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  1. ANALISIS KONVEKSI ALAM TERAS REAKTOR TRIGA BERBAHAN BAKAR TIPE PELAT MENGGUNAKAN COOLOD-N2

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    Sudjatmi K A

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Analisis Konveksi Alam Teras Reaktor Triga Berbahan Bakar Tipe Pelat MENGGUNAKAN COOLOD-N2. Rencana penghentian produksi elemen bakar jenis TRIGA oleh produsen elemen bakar reaktor TRIGA, sudah seharusnya diantisipasi oleh badan pengoperasi reaktor TRIGA untuk menggantikan elemen bakar tipe silinder tersebut dengan tipe pelat yang tersedia di pasaran. Pada penelitian ini dilakukan perhitungan untuk model teras reaktor dengan spesifikasi utama menggunakan bahan bakar U3Si2Al dengan pengayaan uranium  sebesar 19,75% dan tingkat muat 2,96 gU/cm3. Analisis dilakukan menggunakan program COOLOD-N2 yang tervalidasi pada konfigurasi teras TRIGA konversi berbahan bakar tipe pelat, yang tersusun atas 16 elemen bakar, 4 elemen kendali dan 1 fasilitas iradiasi yang terletak tepat di tengah teras. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa dengan temperatur pendingin masuk ke teras sebesar 37oC, dan rasio faktor puncak daya radial ≤ 1,92 maka daya maksimum yang dapat dioperasikan pada moda operasi konveksi bebas adalah 600 kW. Karakteristik termohidrolika yang diperoleh antara lain adalah temperatur pendingin di sisi outlet, kelongsong dan meat masing-masing sebesar 82,39oC, 108,88oC, dan 109,02oC, pada ΔTONB (Temperature Onset of Nucleate Boiling =7,18oC dan nilai OFIR (Onset of flow instability ratio =1,03 Hasil yang diperoleh dari perhitungan ini diharapkan dapat dijadikan acuan untuk menentukan tingkat daya reaktor TRIGA berbahan bakar pelat. Kata kunci: TRIGA Konversi, COOLOD-N2, karakteristik termohidrolika, konveksi alam, elemen bakar tipe pelat.   ABSTRACT ANALYSIS OF NATURAL CONVECTION IN TRIGA REACTOR CORE PLATE TYPES FUELED USING COOLOD-N2. Any pretensions to stop the production of TRIGA fuel elements by TRIGA reactor fuel elements manufacturer should be anticipated by the operating agency of TRIGA reactor to replace the cylinder type fuel element with plate type fuel element that available on the market. In this study, the calculation of U3Si2

  2. ANALISIS INVENTORI REAKTOR DAYA EKSPERIMENTAL JENIS REAKTOR GAS TEMPERATUR TINGGI

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    Sri Kuntjoro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK ANALISIS INVENTORI REAKTOR DAYA EKSPERIMENTAL JENIS REAKTOR GAS TEMPERATUR TINGGI. Berkaitan dengan rencana Badan Tenaga Nuklir Nasional (BATAN untuk mengoperasikan reaktor eksperimental jenis Reaktor Gas Temperatur Tinggi (RGTT, maka diperlukan analisis keselamatan terhadap reaktor terutama yang berkaitan dengan issue lingkungan. Analisis sebaran radionuklida dari reaktor ke lingkungan pada kondisi operasi normal atau abnormal diawali dengan estimasi sumber radionuklida di teras reaktor (inventori teras berdasarkan pada tipe, daya, dan operasi reaktor. Tujuan penelitian adalah melakukan analisis inventori teras untuk disain Reaktor Daya Eksperimental (RDE jenis reaktor gas temperature tinggi berdaya 10 MWt, 20 MWt dan 30 MWt. Analisis dilakukan menggunakan program ORIGEN2 berbasis pustaka penampang lintang pada temperatur tinggi. Perhitungan diawali dengan membuat modifikasi beberapa parameter pustaka tampang lintang berdasarkan temperatur rata-rata teras sebesar 5700 °C dan dilanjutkan dengan melakukan perhitungan inventori reaktor untuk reaktor RDE berdaya 10 MWt. Parameter utama reaktor RDE 10 MWt yang digunakan dalam perhitungan sama dengan parameter utama reaktor HTR-10. Setelah inventori reaktor RDE 10 MWt diperoleh, dilakukan perbandingan dengan hasil dari peneliti terdahulu. Berdasarkan kesesuaian hasil yang didapat dilakukan desain untuk reaktor RDE 20MWEt dan 30 MWt untuk memperoleh parameter utama reaktor tersebut berupa jumlah bahan bakar pebble bed di teras reaktor, tinggi dan diameter teras. Berdasarkan pareameter utama teras dilakukan perhitungan inventori teras RDE 20 MWt dan 30 MWt dengan metode yang sama dengan metode perhitungan pada RDE 10 MWt. Hasil yang diperoleh adalah inventori terbesar untuk reaktor RDE 10 MWt, 20 MWt dan 30 MWt secara berurutan untuk kelompok Kr adalah sekitar 1,00E+15 Bq, 1,20E+16 Bq, 1,70E+16 Bq untuk kelompok I sebesar 6,50E+16 Bq, 1,20E+17 Bq, 1,60E+17 Bq dan untuk

  3. Aspek Proteksi Radiasi Pada Peningkatan Daya Reaktor Triga 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Oetami, Rini Heroe; Wiryosimin, S; Kurnia, E; Sofyan, S; Arifin, Z

    2002-01-01

    ASPEK PROTEKSI RADIASI FADA PENLNGKATAN DAYA REAKTOR TRIGA 2000. Reaktor TRIGA Mark II Bandung telah ditingkatkan dayanya dari 1 MW menjadi 2 MW dan saat ini namanya menjadi reaktor TRIGA 2000. Pekerjaan peningkatan daya meliputi tahap kegiatan pembongkaran, pemasangan dan uji nuklir yang memberikan risiko bahaya radiasi eksterna maupun interna. Bahaya radiasi dapat memberikan efek deterministik dan stokastik pada jaringan tubuh. Untuk mencegah efek deterministik dan menurunkan peluang terjad...

  4. PENGARUH KONSENTRASI ZrO2 TERHADAP KORELASI PERPINDAHAN PANAS NANOFLUIDA AIR-ZrO2 UNTUK PENDINGIN REAKTOR

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    K.A. Sudjatmi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sejalan dengan perkembangan konsep keselamatan pasif pada sistem keselamatan PLTN, maka sistem perpindahan panas konveksi alam memegang peranan penting. Pemakaian nanofluid sebagai fluida pendingin pada sistem keselamatan nuklir dapat digunakan pada Sistem Pendingin Teras Darurat dan Sistem Pendingin Pengungkung Luar Reaktor. Beberapa peneliti telah melakukan studi desain konseptual aplikasi nanofluid untuk meningkatkan keselamatan AP1000 dan sistem pendingin teras darurat pada reaktor daya eksperimen. Penerapan nanofluida juga mulai dikembangkan melalui hasil penelitian perpindahan panas konveksi alamiah pada sub-buluh dengan nanofluida sebagai fluida kerjanya sangat dibutuhkan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan pengaruh perubahan konsentrasi ZrO2 terhadap korelasi perpindahan panas konveksi alamiah dengan pendekatan eksperimental. Data eksperimental yang diperoleh digunakan untuk mengembangkan korelasi umum empirik perpindahan panas konveksi alamiah. Metode penelitian dengan menggunakan alat uji sub-buluh vertikal dengan geometri segitiga dan segiempat menggunakan air dan nanofluida air-ZrO2 sebagai fluida kerjanya. Konsentrasi nanopartikel dalam larutan yang digunakan sebesar 0,05 %, 0,10% dan 0,15 % dalam persen berat. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa untuk bilangan Rayleigh yang sama, kemampuan pemindahan kalor oleh nanofluida air-ZrO2 lebih baik dari pada pemindahan kalor oleh air. Namun peningkatan konsentrasi nanofluida tidak selalu mendapatkan kemampuan pemindahan kalor yang lebih baik. Kata kunci: nanofluida air-ZrO2, konveksi alamiah, sub-buluh segitiga, sub-buluh segi segiempat   In line with the development of the passive safety concept for the safety systems of nuclear power plants, the natural convection heat transfer system plays an important role. The nanofluid as coolant fluid on nuclear safety system can be used in Emergency core cooling system and in reactor coolant system confinement. Several researchers have

  5. DESAIN KONSEPTUAL PERISAI RADIASI REAKTOR RRI-50

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    Amir Hamzah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK DESAIN KONSEPTUAL PERISAI RADIASI REAKTOR RRI-50. Salah satu parameter yang harus dipenuhi dalam mendesain reaktor nuklir adalah desain perisai radiasi yang dapat menjamin keamanan dan keselamatan radiasi bagi pekerja dan masyarakat sekitar. Pada penelitian ini dilakukan desain perisai radiasi RRI-50 dengan elemen bakar berjenis U9Mo-Al berkerapatan tinggi dengan tipe pelat sebanyak 21 buah dan berdimensi seperti elemen bakar RSG-GAS tapi panjang aktifnya 70 cm. Konfigurasi teras terdiri dari 16 elemen bakar dan 4 elemen kendali serta 5 posisi iradiasi sehingga membentuk matriks 5 x 5. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mendesain perisai radiasi dan menentukan distribusi laju dosis di daerah kerja dan di lingkungan reaktor RRI-50. Tahapan awal penelitian adalah perhitungan kuat sumber dan inventori bahan radioaktif teras reaktor dengan mensimulasikan operasi 50 MW selama 20 hari tiap siklus menggunakan program ORGEN2.1. Berdasarkan kuat sumber tersebut dan model yang dibuat menggunakan program VisEd, maka dilakukan analisis penentuan parameter perisai radiasi secara iteratif menggunakan program MCNPX. Pada tahap akhir, dilakukan analisis distribusi laju dosis di seluruh ruang di dalam dan di luar gedung reaktor juga menggunakan program MCNPX. Hasil yang diperoleh menunjukkan bahwa ketinggian permukaan air adalah 1000 cm dan kombinasi 90 cm beton berat dan 60 cm beton biasa dapat digunakan sebagai perisai biologi. Desain perisai tersebut mereduksi laju dosis menjadi 0,05 µSv/jam di Balai Operasi sementara di Balai Eksperimen dan di luar gedung reaktor menjadi 4,2 µSv/jam dan 0,03 µSv/jam pada saat reaktor beroperasi. Hasil penelitian juga menunjukkan pemasagan perisai tambahan setebal 280 cm berjarak 300 cm di depan tabung berkas neutron radial yang terbuka mereduksi laju dosis gamma dan neutron menjadi 3,3 µSv/jam dan 3,1x10-11 µSv/jam. Hasil-hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa desain perisai radiasi yang dibuat membuat reaktor

  6. ANALISIS PENGENDALIAN DAYA REAKTOR PCMSR DENGAN LAJU ALIR PENDINGIN

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    Iqbal Syafin Noha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Passive Compact Molten Salt Reactor (PCMSR merupakan pengembangan dari Molten Salt Reactor (MSR yang memiliki karakter berbeda dengan lima reaktor generasi IV lainnya, yaitu menggunakan bahan bakar leburan garam. Pada reaktor MSR, garam lebur tidak digunakan sebagai pendingin tetapi digunakan sebagai medium pembawa bahan bakar. Dengan fase bahan bakar yang berupa garam lebur LiF-BeF2-ThF4-UF4, maka dapat dilakukan pengendalian daya dengan mengatur laju aliran bahan bakar dan pendingin. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh perubahan laju alir pendingin terhadap daya reaktor PCMSR. Analisis dilakukan dengan empat jenis masukan untuk perubahan laju alir pendingin, yaitu masukan step, ramp, eksponensial, dan sinusoidal. Untuk masukan step, laju alir pendingin dibuat berubah secara mendadak. Selanjutnya untuk masukan ramp dan eksponensal, perubahan laju alir masing-masing dibuat perlahan secara linear dan mengikuti fungsi eksponensial. Kemudian untuk masukan sinusoidal, laju alir berubah naik turun secara periodik dengan memvariasikan frekuensi dari perubahan laju alir tersebut. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penurunan laju alir pendingin sebesar 50% dari laju pendingin sebelumnya, menyebabkan daya pada reaktor PCMSR turun sebesar 63% dari daya sebelumnya. Jika terjadi fluktuasi laju aliran pendingin, maka semakin cepat perubahan tersebut, maka respon daya yang diberikan semakin kecil. Pada frekuensi yang sangat cepat, daya reaktor menjadi konstan dan cenderung tidak memiliki respon terhadap laju aliran. Hal ini merupakan salah satu aspek keselamatan reaktor, karena reaktor tidak merespon perubahan yang terlalu cepat. Kemampuan reaktor mengatur daya menyesuaikan laju aliran pendingin merupakan aspek keselamatan lainnya. Kata kunci : PCMSR, pengendalian daya, laju alir pendingin, uji respon   Passive Compact Molten Salt Reactor (PCMSR is the development of Molten Salt Reactor (MSR which has different character from other five

  7. OPTIMASI DESAIN TERMOHIDROLIKA TERAS DAN SISTEM PENDINGIN REAKTOR RISET INOVATIF DAYA TINGGI

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    Endiah Puji Hastuti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK OPTIMASI DESAIN TERMOHIDROLIKA TERAS DAN SISTEM PENDINGIN REAKTOR RISET INOVATIF DAYA TINGGI. Implementasi reaktor inovasi telah diterapkan pada berbagai reaktor riset baru yang saat ini sedang dibangun.  Pada saat ini BATAN sedang merancang desain konseptual reaktor riset daya tinggi yang telah masuk pada tahap optimasi desain. Spesifikasi desain konseptual reaktor riset inovatif adalah reaktor tipe kolam berpendingin air dan reflektor D2O. Teras reaktor memiliki kisi 5x5 dengan 16 bahan bakar dan 4 batang kendali. Teras reaktor berada di dalam tabung berisi D2O yang berfungsi sebagai posisi iradiasi. Daya reaktor 50 MW didesain untuk membangkitkan fluks neutron termal sebesar 5x1014 n/cm2s. Teras reaktor berbentuk kompak dan menggunakan bahan bakar U9Mo-Al dengan tingkat muat uranium 7-9 gU/cm3. Desain termohidrolika yang mencakup pemodelan, perhitungan dan analisis kecukupan pendingin dibuat sinergi dengan desain fisika teras agar keselamatan reaktor terjamin. Makalah ini bertujuan menyampaikan hasil analisis perhitungan termohidrolika teras dan sistem reaktor riset inovatif pada kondisi tunak. Analisis dilakukan menggunakan program perhitungan yang telah tervalidasi, masing-masing adalah Caudvap, PARET-ANL, Fluent dan ChemCad 6.4.1. Hasil perhitungan menunjukkan bahwa pembangkitan panas yang tinggi dapat dipindahkan tanpa menyebabkan pendidihan dengan menerapkan desain teras reaktor bertekanan, di samping itu desain awal komponen utama sistem pembuangan panas yang terintegrasi telah dilakukan, sehingga konseptual desain termohidrolika RRI-50 dapat diselesaikan. Kata kunci : reaktor riset inovatif, Caudvap, PARET-ANL, Fluent, ChemCad 6.4.1.   ABSTRACT THERMALHYDRAULIC DESIGN AND COOLING SYSTEM OPTIMIZATION OF THE HIGH POWER INOVATIVE RESEARCH REACTOR. Reactor innovation has been implemented in a variety of new research reactors that currently are being built. At this time BATAN is designing a conceptual design of the high power

  8. INVESTIGASI KARAKTERISTIK TERMOHIDROLIKA TERAS REAKTOR DAYA KECIL DENGAN PENDINGINAN SIRKULASI ALAM MENGGUNAKAN RELAP5

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    Susyadi Susyadi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK INVESTIGASI KARAKTERISTIK TERMOHIDROLIKA TERAS REAKTOR DAYA KECIL DENGAN PENDINGINAN SIRKULASI ALAM MENGGUNAKAN RELAP5. Reaktor modular daya-kecil (small modular reactor, SMR memiliki prospek tinggi untuk dibangun di Indonesia. Keluaran dayanya yang relatif kecil dan disainnya yang kompak serta dapat dikonstruksi secara modular memberikan keunggulan fleksibilitas pembangunan yang lebih baik dibanding reaktor konvensional berdaya besar. Disain sistem reaktor kategori ini sangat bervariasi, salah satu diantaranya adalah jenis reaktor air tekan (pressurized water reactor, PWR yang menerapkan sirkulasi alamiah pada sistem pendingin primernya. Selain itu reaktor ini juga memiliki teras (core lebih pendek dibanding PWR konvensional. Dari kedua perbedaan tersebut maka terdapat kemungkinan perbedaan pola perpindahan panas yang dapat berimplikasi terhadap keselamatan secara keseluruhan. Oleh karena itu, pada penelitian ini dilakukan investigasi terhadap karakteristik termohidrolika teras reaktor tersebut khususnya karakteristik temperatur fluida dan bahan bakar serta laju alir fluidanya. Tujuannya adalah untuk mengetahui perbedaan marjin keselamatan temperatur teras reaktor bila dibanding dengan PWR konvensional. Investigasi dilakukan dengan menggunakan program RELAP5, dimana secara parsial teras reaktor dimodelkan menggunakan model-model generik yang ada pada program dan dilakukan beberapa perhitungan kondisi tunak. Hasil perhitungan menunjukkan bahwa saat beroperasi pada daya nominalnya, reaktor modular ini memiliki margin temperatur pendidihan sebesar 2K lebih baik dibanding reaktor konvensional. Selain itu, keunggulan marjin keselamatan reaktor modular daya-kecil ini juga ditunjukkan dari naiknya laju alir mengikuti kenaikan dayanya yang berarti memiliki sifat keselamatan yang melekat (inherent safety. Kata kunci: reaktor modular daya-kecil, PWR, sirkulasi alam, RELAP5, termohidrolika   ABSTRACT INVESTIGATION ON CORE THERMAL HYDRAULIC

  9. DESAIN KONSEPTUAL TERAS REAKTOR RISET INOVATIF BERBAHAN BAKAR URANIUM MOLIBDENUM DARI ASPEK NEUTRONIK

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    Tukiran Surbakti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Manfaat yang luas dari penggunaan reaktor riset membuat banyak negara membangun reaktor riset baru. Kecenderungan saat ini adalah reaktor tipe reaktor serbaguna (MPR dengan teras yang kompak untuk mendapatkan fluks neutron yang tinggi dengan daya yang relatif sedang atau rendah. Reaktor riset yang ada di Indonesia yang paling muda usianya sudah berumur 25 tahun. Oleh karena itu diperlukan desain reaktor riset baru sebagai alternatif, disebut reaktor riset inovatif (RRI, kelak pengganti reaktor riset yang sudah ada. Tujuan dari riset ini mendapatkan konfigurasi teras setimbang reaktor riset yang optimal dengan kriteria memiliki fluks neutron termal minimum sebesar 2,5x1014 n/cm2 s pada daya 20 MW (minimum, memiliki panjang operasi satu siklus lebih dari 40 hari dan penggunaan bahan bakar yang paling efisien. Desain neutronik dilakukan untuk bahan bakar baru U-9Mo-Al dengan kerapatan bervariasi dan jenis reflektor yang bervariasi. Desain dilakukan dengan paket program WIMSD-5B dan BATAN-FUEL. Hasil desain konseptual menyajikan 4 konfigurasi teras yaitu 5×5, 5×7, 6×5 dan 6×6. Hasil optimasi menunjukkan bahwa teras setimbang reaktor RRI dengan konfigurasi 5×5, tingkat muat 235U sebesar 450 g, reflektor berilium, fluks neutron termal maksimum di daerah reflektor sebesar 3,33×1014 neutron cm-2s-1 dan panjang siklus 57 hari merupakan desain teras reaktor riset inovatif yang paling optimal. Kata kunci: desain konseptual, bahan bakar uranium-molibdenum,berilium, D2O, WIMS, BATAN-FUEL   The multipurpose of research reactor utilization make many countries build the new research reactor. Trend of this reactor for this moment is multipurpose reactor type with a compact core to get high neutron flux at the low or medium level of power. The research newest reactor in Indonesia right now is already 25 year old. Therefore, it is needed to design a new research reactor, called innovative research reactor (IRR and then as an alternative to replace the old

  10. DESAIN TERAS ALTERNATIF UNTUK REAKTOR RISET INOVATIF (RRI DARI ASPEK NEUTRONIK

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    Iman Kuntoro

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Berdasarkan dokumen kriteria pengguna dan fungsi utamanya, Reaktor Riset Inovatif (RRI dipersyaratkan dapat menghasilkan fluks neutron termal maksimum 1×1015 neutron cm-2s-1. Hal ini diperlukan agar reaktor RRI dapat digunakan untuk target yang membutuhkan fluks neutron tinggi. Dalam penelitian sebelumnya diperoleh bahwa desain reaktor RRI tidak mungkin menghasilkan fluks neutron tersebut jika menggunakan bahan bakar seperti yang digunakan reaktor RSG-GAS. Hal ini diduga karena dimensinya terlalu besar, mengingat fluks neutron berbanding terbalik dengan volume teras. Tujuan penelitaian ini adalah untuk mendapatkan desain teras alternatif reaktor RRI yang memenuhi persyaratan fluks neutron termal tersebut. Alternatif bahan bakar yang dipilih adalah yang dipakai di reaktor JMTR (Japan Material Testing Reactor yang berdimensi lebih kecil dibanding reaktor RSG-GAS. Disamping itu tinggi aktif teras divariasi 70 cm dan 75 cm. Desain teras dilakukan dengan perangkat analaitik WIMS-D5B, Batan-FUEL dan Batan-3DIFF. Teras alternatif menggunakan konsep konfigurasi teras kompak 5×5 dengan 4 elemen kendali jenis follower. Berdasarkan hasil perhitungan ada 3 (tiga teras alternatif yang dapat memenuhi persyaratan tersebut, termasuk teras menggunakan bahan bakar reaktor RSG-GAS dengan menambah tinggi aktifnya menjadi 70 cm dari 60 cm. Dengan menganalisis seluruh aspek, keselamatan serta efisiensi dan efektivitas reaktor, maka teras alternatif dengan bahan bakar tipe JMTR dengan tinggi aktif 70 cm merupakan teras alternatif yang terbaik. Kata kunci: neutronik, teras kompak, reaktor riset inovatif, fluks neutron termal tinggi   Based on its User Requirement Document and main function, RRI shall be able to provide a maximum thermal neutron flux of 1×1015 neutron cm-2s-1. The reason is that the RRI reactor can serve targets requiring a high neutron flux. From the previous results it was obtained that RRI design using fuel of RSG-GAS type was not possible to

  11. Pembuatan Biodiesel Dari Minyak Kelapa Sawit RBD Dengan Menggunakan Katalis Berpromotor Ganda Berpenyangga γ-Alumina (CaO/MgO/ γ-Al2O3 Dalam Reaktor Fluidized Bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niar Kurnia Julianti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel merupakan salah satu energi alternatif pengganti bahan bakar fosil dari hasil reaksi transesterifikasi minyak nabati dengan metanol. Proses pembuatan biodiesel selama ini menggunakan katalis homogen NaOH atau KOH yang memiliki kelemahan terbentuknya produk samping berupa sabun dan rumitnya pemisahan produk biodiesel dengan katalis. Maka dari itu, mulai dikembangkan katalis heterogen. Penelitian ini mengembangkan katalis berpromotor ganda berpenyangga y-alumina (CaO/MgO/y-Al2O3 dalam reaktor fluidized bed. Pembuatan katalis melalui metode presipitasi CaO dan MgO pada y-Al2O3 serta asam asetat sebagai larutan precursor. Kemudian, katalis dioven selama 12 jam pada suhu 110C dan dikalsinasi pada suhu 700 C selama 5 jam. Katalis yang diperoleh digunakan untuk proses transesterifikasi dengan ratio molar minyak metanol 1:36; variabel massa katalis 4, 7, 10, 13, 16 gram; laju alir reaktan 4, 7, 10, 13, 16 ml/menit; dan suhu 125, 150, 175, 200, 225 C. Dimana yield dan % konversi terbaik dari penelitian diperoleh sebesar 0,642 gr biodiesel/gr minyak dan 63,975% pada massa katalis 16 gram, suhu 225 C dan laju alir reaktan 4 ml/menit.

  12. Fire modeling of the Heiss Dampf Reaktor containment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolette, V.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Yang, K.T. [Notre Dame Univ., IN (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This report summarizes Sandia National Laboratories` participation in the fire modeling activities for the German Heiss Dampf Reaktor (HDR) containment building, under the sponsorship of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The purpose of this report is twofold: (1) to summarize Sandia`s participation in the HDR fire modeling efforts and (2) to summarize the results of the international fire modeling community involved in modeling the HDR fire tests. Additional comments, on the state of fire modeling and trends in the international fire modeling community are also included. It is noted that, although the trend internationally in fire modeling is toward the development of the more complex fire field models, each type of fire model has something to contribute to the understanding of fires in nuclear power plants.

  13. ANALISIS POLA MANAJEMEN BAHAN BAKAR DESAIN TERAS REAKTOR RISET TIPE MTR

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    Lily Suparlina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Parameter neutronik dibutuhkan dalam mendesain teras reaktor riset. Reaktor riset jenis MTR (Material Testing Reactor sangat diminati karena dapat digunakan baik untuk riset dan juga produksi radio isotop. Reaktor riset yang ada saat ini sudah tua sehingga dibutuhkan desain reaktor yang mempunyai teras kompak. Desain teras reaktor riset yang sudah ada saat ini belum cukup memadai untuk memenuhi persyaratan di dalam UCD yang telah ditetapkan yaitu fluks neutron termal di teras 1x1015 n/cm2s, oleh karena itu perlu dibuat desain teras reaktor baru sebagai alternatif yang kompak dan dapat menghasilkan fluks neutron tinggi. Telah dilakukan perhitungan dan analisis terhadap manajemen bahan bakar desain teras kompak dengan konfigurasi teras 5x5, berbahan bakar U9Mo-Al dan tinggi teras aktif 70 cm. Tujuan dari riset ini untuk memperoleh fluks neutron di teras memenuhi kebutuhan seperti yang telah ditetapkan di UCD dengan panjang siklus operasi minimum 20 hari pada daya 50 MW. Perhitungan dilakukan dengan menggunakan paket program komputer WIMSD-5B untuk menggenerasi tampang lintang makroskopik bahan bakar dan Batan-FUEL untuk memperoleh nilai parameter neutronik serta Batan-3DIFF untuk perhitungan nilai reaktivitas batang kendali. Perhitungan parameter neutronik teras reaktor riset ini dilakukan untuk bahan bakar U-9Mo-Al dengan tingkat muat bervariasi dan 2 macam pola pergantian bahan bakar yaitu teras segar dan teras setimbang. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa pada teras segar, tingkat muat 235U sebesar 360 gram, 390 gram dan 450 gram memenuhi kriteria keselamatan dan kriteria penerimaan di UCD dengan nilai fluks neutron termal di teras lebih dari 1x1015 n/cm2s dan panjang siklus >20 hari, sedangkan pada teras setimbang panjang siklus dapat terpenuhi hanya untuk tingkat muat 450 gram. Kata kunci: desain teras reaktor, bahan bakar UMo, pola bahan bakar, WIMS, BATAN-FUEL   Research reactor core design needs neutronics parameter calculation use computer

  14. ANALISIS KESELAMATAN TERMOHIDROLIK BULK SHIELDING REAKTOR KARTINI

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    Azizul Khakim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK ANALISIS KESELAMATAN TERMOHIDROLIK BULK SHIELDING REAKTOR KARTINI. Bulk shielding merupakan fasilitas yang terintegrasi dengan reaktor Kartini yang berfungsi sebagai penyimpanan sementara bahan bakar bekas. Fasilitas ini merupakan fasilitas yang termasuk dalam struktur, sistem dan komponen (SSK yang penting bagi keselamatan. Salah satu fungsi keselamatan dari sistem penanganan dan penyimpanan bahan bakar adalah mencegah kecelakaan kekritisan yang tak terkendali dan membatasi naiknya temperatur bahan bakar. Analisis keselamatan paling kurang harus mencakup analisis keselamatan dari sisi neutronik dan termo hidrolik Bulk shielding. Analisis termo hidrolik ditujukan untuk memastikan perpindahan panas dan proses pendinginan bahan bakar bekas berjalan baik dan tidak terjadi akumulasi panas yang mengancam integritas bahan bakar. Code tervalidasi PARET/ANL digunakan untuk analisis pendinginan dengan mode konveksi alam. Hasil perhitungan menunjukkan bahwa mode pendinginan konvekasi alam cukup memadai dalam mendinginkan panas sisa tanpa mengakibatkan kenaikan temperatur bahan bakar yang signifikan. Kata kunci: Bulk shielding, bahan bakar bekas, konveksi alam, PARET.   ABSTRACT THERMAL HYDRAULIC SAFETY ANALYSIS OF BULK SHIELDING KARTINI REACTOR. Bulk shielding is an integrated facility to Kartini reactor which is used for temporary spent fuels storage. The facility is one of the structures, systems and components (SSCs important to safety. Among the safety functions of fuel handling and storage are to prevent any uncontrolable criticality accidents and to limit the fuel temperature increase. Safety analyses should, at least, cover neutronic and thermal hydraulic calculations of the bulk shielding. Thermal hydraulic analyses were intended to ensure that heat removal and the process of the spent fuels cooling takes place adequately and no heat accumulation that challenges the fuel integrity. Validated code, PARET/ANL was used for analysing the

  15. KARAKTERISASI RADIONUKLIDA PADA TIAP SUB-SISTEM KESELAMATAN REAKTOR DAYA BERBAHAN BAKAR MOX

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    Pande Made Udiyani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Pengganti Bahan bakar UO2, yang tergolong uranium pengkayaan rendah, adalah bahan bakar MOX yang mempunyai pengkayaan yang lebih tinggi. Bahan bakar MOX mempunyai kandungan plutonium dan nuklida dari golongan aktinida yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan bahan bakar UO2, yang akan menghasilkan karakteristik radionuklida yang berbeda untuk setiap sub-sistem reaktor daya. Analisis radionuklida untuk setiap sub-sistem keselamatan pada reaktor daya berbahan bakar MOX dilakukan untuk mengetahui karakteristik radionuklida khususnya plutonium dan aktinida yang akan menimbulkan dampak radiasi dari lepasan radionuklida tersebut. Analisis dilakukan dengan cara menghitung dan mengamati radionuklida untuk setiap sub-sistem keselamatan pada operasi normal dan kecelakaan (small LOCA, large LOCA, severe accident untuk reaktor PWR berkapasitas 1000 MWe. Disimpulkan bahwa penggunaan bahan bakar MOX dapat menambah konsekuensi radiologis ke lingkungan dan masyarakat, terutama karena inventori yang lebih besar termasuk dari radionuklida transuranic dan dari golongan aktinida, antara lain: Pu-239, Am-241, Cm-242, Pu-240, Pu-241 dan Pu-242. Kata kunci: karakteristik nuklida, reaktor daya, bahan bakar, MOX   Substitute UO2 fuel that low enrichment of uranium is that MOX fuel has a higher enrichment. MOX fuel has a content of plutonium and actinide nuclides a higher than UO2 fuel, which will produce different characteristics of radionuclides for each sub-system of power reactors. Analyzis of radionuclide for each safety sub-system at MOX power reactor aims to determine the characteristics of radionuclides, especially plutonium and actinides consequences. Analyzis has done by calculating and observing the radionuclide for each safety sub-system in normal operation and accident (small LOCA, large LOCA, and severe accident on PWR-1000 reactors. It can concluded that the use of MOX fuel can add to the radiological consequences to the environment and public, mainly because a

  16. REAKTOR INNOVATIVE MOLTEN SALT (IMSR DENGAN SISTEM KESELAMATAN PASIF MENYELURUH

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    Andang Widiharto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Pengembangan Teknologi Reaktor Nuklir pada masa mendatang mengarah pada peningkatan aspek keselamatan, peningkatan pendayagunaan bahan bakar, reduksi limbah radioaktif, ketahanan terhadap proliferasi bahan-bakar nuklir dan peningkatan aspek ekonomi. reaktor Innovative Molten Salt (IMSR adalah reaktor nuklir yang menggunakan bahan bakar cair berupa garam lebur fluoride (7LiF-ThF4-UF4-MaFx. Reaktor IMSR didesain sebagai reaktor pembiak termal, yaitu membiakkan U-233 dari Th-232. Hal ini untuk menjawab permasalahan sustainabilitas ketersedian sumber daya bahan bakar nuklir dan reduksi limbah radioaktif. Dalam aspek keselamatan, desain reaktor IMSR memiliki sifat inherent safe, yaitu koefisien umpan balik daya yang negatif serta memiliki fitur-fitur keselamatan pasif. Fitur-fitur keselamatan pasif terdiri dari sistem shutdown pasif, sistem pendinginan pasif pasca shutdown serta sistem pendinginan pasif untuk produk fisi. Kecelakaan yang berpotensi terjadi pada IMSR, yaitu kecelakaan kehilangan aliran bahan bakar, kecelakaan kehilangan aliran pendingin, kecelakaan kehilangan kemampuan pengambilan kalor serta kecelakaan kerusakan integritas sistem reaktor, dapat ditangani sepenuhnya secara pasif hingga mencapai kondisi shutdown selamat. Kata kunci: keselamatan pasif, inherent safe, IMSR   The next Nuclear Reactor Technology developments are directed to the increasing of the aspects of safety, fuel utility, radioactive waste reduction, proliferation retention and economy. Innovative Molten Salt Reactor (IMSR is a nuclear reactor design that uses fluoride molten salt (7LiF-ThF4-UF4-MaFx. IMSR is designed as a thermal breeder reactor, i.e. to produce U-233 from Th-232. This is the answer of natural nuclear fuel sustainability and radioactive waste problems. In term of safety aspect, IMSR design has inherent safe characteristics, i.e. negative power feedback coefficient, and passive safety features. The passive safety features are passive shutdown

  17. ANALISIS SEBARAN RADIONUKLIDA PADA KONDISI NORMAL UNTUK REAKTOR AEC 1000 MW

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    Sri Kuntjoro

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan analisis sebaran radionuklida pada reaktor daya Atomic Energy Agency (AEC 3568 MWTh, setara dengan 1000 Mwe untuk kondisi operasi normal. Analisis dilakukan untuk dua reaktor yang terpisah sejauh 500 m dan sudut 90o satu dengan yang lain. Langkah awal dalam melakukan analisis adalah menentukan suku sumber reaktor menggunakan program komputer ORIGEN2 dan EMERALD NORMAL. ORIGEN2 digunakan untuk menentukan inventori radionuklida yang terdapat di reaktor. Selanjutnya dengan dengan menggunakan program EMERALD NORMAL dihitung suku sumber yang sampai ke cerobong reaktor. Untuk menganalisis dosis yang diterima penduduk dilakukan dengan menggunakan program PC-CREAM. Perhitungan dilakukan untuk satu dan dua PLTN di calon tapak PLTN. Hasil yang diperoleh adalah sebaran radionuklida terbesar untuk satu PLTN pada jarak 1 km dan kearah zona 9 (191,25o dan untuk dua PLTN pada jarak 1 km dan kearah zona 10 (213,75o. Radionuklida yang sampai ke penduduk melalui dua alur yaitu alur makanan dan hirupan. Untuk alur makanan berasal dari radionuklida I-131, dan terbesar melalui alur produk susu sebesar 53,40 % untuk satu maupun dua PLTN . Untuk alur hirupan ranionuklida pemberi kontribusi paparan terbesar berasal dari Kr-85m sebesar 53,80 %. Dosis total terbesar yang diterima penduduk terdapat pada jarak 1 Km untuk bayi yaitu sebesar 4,10 μSi dan 11,26 μSi untuk satu dan dua PLTN. Hasil ini sangat kecil dibandingkan dengan batas dosis yang diijinkan oleh badan pengawas (BAPETEN untuk penduduk yaitu sebesar 1 mSi. Kata Kunci : Reaktor daya, komputer code, radionuklida, alur makanan, hirupan   Analysis for radionuclide dispersion for the Atomic Energy Agency (AEC 3568 MWth Power Reactor, equal to the 1000 MWe at normal condition has been done. Analysis was done for two piles that is separated by 500 m distance and angle of 90o one to other. Initial pace in doing the analysis is to determine reactors source term using ORIGEN2 and EMERALD NORMAL

  18. Studi Pemasangan Damping Reaktor untuk Mengatasi Feroresonansi pada Incoming 20 kV GIS Tandes

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    Satria Seventino Simamora

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pada studi ini, dilakukan simulasi pemasangan damping reaktor sebagai salah satu teknik mitigasi feroresonansi dengan menggunakan ATP Draw. Damping reaktor sebagai teknik mitigasi feroresonansi menggunakan elemen resistor yang dipasang di sisi primer transformer. Hasil dari simulasi pemasangan damping reaktor yang diperoleh berupa respon arus dan respon tegangan yang berubah terhadap waktu yang menunjukkan apakah feroresonansi dapat diredam atau tidak. Dari hasil simulasi pemasangan damping reaktor pada studi ini diperoleh bahwa feroresonansi dapat diredam dengan pemasangan nilai damping yang tepat. Sehingga dalam studi ini akan dibahas mengenai sejauh mana keefektifan dari pemasangan damping untuk meredam feroresonansi.

