will be thawed and reconstituted. The phagocytosis related production of ROS will be stimulated with opsonized Zymosan. Luminescence will be measured and the data will be sent to ground. The experiment is scheduled for the Columbus Biolab early 2009. In preparation of this flight experiments the following procedures were investigated and the results will be presented: - a protocol for the cryoconservation and reconstituton of blue mussel hemocytes. - preliminary results of phagocytosis activity by reconstituted hemocytes after cryo-conservation and hemocytes without cryo-conservation treatment. The TRIPLELUX-B Experiment contributes to risk assessment concerning longterm immunotoxicity under space flight conditions. The immune system of invertebrates has not been studied so far in space. The choice of the phagocytes from invertebrates is justified by the claim to study the

  10. Power system damping - Structural aspects of controlling active power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuelsson, O.

    1997-04-01

    Environmental and economical aspects make it difficult to build new power lines and to reinforce existing ones. The continued growth in demand for electric power must therefore to a great extent be met by increased loading of available lines. A consequence is that power system damping is reduced, leading to a risk of poorly damped power oscillations between the generators. This thesis proposes the use of controlled active loads to increase damping of such electro-mechanical oscillations. The focus is on structural aspects of controller interaction and of sensor and actuator placement. On-off control based on machine frequency in a single machine infinite bus system is analysed using energy function analysis and phase plane plots. An on-off controller with estimated machine frequency as input has been implemented. At a field test it damped oscillations of a 0.9 MW hydro power generator by controlling a 20kW load. The linear analysis uses two power system models with three and twenty-three machines respectively. Each damper has active power as output and local bus frequency or machine frequency as input. The power system simulator EUROSTAG is used both for generation of the linearized models and for time simulations. Measures of active power mode controllability and phase angle mode observability are obtained from the eigenvectors of the differential-algebraic models. The geographical variation in the network of these quantities is illustrated using the resemblance to bending modes of flexible mechanical structures. Eigenvalue sensitivities are used to determine suitable damper locations. A spring-mass equivalent to an inter-area mode provides analytical expressions, that together with the concept of impedance matching explain the structural behaviour of the power systems. For large gains this is investigated using root locus plots. 64 refs, 99 figs, 20 tabs

  11. Researches on active structural acoustic control by radiation modes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Qibo; JIANG Zhe

    2001-01-01

    Based on the radiation modes, an active control strategy is presented for sound radiation from elastic structures with an example of simply supported rectangular panel. The physical characteristics and mathematical meaning of the radiation modes are analyzed. The radiation efficiency of radiation mode falls off very rapidly with the increase of modes order at low frequency. A new control strategy is developed in which by canceling the adjoint coefficient of the first k radiation modes, the sound powers of the first k radiation modes is zero theoretically. The numerical calculation is made by using point force actuators as control forces.

  12. Structure-biological activity relationship of synthetic trihydroxilated chalcones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devia Cristina M.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The bacteriostatic activity of 2?,4?,2-trihydroxychalcone; 2?,4?,3-trihydroxychalcone and 2?,4?,4-trihydroxychalcone, prepared by condensation of 2,4-dihydroxyacetophenone and benzaldehyde substituted, against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 was assayed by agar plate method. The three compounds presented important inhibition halos. In order to elucidate structure-activity relationships, the minimal inhibitory concentrations against S. aureus were determined by the broth dilution method and the results obtained were compared to that of 2',4'-dihydroxychalcone. The sequence observed was: MIC 2?,4?,3-(OH3 > MIC 2?,4?-(OH2 > MIC 2?,4?,4-(OH3 > > MIC 2?,4?,2-(OH3. These results showed that the introduction of an electron donating group (-OH in the aromatic B-ring causes an increase in bioactivity, and that the intensity of action depends on the position of the OH substitute.

  13. Structure-activity relationship of endomorphins and their analogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    To study the structure-activity relationship of endomorphins (EMs), the action of opioid receptor binding (AORB), analgesic activity and vasodilator effects of EMs and their eight analogs were investigated, which were prepared by rationally replacing the 2-/3-amino acid (Aa) of EMs. The results showed: (ⅰ) The 2-Aa was comparatively more related to the selectivity of EMs while the 3-Aa to their affinity; (ⅱ) the analgesia and vasodilatation of EMs and their analogs were not completely dictated by their AORB (in vitro), the action of [D-Pro2]EM-2 was unusual; (ⅲ) EMs lost their analgesia in the central nervous system and their vasodilatation in the circulatory system with different mechanisms; the former was due to the degradation of some peptidase, and the latter possibly due to the feedback inhibi-tion.

  14. Experimental active control results from the SPICES smart structure demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamm, David S.; Toth, G. K.; Chou, Kenneth C.; Heck, Larry P.; Nowlin, William C.; Titterton, Paul J., Sr.

    1996-05-01

    The final demonstrations of the ARPA SPICES (Synthesis and Processing of Intelligent Cost Effective Structures) program test the control of two active vibration mounts manufactured from composites with embedded actuators and sensors. Both mount demonstrations address wide band control problems for real disturbances, one at low frequency and the other at high frequency. The control systems for both are two-level hierarchies, with an inner active damping augmentation loop and an outer vibration control loop. We first review the control design requirements for the demonstration and summarize our control design approach. Then we focus on presenting the experimental results of the final demonstrations. For the low frequency demonstration, two alternative control approaches were demonstrated, one involving finite impulse response modeling and the other state space modeling. For the high frequency demonstration only the finite impulse response modeling approach was used because of computational limitations due to the complex system dynamics.

  15. Fucoidans from brown alga Fucus evanescens: structure and biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roza Menshova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Brown alga Fucus evanescens, widespread in the Far Eastern seas of Russia, is valuable source of sulfated polysaccharides – fucoidans with beneficial biological activities. The most homogenous fraction of fucoidan from F. evanescens was shown to be molecule containing linear main chain of alternating 2-sulfated 1,3- and 1,4-linked α-L-fucose residues. Few sulfate groups were found in position 4 of some 1,3-linked fucose residues. Acetyl groups occupied free C-3 of 1,4-linked residues and/or the C-4 of 1,3-linked fucose residues. Enzymatic hydrolysis, mild acid hydrolysis and autohydrolysis of native fucoidan were used for elucidation of the fine structural characteristics of fucoidan from F. evanescens. The aim of this review to summarize published data on biological activities of fucoidan from F. evanescens: antiviral, anticoagulant, thrombolytic, hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory, anticancer, and their practical application.

  16. Antimicrobial Activity of Xanthohumol and Its Selected Structural Analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Stompor

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of structural analogues of xanthohumol 1, a flavonoid compound found in hops (Humulus lupulus. The agar-diffusion method using filter paper disks was applied. Biological tests performed for selected strains of Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli bacteria, fungi (Alternaria sp., and yeasts (Rhodotorula rubra, Candida albicans revealed that compounds with at least one hydroxyl group—all of them have it at the C-4 position—demonstrated good activity. Our research showed that the strain S. aureus was more sensitive to chalcones than to the isomers in which the heterocyclic ring C is closed (flavanones. The strain R. rubra was moderately sensitive to only one compound: 4-hydroxy-4’-methoxychalcone 8. Loss of the hydroxyl group in the B-ring of 4’-methoxychalcones or its replacement by a halogen atom (−Cl, −Br, nitro group (−NO2, ethoxy group (−OCH2CH3, or aliphatic substituent (−CH3, −CH2CH3 resulted in the loss of antimicrobial activity towards both R. rubra yeast and S. aureus bacteria. Xanthohumol 1, naringenin 5, and chalconaringenin 7 inhibited growth of S. aureus, whereas 4-hydroxy-4′-methoxychalcone 8 was active towards two strains: S. aureus and R. rubra.

  17. Benzofuranyl Esters: Synthesis, Crystal Structure Determination, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Chidan Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A series of five new 2‐(1‐benzofuran‐2‐yl‐2‐oxoethyl 4-(un/substitutedbenzoates 4(a–e, with the general formula of C8H5O(C=OCH2O(C=OC6H4X, X = H, Cl, CH3, OCH3 or NO2, was synthesized in high purity and good yield under mild conditions. The synthesized products 4(a–e were characterized by FTIR, 1H-, 13C- and 1H-13C HMQC NMR spectroscopic analysis and their 3D structures were confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. These compounds were screened for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. The tested compounds showed antimicrobial ability in the order of 4b < 4a < 4c < 4d < 4e and the highest potency with minimum inhibition concentration (MIC value of 125 µg/mL was observed for 4e. The results of antioxidant activities revealed the highest activity for compound 4e (32.62% ± 1.34% in diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging, 4d (31.01% ± 4.35% in ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assay and 4a (27.11% ± 1.06% in metal chelating (MC activity.

  18. Antimicrobial Activity of Xanthohumol and Its Selected Structural Analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stompor, Monika; Żarowska, Barbara

    2016-05-11

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of structural analogues of xanthohumol 1, a flavonoid compound found in hops (Humulus lupulus). The agar-diffusion method using filter paper disks was applied. Biological tests performed for selected strains of Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria, fungi (Alternaria sp.), and yeasts (Rhodotorula rubra, Candida albicans) revealed that compounds with at least one hydroxyl group-all of them have it at the C-4 position-demonstrated good activity. Our research showed that the strain S. aureus was more sensitive to chalcones than to the isomers in which the heterocyclic ring C is closed (flavanones). The strain R. rubra was moderately sensitive to only one compound: 4-hydroxy-4'-methoxychalcone 8. Loss of the hydroxyl group in the B-ring of 4'-methoxychalcones or its replacement by a halogen atom (-Cl, -Br), nitro group (-NO₂), ethoxy group (-OCH₂CH₃), or aliphatic substituent (-CH₃, -CH₂CH₃) resulted in the loss of antimicrobial activity towards both R. rubra yeast and S. aureus bacteria. Xanthohumol 1, naringenin 5, and chalconaringenin 7 inhibited growth of S. aureus, whereas 4-hydroxy-4'-methoxychalcone 8 was active towards two strains: S. aureus and R. rubra.

  19. Structural characterization and immunomodulating activity of polysaccharide from Dendrobium officinale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Tao-Bin; Huang, Yan-Ping; Yang, Liu; Liu, Ti-Ti; Gong, Wan-Ying; Wang, Xuan-Jun; Sheng, Jun; Hu, Jiang-Miao

    2016-02-01

    A neutral heteropolysaccharide (DOP-1-1) consisted by mannose and glucose (5.9:1) with an average molecular weight at about 1.78×10(5) Da was purified from Dendrobium officinale. Based on Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FT-IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, it suggested that partial structure of DOP-1-1 is an O-acetylated glucomannan with β-d configuration in pyranose sugar forms. The immunomodulatory activity of DOP-1-1 was evaluated by secretion level of cytokine (interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-10) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in vitro. Our results suggested that DOP-1-1 could stimulate cytokine production (TNF-α, IL-1β) in cells. These findings demonstrated that the purified polysaccharide from D. officinale presented significant immune-modulating activities. Furthermore, by Western-blot we can found that the signaling pathways of DOP-1-1 induced immune activities involving ERK1/2 and NF-кB. As to antioxidant activity, DOP-1-1 hadn't showed remarkable scavenging capacity of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) in contrast with other studies of polysaccharides from D. officinale.

  20. Protein structure. Structure and activity of tryptophan-rich TSPO proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Youzhong; Kalathur, Ravi C; Liu, Qun; Kloss, Brian; Bruni, Renato; Ginter, Christopher; Kloppmann, Edda; Rost, Burkhard; Hendrickson, Wayne A

    2015-01-30

    Translocator proteins (TSPOs) bind steroids and porphyrins, and they are implicated in many human diseases, for which they serve as biomarkers and therapeutic targets. TSPOs have tryptophan-rich sequences that are highly conserved from bacteria to mammals. Here we report crystal structures for Bacillus cereus TSPO (BcTSPO) down to 1.7 Å resolution, including a complex with the benzodiazepine-like inhibitor PK11195. We also describe BcTSPO-mediated protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) reactions, including catalytic degradation to a previously undescribed heme derivative. We used structure-inspired mutations to investigate reaction mechanisms, and we showed that TSPOs from Xenopus and man have similar PpIX-directed activities. Although TSPOs have been regarded as transporters, the catalytic activity in PpIX degradation suggests physiological importance for TSPOs in protection against oxidative stress.

  1. Antitumor activity of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene derivatives and quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukić, Marijana; Rastija, Vesna; Opačak-Bernardi, Teuta; Stolić, Ivana; Krstulović, Luka; Bajić, Miroslav; Glavaš-Obrovac, Ljubica

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate nine newly synthesized amidine derivatives of 3,4- ethylenedioxythiophene (3,4-EDOT) for their cytotoxic activity against a panel of human cancer cell lines and to perform a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis for the antitumor activity of a total of 27 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene derivatives. Induction of apoptosis was investigated on the selected compounds, along with delivery options for the optimization of activity. The best obtained QSAR models include the following group of descriptors: BCUT, WHIM, 2D autocorrelations, 3D-MoRSE, GETAWAY descriptors, 2D frequency fingerprint and information indices. Obtained QSAR models should be relieved in elucidation of important physicochemical and structural requirements for this biological activity. Highly potent molecules have a symmetrical arrangement of substituents along the x axis, high frequency of distance between N and O atoms at topological distance 9, as well as between C and N atoms at topological distance 10, and more C atoms located at topological distances 6 and 3. Based on the conclusion given in the QSAR analysis, a new compound with possible great activity was proposed.

  2. Creating novel activated factor XI inhibitors through fragment based lead generation and structure aided drug design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Fjellström

    Full Text Available Activated factor XI (FXIa inhibitors are anticipated to combine anticoagulant and profibrinolytic effects with a low bleeding risk. This motivated a structure aided fragment based lead generation campaign to create novel FXIa inhibitor leads. A virtual screen, based on docking experiments, was performed to generate a FXIa targeted fragment library for an NMR screen that resulted in the identification of fragments binding in the FXIa S1 binding pocket. The neutral 6-chloro-3,4-dihydro-1H-quinolin-2-one and the weakly basic quinolin-2-amine structures are novel FXIa P1 fragments. The expansion of these fragments towards the FXIa prime side binding sites was aided by solving the X-ray structures of reported FXIa inhibitors that we found to bind in the S1-S1'-S2' FXIa binding pockets. Combining the X-ray structure information from the identified S1 binding 6-chloro-3,4-dihydro-1H-quinolin-2-one fragment and the S1-S1'-S2' binding reference compounds enabled structure guided linking and expansion work to achieve one of the most potent and selective FXIa inhibitors reported to date, compound 13, with a FXIa IC50 of 1.0 nM. The hydrophilicity and large polar surface area of the potent S1-S1'-S2' binding FXIa inhibitors compromised permeability. Initial work to expand the 6-chloro-3,4-dihydro-1H-quinolin-2-one fragment towards the prime side to yield molecules with less hydrophilicity shows promise to afford potent, selective and orally bioavailable compounds.

  3. Guarani Basic Course, Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Robert W.; And Others

    This volume of the basic course in Guarani (the indigenous language of Paraguay) contains the core stage, or class-instructional phase, of the ten units presented in Volume One. These units contain explanations, exercises, dialogues, various types of pattern drills, suggestions for games and communication activities, and various types of…

  4. Optical Assessment of Caries Lesion Structure and Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Robert Chulsung

    New, more sophisticated diagnostic tools are needed for the detection and characterization of caries lesions in the early stages of development. It is not sufficient to simply detect caries lesions, methods are needed to assess the activity of the lesion and determine if chemical or surgical intervention is needed. Previous studies have demonstrated that polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) can be used to nondestructively image the subsurface lesion structure and measure the thickness of the highly mineralized surface zone. Other studies have demonstrated that the rate of dehydration can be correlated with the lesion activity and that the rate can be measured using optical methods. The main objective of this work was to test the hypothesis that optical methods can be used to assess lesion activity on tooth coronal and root surfaces. Simulated caries models were used to develop and validate an algorithm for detecting and measuring the highly mineralized surface layer using PS-OCT. This work confirmed that the algorithm was capable of estimating the thickness of the highly mineralized surface layer with high accuracy. Near-infrared (NIR) reflectance and thermal imaging methods were used to assess activity of caries lesions by measuring the state of lesion hydration. NIR reflectance imaging performed the best for artificial enamel and natural coronal caries lesion samples, particularly at wavelengths coincident with the water absorption band at 1460-nm. However, thermal imaging performed the best for artificial dentin and natural root caries lesion samples. These novel optical methods outperformed the conventional methods (ICDAS II) in accurately assessing lesion activity of natural coronal and root caries lesions. Infrared-based imaging methods have shown potential for in-vivo applications to objectively assess caries lesion activity in a single examination. It is likely that if future clinical trials are a success, this novel imaging

  5. Structure-activity relationship studies of citalopram derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, M Andreas B; Plenge, Per; Andersen, Jacob;

    2016-01-01

    towards the S2 site. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: We performed a systematic structure-activity relationship study based on the scaffold of citalopram and the structurally closely related congener, talopram, that shows low-affinity S1 binding in SERT. The role of the four chemical substituents, which distinguish......-activity relationship study revealed a di-methyl citalopram, which binds to the S1 site with an affinity of 6.4 [4.7;8.8] μM (mean[SEM interval]) and shows an allosteric potency of 3.6 [3.3;3.8] μM, thus bearing ~2-fold selectivity for the allosteric site relative to the S1 site in SERT. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS....... The antidepressant drug citalopram displays high-affinity S1 binding and low-affinity S2 binding. To elucidate a possible therapeutic role of allosteric inhibition of SERT a drug that specifically targets the allosteric site is required. The purpose of this study was to find a compound bearing higher selectivity...

  6. Structure-Activity Association of Flavonoids in Lung Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Henrique G. Lago

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds classified into flavonols, flavones, flavanones, isoflavones, catechins, anthocyanidins, and chalcones according to their chemical structures. They are abundantly found in Nature and over 8,000 flavonoids have from different sources, mainly plant materials, have been described. Recently reports have shown the valuable effects of flavonoids as antiviral, anti-allergic, antiplatelet, antitumor, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory agents and interest in these compounds has been increasing since they can be helpful to human health. Several mechanisms of action are involved in the biological properties of flavonoids such as free radical scavenging, transition metal ion chelation, activation of survival genes and signaling pathways, regulation of mitochondrial function and modulation of inflammatory responses. The anti-inflammatory effects of flavonoids have been described in a number of studies in the literature, but not frequently associated to respiratory disease. Thus, this review aims to discuss the effects of different flavonoids in the control of lung inflammation in some disorders such as asthma, lung emphysema and acute respiratory distress syndrome and the possible mechanisms of action, as well as establish some structure-activity relationships between this biological potential and chemical profile of these compounds.

  7. Structural Basis for Reduced FGFR2 Activity in LADD Syndrome: Implications for FGFR Autoinhibition and Activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lew,E.; Bae, J.; Rohmann, E.; Wollnik, B.; Schlessinger, J.

    2007-01-01

    Mutations in fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) and its ligand, FGF10, are known to cause lacrimo-auriculo-dento-digital (LADD) syndrome. Multiple gain-of-function mutations in FGF receptors have been implicated in a variety of severe skeletal disorders and in many cancers. We aimed to elucidate the mechanism by which a missense mutation in the tyrosine kinase domain of FGFR2, described in the sporadic case of LADD syndrome, leads to reduced tyrosine kinase activity. In this report, we describe the crystal structure of a FGFR2 A628T LADD mutant in complex with a nucleotide analog. We demonstrate that the A628T LADD mutation alters the configuration of key residues in the catalytic pocket that are essential for substrate coordination, resulting in reduced tyrosine kinase activity. Further comparison of the structures of WT FGFR2 and WT FGFR1 kinases revealed that FGFR2 uses a less stringent mode of autoinhibition than FGFR1, which was also manifested in faster in vitro autophosphorylation kinetics. Moreover, the nearly identical conformation of WT FGFR2 kinase and the A628T LADD mutant to either the phosphorylated FGFR2 or FGFR2 harboring pathological activating mutations in the kinase hinge region suggests that FGFR autoinhibition and activation are better explained by changes in the conformational dynamics of the kinase rather than by static crystallographic snapshots of minor structural variations.

  8. Structure of urban movements: polycentric activity and entangled hierarchical flows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Roth

    Full Text Available The spatial arrangement of urban hubs and centers and how individuals interact with these centers is a crucial problem with many applications ranging from urban planning to epidemiology. We utilize here in an unprecedented manner the large scale, real-time 'Oyster' card database of individual person movements in the London subway to reveal the structure and organization of the city. We show that patterns of intraurban movement are strongly heterogeneous in terms of volume, but not in terms of distance travelled, and that there is a polycentric structure composed of large flows organized around a limited number of activity centers. For smaller flows, the pattern of connections becomes richer and more complex and is not strictly hierarchical since it mixes different levels consisting of different orders of magnitude. This new understanding can shed light on the impact of new urban projects on the evolution of the polycentric configuration of a city and the dense structure of its centers and it provides an initial approach to modeling flows in an urban system.

  9. Sensitivity method for integrated structure/active control law design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Michael G.

    1987-01-01

    The development is described of an integrated structure/active control law design methodology for aeroelastic aircraft applications. A short motivating introduction to aeroservoelasticity is given along with the need for integrated structures/controls design algorithms. Three alternative approaches to development of an integrated design method are briefly discussed with regards to complexity, coordination and tradeoff strategies, and the nature of the resulting solutions. This leads to the formulation of the proposed approach which is based on the concepts of sensitivity of optimum solutions and multi-level decompositions. The concept of sensitivity of optimum is explained in more detail and compared with traditional sensitivity concepts of classical control theory. The analytical sensitivity expressions for the solution of the linear, quadratic cost, Gaussian (LQG) control problem are summarized in terms of the linear regulator solution and the Kalman Filter solution. Numerical results for a state space aeroelastic model of the DAST ARW-II vehicle are given, showing the changes in aircraft responses to variations of a structural parameter, in this case first wing bending natural frequency.

  10. Polyphenols from Bee Pollen: Structure, Absorption, Metabolism and Biological Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rzepecka-Stojko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bee pollen constitutes a natural source of antioxidants such as phenolic acids and flavonoids, which are responsible for its biological activity. Research has indicated the correlation between dietary polyphenols and cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anticancerogenic, immunostimulating, antianaemic effects, as well as their beneficial influence on osseous tissue. The beneficial effects of bee pollen on health result from the presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids which possess anti-inflammatory properties, phytosterol and linolenic acid which play an anticancerogenic role, and polysaccharides which stimulate immunological activity. Polyphenols are absorbed in the alimentary tract, metabolised by CYP450 enzymes, and excreted with urine and faeces. Flavonoids and phenolic acids are characterised by high antioxidative potential, which is closely related to their chemical structure. The high antioxidant potential of phenolic acids is due to the presence and location of hydroxyl groups, a carboxyl group in the immediate vicinity of ortho-diphenolic substituents, and the ethylene group between the phenyl ring and the carboxyl group. As regards flavonoids, essential structural elements are hydroxyl groups at the C5 and C7 positions in the A ring, and at the C3′ and C4′ positions in the B ring, and a hydroxyl group at the C3 position in the C ring. Furthermore, both, the double bond between C2 and C3, and a ketone group at the C4 position in the C ring enhance the antioxidative potential of these compounds. Polyphenols have an ideal chemical structure for scavenging free radicals and for creating chelates with metal ions, which makes them effective antioxidants in vivo.

  11. Polyphenols from Bee Pollen: Structure, Absorption, Metabolism and Biological Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzepecka-Stojko, Anna; Stojko, Jerzy; Kurek-Górecka, Anna; Górecki, Michał; Kabała-Dzik, Agata; Kubina, Robert; Moździerz, Aleksandra; Buszman, Ewa

    2015-12-04

    Bee pollen constitutes a natural source of antioxidants such as phenolic acids and flavonoids, which are responsible for its biological activity. Research has indicated the correlation between dietary polyphenols and cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anticancerogenic, immunostimulating, antianaemic effects, as well as their beneficial influence on osseous tissue. The beneficial effects of bee pollen on health result from the presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids which possess anti-inflammatory properties, phytosterol and linolenic acid which play an anticancerogenic role, and polysaccharides which stimulate immunological activity. Polyphenols are absorbed in the alimentary tract, metabolised by CYP450 enzymes, and excreted with urine and faeces. Flavonoids and phenolic acids are characterised by high antioxidative potential, which is closely related to their chemical structure. The high antioxidant potential of phenolic acids is due to the presence and location of hydroxyl groups, a carboxyl group in the immediate vicinity of ortho-diphenolic substituents, and the ethylene group between the phenyl ring and the carboxyl group. As regards flavonoids, essential structural elements are hydroxyl groups at the C5 and C7 positions in the A ring, and at the C3' and C4' positions in the B ring, and a hydroxyl group at the C3 position in the C ring. Furthermore, both, the double bond between C2 and C3, and a ketone group at the C4 position in the C ring enhance the antioxidative potential of these compounds. Polyphenols have an ideal chemical structure for scavenging free radicals and for creating chelates with metal ions, which makes them effective antioxidants in vivo.

  12. Applications of Recombinant DNA Technology in Gastrointestinal Medicine and Hepatology: Basic Paradigms of Molecular Cell Biology. Part A: Eukaryotic Gene Structure and DNA Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary E Wild

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Progress in the basic sciences of cell and molecular biology has provided an exciting dimension that has translated into clinically relevant information in every medical subspecialty. Importantly, the application of recombinant DNA technology has played a major role in unravelling the intricacies related to the molecular pathophysiology of disease. This series of review articles constitutes a framework for the integration of the database of new information into the core knowledge base of concepts related to the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal disorders and liver disease. The goal of this series of three articles is to review the basic principles of eukaryotic gene expression. The first article examines the role of DNA in directing the flow of genetic information in eukaryotic cells.

  13. Molecular Descriptors Family on Structure Activity Relationships 3. Antituberculotic Activity of some Polyhydroxyxanthones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorana BOLBOACĂ

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The antituberculotic activity of some polyhydroxyxanthones was estimated using the Molecular Descriptors Family on Structure Activity Relationships methodology. From a total number of 298110 real and distinct calculated descriptors, 94843 were significantly different and entered into multiple linear regression analysis. The best performing bi-varied model was obtained by use of all polyhydroxyxanthones. The MDF SAR model was validated splitting the molecules into training and test sets. A correlated correlations analysis was applied in other to compare the MDF SAR models with the previous SAR model. The prediction ability of antituberculotic activity of polyhydroxyxanthones with MDF SAR methodology is sustained by three arguments: leave-one-out procedure, training vs. test procedure, and the correlated correlations analysis. Looking at the bi-varied MDF SAR model, we can conclude that the antituberculotic activity of polyhydroxyxanthones is almost of geometrical nature (99% and is strongly dependent on partial atomic charge and group electronegativity.

  14. Basic research in solar physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsky, Jeffrey L.

    1991-01-01

    This grant, dating back more than 20 years has supported a variety of investigations of the chromospheres and coronae of the Sun and related cool stars by the Principal Investigator, his postdocs and graduate students, and colleagues at other institutions. This work involved studies of radiative transfer and spectral line formation theory, and the application of these techniques to the analysis of spectra obtained from space and ground-based observatories in the optical, ultraviolet, x-ray and radio portions of the spectrum. Space observations have included the analysis of spectra from OSO-7, Skylab, SMM, and the HRTS rocket experiments. Recent work has concentrated on the interaction of magnetic fields, plasma and radiation in the outer atmospheres of the Sun and other magnetically active stars with different fundamental parameters. Our study of phenomena common to the Sun and stars, the 'solar-stellar connection', can elucidate the fundamental physics, because spatially-resolved observations of the Sun provide us with the 'groundtruth,' while interpretation of stellar data permit us to isolate those parameters critical to stellar activity. Recently, we have studied the differences in physical properties between solar regions of high magnetic flux density and the surrounding plasma. High-resolution CN and CO spectroheliograms have been used to model the thermal inhomogeneities driven by unstable CO cooling, and we have analyzed spatially resolved UV spectra from HRTS to model the thermal structure and energy balance of small-scale structures. The study of nonlinear relations between atmospheric radiative losses and the photospheric magnetic flux density has been continued. We have also proposed a new model for the decay of plages by random walk diffusion of magnetic flux. Our analysis of phenomena common to the Sun and stars included the application of available spectroscopic diagnostics, establishing evidence that the atmospheres of the least active stars are

  15. Automated Structure-Activity Relationship Mining: Connecting Chemical Structure to Biological Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawer, Mathias J; Jaramillo, David E; Dančík, Vlado; Fass, Daniel M; Haggarty, Stephen J; Shamji, Alykhan F; Wagner, Bridget K; Schreiber, Stuart L; Clemons, Paul A

    2014-06-01

    Understanding the structure-activity relationships (SARs) of small molecules is important for developing probes and novel therapeutic agents in chemical biology and drug discovery. Increasingly, multiplexed small-molecule profiling assays allow simultaneous measurement of many biological response parameters for the same compound (e.g., expression levels for many genes or binding constants against many proteins). Although such methods promise to capture SARs with high granularity, few computational methods are available to support SAR analyses of high-dimensional compound activity profiles. Many of these methods are not generally applicable or reduce the activity space to scalar summary statistics before establishing SARs. In this article, we present a versatile computational method that automatically extracts interpretable SAR rules from high-dimensional profiling data. The rules connect chemical structural features of compounds to patterns in their biological activity profiles. We applied our method to data from novel cell-based gene-expression and imaging assays collected on more than 30,000 small molecules. Based on the rules identified for this data set, we prioritized groups of compounds for further study, including a novel set of putative histone deacetylase inhibitors.

  16. Basics of Bayesian Learning - Basically Bayes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan

    Tutorial presented at the IEEE Machine Learning for Signal Processing Workshop 2006, Maynooth, Ireland, September 8, 2006. The tutorial focuses on the basic elements of Bayesian learning and its relation to classical learning paradigms. This includes a critical discussion of the pros and cons...