  19. ANALISIS DESAIN PROSES SISTEM PENDINGIN PADA REAKTOR RISET INOVATIF 50 MW

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    Sukmanto Dibyo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Reaktor Riset Inovatif (RRI merupakan jenis MTR (Material Testing Reactor yang dipersiapkan ke depan sebagai desain reaktor baru. Daya RRI telah ditetapkan dari perhitungan neutronik dan termohidrolika teras yaitu 50 MW termal. Reaktor bertekanan 8 kgf/cm2 dan laju aliran massa pendingin primer 900 kg/s. Tantangan yang penting dalam menindak lanjuti desain reaktor ini adalah analisis desain pada sistem pendingin. Makalah ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis desain proses sistem pendingin utama reaktor RRI daya 50 MW (RRI-50 dengan menggunakan program Chemcad 6.1.4. Dalam analisis ini dilakukan perhitungan neraca massa dan energi (mass/energy balances pada sistem pendingin primer dan sekunder sebagai pendingin utama. Masing-masing sistem pendingin tersebut terdiri dari 2 jalur beroperasi secara paralel dan 1 jalur redundansi. Disamping itu untuk desain termal unit komponen telah dianalisis dengan program RELAP5, frenchcreek dan Metoda Analitik. Hasil analisis yang diperoleh adalah desain diagram sistem pendingin yang mencakup data parameter entalpi, temperatur, tekanan dan laju aliran massa pendingin untuk masing-masing jalur. Adapun hasil desain unit komponen utama pada RRI-50 adalah tangki tunda dengan volume 51,5 m3, 2 unit pompa sentrifugal dan 1 unit pompa cadangan pada pendingin primer daya 141 kW/pompa dan pendingin sekunder daya 206 kW/pompa, 2 unit penukar panas tipe shell-tube dengan koefisien termal overall 1377 W/m2.oC dan 4 unit menara pendingin yang mampu melepaskan panas ke udara dengan desain temperatur approach 5,0 oC dan temperatur range 9,0 oC. Desain sistem pendingin reaktor RRI-50 ini telah menetapkan parameter operasi sistem pendingin yaitu temperatur, tekanan dan laju aliran massa pendingin dengan mempertimbangkan tuntutan aspek keselamatan teras reaktor sehingga desain temperatur maksimum pendingin masuk ke teras 44,5 oC. Kata kunci : RRI 50 MW, desain sistem pendingin, program Chemcad 6.1.4   Innovative Research Reactor RRI

  20. ANALISIS PARAMETER KINETIK DAN TRANSIEN TERAS KOMPAK REAKTOR RSG-GAS

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    Iman Kuntoro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Dalam rangka meningkatkan efisiensi penggunaan bahan bakar reaktor RSG-GAS telah dilakukan studi penentuan teras kompak. Hasil perhitungan parameter neutronik menunjukkan bahwa teras kompak dengan menutup empat fasilitas iradiasi (IP dengan elemen bakar dapat meningkatkan siklus operasi 23,6 %. Selanjutnya perlu dilakukan penentuan parameter kinetik dan analisis transien teras kompak untuk mengetahui keselamatan operasi reaktor. Perhitungan dilakukan dengan menggunakan program WIMS/D4 untuk generasi konstanta difusi sel elemen bakar dan MTRDYN untuk menentukan parameter kinetik dan analisis transien. Hasil perhitungan menunjukkan bahwa harga fraksi neutron kasip total teras kompak naik 2 % dan umur neutron serempak turun 8,3 % dibandingkan dengan teras setimbang. Temperatur maksimum bahan bakar saat transien pada daya awal 1 W adalah 71,64 0C dan pada daya 1 MW adalah 129,60 0C. Hasil ini menunjukkan bahwa teras kompak RSG-GAS aman digunakan sebagai teras alternatif. Kata kunci: parameter kinetik, transien, reaktor   For increasing the efficiency of fuel element of the RSG-GAS reactor, some alternative configuration has been searched to obtain a compact core configuration. Calculation result of the neutronics parameters that the compact core with insertion fuel element to all irradiation facility (IP can increase operation cycle length to about 23.6 %. Then, it is necessary to calculate the kinetic parameters and transient analysis of the compact core to verify the reactor operation safety. Calculations were performed by means of WIMS/D4 and MTRDYN code for generation of cell diffusion constants and for kinetic parameters and transient analysis respectively. The result showed that the total delayed neutron fraction of compact core increases by 2 % and the prompt neutron lifetime decreases 8.3 % compared to the equilibrium core. Maximum temperature of the fuel element at transient at initial power of 1 W is 71.64 0C and at the power 1 MW is 126

  1. Isotopic composition of precipitation at the station Ljubljana (Reaktor, Slovenia – period 2007–2010

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    Polona Vreča

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The stable isotopic composition of hydrogen and oxygen (δ2H and δ18O and the tritium activity (A were monitored in monthly collected precipitation at Ljubljana (Reaktor during the period 2007–2010. Monthly and yearly isotope variations are discussed and compared with those observed over the period 1981–2006 and with the basic meteorological parameters for Ljubljana (Bežigrad and Ljubljana (Hrastje stations for the period 2007−2010. The mean values for δ2H and δ18O, weighted by precipitation amount at Ljubljana (Reaktor, are –59.4 ‰ and –8.71 ‰. The reduced major axis local meteoric water line (LMWLRMA is δ2H = (8.19 ± 0.22×δ18O + (11.52 ± 1.97, while the precipitation weighted least square regression results in LMWLPWLSR-Re δ2H = (7.94 ± 0.21×δ18O + (9.76 ± 1.93. The lack of significant difference in the LMWL slopes indicates a relatively homogeneous distribution of monthly precipitation as well as the small number of low-amount monthly precipitation events with low deuterium excess. The deuterium excess weighted mean value is 10.3 ‰ which indicates the prevailing influence of the Atlantic air masses. The temperature coefficient of δ18O is 0.30 ‰/°C. Tritium activity in monthly precipitation shows typical seasonal variations, with a weighted mean tritium activity in this period of 8.5 TU. No decrease of mean annual activity is observed.

  2. STUDI DESAIN DOWN SCALE TERAS REAKTOR DAN BAHAN BAKAR PLTN JENIS PEBBLE BED MODULAR REACTOR – HTR 100 MWe

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    Slamet Parmanto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan penelitian terhadap teras reaktor Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR dengan daya 100 Mwe berbahan bakar UO2. Reaktor ini menggunakan moderator grafit dan helium sebagai pendingin. Studi down scale dilakukan tanpa mengubah geometri teras maupun geometri bahan bakar. Parameter yang dianalisis adalah kritikalitas teras, reaktivitas lebih, koefisien reaktivitas temperatur bahan bakar, moderator dan pendingin serta nilai ekonomis bahan bakar. Dari penelitian ini diharapkan diperoleh desain bahan bakar yang bernilai ekonomis dan memiliki fitur keselamatan melekat. Penelitian dilakukan dengan menggunakan program SRAC 2003. Hasil yang diperoleh adalah desain bahan bakar UO2 berbentuk pebble dengan pengkayaan 10% U235 dan 90 ppm racun dapat bakar Gd2O3. Nilai faktor multipilkasi effektif keff pada beginning of life (BOL adalah 1,01115 dan menjadi 1,00588 setelah 2658 hari operasi reaktor (EOL. Koefisien reaktivitas temperatur total diperoleh sebesar - 3,25900E-05 ∆k/k/K saat BOL dan -1,10615E-04 ∆k/k/K saat end of life (EOL. Reaktor ini memenuhi karakteristik keselamatan melekat ditandai dengan nilai koefisien reaktivitas temperatur yang negatif. Kata kunci: PBMR, desain bahan bakar, faktor multipilkasi effektif, reaktivitas lebih, koefisien reaktivitas temperatur.   Research of Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR 100 MWe which used UO2 fuel has been done. This reactor uses graphite as moderator and helium as coolant. Down scale studies performed without changing the core and fuel geometry. The parameter being analyzed were core criticality, excess reactivity, fuel, moderator, coolant temperature reactivity coefficient, and fuel economy. This research is expected to obtain the design that has fuel economy and inherent safety features. In this research, we have employed SRAC 2003 code. The calculation show that the UO2 pebble fuel design with 10% enrichment of U235 and 90 ppm burnable poison of Gd2O3 results in the effective multiplication

  3. PEMBUATAN SERBUK U-6Zr DENGAN PENGKAYAAN URANIUM 19,75 % UNTUK BAHAN BAKAR REAKTOR RISET

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    Masrukan Masrukan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK PEMBUATAN SERBUK PADUAN U-6Zr DENGAN PENGKAYAAN URANIUM 19,75 % UNTUK BAHAN BAKAR REAKTOR RISET. Telah dilakukan pembuatan serbuk paduan U-6Zr dengan pengkayaan 19,75 % untuk bahan bakar reaktor riset. Pembuatan bahan bakar U-6Zr ini dalam rangka mencari bahan bakar baru yang mempunyai densitas tinggi untuk mengganti bahan bakar yang sudah ada U3Si2-Al. Tujuan dari percobaan ini untuk mengetahui sifat-sifat serbuk paduan U- 6Zr yang diperoleh dari proses hydriding-dehydriding sebagai kandidat bahan bakar reaktor riset. Serbuk yang diperoleh dari proses hydriding-dehydriding dikenai pengujian, diantaranya pungujian komposisi kimia, densitas, kandungan hidrogen, fasa dan sifat termal. Hasil pengujian komposisi kimia menunjukkan beberapa unsur seperti Al, Ca, Cu, dan Ni melebihi batas yang diijinkan dimana masing-masing unsur terdapat sebesar 202,21 ppm; 214,05 ppm; 61,25 ppm dan 134,53 ppm. Pada pengujian diperolah densitas serbuk U-6Zr sebesar 13,58 g/cm3 dan pada pengujian kandungan hidrogen sisa diperoleh kandungan hidrogen sebesar 0,16 %. Untuk pengujian fasa, diperoleh fasa αU dan δU, sedangkan pada pengujian sifat termal yakni transformasi temperatur terdapat dua puncak yakni puncak pertama terjadi pada temperatur 274 hingga 311 oC dan puncak kedua terjadi pada temperatur 493 hingga 527oC. Puncak pertama terjadi reaksi endotermik dengan menyerap panas sebesar ∆H = 6,23 cal/g tetapi tidak terbentuk fasa baru, sedangkan puncak kedua terjadi reaksi eksotermik dengan mengeluarkan panas sebesar ∆H = -9.34 cal/g dan terbentuk fasa αZr. Sementara itu, dari pengujian kapasitas panas pada temperatur 34 hingga 75 oC, terjadinya penurunan nilai kapasitas panas yang disertai dengan penyerapan panas. Pada temperatur yang lebih tinggi hingga temperatur 437oC nilai kapasitas panas menjadi lebih kecil disertai pengeluaran panas. Reaksi termokimia antara Zr dengan hidrogen sisa menunjukkan terbentuknya fasa αZr yang diindikasikan oleh reaksi

  4. Desain Pengembangan Model Alat Uji Reaktor Nuklir Tipe Small Modular Reactor (Smr) Menggunakan Nanofluida Sebagai Fluida Pendingin

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    Dermawan, Erwin; Rasma, Rasma; Diniardi, Ery; Ramadhan, Anwar Ilmar

    2014-01-01

    Perkembangan dan penggunaan energi nuklir saat ini berkembang sangat pesat, untuk mencapaiteknologi yang semakin maju, baik dari segi desain, faktor ekonomi dan juga faktorkeselamatannya. Dari aspek termofluida reaktor nuklir harus dilakukan dengan perhitungan dankondisi yang mendekati sempurna. Termasuk saat ini mulai dikembangkannya reaktor nuklirdengan daya rendah dibawah 300 MW, atau biasa disebut dengan Small Modular Reactor (SMR).Salah satuny...

  5. DESAIN TERAS REAKTOR RISET INOVATIF (RRI. ESTIMASI DAN ANALISIS DISTRIBUSI PANAS GAMMA

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    Setiyanto Setiyanto

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Panas gamma merupakan faktor yang sangat diperlukan untuk analisis keselamatan pada setiap fasilitas eksperimen yang akan dilakukan di teras reaktor nuklir. Panas gamma merupakan sumber panas internal yang harus dihitung dengan tepat, karena berkaitan dengan masalah keselamatan. Nilai panas gamma sangat bergantung pada karakteristik teras reaktor secara keseluruhan, sehingga setiap desain teras baru harus dilengkapi dengan penentuan nilai distribusi panas gammanya. Reaktor Riset Inovatif (RRI merupakan reaktor riset desain baru yang harus dilengkapi dengan data keselamatannya, termasuk dalam hal ini nilai dan distribusi panas gammanya. Untuk keperluan tersebut, telah dilakukan perhitungan dan analisis distribusi panas gamma teras dan fasilitas iradiasi refletortor RRI dengan menggunakan program Gamset yang telah dimodifikasi dan divalidasi untuk model teras RRI. Diperoleh hasil bahwa di pusat teras reaktor memiliki nilai panas gamma yang cukup tinggi (11,75 W/g, jauh lebih besar dari reaktor RSG-GAS Akan tetapi penempatan semua fasilitas iradiasi di reflektor menunjukkan bahwa desain RRI jauh lebih aman untuk iradiasi dibanding dengan di RSG-GAS, karena memiliki panas gamma di reflektor yang sangat rendah. Disimpulkan bahwa berdasarkan nilai panas gamma di reflektor yang sangat rendah, desain teras reaktor RRI lebih aman untuk penggunaan berbagai jenis iradiasi. ABSTRACT The Gamma heating value is an important factor needed for safety analysis of each experiments that will be realized on research reactor core. Gamma heat is internal heat source occurs in each irradiation facilities or any material irradiated in reactor core. This value should be determined correctly because of the safety related problems. The gamma heating value is in general depend on reactor core characteristics, different one and other, and then each new reactor design should be completed by gamma heating data. The Innovative Research Reactor is one of the new reactor design

  6. PENINGKATAN KINERJA SISTEM KESELAMATAN PASIF PADA REAKTOR NUKLIR DENGAN PENAMBAHAN KOMPONEN RVACS

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    A. G. Abdullah

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Kelengkapan sistem keselamatan pasif dan inheren pada reaktor lanjut merupakan prasyarat utama. Makalah ini mengeksplorasi hasil desain konseptual sistem pembuang sisa panas pada pusat listrik tenaga nuklir berjenis Very High-Temperature Reactor. Tujuan riset ini untuk merancang sistem pembuang sisa panas pusat listrik tenaga nuklir yang terdapat pada dinding reaktor. Studi kinerja Reactor Vessel Auxliary Cooling System (RVACS dilakukan pada dua jenis pendingin yaitu Timbal-Bismut dan Liquid Salt. Panas dari dinding reaktor dihapus melalui sirkulasi alamiah pada keadaan tunak. Analisis melibatkan sistem perpindahan panas secara radiasi, konduksi dan konveksi alami. Perhitungan perpindahan panas dilakukan pada elemen reaktor vessel, dinding luar guard vessel, dan pelat pemisah. Hasil analisis kecelakaan menunjukkan kedua jenis sistem pendingin reaktor dan sistem pasif sisa pembuangan panas cukup menghapus sisa panas hasil peluruhan dengan sirkulasi alami.ABSTRACTCompleteness of passive safety systems and inherent in advanced reactors is a major prerequisite. This paper explores the results of a conceptual design of the heat removal system at the nuclear power plant (NPP type Very High-Temperature Reactor. The purpose of this research was to design the reactor vessel auxiliary cooling system (RVACS of NPP located within the reactor walls. The RVACS performance study was conducted on two types of coolant: Lead-Bismuth and Liquid Salt. Heat was removed from the reactor vessel through the natural circulation in the steady state. Analyses of heat transfer systems involved radiation, conduction and natural convection. Heat transfer calculations were performed on the reactor vessel, guard vessel, and perforated plate. The results from the accident analysis showed that both types, the reactor coolant system and the passive residual heat removal system, adequately remove remaining heat of the decay by a natural circulation.

  7. VERIFIKASI PAKET PROGRAM MVP-II DAN SRAC2006 PADA KASUS TERAS REAKTOR VERA BENCHMARK.

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    Jati Susilo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dalam penelitian ini dilakukan verifikasi perhitungan benchmark VERA pada kasus Zero Power Physical Test (ZPPT teras reaktor Watts Bar 1. Reaktor tersebut merupakan jenis PWR kelas 1000 MWe yang didesain oleh Westinghouse, tersusun dari 193 perangkat bahan bakar 17×17 dengan 3 jenis pengkayaan UO2 yaitu 2,1wt%, 2,619wt% dan 3,1wt%. Perhitungan nilai k-eff dan distribusi faktor daya dilakukan pada siklus operasi pertama teras dengan kondisi beginning of cycle (BOC dan hot zero power (HZP. Posisi batang kendali dibedakan menjadi uncontrolled (semua batang kendali berada di luar teras, dan controlled (batang kendali Bank D didalam teras. Paket program komputer yang digunakan dalam perhitungan adalah MVP-II dan SRAC2006 modul CITATION dengan data pustaka tampang lintang ENDF/B-VII.0. Hasil perhitungan menunjukkan bahwa perbedaan nilai k-eff teras pada kondisi controlled dan uncontrolled antara referensi dengan MVP-II (-0,07% dan -0,014% dan SRAC2006 (0,92% dan 0,99% sangat kecil atau masih dibawah 1%. Perbedaan faktor daya maksimum teras pada kondisi controlled dan uncontrolled dengan referensi dengan MVP-II adalah 0,38% dan 1,53%, sedangkan dengan SRAC2006 adalah 1,13% dan -2,45%. Dapat dikatakan bahwa kedua paket program komputer menunjukkan hasil perhitungan yang sesuai dengan nilai referensi. Dalam hal penentuan kekritisan teras, maka hasil perhitungan MVP-II lebih konservatif dibandingkan dengan SRAC2006. Kata kunci : MVP-II, SRAC2006, PWR, VERA   In this research, verification calculation for VERA core physics benchmark on the Zero Power Physical Test (ZPPT of the nuclear reactor Watts Bar 1. The reactor is a 1000 MWe class of PWR designed by Westinghouse, arranged from 193 unit of 17×17 fuel assembly consisting 3 type enrichment of UO2 that are 2.1wt%, 2.619wt% and 3.1wt%. Core power factor distribution and k-eff calculation has been done for the first cycle operation of the core at beginning of cycle (BOC and hot zero power (HZP. In this

  8. Pengaruh Laju Alir Inlet Reaktor MSL terhadap Reduksi BOD, COD, TSS, dan Minyak/Lemak Limbah Cair Industri Minyak Goreng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salmariza Sy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted by treating edible oil industry wastewater used Multi Soil Layering (MSL method. The MSL reactor was built from a 200x120x200 cm concrete basin. Andisol soil was mixed with sawdust and fine charcoal at each ratio 5:1:1 based on dry weight as an impermeable layer. The flow rate variations were 250, 500, 1000, and 1500 L/m2.day. The observed pollutant parameters were BOD, COD, TSS, oil/fat, and pH. The results showed that MSL reactor was effective to decrease the pollutant content of edible oil industry wastewater. The reactor could reduce concentration of effluent parameters below standard except for oil/fat parameters at high flow rates. In the effluent was found BOD 0.66-14.22 mg/L, COD 5-69 mg/L, TSS 9-26 mg/L, and oil/fat 2-9 mg/L. The flow rate had an effect on reduction efficiency of BOD, COD, TSS, and oil/fat but did not effect pH as all flow rate could raise pH 6.37-6.95 became pH 6.99-7.24. The lower the flow rate the higher the reduction efficiency. The reduction efficiency at flow rates 250 and 1500 L/m2 days for BOD were 99% and 86%, COD were 96% and 71%, TSS were 88% and 77%, and oil/fat were 80% and 60%.ABSTRAK  Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan mengolah air limbah industri minyak goreng menggunakan metoda Multi Soil Layering (MSL. Reaktor MSL dibuat dari beton berbentuk bak ukuran 200x120x200 cm. Tanah andisol dicampur dengan serbuk gergaji dan arang halus pada rasio masing-masing 5:1:1 berdasarkan berat kering sebagai penyusun lapisan impermeable. Variasi laju alir yaitu 250, 500, 1000, dan 1500 L/m2.hari. Parameter pencemar yang dianalisis meliputi BOD, COD, TSS, minyak/lemak, dan pH. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa reaktor MSL sangat efektif untuk menurunkan kandungan zat pencemar limbah cair industri minyak goreng. Reaktor dapat mereduksi konsentrasi parameter outlet sampai dibawah baku mutu yang distandarkan kecuali untuk parameter miyak/lemak pada perlakuan laju alir tinggi. Pada effluen

  9. STUDI KARAKTERISTIK PEMBENTUKAN UAP DALAM PEMBANGKIT UAP HELIKAL PADA REAKTOR MODULAR DAYA KECIL

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    Susyadi Susyadi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Reaktor modular daya kecil (SMR sangat cocok untuk  dibangun Indonesia, terutama pada lokasi-lokasi dengan kapasitas jaringan listrik yang rendah sehingga investigasi lebih jauh tentang reaktor ini sangat diperlukan. Umumnya SMR memiliki bentuk pembangkit uap yang kompak dan terintegrasi di dalam bejana tekan. Disain tersebut menyebabkan perbedaan pendekatan dalam memproduksi uap dibandingkan reaktor nuklir konvensional yang menggunakan pembangkit uap tabung-u terbalik. Oleh karena itu tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui karakteristik uap dan pola pembentukkannya di dalam pembangkit uap tipe helikal yang banyak digunakan oleh SMR. Metoda yang dipakai adalah dengan melakukan pemodelan dan perhitungan numerik menggunakan program RELAP5. Dalam pemodelan, aliran air umpan  bertekanan dan temperatur rendah dimasukkan ke dalam tabung helikal sementara aliran fluida bertekanan dan temperatur tinggi, yang mewakili pendingin sistem primer reaktor, berada di sisi luar tabung. Hasil perhitungan menunjukkan bahwa uap yang dihasilkan oleh pembangkit uap helikal bersifat lewat jenuh yakni sekitar 25 K di atas titik jenuhnya. Hal ini memberikan keunggulan komparatif dari segi disain dan operasional pada SMR dibanding reaktor konvensional karena uap lewat jenuh yang dihasilkan dapat mengurangi kerugian turbin dan sekaligus meningkatkan efisiensi termodinamika. Kata kunci: pembangkit uap helikal, SMR, PWR, uap lewat jenuh, RELAP5   Small modular reactor (SMR is very suitable to be deployed in Indonesia especially for locations having low electrical grid capacity, so  further investigation on the characteritic of this reactor is needed. In general SMR has a compact and integrated-to-vessel steam generator design. This design implies different approach in producing steam as compared to conventional nuclear power plant  having inverted u-tube steam generator. For that reason, this research is intended to investigate the steam characteristic and

  10. PERHITUNGAN SUHU ELEMEN BAKAR REAKTOR TRIGA 2000 DALAM TABUNG SIPPING TEST MENGGUNAKAN CFD

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    K.A. Sudjatmi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Telah dihitung suhu elemen bakar pada perangkat sipping test reaktor TRIGA 2000 Bandung. Perhitungan perlu dilakukan untuk memastikan bahwa suhu elemen bakar masih dibawah atau pada batas suhu elemen bakar yang diizinkan pada saat reaktor beroperasi, sehingga dapat dipastikan bahwa pada pelaksanaan pengujian dengan menggunakan perangkat ini, suhu masih dalam batas keselamatan. Perhitungan dilakukan dengan membuat model tabung sipping test berisi elemen bakar yang dikelilingi oleh 9 buah elemen bakar, sesuai dengan posisi tabung sipping test di teras reaktor, dengan menggunakan GAMBIT. Dimensi model disesuaikan dengan dimensi tabung dan elemen bakar dalam teras reaktor TRIGA 2000 Bandung. Pengoperasian sipping test untuk tiap elemen bakar dilakukan selama 30 menit pada daya 300 kW. Perhitungan dilakukan dengan menggunakan perangkat lunak Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD dan sebagai inputan disesuaikan dengan parameter reaktor TRIGA 2000. Simulasi dilakukan pada pengoperasian dari 30, 60, 90, 120 150, 180 sampai 210 menit. Hasil perhitungan menunjukan bahwa suhu pusat bahan bakar dalam tabung sipping test sebesar 236,06 oC, sedangkan suhu dinding elemen bakar adalah sebesar 87,58 oC. Suhu maksimum pusat bahan bakar reaktor TRIGA 2000 pada operasi normal adalah 650 oC, dan tidak diizinkan terjadinya pendidihan di dalam teras reaktor. Jadi dapat disimpulkan bahwa pengoperasian perangkat sipping test masih sangat aman karena suhu bahan bakar berada dibawah batasan suhu bahan bakar yang diizinkan pada kondisi operasi normal demikian juga suhu dinding elemen bakar masih dibawah suhu didih air. Kata kunci: sipping test, TRIGA, elemen bakar, CFD   It has been calculated the fuel element temperature in the sipping test of Bandung TRIGA 2000 reactor. The calculation needs to be done to ascertain that the fuel element temperatures are below or at the limit of the allowable temperature fuel elements during reactor operation, ensuring that the

  11. ANALISIS PENGARUH IRADIASI FLUENS NEUTRON CEPAT TERHADAP BERILIUM REFLEKTOR REAKTOR RSG-GAS

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    Sri Kuntjoro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan analisis iradiasi fluens neutron cepat terhadap berilium reflektor reaktor RSG-GAS. Analisis dilakukan dengan cara melakukan pengukuran fluks neutron di posisi berilium elemen dan berilium blok yang berfungsi sebagai reflector. Selanjutnya dilakukan perhitungan untuk menentukan apakah ada pengaruh fluens neutron selama berilium berada di teras reaktor. Selain cara tersebut dilakukan pula visualisasi untuk memastikan ada tidaknya deformasi pada berilium akibat iradiasi. Hasil pengukuran fluks dan fluens neutron cepat maksimal pada daya 200 kW untuk berilium elemen posisi E-2 sebesar 2,30E+07 n/cm2s dan 4,19E+17 n/cm2, J-8 sebesar 3,70E+07 n/cm2s dan 6,74E+17 n/cm2. Hasil pengukutan pada posisi B-3 sebesar 2,19E+12 n/cm2s dan 3,99E+22 n/cm2, G-10 sebesar 2,12E+12 n/cm2s dan 3,86E+22 n/cm2, serta berilium blok posisi (5-6 sebesar 5,02E+07 n/cm2s dan 9,15E+17 n/cm2, (C-D sebesar 2,32E+07 n/cm2s dan 4,23E+17 n/cm2. Deformasi yang diperoleh untuk berilium elemen (∆L/L posisi E-2 sebesar 1,12E-08, J-8 sebesar 1,84E-08, B-3 sebesar 1,60E-03, posisi G-10 sebesar 1,55E-03, sedangkan pada berilium blok di posisi 5-6 sebesar 2,52E-08 dan C-D sebesar 1,13E-08. Dari hasil ini disimpulkan tidak terjadi deformasi pada berilium elemen dan berilium blok. Hasil ini dibuktikan pula dari pengamatan visual, dimana tidak terlihat adanya deformasi pada berilium tersebut. Kata kunci : fluks, fluens, berilium elemen, berilium blok   Analysis of influence fast neutron fluence irradiated to the RSG-GAS beryllium reflector have been done. Methods of analysis was carried out by measuring fluxs neutron in beryllium element and block positio that function as reflector. The calculation done for determination it is there any influence of neutron as long as beryllium in the core. Bisede that, visualization done to make sure it there is any deformation at beryllium as efect of irradiation. Fluxs and fluences of beryllium element measurement result in 200 k

  12. ANALISIS KONDISI TERAS REAKTOR DAYA MAJU AP1000 PADA KECELAKAAN SMALL BREAK LOCA

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    Andi Sofrany Ekariansyah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK ANALISIS KONDISI TERAS REAKTOR DAYA MAJU AP1000 PADA KECELAKAAN SMALL BREAK LOCA. Kecelakaan yang diakibatkan oleh kehilangan pendingin (loss of coolant accident / LOCA dari sistem reaktor merupakan kejadian dasar desain yang tetap diantisipasi dalam desain reaktor daya yang mengadopsi teknologi Generasi II hingga IV. LOCA ukuran kecil (small break LOCA memiliki dampak yang lebih signifikan terhadap keselamatan dibandingkan LOCA ukuran besar (large break LOCA seperti terlihat pada kejadian Three-Mile Island (TMI. Fokus makalah adalah pada analisis small break LOCA pada reaktor daya maju Generasi III+ yaitu AP1000 dengan mensimulasikan tiga kejadian pemicu yaitu membukanya katup Automatic Depressurization System (ADS secara tak disengaja, putusnya salah satu pipa Direct Vessel Injection (DVI secara double-ended, dan putusnya pipa lengan dingin dengan diameter bocoran 10 inci. Metode yang digunakan adalah simulasi kejadian pada model AP1000 yang dikembangkan secara mandiri menggunakan program perhitungan RELAP5/SCDAP/Mod3.4. Dampak yang ingin dilihat adalah kondisi teras selama terjadinya small break LOCA yang terdiri dari pembentukan mixture level dan transien temperatur kelongsong bahan bakar. Hasil simulasi menunjukkan bahwa mixture level untuk semua kejadian small break LOCA berada di atas tinggi teras aktif yang menunjukkan tidak terjadinya core uncovery. Adanya mixture level berpengaruh pada transien temperatur kelongsong yang menurun dan menunjukkan pendinginan bahan bakar yang efektif. Hasil di atas juga identik dengan hasil perhitungan program lain yaitu NOTRUMP. Keefektifan pendinginan teras juga disebabkan oleh berfungsinya injeksi pendingin melalui fitur keselamatan pasif yang menjadi ciri reaktor daya AP1000. Secara keseluruhan, hasil analisis menunjukkan model AP1000 yang telah dikembangkan dengan RELAP5 dapat digunakan untuk keperluan analisis kecelakaan dasar desain pada reaktor daya maju AP1000. Kata kunci: analisis

  13. PERFORMA OKSIDASI METAN PADA REAKTOR KONTINYU DENGAN PENINGKATAN KETEBALAN LAPISAN BIOCOVER LANDFILL

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    Opy Kurniasari

    2013-11-01

    methane through the form of methanol metabolite. ABSTRAKPenanganan sampah kota di Indonesia pada umumnya dilakukan pada tempat pemrosesan akhir sampah (TPA, yang sebagian besar dilakukan dengan cara pengurugan (landfilling yang cenderung bersifat anaerob (tidak ada oksigen. Cara pengurugan ini biasanya dioperasikan lapis perlapis sehingga memungkinkan terjadinya proses anaerob. Pada kondisi ini dipastikan biogas, yaitu gas metana (CH4 dan CO2, akan muncul. Metana adalah gas rumah kaca dengan potensi pemanasan global lebih besar dari CO2, dan dapat mengabsorpsi radiasi infra merah 23 kali lebih efisien dari CO2 pada periode lebih dari 100 tahun. Salah satu cara yang dapat dilakukan untuk mengurangi gas metana dari landfill yang lepas ke alam adalah dengan mengoksidasinya dengan memanfaatkan material penutup landfill (biocover sebagai media mikroorganisma pengoksidasi metana. Aplikasi kompos sebagai material penutup landfill merupakan pendekatan dengan biaya rendah untuk mereduksi emisi gas dari landfill sehingga cocok untuk negara berkembang. Biocover yang digunakan pada penelitian ini adalah kompos landfill mining, yaitu kompos yang terdegradasi secara alami di landfill. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengevaluasi kemampuan biocover kompos landfill mining dalam mengoksidasi metana pada ketebalan lapisan tertentu dengan kondisi aliran kontinyu. Tiga buah reaktor kolom yang digunakan terbuat dari flexy glass berukuran tinggi 70 cm dan diameter 15 cm. Gas metana dialirkan dari bawah reaktor secara kontinyu dengan laju alir 5 ml/menit. Kolom diisi dengan biocover kompos landfill mining dengan ketebalan lapisan 5, 25, 35 dan 60 cm. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa semakin tebal lapisan biocover, semakin tinggi efisiensi oksidasi metana. Efisiensi oksidasi yang diperoleh pada setiap ketebalan lapisan 15, 25, 35 dan 60 cm adalah masing-masing 56,43%, 63,69%, 74,58% dan 80,03%, dengan laju oksidasi 0,287 mol m-2 d-1 dan fraksi oksidasi 97%. Hasil oksidasi yang diperoleh tersebut

  14. How ABB Reaktor tackles inspection, repair and cleaning of SG tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahner, K.