  17. Structure-Activity Relation of AMOR Sugar Molecule That Activates Pollen-Tubes for Ovular Guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Jiao; Mizukami, Akane G; Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian; Yamguchi, Junichiro; Itami, Kenichiro; Higashiyawma, Tetsuya

    2017-01-01

    Successful fertilization in flowering plants depends on the precise directional growth control of pollen tube through the female pistil tissue toward the female gametophyte contained in the ovule for delivery of nonmotile sperm cells. Cys-rich peptides LUREs secreted from the synergid cells on either side of the egg cell act as ovular attractants of pollen tubes. Competency control by the pistil is crucial for the response of pollen tubes to these ovular attractants. We recently reported that ovular 4-O-methyl-glucuronosyl arabinogalactan (AMOR) induces competency of the pollen tube to respond to ovular attractant LURE peptides in Torenia fournieri. The beta isomer of the terminal disaccharide 4-O-methyl-glucuronosyl galactose was essential and sufficient for the competency induction. However, critical and noncritical structures in the disaccharide have not been dissected deeply. Herein, we report the synthesis of new AMOR analogs and the structure-activity relationships for AMOR activity in the presence of these synthesized analogs. Removal of 4-O-methyl group or -COOH from the glucuronosyl residue of the disaccharide dramatically reduces AMOR activity. The pyranose backbone of the second sugar of disaccharide is essential for the activity but not hydroxy groups. The role of beta isomer of the disaccharide 4-Me-GlcA-β(1,6)-Gal is very specific for competency control, as there was no difference in effect among the sugar analogs tested for pollen germination. This study represents the first structure-activity relationship study, to our knowledge, of a sugar molecule involved in plant reproduction, which opens a way for modification of the molecule without loss of activity.

  18. Osteogenic activity of titanium surfaces with nanonetwork structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing H

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Helin Xing,1,2 Satoshi Komasa,3 Yoichiro Taguchi,4 Tohru Sekino,5 Joji Okazaki3 1Department of Prosthetic Dentistry, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an, People’s Republic of China; 2Graduate School of Dentistry (Removable Prosthodontics and Occlusion, 3Department of Removable Prosthodontics and Occlusion, 4Department of Periodontology, Osaka Dental University, Hirakata, Osaka, Japan; 5Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Japan Background: Titanium surfaces play an important role in affecting osseointegration of dental implants. Previous studies have shown that the titania nanotube promotes osseointegration by enhancing osteogenic differentiation. Only relatively recently have the effects of titanium surfaces with other nanostructures on osteogenic differentiation been investigated. Methods: In this study, we used NaOH solutions with concentrations of 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0, and 12.5 M to develop a simple and useful titanium surface modification that introduces the nanonetwork structures with titania nanosheet (TNS nanofeatures to the surface of titanium disks. The effects of such a modified nanonetwork structure, with different alkaline concentrations on the osteogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs, were evaluated. Results: The nanonetwork structures with TNS nanofeatures induced by alkali etching markedly enhanced BMMSC functions of cell adhesion and osteogenesis-related gene expression, and other cell behaviors such as proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, extracellular matrix deposition, and mineralization were also significantly increased. These effects were most pronounced when the concentration of NaOH was 10.0 M. Conclusion: The results suggest that nanonetwork structures with TNS nanofeatures improved BMMSC proliferation and induced BMMSC osteogenic differentiation. In addition, the surfaces formed

  19. Structure and antibacterial activity of new layered perovskite compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Shao-zao; ZHANG Li-ling; XIA Liao-yuan; LIU Ying-liang; LI Du-xin

    2007-01-01

    New layered perovskite compounds, AgxNa2-xLa2Ti3O10 (x=0.2, 0.3 and 0.5) were synthesized by an ion-exchange reaction of Na2La2Ti3O10 with AgNO3 solution and characterized by energy dispersive X-ray analysis(EDX), X-ray diffractometry(XRD), scanning electron microscopy(SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS). The ion-exchange processes were optimized, and the antibacterial activity, light permanency and water-resistance were evaluated. Surprisedly, no significant changes in crystal structure of Na2La2Ti3O10 are found by the exchange of silver ions. The Ag0.3Na1.7La2Ti3O10 particles conglomerate obviously with irregular shape and size. Ag0.3Na1.7La2Ti3O10, possessing the minimum inhibitory concentrations(MICs) against Escherichia coli (E. coli), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) of 180 mg/L and 240 mg/L, has high antibacterial activity, good light permanency and water-resistance. The ionic state silver in AgxNa2-xLa2Ti3O10 is the antibacterial active component.

  20. Influence of basic properties of Mg,Al-mixed oxides on their catalytic activity in knoevenagel condensation between benzaldehyde and phenylsulfonylacetonitrile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caridad Noda Pérez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic performance of Mg,Al-mixed oxides (MO20, MO25 and MO33 derived from hydrotalcites was evaluated in the Knoevenagel reaction between benzaldehyde and phenylsulfonylacetonitrile at 373 and 383 K. The best results were obtained for the sample MO20 that presented the highest basic sites density and external area and the smallest crystallite sizes. The relative amount of basic sites with weak to intermediate strength also played an important role on catalytic performance. By increasing the catalyst content from 1 to 5 wt.% at 383 K, a complete conversion of the reactants is attained, producing α-phenylsulfonylcinnamonitrile with a selectivity of 100%.

  1. Four basic laws in design science

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Youbai

    2014-01-01

    A point on the distinction between design and science is given and the connotations of design science are discussed in the paper. Design should be understood as the first step of all human’s purposeful activity, which is a daily behavior for everyone. Four laws are summarized,which describe the basic patterns of design and are the constituents of design science. They are the law of design based on existed knowledge,law of in-completeness of design knowledge,law of design centered on new knowledge acquirement and law of competi-tiveness of design knowledge. The four basic laws show the knowledge essence of design. To enrich the existed knowledge,to make it convenient to be used,to teach designers with high intuition and inspiration in picking useful elements of existed knowledge and shaping competitive ideas and to have strong new knowledge acquire-ment facility are the basic conditions of good designs. Study of design science will promote the structure of tra-ditional engineering education. An important conclusion is derived that there will be no successful innovation without good design.

  2. Effect of pulsed electric field (PEF) on structures and antioxidant activity of soybean source peptides-SHCMN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Songyi; Liang, Rong; Li, Xingfang; Xing, Jie; Yuan, Yuan

    2016-12-15

    Recently, high-intensity pulsed electric field (PEF) has successfully used in improvement of antioxidant activity. Ser-His-Cys-Met-Asn (SHCMN) obtained from soybean protein was chosen to investigate the phenomenon of antioxidant activity improvement. Effects of PEF treatment on antioxidant activity of SHCMN were evaluated by DPPH radical inhibition. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), mid-infrared (MIR), circular dichroism (CD) were used to analyze structures of SHCMN. Two-factor-at-a-time results show that DPPH radical inhibition of SHCMN is significantly (Pelectric field intensity of 5kV/cm, pulse frequency of 2400Hz, and retention time of 2h. In addition, MIR and NMR spectra show that the basic structure of peptides SHCMN is stable by PEF treatment. But the secondary structures (α-helix, β-turn, and random coil) can be affected and zeta potential of PEF-treated SHCNM was reduced to 0.59±0.03mV. The antioxidant activity improvement of SHCMN might result from the changes of secondary structures and zeta potential.

  3. The crystal structure of phosphorylated MAPK13 reveals common structural features and differences in p38 MAPK family activation

    OpenAIRE

    Yurtsever, Zeynep; Scheaffer, Suzanne M.; Romero, Arthur G.; Holtzman, Michael J.; Brett, Tom J.

    2015-01-01

    The p38 MAP kinases are an important family of drug targets for a myriad of inflammatory, as well as other, diseases. Presented here is the crystal structure of the active form of MAPK13 (p38d) as well as a comprehensive analysis of all known apo inactive and active p38 MAPK structures, revealing a common mode of activation as well as some unique structural features.

  4. New active control nano-system to use in composites structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arche, M. R.

    2012-09-01

    The present abstract, is a brief description about our project (NEDEA). We considered this project as very important, because it reunites in his development, several basic technologies: electronics, communications, software and new materials, all very interesting in the European industry. The project is developed in the CSIC (Spanish Researcher Center). We are involved. Across the project, in the development of nano-sensors, specialized in detecting defects, difficulties or problems in structures of composed materials. These materials are being used, and in the future more, in applications where a high degree of security is necessary. Some fields in the system usage are Aeronautical and military applications whit a necessary high security degree. The development proposed, is based in nano-sensors and active devices. They are installed into the material structure. The information from sensors is transmitted by optical fibers, to a radio transmitter, equally installed into the material. An external receptor picks up those data and transmits them to an external device. This external device presents/displays all the information across an interface GUI, in real time, to the supervisor. He can see than is happening in the material, in real time. Alarms can be programmed, by the supervisor. Is possible a tracking for the problem. All the devices and software are in develop in our laboratories. We think that this development will be used by the industry of materials, and that gradually, it will have other applications in the transport area (like new vehicles, wagons of train and metro, etc.).

  5. Synthesis, Structure-Activity Relationships (SAR and in Silico Studies of Coumarin Derivatives with Antifungal Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Barbosa-Filho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased incidence of opportunistic fungal infections, associated with greater resistance to the antifungal drugs currently in use has highlighted the need for new solutions. In this study twenty four coumarin derivatives were screened in vitro for antifungal activity against strains of Aspergillus. Some of the compounds exhibited significant antifungal activity with MICs values ranging between 16 and 32 µg/mL. The structure-activity relationships (SAR study demonstrated that O-substitutions are essential for antifungal activity. It also showed that the presence of a short aliphatic chain and/or electron withdrawing groups (NO2 and/or acetate favor activity. These findings were confirmed using density functional theory (DFT, when calculating the LUMO density. In Principal Component Analysis (PCA, two significant principal components (PCs explained more than 60% of the total variance. The best Partial Least Squares Regression (PLS model showed an r2 of 0.86 and q2cv of 0.64 corroborating the SAR observations as well as demonstrating a greater probe N1 interaction for active compounds. Descriptors generated by TIP correlogram demonstrated the importance of the molecular shape for antifungal activity.

  6. Real-time 3D medical structure segmentation using fast evolving active contours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaotao; Wang, Qiang; Hao, Zhihui; Xu, Kuanhong; Guo, Ping; Ren, Haibing; Jang, Wooyoung; Kim, Jung-bae

    2014-03-01

    Segmentation of 3D medical structures in real-time is an important as well as intractable problem for clinical applications due to the high computation and memory cost. We propose a novel fast evolving active contour model in this paper to reduce the requirements of computation and memory. The basic idea is to evolve the brief represented dynamic contour interface as far as possible per iteration. Our method encodes zero level set via a single unordered list, and evolves the list recursively by adding activated adjacent neighbors to its end, resulting in active parts of the zero level set moves far enough per iteration along with list scanning. To guarantee the robustness of this process, a new approximation of curvature for integer valued level set is proposed as the internal force to penalize the list smoothness and restrain the list continual growth. Besides, list scanning times are also used as an upper hard constraint to control the list growing. Together with the internal force, efficient regional and constrained external forces, whose computations are only performed along the unordered list, are also provided to attract the list toward object boundaries. Specially, our model calculates regional force only in a narrowband outside the zero level set and can efficiently segment multiple regions simultaneously as well as handle the background with multiple components. Compared with state-of-the-art algorithms, our algorithm is one-order of magnitude faster with similar segmentation accuracy and can achieve real-time performance for the segmentation of 3D medical structures on a standard PC.

  7. Basic molecular spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Gorry, PA

    1985-01-01

    BASIC Molecular Spectroscopy discusses the utilization of the Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC) programming language in molecular spectroscopy. The book is comprised of five chapters that provide an introduction to molecular spectroscopy through programs written in BASIC. The coverage of the text includes rotational spectra, vibrational spectra, and Raman and electronic spectra. The book will be of great use to students who are currently taking a course in molecular spectroscopy.

  8. Structural Characterization and Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds from Astragalus taipaishanensis and Their Structure-Activity Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Wenjun; Wang, Dongmei; Zhou, Dan

    2015-09-01

    Eight phenolic compounds were isolated using bio-guided isolation and purified from the roots of Astragalus taipaishanensis Y. C. Ho et S. B. Ho (A. taipaishanensis) for the first time. Their structures were elucidated by ESI-MS, HR-ESI-MS, 1D-NMR and 2D-NMR as 7,2‧-dihydroxy-3‧,4‧-dimethoxy isoflavan (1), formononetin (2), isoliquiritigenin (3), quercetin (4), kaempferol (5), ononin (6), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (7) and vanillic acid (8). Six flavonoids (compounds 1-6) exhibited stronger antioxidant activities (determined by DPPH, ABTS, FRAP and lipid peroxidation inhibition assays) than those of BHA and TBHQ and also demonstrated noticeable protective effects (particularly quercetin and kaempferol) on Escherichia coli under oxidative stress. Additionally, the chemical constituents compared with those of Astragalus membranaceus and the structure-activity relationship of the isolated compounds were both analyzed. The results clearly demonstrated that A. taipaishanensis has the potential to be selected as an alternative medicinal and food plant that can be utilized in health food products, functional tea and pharmaceutical products.

  9. A Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSAR Study of Piperine Based Derivatives with Leishmanicidal Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilson Beserra Alencar Filho

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease which represents a serious public health problem in developing countries. It is considered a neglected tropical disease, for which there is little initiative in the search for therapeutic alternatives by pharmaceutical industry. Natural products remain a great source of inspiration for obtaining bioactive molecules. In 2010, Singh and co-workers published the synthesis and in vitro biological activity of piperoyl-aminoacid conjugates, as well as of piperine, against cellular cultures of Leishmania donovani. The piperine is an alkaloid isolated from Piper nigrum that has many activities described in the literature. In this work, we present a Quantitative Structure-Activity Study of piperine derivatives tested by Singh and co-workers, aiming to highlight important molecular features for leishmanicidal activity, obtaining a mathematical model to predict the activity of new analogs. Compounds were submitted to a geometry optimization computational procedure at semiempirical level of quantum theory. Molecular descriptors for the set of compounds were calculated by E-Dragon online plataform, followed by a variable selection procedure using Ordered Predictors Selection algorithm. Validation parameters obtained showed that a good QSAR model, based on multiple linear regression, was obtained (R2 = 0.85; Q2 = 0.69, and the following conclusions regarding the structure-activity relationship were elucidated: Compounds with electronegative atoms on different substituent groups of analogs, absence of unsaturation on lateral chain, presence of ester instead of carboxyl, and large volumes (due the presence of additional aromatic rings trends to increase the activity against promastigote forms of leishmania. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v9i1.893

  10. T helper cell type 1 (Th1), Th2 and Th17 responses to myelin basic protein and disease activity in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Chris J; Krakauer, Martin; Bendtzen, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Autoreactive T cells are thought to play an essential role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). We examined the stimulatory effect of human myelin basic protein (MBP) on mononuclear cell (MNC) cultures from 22 patients with MS and 22 sex-matched and age-matched healthy individuals, and...

  11. Structure and antimicrobial activity of phloroglucinol derivatives from Achyrocline satureioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casero, Carina; Machín, Félix; Méndez-Álvarez, Sebastián; Demo, Mirta; Ravelo, Ángel G; Pérez-Hernández, Nury; Joseph-Nathan, Pedro; Estévez-Braun, Ana

    2015-01-23

    The new prenylated phloroglucinol α-pyrones 1-3 and the new dibenzofuran 4, together with the known 23-methyl-6-O-demethylauricepyrone (5), achyrofuran (6), and 5,7-dihydroxy-3,8-dimethoxyflavone (gnaphaliin A), were isolated from the aerial parts of Achyrocline satureioides. Their structures were determined by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic studies, while the absolute configuration of the sole stereogenic center of 1 was established by vibrational circular dichroism measurements in comparison to density functional theory calculated data. The same (S) absolute configuration of the α-methylbutyryl chain attached to the phloroglucinol nucleus was assumed for compounds 2-6 based on biogenetic considerations. Derivatives 7-16 were prepared from 1 and 5, and the antimicrobial activities of the isolated metabolites and some of the semisynthetic derivatives against a selected panel of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, as well as a set of yeast molds, were determined.

  12. Active Vibration Control of a Monopile Offshore Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Thesbjerg, L.

    1999-01-01

    In the Danish part of the North Sea monopile platforms with a cylindrical shaft have been used at the exploitation of marginal fields. In the paper a new principle for active vibration control of such structures is suggested. The principle is based on a control of the boundary layer flow around...... the cylinder of the platform, so the drag force in the generalized Morison equation is increased whenever it is acting in the opposite direction of the cylinder motion, whereas an unchanged drag force is applied, whenever it is acting co-directionally to the cylinder motion. The inertial force of the wave load...... of the fluid velocity relative to the platform, and only this quantity need to be measured, which is easily performed by a flow meter fixed to the platform. The efficiency of the described closed loop control system has been verified by model tests in a wave flume in both regular and irregular wave conditions...

  13. Structural change in the petroleum activities; Strukturendringer i petroleumsvirksomheten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    The report is twofold. First it is described a reference situation for the petroleum industry based on qualitative and quantitative parameters. The purpose of this section is to form a basis of a future observation can be assessed. Then referred the views and reviews a wide range of stake holders in the industry has about how the structures in the petroleum industry will evolve in the years ahead. The views and reviews that are reproduced are from players in the petroleum industry itself, represented by 48 companies and organizations, and are not the views or opinions of Ministry of Petroleum and Energy. Participants' attention is mainly focused on how StatoilHydro will affect the industry, but it is also a general perception that there are many other factors that are just as important for how the industry will evolve in the long term. Participants' views will help to identify trends that may affect the player image. The project is not intended to constitute a strategy for or how to accommodate structural changes in the petroleum industry. The report discusses not systematically the structural changes that will be positive or negative for the industry and proposes no measures that will affect them. In Chapter 5, however, rendered what the various players in the interview rounds have proposed measures to counter the various structural changes. Finally touches the report not the significance of structural changes in the industry may have on health, safety and environment (HSE) in activity. The views and reviews from the players were passed in 2008, before the problems in the financial industry gained a considerable extent. Data and forecasts are also prepared during this period. Reviews in the report were accordingly given before one learned about the extent of the economic development and are not revised in the afterwards. Ministry of Petroleum and Energy will in the years ahead have to have a continuous attention to the issues described in this report. It

  14. 75 FR 77047 - Statement on Sound Practices Concerning Elevated Risk Complex Structured Finance Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    ... Finance Activities AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice and request for.... Title of Proposal: Statement on Sound Practices Concerning Elevated Risk Complex Structured Finance... Elevated Risk Complex Structured Finance Activities describes the types of internal controls and...

  15. Synthesis, structure characterization and catalytic activity of nickel tungstate nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pourmortazavi, Seied Mahdi, E-mail: pourmortazavi@yahoo.com [Faculty of Material and Manufacturing Technologies, Malek Ashtar University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rahimi-Nasrabadi, Mehdi, E-mail: rahiminasrabadi@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Imam Hossein University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khalilian-Shalamzari, Morteza [Department of Chemistry, Imam Hossein University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zahedi, Mir Mahdi; Hajimirsadeghi, Seiedeh Somayyeh [Islamic Azad University, Varamin Pishva Branch, Varamin (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Omrani, Ismail [Department of Chemistry, Imam Hossein University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: NiWO{sub 4} nanoparticles were prepared via precipitation technique. Experimental parameters of procedure were optimized statistically. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NiWO{sub 4} spherical nanoparticles were synthesized via direct precipitation method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Taguchi robust design was used for optimization of synthesis reaction parameters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Composition and structural properties of NiWO{sub 4} nanoparticles were characterized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EDAX, XRD, SEM, FT-IR, UV-vis and photoluminescence techniques were employed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Catalytic activity of the product in a cyclo-addition reaction was investigated. - Abstract: Taguchi robust design was applied to optimize experimental parameters for controllable, simple and fast synthesis of nickel tungstate nanoparticles. NiWO{sub 4} nanoparticles were synthesized by precipitation reaction involving addition of nickel ion solution to the tungstate aqueous reagent and then formation of nickel tungstate nucleolus which are insoluble in aqueous media. Effects of various parameters such as nickel and tungstate concentrations, flow rate of reagent addition and reactor temperature on diameter of synthesized nickel tungstate nanoparticles were investigated experimentally by the aid of orthogonal array design. The results for analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that particle size of nickel tungstate can be effectively tuned by controlling significant variables involving nickel and tungstate concentrations and flow rate; while, temperature of the reactor has a no considerable effect on the size of NiWO{sub 4} particles. The ANOVA results proposed the optimum conditions for synthesis of nickel tungstate nanoparticles via this technique. Also, under optimum condition nanoparticles of NiWO{sub 4} were prepared and their structure and chemical composition were characterized by means of EDAX, XRD, SEM, FT-IR spectroscopy, UV

  16. Structural basis for Mep2 ammonium transceptor activation by phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Bert; Chembath, Anupama; Jefferies, Damien; Basle, Arnaud; Khalid, Syma; Rutherford, Julian C

    2016-04-18

    Mep2 proteins are fungal transceptors that play an important role as ammonium sensors in fungal development. Mep2 activity is tightly regulated by phosphorylation, but how this is achieved at the molecular level is not clear. Here we report X-ray crystal structures of the Mep2 orthologues from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans and show that under nitrogen-sufficient conditions the transporters are not phosphorylated and present in closed, inactive conformations. Relative to the open bacterial ammonium transporters, non-phosphorylated Mep2 exhibits shifts in cytoplasmic loops and the C-terminal region (CTR) to occlude the cytoplasmic exit of the channel and to interact with His2 of the twin-His motif. The phosphorylation site in the CTR is solvent accessible and located in a negatively charged pocket ∼30 Å away from the channel exit. The crystal structure of phosphorylation-mimicking Mep2 variants from C. albicans show large conformational changes in a conserved and functionally important region of the CTR. The results allow us to propose a model for regulation of eukaryotic ammonium transport by phosphorylation.

  17. Structural insight into the function of myelin basic protein as a ligand for integrin αMβ2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stapulionis, Romualdas; Oliveira, Cristiano; Gjelstrup, Mikkel Carstensen;

    2008-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory disease where phagocytic cells infiltrate the nerve tissue and act as terminal agents in destruction of the myelin sheath. However, the mechanism that triggers the ability of these cells to recognize myelin remains obscure. We show that myelin basic...... protein (MBP), a major autoantigen in MS, is a potent and specific ligand for the integrin αMβ2 (Mac-1, CD11b/CD18) expressed mainly on phagocytic cells. MBP undergoes a dramatic conformational change when liberated from the lipid-rich environment of the myelin sheath. The MS drug glatiramer acetate...

  18. Deep structure and origin of active volcanoes in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dapeng Zhao

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We synthesize significant recent results on the deep structure and origin of the active volcanoes in mainland China. Magmatism in the western Pacific arc and back-arc areas is caused by dehydration of the subducting slab and by corner flow in the mantle wedge, whereas the intraplate magmatism in China has different origins. The active volcanoes in Northeast China (such as the Changbai and Wudalianchi are caused by hot upwelling in the big mantle wedge (BMW above the stagnant slab in the mantle transition zone and deep slab dehydration as well. The Tengchong volcano in Southwest China is caused by a similar process in the BMW above the subducting Burma microplate (or Indian plate. The Hainan volcano in southernmost China is a hotspot fed by a lower-mantle plume which may be associated with the Pacific and Philippine Sea slabs’ deep subduction in the east and the Indian slab’s deep subduction in the west down to the lower mantle. The stagnant slab finally collapses down to the bottom of the mantle, which can trigger the upwelling of hot mantle materials from the lower mantle to the shallow mantle beneath the subducting slabs and may cause the slab–plume interactions.

  19. Classification of the extracellular fields produced by activated neural structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry Danielle

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Classifying the types of extracellular potentials recorded when neural structures are activated is an important component in understanding nerve pathophysiology. Varying definitions and approaches to understanding the factors that influence the potentials recorded during neural activity have made this issue complex. Methods In this article, many of the factors which influence the distribution of electric potential produced by a traveling action potential are discussed from a theoretical standpoint with illustrative simulations. Results For an axon of arbitrary shape, it is shown that a quadrupolar potential is generated by action potentials traveling along a straight axon. However, a dipole moment is generated at any point where an axon bends or its diameter changes. Next, it is shown how asymmetric disturbances in the conductivity of the medium surrounding an axon produce dipolar potentials, even during propagation along a straight axon. Next, by studying the electric fields generated by a dipole source in an insulating cylinder, it is shown that in finite volume conductors, the extracellular potentials can be very different from those in infinite volume conductors. Finally, the effects of impulses propagating along axons with inhomogeneous cable properties are analyzed. Conclusion Because of the well-defined factors affecting extracellular potentials, the vague terms far-field and near-field potentials should be abandoned in favor of more accurate descriptions of the potentials.

  20. Deep structure and origin of active volcanoes in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dapeng Zhao; Lucy Liu

    2010-01-01

    We synthesize significant recent results on the deep structure and origin of the active volcanoes in mainland China. Magmatism in the western Pacific arc and back-arc areas is caused by dehydration of the subducting slab and by corner flow in the mantle wedge, whereas the intraplate magmatism in China has different origins. The active volcanoes in Northeast China (such as the Changbai and Wudalianchi) are caused by hot upwelling in the big mantle wedge (BMW) above the stagnant slab in the mantle transition zone and deep slab dehydration as well. The Tengchong volcano in Southwest China is caused by a similar process in the BMW above the subducting Burma microplate (or Indian plate).The Hainan volcano in southernmost China is a hotspot fed by a lower-mantle plume which may be associated with the Pacific and Philippine Sea slabs' deep subduction in the east and the Indian slab's deep subduction in the west down to the lower mantle. The stagnant slab finally collapses down to the bottom of the mantle, which can trigger the upwelling of hot mantle materials from the lower mantle to the shallow mantle beneath the subducting slabs and may cause the slab-plume interactions.

  1. Minimum active structure of insulin-like peptide 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belgi, Alessia; Bathgate, Ross A D; Kocan, Martina; Patil, Nitin; Zhang, Suode; Tregear, Geoffrey W; Wade, John D; Hossain, Mohammed Akhter

    2013-12-12

    Insulin-like peptide 5 (INSL5) is a complex two-chain peptide hormone constrained by three disulfide bonds in a pattern identical to insulin. High expression of INSL5 in the colon suggests roles in activation of colon motility and appetite control. A more recent study indicates it may have significant roles in the regulation of insulin secretion and β-cell homeostasis. This peptide thus has considerable potential for the treatment of eating disorders, obesity, and/or diabetes. However, the synthesis of INSL5 is extremely challenging either by chemical or recombinant means. The A-chain is very poorly soluble and the B-chain is highly aggregating in nature which, together, makes their postsynthesis handling and purification very difficult. Given these difficulties, we have developed a highly active INSL5 analogue that has a much simpler structure with two disulfide bonds and is thus easier to assemble compared to native INSL5. This minimized peptide represents an attractive new mimetic for investigating the functional role of INSL5.

  2. Basic Research Objectives Reaffirmed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Haiyan; Zhao Baohua

    2002-01-01

    @@ As a national institution for scientific research and a component of the national innovation system, CAS should and must make key contributions to the great national rejuvenation of the country. Keeping this in mind, CAS has developed four developmental targets for its basic research. This was revealed at a CAS conference on basic research held June 11-12 in Beijing.

  3. Cycles in basic innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de E.A. (Bert); Franses, P.H.P.H.

    2005-01-01

    Basic innovations are often believed to be the drivers of economic growth. It has been widely documented that economic growth follows cyclical patterns of varying length. In this paper we examine if such patterns are also present in basic innovations. For an annual time series of count data covering

  4. Basic Science Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummel, Clete

    These six learning modules were developed for Lake Michigan College's Basic Science Training Program, a workshop to develop good study skills while reviewing basic science. The first module, which was designed to provide students with the necessary skills to study efficiently, covers the following topics: time management; an overview of a study…

  5. Basic principle of superconductivity

    OpenAIRE

    De Cao, Tian

    2007-01-01

    The basic principle of superconductivity is suggested in this paper. There have been two vital wrong suggestions on the basic principle, one is the relation between superconductivity and the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC), and another is the relation between superconductivity and pseudogap.

  6. Basic concepts in social sciences II

    OpenAIRE

    Hoede, C.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper an extension is given of the set of concepts considered to be basic to the fields of Economics, Organization Theory, Political Science, Psychology and Sociology. The modeling is in terms of automata and automata networks. In the first paper on basic concepts the simplest unit, the social atom, stood central. In this second paper social structures and processes are focused upon.

  7. Gastric cancer: basic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, Carlos; Thiel, Alexandra; Machado, José C; Ristimäki, Ari

    2011-09-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is a world health burden, ranging as the second cause of cancer death worldwide. Etiologically, GC arises not only from the combined effects of environmental factors and susceptible genetic variants but also from the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations. In the last years, molecular oncobiology studies brought to light a number of genes that are implicated in gastric carcinogenesis. This review is intended to focus on the recently described basic aspects that play key roles in the process of gastric carcinogenesis. Genetic variants of the genes IL-10, IL-17, MUC1, MUC6, DNMT3B, SMAD4, and SERPINE1 have been reported to modify the risk of developing GC. Several genes have been newly associated with gastric carcinogenesis, both through oncogenic activation (GSK3β, CD133, DSC2, P-Cadherin, CDH17, CD168, CD44, metalloproteinases MMP7 and MMP11, and a subset of miRNAs) and through tumor suppressor gene inactivation mechanisms (TFF1, PDX1, BCL2L10, XRCC, psiTPTE-HERV, HAI-2, GRIK2, and RUNX3). It also addressed the role of the inflammatory mediator cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the process of gastric carcinogenesis and its importance as a potential molecular target for therapy.

  8. Reduction of the radiating sound of a submerged finite cylindrical shell structure by active vibration control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heung Soo; Sohn, Jung Woo; Jeon, Juncheol; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2013-02-06

    In this work, active vibration control of an underwater cylindrical shell structure was investigated, to suppress structural vibration and structure-borne noise in water. Finite element modeling of the submerged cylindrical shell structure was developed, and experimentally evaluated. Modal reduction was conducted to obtain the reduced system equation for the active feedback control algorithm. Three Macro Fiber Composites (MFCs) were used as actuators and sensors. One MFC was used as an exciter. The optimum control algorithm was designed based on the reduced system equations. The active control performance was then evaluated using the lab scale underwater cylindrical shell structure. Structural vibration and structure-borne noise of the underwater cylindrical shell structure were reduced significantly by activating the optimal controller associated with the MFC actuators. The results provide that active vibration control of the underwater structure is a useful means to reduce structure-borne noise in water.