    1991-01-01

    Despite the large advances in the materials and chemistry used in nuclear power plants, steam generators remain a vulnerable component in the primary circuit of pressurized water reactors. The inspection, repair and the preventive maintenance of steam generator tubes are increasingly important technical disciplines. As part of its activities as a nuclear service company, ABB Reaktor has developed a family of tools and techniques that have been qualified and used for inspection and repair work on all types of steam generators. These include the remotely controlled DERI manipulator, eddy current testing equipment, removable plugs for tube repairs and two secondary side cleaning processes. (author)

  15. ANALISIS DAN PENGUKURAN PARAMETER REAKTOR KARTINI UNTUK PENERAPAN METODE K0-NAA

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    Sri Murniasih

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Metode k0-NAA merupakan metode analisis yang banyak digunakan dengan berbagai keunggulan. Dalam penerapan metode k0-NAA diperlukan nilai parameter reaktor (f dan α, maka tujuan penelitian ini adalah akan dilakukan pengukuran nilai parameter f dan α di fasilitas Lazy Susan reaktor Kartini. Metode yang digunakan meliputi metode Cd-ratio dan triple bare. Telah diukur nilai parameter tersebut pada tiga lubang iradiasi di fasilitas Lazy Susan. Diperoleh perbedaan hasil pengukuran nilai parameter yang signifikan pada setiap lubang iradiasi, nilai ƒ berkisar 13,713 - 22,128 dan α berkisar -0,060 – 0,068. Hasil pengukuran f dan α dengan metode Cd-ratio, memberikan nilai yang lebih stabil dibandingkan metode triple bare. Nilai f dan α yang diperoleh dapat dijadikan basis data pada penerapan metode k0-NAA untuk analisis sampel di laboratorium AAN – PSTA. Kata kunci: parameter reaktor, reaktor Kartini, k0-NAA, fluks neutron   The k0-NAA method is an analysis method that widely used by many of the advantages. In the application of k0-NAA method needed valuea of reactor parameters (f and α, then the purpose of the research would be conducted meaasurement parameter values f and α in the Lazy Susan Kartini reactor facilities. The methods used include Cd-ratio and triple bare methods. The parameter value has been measured in three channels in the irradiation facilities Lazy Susan. Differences of measurement results obtained parameter values are significant in each channel irradiation, the value of ƒ ranged from 13.713 to 22.128 and the value of α ranged from -0.060 – 0.068. The results of measurements for the f and α with the Cd-ratio method, providing more stable value than the triple bare method. The value of f and α obtained can be used a database for the application of k0-NAA method for sample analysis in the laboratory NAA – CAST. Keywords: reactor parameter, Kartini reactor, k0-NAA, neutron flux

  16. VERIFIKASI KECELAKAAN HILANGNYA ALIRAN AIR UMPAN PADA REAKTOR DAYA PWR MAJU

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    Andi Sofrany Ekariansyah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available AP1000 adalah reaktor daya PWR maju dengan daya listrik 1154 MW yang didesain berdasarkan kinerja teruji dari desain PWR lain oleh Westinghouse. Untuk mempersiapkan peran Pusat Teknologi Reaktor dan Keselamatan Nuklir sebagai suatu Technical Support Organization (TSO dalam hal verifikasi keselamatan, telah dilakukan kegiatan verifikasi keselamatan untuk AP1000 yang dimulai dengan verifikasi kecelakaan kegagalan pendingin sekunder. Kegiatan dimulai dengan pemodelan fitur keselamatan teknis yaitu sistem pendinginan teras pasif yang terdiri dari sistem Passive Residual Heat Removal (PRHR, tangki core makeup tank (CMT, dan tangki In-containment Refueling Water Storage Tank (IRWST. Kecelakaan kegagalan pendingin sekunder yang dipilih adalah hilangnya aliran air umpan ke salah satu pembangkit uap yang disimulasikan menggunakan program perhitungan RELAP5/SCDAP/Mod3.4. Tujuan analisis adalah untuk memperoleh sekuensi perubahan parameter termohidraulika reaktor akibat kecelakaan dimana hasil analisis yang diperoleh divalidasi dan dibandingkan dengan hasil analisis menggunakan program perhitungan LOFTRAN di dalam dokumen desain keselamatan AP1000. Hasil verifikasi menunjukkan bahwa kejadian hilangnya suplai air umpan tidak berdampak pada kerusakan teras, sistem pendingin reaktor, maupun sistem sekunder. Penukar kalor PRHR telah terverifikasi kemampuannya dalam membuang kalor peluruhan teras setelah trip reaktor. Hasil validasi dengan dokumen pembanding menunjukkan kesesuaian pada sebagian besar parameter termohidraulika. Secara umum, model PWR maju yang dilengkapi dengan sistem pendinginan teras ciri pasif yang telah dikembangkan tetap selamat ketika terjadi kecelakaan kehilangan aliran pendingin sekunder. Kata kunci: Verifikasi, hilangnya aliran air umpan, AP1000   AP1000 is a PWR power reactor with 1154 MW of electrical power that is designed based on the proven performance of the other Westinghouse PWR designs. To prepare the role of Center for

  17. ANALISIS KRITIKALITAS BAHAN BAKAR NUKLIR BEKAS REAKTOR RSG-GAS PADA RAK BERBAHAN ALUMINIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pungky Ayu Artiani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Penggunaan stainless steel sebagai material rak penyimpanan bahan bakar nuklir bekas (BBNB di fasilitas Kanal Hubung – Instalasi Penyimpanan Sementara Bahan Bakar Bekas (KH-IPSB3 berpotensi menyebabkan terjadinya korosi galvanik pada BBNB sehingga penggantian material rak penyimpanan BBNB perlu dipertimbangkan. Potensi korosi galvanik terjadi karena aluminium sebagai material utama kelongsong Bahan Bakar Nuklir (BBN Reaktor Serba Guna - G. A. Siwabessy (reaktor RSG-GAS berinteraksi dengan stainless steel sebagai material rak penyimpan BBNB. Aluminium dapat digunakan sebagai material alternatif rak penyimpanan BBNB untuk mengurangi efek korosi galvanik. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji kritikalitas rak penyimpanan BBNB dengan material aluminium. Jaminan kritikalitas diperlukan untuk menjaga keselamatan fasilitas KH-IPSB3. Rak penyimpanan aluminium yang optimum dikaji dengan melakukan simulasi ukuran pitch dan menghitung laju serapan neutron pada kondisi normal (tidak terjadi kecelakaan. Perhitungan nilai kritikalitas (keff dilakukan menggunakan program Monte Carlo N-Particle versi 6 (MCNP6. Model yang digunakan adalah model 3-dimensi satu rak utuh yang terisi penuh dengan BBNB di dalam kolam penyimpanan. Hasil perhitungan pada ukuran pitch 127 mm menunjukkan bahwa nilai keff rak penyimpanan BBNB dengan material aluminium (keff = 0,7709 lebih besar 13,20% dibandingkan material stainless steel (keff = 0,6810. Nilai keff rak penyimpanan BBNB dengan material aluminium pada ukuran tersebut masih berada dalam rentang yang disyaratkan yaitu keff kurang dari 0,95. Nilai keff dipengaruhi oleh ukuran pitch, dimana dengan berkurangnya ukuran pitch 1 mm dapat meningkatkan nilai keff sebesar 14,24%. Nilai laju serapan neutron juga mempengaruhi nilai keff, di mana laju serap neutron rak penyimpanan dengan material aluminium lebih kecil dibandingkan material stainless steel. Hasil simulasi menunjukkan bahwa rak penyimpanan dengan material aluminium

  18. Disain Sistem Pemantauan Lingkungan Untuk Evaluasi Lepasan Radionuklida dari Subsistem pada Kecelakaan Reaktor Daya PWR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Kuntjoro

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available PLTN. (Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Nuklir sebagai sumber energi baru dipilih sebagai alternatif, karena memiliki berbagai kelebihan yaitu ramah lingkungan, pasokan bahan bakar yang tidak bergantung musim, serta harganya yang dapat bersaing dengan pembangkit listrik yang lain. Namun demikian, adanya keraguan sebagian masyarakat tentang keselamatan radiasi PLTN, maka pemerintah harus bisa meyakinkan tentang operasi PLTN yang aman dan selamat. Penelitian tentang disain sistem pemantauan lingkungan untuk evaluasi lepasan radionuklida dari subsistem reaktor dan lingkungan akibat terjadinya kecelakaan pada reaktor daya telah dilakukan. Penelitian dilakukan dengan melakukan perhitungan sebaran radionuklida ke subsistem dan lingkungan serta membuat sistim monitoring radiasi di lingkungan. Sistem monitoring lingkungan terdiri dari system pencacah radiasi, sistem peringatan dini, sistem pengukuran meteorologi, sistem GPS dan system GIS. Sistem pencacah radiasi digunakan untuk mencatat data radiasi, sistem pengukuran meteorologi digunakan untuk mencatat data arah dan kecepatan angin, sedangkan sistem GPS digunakan untuk menentukan data posisi pengukuran. Data tersebut kemudian dikirimkan ke system akuisisi data untuk ditransmisikan ke pusat kendali. Pengumpulan dan pengiriman data dilakukan melalui SMS menggunakan perangkat modem yang ditempatkan di ruang kendali. Ruang kendali menerima data dari berbagai tempat pengukuran. Dalam hal ini ruang kendali memiliki fungsi sebagai SMS gateway. Sistem ini dapat memvisualisasi untuk lokasi pengukuran yang berbeda. Selanjutnya, data posisi dan data radiasi diintegrasikan dengan peta digital. Integrasi sistem tersebut kemudian divisualisasikan dalam personal komputer. Untuk posisi pengukuran terlihat langsung di peta dan untuk data radiasi ditampilkan di monitor dengan tanda lingkaran merah atau hijau yang digunakan sebagai pemonitor batas aman radiasi. Bila tanda lingkaran berwarna merah maka akan menyalakan alarm di

  19. PENGARUH GEMPA PATAHAN LEMBANG TERHADAP FLEKSIBILITAS PIPA DAN KEGAGALAN NOZEL PERALATAN SISTEM PENDINGIN PRIMER REAKTOR TRIGA 2000 BANDUNG

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    H.P. Raharjo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Gempa bumi di suatu instalasi nuklir dapat menyebabkan terjadinya kerusakan sistem peralatan karena adanya perubahan fleksibilitas pipa akibat beban berlebih pada sistem perpipaannya. Beban dari sistem perpipaan dapat membebani nozel peralatan seperti pompa, penukar panas, dll. Apabila beban tersebut terlalu besar dan melebihi beban yang diizinkan akan mengakibatkan kegagalan nozel peralatan. Penelitian ini menganalisis besarnya beban-beban yang terjadi di semua nozel  sistem pendingin primer Reaktor TRIGA 2000 Bandung. Analisis dilakukan dengan bantuan perangkat lunak Caesar II yang berbasis metode elemen hingga (finite element method. Acuan analisis yang digunakan adalah code ASME B31.1 yang mengatur tentang perancangan sistem perpipaan untuk sistem pembangkit daya (Power Piping. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa gaya yang terjadi pada nozel masukan pompa arah aksial (FZ melebihi batas yang diijinkan. Oleh karena itu perlu dilakukan modifikasi terhadap jalur perpipaan sistem pendingin tersebut agar nozel tidak menerima gaya yang berlebih. Penyangga pipa titik(node 22 di jalur PriOut dilepas dan/atau dipindahkan pada nozel masukkan pompa. Perpipaan sistem pendingin primer reaktor TRIGA 2000 Bandung akan aman beroperasi jika terjadi gempa.yang berasal dari patahan Lembang Kata kunci : gempa bumi, patahan, perpipaan, reaktor, sistem pendingin

  20. PEMODELAN KOLIMATOR DI RADIAL BEAM PORT REAKTOR KARTINI UNTUK BORON NEUTRON CAPTURE THERAPY

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    Bemby Yulio Vallenry

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu metode terapi kanker adalah Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT. BNCT memanfaatkan tangkapan neutron oleh 10B yang terendapkan pada sel kanker. Keunggulan BNCT dibandingkan dengan terapi radiasi lainnya adalah tingkat selektivitas yang tinggi karena tingkatannya adalah sel. Pada penelitian ini dilakukan pemodelan kolimator di radial beamport reaktor Kartini sebagai dasar pemilihan material dan manufature kolimator sebagai sumber neutron untuk BNCT. Pemodelan ini dilakukan dengan simulasi menggunakan perangkat lunak Monte Carlo N-Particle versi 5 (MCNP 5. MCNP 5 adalah suatu paket program untuk memodelkan sekaligus menghitung masalah transpor partikel dengan mengikuti sejarah hidup neutron semenjak lahir, bertranspor pada bahan hingga akhirnya hilang karena mengalami reaksi penyerapan atau keluar dari sistem. Pemodelan ini menggunakan variasi material dan ukurannya agar menghasilkan nilai dari tiap parameter-parameter yang sesuai dengan rekomendasi I International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA untuk BNCT, yaitu fluks neutron epitermal (Фepi > 9 n.cm-2.s-1, rasio antara laju dosis neutron cepat dan fluks neutron epitermal (Ḋf/Фepi 0,7. Berdasarkan hasil optimasi dari pemodelan ini, material dan ukuran penyusun kolimator yang didapatkan yaitu 0,75 cm Ni sebagai dinding kolimator, 22 cm Al sebagai moderator dan 4,5 cm Bi sebagai perisai gamma. Keluaran berkas radiasi yang dihasilkan dari pemodelan kolimator radial beamport yaitu Фepi = 5,25 x 106 n.cm-2s-1, Ḋf/Фepi =1,17 x 10-13 Gy.cm2.n-1, Ḋγ/Фepi = 1,70 x 10-12 Gy.cm2.n-1, Фth/Фepi = 1,51 dan J/Фepi = 0,731. Berdasarkan penelitian ini, hasil optimasi 5 parameter sebagai persyaratan kolimator untuk BNCT yang keluar dari radial beam port tidak sepenuhnya memenuhi kriteria yang direkomendasikan oleh IAEA sehingga perlu dilakukan penelitian lebih lanjut agar tercapainya persyaratan IAEA. Kata kunci: BNCT, radial beamport, MCNP 5, kolimator   One of the cancer therapy methods is

  1. PENGEMBANGAN MODEL UNTUK SIMULASI KESELAMATAN REAKTOR PWR 1000 MWe GENERASI III+ MENGGUNAKAN PROGRAM KOMPUTER RELAP5

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    Andi Sofrany Ekariansyah

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Reaktor daya PWR AP1000 yang didesain oleh Westinghouse adalah reaktor Generasi III+ pertama yang telah menerima persetujuan desain dari U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC. Saat ini utilitas China telah memulai pembangunan beberapa unit AP1000 di dua tapak terpilih untuk rencana operasi pada 2013-2015. AP1000 sebagai desain PWR berdasarkan teknologi teruji dari desain PWR lainnya yang dibuat oleh Westinghouse dengan penguatan pada sistem keselamatan pasif dengan demikian dapat dipertimbangkan untuk dibangun di Indonesia bila mengacu pada persyaratan pada PP 43/2006 mengenai Perijinan Reaktor Nuklir. Namun demikian, desain tersebut perlu diverifikasi oleh Technical Support Organization (TSO independen sebelum dapat dibangun di Indonesia. Verifikasi dapat dilakukan menggunakan paket program RELAP5 dalam bentuk analisis kecelakaan. Selama ini analisis kecelakaan PLTN dilakukan untuk tipe PWR 1000 MWe dari generasi II atau tipe konvensional. Mengingat saat ini referensi yang menggambarkan teknologi AP1000 yang menyertakan teknologi keselamatan pasif sudah tersedia maka dilakukan kegiatan pemodelan yang nantinya dapat digunakan untuk melakukan analisis kecelakaan. Metode pengembangan model mengacu pada pedoman IAEA yang terdiri dari pengumpulan data instalasi, pengembangan engineering data dan penyusunan input deck, verifikasi dan validasi data input. Model yang berhasil dikembangkan secara umum telah mewakili sistem AP1000 secara keseluruhan dan dianggap sebagai model dasar. Model tersebut telah diverifikasi dan divalidasi dengan data desain yang terdapat pada referensi dimana respon parameter termohidraulika menunjukkan perbedaan hasil ± 3% selain untuk parameter penurunan tekanan teras yang lebih rendah 13%. Sebagai model dasar, input deck yang diperoleh dapat dikembangkan lebih lanjut dengan mengintegrasikan pemodelan sistem keselamatan, sistem proteksi, dan sistem kendali yang spesifik AP1000 untuk keperluan simulasi keselamatan yang lebih

  2. ANALISIS DISTRIBUSI KECEPATAN PENDINGIN DALAM ELEMEN BAKAR TIPE PELAT MENGGUNAKAN METODE CFD UNTUK REAKTOR RISET RSG-GAS

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    Muhammad Subekti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Eksperimen pengukuran distribusi kecepatan pendingin dalam subkanal elemen bakar reaktor riset RSG-GAS sulit dilakukan karena lebar celah yang sangat kecil dan terletak di dalam elemen bakar. Oleh karena itu diperlukan perhitungan untuk memprediksi distribusi kecepatan pendingin dalam subkanal untuk mengkonfirmasi bahwa keberadaan handle tidak merusak distribusi kecepatan pendingin masuk ke dalam setiap subkanal. Perhitungan ini memerlukan metode CFD yang memperhatikan interior 3 dimensi. Perhitungan distribusi kecepatan pendingin dalam subkanal juga belum pernah dilakukan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah melakukan investigasi distribusi kecepatan pendingin elemen bakar tipe pelat menggunakan metode CFD 3 dimensi untuk reaktor riset RSG-GAS. Penelitian ini juga sangat diperlukan sebagai bagian dari pengembangan desain termohidrolika elemen bakar untuk reaktor riset inovatif. Pemodelan menggunakan ½ model dalam perangkat lunak Gambit dan perhitungan menggunakan persamaan Turbulen dalam perangkat lunak FLUENT 6.3. Hasil perhitungan kecepatan pendingin tiga dimensi dalam subkanal menggunakan metode CFD lebih rendah sekitar 4,06% dari pada hasil perhitungan satu dimensi karena perhitungan satu dimensi mengabaikan keberadaan handle. Kata kunci: Aliran pendingin, elemen bakar, reaktor riset, kondisi tunak, CFD   The measurement experiment for coolant-velocity distribution in the subchannel of fuel element of RSG-GAS research reactor is difficult to be carried out due to too narrow channel and subchannel placed inside the fuel element. Hence, the calculation is required to predict the coolant-velocity distribution inside subchannel to confirm that the handle presence does not ruin the velocity distribution into every subchannel. This calculation utilizes CFD method, which respect to 3-dimension interior. Moreover, the calculation of coolant-velocity distribution inside subchannel was not ever carried out. The research object is to investigate the

  3. APLIKASI TEKNIK AAN DI REAKTOR RSG-GAS PADA PENENTUAN UNSUR ESENSIAL DAN TOKSIK DI DALAM IKAN DAN PAKAN IKAN

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    Saeful Yusuf

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pada makalah ini diuraikan tentang aplikasi teknik AAN (Analisis Aktivasi Neutron dalam penentuan konsentrasi unsur-unsur esensial dan cemaran yang terkandung di dalam beberapa spesies ikan dan pakan ikan. Unsur-unsur esensial yang terkandung dalam pakan ikan buatan juga dianalisis untuk mengetahui pengaruhnya terhadap ikan. Penentuan unsur menggunakan teknik AAN dengan metode perbandingan dan metode k0-AAN. Sampel diiradiasi di reaktor RSG-GAS yang memiliki fluks neutron thermal 5 x 1013 n.cm-2.s-1 pada daya 15 MW. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa 12 unsur di dalam 11 spesies ikan air laut dan air tawar telah ditentukan yaitu As, Br, Cr, Co, Cs, Fe, Hg, K, Na, Rb, Se and Zn. Konsentrasi cemaran As didalam ikan laut sudah melampaui batas maksimum 1 mg/kg, sedangkan konsentrasi cemaran Hg masih dibawah batas maksimum 0,5 mg/kg, baik untuk ikan laut maupun ikan air tawar. Unsur K dan Na merupakan unsur makroesensial sedangkan unsur Cr, Co, Fe, Se and Zn adalah termasuk unsur mikroesensial. Secara umum ditunjukkan bahwa kandungan mineral didalam ikan laut lebih tinggi konsentrasinya dibandingkan ikan air tawar. Br, Cs dan Rb merupakan unsur-unsur non esensial yang teridentifikasi dalam semua ikan yang dianalisis. Penelitian terhadap pakan ikan air tawar menunjukkan bahwa semua unsur yang teridentifikasi juga terdapat di dalam ikan laut dan ikan air tawar. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa pakan ikan berkontribusi terhadap konsentrasi unsur di dalam ikan air tawar. Kata kunci : Analisis aktivasi neutron, unsur esensial, unsur cemaran, ikan, pakan ikan   This paper reported on the application of NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis Technique in the determination of the concentration of the essential and toxic elements in some species of fish and fish feed. Determination of elements using instrumental NAA technique with comparison and k0-INAA methods. Samples were irradiated in the RSG-GAS which has a thermal neutron flux  5.0E +13 ncm-2s-1. The results

  4. PENJERAPAN GAS CO HASIL PEMBAKARAN SAMPAH MENGGUNAKAN SORBENT TERMODIFIKASI DALAM REAKTOR FIXED BED

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    Mariana Mariana

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available ADSORPTION OF CO FROM WASTE COMBUSTION USING MODIFIED SORBENT IN A FIXED BED REACTOR. Gases produced by garbage burning consist of dangerous gases such as CO, SO2 and other gases. Technology for reducing dangerous gases from incinerator outlet can be done by using a dry or wet process. The dry process is more economical process because of simple process, easy maintenance and no liquid waste as product. However, the weakness of the dry process is low absorption conversion and low gas removal efficiency. One way to overcome these problems is to use sorbent which has high reactivity. An inexpensive sorbent that commonly used is Ca(OH2. The aim of this research was to increase the reactivity of Ca(OH2 sorbent by using diatomaceous earth and compost as a source of silica and biosorbent, respectively. Diatomaceous earth contains CaO, SiO2 and Al2O3 and compost contains bacteria as a biosorbent that can convert CO to CO2 and CH4. The reaction between SiO2 and Ca(OH2 would form calcium silicate hydrate (CaO.SiO2.2H2O that has a high porosity and reactivity. The results showed that the reactivity of Ca(OH2 sorbent increased by addition of diatomaceous earth and compost. The results also showed that the sorption of CO gas increases with increasing of height of sorbent bed and temperature. The highest CO gas sorption was obtained at temperature of 150oC and sorbent bed height of 6 cm using the modified sorbent with Ca(OH2/DE/compost ratio of 3:1:1. Gas hasil pembakaran sampah terdiri dari gas-gas yang berbahaya seperti CO, SO2 dan lain sebagainya. Teknologi penghilangan gas-gas tersebut dapat dilakukan dengan menggunakan proses kering maupun proses basah. Penghilangan dengan proses kering lebih ekonomis karena sederhana, mudah pemeliharaan dan tidak menghasilkan limbah cair. Namun demikian, kelemahan proses kering adalah konversi absorpsi rendah dan efisiensi penyisihan  gas relatif kecil. Salah satu cara mengatasi masalah tersebut di atas adalah dengan

  5. Analisis Computational Fluid Dynamics untuk Perancangan Reaktor Gasifikasi Sekam Padi Tipe Downdraft

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    Dziyad Dzulfansya

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Rice husk is one of biomass type which can be utilized as gasification’s feedstock for producing combustible gas which can be used as fuel in internal combustion engine. The objective of this research was to obtain the best design of small scale rice husk gasifier from among geometry scenarios by applying computational fluid dynamics method. The geometry scenarios used in this study were angle of throat 70O, 80O, and 90O, and also angle of nozzel 10O and 20O. The softwares used in this study were Gambit 2.4.6 (meshing 3D model and Ansys Fluent 13.0 (simulation. The reactions involved in gasification (3 heterogeneous reactions and 6 homogeneous reactions were solved by finite rate/Eddy dissipation model. Results of simulation showed that gasifier with angle of throat 90O and angle of nozzel 10O produced the highest heating value of gas with volume fraction of CO, H2, and CH4 is 14.49%, 9.65%, and 2.39% respectively. This result showed reasonable agreement with experimental data from other researchers on rice husk gasification.

  6. PENENTUAN KOEFISIEN DISPERSI ATMOSFERIK UNTUK ANALISIS KECELAKAAN REAKTOR PWR DI INDONESIA

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    Pande Made Udiyani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Atmosfer merupakan pathway penting pada perpindahan radionuklida yang lepas dari Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Nuklir (PLTN ke lingkungan dan manusia. Penerimaan dosis pada lingkungan dan manusia dipengaruhi oleh sourceterm dan kondisi tapak PLTN. Untuk mengetahui penerimaan dosis lingkungan untuk PLTN di Indonesia, maka diperlukan nilai koefisien dispersi untuk tapak potensial yang dipilih. Model perhitungan dalam penelitian ini menggunakan model yang diterapkan pada paket program pada modul ATMOS dan CONCERN dari PC-Cosyma yaitu model perhitungan segmented plume model. Perhitungan dilakukan untuk PLTN tipe PWR kapasitas 1000 MWe berbahan bakar UO2, postulasi kejadian untuk kecelakaan DBA, kondisi tapak kasar, untuk 6 tapak contoh tapak Semenanjung Muria, Pesisir Banten, dan tapak yang didominasi oleh stabilitas cuaca C,D,E, dan F. Koefisien dispersi dihitung untuk 8 kelompok nuklida produk fisi yang lepas dari PLTN yaitu: kelompok gas mulia, lantanida, logam mulia, halogen, logam alkali, tellurium, cerium, dan kelompok stronsium & barium. Perhitungan input menggunakan paket program ORIGEN-2 dan Arc View untuk penyiapan input perhitungan. Hasil pemetaan untuk parameter dispersi maksimum rerata diperoleh pada jarak radius 800 m dari sumber lepasan untuk nuklida dari kelompok logam mulia, logam alkali dan kelompok nuklida cerium. Parameter dispersi untuk Tapak Muria maksimum 1,53E-04 s/m3, Tapak Serang adalah 1,40E-03 s/m3, tapak dengan stabilitas C: 1,72E-04 s/m3, stabilitas D: 1,40E-04 s/m3, Stabilitas E: 1,07E-04 s/m3, dan tapak dengan stabilitas F : 2,14E-05 s/m3. Kata kunci: koefisien dispersi, atmosferik, PWR, kecelakaan, Indonesia   The atmosphere is an important pathway in the migration of radionuclides transport from the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP to the environment and humans. The dose accepted in the environment and humans is influenced by the sourceterm and NPP siting condition. Distribution of radionuclides in the atmosphere is determined

  7. FRACTURE MECHANICS UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS IN THE RELIABILITY ASSESSMENT OF THE REACTOR PRESSURE VESSEL: (2D SUBJECTED TO INTERNAL PRESSURE

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    Entin Hartini

    2016-06-01

    BEJANA TEKAN REAKTOR: 2D DENGAN BEBAN INTERNAL PRESSURE. Bejana tekan reaktor (RPV merupakan pressure boundary dalam reaktor tipe PWR yang berfungsi untuk mengungkung material radioaktif  yang dihasilkan pada proses reaksi berantai. Maka dari itu integritas bejana tekan reaktor harus senantiasa terjamin baik reaktor dalam keadaan operasi normal, maupun kecelakaan. Dalam melakukan analisis integritas RPV, khususnya yang berkaitan dengan pecahnya bejana tekan reaktor akibat adanya retak dilakukan analisis secara fracture mechanics. Adanya ketidakpastian input seperti sifat mekanik bahan, lingkungan fisik, dan input pada data, maka dalam melakukan analisis keandalan tidak hanya dilakukan secara deterministik saja. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah melakukan analisis ketidakpastian input pada perhitungan fracture mechanik pada evaluasi keandalan bejana tekan reaktor PWR. Pendekatan untuk karakter random dari kuantitas input menggunakan  teori probabilistik. Analisis fracture mechanics dilakukan berdasarkan metode elemen hingga (FEM menggunakan perangkat lunak MSC MARC. Analisis ketidakpastian input dilakukan berdasarkan probability density function dengan Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS menggunakan python script. Output dari MSC MARC adalah nilai J-integral untuk mendapatkan nilai stress intensity factor pada evaluasi keandalan bejana tekan reactor 2D. Dari hasil perhitungan dapat disimpulkan bahwa SIF probabilistik lebih dulu mencapai nilai batas fracture tougness  dibanding  SIF deterministik. SIF yang dihasilkan dengan metode probabilistik adalah 105,240 MPa m0,5. Sedangkan SIF metode deterministik adalah 100,876 MPa m0,5. Kata kunci: Analisis ketidakpastian, fracture mechanics, LHS, FEM, bejana tekan reaktor

  8. Theoretical investigations on the determination of cavitation-free primary flow after compacting the reactor FRG-1; Theoretische Untersuchungen zur Bestimmung des kavitationsfreien Primaerdurchsatzes nach Kernkompaktierung des Reaktors FRG-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pihowicz, W. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Zentralabteilung Forschungsreaktoren

    1997-12-31

    Basing on an extensive analysis of the influence of compacting the FRG-1 reactor core upon the change in flow, heat exchange, as well as cavitation behavior of the primary circuit the underlying principles of the determination procedure for a cavitations-free primary flow have been developed theoretically. It was found that the problem has to be treated in a complex manner, i.e. considering the coupled flow, temperature, as well as cavitation fields, and that for a successful solution of the problem it is absolutely necessary to simultaneously induce an optimized fixation of the main primary coolant pump. (orig.) [Deutsch] Auf der Basis einer umfangreichen Analyse des Einflusses einer Kernkompaktierung des Reaktors FRG-1 auf die Aenderung der Stroemungs-, Waermeaustausch- und Kavitationsverhaeltnisse im Reaktorkuehlkreislauf wurden theoretische Grundlagen der Vorgehensweise zur Bestimmung des kavitationsfreien Primaerdurchsatzes entwickelt. Es wurde nachgewiesen, dass das Problem komplex, d.h. unter Beruecksichtigung der gegenseitigen Kopplung von Stroemungs-, Temperatur- und Kavitationsfeldern betrachtet werden muss und, dass es zur erfolgreichen Loesung der Aufgabe noch unbedingt erforderlich ist, parallel eine optimale Festlegung der Hauptprimaerumwaelzpumpe herbeizufuehren. (orig.)

  9. KINETIKA HIDRODESULFURISASI DIBENZOTHIOPHENE (HDS DBT MENGGUNAKAN KATALIS NiMo/γ-Al2O3

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    Subagjo Subagjo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Evaluasi kinetika reaksi hidrodesulfurisasi (HDS dibenzothiophene dan simulasi nafta hydrotreater yang berada di PT. PERTAMINA Refinery Unit II Dumai menggunakan katalis NiMo/Al2O3 hasil pengembangan telah dilakukan. Kinetika reaksi HDS DBT dilakukan dalan sistem reaktor batch dengan variasi temperatur 280-320oC dan tekanan 30 bar. Data kinetika diolah dengan persamaan hukum pangkat (law power dan persamaan kinetik mekanistik (Langmuir Hinshelwood, LH. Berdasarkan model hukum pangkat, kinetika HDS DBT menggunakan NiMo/Al2O3 hasil pengembangan merupakan  orde satu  terhadap DBT dengan konstanta Arhenius  sebesar 165633 detik-1 dan energi aktivasi 69017 J/mol (16,56 kkal/mol. Model LH yang cocok untuk reaksi HDS DBT menggunakan NiMo/Al2O3 hasil pengembangan adalah model LH yang mengilustrasikan adanya kompetisi antara reaktan DBT dan H2 pada tipe pusat aktif yang sama, dengan DBT teradsorb secara kuat sedangkan H2 teradsorpsi secara lemah. Energi aktifasi dan konstanta Arhenius berdasarkan model LH ini ini berturut-turut adalah 81409 J/mol (19,34 kkal/mol dan 1658133 s-1. Dengan menggunakan persamaan laju reaksi hukum pangkat, model memberikan hasil konversi sulfur yang sama dengan hasil keluaran reaktor nafta hydrotreater RU II-Dumai, yaitu mencapai 98%.