  9. Reduction of the Radiating Sound of a Submerged Finite Cylindrical Shell Structure by Active Vibration Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Bok Choi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, active vibration control of an underwater cylindrical shell structure was investigated, to suppress structural vibration and structure-borne noise in water. Finite element modeling of the submerged cylindrical shell structure was developed, and experimentally evaluated. Modal reduction was conducted to obtain the reduced system equation for the active feedback control algorithm. Three Macro Fiber Composites (MFCs were used as actuators and sensors. One MFC was used as an exciter. The optimum control algorithm was designed based on the reduced system equations. The active control performance was then evaluated using the lab scale underwater cylindrical shell structure. Structural vibration and structure-borne noise of the underwater cylindrical shell structure were reduced significantly by activating the optimal controller associated with the MFC actuators. The results provide that active vibration control of the underwater structure is a useful means to reduce structure-borne noise in water.

  10. Synthesis, antifungal activity and structure-activity relationships of vanillin oxime-N-O-alkanoates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Vivek; Garg, Nandini; Kumar, Birendra; Walia, Suresh; Sati, Om P

    2012-12-01

    Vanillin oxime-N-O-alkanoates were synthesized following reaction of vanillin with hydroxylamine hydrochloride, followed by reaction of the resultant oxime with acyl chlorides. The structures of the compounds were confirmed by IR, 1H, 13C NMR and mass spectral data. The test compounds were evaluated for their in vitro antifungal activity against three phytopathogenic fungi Macrophomina phaseolina, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium rolfsii by the poisoned food technique. The moderate antifungal activity of vanillin was slightly increased following its conversion to vanillin oxime, but significantly increased after conversion of the oxime to oxime-N-O-alkanoates. While vanillin oxime-N-O-dodecanoate with an EC50 value 73.1 microg/mL was most active against M. phaseolina, vanillin oxime-N-O-nonanoate with EC50 of value 66.7 microg/mL was most active against R. solani. The activity increased with increases in the acyl chain length and was maximal with an acyl chain length of nine carbons.

  11. Relationship structure-antioxidant activity of hindered phenolic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weng, X. C.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the structure and the antioxidant activity of 21 hindered phenolic compounds was investigated by Rancimat and DPPH· tests. 3-tert-butyl-5-methylbenzene-1,2-diol is the strongest antioxidant in the Rancimat test but not in the DPPH· test because its two hydroxyl groups have very strong steric synergy. 2,6-Ditert-butyl-4-hydroxy-methylphenol exhibits a strong antioxidant activity as 2,6-ditertbutyl- 4-methoxyphenol does in lard. 2,6-Ditert-butyl-4- hydroxy-methylphenol also exhibits stronger activity than 2-tert-butyl-4- methoxyphenol. The methylene of 2,6-ditert-butyl-4-hydroxy-methylphenol can provide a hydrogen atom to active free radicals like a phenolic hydroxyl group does because it is greatly activated by both the aromatic ring and hydroxyl group. Five factors affect the antioxidant activities of the phenolic compounds: how stable the phenolic compound free radicals are after providing hydrogen atoms; how many hy drogen atoms each of the phenolic compounds can provide; how fast the phenolic compounds provide hydrogen atoms; how easily the phenolic compound free radicals can combine with more active free radicals, and whether or not a new antioxidant can form after the phenolic compound provides hydrogen atoms.La relación entre estructura y la actividad antioxidante de 21 compuestos fenólicos con impedimentos estéricos fue investigado mediante ensayos con Rancimat y DPPH·. El 3-terc-butil-5-metilbenceno-1,2-diol es el antioxidante más potente en los ensayos mediante Rancimat pero no mediante ensayos con DPPH·, porque sus dos grupos hidroxilo tienen una fuerte sinergia estérica. El 2,6-Di-terc-butil-4-hidroxi-metil-fenol mostró una actividad antioxidante tan fuerte como el 2,6-di-ter-butil-4-metoxifenol en ensayos con manteca de cerdo. El 2,6-di-terc-butil-4-hidroxi-metilfenol también mostró una actividad más fuerte que el 2-terc-butil-4-metoxifenol. El grupo metileno del 2,6-di-ter-butil-4-hidroxi

  12. Exploring the active site structure of photoreceptor proteins by Raman optical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unno, Masashi

    2015-03-01

    Understanding protein function at the atomic level is a major challenge in a field of biophysics and requires the combined efforts of structural and functional methods. We use photoreceptor proteins as a model system to understand in atomic detail how a chromophore and a protein interact to sense light and send a biological signal. A potential technique for investigating molecular structures is Raman optical activity (ROA), which is a spectroscopic method with a high sensitivity to the structural details of chiral molecules. However, its application to photoreceptor proteins has not been reported. Thus we have constructed ROA spectrometer using near-infrared (NIR) laser excitation at 785 nm. The NIR excitation enables us to measure ROA spectra for a variety of biological samples, including photoreceptor proteins, without fluorescence from the samples. In the present study, we have applied the NIR-ROA to bacteriorhodopsin (BR) and photoactive yellow protein (PYP). BR is a light-driven proton pump and contains a protonated Schiff base of retinal as a chromophore. PYP is a blue light receptor, and this protein has the 4-hydroxycinnamyl chromophore, which is covalently linked to Cys69 through a thiolester bond. We have successfully obtained the ROA spectra of the chromophore within a protein environment. Furthermore, calculations of the ROA spectra utilizing density functional theory provide detailed structural information, such as data on out-of-plane distortions of the chromophore. The structural information obtained from the ROA spectra includes the positions of hydrogen atoms, which are usually not detected in the crystal structures of biological samples.

  13. Derivatives of Ergot-alkaloids: Molecular structure, physical properties, and structure-activity relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Bojidarka B.; Spiteller, Michael

    2012-09-01

    A comprehensive screening of fifteen functionalized Ergot-alkaloids, containing bulk aliphatic cyclic substituents at D-ring of the ergoline molecular skeleton was performed, studying their structure-active relationships and model interactions with α2A-adreno-, serotonin (5HT2A) and dopamine D3 (D3A) receptors. The accounted high affinity to the receptors binding loops and unusual bonding situations, joined with the molecular flexibility of the substituents and the presence of proton accepting/donating functional groups in the studied alkaloids, may contribute to further understanding the mechanisms of biological activity in vivo and in predicting their therapeutic potential in central nervous system (CNS), including those related the Schizophrenia. Since the presented correlation between the molecular structure and properties, was based on the comprehensively theoretical computational and experimental physical study on the successfully isolated derivatives, through using routine synthetic pathways in a relatively high yields, marked these derivatives as 'treasure' for further experimental and theoretical studied in areas such as: (a) pharmacological and clinical testing; (b) molecular-drugs design of novel psychoactive substances; (c) development of the analytical protocols for determination of Ergot-alkaloids through a functionalization of the ergoline-skeleton, and more.

  14. UV-Vis spectroscopy of tyrosine side-groups in studies of protein structure. Part 1: basic principles and properties of tyrosine chromophore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antosiewicz, Jan M; Shugar, David

    Spectroscopic properties of tyrosine residues may be employed in structural studies of proteins. Here we discuss several different types of UV-Vis spectroscopy, like normal, difference and second-derivative UV absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, linear and circular dichroism spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy, and corresponding optical properties of the tyrosine chromophore, phenol, which are used to study protein structure.

  15. Structure-activity relationship of nerve-highlighting fluorophores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Summer L Gibbs

    Full Text Available Nerve damage is a major morbidity associated with numerous surgical interventions. Yet, nerve visualization continues to challenge even the most experienced surgeons. A nerve-specific fluorescent contrast agent, especially one with near-infrared (NIR absorption and emission, would be of immediate benefit to patients and surgeons. Currently, there are only three classes of small molecule organic fluorophores that penetrate the blood nerve barrier and bind to nerve tissue when administered systemically. Of these three classes, the distyrylbenzenes (DSBs are particularly attractive for further study. Although not presently in the NIR range, DSB fluorophores highlight all nerve tissue in mice, rats, and pigs after intravenous administration. The purpose of the current study was to define the pharmacophore responsible for nerve-specific uptake and retention, which would enable future molecules to be optimized for NIR optical properties. Structural analogs of the DSB class of small molecules were synthesized using combinatorial solid phase synthesis and commercially available building blocks, which yielded more than 200 unique DSB fluorophores. The nerve-specific properties of all DSB analogs were quantified using an ex vivo nerve-specific fluorescence assay on pig and human sciatic nerve. Results were used to perform quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR modeling and to define the nerve-specific pharmacophore. All DSB analogs with positive ex vivo fluorescence were tested for in vivo nerve specificity in mice to assess the effect of biodistribution and clearance on nerve fluorescence signal. Two new DSB fluorophores with the highest nerve to muscle ratio were tested in pigs to confirm scalability.

  16. Structural basis of specific inhibition of tissue-type plasminogen activator by plasminogen activators inhibitor-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihu Gong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Thrombosis is a leading cause of death worldwide [1]. Recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA is the FDA-approved thrombolytic drug for ischemic strokes, myocardial infarction and pulmonary embolism. tPA is a multi-domain serine protease of the trypsin-family [2] and catalyses the critical step in fibrinolysis [3], converting the zymogen plasminogen to the active serine protease plasmin, which degrades the fibrin network of thrombi and blood clots. tPA is rapidly inactivated by endogenous plasminogen activators inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 [4] (Fig. 1. Engineering on tPA to reduce its inhibition by PAI-1 without compromising its thrombolytic effect is a continuous effort [5]. Tenecteplase (TNK-tPA is a newer generation of tPA variant showing slower inhibition by PAI-1 [6]. Extensive studies to understand the molecular interactions between tPA and PAI-1 have been carried out [7–18], however, the precise details at atomic resolution remain unknown. We report the crystal structure of tPA·PAI-1 complex here. The methods required to achieve these data include: (1 recombinant expression and purification of a PAI-1 variant (14-1B containing four mutations (N150H, K154T, Q319L, and M354I, and a tPA serine protease domain (tPA-SPD variant with three mutations (C122A, N173Q, and S195A, in the chymotrypsin numbering [19]; (2 formation of a tPA-SPD·PAI-1 Michaëlis complex in vitro [19]; and (3 solving the three-dimensional structure for this complex by X-ray crystallography [deposited in the PDB database as 5BRR]. The data explain the specificity of PAI-1 for tPA and uPA [19,20], and provide structural basis to design newer generation of PAI-1-resistant tPA variants as thrombolytic agents [19].

  17. Basic stress analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Iremonger, M J

    1982-01-01

    BASIC Stress Analysis aims to help students to become proficient at BASIC programming by actually using it in an important engineering subject. It also enables the student to use computing as a means of learning stress analysis because writing a program is analogous to teaching-it is necessary to understand the subject matter. The book begins by introducing the BASIC approach and the concept of stress analysis at first- and second-year undergraduate level. Subsequent chapters contain a summary of relevant theory, worked examples containing computer programs, and a set of problems. Topics c

  18. Quantum electronics basic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Fain, V M; Sanders, J H

    1969-01-01

    Quantum Electronics, Volume 1: Basic Theory is a condensed and generalized description of the many research and rapid progress done on the subject. It is translated from the Russian language. The volume describes the basic theory of quantum electronics, and shows how the concepts and equations followed in quantum electronics arise from the basic principles of theoretical physics. The book then briefly discusses the interaction of an electromagnetic field with matter. The text also covers the quantum theory of relaxation process when a quantum system approaches an equilibrium state, and explai

  19. Structure activity relationship of dendrimer microbicides with dual action antiviral activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Tyssen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Topical microbicides, used by women to prevent the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections are urgently required. Dendrimers are highly branched nanoparticles being developed as microbicides. However, the anti-HIV and HSV structure-activity relationship of dendrimers comprising benzyhydryl amide cores and lysine branches, and a comprehensive analysis of their broad-spectrum anti-HIV activity and mechanism of action have not been published. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Dendrimers with optimized activity against HIV-1 and HSV-2 were identified with respect to the number of lysine branches (generations and surface groups. Antiviral activity was determined in cell culture assays. Time-of-addition assays were performed to determine dendrimer mechanism of action. In vivo toxicity and HSV-2 inhibitory activity were evaluated in the mouse HSV-2 susceptibility model. Surface groups imparting the most potent inhibitory activity against HIV-1 and HSV-2 were naphthalene disulfonic acid (DNAA and 3,5-disulfobenzoic acid exhibiting the greatest anionic charge and hydrophobicity of the seven surface groups tested. Their anti-HIV-1 activity did not appreciably increase beyond a second-generation dendrimer while dendrimers larger than two generations were required for potent anti-HSV-2 activity. Second (SPL7115 and fourth generation (SPL7013 DNAA dendrimers demonstrated broad-spectrum anti-HIV activity. However, SPL7013 was more active against HSV and blocking HIV-1 envelope mediated cell-to-cell fusion. SPL7013 and SPL7115 inhibited viral entry with similar potency against CXCR4-(X4 and CCR5-using (R5 HIV-1 strains. SPL7013 was not toxic and provided at least 12 h protection against HSV-2 in the mouse vagina. CONCLUSIONS: Dendrimers can be engineered with optimized potency against HIV and HSV representing a unique platform for the controlled synthesis of chemically defined multivalent agents as viral entry inhibitors. SPL7013 is

  20. Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Insecticidal Activity of the Optical Active Neonicotinoid Analogues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Sijia; Bu Hongfei; Liu Li; Xu Xiao; Ma Xubo

    2011-01-01

    Eight novel neonicotinoid analogues 1-(2-tetrahydrofurfuryl)-5-substituted-1,3,5-hexahydrotriazine-2-N-ni-troimines 3a-3h were synthesized, and their structures were characterized by 1H NMR, IR and elemental analysis. The stereostructure of 3a was determined by the single-crystal X-ray analysis, which exhibits a half-chair conformation and dihedral angle is 49.70°. The preliminary bioassay tests showed that all the title compounds exhibited good insecticide activities against Nilaparvata legen (N. legen).

  1. Low concentration of silver nanoparticles not only enhances the activity of horseradish peroxidase but alter the structure also.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Zoheb; Adnan, Rohana; Ansari, Mohd Saquib

    2012-01-01

    Chemical synthesis of Ag-NPs was carried out using reduction method. The reduction mechanistic approach of silver ions was found to be a basic clue for the formation of the Ag-NPs. The nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis, FT-IR and TEM analysis. We had designed some experiments in support of our hypothesis, "low concentrations of novel nanoparticles (silver and gold) increases the activity of plant peroxidases and alter their structure also", we had used Ag-NPs and HRP as models. The immobilization/interaction experiment had demonstrated the specific concentration range of the Ag-NPs and within this range, an increase in HRP activity was reported. At 0.08 mM concentration of Ag-NPs, 50% increase in the activity yield was found. The U.V-vis spectra had demonstrated the increase in the absorbance of HRP within the reported concentration range (0.06-0.12 mM). Above and below this concentration range there was a decrease in the activity of HRP. The results that we had found from the fluorescence spectra were also in favor of our hypothesis. There was a maximum increase in ellipticity and α-helix contents in the presence of 0.08 mM concentration of Ag-NPs, demonstrated by circular dichroism (CD) spectra. Finally, incubation of a plant peroxidase, HRP with Ag-NPs, within the reported concentration range not only enhances the activity but also alter the structure.

  2. Synthesis, structure characterization and catalytic activity of nickel tungstate nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourmortazavi, Seied Mahdi; Rahimi-Nasrabadi, Mehdi; Khalilian-Shalamzari, Morteza; Zahedi, Mir Mahdi; Hajimirsadeghi, Seiedeh Somayyeh; Omrani, Ismail

    2012-12-01

    Taguchi robust design was applied to optimize experimental parameters for controllable, simple and fast synthesis of nickel tungstate nanoparticles. NiWO4 nanoparticles were synthesized by precipitation reaction involving addition of nickel ion solution to the tungstate aqueous reagent and then formation of nickel tungstate nucleolus which are insoluble in aqueous media. Effects of various parameters such as nickel and tungstate concentrations, flow rate of reagent addition and reactor temperature on diameter of synthesized nickel tungstate nanoparticles were investigated experimentally by the aid of orthogonal array design. The results for analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that particle size of nickel tungstate can be effectively tuned by controlling significant variables involving nickel and tungstate concentrations and flow rate; while, temperature of the reactor has a no considerable effect on the size of NiWO4 particles. The ANOVA results proposed the optimum conditions for synthesis of nickel tungstate nanoparticles via this technique. Also, under optimum condition nanoparticles of NiWO4 were prepared and their structure and chemical composition were characterized by means of EDAX, XRD, SEM, FT-IR spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, and photoluminescence. Finally, catalytic activity of the nanoparticles in a cycloaddition reaction was examined.

  3. Behaviour of oscillations in loop structures above active regions

    CERN Document Server

    Kolobov, D Y; Chelpanov, A A; Kochanov, A A; Anfinogentov, S A; Chupin, S A; Myshyakov, I I; Tomin, V E

    2015-01-01

    In this study we combine the multiwavelength ultraviolet -- optical (Solar Dynamics Observatory, SDO) and radio (Nobeyama Radioheliograph, NoRH) observations to get further insight into space-frequency distribution of oscillations at different atmospheric levels of the Sun. We processed the observational data on NOAA 11711 active region and found oscillations propagating from the photospheric level through the transition region upward into the corona. The power maps of low-frequency (1--2 mHz) oscillations reproduce well the fan-like coronal structures visible in the Fe ix 171A line. High frequency oscillations (5--7 mHz) propagate along the vertical magnetic field lines and concentrate inside small-scale elements in the umbra and at the umbra-penumbra boundary. We investigated the dependence of the dominant oscillation frequency upon the distance from the sunspot barycentre to estimate inclination of magnetic tubes in higher levels of sunspots where it cannot be measured directly, and found that this angle i...

  4. Review of Quantitative Structure - Activity Relationships for Acute Mammalian Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iglika Lessigiarska

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR models for acute mammalian toxicity published in the last decade. A number of QSAR models based on cytotoxicity data from mammalian cell lines are also included because of their possible use as a surrogate system for predicting acute toxicity to mammals. On the basis of the review, the following conclusions can be made: i a relatively small number of models for in vivo toxicity are published in the literature. This is due to the nature of the endpoint - acute systemic toxicity is usually related to whole body phenomena and therefore is very complex. The complexity of the mechanisms involved leads to difficulties in the QSAR modelling; ii most QSAR models identify hydrophobicity as a parameter of high importance for the modelled toxicity. In addition, many models indicate the role of the electronic and steric effects; iii most of the literature-based models are restricted to single chemical classes. Models based on more heterogeneous data sets are those incorporated in expert systems. In general, the QSAR models for mammalian toxicity identified in this review are considered useful for investigating the mechanisms of toxicity of defined chemical classes. However, for predictive purposes in the regulatory assessment of chemicals most of the models require additional information to satisfy internationally agreed validation principles. In addition, the development of new models covering larger chemical domains would be useful for the regulatory assessment of chemicals.

  5. Design Method of Active Disturbance Rejection Variable Structure Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-jie Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on lines cluster approaching theory and inspired by the traditional exponent reaching law method, a new control method, lines cluster approaching mode control (LCAMC method, is designed to improve the parameter simplicity and structure optimization of the control system. The design guidelines and mathematical proofs are also given. To further improve the tracking performance and the inhibition of the white noise, connect the active disturbance rejection control (ADRC method with the LCAMC method and create the extended state observer based lines cluster approaching mode control (ESO-LCAMC method. Taking traditional servo control system as example, two control schemes are constructed and two kinds of comparison are carried out. Computer simulation results show that LCAMC method, having better tracking performance than the traditional sliding mode control (SMC system, makes the servo system track command signal quickly and accurately in spite of the persistent equivalent disturbances and ESO-LCAMC method further reduces the tracking error and filters the white noise added on the system states. Simulation results verify the robust property and comprehensive performance of control schemes.

  6. Structure-activity relationships in carbohydrates revealed by their hydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maugeri, Laura; Busch, Sebastian; McLain, Sylvia E; Pardo, Luis Carlos; Bruni, Fabio; Ricci, Maria Antonietta

    2016-12-21

    One of the more intriguing aspects of carbohydrate chemistry is that despite having very similar molecular structures, sugars have very different properties. For instance, there is a sensible difference in sweet taste between glucose and trehalose, even though trehalose is a disaccharide that comprised two glucose units, suggesting a different ability of these two carbohydrates to bind to sweet receptors. Here we have looked at the hydration of specific sites and at the three-dimensional configuration of water molecules around three carbohydrates (glucose, cellobiose, and trehalose), combining neutron diffraction data with computer modelling. Results indicate that identical chemical groups can have radically different hydration patterns depending on their location on a given molecule. These differences can be linked with the specific activity of glucose, cellobiose, and trehalose as a sweet substance, as building block of cellulose fiber, and as a bioprotective agent, respectively. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Recent Advances in Bionanomaterials" Guest Editors: Dr. Marie-Louise Saboungi and Dr. Samuel D. Bader.

  7. Structure activity relationships to assess new chemicals under TSCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auletta, A.E. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    Under Section 5 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), manufacturers must notify the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 90 days before manufacturing, processing, or importing a new chemical substance. This is referred to as a premanufacture notice (PMN). The PMN must contain certain information including chemical identity, production volume, proposed uses, estimates of exposure and release, and any health or environmental test data that are available to the submitter. Because there is no explicit statutory authority that requires testing of new chemicals prior to their entry into the market, most PMNs are submitted with little or no data. As a result, EPA has developed special techniques for hazard assessment of PMN chemicals. These include (1) evaluation of available data on the chemical itself, (2) evaluation of data on analogues of the PMN, or evaluation of data on metabolites or analogues of metabolites of the PMN, (3) use of quantitative structure activity relationships (QSARs), and (4) knowledge and judgement of scientific assessors in the interpretation and integration of the information developed in the course of the assessment. This approach to evaluating potential hazards of new chemicals is used to identify those that are most in need of addition review of further testing. It should not be viewed as a replacement for testing. 4 tabs.

  8. Video Screen Capture Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This article is an introduction to video screen capture. Basic information of two software programs, QuickTime for Mac and BlueBerry Flashback Express for PC, are also discussed. Practical applications for video screen capture are given.

  9. HIV Treatment: The Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV Treatment HIV Treatment: The Basics (Last updated 2/24/2017; last reviewed 2/24/2017) Key Points Antiretroviral therapy (ART) ... reduces the risk of HIV transmission . How do HIV medicines work? HIV attacks and destroys the infection- ...

  10. Kidney Disease Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Take the first step Alternate Language URL Kidney Disease Basics Page Content Your kidneys filter extra ... blood pressure are the most common causes of kidney disease. ​These conditions can slowly damage the kidneys ...

  11. Health Literacy Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions. 1 Health literacy is dependent on individual and systemic factors: Communication skills of lay persons and professionals Lay and professional ...

  12. Basic Financial Accounting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiborg, Karsten

    This textbook on Basic Financial Accounting is targeted students in the economics studies at universities and business colleges having an introductory subject in the external dimension of the company's economic reporting, including bookkeeping, etc. The book includes the following subjects...

  13. Multistage A-O Activated Sludge Process for Paraformaldehyde Wastewater Treatment and Microbial Community Structure Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danyang Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the effect of formaldehyde on microorganisms and body had become a global public health issue. The multistage combination of anaerobic and aerobic process was adopted to treat paraformaldehyde wastewater. Microbial community structure in different reaction stages was analyzed through high-throughput sequencing. Results showed that multistage A-O activated sludge process positively influenced polyformaldehyde wastewater. The removal rates of formaldehyde were basically stable at more than 99% and those of COD were about 89%. Analysis of the microbial diversity index indicated that the microbial diversity of the reactor was high, and the treatment effect was good. Moreover, microbial community had certain similarity in the same system. Microbial communities in different units also showed typical representative characteristics affected by working conditions and influent concentrations. Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes were the dominant fungal genera in the phylum level of community composition. As to family and genus levels, Peptostreptococcaceae was distributed at various stages and the dominant in this system. This bacterium also played an important role in organic matter removal, particularly decomposition of the acidified middle metabolites. In addition, Rhodobacteraceae and Rhodocyclaceae were the formaldehyde-degrading bacteria found in the reactor.

  14. Predicting Cell Association of Surface-Modified Nanoparticles Using Protein Corona Structure - Activity Relationships (PCSAR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Padmaja; Fernandez, Alberto; Giralt, Francesc; Rallo, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles are likely to interact in real-case application scenarios with mixtures of proteins and biomolecules that will absorb onto their surface forming the so-called protein corona. Information related to the composition of the protein corona and net cell association was collected from literature for a library of surface-modified gold and silver nanoparticles. For each protein in the corona, sequence information was extracted and used to calculate physicochemical properties and statistical descriptors. Data cleaning and preprocessing techniques including statistical analysis and feature selection methods were applied to remove highly correlated, redundant and non-significant features. A weighting technique was applied to construct specific signatures that represent the corona composition for each nanoparticle. Using this basic set of protein descriptors, a new Protein Corona Structure-Activity Relationship (PCSAR) that relates net cell association with the physicochemical descriptors of the proteins that form the corona was developed and validated. The features that resulted from the feature selection were in line with already published literature, and the computational model constructed on these features had a good accuracy (R(2)LOO=0.76 and R(2)LMO(25%)=0.72) and stability, with the advantage that the fingerprints based on physicochemical descriptors were independent of the specific proteins that form the corona.

  15. Basic Concurrency Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvengreen, Hans Henrik

    2002-01-01

    In this set of notes, we present some of the basic theory underlying the discipline of programming with concurrent processes/threads. The notes are intended to supplement a standard textbook on concurrent programming.......In this set of notes, we present some of the basic theory underlying the discipline of programming with concurrent processes/threads. The notes are intended to supplement a standard textbook on concurrent programming....

  16. Basic features of low-temperature plasma formation in the course of composite coating synthesis at the active faces of complex contoured hard tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzhozovsky, B. M.; Zimnyakov, D. A.; Zinina, E. P.; Martynov, V. V.; Pleshakova, E. S.; Yuvchenko, S. A.

    2016-04-01

    Basic features of combined-discharge low-temperature plasma formation around the surfaces of complex-contoured metal units are considered. It is shown that it makes the possibilities for synthesis of hardened high-durable coatings of hard tools appropriate for material processing in extreme load-temperature conditions. Experimental study of the coating formation was carried out in combination with the analysis of emission spectra of a low-temperature plasma cloud. Some practical examples of the coating applications are presented.

  17. Collapse-type shrinkage characteristics in plantation-grown eucalypts: I . Correlations of basic density and some structural indices with shrinkage and collapse properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WUYi-qiang; HAYASHIKazuo; LIUYuan; CAIYing-chun; SUGIMORIMasatoshi; LUOJian-ju

    2005-01-01

    Collapse-type shrinkage is one of highly refractory drying defects in low-medium density plantation-grown eucalypt wood used as solid wood products. Basic density (BD), microfibril angle (MFA), double fibre cell wall thickness (DWT), proportion of ray parenchyma (RP), unit cell wall shrinkage, total shrinkage and residual collapse, which are associated with collapse-type shrinkage characteristics, were investigated by using simple regression method for three species of collapse-susceptible Eucalyptus urophyll, E. grandis and E.urophyllaxE.grandis, planted at Dong-Men Forest Farm in Guangxi autonomous region, China. The results indicated that : unit cell wall shrinkage had a extremely strong positive correlation with BD, moderately strong positive correlation with DWT, and a weakly or moderately negative correlation with RP and MFA; total shrinkage was positively correlated with BD, DWT and RP and negatively related to MFA, but not able to be predicted ideally by any examined factors alone owing to lower R2 value (R2≤0.5712); residual collapse was negatively correlated with BD and DWT, linearly positively correlated with MFA, and had strongly positive linear correlation with RP. It is concluded that BD can be used as single factor (R2≥0.9412) to predicate unit cell wall shrinkage and RP is the relatively sound indicator for predicting residual collapse

  18. ABC's of Higher Education. Getting Back to the Basics: An Activity-Based Costing Approach to Planning and Financial Decision Making. AIR 1999 Annual Forum Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Kelline S.; Downey, Ronald G.; Smith, Laurinda G.

    This paper describes the activity-based costing approach used to report and capture the time spent by faculty for specified activities at one Midwestern university. For each department, four major areas (instruction, research, public service, and administration) and 14 activities were identified. During the annual goal-setting period, each faculty…

  19. Health insurance basic actuarial models

    CERN Document Server

    Pitacco, Ermanno

    2014-01-01

    Health Insurance aims at filling a gap in actuarial literature, attempting to solve the frequent misunderstanding in regards to both the purpose and the contents of health insurance products (and ‘protection products’, more generally) on the one hand, and the relevant actuarial structures on the other. In order to cover the basic principles regarding health insurance techniques, the first few chapters in this book are mainly devoted to the need for health insurance and a description of insurance products in this area (sickness insurance, accident insurance, critical illness covers, income protection, long-term care insurance, health-related benefits as riders to life insurance policies). An introduction to general actuarial and risk-management issues follows. Basic actuarial models are presented for sickness insurance and income protection (i.e. disability annuities). Several numerical examples help the reader understand the main features of pricing and reserving in the health insurance area. A short int...

  20. Positron emission tomography basic sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Townsend, D W; Valk, P E; Maisey, M N

    2003-01-01

    Essential for students, science and medical graduates who want to understand the basic science of Positron Emission Tomography (PET), this book describes the physics, chemistry, technology and overview of the clinical uses behind the science of PET and the imaging techniques it uses. In recent years, PET has moved from high-end research imaging tool used by the highly specialized to an essential component of clinical evaluation in the clinic, especially in cancer management. Previously being the realm of scientists, this book explains PET instrumentation, radiochemistry, PET data acquisition and image formation, integration of structural and functional images, radiation dosimetry and protection, and applications in dedicated areas such as drug development, oncology, and gene expression imaging. The technologist, the science, engineering or chemistry graduate seeking further detailed information about PET, or the medical advanced trainee wishing to gain insight into the basic science of PET will find this book...