  10. KINERJA KATALIS Ag/Al2O3 UNTUK REDUKSI NOx

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    Rakhman Sarwono

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available NOx merupakan hasil samping dari suatu reaksi pembakaran. NOx merupakan gas yang beracun sangat berbahaya terhadap kesehatan manusia dan hewan bila terhirup pada waktu bernafas. Untuk mengurangi kadar NOx pada gas buang, banyak penelitian diarahkan pada reduksi NOx dengan katalis secara selektif dengan hidrokarbon dan oksigen berlebihan. Katalis yang digunakan adalah katalis alumina (Al2O3 yang didapat dari katalis komersial (AlO1-7 dan katalis hasil sintesa (ALOA. Katalis Ag/Al2O3 didapat dengan memasukkan logam Ag ke dalam alumina (Al2O3 dengan cara impregnasi dengan larutan perak nitrat. Katalis diuji aktifitasnya pada reaktor fixed bed yang diluarnya terdapat pemanas yang bisa diatur suhunya. Reaktan seperti gas NO, C2H4  dan oksigen dimasukkan kedalam reaktor dengan laju yang ditentukan. Hasil reaksi dianalisa dengan gas chromatography dan dicatat pada recorder, selanjutnya bisa ditentukan kuantitas dan prosentase konversinya. Katalis alumina  ALOA mempunyai kemampuan mereduksi NO dengan konversi  sekitar 40-45% gas NO menjadi N2. Loading logam perak (Ag kedalam Al2O3 sebesar 2-3% berat menambah daya reduksi NO menjadi sekitar 45-50% pada suhu 500oC. Pada umpan NO + C2H4  + O2  reaksi reduksi terjadi pada suhu 300oC, sedangkan pada umpan NO + C2H4   (tanpa oksigen reaksi reduksi baru terjadi pada suhu 450oC, dengan demikian adanya oksigen sangat berperan dalam proses reduksi NOx. Reaksi peruraian C2H4 menjadi COx berkebalikan dengan kinerja katalis pada proses reduksi NOx

  11. PEMBUATAN BAHAN BAKU SPREADS KAYA KAROTEN DARI MINYAK SAWIT MERAH MELALUI INTERESTERIFIKASI ENZIMATIK MENGGUNAKAN REAKTOR BATCH [Preparation of Red Palm Oil Based-Spreads Stock Rich in Carotene Through Enzymatic Interesterification in Batch-type Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Wulandari1,2

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic interesterification of red palm oil (a mixture of red palm olein/RPO and red palm stearin/RPS in 1:1 weight ratio and coconut oil (CNO blends of varying proportions using a non-specific immobilized Candida antartica lipase (Novozyme 435 was studied for the preparation of spread stock. The interesterification reaction was held in a batch-type reactor. Two substrate blends were chosen for the production of spread stock i.e. 77.5:22,5 and 82.5:17.5 (RPO/RPS:CNO, by weight through enzymatic interesterification in three different reaction times (2, 4, and 6 hours. The interesterification reactions were conducted at 60°C, 200 rpm agitation speed and 10% of Novozyme 435. The interesterified products were evaluated for their physical characteristics (slip melting point or SMP and solid fat content or SFC and chemical characteristics (carotene retention, moisture content, and free fatty acid/FFA content. All of the interesterified products had lower SFC and SMP as compared to the initial blends. The SMP and SFC increased in longer reaction times. The SMP ranged from 30.8°C to 34.9°C. The carotene retention ranged from 74.80% to 81.08%, while the moisture content and FFA content increased in longer reaction times. The interesterified products had desirable physical properties for possible use as a spread stock rich in carotene.

  12. Kajian Tekno-ekonomi Reaktor Inovatif Iris-350

    OpenAIRE

    Lumbanraja, Sahala Maruli; Rijanti, Arum Puni; Bastori, Imam

    2005-01-01

    THE TECHNO-ECONOMIC STUDY OF INNOVATIVE REACTOR IRIS-350. Disturbance of security of electricity supply in Indonesia, especially in Jawa-Madura-Bali grid system should be addressed wisely. The disturbance in electricity supply maybe resulted from the rise of hydrocarbon fuel prices as well as only a few of power plants in operation. This problem may impose negative effect to the national socio economic system. NPP may become one of viable options to support the security of electricity supply,...

  13. Analisis Dimensional Reaktor Berpengaduk Statis untuk Produksi Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmad Irfan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel production can be done using static mixing reactor (SMR. The production by this method requires less energy than blade agitator. However, the use of elements in the helix-shaped stirrer reactors causing large pressure drop. The other factors that affect the flow in the SMR can be determined using dimensional analysis. Dimensional analysis can be used to eliminate the variables that are not required so that can be done to optimize the energy used in the SMR design. The variables that influence the pressure drop (ΔP in the SMR can be formulated into mathematical equation as: Total irreversibility due to the use of a static mixer in the SMR tested is 0.237 W.

  14. Plate type heat exchanger for Reaktor TRIGA PUSPATI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Fairus Abdul Farid; Mohammad Suhaimi Kassim; Mohamad Puad Abu; Mohd Fazli Zakaria; Shaharum Ramli

    2008-08-01

    The PUSPATI TRIGA reactor (RTP) reached its first criticality status on 28 June 1982 with an installed capacity of 1 MW. After 26 years in operation, the ageing process has set in and many systems in the reactor need maintenance and replacement. Among these systems, the more critical one is the heat exchanger system. Currently, the shell and tube type heat exchanger is being used. It has been observed that the performance of the heat exchanger has dropped significantly over the years. Visual inspections indicate that the tubes are corroded or even to the extent of being totally blocked. With this in mind and also with the setting up of the new Nuclear Power Division, whose mission includes upgrading the present reactor to 3 MW, the heat exchanger system is essential and a critical component. Literature indicates that the use of plate type exchangers are more efficient than the current shell and tube type. This paper will look into the engineering and safety aspects of using the plate type heat exchanger to the current TRIGA PUSPATI reactor. (Author)

  15. Pembuatan Biodiesel dari Limbah Minyak Ikan Patin Menggunakan Reaktor Membran

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmi, Silvia; Syarfi, Syarfi; Irdoni, Irdoni

    2015-01-01

    Membrane reactor is an alternative technology is used to produce of biodiesel, one of the advantages of the reaction and separation process takes place in a single stage simultaneous. This research aims to study the effect of the variation of the catalyst and mole ratio feed catfish oil - methanol in biodiesel production, transesterification process in a membrane reactor with a variation of the mole ratio of catfish oil - methanol 1:10, 1:14, and 1:18, the concentration of the base catalyst 0...

  16. Pengaruh penambahan Ca(OH2 pada Proses Pirolisis terhadap Hasil Gasifikasi Batubara Bituminus dengan medium Gas CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saripah Sobah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pemanfaatan batubara melalui proses gasifikasi perlu dikembangkan lebih lanjut karena proses ini dapat dijadikan alternatif untuk menggantikan peranan  gas alam sebagai sumber gas sintesis. Di samping itu, proses ini dapat mengurangi pencemaran lingkungan karena teknologi gasifikasi merupakan teknologi yang bersih dan dapat mengurangi jumlah gas CO2 yang dibuang ke lingkungan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh penambahan Ca(OH2 pada proses pirolisis terhadap hasil gasifikasi arang batubara bituminus dengan medium gas CO2. Reaksi karbon dari arang batubara dengan gas CO2 pada proses gasifikasi merupakan reaksi endotermis dan berlangsung sangat lambat pada suhu di bawah 1000oC sehingga digunakan Ca(OH2 sebagai katalisator. Proses gasifikasi batubara dijalankan dalam reaktor fixed bed. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa gasifikasi arang batubara dengan penambahan Ca(OH2 pada proses pirolisis memberikan pengaruh terhadap komposisi gas hasil yaitu berkurangnya kadar gas CO2 dan menyebabkan berkurangnya kadar belerang pada arang hasil pirolisis dan gasifikasi. Proses ini juga dapat mengurangi kadar gas CO2 sebesar 63,17% dan untuk  gasifikasi tanpa Ca(OH2 , CO2 dapat dikurangi kadarnya sampai 35,2%.

  17. PENGURANGAN KADAR CO2 MENGGUNAKAN SPIRULINA PLATENSIS DALAM TUBULAR BIOREACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainal Syam Arifin

    2015-06-01

    Meningkatnya jumlah penduduk berdampak pada peningkatan kebutuhan energi. Di lain pihak, industri pembangkit energi dituding sebagai salah satu penyumbang karbon dioksida sekitar 25% dari total emisi CO2 di seluruh dunia. Disisi lain, produksi biogas yang bertujuan untuk mengatasi peningkatan kebutuhan energi justru menghasilkan karbon dioksida pada kisaran 25 – 50% volume. Untuk mengatasi hal ini, diperlukan metode yang murah, optimum dan efisien serta ramah lingkungan dalam mengurangi kadar CO2 dengan menggunakan spirulina platensis.  Penelitian ini bertujuan membuat model matematik dan menemukan kecepatan aliran yang optimum untuk menurunkan kadar CO2 dengan menggunakan Spirulina Platensis. Penelitian ini menggunakan reaktor tubularterbuat dari kaca (D = 2,6 cm pada suhu 30°C dan disinari dengan lampu TL Philips fluoresen 36 Watt, temperatur warna: 6.200K cool daylight, light output: 2.600 lm, 72 lm/W. Reaktor tubular ditempatkan dalam kotak yang dilapisi dinding dengan kertas perak pada ketiga sisinya. Dengan model matematik reaktor tubular, dapat diprediksi konstanta kecepatan reaksinya. Berdasarkan grafik hasil perhitungan data, kecepatan volumetrik optimumnya juga dapat diprediksi. Variasi flowrate yaitu 0,25 mL/detik, 0,35 mL/detik, 0,5 mL/detik, 0,75 mL/detik, 1 mL/detik. Sumber karbon adalah CO2 99,99%. Pengamatan pertumbuhan Spirulina dilakukan pada flow rate 0,25 mL/detik dengan kadar berat kering mula – mula 2,1208 g/L. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa aliran lambat (flowrate rendah merupakan cara yang lebih efektif dalam mengurangi karbon dioksida menggunakan spirulina platensis (= 2,82×10-4 detik-1. Nilai konversi tertinggi diperoleh pada kecepatan aliran volumetrik 0,25 mL/detik dan kecepatan optimumnya pada kisaran 0,3 – 0,4 mL/detik. Laju flux CO2 masuk sebaiknya kurang dari 0,047 mL/cm2.detik. Nilai Specific Growth Rate (µ Spirulina Platensis dalam penelitian ini yaitu 2,56×10-2 menit-1.   Kata Kunci: Spirulina platensis, reaktor tubular

  18. KARAKTERISTIK PERPINDAHAN PANAS KONVEKSI ALAMIAH ALIRAN NANOFLUIDA AL2O3-AIR DI DALAM PIPA ANULUS VERTIKAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldy Nazar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK KARAKTERISTIK PERPINDAHAN PANAS KONVEKSI ALAMIAH ALIRAN NANOFLUIDA AL2O3-AIR DI DALAM PIPA ANULUS VERTIKAL. Hasil beberapa penelitian menunjukan bahwa nanofluida memiliki karakteristik termal yang lebih baik dibandingkan dengan fluida konvensional (air. Berkaitan dengan hal tersebut, saat ini sedang berkembang pemikiran untuk menggunakan nanofluida sebagai fluida perpindahan panas alternatif pada sistem pedingin reaktor. Sementara itu, konveksi alamiah di dalam pipa anulus vertikal merupakan salah satu mekanisme perpindahan panas yang penting dan banyak ditemukan pada reaktor riset TRIGA, reaktor daya generasi baru dan alat konversi energi lainnya. Namun disisi lain karakteristik perpindahan panas nanofluida di dalam pipa anulus vertikal belum banyak diketahui. Oleh karena itu penting dilakukan secara berkesinambungan penelitian-penelitian untuk menganalisis perpindahan panas nanofluida di dalam pipa anulus vertikal. Pada penelitian telah dilakukan analisis numerik menggunakan program computer CFD (computational of fluids dynamic terhadap karakteristik perpindahan panas konveksi alamiah aliran nanofluida Al2O3-air konsentrasi 2% volume di dalam pipa anulus vertikal. Hasil kajian ini menunjukkan terjadi peningkatan kinerja perpindahan panas (bilangan Nuselt- NU sebesar 20,5% - 35%. Pada moda konveksi alamiah dengan bilangan 2,4708e+09 £ Ra £ 1,9554e+13 diperoleh korelasi empirik untuk air adalah dan korelasi empirik untuk nanofluida Al2O3-air adalah   Kata kunci: Nanofluida Al2O3-air, konveksi alamiah, pipa anulus vertikal     ABSTRACT THE CHARACTERISTICS OF NATURAL CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER OF AL2O3–WATER NANOFLUIDS FLOW IN A VERTICAL ANNULUS PIPE. Results of several research have shown that nanofluids have better thermal characteristics compared to conventional fluid (water. In this regard, currently developing ideas for using nanofluids as an alternative heat transfer fluid in the reactor coolant system. Meanwhile the natural

  19. Pengaruh Aerasi dan Sumber Nutrien terhadap Kemampuan Alga Filum Chlorophyta dalam Menyerap Karbon (Carbon Sink untuk Mengurangi Emisi CO2 di Kawasan Perkotaan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lancur Setoaji

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian terkait mitigasi pemanasan global, khususnya dalam penyerapan karbon dioksida (CO2, menjadi fokus utama di kalangan ilmuwan dunia. Secara alamiah, karbon dioksida dapat diserap oleh tumbuhan hijau, laut, karbonasi batuan kapur, dan alga. Pigmen hijau dalam alga atau klorofil dapat menyerap karbon dioksida dalam proses fotosintesis. Alga memiliki pertumbuhan yang sangat cepat sehingga cocok digunakan sebagai carbon sink. Penelitian terkait carbon sink ini bertujuan untuk menentukan kemampuan rata-rata serapan CO2 oleh alga di kawasan perkotaan dan menentukan pengaruh aerasi dan variasi sumber N terhadap pertumbuhan dan perkembangan alga. Penelitian ini dilakukan dalam skala laboratorium menggunakan reaktor dengan proses batch. Sampel alga yang digunakan didapatkan dari hasil pengembangbiakan yang bersumber dari perairan di kawasan perkotaan. Penelitian ini menggunakan dua variabel uji, yaitu aerasi dan sumber nutrien. Jumlah karbon dioksida yang diserap didapatkan dari perbandingan stoikiometri pada reaksi fotosintesis.  Berdasarkan perbandingan stoikiometri tersebut diketahui bahwa 1 gram sel alga yang terbentuk sebanding dengan 1,92 gram CO2 yang diserap. Dari hasil penelitian, alga dengan penambahan pupuk urea dapat menyerap 4,87 mg CO2/hari dalam kondisi tanpa aerasi atau 3,84 mg CO2/hari dengan aerasi. Sedangkan alga dengan penambahan pupuk NPK dapat menyerap 3,61 mg CO2/hari dalam kondisi tanpa aerasi atau 3,01 mg CO2/hari dengan aerasi.

  20. The Quality Standard 50-SG-Q8 Application On Research And Development Activities In P2TRR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nababan, N.; Rofei, A.

    2000-01-01

    Utilization of nuclear reactor installation should reference safety, Environment, and instalation requrement, and shoul incorporate user requirement. The requirement are adequately addressed in the IAEA standar No. 50-sg-Q8 for R and D work in nuclear instalation. A study to this standar has been carried out and it is found that there are three important factor of QA methodologi necessary to be aplied for R and D activities. They are management responsibilities, performance of the R and D works, and carrying out assesment over the R and D project. The R and D activities performing in Centre for Recearch Reaktor Technology Development (P2TRR) shoul meet the requirement in the R and D program assigned by Batan management, Such as Strastegy and Policy (jakarta), Strategic Plan (Restra), and Five-Year Plan. A study to this program also has been carried out and it is found that QA methodologies are necessary to be aplied, Especially during the data gathering activities, and its contribution to the safety function or as input to actual nuclear reactor installation or systems

  1. Irradiation effects on Zr-2.5Nb in power reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, C., E-mail: Carol.Song@cnl.ca [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Zirconium alloys are widely used as structural materials in nuclear applications because of their attractive properties such as a low absorption cross-section for thermal neutrons, excellent corrosion resistance in water, and good mechanical properties at reactor operating temperatures. Zr-2.5Nb is one of the most commonly used zirconium alloys and has been used for pressure tube materials in CANDU (Canada Deuterium Uranium) and RBMK (Reaktor Bolshoy Moshchnosti Kanalnyy, 'High Power Channel-type Reactor') reactors for over 40 years. In a recent report from the Electric Power Research Institute, Zr-2.5Nb was identified as one of the candidate materials for use in normal structural applications in light-water reactors owing to its increased resistance to irradiation-induced degradation as compared with currently used materials. Historically, the largest program of in-reactor tests on zirconium alloys was performed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. Over many years of in-reactor testing and CANDU operating experience with Zr- 2.5Nb, extensive research has been conducted on the irradiation effects on its microstructures, mechanical properties, deformation behaviours, fracture toughness, delayed hydride cracking, and corrosion. Most of the results on Zr-2.5Nb obtained from CANDU experience could be used to predict the material performance under light water reactors. This paper reviews the irradiation effects on Zr-2.5Nb in power reactors (including heavy-water and light-water reactors) and summarizes the current state of knowledge. (author)

  2. UNJUK KERJA REAKTOR PLASMA DIELECTRIC BARRIER DISCHARGE UNTUK PRODUKSI BIODIESEL DARI MINYAK KELAPA SAWIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardian Dwi Yudhistira

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is one of alternative renewable energy source to substitute diesel fuel. Various biodiesel productionprocesses through transesterification reaction with a variety of catalysts have been developed by previousresearcher. This process still has the disadvantage of a long reaction time, and high energy need. DielectricBarrier Discharge (DBD plasma electro-catalysis may become a solution to overcome the drawbacks in theconventional transesterification process. This process only needs a short time reaction and low energy process.The purpose of this study was to assess the performance of DBD plasma rector in making biodiesel such as: theeffect of high voltage electric value, electrodes gap, mole ratio of methanol / oil, and reaction time. TheResearch method was using GC-MS (Gas Cromatography-Mass Spectrofotometry and FTIR (FourierTransform Infrared Spectrofotometry and then it will be analysed the change of chemical bond betweenreactant and product. So, the reaction mechanism can be predicted. Biodiesel is produced using methanol andpalm oil as reactants and DBD plasma used as reactor in batch system. Then, reactants contacted by highvoltage electric. From the results of this research can be concluded that the reaction mechanism occurs in theprocess is the reaction mechanism of cracking, the higher of electric voltage and the longer of reaction time leadto increasing of product yield. The more of mole ratio of methanol / oil and widening the gap between theelectrodes lead to decreased product yield. From this research, product yield maksimum is 89,8% in the variableof rasio mol metanol/palm oil 3:1, voltage 10 kV, electrode gap 1,5 cm, and reaction time 30 seconds.

  3. PENGOLAHAN LIMBAH CAIR ORGANIK SECARA BIOLOGI MENGGUNAKAN REAKTOR ANAEROBIK LEKAT DIAM

    OpenAIRE

    Indriyati, Indriyati

    2018-01-01

       Organic waste water can be treated biolocally by using anaerobic fixed bed reactor. Fixed bed reactor is bioreactor which is compleeted with support material inside reactor for bacteria fixation in the surface area of support material. The benefit of using this kind of technology are it needs low energy, low nutrien, low sludge production and could treat high organic concentraion waste water.   The support material  has important role in the  Fixed Bed reactor performance, therefore it mus...

  4. Start-up and Performance Characteristics of a Trickle Bed Reaktor Degrading Toluene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Misiaczek, O.; Paca, J.; Halecký, M.; Gerrard, A. M.; Sobotka, Miroslav; Soccol, C. R.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 5 (2007), s. 871-877 ISSN 1516-8913 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA104/05/0194 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : biotrickling filter * constructed mixed population * toluene Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.349, year: 2007

  5. Pembuatan Biodiesel dari Cpo Off Grade Menggunakan Reaktor Membran (Variasi Katalis dan Fraksi Mol Umpan

    OpenAIRE

    Vovilya, Enang '; ', Syarfi '; Saputra, Edy '

    2015-01-01

    Membrane reactor is an alternative technology that is used in the manufacture of biodiesel, one of the advantages that the reaction and separation process takes place in a single stage simultaneous. This research aims to study the effect of the variation of the catalyst and mole ratio feed CPO off grade - methanol in biodiesel production, a pretreatment process performed on the raw materials that aim to reduce the FFA content CPO off grade, the results obtained pretreatment FFA content of 0.7...

  6. PENGUJIAN AKTIVITAS KOMPOSIT Fe2O3-SiO2 SEBAGAI FOTOKATALIS PADA FOTODEGRADASI 4-KLOROFENOL (The Activity Test of Fe2O3-SiO2 Composite As Photocatalyst on 4-Chlorophenol Photodegradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Sri Kunarti

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK  Pada penelitian ini telah dilakukan pengujian aktivitas komposit Fe2O3-SiO2 sebagai fotokatalis pada fotodegradasi 4-klorofenol. Penelitian diawali dengan preparasi dan karakterisasi fotokatalis Fe2O3-SiO2. Preparasi dilakukan dengan metode sol-gel pada temperatur kamar menggunakan tetraetil ortosilikat (TEOS dan besi (III nitrat sebagai prekursor diikuti dengan perlakuan termal pada temperature 500 oC. Karakterisasi dilakukan dengan metode spektrometri inframerah, difraksi sinar-X dan spektrometri fluoresensi sinar-X. Uji aktivitas komposit untuk fotodegradasi 4-klorofenol dilakukan dalam reaktor tertutup yang dilengkapi dengan lampu UV. Pada uji ini telah dipelajari pengaruh waktu penyinaran dan pH larutan terhadap efektivitas fotodegradasi 4-klorofenol. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa komposit Fe2O3-SiO2 dapat dipreparasi dengan metode sol-gel pada temperatur kamar diikuti perlakuan termal. Komposit Fe2O3-SiO2 dapat meningkatkan efektivitas fotodegradasi 4-klorofenol dari 11,86 % menjadi 55,38 %. Efektivitas fotodegradasi 4- klorofenol dipengaruhi waktu penyinaran dan pH larutan yang semakin lama waktu penyinaran efektifitas fotodegradasi semakin tinggi, namun waktu penyinaran yang lebih lama dari 4 jam dapat menurunkan efektivitasnya. pH larutan memberikan pengaruh yang berbeda-beda pada efektivitas fotodegradasi 4-klorofenol.   ABSTRACT The activity test of Fe2O3-SiO2 composite as photocatalyst on 4-chlorophenol photodegradation has been studied. The research was initiated by preparation of Fe2O3-SiO2 photocatalyst and followed by characterization. The preparation was conducted by sol-gel method at room temperature using tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS and iron (III nitrate as precursors followed by thermal treatment at a temperature of 500oC. The characterizations were performed by X-ray Diffraction (XRD, Infrared and X-ray Fluorescence Spectrophotometry. The photocatalytic activity test of composites for 4 chlorophenol

  7. Karakterisasi Paduan AlMgSi Untuk Kelongsong Bahan Bakar U3Si2/Al Dengan Densitas Uranium 5,2 gU/cm3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslina Br. Ginting

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Meningkatnya densitas uranium dari 2,96 gU/cm3 menjadi 5,2 gU/cm3 bahan bakar U3Si2/Al harus diikuti dengan penggunaan kelongsong yang kompatibel. Bahan bakar berdensitas tinggi mempunyai kekerasan yang tinggi, sehingga bila menggunakan paduan AlMg2 sebagai kelongsong dapat menyebabkan terjadi dogbone pada saat perolan. Selain fenomena dogbone, pada saat bahan bakar tersebut digunakan di reaktor dapat terjadi swelling karena meningkatnya hasil fisi maupun burn up. Oleh karena itu, perlu dicari pengganti bahan kelongsong untuk bahan bakar U3Si2/Al densitas tinggi. Pada penelitian ini telah dilakukan karakterisasi paduan AlMgSi sebagai kandidat pengganti kelongsong AlMg2. Karakterisasi yang dilakukan meliputi analisis termal, kekerasan, mikrostruktur dan laju korosi. Analisis termal dilakukan menggunakan DTA (Differential Thermal Analysis dan DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry. Analisis kekerasan menggunakan alat uji kekerasan mikro, mikrostruktur menggunakan SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope dan analisis laju korosi dilakukan dengan pemanasan pada temperatur 150 oC selama 77 jam di dalam autoclave. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa kelongsong AlMgSi maupun AlMg2 mempunyai kompatibilitas panas dengan bahan bakar U3Si2/Al cukup stabil hingga temperatur 650 oC. Kelongsong AlMgSi mempunyai kekerasan sebesar 115 HVN dan kelongsong AlMg2 sebesar 70,1 HVN. Sementara itu, analisis mikrostruktur menunjukkan bahwa morfologi ikatan antarmuka (interface bonding kelongsong AlMgSi lebih baik dari kelongsong AlMg2, demikian halnya dengan laju korosi bahwa kelongsong AlMgSi mempunyai laju korosi lebih kecil dibanding kelongsong AlMg2. Hasil karakterisasi termal, kekerasan, mikrostruktur dan laju korosi menunjukkan bahwa PEB U3Si2/Al densitas 5,2 gU/cm3 menggunakan kelongsong AlMgSi lebih baik dibanding PEB U3Si2/Al  densitas 5,2 gU/cm3  menggunakan kelongsong AlMg2. Kata kunci: U3Si2/Al, densitas 5,2 gU/cm3, kelongsong AlMgSi dan AlMg2.

  8. ANALISIS KUAT SUMBER NEUTRON DAN PERHITUNGAN LAJU DOSIS NEUTRON TERAS AWAL RDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwoto Suwoto

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Teras reaktor RDE (Reaktor Daya Eksperimental berbentuk silinder non anular, mengadopsi teknologi HTGR (High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor berbahan bakar kernel partikel berlapis TRISO dalam bentuk bola (pebble dan berpendingin gas helium. Desain teras reaktor RDE ini mengadopsi teknologi reaktor temperatur tinggi HTGR dengan keselamatan inherent pasif yang sangat aman. Temperatur keluaran panas gas helium teras reaktor RDE dirancang pada kisaran 700°C dengan temperatur masukan sekitar 250°C. Di samping menghasilkan listrik, reaktor RDE didisain menghasilkan panas temperatur tinggi yang dapat digunakan untuk keperluan kogenerasi lainnya (penelitian panas proses lainnya. Bahan bakar pada RDE berbentuk bola yang berisikan kernel partikel berlapis TRISO yang berupa uranium oksida (UO2 berpengkayaan 17%. Lapisan TRISO terdiri 4 lapisan yaitu lapisan karbon penyangga berpori, lapisan karbon pirolitik bagian dalam (IPyC, Inner Pyrolitic Carbon, lapisan Silikon Karbida (SiC dan lapisan pirolitik karbon bagian luar (OPyC, OuterPyrolitic Carbon. Analisis kuat sumber dan perhitungan awal laju dosis neutron pada teras RDE dilakukan menggunakan program Monte Carlo MCNP5v1.2. Pemodelan heterogenitas ganda pada bahan bakar kernel partikel berlapis TRISO dan pada bahan bakar bola pada teras RDE. Dengan memanfaatkan program EGS99304, jumlah struktur group energi yaitu 640 (SAND-II group structure digunakan dalam perhitungan spektrum neutron pada reaktor RDE. Teras reaktor RDE dibagi dalam 100 zona (10 arah radial dan 10 arah aksial. Analisis hasil perhitungan menunjukkan bahwa kuat sumber neutron reaktor RDE sebesar 8,47027X1017 neutron/sekon. Distribusi laju dosis neutron ditentukan menggunakan faktor konversi fluks ke dosis neurton dari International Commission on Radiological Protection, ICRP dan NCRP. Hasil perhitungan awal laju dosis neutron dengan faktor konversi ICRP-21 dan NCRP-38 untuk pekerja radiasi pada arah radial di perisai biologis sudah

  9. The reactor accident in the Three Mile Island-2 reactor plant. (Harrisburg, USA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    The presentation of the accident development is based on the bulletin of the Atomic Industrial Forum (AIF) from the 6th of April, 1979. In addition, there are some short pieces of information, No. 14 and 15 of the association for reactor security as well as written and verbal information of the firms Brown, Boveri and Co/Babcock-Brown Boveri Reaktor GmbH (BBC/BBR). (orig.) [de

  10. 2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N-(3-chloro-2-methyl-4,6-dinitrophenyl)pyridin-2-amine (3a). Yield 80%. Orange solid. Mp: 111−113 oC; 1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3): δ (ppm) 8.94 (bs, 1H, NH), 8.60 (s, 1H, Ph-H), 8.19-8.22 (m, 1H, pyridin-6-H), 7.65-7.71 (m, 1H, pyridin-4-H), 6.96−7.00 (m, 1H, pyridin-5-H), 6.90 (d, 1H, J=9.0 Hz, pyridin-3-H), 2.26 (s, 3H, ...

  11. 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, Marc-André; Werner, Roland A; Sauer, Peter E; Gröcke, Darren R; Leuenberger, Markus C; Wieloch, Thomas; Schleucher, Jürgen; Kahmen, Ansgar

    2018-04-01

    Hydrogen (H) isotope ratio (δ 2 H) analyses of plant organic compounds have been applied to assess ecohydrological processes in the environment despite a large part of the δ 2 H variability observed in plant compounds not being fully elucidated. We present a conceptual biochemical model based on empirical H isotope data that we generated in two complementary experiments that clarifies a large part of the unexplained variability in the δ 2 H values of plant organic compounds. The experiments demonstrate that information recorded in the δ 2 H values of plant organic compounds goes beyond hydrological signals and can also contain important information on the carbon and energy metabolism of plants. Our model explains where 2 H-fractionations occur in the biosynthesis of plant organic compounds and how these 2 H-fractionations are tightly coupled to a plant's carbon and energy metabolism. Our model also provides a mechanistic basis to introduce H isotopes in plant organic compounds as a new metabolic proxy for the carbon and energy metabolism of plants and ecosystems. Such a new metabolic proxy has the potential to be applied in a broad range of disciplines, including plant and ecosystem physiology, biogeochemistry and palaeoecology. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. PELAPISAN PERMUKAAN PELET UO2 DENGAN ZIRKONIUM DIBORIDA MENGGUNAKAN METODA SPUTTERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungkono Sungkono

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK PELAPISAN PERMUKAAN PELET UO2 DENGAN ZIRKONIUM DIBORIDA MENGGUNAKAN METODA SPUTTERING. Pengembangan teknologi bahan bakar nuklir bertujuan untuk meningkatkan efisiensi pengoperasian Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Nuklir (PLTN. Salah satu solusi yang diajukan adalah penggunaan bahan bakar dengan fraksi bakar (burn up tinggi. Hal ini menyebabkan terjadinya peningkatan gas hasil fisi dan reaktivitas teras reaktor nuklir. Untuk mengendalikan kelebihan reaktivitas teras reaktor digunakan bahan bakar terintegrasi penyerap mampu bakar. Sehubungan dengan hal tersebut telah dibuat pelet UO2 berlapis tipis penyerap mampu bakar. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk mendapatkan karakter lapisan zirkonium diborida pada permukaan pelet UO2 yaitu mikrostruktur, struktur kristal dan komposisi kimia. Pelapisan permukaan pelet UO2 dilakukan dengan bahan pelapis ZrB2 menggunakan metoda sputtering. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa mikrostruktur pelet UO2 + 0,4% Cr2O3 berupa butir-butir campuran ekuiaksial dan acicular dengan diameter 2,44 mm, sedangkan pelet UO2 + 0,3% Nb2O5 mempunyai struktur butir berupa ekuiaksial dan batang pipih dengan diameter 2,47 mm. Lapisan zirkonium diborida pada permukaan pelet UO2 + 0,4% Cr2O3 dan pelet UO2 + 0,3% Nb2O5 serupa yaitu tipis dan kompak dengan ketebalan 2,71 mm dan 2,82 mm. Identifikasi terhadap pola difraksi sinar-X pada pelet UO2 + 0,4% Cr2O3 dan pelet UO2 + 0,3% Nb2O5 menunjukkan adanya fasa UO2 dengan struktur kristal kubus dan fasa ZrB2 dengan struktur kristal heksagonal. Sementara itu, konsentrasi zirconium dalam lapisan pelet UO2 + 0,4% Cr2O3 dan pelet UO2 + 0,3%Nb2O5 diperoleh masing-masing sebesar 1,82 mg dan 1,90 mg. Adanya unsur zirkonium membuktikan bahwa lapisan ZrB2 terbentuk pada permukaan pelet UO2. Kata kunci: Pelet UO2, lapisan ZrB2, sputtering, mikrostruktur, ketebalan, struktur kristal, komposisi kimia. ABSTRACT COATING ON SURFACE OF UO2 PELLET WITH ZIRCONIUM DIBORIDE USING THE METHOD OF SPUTTERING

  13. PENGGUNAAN MEMBRAN SERAT BERONGGA SEBAGAI AERATOR DALAM SISTEM KULTIVASI UNTUK MENINGKATKAN PRODUKSI BIOMASSA DAN BIOFIKSASI CO2 DARI Chlorella vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Dianursanti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pemanasan global yang memicu terjadinya perubahan iklim, sebagian besar disebabkan karena merebaknya gas CO2.  Pemanfaatan mikroalga Chlorella sp. untuk mereduksi gas CO2 menjadi potensi yang menjanjikan. Hal ini mengingat, bahwa Chlorella dapat dengan efisien mereduksi CO2 karena mereka dapat tumbuh dengan cepat dan mudah diadaptasikan ke dalam rekayasa sistem fotobioreaktor. Dalam penelitian ini akan diupayakan pengaturan sistem aerasi berfilter untuk kultivasi Chlorella vulgaris dalam reaktor agar proses transfer massa gas CO2 dalam kultur mikroalga menjadi lebih baik. Dengan demikian nilai KLa (CO2 menjadi salah satu parameter penentu dalam peningkatan produksi biomassa Chlorella. Nilai KLa yang tinggi menunjukkan proses transfer massa CO2 yang lebih baik dalam kultur mikroalga. Namun nilai KLa (CO2 yang terlalu besar sangat mungkin menyebabkan terjadinya shear stress pada alga.Dengan menggunakan membran serat berongga sebagai aerator, permasalahan shear stress pada alga dapat dihindari. Dengan diameter pori yang sangat kecil, membran ini dapat memberikan laju alir dan transfer massa CO2 dalam kultur yang optimal, tanpa menimbulkan efek shear strees. Dengan demikian penggunaan membran ini dapat menghasilkan produktivitas Chlorella yang lebih baik serta dapat meningkatkan kemampuan biofiksasi CO2 selama proses kultivasinya. Penggunaan membran serat berongga sebagai aerator telah terbukti mampu meningkatkan produksi biomassa C. vulgaris  sebesar 27,2 %. Abstract Global warming triggering climate change is largely due to the presence of CO2. Utilization of microalgae Chlorella vulgaris to reduce CO2 gas is potential as it efficiently reduces CO2while growing quickly and adapting to the photobioreactor systems engineering. This study explored filter aeration system settings for cultivating C. vulgaris in the reactor thus mass transfer of CO2 in microalgae cultures becomes more efficient. Value of KLa (CO2 is one of the parameters in

  14. Integrating 3D CAD data for manufacturing and fabrication the core model of reactor TRIGA PUSPATI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu Bakar Harun

    2005-01-01

    This paper describe the intrigue integration of digital 3 Dimensional Computer Aided Design (3D CAD) data manipulation for the Core Model fabrication of REAKTOR TRIGA PUSPATI and ready for mass manufacturing. 3 Dimensional CAD data from Computer Aided Design program will be used as an interpreter in the fabrication of this project. The Core Model of REAKTOR TRIGA PUSPATI will be fabricated with the aid of 3D CAD drawings and digital files. The components will be segregated and divided into 2 categories namely Conventional d Rapid Fabrication. (Author)

  15. The Text of the Agreement of 22 July 1977 between Argentina and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with a Contract Concluded between the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina) and the Reaktor Brennelement Union GmbH Hanau (Federal Republic of Germany) for Co-operation in the Field of Fabrication of Fuel Elements for Peaceful Nuclear Activities. Amendment to the Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-02-01

    The text of an Amendment of 4 December 1980 to the Agreement of 22 July 1977 between Argentina and the Agency for the application of safeguards is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Amendment entered into force, pursuant to Section 2 thereof, on 4 December 1980.

  16. KARAKTERISASI DAN AKTIVITAS KATALITIK BERBAGAI VARIASI KOMPOSISI KATALIS Ni DAN ZnBr2 DALAM Γ-Al2O3 UNTUK ISOMERISASI DAN HIDROGENASI (R-(+-SITRONELAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ED Iftitah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pengaruh sifat dan karakter berbagai variasi komposisi katalis Ni dan ZnBr2 yang terimpregnasi dalam γ-Al2O3 terhadap aktivitas dan selektivitasnya untuk reaksi isomerisasi dan hidrogenasi (R-(+-Sitronelal telah dilakukan. Dalam penelitian ini, terdapat tiga jenis variasi komposisi Ni dan ZnBr2 dalam γ-Al2O3, yaitu: A1=Ni/ZnBr2/γ-Al2O3 (3:2, A2=Ni/ZnBr2/γ-Al2O3 (1:1 dan A3=Ni/ZnBr2/γ-Al2O3 (2:3. Katalis dikarakterisasi menggunakan X-ray diffraction (XRD, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET surface area, dan SEM-EELS. Luas area permukaan spesifik dan porositasnya ditentukan berdasarkan adsorption-desorption gas nitrogen pada 77 K. Distribusi dan volume pori ditentukan dengan desorption isotherm pada P/Po ≥ 0,3. Hasil yang didapat menunjukkan bahwa terdapat hubungan antara karakter dan sifat katalis dengan aktivitas katalitiknya terhadap produk isomerisasi dan hidrogenasi (R-(+-Sitronelal. Uji aktivitas dilakukan dalam sebuah reaktor mini dengan 0,5 g katalis dan 3 mL (R-(+-Sitronelal menggunakan atmosfir gas N2 dan/atau H2 dalam waktu 5 dan 24 jam masing-masing pada suhu 90 dan 120 °C. Komposisi katalis, pemilihan jenis atmosfir gas dan suhu sangat berpengaruh terhadap aktivitas dan selektivitas pembentukan produk isomerisasi dan hidrogenasi. Konversi (R-(+-Sitronelal tertinggi ditunjukkan oleh katalis A3=Ni/ZnBr2/γ-Al2O3 (2:3 dengan kondisi reaksi selama 5 jam (4 jam N2 + 1 jam H2 pada suhu 90 °C dan 24 jam (4 jam N2 + 20 jam H2 pada suhu 120 °C. The influence of catalyst properties and characteristics of Ni and ZnBr2 catalysts impregnated in γ-Al2O3 on the activity and selectivity of (R-(+-Citronellal isomerisation and hydrogenation has been done. In this study, there were three sets of Ni and ZnBr2 in γ-Al2O3 with various composition, they were A1=Ni/ZnBr2/γ-Al2O3 (3:2, A2=Ni/ZnBr2/γ-Al2O3 (1:1, A3=Ni/ZnBr2/γ-Al2O3 (2:3. The catalysts were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET surface area and SEM

  17. Nový úkol hybridních reaktorů – likvidace jaderného odpadu

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řípa, Milan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 11 (2009), s. 24-a33 ISSN 0040-1064 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : fusion * ITER * hybrid * nuclear waste * LIFE * FFTS * CFNS * SXD * FDF Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  18. INVESTIGASI TRANSIEN TEKANAN DAN TEMPERATUR SUNGKUP REAKTOR AP1000 DALAM KECELAKAAN SBO DENGAN SET-POINT TEKANAN PENGGUYURAN BERBEDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendro Tjahjono

    2015-03-01

    AP1000 reactor applying external cooling concept to anticipate the increase in pressure due to Station Black Out (SBO. Disposal mechanism of decay heat conducted through the Passive Residual Heat Removal System (PRHRS to In-containment Refueling Water Storage Tank (IRWST and subsequently forwarded to the reactor containment. Containment is externally cooled through natural convection in the air gap and through evaporation cooling water poured on the outer surface of the containment wall when the pressure attaints 1.7 bars according to the applied pressure set-point. With this mechanism, the pressure will increase until it reaches certain maximum value and then decrease when containment cooling already begun effectively. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the set-point to the maximum pressure and temperature reached. The utilized method is to perform simulations using Matlab-07 model of analytical calculations based on a transient state that is capable of estimating the power of heat evacuated and the pressure in the containment. The simulation results show the pattern of pressure and temperature transient rises to a maximum and drops back to a value that is relatively constant. With the set-point variation ranging from 1.7 bars to 5 bars, the maximum pressure varies from 3.5 bars to 5 bars and the maximum temperature varies from 117 °C to 125 °C. It can be concluded that with increasing the set-point pressure of starting the external cooling with water, the maximum pressure and temperature increase. Keywords: Transient pressure, containment external cooling set-point, AP1000, SBO.

  19. Pembuatan Biodiesel dari Minyak Goreng Bekas (Jelantah) Menggunakan Reaktor Menbran (Variasi Rasio Molar Umpan dan Konsentrasi Katalis)

    OpenAIRE

    Kalsum, Ummi; Syarfi, Syarfi; Herman, Syamsu

    2015-01-01

    Membrane reactor is an alternative technology that is used in the manufacture of biodiesel, one of the advantages that the reaction and separation process takes place in a single stage simultaneous. This research aims to study the effect of the variation of the catalyst and mole ratio feed waste cooking oil- methanol in biodiesel production, transesterification process which was held in a membrane reactor with a variation of the mole ratio of waste cooking oil - methanol 1:12, 1:16, and 1:20,...

  20. Servicing NPPs in Japan, Korea and Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohmann, W.; Poetz, F.

    1991-01-01

    More than 45 comparable orders (for equipment or services ) have been carried out in Japan, Korea and Taiwan by ABB Reaktor since 1982. Recently contracts to deliver inspection and repair equipment for the core baffle former bolts of Japanese NPPs, and in 1990, a contract to clean two steam generators in Korea, together with Pacific Nuclear Services, USA, were won. 2 figs

  1. FABRIKASI MIKROSFIR UO2 MENGGUNAKAN TEKNIK AERASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meniek Rachmawati

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK FABRIKASI MIKROSFIR UO2 MENGGUNAKAN TEKNIK AERASI. Telah dikembangkan proses fabrikasi mikrosfir UO2 berdensitas rendah untuk umpan langsung proses peletisasi bahan bakar reaktor PHWR maju. Fabrikasi mikrosfir UO2 berdensitas rendah dilakukan dengan cara sol-gel menggunakan teknik aerasi pada sol/broth dengan metode eksternal dan tiga variasi cara gelasi. Pada teknik aerasi, broth disiapkan langsung digelasi tanpa didiamkan selama satu malam. Teknik aerasi merupakan kebalikan dari teknik deaerasi yang digunakan pada fabrikasi mikrosfir bahan bakar HTGR. Broth yang telah disiapkan dengan perbandingan mol NO3−/U antara 1,5 hingga 1,7 dengan pH larutan 1,6 dan viskositas antara 630-660cP langsung digelasi dengan tiga cara gelasi. Proses gelasi cara 1 dan cara 2 dilakukan dengan melewatkan broth pada dispersion nozzle berdiameter 1mm yang digetarkan dengan electromagnetic vibrator pada 150 Hz dengan media untuk droplet jatuh bebas yang berbeda sebelum masuk ke dalam larutan NH4OH, sedangkan gelasi dengan cara 3 dilakukan secara manual. Mikrosfir UO2 basah yang diperoleh dari ketiga cara gelasi di atas mendapat perlakuan panas yang sama yaitu dikeringkan pada temperatur 85 ºC dan 220 ºC masing-masing selama selama 1jam, dilanjutkan dengan proses kalsinasi mikrosfir UO2 selama 1 jam pada temperatur 500 ºC dalam media gas O2 dan direduksi pada temperatur 600 ºC dalam media campuran gas N2 dan H2 selama 1 jam. Mikrosfir UO2 hasil gelasi dengan cara 3 dipilih untuk disortir dan dikarakterisasi. Hasil karakterisasi memberikan data karakteristik mikrosfir UO2 berupa data diameter mikrosfir sebesar 900 µm, tap density 1,90 g/cm3 dan luas muka spesifik sebesar 6 m2/g. Hasil analisis dan hasil karakterisasi kemudian dibandingkan dengan data penelitian lain sehingga dapat disimpulkan bahwa penggunaan teknik aerasi pada broth menghasilkan mikrosfir UO2 berdensitas rendah yang memenuhi kriteria sebagai umpan langsung proses peletisasi bahan

  2. Imobilisasi TiO2 ke dalam Resin Penukar Kation dan Aplikasinya sebagai Fotokatalis dalam Proses Fotoreduksi Ion Hg2+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosyid Ridho

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Dalam rangka mengembangkan bahan fotokatalitis TiO2 pada penelitian ini telah dilakukan preparasi fotokatalis TiO2-Resin yang disertai dengan karakterisasi dan uji aktivitas untuk proses fotoreduksi ion Hg(II. Preparasi imobilisasi ini dilakukan dengan metode pertukaran ion yang di ikuti dengan kalsinasi pada suhu tertentu. Pada preparasi telah dipelajari pengaruh konsentrasi Titanium Isopropoksida sebagai sumber ion Ti(IV terhadap TiO2-Resin yang dikarakterisasi dengan menggunakan Difraksi Sinar X (XRD dan Thermografimetri (TGA. Pada proses fotoreduksi ion Hg(II dipelajari pengaruh massa fotokatalis, kadar TiO2 yang terimobilisasi ke dalam resin, konsentrasi Ion Hg(II, dan pengaruh pH. Proses fotoreduksi dilakukan dalam suatu reaktor tertutup yang dilengkapi dengan lampu UV, yaitu dengan cara menyinari campuran yang terdiri dari larutan ion Hg(II dan serbuk fotokatalis TiO2-Resin, disertai dengan pengadukan selama waktu tertentu. Hasil fotoreduksi dihitung berdasarkan selisih antara konsentrasi ion Hg(II awal dengan ion Hg(II yang tak tereduksi. Penentuan konsentrasi ion Hg(II yang tak tereduksi dilakukan dengan menggunakan Spektrofotometer Serapan Atom (SSA teknik pembangkitan uap dingin atau Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry(CV-AAS. Hasil preparasi menunjukkan semakin tinggi konsentrasi Titanium Isopropoksida yang ditambahkan pada resin semakin tinggi juga kadar TiO2 yang terbentuk pada TiO2-Resin. Hasil uji fotokatalis menunjukkan bahwa penggunaan fotokatalis TiO¬2-Resin dapat meningkatkan hasil fotoreduksi ion Hg(II yang peningkatannya lebih tinggi dibandingkan TiO2 serbuk. Penambahan fotokatalis dengan massa yang semakin besar menambah efektivitas fotoreduksi terhadap ion Hg(II yang semakin besar, namun jika ditambahkan massa fotokatalis yang lebih tinggi lagi akan menurunkan efektivitas fotoreduksi terhadap ion Hg(II. Kenaikan konsentrasi Hg(II menyebabkan efektivitas fotoreduksi semakin rendah. Pada pH 1-4 terjadi

  3. PERBANDINGAN DENSITAS PELET UO2 HASIL PELETISASI MENGGUNAKAN SERBUK DAN MIKROSPIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etty Mutiara

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK PERBANDINGAN DENSITAS PELET UO2 HASIL PELETISASI MENGGUNAKAN SERBUK DAN MIKROSPIR UO2. Telah dilakukan pengembangan proses peletisasi menggunakan mikrospir UO2sebagai pengganti serbuk UO2. Mikrospir bersifat speris, free flowing, porus dengan kekerasan tertentu (soft particle. Keunggulan penggunaan mikrospir pada proses peletisasi adalah tidak menimbulkan debu saat kompaksi dan lebih efektif dalam pengepakan sehingga tidak membutuhkan proses granulasi dan pelumas padat. Dihipotesakan bahwa penggunaan mikrospir UO2 dalam proses peletisasi akan memberikan densitas pelet sinter yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan penggunaan serbuk UO2 pada parameter proses peletisasi yang sama. Mikrospir UO2yang digunakan pada peletisasi ini berukuran 900 µm dan crushing strength 2,0 N/partikel , sedangkan serbuk UO2 yang digunakan berukuran antara 150-850 µm. Proses peletisasi mikrospir UO2 dan serbuk UO2 dilakukan dengan memvariasikan tekanan kompaksi antara 200 Mpa hingga 500 MPa dan disinter pada temperatur 1100 °C selama 6 jam dalam suasana campuran gas hidrogen dan nitrogen. Karakterisasi dilakukan pada pelet mentah dan pelet sinter mikrospir UO2 dan serbuk UO2 yang meliputi pengukuran dimensi, penimbangan berat dan pengukuran densitas. Pada variasi tekanan kompaksi diperoleh pelet mentah dan pelet sinter mikrospir UO2 dengan densitas lebih tinggi dibandingkan hasil peletisasi serbuk UO2. Diperoleh hasil bahwa densitas pelet mentah baik hasil kompaksi serbuk UO2 maupun mikrospir UO2meningkat dengan bertambahnya tekanan kompaksi. Densitas pelet mentah mikrospir UO2berkisar antara 82,1 - 84,2 %TD. Pada kondisi penyinteran yang sama, baik kompakan serbuk UO2 maupun kompakan mikrospir UO2 memperlihatkan densitas meningkat dengan semakin besar tekanan proses kompaksi. Dari penelitian ini belum diperoleh pelet sinter UO2 dengan densitas sesuai persyaratan reaktor pengguna sehingga diperlukan penelitian lanjutan terkait parameter proses peletisasi dan

  4. PENENTUAN KANDUNGAN ISOTOP 235U DALAM PEB U3Si2-Al TMU 2,96 gU/cm3 UNTUK PERHITUNGAN BURN-UP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boybul Boybul

    2016-03-01

    ABSTRAK PENENTUAN KANDUNGAN ISOTOP 235U DALAM PEB U3Si2-Al TMU 2,96 gU/cm3 UNTUK PERHITUNGAN BURN-UP. Pemisahan 235U telah dilakukan di dalam larutan pada bagian atas dari PEB U3Si2-Al tingkat muat uranium (TMU 2,96 gU/cm3. PEB U3Si2-Al bagian atas dipotong menjadi tiga bagian (Triplo dengan kode T1, T2 dan T3. Berat masing- masing PEB U3Si2-Al dengan kode T1 = 0,095 g, T2 = 0,086 g dan T3 = 0,087 g kemudian dilarutkan menggunakan HCl dan HNO3 di dalam hotcell. Penelitian ini berujuan untuk mengetahui kandungan isotop 235U dalam larutan PEB U3Si2-Al pasca iradiasi dan selanjutnya digunakanuntuk perhitungan burn-up. Pemisahan isotop 235U dalam larutan PEB U3Si2-Al dilakukan dengan metode kolom penukar anion menggunakan resin Dowex 1x8. Larutan dipipet sebanyak 100 µL, kemudian dimasukkan ke dalam kolom yang berisi resin Dowex dengan berat 1,2 g. Hasil efluen U di dalam kolom dielusi menggunakan HCl 0,1 M, kemudian dikisatkan dan dikenakan proses elektrodiposisi dan selanjutnya dianalisis menggunakan spektrometer-α. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa kandungan isotop 235U diperoleh sebesar T1 = 0,03665 g/g PEB, T2 = 0,003468 g/g PEB dan T3 = 0,03208 g/g PEB dengan recovery pemisahan 63,71%. Kandungan isotop 235U yang diperoleh dari hasil pemisahan digunakan untuk perhitungan burn-up. Hasil perhitungan burn-up PEB U3Si2 – Al bagian atas (T1, T2 dan T3 diperoleh masing-masing sebesar 43,31 %, 45,41 % dan 49,48 % atau dengan burn-up rerata sebesar 45,75 %. Data ini lebih kecil dibandingkan dengan data burn-up PEB U3Si2-Al potongan bagian tengah sebesar 50,69 % yang dilakukan oleh peneliti sebelumnya. Namun data ini belum dapat digunakan sebagai masukan kepada reaktor, karena harus dilengkapi dengan data burn-up PEB U3Si2-Al potongan bagian bawah. Oleh karena itu pada penelitian selanjutnya akan dilakukan perhitungan burn-up PEB U3Si2-Al potongan bagian bawah. Kata kunci: PEB U3Si2-Al pasca iradiasi, top, 235U, penukar anion dan burn-up. ABSTRACT DETERMINATION OF

  5. Pengaruh Pengadukan Dan Variasi Feeding Terhadap Pembentukan Biogas Dari Sampah Dapur Rumah Makan Pada Reaktor Batch Dengan Aktivator Feses Sapi (Bos Taurus)

    OpenAIRE

    Tri Utomo, Doron; Hadiwidodo, Mochtar; Sudarno, Sudarno

    2014-01-01

    Food waste is organic waste that is quite lot and have not good treatment now. Food waste in anaerobic treatment have potential to produce biogas with addition cow feces as an activator. Stirring is one effort to increase the production of biogas. Research has been conducted in a batch system but the results have not been produced an optimal biogas. This research use two big reactors (19 liter) and 16 small reactors (600 ml dan 500 ml). There are four parameters that were observed the biogas...

  6. Základy fúzní energetiky II - Základní fyzika fúzních reaktorů

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Entler, Slavomír; Mlynář, Jan; Dostál, V.

    Srpen (2016), č. článku 14538. ISSN 1801-4399 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Nuclear fusion * fusion reactors * plasma Subject RIV: JF - Nuclear Energetics http://energetika.tzb-info.cz/elektroenergetika/14538-zaklady-fuzni-energetiky-ii-zakladni-fyzika-fuznich-reaktoru

  7. SAMPAH UNTUK ENERGI: KELAYAKAN PEMANFAATAN LIMBAH ORGANIK DARI KANTIN DI LINGKUNGAN UNDIP BAGI PRODUKSI ENERGI DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN REAKTOR BIOGAS SKALA RUMAH TANGGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irawan Wisnu Wardana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Harga minyak yang melonjak mempengaruhi aktifitas perekonomian dunia termasuk Indonesia, hal tersebut mendorong pemerintah untuk mengembangkan energi terbarukan termasuk diantaranya biogas. Limbah-limbah kantin memiliki potensi untuk menjadi sumber energi terbarukan, yaitu biogas.Limbah sisa makanan dan aktifitas dapur dalam jumlah yang cukup dari kantin di lingkungan fakultas teknik dikumpulkan, dilakukan perlakuan seperti penghalusan dan homogenisasi, lalu tahap memasukkan substrat beserta ekstrak rumen sapi sebagai sumber bakteri anaerob kedalam batch reactor dengan penambahan air sebagai variasi. Dari hasil penelitian diperoleh kesimpulan, bahwa penambahan air mempengaruhi jumlah gas yang dihasilkan. Diketahui bahwa limbah yang ditambahkan air sebanyak 64 ml, mampu menghasilkan volume gas lebih banyak dibanding yang lainnya. Umur produksi gas mampu menghasilkan gas hingga hari ke 19. Dalam penelitian didapatkan adanya penurunan dan peningkatan produksi gas. Hal ini disebabkan adanya tahap pembentukan gas yang terjadi, mulai dari tahap hidrolisis, acidogenesis, asetogenesis, dan metanogenesis

  8. The vegetation as sink and biochemical reactor for airborne pollutants. Final report; Die Vegetation als Senke und biochemischer Reaktor fuer luftgetragene Schadstoffe. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weissflog, L.; Wenzel, K.D. [UFZ - Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Leipzig (Germany). Sektion Chemische Oekotoxikologie

    1997-06-30

    The present project involved extensive studies on the air pollution situation and interactions between organic as well as inorganic air pollutant levels and the vegetation in three east German states. Seven monitoring sites with different emission profiles were selected in Saxony-Anhalt, one typically polluted site in Saxony, and two less polluted sites in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. The following emitter types were found to exhibit consistent pollutant patterns: landfills receiving chloroorganic special wastes; hard-coal-fuelled firing installations; commercial charcoal plants; industry; industry - car traffic - domestic fuel combustion; car traffic. [Deutsch] Im Verlauf der Projektarbeiten wurden an sieben durch unterschiedliche Emittententypen belasteten Standorten in Sachsen-Anhalt, einem typisch belasteten Standort in Sachsen und an zwei weniger belasteten Standorten in Mecklenburg/Vorpommern umfangreiche Untersuchungen zur Immissionssituation und der Wechselwirkung der luftgetragenen anorganischen und organischen Schadstofffracht mit der Vegetation durchgefuehrt. Dabei konnten fuer folgende Emittenten charakteristische Schadstoffmuster ermittelt werden: - Deponien mit chlororganischem Sondermuell - Feuerungsanlagen fuer Steinkohle - Gewerbliche Anlagen zur Herstellung von Holzkohle - Industrie - Industrie/Kfz-Verkehr/Hausbrand - Kfz-Verkehr. (orig.)

  9. Kajian Pemilihan Sumber Mikroorganisme Solid Phase Microbial Fuel Cell (SMFC Berdasarkan Jenis dan Volume Sampah, Power Density dan Efisiensi Penurunan COD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganjar Samudro

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mikroorganisme merupakan salah satu komponen penting dalam proses Solid Phase Microbial Fuel Cell (SMFC untuk degradasi bahan organik dan transfer elektron. Pemilihan sumber mikroorganisme menjadi metode yang paling sederhana untuk dikaji sebagai informasi awal ketersediaan dan identifikasi jenis mikroorganisme yang mendukung proses SMFC. Tujuan kajian ini adalah untuk memilih sumber mikroorganisme tanah, septic tank dan sedimen sungai yang tepat digunakan dalam proses SMFC berdasarkan jenis dan volume sampah, power density, dan efisiensi penurunan COD. Kajian ini didasarkan pada hasil penelitian menggunakan reaktor SMFC tipe single chamber microbial fuel cell dengan variabel jenis dan volume sampah , serta sumber mikroorganisme. Metode perbandingan secara kuantitatif dilakukan berdasarkan kecenderungan nilai power density dan efisiensi penurunan COD tertinggi di antara jenis dan volume sampah kantin, dedaunan dan komposit kantin-dedaunan. Hasil yang didapatkan adalah sumber mikroorganisme tanah dan sedimen sungai tepat digunakan untuk volume sampah 1/3 dan 2/3 dari volume reaktor, sedangkan sumber mikroorganisme septic tank tepat digunakan untuk volume sampah 1/3 dan 1/2 dari volume reaktor. Sumber mikroorganisme dari septic tank menunjukkan kinerja power density dan efisiensi penurunan COD yang lebih rendah dibandingkan sumber mikroorganisme tanah dan sedimen sungai.

  10. ANALISA KARAKTERISTIK MINYAK PLASTIK HASIL DUA KALI PROSES PIROLISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Untung Surya Dharma

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Limbah plastik dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai bahan baku minyak plastik dengan menggunakan proses pirolisis. Minyak plastik yang dihasilkan dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai zat aditif atau campuran bahan bakar pada mesin. Pada Penelitian ini, proses pembuatan minyak plastik menggunakan dua kali proses pirolisis. Suhu reaktor pada proses pirolisis yang pertama dan kedua berbeda berturut-turut yaitu 200 oC dan 150 oC. Dari hasil penelitian ini diketahui bahwa pada proses pirolisis pertama dengan suhu reaktor 200 oC, dari 25 kg bahan baku menghasilkan 15,5 liter minyak plastik dalam waktu 80 jam. Sedangkan pada proses pirolisis kedua dengan suhu reaktor 150 oC, dari 15 liter minyak plastik dari hasil proses pirolisis pertama menghasilkan 11,6 liter minyak plastik dalam waktu 3,33 Jam. Adapun karakter minyak plastik yang dihasilkan adalah massa jenis 771,4 kg/m3, Viskositas 0,501 m2/s dan Nilai kalor 10518 kJ/kg

  11. ANALISIS PERUBAHAN MASSA BAHAN FISIL DAN NON FISIL DALAM TERAS PWR 1000 MWe DENGAN ORIGEN-ARP 5.1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anis Rohanda

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Teras reaktor merupakan tempat terjadinya reaksi pembelahan (fisi yang terkendali. Komponen reaktor seperti bahan bakar, kelongsong (cladding dan air pendingin memiliki peranan penting dalam keberlangsungan reaksi fisi. Reaksi fisi mengakibatkan terbentuknya sejumlah nuklida hasil fisi dan hasil aktivasi. Hasil fisi berasal dari reaksi tangkapan neutron termal dengan bahan fisil sedangkan hasil aktivasi berasal dari interaksi bahan non fisil seperti material kelongsong dan pendingin oleh neutron dan gamma. Pada setiap pengoperasian suatu reaktor, informasi perubahan massa bahan fisil dan non fisil sangat berguna untuk manajemen bahan bakar dalam teras, seperti pengaturan reaktivitas, optimasi dan pemuatan bahan bakar. Untuk itu perlu dilakukan penelitian mengenai perubahan bahan fisil dan non fisil tersebut dalam teras reaktor. Hal ini dapat dilakukan dengan mengamati perubahan massa dari material dalam teras reaktor. Penelitian ini memiliki tujuan untuk mengetahui perubahan massa unsur penyusun material dalam teras, seperti massa dari unsur penyusun elemen bahan bakar nuklir, kelongsong dan air pendingin setelah digunakan dalam teras. Dari perubahan massa tersebut dapat diketahui fraksi bakar atau tingkat konsumsi bahan bakar yang digunakan. Penelitian dilakukan pada basis reaktor PLTN tipe PWR buatan pabrikan asal Amerika Serikat berdaya 1000 MWe dengan menggunakan code penghitung inventori hasil fisi ORIGEN-ARP 5.1, yaitu versi terbaru dari ORIGEN dengan library khusus reaktor daya. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa bahan fisil U-235 mengalami pengurangan massa hingga 58% atau lebih dari separuhnya dari massa U-235 awal untuk tiap kali siklus operasi. Bahan fertil U-238 hanya mengalami pengurangan massa sekitar 2% dari massa awalnya tiap kali siklus operasi. Lain halnya dengan bahan non fisil yang mengalami perubahan massa yang berbeda-beda untuk tiap kali siklus operasinya yang tergantung pada tampang lintang aktivasi serta laju peluruhan dan

  12. METODE PENGENDAPAN DAN PENUKAR KATION UNTUK PEMISAHAN CESIUM DALAM BAHAN BAKAR U3Si2-Al

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslina Br. Ginting

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK METODE PENGENDAPAN DAN PENUKAR KATION PADA PROSES PEMISAHAN CESIUM DALAM BAHAN BAKAR U3Si2-Al. Isotop 137Cs salah satu hasil fisi yang dapat digunakan sebagai monitor burn up untuk mempelajari kinerja bahan bakar selama iradiasi dalam reaktor. Untuk menganalisis isotop 137Cs dalam pelat elemen bakar (PEB U3Si2-Al pasca iradiasi diperlukan metode yang valid agar diperoleh data yang akurat. Beberapa metode dapat digunakan untuk pemisahan 137Cs dalam PEB U3Si2-Al, antara lain adalah metode pengendapan dalam bentuk garam CsClO4 sesuai dengan ASTM E 320-79 dan metode penukar kation menggunakan zeolit Lampung. Proses pengendapan dilakukan dengan menggunakan serbuk CsNO3 sebagai senyawa pembawa (carier dan pereaksi HClO4, sedangkan proses penukar kation dilakukan dengan penambahan zeolit Lampung. Tujuan penelitian adalah mendapatkan metode valid untuk pemisahan 137Cs dalam PEB U3Si2-Al pasca iradiasi, khususnya aspek pengaruh berat serbuk CsNO3 dan berat zeolit Lampung yang ditambahkan. Proses pengendapan isotop 137Cs dilakukan dengan memipet larutan PEB U3Si2-Al sebanyak 150 µL kemudian ditambahkan serbuk CsNO3 dengan variasi berat 500; 625; 700 ; dan 1000 mg serta 4 mL HClO4 dalam pengangas es selama 1 jam. Hasil proses pengendapan diperoleh endapan 137CsClO4yang terpisah dengan supernatan sebagai fasa cair.Sementara itu, proses penukar kation dilakukan dengan menambahkan zeolit Lampung variasi berat 700; 900; 1000 ; dan 1200 mg dengan pengadukan selama 1 jam. Hasil proses penukar kation diperoleh padatan 137Cs-zeolit dalam fasa padat dan isotop lainnya dalam fasa cair. Endapan 137CsClO4 dan padatan137Cs-zeolit serta supernatan diukur kandungan 137Cs menggunakan spektrometer-g. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa berat CsNO3 yang paling banyak mengikat 137Cs terjadi pada penambahan CsNO3 seberat 700 mg yaitu sebesar 0,0472 µg, sedangkan penambahan zeolit Lampung yang optimal diperoleh pada berat 1000 mg hingga 1200 mg dengan kandungan isotop

  13. Ô2 Ô2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is shown that conventional de Broglie–Bohm quantum theory is incompatible with the standard quantum ... pendulums of length l1 = l2 = 1 and mass m1 = m2 = 1 connected by a weightless spring whose length i is ... is a rational number. The corresponding system is described in standard quantum theory (SQT) by the two-.

  14. Simulation of atmosphere stratification in the HDR test facility with the CONTAIN code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skerlavaj, A.; Mavko, B.; Kljenak, I.

    2001-01-01

    The test E11.2 'Hydrogen distribution in loop flow geometry', which was performed in the Heissdampf Reaktor containment test facility in Germany, was simulated with the CONTAIN computer code. The predicted pressure history and thermal stratification are in relatively good agreement with the measurements. The compositional stratification within the containment was qualitatively well predicted, although the degree of the stratification in the dome area was slightly underestimated. The analysis of simulation results enabled a better understanding of the physical phenomena during the test.(author)

  15. ANALISIS FAKTOR PUNCAK DAYA TERAS RSG-GAS BERBAHAN BAKAR U3Si2-Al 4,8 gU/cc DENGAN KAWAT KADMIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jati Susilo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Untuk meningkatkan kinerja teras RSG-GAS, maka telah dilakukan penelitian tentang penggunaan bahan bakar U3Si2-Al kerapatan 4,8 gU/cc. Penggunaan bahan bakar tersebut dapat meningkatkan panjang siklus operasi dari 20 menjadi 49 hari. Sehingga reaktor beroperasi lebih efisien. Selain itu juga akan menaikkan reaktivitas lebih teras yang berakibat pada nilai reaktivitas batang kendali saat one stuck rod menjadi positif. Hal tersebut dapat diantisipasi dengan cara penambahan kawat kadmium pada kedua sisi tiap-tiap pelat bahan bakar. Untuk teras RSG-GAS berbahan bakar U3Si2-Al kerapatan 4,8 gU/cc maka diperlukan kawat kadmium dengan minimal diameter 0,7 mm. Selain reaktivitas lebih, parameter neutronik lainnya yang perlu diketahui dalam mendesain suatu teras agar tidak terjadi kerusakan bahan bakar adalah nilai faktor puncak daya (power peaking faktor ppf. Untuk itu, dalam penelitian ini dilakukan perhitungan distribusi faktor daya teras RSG-GAS berbahan bakar U3Si2-Al kerapatan 4,8 gU/cc dengan kawat kadmium. Perhitungan tersebut dilakukan dengan paket program SRAC modul CITATION. Hasil perhitungan menunjukkan bahwa teras RSG-GAS berbahan bakar U3Si2-Al kerapatan 4,8 gU/cc dengan kawat kadmium mempunyai ppf sebesar 1,2225 yang sedikit lebih besar dibandingkan dengan ppf teras RSG-GAS berbahan bakar U3Si2-Al kerapatan 2,96 gU/cc (1,1642. Dari analisis hasil perhitungan dapat disimpulkan bahwa nilai ppf untuk teras RSG-GAS berbahan bakar U3Si2-Al kerapatan 4,8 gU/cc dengan kawat kadmium masih dibawah nilai batas dalam LAK RSG-GAS. Kata kunci : faktor puncak daya, kawat kadmium, SRAC   To upgrade the ability of RSG-GAS core, research about utilization of U3Si2-Al fuel with 4.8 gU/cc density has been done. The using of U3Si2-Al fuel with 4.8 gU/cc density in the RSG-GAS core could increase the operation cycle length from 20 to 29 days. To the reactor can be operated more efficiently. In another side, the effect of high density fuel is the value of

  16. STUDI PEMODELAN DAN PERHITUNGAN TRANSPORT MONTE CARLO DALAM TERAS HTR PEBBLE BED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhair .

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Konsep sistem energi VHTR baik yang berbahan bakar pebble (VHTR pebble bed maupun blok prismatik (VHTR prismatik menarik perhatian fisikawan reaktor nuklir. Salah satu kelebihan teknologi bahan bakar bola adalah menawarkan terobosan teknologi pengisian bahan bakar tanpa harus menghentikan produksi listrik. Selain itu, partikel bahan bakar pebble dengan kernel uranium oksida (UO2 atau uranium oksikarbida (UCO yang dibalut TRISO dan pelapisan silikon karbida (SiC dianggap sebagai opsi utama dengan pertimbangan performa tinggi pada burn-up bahan bakar dan temperatur tinggi. Makalah ini mendiskusikan pemodelan dan perhitungan transport Monte Carlo dalam teras HTR pebble bed. HTR pebble bed adalah reaktor berpendingin gas temperatur tinggi dan bermoderator grafit dengan kemampuan kogenerasi. Perhitungan dikerjakan dengan program MCNP5 pada temperatur 1200 K. Pustaka data nuklir energi kontinu ENDF/B-V dan ENDF/B-VI dimanfaatkan untuk melengkapi analisis. Hasil perhitungan secara keseluruhan menunjukkan konsistensi dengan nilai keff yang hampir sama untuk pustaka data nuklir yang digunakan. Pustaka ENDF/B-VI (66c selalu memproduksi keff lebih besar dibandingkan ENDF/B-V (50c maupun ENDF/B-VI (60c dengan bias kurang dari 0,25%. Kisi BCC memprediksi keff hampir selalu lebih kecil daripada kisi lainnya, khususnya FCC. Nilai keff kisi BCC lebih dekat dengan kisi FCC dengan bias kurang dari 0,19% sedangkan dengan kisi SH bias perhitungannya kurang dari 0,22%. Fraksi packing yang sedikit berbeda (BCC= 61%, SH= 60,459% tidak membuat bias perhitungan menjadi berbeda jauh. Estimasi keff ketiga model kisi menyimpulkan bahwa model BCC lebih bisa diadopsi dalam perhitungan HTR pebble bed dibandingkan model FCC dan SH. Verifikasi hasil estimasi ini perlu dilakukan dengan simulasi Monte Carlo atau bahkan program deterministik lainnya guna optimisasi perhitungan teras reaktor temperatur tinggi.   Kata-kunci: kernel, TRISO, bahan bakar pebble, HTR pebble bed

  17. Karakterisasi Unjuk Kerja Diesel Engine Generator Set Sistem Dual Fuel Solar-Syngas Hasil Gasifikasi Briket Municipal Solid Waste (MSW Secara Langsung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Rizkal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sejalan dengan semakin banyaknya kebutuhan energi untuk dapat digunakan sebagai bahan bakar maka perlu adanya pengembangan gas biomassa sebagai bahan bakar alternatif pada motor pembakaran dalam maka akan dilakukan penelitian mengenai aplikasi sistem dual fuel gas hasil gasifikasi biomassa municipal solid waste (msw pada sistem downdraft dengan minyak solar pada motor diesel stasioner. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui seberapa besar solar yang tersibtitusi dengan adanya penambahan syngas yang disalurkan secara langsung. Penelitian ini dilakukan secara eksperimental dengan proses pemasukan aliran syngas yang dihasilkan downdraft municipal solid waste (MSW kedalam saluran udara mesin diesel generator set secara langsung menggunakan sistem mixer. Pengujian dilakukan dengan putaran konstan 2000 rpm dengan pembebanan bervariasi dari 200 watt sampai dengan 2000 watt dengan interval 200 watt. Bahwa produksi syngas dari reaktor gasifikasi ditambahkan sistem bypass untuk mengetahui kesesuaian antara reaktor gasifikasi dan mesin generatorset data ṁ syngas yang dibutuhkan mesin diesel, ṁ syngas yang di bypass untuk mendapatkan kesesuaian antara produksi syngas dan yang di bypass.  Data-data yang diukur dari penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa besar nilai mass flowrate gas syngas yang dibutuhkan mesin diesel pada AFR reaktor gasifier 1,39 sebesar 0,0003748 kg/s. Mass flowrate gas syngas yang di bypass menunjukkan nilai 0 pada saat sistem dijalankan karena seluruh gas syngas masuk kedalam ruang bakar. AFR rata-rata sebesar 14,54 ,Nilai Spesifik fuel consumption (sfc mengalami peningkatan 68% dari kondisi standar single fuel , Nilai efesiensi thermal mengalami kenaikan sebesar 7% dari kondisi single fuel, Nilai daya rata-rata sebesar 2,28kW, Nilai torsi rata-rata sebesar 10,94 N.m. Solar yang tersibtitusi sebesar 48%. Nilai temperatur (coolant, mesin, oil, dan gas buang pada setiap pembebanan mengalami kenaikan.

  18. 2-Oxo-2-(2-thienylacetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Crundwell

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the title compound, C6H4O3S, displays intermolecular hydrogen-bonding dimers. The structure exhibits a thienyl-ring flip disorder of the main molecule [occupancy ratio = 91.3 (2:8.7 (2].

  19. 2-Methylpropan-2-aminium 2-(methoxycarbonylbenzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Li

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C4H12N+·C9H7O4−, two C atoms and the N atom of the cation lie on a mirror plane, while all the atoms of the anion are disordered about a mirror plane. In the crystal, N—H...O hydrogen bonds link the components into chains along [010]. In the anion, the mean planes of the methoxycarbonyl and carboxylate groups form dihedral angles of 83.0 (2 and 83.2 (2°, respectively, with the aromatic ring.

  20. [2+2+2] cocyclotrimerization with ferrocenylalkynes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dufková, L.; Císařová, I.; Štěpnička, P.; Kotora, Martin

    č. 15 (2003), s. 2882-2887 ISSN 1434-193X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : cyclotrimerization * homogeneous catalysis Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.227, year: 2003

  1. Announcement of recommendations of the Reaktor-Sicherheitskommission. As of 24 July 1997. Joint recommendations of RSK and GPR for safety requirements of future nuclear PWR-type power plants. English versions published in the years 1995 through 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The recommendations, most parts given in English, refer to the European Pressurized Water Reactor (EPR) and have been established by the German RSK (reactor safety commission), the corresponding French organization GPR and the German SSK (radiation protection commission). This publication continues earlier joint recommendations by the national bodies, last published by the German BMU (responsible German ministry) on 5 May 1995, in BAnz. page 7452. The safety recommendations establish the basis for further activities in the Franco-German project for development of the EPR, a PWR type reactor of the next generation. (CB) [de

  2. The development of fast reactors - Effects on the Swedish system of management of spent fuel; Utveckling av snabba reaktorer - Paaverkan paa det svenska systemet foer hantering av anvaent braensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hans Forsstroem, Hans [SKB International AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-09-15

    Since the start of the nuclear power era studies have been performed of how to utilise the uranium energy resource in the most effective way. Only about one percent of the energy potential of uranium is utilised in the light water reactors of today. To improve the utilization other types of reactors are needed. With fast reactors theoretically 50-100 times more energy can be extracted from the uranium. This will require reprocessing of the uranium and multiple recycling of the plutonium. Plutonium and uranium can also be recycled in light water reactors, but this will only improve the uranium utilisation by about 20 %. Recycling of plutonium on a routine basis is presently only done in France. The development of fast reactors has been going on since the end of the 1940ies. During the 1970ies the planning was that a large number of fast reactors and their associated fuel cycle facilities would be in operation by the year 2000. The development has, however, for different reasons been much slower than planned. The general assessment today is that fast reactor, if they will be realised, will hardly give an important contribution to energy production until after 2050. Nuclear power production has instead been dominated by light water reactors similar to the ones in use in Sweden. Light water reactors are believed to continue to dominate during the next decades. To start a fast reactor system plutonium (or highly enriched uranium) will be needed. Such plutonium is contained in spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors. This raises the question: Should the spent nuclear fuel be stored so that the potential energy resource in the fuel can be used in the future instead of disposing of it as a waste? The answer to this question will depend on when the material will be useful, i.e. when fast reactors have been introduced on a large scale. It will also depend on the demand for plutonium at this time, i.e. will plutonium be a scarce redundant resource at this point of time. In this context it should be considered that fast reactors will generate their own plutonium, as breeder reactors. Plutonium from other reactors will thus only be needed for the first years of operation. To provide a basis for the answer to the question if the Swedish spent fuel is a resource or a waste this report provides an overview of the present development status for fast reactors and their potential for large scale commercial use. It further describes the impact on the Swedish system for management of spent nuclear fuel if the fuel were to be reprocessed and the uranium and plutonium reused as fuel for fast reactors or for the present reactors.

  3. Neurog2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Daniel J; Wilkinson, Grey; Li, Saiqun; Dixit, Rajiv; Adnani, Lata; Balakrishnan, Anjali; Han, Sisu; Kovach, Christopher; Gruenig, Nicole; Kurrasch, Deborah M; Dyck, Richard H; Schuurmans, Carol

    2017-06-20

    A derepression mode of cell-fate specification involving the transcriptional repressors Tbr1, Fezf2, Satb2, and Ctip2 operates in neocortical projection neurons to specify six layer identities in sequence. Less well understood is how laminar fate transitions are regulated in cortical progenitors. The proneural genes Neurog2 and Ascl1 cooperate in progenitors to control the temporal switch from neurogenesis to gliogenesis. Here we asked whether these proneural genes also regulate laminar fate transitions. Several defects were observed in the derepression circuit in Neurog2 -/- ;Ascl1 -/- mutants: an inability to repress expression of Tbr1 (a deep layer VI marker) during upper-layer neurogenesis, a loss of Fezf2 + /Ctip2 + layer V neurons, and precocious differentiation of normally late-born, Satb2 + layer II-IV neurons. Conversely, in stable gain-of-function transgenics, Neurog2 promoted differentiative divisions and extended the period of Tbr1 + /Ctip2 + deep-layer neurogenesis while reducing Satb2 + upper-layer neurogenesis. Similarly, acute misexpression of Neurog2 in early cortical progenitors promoted Tbr1 expression, whereas both Neurog2 and Ascl1 induced Ctip2. However, Neurog2 was unable to influence the derepression circuit when misexpressed in late cortical progenitors, and Ascl1 repressed only Satb2. Nevertheless, neurons derived from late misexpression of Neurog2 and, to a lesser extent, Ascl1 , extended aberrant subcortical axon projections characteristic of early-born neurons. Finally, Neurog2 and Ascl1 altered the expression of Ikaros and Foxg1 , known temporal regulators. Proneural genes thus act in a context-dependent fashion as early determinants, promoting deep-layer neurogenesis in early cortical progenitors via input into the derepression circuit while also influencing other temporal regulators.

  4. Neurofibromatosis 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    NF2; Bilateral acoustic neurofibromatosis; Bilateral vestibular schwannomas; Central neurofibromatosis ... on NF2: Children's Tumor Foundation -- www.ctf.org Neurofibromatosis Network -- www.nfnetwork.org Neurofibromatosis Tumor Foundation -- nftumorfoundation. ...

  5. Robonaut 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — R2 is the humanoid robot currently on ISS. R2 is designed to off-load routine and repetitive work from the crew. The crew can then spend more time on science and...

  6. Prediksi Potensi Pencemaran Pengolahan Sampah dengan Metode Gasifikasi Fluidized Bed (Studi Kasus: TPA Benowo, Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lailatun Nikmah

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Sistem pengelolaan sampah di TPA Benowo masih bersistem open dumping dan belum memperhatikan dampak pencemaran terhadap lingkungan. Kuantitas sampah yang masuk ke TPA sebesar 461.705,782 ton pada tahun 2012. Kuantitas sampah diperkirakan meningkat sebanding dengan pertumbuhan penduduk, sehingga dibutuhkan skenario pengolahan sampah yang ramah lingkungan. Skenario pengolahan sampah yang akan dikaji adalah gasifikasi  fluidized bed. Potensi pencemaran gasifikasi  fluidized bed akan dikaji menggunakan metode Life Cycle Assessment (LCA dengan software SimaPro versi 7.1. Satu ton sampah pada studi ini ditentukan sebagai satu fungsi unit. Data input Life Cycle Inventory (LCI meliputi jumlah sampah yang masuk ke reaktor gasifikasi dan energi yang dibutuhkan pada proses gasifikasi berdasarkan pendekatan efisiensi reaktor gasifikasi. Penentuan nilai Life Cycle Impact Assesment (LCIA meliputi Global Warming Potential (GWP dan asidifikasi menggunakan metode Environmental Product Declarations (EPD 2008. Besar dampak dinyatakan dalam faktor emisi yang ekivalen. Kesimpulan pada penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa skenario pengolahan sampah dengan metode gasifikasi fluidized bed memberikan dampak GWP sebesar 1067,8 kg CO2/fu pada fase start-up dan 875 kg CO2/fu pada fase energy recovery serta asidifikasi sebesar 5,93 kg SO2/fu pada fase start-up dan 4,81 kg SO2/fu pada fase energy recovery.

  7. sdf2xyz2sdf

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosco, Paolo; Balle, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Description sdf2xyz2sdf is an open-source software aimed at converting SDF files into TINKER XYZ files (and viceversa) while performing automatic assignment of MMFF94 atom types, bond types and charges. The sdf2xyz2sdf package consists of two programs: •sdf2tinkerxyz •tinkerxyz2sdf sdf2xyz2sdf...... depends on OpenBabel for MMFF atom type and charge assignment. Since input to sdf2tinkerxyz is entered through standard input, and output from tinkerxyz2sdf is printed on standard output, it is possible to pipe output from OpenBabel into sdf2tinkerxyz, or to pipe tinkerxyz2sdf output into OpenBabel, so...... that virtually any format conversion from/to TINKER XYZ may be accomplished. Interestingly, also ionic heteroaromatic rings which could not be assigned proper charges by the original TINKER-MMFF code are correctly accounted for by sdf2xyz2sdf....

  8. Hidrolisis Eceng Gondok dan Sekam Padi untuk Menghasilkan Gula Reduksi sebagai Tahap Awal Produksi Bioetanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilda Azmia Naufala

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Eceng gondok (Eichhornia crassipes merupakan gulma air dengan pertumbuhan cepat yang disebabkan oleh eutrofikasi di badan air. Eceng gondok yang mengandung struktur lignoselulosa ini memiliki ketersediaan yang sangat melimpah. Lignoselulosa yang terdiri dari lignin, selulosa, dan hemiselulosa ini juga terkandung dalam sekam padi. Sekam padi merupakan limbah pertanian yang pemanfaatannya masih belum maksimum. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui campuran terbaik eceng gondok dan sekam padi yang dapat menghasilkan gula reduksi terbanyak. Perbandingan campuran eceng gondok dan sekam padi yang digunakan adalah 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:72, 0:100 dengan berat total 100 gram. Tahap awal penelitian ini yaitu pretreatment dengan H2SO4 1% sebanyak 1000 mL dan pemanasan suhu 100oC selama 60 menit. Tahap selanjutnya adalah hidrolisis enzimatik dengan memanfaatkan Aspergillus niger dan Trichoderma viride dengan perbandingn 2:1. Reaktor yang digunakan merupakan reaktor kaca dengan volume 2 L. Parameter yang diukur meliputi lignoselulosa dan gula reduksi. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa sampel yang mengandung 100:0 eceng gondok dan sekam padi mampu menghasilkan kadar gula reduksi tertinggi, yaitu sebesar 23,33 mg/g.

  9. Table 2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mcabuk

    *Supplied per kilogram of diet: 12 000 IU vitamin A; 2 400 IU vitamin D3; 30 IU vitamin E; 2.5 mg vitamin K3; 3 mg vitamin B1; 7 mg vitamin B2; 20 mg niacin; 8 mg calcium D-pantothenate; 4 mg vitamin B6; 0.015 mg vitamin B12;. 1 mg folic acid; 0.045 mg D-biotin; 50 mg vitamin C; 125 mg choline chloride. ** Supplied per ...

  10. GJB2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-04-03

    Apr 3, 2012 ... Key words: GJB2, 3D structure, 2ZW3, DFNB1, MODELLER. INTRODUCTION. Deafness is a state in which aptitude to perceive certain frequency of sound is completely or partially impaired. In humans, the term hearing impairment is usually reserved for people who have virtual insensitivity to sound in the.

  11. Sas2

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    General explanations about SAS2 tools are followed by more detailed instructions on Process Manager (PMr), a step-by-step technique for integrating collaborative inquiry into project plans and activities. Part 1 also provides guidelines on how to design and facilitate SAS2 events and processes and reports on the results.

  12. 2-(Dimethylaminoanthraquinone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuan Fei

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The molecule of the title compound, C16H13NO2, is almost planar, with a maximum deviation of 0.013 (2 Å from the best plane; the dihedral angle between the two aromatic rings is 1.06 (1°. In the crystal, molecules are linked through weak intramolecular C—H...O interactions, forming chains running parallel to [10overline{1}].

  13. SDF2XYZ2SDF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosco, Paolo; Balle, Thomas; Shiri, Fereshteh

    2011-01-01

    An open-source tool capable of converting SD files (and virtually any other format through OpenBabel) into MMFF-typed XYZ coordinate files to be used with TINKER is described. SDF2XYZ2SDF allows including the power of TINKER molecular mechanics computations in automated cheminformatics workflows...

  14. GPRASP2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Guangqian; Yao, Jun; Liu, Chunyu; Wei, Qinjun; Qian, Xuli; Wu, Lingxin; Lu, Yajie; Cao, Xin

    2017-06-01

    A substantial amount of nuclear genes have been identified to be implicated in genetic hearing loss, while X-linked hearing loss is genetically heterogeneous and relatively infrequent. To identify the causative gene mutation in a five-generation Chinese family with an X-linked recessive syndromic hearing loss (SHL). Targeted X-chromosome exome sequencing was conducted, and cosegregation analysis was performed in the members of the affected family. The in silico and expression studies were also performed. A 2-bp missense mutation (c.1717_1718GC>AA, p.A573N) in the G protein-coupled receptor associated sorting protein 2 ( GPRASP2 ) gene was identified in four hemizygous male patients and two heterozygous female carriers, which was cosegregated with the clinical phenotypes in this family. In silico analysis supported that this gene mutation is functionally deleterious, and it was detected that homologous Gprasp2 was highly expressed in multiple structures of the mouse cochlea, which suggested that GPRASP2 might be the genetic cause for the described disease phenotypes. This study presented a novel X-linked SHL combined with unique and unrecognised clinical features, and a missense variation of GPRASP2 was first identified to be implicated in X-linked SHL. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. Penggunaan Larutan Ekstrak Etanol dari Temulawak Sebagai Fotosensitizer di Dalam Pemutihan (Pengelantangan Pulp dengan Penyinaran Lampu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Perdana

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKEkstrak etanol dari temulawak (Curcuma Xanthorriza dapat digunakan sebagai fotosensitiser pada pemutihan pulp dengan penyinaran lampu, dimana pada pemutihan ini menghasilkan oksigen singlet yang mendegradasi lignin di dalam pulp (delignifikasi sehingga kenaikan kecerahan pulp meningkat secara signifikan. Kenaikan kecerahan pulp yang didapatkan pada pemutihan dengan penyinaran lampu pada saat waktu pemutihan 60 menit dan menggunakan ekstrak etanol temulawak sebagai fotosensitizer sebesar 4,23 %. Pemutihan dengan tidak menggunakan lampu tidak dapat meningkatkan kecerahan pulp yang cukup signifikan karena tidak menghasilkan oksigen singlet. Hasil kenaikan kecerahan pulp yang didapatkan pada pemutihan ini adalah 2,36 % pada generator oksigen singlet ditutup, dan 3,28 % pada generator oksigen singlet tidak ditutup dan 2,75 % pada pemutihan dengan pengaliran oksigen langsung ke reaktor pemutihan. Penyebab kenaikan kecerahan pulp yang lebih besar pada pemutihan pulp dengan tidak menggunakan penyinaran lampu dan generator oksigen singlet tidak ditutup daripada pemutihan pulp dengan tidak disinari lampu dan generator oksigen singlet ditutup adalah adanya kemungkinan jumlah foton yang masuk ke dalam reaktor oksigen singlet pada pemutihan dengan tanpa lampu dan reaktor oksigen singlet tidak ditutup adalah lebih besar, sehingga kemungkinan elektron dari fotosensitizer tereksitasi dan terbentuknya oksigen singlet lebih besar. Sedangkan penyebab kenaikan kecerahan pulp yang lebih besar pada pengaliran oksigen langsung ke reaktor pemutihan lebih besar daripada pemutihan pulp tidak disinari lampu dan generator oksigen singlet ditutup adalah dikarenakan pada pemutihan tanpa lampu dan tidak ditutup, oksigen triplet yang mengoksidasi pulp tidak menuju langsung ke pulp, akan tetapi melewati terlebih dahulu larutan fotosensitizer. Jadi sebagian oksigen masih ada di dalam larutan fotosensitizer, dan apabila oksigen menuju ke pulp membutuhkan waktu yang lebih

  16. LEADER 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daniels, G H; Hegedüs, L; Marso, S P

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: To report preliminary data on baseline serum calcitonin concentrations and associated clinical characteristics in a global population with type 2 diabetes before liraglutide or placebo randomization. METHODS: The ongoing LEADER trial has enrolled 9340 people with type 2 diabetes and at high...... committee of thyroid experts will oversee calcitonin monitoring throughout the trial and will review all calcitonin concentrations ≥20 ng/l. RESULTS: The mean age of participants was 64.3 ± 7.2 years, 64.3% were men, and mean the body mass index was 32.5 ± 6.3 kg/m(2) . The median (interquartile range...... with higher serum calcitonin concentrations that were statistically significant. A 20 ml/min/1.73 m(2) decrease in estimated GFR (eGFR) was associated with a 14% increase in serum calcitonin in women and an 11% increase in men. CONCLUSIONS: In the LEADER population, the prevalence of elevated serum calcitonin...

  17. SOS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Man; Li, Yong; Weeks, Olivia; Mijatovic, Vladan; Teumer, Alexander; Huffman, Jennifer E; Tromp, Gerard; Fuchsberger, Christian; Gorski, Mathias; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Nutile, Teresa; Sedaghat, Sanaz; Sorice, Rossella; Tin, Adrienne; Yang, Qiong; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S; Arking, Dan E; Bihlmeyer, Nathan A; Böger, Carsten A; Carroll, Robert J; Chasman, Daniel I; Cornelis, Marilyn C; Dehghan, Abbas; Faul, Jessica D; Feitosa, Mary F; Gambaro, Giovanni; Gasparini, Paolo; Giulianini, Franco; Heid, Iris; Huang, Jinyan; Imboden, Medea; Jackson, Anne U; Jeff, Janina; Jhun, Min A; Katz, Ronit; Kifley, Annette; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O; Kumar, Ashish; Laakso, Markku; Li-Gao, Ruifang; Lohman, Kurt; Lu, Yingchang; Mägi, Reedik; Malerba, Giovanni; Mihailov, Evelin; Mohlke, Karen L; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O; Robino, Antonietta; Ruderfer, Douglas; Salvi, Erika; Schick, Ursula M; Schulz, Christina-Alexandra; Smith, Albert V; Smith, Jennifer A; Traglia, Michela; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M; Zhao, Wei; Goodarzi, Mark O; Kraja, Aldi T; Liu, Chunyu; Wessel, Jennifer; Boerwinkle, Eric; Borecki, Ingrid B; Bork-Jensen, Jette; Bottinger, Erwin P; Braga, Daniele; Brandslund, Ivan; Brody, Jennifer A; Campbell, Archie; Carey, David J; Christensen, Cramer; Coresh, Josef; Crook, Errol; Curhan, Gary C; Cusi, Daniele; de Boer, Ian H; de Vries, Aiko P J; Denny, Joshua C; Devuyst, Olivier; Dreisbach, Albert W; Endlich, Karlhans; Esko, Tõnu; Franco, Oscar H; Fulop, Tibor; Gerhard, Glenn S; Glümer, Charlotte; Gottesman, Omri; Grarup, Niels; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Hansen, Torben; Harris, Tamara B; Hayward, Caroline; Hocking, Lynne; Hofman, Albert; Hu, Frank B; Husemoen, Lise Lotte N; Jackson, Rebecca D; Jørgensen, Torben; Jørgensen, Marit E; Kähönen, Mika; Kardia, Sharon L R; König, Wolfgang; Kooperberg, Charles; Kriebel, Jennifer; Launer, Lenore J; Lauritzen, Torsten; Lehtimäki, Terho; Levy, Daniel; Linksted, Pamela; Linneberg, Allan; Liu, Yongmei; Loos, Ruth J F; Lupo, Antonio; Meisinger, Christine; Melander, Olle; Metspalu, Andres; Mitchell, Paul; Nauck, Matthias; Nürnberg, Peter; Orho-Melander, Marju; Parsa, Afshin; Pedersen, Oluf; Peters, Annette; Peters, Ulrike; Polasek, Ozren; Porteous, David; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M; Psaty, Bruce M; Qi, Lu; Raitakari, Olli T; Reiner, Alex P; Rettig, Rainer; Ridker, Paul M; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rossouw, Jacques E; Schmidt, Frank; Siscovick, David; Soranzo, Nicole; Strauch, Konstantin; Toniolo, Daniela; Turner, Stephen T; Uitterlinden, André G; Ulivi, Sheila; Velayutham, Dinesh; Völker, Uwe; Völzke, Henry; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wang, Jie Jin; Weir, David R; Witte, Daniel; Kuivaniemi, Helena; Fox, Caroline S; Franceschini, Nora; Goessling, Wolfram; Köttgen, Anna; Chu, Audrey Y

    2017-03-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified >50 common variants associated with kidney function, but these variants do not fully explain the variation in eGFR. We performed a two-stage meta-analysis of associations between genotypes from the Illumina exome array and eGFR on the basis of serum creatinine (eGFRcrea) among participants of European ancestry from the CKDGen Consortium ( n Stage1 : 111,666; n Stage2 : 48,343). In single-variant analyses, we identified single nucleotide polymorphisms at seven new loci associated with eGFRcrea ( PPM1J , EDEM3, ACP1, SPEG, EYA4, CYP1A1 , and ATXN2L ; P Stage1 <3.7×10 -7 ), of which most were common and annotated as nonsynonymous variants. Gene-based analysis identified associations of functional rare variants in three genes with eGFRcrea, including a novel association with the SOS Ras/Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor 2 gene, SOS2 ( P =5.4×10 -8 by sequence kernel association test). Experimental follow-up in zebrafish embryos revealed changes in glomerular gene expression and renal tubule morphology in the embryonic kidney of acp1- and sos2 -knockdowns. These developmental abnormalities associated with altered blood clearance rate and heightened prevalence of edema. This study expands the number of loci associated with kidney function and identifies novel genes with potential roles in kidney formation. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  18. MAGI2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierzynska, Agnieszka; Soderquest, Katrina; Dean, Philip; Colby, Elizabeth; Rollason, Ruth; Jones, Caroline; Inward, Carol D; McCarthy, Hugh J; Simpson, Michael A; Lord, Graham M; Williams, Maggie; Welsh, Gavin I; Koziell, Ania B; Saleem, Moin A

    2017-05-01

    Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS), a heterogeneous disorder of the renal glomerular filtration barrier, results in impairment of glomerular permselectivity. Inheritance of genetic SRNS may be autosomal dominant or recessive, with a subset of autosomal recessive SRNS presenting as congenital nephrotic syndrome (CNS). Mutations in 53 genes are associated with human SRNS, but these mutations explain ≤30% of patients with hereditary cases and only 20% of patients with sporadic cases. The proteins encoded by these genes are expressed in podocytes, and malfunction of these proteins leads to a universal end point of podocyte injury, glomerular filtration barrier disruption, and SRNS. Here, we identified novel disease-causing mutations in membrane-associated guanylate kinase, WW, and PDZ domain-containing 2 ( MAGI2 ) through whole-exome sequencing of a deeply phenotyped cohort of patients with congenital, childhood-onset SRNS. Although MAGI2 has been shown to interact with nephrin and regulate podocyte cytoskeleton and slit diaphragm dynamics, MAGI2 mutations have not been described in human SRNS. We detected two unique frameshift mutations and one duplication in three patients (two families); two siblings shared the same homozygous frameshift mutation, whereas one individual with sporadic SRNS exhibited compound heterozygosity. Two mutations were predicted to introduce premature stop codons, and one was predicted to result in read through of the normal translational termination codon. Immunohistochemistry in kidney sections from these patients revealed that mutations resulted in lack of or diminished podocyte MAGI2 expression. Our data support the finding that mutations in the MAGI2 gene are causal for congenital SRNS. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  19. Kjemi 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Harald; Hushovd, Odd T.

    Kemi 2 er et bogsystem til den gymnasiale kemiundervisning i Norge (VG3, studieforberedende) tilsvarende det danske kemi A-niveau i det almene gymnasium (stx). Lærebogen er et del af af et bogsystem med tilhørende netsted til elever og online-lærervejledning (lokus.no).......Kemi 2 er et bogsystem til den gymnasiale kemiundervisning i Norge (VG3, studieforberedende) tilsvarende det danske kemi A-niveau i det almene gymnasium (stx). Lærebogen er et del af af et bogsystem med tilhørende netsted til elever og online-lærervejledning (lokus.no)....

  20. Meddelelser 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Moust; Jørgensen, Mogens B.; Lund, Willy

    Meddelelser udsendes med det formål at orientere om de aktiviteter, der foregår ved Aalborg Universitetscenters funderingslaboratorium. Det første nummer udsendtes i 1980, men det er stadig vort håb, at der set over en længere årrrække vil blive udsendt et nyt nummer hvert år. Nærværerende »Medde...... »Meddelelser 2« indeholder 2 undersøgelser, som Laboratoriet for Fundering har udført for Aalborg kommune i samarbejde med Geodan....

  1. RIsearch2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkan, Ferhat; Wenzel, Anne; Palasca, Oana

    2017-01-01

    accessibilities and transcript abundance estimates. We show that this pipeline accurately predicts siRNA off-target interactions and enables off-targeting potential comparisons between different siRNA designs. RIsearch2 and the siRNA off-target discovery pipeline are available as stand-alone software packages......-RNA interactions on genome/transcriptome-wide scale. We furthermore present an siRNA off-target discovery pipeline that not only predicts the off-target transcripts but also computes the off-targeting potential of a given siRNA. This is achieved by combining genome-wide RIsearch2 predictions with target site...

  2. ATF2 Proposal v. 2

    CERN Document Server

    Grishanov, B I; Alabau-Pons, M; Angal-Kalinin, Deepa; Appleby, R; Araki, S; Bailey, I; Bambade, P; Bane, Karl Leopold Freitag; Barlow, R; Blair, G A; Bolzon, B; Boorman, G; Bosco, A; Brachmann, A; Braun, Hans Heinrich; Burrows, P N; Carter, J; Choi, J; Christian, Glenn B; Clarke, C; Dabiri-Khah, A; Dadoun, O; Danagulyan, S; Delerue, N; Dixit, S; Driouichi, C; Elsen E; Gao, J; Geffroy, N; Gronberg, J; Hartin, Anthony F; Hayano, H; Higashi, Y; Himel, T; Honda, Y; Howell, D; Huang, J Y; Iwashita, Y; Jenner, L; Jones, J; Jones, R; Jérémie, A; Kalinin, A; Kanazawa, K; Kang, H S; Karyotakis, Yu; Kim, E S; Kim, S; Komamiya, S; Kourevlev, German Yu; Kubo, K; Kumada, M; Kume, T; Kuriki, M; Kuroda, S; Liu, W; Logatchev, P V; Lyapin, A; Malton, S; Markiewicz, T W; Masuzawa, M; Mihara, T; Miller, D J; Molloy, S; Mtingwa, S; Naito, T; Nan-Phinney, Y; Napoly, O; Nelson, J; Okugi, T; Payet, J; Pei, G X; Pivi, M T F; Podgorny, F; Price, M; Raubenheimer, T O; Reichold, A; Ross, M; Sanuki, T; Schulte, Daniel; Seryi, R A; Solyak, N; Soo Ko In; Spencer, C M; Suehara, T; Sugahara, R; Takahashi, T; Takashi-Boogert, S; Tauchi, T; Telnov, Valery I; Tenenbaum, P G; Terunuma, N; Toge, N; Torrence, E; Urakawa, J; Urner, D; Vogel, V; Walker, N; Wang, J Q; Wendt, M; White, G; Wing, M; Wolski, A; Woodley, M; Yamaoka, H; Yokoya, K; Zimmermann, Frank

    2006-01-01

    For achieving the high luminosity required at the International Linear Collider (ILC), it is critical to focus the beams to nanometer size with the ILC Beam Delivery System (BDS), and to maintain the beam collision with a nanometer-scale stability. To establish the technologies associated with this ultra-high precision beam handling, it has been proposed to implement an ILC-like final focus optics in an extension of the existing extraction beamline of ATF at KEK. The ATF is considered to be the best platform for this exercise, since it provides an adequate ultra-low emittance electron beam in a manner dedicated to the development of ILC. The two major goals for this facility, called ATF2, are : (A) Achievement of a 37 nm beam size, and (B) control of beam position down to 2 nm level. The scientific justification for the ATF2 project and its technical design have been described in Volume 1 of the ATF2 Proposal [1]. We present here Volume 2 of the ATF2 Proposal, in which we present specifics of the construction...