  1. Structural aging program -- a summary of activities, results, and conclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Ellingwood, B.R. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)] [and others

    1997-01-01

    Research has been conducted by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to address aging management of nuclear power plant concrete structures. The purpose was to identify potential structural safety issues and acceptance criteria for use in continued service assessments. Primary program accomplishments have included formulation of a Structural Materials Information Center that contains data and information on the time variation of material properties under the influence of pertinent environmental stressors and aging factors for 144 materials, an aging assessment methodology to identify critical structures and degradation factors that can potentially impact their performance, guidelines and evaluation criteria for use in condition assessments of reinforced concrete structures, and a reliability-based methodology for current condition assessments and estimations of future performance of reinforced concrete nuclear power plant structures. In addition, the Structural Aging Program conducted in-depth evaluations of several nondestructive evaluation and repair-related technologies to develop guidance on their applicability.

  2. Anti-proliferative activities of terpenoids isolated from Alisma orientalis and their structure-activity relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wen; Li, Ting; Qiu, Jian-Fang; Wu, Shui-Sheng; Huang, Ming-Qing; Lin, Li-Gen; Zhang, Qing-Wen; Chen, Xiu-Ping; Lu, Jin-Jian

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to isolate terpenoids from Alisma orientalis (Sam.) Juzep. and elucidate their antiproliferative activities, as well as structure-activity relationships. Fourteen protostane-type triterpenoids were isolated from the rhizome of A. orientalis. Among these triterpenoids, alisol A (1), alisol A 24-acetate (2), alisol B (3), alisol B 23-acetate (4), and alisol G (8) presented inhibitory effects on cancer cell lines tested. Compounds 3 and 4 showed the highest potential; IC50 values for HepG2, MDA-MB-231, and MCF-7 cells were 16.28, 14.47, and 6.66 μM for 3 and 18.01, 15.97, and 13.56 μM for 4, respectively. Based on these results, we concluded that the degree of C-16 oxidation and the double bond between C-13 and C-17 may be significant in anti-proliferative activities. Further study showed that 3 and 4 effectively induced apoptosis, as confirmed by flow cytometry. Increased intracellular calcium concentration and endoplasmic reticulum stress were detected after treatment with 4 in HepG2 cells. Although compounds 1 and 2 induced minimal apoptosis, they evidently delayed the G2/M phase in HepG2 cells. Further study showed that 1-4 also enhanced LC3II expression, indicating autophagy is occured.

  3. Molecular models of the Mojave rattlesnake (Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus) venom metalloproteinases reveal a structural basis for differences in hemorrhagic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagda, Ruben K; Gasanov, Sardar E; Zhang, Boris; Welch, William; Rael, Eppie D

    2014-03-01

    Rattlesnake venom can differ in composition and in metalloproteinase-associated activities. The molecular basis for this intra-species variation in Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus (Mojave rattlesnake) remains an enigma. To understand the molecular basis for intra-species variation of metalloproteinase-associated activities, we modeled the three-dimensional structures of four metalloproteinases based on the amino acid sequence of four variations of the proteinase domain of the C. s. scutulatus metalloproteinase gene (GP1, GP2, GP3, and GP4). For comparative purposes, we modeled the atrolysin metalloproteinases of C. atrox as well. All molecular models shared the same topology. While the atrolysin metalloproteinase molecular models contained highly conserved substrate binding sites, the Mojave rattlesnake metalloproteinases showed higher structural divergence when superimposed onto each other. The highest structural divergence among the four C. s. scutulatus molecular models was located at the northern cleft wall and the S'1-pocket of the substrate binding site, molecular regions that modulate substrate selectivity. Molecular dynamics and field potential maps for each C. s. scutulatus metalloproteinase model demonstrated that the non-hemorrhagic metalloproteinases (GP2 and GP3) contain highly basic molecular and field potential surfaces while the hemorrhagic metalloproteinases GP1 and atrolysin C showed extensive acidic field potential maps and shallow but less dynamic active site pockets. Hence, differences in the spatial arrangement of the northern cleft wall, the S'1-pocket, and the physico-chemical environment surrounding the catalytic site contribute to differences in metalloproteinase activities in the Mojave rattlesnake. Our results provide a structural basis for variation of metalloproteinase-associated activities in the rattlesnake venom of the Mojave rattlesnake.

  4. Crystal Structures and Antimicrobial Activity of Two Phosphorus Compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    One phosphorus heterocycle compound 1, C13H13N2OPS, was synthesized by the reaction of Lawesson's reagent (LR) with o-phenylene diamine. The crystal belongs to the orthorhombic system, space group P212121 with a = 5.5274(11), b = 8.1603(16), c = 28.830(6) (A), V =1300.4(4) (A)3, Z = 4, Mr= 276.28, Dc = 1.411 g/cm3, F(000) = 576,μ = 0.360 mm-1, R = 0.0259 and wR = 0.0652 for 1414 observed reflections with I > 2σ(I). While compound 2, C14H17N2O2PS, was obtained as a ring-cleavage product of compound 1. This crystal is of monoclinic system, space group P21/c with a = 9.5619(19), b = 21.879(4), c = 7.3618(15) (A), β= 103.03(3)°, V=1500.4(5) (A)3,Z = 4, Mr= 308.33, Dc = 1.365 g/cm3, F(000) = 648, μ = 0.325 mm-1, R = 0.0383 and wR =0.0742for 2283 observed reflections with I > 2σ(I). Phosphorus atom in each compound bonds with sulfur and carbon atoms using sp3 hybrid orbitals, and crystals of these two compounds are formed and stabilized by intermolecular hydrogen bonds and Van der Waals' forces. The special structure of compound 1 leads to its good antimicrobial activity against staphylococcus aureus.

  5. Structural basis of specific inhibition of tissue-type plasminogen activator by plasminogen activators inhibitor-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Lihu; Liu, Min; Zeng, Tu; Shi, Xiaoli; Yuan, Cai; Andreasen, Peter A.; Huang, Mingdong

    2016-01-01

    Thrombosis is a leading cause of death worldwide [1]. Recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) is the FDA-approved thrombolytic drug for ischemic strokes, myocardial infarction and pulmonary embolism. tPA is a multi-domain serine protease of the trypsin-family [2] and catalyses the critical step in fibrinolysis [3], converting the zymogen plasminogen to the active serine protease plasmin, which degrades the fibrin network of thrombi and blood clots. tPA is rapidly inactivated by endogenous plasminogen activators inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) [4] (Fig. 1). Engineering on tPA to reduce its inhibition by PAI-1 without compromising its thrombolytic effect is a continuous effort [5]. Tenecteplase (TNK-tPA) is a newer generation of tPA variant showing slower inhibition by PAI-1 [6]. Extensive studies to understand the molecular interactions between tPA and PAI-1 have been carried out [7], [8], [9], [10], [11], [12], [13], [14], [15], [16], [17], [18], however, the precise details at atomic resolution remain unknown. We report the crystal structure of tPA·PAI-1 complex here. The methods required to achieve these data include: (1) recombinant expression and purification of a PAI-1 variant (14-1B) containing four mutations (N150H, K154T, Q319L, and M354I), and a tPA serine protease domain (tPA-SPD) variant with three mutations (C122A, N173Q, and S195A, in the chymotrypsin numbering) [19]; (2) formation of a tPA-SPD·PAI-1 Michaëlis complex in vitro [19]; and (3) solving the three-dimensional structure for this complex by X-ray crystallography [deposited in the PDB database as 5BRR]. The data explain the specificity of PAI-1 for tPA and uPA [19], [20], and provide structural basis to design newer generation of PAI-1-resistant tPA variants as thrombolytic agents [19]. PMID:26909366

  6. 75 FR 61857 - Statement on Sound Practices Concerning Elevated Risk Complex Structured Finance Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... Finance Activities AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice and request for... Elevated Risk Complex Structured Finance Activities. OMB Number: 1550-0111. Form Number: N/A. Description: Statement on Sound Practices Concerning Elevated Risk Complex Structured Finance Activities describes...

  7. The crystal structure of phosphorylated MAPK13 reveals common structural features and differences in p38 MAPK family activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurtsever, Zeynep; Scheaffer, Suzanne M; Romero, Arthur G; Holtzman, Michael J; Brett, Tom J

    2015-04-01

    The p38 MAP kinases (p38 MAPKs) represent an important family centrally involved in mediating extracellular signaling. Recent studies indicate that family members such as MAPK13 (p38δ) display a selective cellular and tissue expression and are therefore involved in specific diseases. Detailed structural studies of all p38 MAPK family members are crucial for the design of specific inhibitors. In order to facilitate such ventures, the structure of MAPK13 was determined in both the inactive (unphosphorylated; MAPK13) and active (dual phosphorylated; MAPK13/pTpY) forms. Here, the first preparation, crystallization and structure determination of MAPK13/pTpY are presented and the structure is compared with the previously reported structure of MAPK13 in order to facilitate studies for structure-based drug design. A comprehensive analysis of inactive versus active structures for the p38 MAPK family is also presented. It is found that MAPK13 undergoes a larger interlobe configurational rearrangement upon activation compared with MAPK14. Surprisingly, the analysis of activated p38 MAPK structures (MAP12/pTpY, MAPK13/pTpY and MAPK14/pTpY) reveals that, despite a high degree of sequence similarity, different side chains are used to coordinate the phosphorylated residues. There are also differences in the rearrangement of the hinge region that occur in MAPK14 compared with MAPK13 which would affect inhibitor binding. A thorough examination of all of the active (phosphorylated) and inactive (unphosphorylated) p38 MAPK family member structures was performed to reveal a common structural basis of activation for the p38 MAP kinase family and to identify structural differences that may be exploited for developing family member-specific inhibitors.

  8. Peer review, basic research, and engineering: Defining a role for QA professionals in basic research environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodnarczuk, M.

    1989-02-01

    Within the context of doing basic research, this paper seeks to answer four major questions: (1) What is the authority structure of science. (2) What is peer review. (3) Where is the interface between basic physics research and standard engineering. and (4) Given the conclusions to the first three questions, what is the role of the QA professional in a basic research environment like Fermilab. 23 refs.

  9. The structure of physical fitness and its correlation analysis at young players aged 16-17 years at the stage of basic training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPOV A.N.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The questions about the importance of physical fitness of young players to improve the management and correction of the training process. Material : In the research participated 40 players aged 16-17 years of specialized youth football school of FC "Obolon-Brewery". Data for the study of physical fitness were teacher observations and teacher testing carried out under the direct training of young players. Results : It is shown that the structure of physical fitness among all the studied parameters there is a close correlation relationship, except for a parameter that characterizes the start speed. It was found that the above regularities indicate the advisability of excluding the studied parameters in the structure of physical fitness of young players to improve the efficiency of the training process at the base of specialized training. Conclusions : It is recommended to improve the starting speed to use non-gaming and technical and tactical exercises.

  10. Responsibility and Task Structuring as the Basic Attributes of Learning Styles and Their Relation Towards Consistency and the Quality of Hierarchy of a Learner’s Mind Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duchovičová Jana

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on the identification of the relationship between the learning style and mental representation of curriculum content. The research problem identifies the relationship between the learning style factors - responsibility and task structuring and the selected categories of curriculum content representation - consistency and the quality of hierarchy identified through mind mapping. For the purposes of the research, we used the LSI Questionnaire by R. Dunn, K. Dunn and G. E. Price, a mind mapping test and chi-square statistics were used for the evaluation of research findings. The research sample consisted of 115 respondents. By means of analysis, we found out that a learning style in the observed factors of responsibility and task structuring does not influence students’ mental representation of the curriculum content.

  11. The Oscillator Strength of the Quantum Transitions in Multi-Resonant-Tunneling Structures Tours as Basic Elements of Quantum Cascade Lasers and Detectors in a Transverse Magnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Boyko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Using the model of a closed resonant tunneling structure developed the theory of the electron energy spectrum and oscillator strengths of the quantum electronic transitions between energy levels of this nanostructure. It is shown that by changing the intensity of the magnetic field can be in a wide range of electromagnetic waves to adjust the operating frequency of the radiation of a quantum cascade laser or detector, working on quantum transitions between the first and the third energy electronic states.

  12. Basic Electromagnetism and Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Moliton, André

    2007-01-01

    Basic Electromagnetism and Materials is the product of many years of teaching basic and applied electromagnetism. This textbook can be used to teach electromagnetism to a wide range of undergraduate science majors in physics, electrical engineering or materials science. However, by making lesser demands on mathematical knowledge than competing texts, and by emphasizing electromagnetic properties of materials and their applications, this textbook is uniquely suited to students of materials science. Many competing texts focus on the study of propagation waves either in the microwave or optical domain, whereas Basic Electromagnetism and Materials covers the entire electromagnetic domain and the physical response of materials to these waves. Professor André Moliton is Director of the Unité de Microélectronique, Optoélectronique et Polymères (Université de Limoges, France), which brings together three groups studying the optoelectronics of molecular and polymer layers, micro-optoelectronic systems for teleco...

  13. Nuclear multifragmentation: Basic concepts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Chaudhuri; S Mallik; S Das Gupta

    2014-05-01

    We present a brief overview of nuclear multifragmentation reaction. Basic formalism of canonical thermodynamical model based on equilibrium statistical mechanics is described. This model is used to calculate basic observables of nuclear multifragmentation like mass distribution, fragment multiplicity, isotopic distribution and isoscaling. Extension of canonical thermodynamical model to a projectile fragmentation model is outlined. Application of the projectile fragmentation model for calculating average number of intermediate mass fragments and the average size of the largest cluster at different bound, differential charge distribution and cross-section of neutron-rich nuclei of different projectile fragmentation reactions at different energies are described. Application of nuclear multifragmentation reaction in basic research as well as in other domains is outlined.

  14. Decontamination: back to basics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Susan J; Sjorgen, Geoff

    2008-07-01

    My invitation from this Journal's Editor, Felicia Cox, to provide a paper for this themed issue, included the sentence 'I was wondering if you or a colleague would like to contribute a back to basics article on the relevant standards and guidelines for decontamination, including what is compliance?'. The reason it is so interesting to me is that the term 'back to basics' implies reverting to a simpler time in life - when by just sticking to the rules, life became easier. However, with decontamination this is not actually true.

  15. Comprehensive basic mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Veena, GR

    2005-01-01

    Salient Features As per II PUC Basic Mathematics syllabus of Karnataka. Provides an introduction to various basic mathematical techniques and the situations where these could be usefully employed. The language is simple and the material is self-explanatory with a large number of illustrations. Assists the reader in gaining proficiency to solve diverse variety of problems. A special capsule containing a gist and list of formulae titled ''REMEMBER! Additional chapterwise arranged question bank and 3 model papers in a separate section---''EXAMINATION CORNER''.