  3. CHAIN 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, D.

    1998-04-01

    The Second Processing Chain (CHAIN2) consists of a suite of ten programs which together provide a full local analysis of the bulk plasma physics within the JET Tokamak. In discussing these ten computational models this report is intended to fulfil two broad purposes. Firstly it is meant to be used as a reference source for any user of CHAIN2 data, and secondly it provides a basic User Manual sufficient to instruct anyone in running the CHAIN2 suite of codes. In the main report text each module is described in terms of its underlying physics and any associated assumptions or limitations, whilst deliberate emphasis is put on highlighting the physics and mathematics of the calculations required in deriving each individual datatype in the standard module PPF output. In fact each datatype of the CHAIN2 PPF output listed in Appendix D is cross referenced to the point in the main text where its evaluation is discussed. An effort is made not only to give the equation used to derive a particular data profile but also to explicitly define which external data sources are involved in the computational calculation

  4. Table:2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CHC+ 0.042261 -115.619792 -115.577531 -115.291056 -115.482384. c-C3H3+ 0.045333 -115.733846 -115.688513 -115.396826 -115.589954. H2CCCH+ +HF 0.052087 -216.111454 -215.059367 -215.631844 -215.944155. c-C3H3+ +HF ...

  5. Orijemie (2)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    painting of Altamira caves in northern Spain. (Jones and Bryant, 1996). The benefits of honey to humans are numerous and include its use as an immune system ... with oil immersion x100 objective of a light microscope, and the colours of the honeys (Table. 2) were determined using the Munsell Colour. Chart. RESULTS.

  6. AFRIMEDIC VOL. 2, NO. 2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Buchi

    INTRODUCTION. Vaccine-preventable diseases contribute significantly to childhood morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan. Africa¹. One out of five children die before their fifth. 2 birthday in Nigeria. Vaccine preventable diseases include diphtheria, pertusis, measles, poliomyelitis, tuberculosis, cerebro-spinal meningitis, ...

  7. Gentilly 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, Benoit; Bourbonnais, Claude

    1983-01-01

    Gentilly 2 nuclear power station has reached maximum capacity. This paper presents, based on the experience gained, conclusions relative to the organization structure implemented for the project, the management, the quality assurance, the engineering, the purchasing, the construction, the commissioning and the transition between the project phase and the commercial operation of the plant. It shows Hydro-Quebec's philosophy of operation of the station, given the present energy situation, and the mechanism for exchanging information with the owners of the other nuclear stations

  8. 2-(2-Isopropylphenoxyacetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Hussein Issa Mohammed

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C11H14O3, the pendant –OCH2COOH chain is in an extended conformation and almost lies in the plane of the benzene ring, as indicated by the dihedral angle of 2.61 (5°. In the crystal, molecules are linked by a pair of O—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming classical carboxylic acid inversion dimers, with an R22(8 loop. The crystal structure of this compound have been reported previously [Smith et al. (1992. Aust. J. Chem. 45, 1101–1108], however, in that report, the unit-cell dimensions differ significantly from those of the title structure and the carboxyl H atom was disordered within a cyclic hydrogen-bonded dimer.

  9. Heysham 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Heysham 2 power station, which is being built near Morecombe on the north west coast of England by the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) will be the fifth nuclear power station of the British designed Advanced gas cooled reactor type (AGR). When fully operational in the late 1980s the station's two 660 megawatt turbo-generators will be capable of supplying the electricity to a large industrial city. This brochure, which has been designed by Public Relations for the CEGB, explains briefly the siting, planning history, contract responsibilities and construction. A brief account of the AGR design is given followed by a description of some of the main components. The text is illustrated with colour photographs and diagrams. The technical details are listed. (U.K.)

  10. #CERNJOBSEnigma2

    CERN Multimedia

    Stephanie Hills

    2015-01-01

    Curiosity is an essential attribute for anyone who works at CERN, and the HR recruitment team is about to pique the interest of its social media followers with the release of its second Enigma challenge, #CERNJOBSEnigma2. Starting on 29 May, daily clues will be revealed and social media followers can work together to solve the enigma before the answer is revealed on 5 June.   The first Enigma challenge in 2013 was designed to build interest and excitement in the CERN Jobs social media presence ahead of the launch of a radical new web site. One of the surprising aspects of the first Enigma challenge was how collaboratively social media followers worked together to solve the clues. One of those followers was Dom Nicosia. At the time, Dom was working in the UK as a medical linear accelerator technician in the National Health Service. #CERNJOBSEnigma was never intended to be a direct recruitment tool, but it sparked Dom’s interest in CERN and he is now working as a technician in the Be...

  11. 2-(Pyridin-2-ylpyridinium trifluoromethanesulfonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryosuke Abe

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Although in the title salt, C10H9N2+·CF3SO3−, the C—C and C—N bond lengths within the aromatic rings are normal, there is a considerable difference in the C—N—C angles at the protonated and unprotonated N atoms, viz. 123.42 (10 and 117.10 (11°, respectively. Bifurcated N—H...X (X = N or O hydrogen bonds form within the cation and between cation and anion. As a result, the cation exists in a cis conformation in the solid state. An obvious π–π contact is also present between the non-protonated pyridyl rings of neighbouring cations.

  12. Systems of Rb2I2-CdI2-PbI2 and Cs2I2-CdI2-PbI2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volchanskaya, V.V.; Il'yasov, I.I.

    1979-01-01

    The Rb 2 I 2 -CdI 2 -PbI 2 and Cs 2 I 2 -CdI 2 -PbI 2 triple systems have been studied, using the visual-polythermal method. The liquidus of the systems researched consists of the components and compounds crystallization fields: 2RbIxCdI 2 , 2RbIxRbI 2 , RbIxPbI 2 and 2CsIxCdI 2 , 4CsIxPbI 2 , CsIxPbI 2 , respectively. The crystallization fields converge in four non-variant points at 360, 280, 205 and 192 deg C in the Rb 2 I 2 -CdI 2 -PbI 2 system and at 375, 368, 208 and 190 deg C in the CsI 2 -CdI 2 -PbI 2 system

  13. 2-minute Gridded Global Relief Data (ETOPO2) v2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Two-minute gridded global relief for both ocean and land areas are available in the ETOPO2v2 (2006) database. ETOPO2v2 replaced ETOPO2 (2001). The historic 2-minute...

  14. D3-??????????????????????? ? ???? ?????????? ?2 ?????? ?????? ?????

    OpenAIRE

    ?????????, ????; ???????, ???????; ??????, ?????????; ?????????????, ????; ??????, ??????

    2011-01-01

    ????? ?????? ??????? ????? ????? ??????????? ?????? ?????? ????? ? ?????? ? ???????? ????? ?????????. ?????????? ???????????? ?????? ?? ?2 ?????? ?????? ????? ??????? ?? D3 ???????????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ????????? ????? ?????????? ??? ??? ??????????. ? ????? ????????????? ??????????? ??? ????????? ????????????? ?????????? ???? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ?? D3-????????????????? ???????.

  15. Removal of Cd2+, Cr3+, Cu2+, Hg2+, Pb2+ and Zn2+ cations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-04-20

    . Cr3+ of 2.10 mM (109.2 mg/ℓ) was pre- pared from dilution of stock solution of 1.4M Cr(ClO4)3.6H2O. pH values of the solutions are shown in Table 1. Theoretical cal- culations performed from computer program Visual ...

  16. Microfungal Activity Test Of The Triga Mark II Reactor Tank Isolation to Aluminium corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahid, Rosmiarty A.; Umar, Lukman; Yestiani, Yani

    2000-01-01

    In our pres ious study some pure species of micro fungal have been isolated from cooling water and samples taken from surrounding tank wall of TRIGA Mark II Reaktor. This study was conducted to determine their activities to aluminium 6061-T using modified method of Hortative (1962) in the speed of corrosion transmission process. Each isolate was inoculated into mineral nutrient solution. Changes of ph and reduced weight of Aluminium specimen weight between the experimental and the control groups, and the amounts were proportional to to the length of investigation times. The highest degree of the corrosion speed is given by Penicillium simplicissimum inoculant 2,95.10 - 6, followed by Paecilomyceus carneus 2,61.10 6 , Penicillium canescens 2,59.10 - 6 and the control 2,11.10 6 respectively

  17. PODAAC-OSCT2-L2BV2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset consists of the version 2 Level 2B science-quality ocean surface wind vector retrievals from the Oceansat-2 scatterometer (OSCAT), which was designed...

  18. 4 CFR 2.2 - References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false References. 2.2 Section 2.2 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM PURPOSE AND GENERAL PROVISION § 2.2 References. (a) Subchapters III and IV of Chapter 7 of Title 31 U.S.C. (b) Title 5, United States Code. [45 FR 68375, Oct. 15, 1980, as...

  19. Strain engineering of WS2, WSe2, and WTe2

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Bin

    2014-01-01

    We perform first-principles calculations to investigate the structural, electronic, and vibrational properties of WS2, WSe2, and WTe2 monolayers, taking into account the strong spin orbit coupling. A transition from a direct to an indirect band gap is achieved for compressive strain of 1% for WS2, 1.5% for WSe2, and 2% for WTe 2, while the nature of the band gap remains direct in the case of tensile strain. The size of the band gap passes through a maximum under compressive strain and decreases monotonically under tensile strain. A strong spin splitting is found for the valence band in all three compounds, which is further enhanced by tensile strain. The mobility of the electrons grows along the series WS2 < WSe2 < WTe2. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  20. Na2MoO2As2O7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Jouini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Disodium molybdenum dioxide diarsenate, Na2MoO2As2O7, has been synthesized by a solid-state reaction. The structure is built up from MoAs2O12 linear units sharing corners to form a three-dimensional framework containing tunnels running along the a-axis direction in which the Na+ cations are located. In this framework, the AsV atoms are tetrahedrally coordinated and form an As2O7 group. The MoVI atom is displaced from the center of an octahedron of O atoms. Two Na+ cations are disordered about inversion centres. Structural relationships between different compounds: A2MoO2As2O7 (A = K, Rb, AMOP2O7 (A = Na, K, Rb; M = Mo, Nb and MoP2O7 are discussed.

  1. Pengolahan Limbah Laundry Menggunakan Membran Nanofiltrasi Aliran Cross Flow untuk Menurunkan Kekeruhan dan Fosfat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aufiyah Aufiyah

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Dilakukan penelitian mengenai pembuatan membran silika nanofiltrasi untuk mengurangi kekeruhan dan fosfat menggunakan reaktor dengan aliran cross flow dengan variasi massa silika 5, 8, dan 10 gram. Silika didapatkan dari sintesis pasir silika menggunakan metode alkali fussion menggunakan peleburan dengan KOH. Variasi limbah yang digunakan adalah 100% limbah, 50% pengenceran dan 75% pengenceran (25% air limbah dengan air PDAM. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan pengaruh massa silika terhadap koefisien rejeksi dan nilai fluks pada setiap variasi membran. Data koefisien rejeksi dan nilai fluks menunjukkan variasi membran terbaik yang selanjutnya akan dianalisa morfologinya dengan metode SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy dan analisa gugus fungsi dengan metode FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra Red. Didapatkan koefisien rejeksi terbaik adalah 5 gram 100% limbah dengan nilai rejeksi kekeruhan 91,33%. Rejeksi fosfat 56, 07%. Nilai fluks terbaik didapatkan membran 8 gram 25% air limbah dengan nilai fluks 2,81 L/m2.jam.

  2. K2V2O2(AsO42

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Roisnel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The vanadium oxide arsenate with formula K2V2O2(AsO42, dipotassium divanadium(IV dioxide diarsenate, has been synthesized by solid-state reaction in an evacuated silica ampoule. Its structure is isotypic with K2V2O2(PO42. The framework is built up from corner-sharing VO6 octahedra and AsO4 tetrahedra, creating an infinite [VAsO8]∞ chain running along the a- and c-axis directions. The K+ cations are located in hexagonal tunnels, which are delimited by the connection of the [VAsO8]∞ chains.

  3. H2O2: A Dynamic Neuromodulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Margaret E.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing evidence implicates hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as an intra- and intercellular signaling molecule that can influence processes from embryonic development to cell death. Most research has focused on relatively slow signaling, on the order of minutes to days, via second messenger cascades. However, H2O2 can also mediate subsecond signaling via ion channel activation. This rapid signaling has been examined most thoroughly in the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) pathway, which plays a key role in facilitating movement mediated by the basal ganglia. In DA neurons of the substantia nigra, endogenously generated H2O2 activates ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels that inhibit DA neuron firing. In the striatum, H2O2 generated downstream from glutamatergic AMPA receptor activation in medium spiny neurons acts as a diffusible messenger that inhibits axonal DA release, also via KATP channels. The source of dynamically generated H2O2 is mitochondrial respiration; thus, H2O2 provides a novel link between activity and metabolism via KATP channels. Additional targets of H2O2 include transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. In contrast to the inhibitory effect of H2O2 acting via KATP channels, TRP channel activation is excitatory. This review describes emerging roles of H2O2 as a signaling agent in the nigrostriatal pathway and other basal ganglia neurons. PMID:21666063

  4. Nitrogen heteroaromatic cations by [2+2+2] cycloaddition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čížková, Martina; Kolivoška, Viliam; Císařová, I.; Šaman, David; Pospíšil, Lubomír; Teplý, Filip

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 2 (2011), s. 450-462 ISSN 1477-0520 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/1614; GA ČR GA203/09/0705; GA MŠk OC 140 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : modular synthesis * N-heteroaromatic cation * [2+2+2] cycloaddition Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.696, year: 2011

  5. 5 CFR 2.2 - Appointments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appointments. 2.2 Section 2.2 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE RULES APPOINTMENT THROUGH THE COMPETITIVE... career service to necessary fluctuations in Federal employment, and provide an equitable and orderly...

  6. [(2-Morpholinoethyl(2-pyridylmethyleneamine]dithiocyanatozinc(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bang-Hong Cai

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [Zn(NCS2(C12H17N3O], was prepared by the reaction of zinc acetate with pyridine-2-carbaldehyde, 2-morpholinoethylamine and ammonium thiocyanate in an ethanol solution. The ZnII atom is five coordinate with a distorted trigonal–bipyramidal geometry, coordinating with three N atoms of the Schiff base (2-morpholinoethyl(2-pyridylmethylideneamine and two N atoms from two thiocyanate ligands. The morpholine ring adopts a chair configuration.

  7. 2-Amino-2,3-dimethylbutanamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongbiao Yin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C6H14N2O, was synthesized by the reaction between 2-amino-2,3-dimethylbutanonitrile and oil of vitriol (sulfuric acid. A racemic mixture of L- and R-2-amino-2,3-dimethylbutanamide was characterized crystallographically. In the crystal structure, intermolecular N—H...O hydrogen bonds link the two enantiomers into a three-dimensional network.

  8. H2 blockers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peptic ulcer disease - H2 blockers; PUD - H2 blockers; Gastroesophageal reflux - H2 blockers; GERD - H2 blockers ... provider about your symptoms. If you have a peptic ulcer, your provider may prescribe H2 blockers along with ...

  9. Vermikompos Sampah Kebun dengan Menggunakan Cacing Tanah Eudrilus eugeneae dan Eisenia fetida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etik Rahmawati

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Durasi yang panjang diperlukan dalam pengomposan konvensional sampah organik yang memerlukan waktu selama 2-3 bulan. Pengurangan waktu pengomposan dapat dilakukan dengan digunakannya cacing sebagai dekomposer. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan tingkat degradasi sampah kebun menggunakan proses vermikomposting dan menentukan pengaruh jenis cacing Eudrilus eugeneae dan Eisenia fetida. Empat reaktor berukuran 8 L digunakan dalam penelitian ini. Percobaan dilakukan secara duplo selama 60 hari. Parameter yang dianalisis pada penelitian ini adalah ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N, nitrat nitrogen (NO3-N, Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN, dan C/N. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa tingkat degradasi sampah kebun dengan pengolahan vermikomposting yang dapat dicapai adalah 64,94-72,52%. Produksi kompos yang lebih tinggi dengan penggunaan Eisenia fetida.

  10. ITOUGH2 user`s guide version 2.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finsterle, S.

    1993-08-01

    ITOUGH2 is a program to estimate hydrogeologic model parameters for the numerical simulator TOUGH2. TOUGH2 was developed by Karsten Pruess at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for simulating non-isothermal flows of multicomponent, multiphase fluids in porous and fractured media. ITOUGH2 solves the inverse problem by automatic model calibration based on an indirect approach, in which some function of the difference between observed and model-predicted system response and appropriately weighted prior information about the parameters is minimized using standard optimization techniques. ITOUGH2 also provides a detailed error analysis of the estimated parameter set, and employs some procedures to study error propagation for prediction runs. This report includes a review of the inverse modeling theory, and a detailed description of the program architecture, input language, and the various user features provided by ITOUGH2. A sample problem is given to illustrate code application.

  11. PENURUNAN COD, TSS DAN TOTAL FOSFAT PADA SEPTIC TANK LIMBAH MATARAM CITRA SEMBADA CATERING DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN WASTEWATER GARDEN (Degradation of COD, TSS and Total Phosphate in Septic Tank Wastewater of Mataram Citra Sembada Catering Using Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dradjat Suhardjo

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK  Sumber limbah berasal dari septictank industri restauran (catering Citra Sembada Catering, termasuk dalam kategori limbah domestik. Limbah tersebut banyak mengandung komponen yang tidak diinginkan bila dibuang ke badan air. Konsentrasi limbah yang masih di atas baku mutu, di antaranya akan memunculkan masalah pencemaran. Reaktor Wastewater Garden yang menggunakan krikil (0,5Cm-1cm dan 6 jenis tanaman yaitu : melati air (Echinodoras paleafias, Cyperus (Cyperus, Futoi (Hippochaetes lymnenalis, Pisang air (Typhonodorum indleyanum, Pickerel rush (Pontedoria cordata, Cattail (Typha latifulia. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui tingkat efektivitas reaktor Wastewater Garden, apabila digunakan untuk menurunkan konsentrasi Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, Total Suspended Solid (TSS dan Fosfat Total sebagai faktor pencemar pada limbah industri restauran (Citra Sembada Catering yang tertampung pada septictank. Penelitian dilakukan dengan menggunakan reaktor Wastewater Garden dengan sistem batch dan dimensi reaktor lm x 0.5m x lm. Zona air limbah 75 cm, dan zona substrat atau krikil 80 cm, akar tanaman ditanam sedalam l0-15 cm. Metode penelitian yang digunakan berdasarkan SNI, di mana COD mengacu pada SNI 06-6989.2-2004 metode refluks tertutup secara spektrofotometri, TSS mengacu pada SK SNI M-03-1990-F metode pengujian secara gravimetri dan Fosfat total mengacu pada SNI M-52-1990-03 metode asam askorbat dengan alat spektrofotometer. Penelitian ini dilakukan selama 12 hari di mana setiap 3 hari sampel diambil pada outlel kemudian dianalisis. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian ini, diperoleh bahwa penggunaan wastewater garden pada limbah cair Mataram Citra Sembada Catering dapat menurunkan COD dengan efektivitas optimum 40,81% pada hari ke-6, penurunan TSS 89,l2% pada efektifitas optirnum hari ke-12 dan penurunan fosfat total dengan efektivitas optimum pada hari ke-6 yaitu sebesar 99,73 %. Tanaman dapat hidup dengan subur.   ABSTRACT  Wastewater

  12. Sen2Cor for Sentinel-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main-Knorn, Magdalena; Pflug, Bringfried; Louis, Jerome; Debaecker, Vincent; Müller-Wilm, Uwe; Gascon, Ferran

    2017-10-01

    In the frame of the Copernicus programme, ESA has developed and launched the Sentinel-2 optical imaging mission that delivers optical data products designed to feed downstream services mainly related to land monitoring, emergency management and security. The Sentinel-2 mission is the constellation of two polar orbiting satellites Sentinel-2A and Sentinel-2B, each one equipped with an optical imaging sensor MSI (Multi-Spectral Instrument). Sentinel-2A was launched on June 23rd, 2015 and Sentinel-2B followed on March 7th, 2017. With the beginning of the operational phase the constellation of both satellites enable image acquisition over the same area every 5 days or less. To use unique potential of the Sentinel-2 data for land applications and ensure the highest quality of scientific exploitation, accurate correction of satellite images for atmospheric effects is required. Therefore the atmospheric correction processor Sen2Cor was developed by Telespazio VEGA Deutschland GmbH on behalf of ESA. Sen2Cor is a Level-2A processor which main purpose is to correct single-date Sentinel-2 Level-1C Top-Of-Atmosphere (TOA) products from the effects of the atmosphere in order to deliver a Level-2A Bottom-Of-Atmosphere (BOA) reflectance product. Additional outputs are an Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) map, a Water Vapour (WV) map and a Scene Classification (SCL) map with Quality Indicators for cloud and snow probabilities. Telespazio France and DLR have teamed up in order to provide the calibration and validation of the Sen2Cor processor. Here we provide an overview over the Sentinel-2 data, processor and products. It presents some processing examples of Sen2Cor applied to Sentinel-2 data, provides up-to-date information about the Sen2Cor release status and recent validation results at the time of the SPIE Remote Sensing 2017.

  13. Difluoro[2-(quinolin-2-ylphenolato]borane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Yang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C15H10BF2NO, was synthesized by the reaction of 2-(quinolin-2-ylphenol and boron trifluoride etherate. The quinoline ring system and the benzene ring are twisted, making a dihedral angle of 8.3 (2°. In the crystal, π–π interactions between the aromatic rings [centroid–centroid distance = 3.638 (9 Å] link the molecules into chains propagating in [100].

  14. Photodriven [2]rotaxane-[2]catenane interconversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tron, Arnaud; Jacquot de Rouville, Henri-Pierre; Ducrot, Aurélien; Tucker, James H R; Baroncini, Massimo; Credi, Alberto; McClenaghan, Nathan D

    2015-02-18

    A [2]rotaxane, whose thread component comprises a central dibenzylammonium group and 9-alkoxyanthracene stoppers and is hosted by a 24-dibenzo-8-crown bead, undergoes an efficient photocatenation step resulting in a [2]rotaxane-to-[2]catenane topology interconversion via a fully reversible [4π+4π] photocyclomerization of terminal anthracene groups.

  15. NEUTRONICS ANALYSIS ON MINI TEST FUEL IN THE RSG-GAS CORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tukiran Surbakti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract NEUTRONICS ANALYSIS ON MINI TEST FUEL IN THE RSG-GAS CORE. Research of UMo fuel for research reactor has been developing  right now. The fuel of  research reactor used is uranium low enrichment with high density. For supporting the development of fuel, an assessment of mini fuel in the RSG-GAS core was performed. The mini fuel are U7Mo-Al and U6Zr-Al with densitis of 7.0gU/cc and 5.2 gU/cc, respectively. The size of both fuel are the same namely 630x70.75x1.30 mm were inserted to the 3 plates of dummy fuel. Before being irradiated in the core, a calculation for safety analysis  from neutronics and thermohydrolics aspects were required. However, in this paper will discuss safety analysis of the U7Mo-Al and U6Zr-Al mini fuels from neutronic point of view.  The calculation was done using WIMSD-5B and Batan-3DIFF code. The result showed that both of the mini fuels could be irradiated in the RSG-GAS core with burn up less than 70 % within 12 cycles of operation without over limiting the safety margin. Power density of U7Mo-Al mini fuel bigger than U6Zr-Al fuel.   Key words: mini fuel, neutronics analysis, reactor core, safety analysis   Abstrak ANALISIS NEUTRONIK ELEMEN BAKAR UJI MINI DI TERAS RSG-GAS. Penelitian tentang bahan bakar UMo untuk reaktor riset terus berkembang saat ini. Bahan bakar reaktor riset yang digunakan adalah uranium pengkayaan rendah namun densitas tinggi.  Untuk mendukung pengembangan bahan bakar dilakukan uji elemen bakar mini di teras reakror RSG-GAS dengan tujuan menentukan jumlah siklus di dalam teras sehingga tercapai fraksi bakar maksimum. Bahan bakar yang diuji adalah U7Mo-Al dengan densitas 7,0 gU/cc dan U6Zr-Al densitas 5,2 gU/cc. Ukuran kedua bahan bakar uji tersebut adalah sama 630x70,75x1,30 mm dimasukkan masing masing kedalam 3 pelat dummy bahan bakar. Sebelum diiradiasi ke dalam teras reaktor maka perlu dilakukan perhitungan keselamatan baik secara neutronik maupun termohidrolik. Dalam makalah ini

  16. DESAIN KONSEP TANGKI PENAMPUNG BAHAN BAKAR PASSIVE COMPACT MOLTEN SALT REACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hadiwinata

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Passive Compact Molten Salt Reactor (PCMSR merupakan pengembangan dari reaktor MSR. Desain reaktor PCMSR membutuhkan tempat khusus penampung sementara bahan bakar pada saat terjadi insiden, misalnya kecelakaan yang menyebabkan peningkatan suhu bahan bakar. Tangki penampung bahan bakar tersusun dari 3 bagian yang saling terhubung yaitu bagian penampung cairan bahan bakar, cerobong (chimney, dan penukar kalor. Dalam penelitian ini, tangki dimodelkan secara lump dan dilakukan variasi daya awal reaktor dan ketinggian cerobong. Syarat batas model ditetapkan suhu bahan bakar maksimum 1400 °C, yang didasarkan pada titik didih larutan garam LiF-BeF2-ThF4-UF4. Analisis dilakukan dengan cara menghitung rugi tekanan total dan transfer kalor untuk variasi daya awal antara 1800-3000 MWth dan ketinggian cerobong antara 1-10 m. Hasil penelitian menunjukan semakin besar daya reaktor, maka tinggi tangki penampung bahan bakar dan tinggi alat penukar kalor yang dibutuhkan akan semakin besar, tejadi kenaikan suhu fluida pendingin dan suhu udara pendingin, dan menyebabkan kenaikan laju aliran masa fluida pendingin, sedangkan laju aliran masa udara menurun. Peningkatan ketinggian cerobong menyebabkan ketinggian tangki penampung bahan bakar dan ketinggian alat penukar kalor semakin menurun, penurunan suhu fluida pendingin, tetapi suhu udara meningkat, dan menyebabkan peningkatan laju aliran masa fluida pendingin, tetapi laju aliran masa udara akan semakin menurun. Kata kunci: PCMSR, cerobong, alat penukar kalor, variasi daya.   The Passsive Compact Molten Salat Reactor (PCMSR reactor is developed from MSR reactor. The PCMSR reactor design requires special place to temporarily storage for reactor fuel when incident occurs, such as when there is an accident which caused the temperature of the fuel increases. The tank consist of three interconnected parts, the reservoir liquid fuel, chimney, and the heat exchanger. In this research, the tank system is modeled based on

  17. [Type 2 autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes (APS-2)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vialettes, Bernard; Dubois-Leonardon, Noémie

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes (APS-2) are the most frequent disorders associating several organ-specific autoimmune diseases. Their high prevalence is due to the fact that the main manifestations of APS-2, such as thyroidal autoimmunity, type 1 diabetes, autoimmune gastric atrophy and vitiligo, are common diseases. APS-2 represents a clinical model that can serve to help unravel the mechanisms underlying autoimmunity. Diagnosis of APS-2 is a challenge for the clinician, especially in poorly symptomatic forms, and may require systematic screening based on measurement of autoantibodies and functional markers.

  18. Fermi surfaces of YRu2Si2 and LaRu2Si2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Settai, R.; Ikezawa, H.; Toshima, H.; Takashita, M.; Ebihara, T.; Sugawara, H.; Kimura, T.; Motoki, K.; Onuki, Y.

    1995-01-01

    We have measured the de Haas-van Alphen effect of YRu 2 Si 2 and LaRu 2 Si 2 to clarify the Fermi surfaces and cyclotron masses. Main hole-Fermi surfaces of both compounds with a distorted ellipsoid shape are similar, occupying about half of the Brillouin zone. The small hole-Fermi surfaces with the shape of a rugby ball are three in number for LaRu 2 Si 2 , and one for YRu 2 Si 2 . An electron-Fermi surface consists of a doughnut like shape for LaRu 2 Si 2 , while a cylinder along the [001] direction and a multiply-connected shape exist for YRu 2 Si 2 . The cyclotron masses of YRu 2 Si 2 are a little larger than those of LaRu 2 Si 2 . ((orig.))

  19. P SETT2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. P SETT2,. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 41 Issue 2 April 2018 pp 60. Magnetic measurements, Raman and infrared spectra of metal–ligand complex derived from CoCl 2 · 6H 2 O and 2-benzoyl pyridine · S DATTA A S MAHAPATRA P SETT2, ...

  20. The synthesis of [2-3H2] taurine and [2-3H2] hypotaurine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellman, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    The synthesis of [2- 3 H 2 ]-2-aminoethanesulfonate [2- 3 H]-taurine by the reduction of cyanomethanesulfonic acid with tritium gas is described. The conversion of [2- 3 H]-taurine and its 14 C and 35 S isotopic forms to 2-aminoethanesulfinate (hypotaurine) was accomplished by converting taurine to its corresponding sulfonyl chloride and reducing the latter with metallic zinc. (author)

  1. (2-Pyridyl[5-(2-pyridylcarbonyl-2-pyridyl]methanone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi-jia Wang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In the centrosymmetric title compound, C17H11N3O2, the dihedral angle between the central and pendant pyridyl rings is 50.29 (9°. In the crystal, molecules stack along the a axis by π–π interactions between the pyridine rings with centroid–centroid distances of 3.845 (2 Å. The N atom and one of the C atoms of the central ring are disordered by symmetry.

  2. Potassium (1-methoxycarbonyl-2-methylprop-2-en-2-ylideneazinate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric Reuter

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, K+·C6H8NO4−, the K+ cations have a coordination number of seven and are surrounded by four bidentate azinate anions. The methylene groups of the anions are always directed towards the coordinated potassium cations. The N—C—C—C torsion angle is 101.2 (2°. The orthogonal non-conjugated nature of the salt confirms the supposed geometry and reactivity of this compound.

  3. Analyzing Evolving Social Network 2 (EVOLVE2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    1988 149 Ba2YCu3O7: Electrodynamics of Crystals ... 1990 156 High-resolution angle-resolved photoemission ... 1988 399 Low-temperature behavior of... Electrodynamics of Crystals with High Reflectivity” and “Momentum Dependence of the Supercon- ducting Sr2CaCu2O8”. 3 Approved for Public Release...the sum of generalized centrality of member vertices. With generalized conductance we can extend the classic Cheeger’s inequality, which relates the

  4. Mnx/2Nbx/2O3 ceramics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. The paper reports investigations of relative permittivity, εr, electrical conductivity, σ, saturation polarization, Ps, infrared absorption and structural properties of compensating valency substituted BaTiO3. The compositions investigated are BaTi(1–x)Mnx/2Nbx/2O3 for x = 0⋅00; 0⋅025; 0⋅05; 0⋅1; 0⋅2; 0⋅4.

  5. A tristable [2]pseudo[2]rotaxane

    KAUST Repository

    Trabolsi, Ali

    2010-01-01

    A strategy towards increasing the lifetime of the metastable state of a [2]rotaxane incorporating tetrathiafulvalene, 1,5-dioxynaphthalene and bipyridinium (BIPY 2+) is presented. Incorporation of BIPY 2+ served multiple roles as an electrostatic barrier to relaxation, a supramolecular recognition site for bis-1,5-dioxynaphthalene[38]crown-10 macrocycle, and upon reduction a recognition site for the mechanically bonded cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) ring. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2010.

  6. TOUGH2 User's Guide Version 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruess, K.; Oldenburg, C.M.; Moridis, G.J.

    1999-01-01

    TOUGH2 is a numerical simulator for nonisothermal flows of multicomponent, multiphase fluids in one, two, and three-dimensional porous and fractured media. The chief applications for which TOUGH2 is designed are in geothermal reservoir engineering, nuclear waste disposal, environmental assessment and remediation, and unsaturated and saturated zone hydrology. TOUGH2 was first released to the public in 1991; the 1991 code was updated in 1994 when a set of preconditioned conjugate gradient solvers was added to allow a more efficient solution of large problems. The current Version 2.0 features several new fluid property modules and offers enhanced process modeling capabilities, such as coupled reservoir-wellbore flow, precipitation and dissolution effects, and multiphase diffusion. Numerous improvements in previously released modules have been made and new user features have been added, such as enhanced linear equation solvers, and writing of graphics files. The T2VOC module for three-phase flows of water, air and a volatile organic chemical (VOC), and the T2DM module for hydrodynamic dispersion in 2-D flow systems have been integrated into the overall structure of the code and are included in the Version 2.0 package. Data inputs are upwardly compatible with the previous version. Coding changes were generally kept to a minimum, and were only made as needed to achieve the additional functionalities desired. TOUGH2 is written in standard FORTRAN77 and can be run on any platform, such as workstations, PCs, Macintosh, mainframe and supercomputers, for which appropriate FORTRAN compilers are available. This report is a self-contained guide to application of TOUGH2 to subsurface flow problems. It gives a technical description of the TOUGH2 code, including a discussion of the physical processes modeled, and the mathematical and numerical methods used. Illustrative sample problems are presented along with detailed instructions for preparing input data

  7. RHOMBOID DOMAIN CONTAINING 2 (RHBDD2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abba, MC; Lacunza, E; Nunez, MI; Colussi, A; Isla-Larrain, M; Segal-Eiras, A; Croce, MV; Aldaz, CM

    2009-01-01

    In the course of breast cancer global gene expression studies, we identified an uncharacterized gene known as RHBDD2 (Rhomboid domain containing 2) to be markedly over-expressed in primary tumors from patients with recurrent disease. In this study, we identified RHBDD2 mRNA and protein expression significantly elevated in breast carcinomas compared with normal breast samples as analyzed by SAGE (n=46) and immunohistochemistry (n=213). Interestingly, specimens displaying RHBDD2 over-expression were predominantly advanced stage III breast carcinomas (p=0.001). Western-blot, RT-PCR and cDNA sequencing analyses allowed us to identify two RHBDD2 alternatively spliced mRNA isoforms expressed in breast cancer cell lines. We further investigated the occurrence and frequency of gene amplification and over-expression affecting RHBDD2 in 131 breast samples. RHBDD2 gene amplification was detected in 21% of 98 invasive breast carcinomas analyzed. However, no RHBDD2 amplification was detected in normal breast tissues (n=17) or breast benign lesions (n=16) (p=0.014). Interestingly, siRNA mediated silencing of RHBDD2 expression results in a decrease of MCF7 breast cancer cells proliferation compared with the corresponding controls (p=0.001). In addition, analysis of publicly available gene expression data showed a strong association between high RHBDD2 expression and decreased overall survival (p=0.0023), relapse-free survival (p= 0.0013), and metastasis-free interval (p=0.006) in patients with primary ER-negative breast carcinomas. In conclusion, our findings suggest that RHBDD2 over-expression behaves as an indicator of poor prognosis and may play a role facilitating breast cancer progression. PMID:19616622

  8. Imaging volcanic CO2 and SO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrieli, A.; Wright, R.; Lucey, P. G.; Porter, J. N.