  16. Basic set theory

    CERN Document Server

    Levy, Azriel

    2002-01-01

    An advanced-level treatment of the basics of set theory, this text offers students a firm foundation, stopping just short of the areas employing model-theoretic methods. Geared toward upper-level undergraduate and graduate students, it consists of two parts: the first covers pure set theory, including the basic motions, order and well-foundedness, cardinal numbers, the ordinals, and the axiom of choice and some of it consequences; the second deals with applications and advanced topics such as point set topology, real spaces, Boolean algebras, and infinite combinatorics and large cardinals. An

  17. Basic research championed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friebele, Elaine

    In April, the Office of National Science and Technology Policy released its biennial report to Congress. Science and Technology: Shaping the Twenty-First Century addresses the President's policy for maintaining U.S. leadership in science and technology, significant developments, and important national issues in science, and opportunities to use science and technology in federal programs and national goals. The administration strongly supports basic research as a sound investment and an inspiration to society. As corporate laboratories increasingly favor applied R&D projects, the federal government is becoming the dominant sponsor of long-term, basic research.

  18. Basic properties of semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Landsberg, PT

    2013-01-01

    Since Volume 1 was published in 1982, the centres of interest in the basic physics of semiconductors have shifted. Volume 1 was called Band Theory and Transport Properties in the first edition, but the subject has broadened to such an extent that Basic Properties is now a more suitable title. Seven chapters have been rewritten by the original authors. However, twelve chapters are essentially new, with the bulk of this work being devoted to important current topics which give this volume an almost encyclopaedic form. The first three chapters discuss various aspects of modern band theory and the

  19. Basic Financial Accounting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiborg, Karsten

    This textbook on Basic Financial Accounting is targeted students in the economics studies at universities and business colleges having an introductory subject in the external dimension of the company's economic reporting, including bookkeeping, etc. The book includes the following subjects: busin......: business entities, the transformation process, types of businesses, stakeholders, legislation, the annual report, the VAT system, double-entry bookkeeping, inventories, and year-end cast flow analysis.......This textbook on Basic Financial Accounting is targeted students in the economics studies at universities and business colleges having an introductory subject in the external dimension of the company's economic reporting, including bookkeeping, etc. The book includes the following subjects...

  20. Antiproliferative Pt(IV) complexes: synthesis, biological activity, and quantitative structure-activity relationship modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramatica, Paola; Papa, Ester; Luini, Mara; Monti, Elena; Gariboldi, Marzia B; Ravera, Mauro; Gabano, Elisabetta; Gaviglio, Luca; Osella, Domenico

    2010-09-01

    Several Pt(IV) complexes of the general formula [Pt(L)2(L')2(L'')2] [axial ligands L are Cl-, RCOO-, or OH-; equatorial ligands L' are two am(m)ine or one diamine; and equatorial ligands L'' are Cl- or glycolato] were rationally designed and synthesized in the attempt to develop a predictive quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model. Numerous theoretical molecular descriptors were used alongside physicochemical data (i.e., reduction peak potential, Ep, and partition coefficient, log Po/w) to obtain a validated QSAR between in vitro cytotoxicity (half maximal inhibitory concentrations, IC50, on A2780 ovarian and HCT116 colon carcinoma cell lines) and some features of Pt(IV) complexes. In the resulting best models, a lipophilic descriptor (log Po/w or the number of secondary sp3 carbon atoms) plus an electronic descriptor (Ep, the number of oxygen atoms, or the topological polar surface area expressed as the N,O polar contribution) is necessary for modeling, supporting the general finding that the biological behavior of Pt(IV) complexes can be rationalized on the basis of their cellular uptake, the Pt(IV)-->Pt(II) reduction, and the structure of the corresponding Pt(II) metabolites. Novel compounds were synthesized on the basis of their predicted cytotoxicity in the preliminary QSAR model, and were experimentally tested. A final QSAR model, based solely on theoretical molecular descriptors to ensure its general applicability, is proposed.

  1. Transparent form-active system with structural glass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikolaou, M.S.N.; Veer, F.A.; Eigenraam, P.

    2015-01-01

    Free-form transparent wide-span spatial structures which have being constructed so far, are based on the concept of three sets of components, the structural components, usually steel elements to ensure both compressive and tensional capacity; the glass cladding elements for expressing transparency;

  2. A Model for Structuring Training Activities--A Personal View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryer, Patricia

    1985-01-01

    Presents a model for structuring teacher workshops and discusses its implications for teaching methods used, duration of sessions, participation of those in attendance, and role changes of everyone involved. Based on Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, this rationale for workshop structure explains each workshop stage to participants. (MBR)

  3. Improved Chemical Structure-Activity Modeling Through Data Augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes-Ciriano, Isidro; Bender, Andreas

    2015-12-28

    Extending the original training data with simulated unobserved data points has proven powerful to increase both the generalization ability of predictive models and their robustness against changes in the structure of data (e.g., systematic drifts in the response variable) in diverse areas such as the analysis of spectroscopic data or the detection of conserved domains in protein sequences. In this contribution, we explore the effect of data augmentation in the predictive power of QSAR models, quantified by the RMSE values on the test set. We collected 8 diverse data sets from the literature and ChEMBL version 19 reporting compound activity as pIC50 values. The original training data were replicated (i.e., augmented) N times (N ∈ 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10), and these replications were perturbed with Gaussian noise (μ = 0, σ = σnoise) on either (i) the pIC50 values, (ii) the compound descriptors, (iii) both the compound descriptors and the pIC50 values, or (iv) none of them. The effect of data augmentation was evaluated across three different algorithms (RF, GBM, and SVM radial) and two descriptor types (Morgan fingerprints and physicochemical-property-based descriptors). The influence of all factor levels was analyzed with a balanced fixed-effect full-factorial experiment. Overall, data augmentation constantly led to increased predictive power on the test set by 10-15%. Injecting noise on (i) compound descriptors or on (ii) both compound descriptors and pIC50 values led to the highest drop of RMSEtest values (from 0.67-0.72 to 0.60-0.63 pIC50 units). The maximum increase in predictive power provided by data augmentation is reached when the training data is replicated one time. Therefore, extending the original training data with one perturbed repetition thereof represents a reasonable trade-off between the increased performance of the models and the computational cost of data augmentation, namely increase of (i) model complexity due to the need for optimizing

  4. Yeast Breads. Learning Activity Pack and Instructor's Guide 5.15a. Commercial Foods and Culinary Arts Competency-Based Series. Section 5: Basic Food Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Center for Studies in Vocational Education.

    This document consists of a learning activity packet (LAP) for the student and an instructor's guide for the teacher. The LAP is intended to acquaint occupational home economics students with yeast breads and their ingredients. Illustrated information sheets and learning activities are provided in these areas: yeast breads and their ingredients,…

  5. Reduction of the Radiating Sound of a Submerged Finite Cylindrical Shell Structure by Active Vibration Control

    OpenAIRE

    Seung-Bok Choi; Juncheol Jeon; Jung Woo Sohn; Heung Soo Kim

    2013-01-01

    In this work, active vibration control of an underwater cylindrical shell structure was investigated, to suppress structural vibration and structure-borne noise in water. Finite element modeling of the submerged cylindrical shell structure was developed, and experimentally evaluated. Modal reduction was conducted to obtain the reduced system equation for the active feedback control algorithm. Three Macro Fiber Composites (MFCs) were used as actuators and sensors. One MFC was used as an excite...

  6. The scalability of the tunnel-regenerated multi-active-region light-emitting diode structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Xia; Shen Guang-Di

    2008-01-01

    The scalability of the tunnel-regenerated multi-active-region (TRMAR) structure has been investigated for the application in light-emitting diodes (LEDs).The use of the TRMAR structure was proved theoretically to have unique advantages over conventional single-active-layer structures in virtually every aspect,such as high quantum efficiency,high power and low leakage.Our study showed that the TRMAR LED structure could obtain high output power under low current injection and high wall-plug efficiency compared with the conventional single-active-layer LED structure.

  7. Vibrational assignment and structure of trinuclear oxo-centered of basic formate iron(III) and chromium(III) complexes: a density functional theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiana, Samaneh; Yazdanbakhsh, Mohammad; Jamialahmadi, Mina; Tayyari, Sayyed Faramarz

    2014-09-15

    [Fe3O(OOCH)6(H2O)3]OOCH·HCOOH, and [Cr3O(OOCH)6(H2O)3]OOCH·2.5HNO3 were synthesized and the molecular structure and vibrational assignments of their cations were investigated by means of density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The harmonic vibrational frequencies of [Fe3O(OOCH)6(H2O)3]+ and [Cr3O(OOCH)6(H2O)3]+ were obtained at the UB3LYP level using a series of basis sets. The topological properties of the charge distribution of both cations in their ground states are discussed in detail by means of natural bond orbital (NBO) theory and of [Fe3O(OOCH)6(H2O)3]+ by the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (AIM). The calculated geometrical parameters and vibrational frequencies were compared with the experimental results. The scaled theoretical frequencies and the structural parameters were found to be in good agreement with the experimental data.

  8. A new formulation for air-blast fluid-structure interaction using an immersed approach. Part I: basic methodology and FEM-based simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazilevs, Y.; Kamran, K.; Moutsanidis, G.; Benson, D. J.; Oñate, E.

    2017-03-01

    In this two-part paper we begin the development of a new class of methods for modeling fluid-structure interaction (FSI) phenomena for air blast. We aim to develop accurate, robust, and practical computational methodology, which is capable of modeling the dynamics of air blast coupled with the structure response, where the latter involves large, inelastic deformations and disintegration into fragments. An immersed approach is adopted, which leads to an a-priori monolithic FSI formulation with intrinsic contact detection between solid objects, and without formal restrictions on the solid motions. In Part I of this paper, the core air-blast FSI methodology suitable for a variety of discretizations is presented and tested using standard finite elements. Part II of this paper focuses on a particular instantiation of the proposed framework, which couples isogeometric analysis (IGA) based on non-uniform rational B-splines and a reproducing-kernel particle method (RKPM), which is a Meshfree technique. The combination of IGA and RKPM is felt to be particularly attractive for the problem class of interest due to the higher-order accuracy and smoothness of both discretizations, and relative simplicity of RKPM in handling fragmentation scenarios. A collection of mostly 2D numerical examples is presented in each of the parts to illustrate the good performance of the proposed air-blast FSI framework.

  9. Cytochrome c(6B) of Synechococcus sp. WH 8102--crystal structure and basic properties of novel c(6)-like family representative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatwarnicki, Pawel; Barciszewski, Jakub; Krzywda, Szymon; Jaskolski, Mariusz; Kolesinski, Piotr; Szczepaniak, Andrzej

    2014-01-24

    Cytochromes c are soluble electron carriers of relatively low molecular weight, containing single heme moiety. In cyanobacteria cytochrome c6 participates in electron transfer from cytochrome b6f complex to photosystem I. Recent phylogenetic analysis revealed the existence of a few families of proteins homologous to the previously mentioned. Cytochrome c6A from Arabidopsis thaliana was identified as a protein responsible for disulfide bond formation in response to intracellular redox state changes and c550 is well known element of photosystem II. However, function of cytochromes marked as c6B, c6C and cM as well as the physiological process in which they take a part still remain unidentified. Here we present the first structural and biophysical analysis of cytochrome from the c6B family from mesophilic cyanobacteria Synechococcus sp. WH 8102. Purified protein was crystallized and its structure was refined at 1.4 Å resolution. Overall architecture of this polypeptide resembles typical I-class cytochromes c. The main features, that distinguish described protein from cytochrome c6, are slightly red-shifted α band of UV-Vis spectrum as well as relatively low midpoint potential (113.2±2.2 mV). Although, physiological function of cytochrome c6B has yet to be determined its properties probably exclude the participation of this protein in electron trafficking between b6f complex and photosystem I.

  10. Glycosides from Marine Sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae: Structures, Taxonomical Distribution, Biological Activities and Biological Roles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin A. Stonik

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Literature data about glycosides from sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae are reviewed. Structural diversity, biological activities, taxonomic distribution and biological functions of these natural products are discussed.

  11. Glycosides from marine sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae): structures, taxonomical distribution, biological activities and biological roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinin, Vladimir I; Ivanchina, Natalia V; Krasokhin, Vladimir B; Makarieva, Tatyana N; Stonik, Valentin A

    2012-08-01

    Literature data about glycosides from sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae) are reviewed. Structural diversity, biological activities, taxonomic distribution and biological functions of these natural products are discussed.

  12. Ethanol Basics (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  13. Korean Basic Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    These 11 volumes of the Korean Basic Course comprise 112 lesson units designed to train native English language speakers to Level 3 proficiency in comprehension and speaking and Level 2 proficiency in reading and writing Korean. (Level 5 on this scale is native-speaker level.) Intended for classroom use in the Defense Language Institute intensive…

  14. Basic physics for all

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, B N

    2012-01-01

    This is a simple, concise book for both student and non-physics students, presenting basic facts in straightforward form and conveying fundamental principles and theories of physics. This book will be helpful as a supplement to class teaching and to aid those who have difficulty in mastering concepts and principles.

  15. Vaccine Basics (Smallpox)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: About CDC.gov . Smallpox About Smallpox History of Smallpox Spread and Eradication of Smallpox Transmission Signs and Symptoms Prevention and Treatment Smallpox Vaccine Basics Vaccine Safety Side Effects of Vaccination Who Should Get a Smallpox Vaccination? Bioterrorism The ...

  16. FULA BASIC COURSE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SWIFT, LLOYD B.; AND OTHERS

    THIS BEGINNING COURSE IS AN INTRODUCTION TO FULA (KNOWN VARIOUSLY AS FULANI, FUL, PEUL, OR PHEUL), A NIGER-CONGO LANGUAGE SPOKEN THROUGHOUT THE GRASSLAND AREAS OF WEST AFRICA FROM THE ATLANTIC TO CAMEROUN. THE TEXT IS ONE OF A SERIES OF SHORT BASIC COURSES IN SELECTED AFRICAN LANGUAGES BEING PREPARED BY THE FOREIGN SERVICE INSTITUTE. IT IS…

  17. Basic Library List.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duren, William L., Jr.

    Reported is an initial attempt to define a minimal college mathematics library. Included is a list of some 300 books, from which approximately 170 are to be chosen to form a basic library in undergraduate mathematics. The areas provided for in this list include Algebra, Analysis, Applied Mathematics, Geometry, Topology, Logic, Foundations and Set…

  18. Lippincott Basic Reading Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monterey Peninsula Unified School District, Monterey, CA.

    This program, included in "Effective Reading Programs...," serves 459 students in grades 1-3 at 15 elementary schools. The program employs a diagnostic-prescriptive approach to instruction in a nongraded setting through the use of the Lippincott Basic Reading program. When a child enters the program, he is introduced to a decoding…

  19. Basic Drafting: Book Two.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Ronald; And Others

    The second of a two-book course in drafting, this manual consists of 12 topics in the following units: sketching techniques, geometric constructions, orthographic views, dimensioning procedures, basic tolerancing, auxiliary views, sectional views, inking tools and techniques, axonometrics, oblique, perspective, and computer-aided drafting.…

  20. Health Insurance Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... members at a lower cost. The four basic types of managed care plans are: HMO (Health Maintenance Organization). When you join an HMO, you choose a ... may have to pay more. EPO (Exclusive Provider Organization). An EPO is like a PPO, only ... Health Plan (CDHP) This type of plan is fairly new. It lets you ...