    2017-12-01

    Detecting and quantifying volcanic carbon dioxide (CO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions is of relevance to volcanologists. Changes in the amount and composition of gases that volcanoes emit are related to subsurface magma movements and the probability of eruptions. Volcanic gases and related acidic aerosols are also an important atmospheric pollution source that create environmental health hazards for people, animals, plants, and infrastructures. For these reasons, it is important to measure emissions from volcanic plumes during both day and night. We present image measurements of the volcanic plume at Kīlauea volcano, HI, and flux derivation, using a newly developed 8-14 um hyperspectral imaging spectrometer, the Thermal Hyperspectral Imager (THI). THI is capable of acquiring images of the scene it views from which spectra can be derived from each pixel. Each spectrum contains 50 wavelength samples between 8 and 14 um where CO2 and SO2 volcanic gases have diagnostic absorption/emission features respectively at 8.6 and 14 um. Plume radiance measurements were carried out both during the day and the night by using both the lava lake in the Halema'uma'u crater as a hot source and the sky as a cold background to detect respectively the spectral signatures of volcanic CO2 and SO2 gases. CO2 and SO2 path-concentrations were then obtained from the spectral radiance measurements using a new Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR)-based inversion algorithm, which was developed as part of this project. Volcanic emission fluxes were determined by combining the path measurements with wind observations, derived directly from the images. Several hours long time-series of volcanic emission fluxes will be presented and the SO2 conversion rates into aerosols will be discussed. The new imaging and inversion technique, discussed here, are novel allowing for continuous CO2 and SO2 plume mapping during both day and night.

  9. ANALISA PENGARUH SUHU AWAL PELAT PANAS PADA PROSES QUENCHING CELAH SEMPIT REKTANGULAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hadi Kusuma

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pemahaman terhadap manajemen termal apabila terjadi suatu kecelakaan parah reaktor nuklir seperti melelehnya bahan bakar dan teras reaktor, menjadi prioritas utama untuk menjaga integritas bejana tekan reaktor. Dengan demikian hasil lelehan bahan bakar dan teras reaktor (debris tidak keluar dari bejana tekan reaktor dan mengakibatkan dampak lain yang lebih besar ke lingkungan. Salah satu cara yang dilakukan untuk menjaga integritas bejana tekan reaktor adalah dengan melakukan pendinginan terhadap panas berlebih yang dihasilkan akibat dari kecelakaan tersebut. Untuk mempelajari dan mendapatkan pemahaman mengenai hal tersebut, maka dilakukan penelitian mengenai pengaruh suhu awal pelat panas dalam proses quenching (pendinginan secara tiba-tiba celah sempit rektangular. Penelitian difokuskan pada penentuan suhu rewetting dari pendinginan pelat panas dengan suhu awal pelat 220 0C, 400 0C, dan 600 0C dengan laju aliran air pendingin 0,2 liter/detik. Eksperimen dilakukan dengan menginjeksikan air pada laju aliran 0,2 liter/detik pada suhu air pendingin 85 0C ke dalam celah sempit rektangular. Data hasil pengukuran digunakan untuk mengetahui suhu rewetting yang terjadi pada pendinginan pelat panas tersebut. Tujuannya adalah untuk memahami pengaruh suhu awal pelat panas terhadap rewetting pada proses quenching di celah sempit rektangular. Hasil yang diperoleh menunjukkan bahwa titik rewetting pada pendinginan pelat panas 220 0C, 400 0C, dan 600 0C terjadi pada suhu rewetting yang berbeda-beda. Pada suhu awal pelat panas 220 0C, suhu rewetting terjadi pada 220 0C yaitu langsung ketika air dilewatkan melalui celah sempit rektangular. Pada suhu awal pelat panas 400 0C, suhu rewetting terjadi pada 379,51 0C. Dan pada suhu awal pelat panas 600 0C, suhu rewetting terjadi pada 426,63 0C. Perbedaan suhu awal pelat panas yang sangat signifikan menyebabkan terjadinya perubahan sifat fisik benda uji, berbedanya rejim pendidihan yang dialami oleh fluida yang

  10. INVESTIGATION ON THERMAL-FLOW CHARACTERISTICS OF HTGR CORE USING THERMIX-KONVEK MODULE AND VSOP'94 CODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarmono Sudarmono

    2015-03-01

      Kegagalan sistem pembuangan panas pada reaktor berpendingin air jenis PWR, Three Mile Islands dan reaktor BWR Fukushima Daiichi, menyebabkan masyarakat nuklir mulai memikirkan penggunaan reaktor pembangkit daya jenis temperatur tinggi berpendingin gas (HTGR. Bidang Fisika dan Teknologi Reaktor di Pusat Teknologi Reaktor dan Keselamatan Nuklir (PTRKN mempunyai tugas melaksanakan kegiatan litbang desain konseptual reaktor kogenerasi dengan tingkat daya menengah yang berpendingin gas helium dengan daya 200 MWt. Desain HTGR200K merupakan salah satu sistem pembangkit energi yang memiliki efisiensi energi paling besar, dan tingkat keselamatan inheren yang tinggi dan bersih. Komposisi geometri dan struktur teras didesain agar dapat menghasilkan keluaran pendingin gas helium bertemperatur 950 0C sehingga dapat digunakan untuk produksi hidrogen dan atau unit industri proses lainnya secara kogeneratif. Luaran gas helium bertemperatur sangat tinggi ini akan menimbulkan tegangan termal pada bola bahan bakar yang mengancam integritas sistem pengungkungan produk fisi di dalamnya. Oleh karena itu perlu dilakukan evaluasi karakteristika termal flow untuk menentukan distribusi temperatur bahan bakar bola dan outlet temperatur pendingin gas helium teras HTGR. Hal ini dilakukan dengan menggunakan modul Thermix-Konvek yang terintegrasi dalam program VSOP’94. Geometri teras HTGR dikerjakan dalam modul BIRGIT untuk model teras 2-D (R-Z dengan 5 kanal aliran pebble dalam teras aktif arah radial. Hasil evaluasi menunjukkan bahwa nilai tertinggi dan terendah temperatur yang terdapat pada teras   adalah sebesar 999.3 °C dan 886,5 °C. Demikian pula hasil temperatur tertinggi bahan bakar TRISO dan bahan bakar pebble di dalam teras, yaitu diperoleh sebesar  1510,20°C yang terletak pada lapisan bahan bakar inti UO2, di posisi z= 335.51 cm dan  r=0 cm. Analysis di lakukan pada laju massa aliran pendingin, tekanan dan daya masing-masing sebesar 120 kg/s, 7 Mpa dan 200MWth. Hasil

  11. Dichotomization: 2 × 22 × 2 × 2... categories: infinite possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burstyn Igor

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumers of epidemiology may prefer to have one measure of risk arising from analysis of a 2-by-2 table. However, reporting a single measure of association, such as one odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval, from a continuous exposure variable that was dichotomized withholds much potentially useful information. Results of this type of analysis are often reported for one such dichotomization, as if no other cutoffs were investigated or even possible. Methods This analysis demonstrates the effect of using different theory and data driven cutoffs on the relationship between body mass index and high cholesterol using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. The recommended analytic approach, presentation of a graph of ORs for a range of cutoffs, is the focus of most of the results and discussion. Results These cutoff variations resulted in ORs between 1.1 and 1.9. This allows investigators to select a result that either strongly supports or provides negligible support for an association; a choice that is invisible to readers. The OR curve presents readers with more information about the exposure disease relationship than a single OR and 95% confidence interval. Conclusion As well as offering results for additional cutoffs that may be of interest to readers, the OR curve provides an indication of whether the study focuses on a reasonable representation of the data or outlier results. It offers more information about trends in the association as the cutoff changes and the implications of random fluctuations than a single OR and 95% confidence interval.

  12. Rwanda Journal - Vol 2, No 2 (2015)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: Implementing Sustainable International Accepted Trainings at Muhima Hospital, Kigali, Rwanda · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Saideth Gato, Rondi Anderson, 101. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/rj.v2i2.39F ...

  13. Maladi Kolera 2 PSA (:30) (Cholera 2)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-02-18

    This is an important public health announcement about cholera prevention and food preparation tips you can use to prevent the spread of disease. Language: Haitian Creole.  Created: 2/18/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 2/18/2010.

  14. CO2-Neutral Fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goede, A.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Mimicking the biogeochemical cycle of System Earth, synthetic hydrocarbon fuels are produced from recycled CO2 and H2O powered by renewable energy. Recapturing CO2 after use closes the carbon cycle, rendering the fuel cycle CO2 neutral. Non-equilibrium molecular CO2 vibrations are key to high energy

  15. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning ... Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type 1 Type 2 Facts About Type 2 Enroll in ...

  16. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type 1 Type 2 Facts About Type 2 ... as well as the aged population. Patient Education Materials — Taking Care of Type 2 Diabetes This two- ...

  17. 2-Aminopyridinium (2-aminopyridinetrichloridonickelate(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Balasubramanian

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, (C5H7N2[NiCl3(C5H6N2], the NiII atom is four-coordinated by three chloride anions and one N atom of a 2-aminopyridine ligand, forming a distorted tetrahedral coordination. In the crystal structure, cations and complex anions are linked into chains along the a, b and c axes by N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds, leading to the formation of a three-dimensional framework.

  18. ANP3 & NAP2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Erik

    1996-01-01

    Modelling and SimulationANP3 introductionNAP2 introductionThe Exended Node EquationsThe input languages of ANP3 and NAP2The output from ANP3 and NAP2Literature......Modelling and SimulationANP3 introductionNAP2 introductionThe Exended Node EquationsThe input languages of ANP3 and NAP2The output from ANP3 and NAP2Literature...

  19. Adamkus : EU might be willing to negotiate on postponing Ignalina reactor closure

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    President Valdas Adamkus teatas võimalusest, et EL alustab arutelu Ignalina tuumaelektrijaama sulgemise edasilükkamisest. Uue jaama valmimise aeg pole teada ning praegune reaktor on tänu rootslaste abile turvaline

  20. Põhja-Korea lubas taas jätta tuumaplaanid / Jürgen Tamme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tamme, Jürgen

    2007-01-01

    Pekingis toimunud kuuepoolsete desarmeerimiskõneluste tulemusena on Põhja-Korea nõus andma ülevaate riigi tuumarajatistest ning alustama nende likvideerimist. 14. juulil suleti Yongbyoni tuumakeskuse reaktor. Lisa: Tuumavaidlus

  1. Steady State Comparisons HAWC2 v12.2 vs HAWCStab2 v2.12

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verelst, David Robert; Hansen, Morten Hartvig; Pirrung, Georg

    This reports presents comparison of the steady state HAWC2 [1] [2] [3] simulation results and the HAWCStab2 computations of the DTU10MW reference turbine [4] [5]. It serves as a simple validation for the HAWCStab2 [6] [7] [8] steady state computations.......This reports presents comparison of the steady state HAWC2 [1] [2] [3] simulation results and the HAWCStab2 computations of the DTU10MW reference turbine [4] [5]. It serves as a simple validation for the HAWCStab2 [6] [7] [8] steady state computations....

  2. 2-Aminopyridinium 2,4-dinitrophenolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Reena Devi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title organic salt, C5H7N2+·C6H3N2O5−, comprises two 2-aminopyridinium cations and two 2,4-dinitrophenolate anions. The cations are protonated at the pyridine N atoms, while the anions are deprotonated at hydroxyl O atoms. In the crystal, bifurcated N—H...O hydrogen bonds generate two R12(6, two R21(6, and one R21(4 ring motifs. Adjacent anions and cations are linked by N—H...O hydrogen bonds into infinite chains along [110]. Weak C—H...O contacts and π–π interactions further link the components, forming a complex three-dimensional supramolecular network.

  3. Herwig++ 2.2 Release Note

    CERN Document Server

    Bahr, M; Gigg, M; Grellscheid, D; Hamilton, K; Latunde-Dada, O; Platzer, S; Richardson, P; Seymour, M H; Sherstnev, AUniversity of Cambridge; Webber, Bryan R

    2008-01-01

    A new release of the Monte Carlo program Herwig++ (version 2.2) is now available. This version includes a number of improvements including: matrix elements for the production of an electroweak gauge boson, W and Z, in association with a jet; several new processes for Higgs production in association with an electroweak gauge boson; and the matrix element correction for QCD radiation in Higgs production via gluon fusion.

  4. Leukocyte derived chemotaxin 2 (ALECT2 amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uday P Kulkarni

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We describe the first case from India of ALECT2 amyloidosis. An adult Punjabi male presented with progressive renal dysfunction and non-nephrotic range proteinuria. Serum protein electrophoresis and Immunofixation were normal, with mildly elevated serum free light chain ratio. Renal biopsy confirmed the presence of amyloid. Immunohistochemistry was negative for monoclonal light chains. Proteomic analysis confirmed the presence of ALECT2 amyloid. The present case highlights the need for confirmatory testing for typing of amyloid.

  5. Diacylglycerol acyltransferase-2 (DGAT2) and monoacylglycerol acyltransferase-2 (MGAT2) interact to promote triacylglycerol synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Youzhi; McFie, Pamela J; Banman, Shanna L; Brandt, Curtis; Stone, Scot J

    2014-10-10

    Acyl CoA:1,2-diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT)-2 is an integral membrane protein that catalyzes triacylglycerol (TG) synthesis using diacylglycerol and fatty acyl CoA as substrates. DGAT2 resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), but when cells are incubated with fatty acids, DGAT2 interacts with lipid droplets presumably to catalyze localized TG synthesis for lipid droplet expansion. Previous studies have shown that DGAT2 interacts with proteins that synthesize its fatty acyl CoA substrates. In this study, we provide additional evidence that DGAT2 is present in a protein complex. Using a chemical cross-linker, disuccinimidyl suberate (DSS), we demonstrated that DGAT2 formed a dimer and was also part of a protein complex of ∼ 650 kDa, both in membranes and on lipid droplets. Using co-immunoprecipitation experiments and an in situ proximity ligation assay, we found that DGAT2 interacted with monoacylglycerol acyltransferase (MGAT)-2, an enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of diacylglycerol. Deletion mutagenesis showed that the interaction with MGAT2 was dependent on the two transmembrane domains of DGAT2. No significant interaction of DGAT2 with lipin1, another enzyme that synthesizes diacylglycerol, could be detected. When co-expressed in cells, DGAT2 and MGAT2 co-localized in the ER and on lipid droplets. Co-expression also resulted in increased TG storage compared with expression of DGAT2 or MGAT2 alone. Incubating McArdle rat hepatoma RH7777 cells with 2-monoacylglycerol caused DGAT2 to translocate to lipid droplets. This also led to the formation of large cytosolic lipid droplets, characteristic of DGAT2, but not DGAT1, and indicated that DGAT2 can utilize monoacylglycerol-derived diacylglycerol. These findings suggest that the interaction of DGAT2 and MGAT2 serves to channel lipid substrates efficiently for TG biosynthesis. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase-2 (DGAT2) and Monoacylglycerol Acyltransferase-2 (MGAT2) Interact to Promote Triacylglycerol Synthesis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Youzhi; McFie, Pamela J.; Banman, Shanna L.; Brandt, Curtis; Stone, Scot J.

    2014-01-01

    Acyl CoA:1,2-diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT)-2 is an integral membrane protein that catalyzes triacylglycerol (TG) synthesis using diacylglycerol and fatty acyl CoA as substrates. DGAT2 resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), but when cells are incubated with fatty acids, DGAT2 interacts with lipid droplets presumably to catalyze localized TG synthesis for lipid droplet expansion. Previous studies have shown that DGAT2 interacts with proteins that synthesize its fatty acyl CoA substrates. In this study, we provide additional evidence that DGAT2 is present in a protein complex. Using a chemical cross-linker, disuccinimidyl suberate (DSS), we demonstrated that DGAT2 formed a dimer and was also part of a protein complex of ∼650 kDa, both in membranes and on lipid droplets. Using co-immunoprecipitation experiments and an in situ proximity ligation assay, we found that DGAT2 interacted with monoacylglycerol acyltransferase (MGAT)-2, an enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of diacylglycerol. Deletion mutagenesis showed that the interaction with MGAT2 was dependent on the two transmembrane domains of DGAT2. No significant interaction of DGAT2 with lipin1, another enzyme that synthesizes diacylglycerol, could be detected. When co-expressed in cells, DGAT2 and MGAT2 co-localized in the ER and on lipid droplets. Co-expression also resulted in increased TG storage compared with expression of DGAT2 or MGAT2 alone. Incubating McArdle rat hepatoma RH7777 cells with 2-monoacylglycerol caused DGAT2 to translocate to lipid droplets. This also led to the formation of large cytosolic lipid droplets, characteristic of DGAT2, but not DGAT1, and indicated that DGAT2 can utilize monoacylglycerol-derived diacylglycerol. These findings suggest that the interaction of DGAT2 and MGAT2 serves to channel lipid substrates efficiently for TG biosynthesis. PMID:25164810

  7. 2-(2-Chlorophenyl-N-cyclohexyl-2-oxoacetamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Dan Jin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C14H16ClNO2, the cyclohexyl ring has a chair conformation. The dihedral angle between the benzene ring and the mean plane of the four planar C atoms of the cyclohexyl ring is 45.2 (3°. The two carbonyl groups are trans to one another, with an O=C—C=O torsion angle of −137.1 (3°. In the crystal, molecules are linked by N—H...O hydrogen bonds forming chains propagating along [001]. A region of disordered electron density, situated near the unit-cell corners, was treated using the SQUEEZE routine in PLATON [Spek (2009. Acta Cryst. D65, 148–155]. It gave a solvent-accessible void of ca 400 Å3 for only 21 electrons. It is probably due to traces of the solvent of crystallization and was not taken into account during structure refinement.

  8. stimulated BV2 Microglial

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-03-26

    Mar 26, 2012 ... (PGE2) as well as their regulatory genes such as inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-. 2), in LPS-stimulated ... mediated NF-κB activity. Keywords: Myelophycus caespitosus, Nitric oxide, Prostaglandin E2, Nuclear factor-κB. ..... induced by hypoxia and endotoxin. J Immunol. 2000 ...

  9. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Alert Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type 1 Type 2 Facts About Type 2 Enroll in ... Do I Begin With Type2? Living With Type 1 Diabetes Enroll in the Living WIth Type 2 Diabetes ...

  10. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Alert Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type 1 Type 2 Facts About Type 2 Enroll in ... Where Do I Begin With Type2? Living With Type 1 Diabetes Enroll in the Living WIth Type 2 Diabetes ...

  11. ITOUGH2 software qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finsterle, S.; Pruess, K.; Fraser, P.

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide all software baseline documents necessary for the software qualification of ITOUGH2. ITOUGH2 is a computer program providing inverse modeling capabilities for TOUGH2. TOUGH2 is a numerical simulation code for multi-dimensional coupled fluid and heat flow of multiphase, multicomponent fluid mixtures in porous and fractured media.

  12. Neutron diffraction studies on La 2- Dy Ca 2 Ba 2 Cu 4+2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Structural studies on Dy-substituted La-2125 type superconductors have been carried out by neutron diffraction experiments at room temperature using a monochromatic neutron beam of wavelength () = 1.249 Å. A series of samples with La2-DyCa2Ba2Cu4+2O stoichiometric composition, for = 0.1-0.5, have ...

  13. H2O2 space shuttle APU

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    A cryogenic H2-O2 auxiliary power unit (APU) was developed and successfully demonstrated. It has potential application as a minimum weight alternate to the space shuttle baseline APU because of its (1) low specific propellant consumption and (2) heat sink capabilities that reduce the amount of expendable evaporants. A reference system was designed with the necessary heat exchangers, combustor, turbine-gearbox, valves, and electronic controls to provide 400 shp to two aircraft hydraulic pumps. Development testing was carried out first on the combustor and control valves. This was followed by development of the control subsystem including the controller, the hydrogen and oxygen control valves, the combustor, and a turbine simulator. The complete APU system was hot tested for 10 hr with ambient and cryogenic propellants. Demonstrated at 95 percent of design power was 2.25 lb/hp-hr. At 10 percent design power, specific propellant consumption was 4 lb/hp-hr with space simulated exhaust and 5.2 lb/hp-hr with ambient exhaust. A 10 percent specific propellant consumption improvement is possible with some seal modifications. It was demonstrated that APU power levels could be changed by several hundred horsepower in less than 100 msec without exceeding allowable turbine inlet temperatures or turbine speed.

  14. Studi Awal Desain Pebble Bed Reactor Berbasis Htr-pm Dengan Skema Resirkulasi Bahan Bakar Once-through-then-out

    OpenAIRE

    Setiadipura, Topan; Pane, Jupiter Sitorus; Zuhair, Zuhair

    2016-01-01

    STUDI AWAL DESAIN PEBBLE BED REACTOR BERBASIS HTR-PM DENGAN RESIRKULASI BAHAN BAKAR ONCE-THROUGH-THEN-OUT. Reaktor nuklir tipe pebble bed reactor (PBR) adalah salah satu reaktor canggih dengan fitur keselamatan pasif yang kuat. Pada desain tipe ini berpotensi untuk dilakukan kogenerasi yang bermanfaat untuk pengolahan berbagai mineral di berbagai pulau di Indonesia. Operasi PBR dapat lebih disederhanakan dengan menerapkan skema pengisian bahan bakar once-through-then-out (OTTO) dimana bahan b...

  15. Studi Operasi Resin Penukar Ion Dalam Sistem Purifikasi Air Primer Pwr

    OpenAIRE

    Biyantoro, Dwi; Basuki, Kris Tri; Subagiono, Subagiono

    2006-01-01

    STUDI OPERASI RESIN PENUKAR ION DALAM SISTEM PURIFIKASI AIR PRIMER PWR. Telah dilakukan studioperasi resin penukar ion dalam sistem purifikasi air primer PWR. Air pendingin reaktor yang pada awalnya sesuaidengan persyaratan setelah pengoperasian reaktor sering kualitasnya berubah, sehingga harus dimurnikan. Unsurunsurpengotor dalam air primer PWR diidentifikasi sebagai penyebab pengotor seperti korosi, pelepasan produk fisi(Cs137, Sr90, Co60,C14, Tc99), dan pelepasan kembali unsur oleh resin ...

  16. CO2 sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favre, E.; Jammes, L.; Guyot, F.; Prinzhofer, A.; Le Thiez, P.

    2009-01-01

    This document presents the summary of a conference-debate held at the Academie des Sciences (Paris, France) on the topic of CO 2 sequestration. Five papers are reviewed: problems and solutions for the CO 2 sequestration; observation and surveillance of reservoirs; genesis of carbonates and geological storage of CO 2 ; CO 2 sequestration in volcanic and ultra-basic rocks; CO 2 sequestration, transport and geological storage: scientific and economical perspectives

  17. Does dinitrogen hydrogenation follow different mechanisms for [(eta5-C5Me4H)2Zr]2(mu2,eta2,eta2-N2) and {[PhP(CH2SiMe2NSiMe2CH2)PPh]Zr}2(mu2,eta2,eta2-N2) complexes? A computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobadova-Parvanova, Petia; Wang, Qingfang; Quinonero-Santiago, David; Morokuma, Keiji; Musaev, Djamaladdin G

    2006-09-06

    The mechanisms of dinitrogen hydrogenation by two different complexes--[(eta(5)-C(5)Me(4)H)(2)Zr](2)(mu(2),eta(2),eta(2)-N(2)), synthesized by Chirik and co-workers [Nature 2004, 427, 527], and {[P(2)N(2)]Zr}(2)(mu(2),eta(2),eta(2)-N(2)), where P(2)N(2) = PhP(CH(2)SiMe(2)NSiMe(2)CH(2))(2)PPh, synthesized by Fryzuk and co-workers [Science 1997, 275, 1445]--are compared with density functional theory calculations. The former complex is experimentally known to be capable of adding more than one H(2) molecule to the side-on coordinated N(2) molecule, while the latter does not add more than one H(2). We have shown that the observed difference in the reactivity of these dizirconium complexes is caused by the fact that the former ligand environment is more rigid than the latter. As a result, the addition of the first H(2) molecule leads to two different products: a non-H-bridged intermediate for the Chirik-type complex and a H-bridged intermediate for the Fryzuk-type complex. The non-H-bridged intermediate requires a smaller energy barrier for the second H(2) addition than the H-bridged intermediate. We have also examined the effect of different numbers of methyl substituents in [(eta(5)-C(5)Me(n)H(5)(-)(n))(2)Zr](2)(mu(2),eta(2),eta(2)-N(2)) for n = 0, 4, and 5 (n = 5 is hypothetical) and [(eta(5)-C(5)H(2)-1,2,4-Me(3))(eta(5)-C(5)Me(5))(2)Zr](2)(mu(2),eta(2),eta(2)-N(2)) and have shown that all complexes of this type would follow a similar H(2) addition mechanism. We have also performed an extensive analysis on the factors (side-on coordination of N(2) to two Zr centers, availability of the frontier orbitals with appropriate symmetry, and inflexibility of the catalyst ligand environment) that are required for successful hydrogenation of the coordinated dinitrogen.

  18. Redetermination of Hg2I2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Kars

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of mercurous iodide, Hg2I2, has been determined previously from X-ray powder diffraction data [Havighurst (1926. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 48, 2113–2125]. The results of the current redetermination based on single-crystal X-ray diffraction data provide more precise geometrical data and also anisotropic displacement parameters for the Hg and I atoms, which are both situated on positions with site-symmetry 4mm. The structure consists of linear dimers I—Hg—Hg—I extending along the c axis with an Hg—Hg distance of 2.5903 (13 Å. The overall coordination sphere of the Hg+ atom is a considerably distorted octahedron. The crystal specimen under investigation was twinned by non-merohedry with a refined twin domain fraction of 0.853 (14:0.147 (14.

  19. N-(2-Amino-5-chlorophenyl-2-bromobenzenesulfonamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Altamura

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C12H10BrClN2O2S, the sulfonamide group adopts a staggered conformation about the N—S bond [the C—S—N—H torsion angle is 97 (3°] with the N-atom lone pair bisecting the O=S=O angle. For the C(Ar—S bond, the ortho-substituted C atom bisects one of O=S–N angles [the C—C—S—N torsion angle is −57.7 (3°]. The mean planes of the aromatic rings form a dihedral angle of 75.1 (1°. In the crystal, molecules form inversion dimers through pairs of N—H...NH2 hydrogen bonds. The molecules are further consolidated into layers along the bc plane by weaker N—H...O interactions.

  20. Cryptanalysis of MDC-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde; Mendel, Florian; Rechberger, Christian

    2009-01-01

    We provide a collision attack and preimage attacks on the MDC-2 construction, which is a method (dating back to 1988) of turning an $n$-bit block cipher into a $2n$-bit hash function. The collision attack is the first below the birthday bound to be described for MDC-2 and, with $n=128$, it has co...... (Eurocrypt '92), having time complexity $2^{3n/2}$ and space complexity $2^{n/2}$, and to a brute force preimage attack having complexity $2^{2n}$.......We provide a collision attack and preimage attacks on the MDC-2 construction, which is a method (dating back to 1988) of turning an $n$-bit block cipher into a $2n$-bit hash function. The collision attack is the first below the birthday bound to be described for MDC-2 and, with $n=128$, it has...... complexity $2^{124.5}$, which is to be compared to the birthday attack having complexity $2^{128}$. The preimage attacks constitute new time/memory trade-offs; the most efficient attack requires time and space about $2^n$, which is to be compared to the previous best known preimage attack of Lai and Massey...

  1. 2-(2-Isopropylphenoxy)acetic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Yasser Hussein Issa Mohammed; S. Naveen; S. V. Mamatha; Mahima Jyothi; Shaukath Ara Khanum; N. K. Lokanath

    2016-01-01

    In the title compound, C11H14O3, the pendant –OCH2COOH chain is in an extended conformation and almost lies in the plane of the benzene ring, as indicated by the dihedral angle of 2.61 (5)°. In the crystal, molecules are linked by a pair of O—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming classical carboxylic acid inversion dimers, with an R22(8) loop. The crystal structure of this compound have been reported previously [Smith et al. (1992). Aust. J. Chem. 45, 1101–1108], however, in that report, the unit-cel...

  2. Mated Fingerprint Card Pairs 2 (MFCP2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    NIST Mated Fingerprint Card Pairs 2 (MFCP2) (Web, free access)   NIST Special Database 14 is being distributed for use in development and testing of automated fingerprint classification and matching systems on a set of images which approximate a natural horizontal distribution of the National Crime Information Center (NCIC) fingerprint classes. A newer version of the compression/decompression software on the CDROM can be found at the website http://www.nist.gov/itl/iad/ig/nigos.cfm as part of the NBIS package.

  3. LAMA2-related myopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkken, Nicoline; Born, Alfred Peter; Duno, Morten

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Muscular dystrophy caused by LAMA2-gene mutations is an autosomal recessive disease typically presenting as a severe, early-onset congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD). However, milder cases with a limb-girdle type muscular dystrophy (LGMD) have been described. METHODS: In this study......, we assessed the frequency and phenotypic spectrum of LAMA2-related muscular dystrophy in CMD (n = 18) and LGMD2 (n = 128) cohorts identified in the last 15 years in eastern Denmark. The medical history, brain-MRI, muscle pathology, muscle laminin-α2 expression, and genetic analyses were assessed....... RESULTS: Molecular genetics revealed 2 pathogenic LAMA2 mutations in 5 of 18 CMD and 3 of 128 LGMD patients, corresponding to a LAMA2-mutation frequency of 28% in the CMD and 2.3% in the LGMD cohorts, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a wide clinical spectrum of LAMA2-related muscular...

  4. Evolution of magnetic structures in the UNi2Si2-UPd2Si2 system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vejpravová, J.; Svoboda, P.; Sechovský, V.; Ritter, C.

    The influence of Pd-Ni substitution on the formation of magnetic phases in the tetragonal U(Ni1-x, Pdx)2Si2 system and the concentration magnetic phase diagram are presented. A series of different substitutions was prepared and detailed studies by powder neutron diffraction were performed for x=0.25, 0.5 and 0.75. All compounds order antiferromagnetically and form ferromagnetic basal planes stacked along the c axis (q=(0,0,qz) propagation). The ground-state phase (AF3) of UNi2Si2 is an uncompensated AF structure (++- stacking (qz=2/3)). In UPd2Si2 the ground-state phase corresponds to the simple AF structure AF2 (+-+-(qz=1)). In solid solutions, no traces of the AF3 phase were found for x=0.25 and the ground-state powder patterns correspond to AF2 for x>=0.25.

  5. 45 CFR 2.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... for Children and Families; (4) Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality—Administrator; (5) Agency...) Office of the Secretary—Assistant Secretary for Administration and Management; (2) Administration on... persons with respect to payment integrity and benefit quality assurance issues; or, (E) Developing (and...

  6. Ciencias 2 (Science 2). [Student's Workbook].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo, Lucilia

    Ciencias 2 is the second in a series of elementary science textbooks written for Portuguese-speaking students. The text develops the basic skills that students need to study their surroundings and observe natural facts and phenomena by following scientific methods. The book is composed of 10 chapters and includes 57 lessons. Topics included are…

  7. 2-Amino-5-nitrophenyl 2-chlorophenyl ketone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry P. Jasinski

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C13H9ClN2O3, an intramolecular hydrogen bond between the carbonyl O and an amine H atom from the 2-aminobenzoyl group stabilizes the molecule, keeping these two groups nearly in the same plane [dihedral angle 14.6 (6°]. The dihedral angle between the mean planes of the planar 2-aminobenzoyl and 2-chlorobenzoyl groups is 73.8 (6°. The crystal packing is stabilized by a collection of intermediate hydrogen-bonding interactions which forms an infinite N—H...O...H—N—H...O hydrogen-bonded chain along the c axis in concert with weak N—H...Cl interactions in the same direction, producing a two-dimensional intermolecular bonding network parallel to (001. Additional weak C—Cl...Cg [Cl...Cg = 3.858 (3 Å] and N—O...Cg [O...Cg = 3.574 (1 and 3.868 (6 Å] π-ring interactions provide added support to the crystal stability. A MOPAC computational calculation gives support to these observations.

  8. Gl(2/2)-oscillators and Gl(2/2)-dynamical symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamupingene, A.H.; Nguyen Anh Ky.

    1991-07-01

    Extending the concept of the dynamical symmetry, we identify the Lie superalgebra Gl(2/2) as a dynamical (super-)algebra of a class of non-canonical quantum systems, whose dynamical variables and quantities can be realized in terms of the Gl(2/2)-generators. In this way, a new class of harmonic oscillators is established. As a consequence of the choice of the dynamical variables the Heisenberg algebra and the Hermitian condition for the Gl(2/2)-representations are also given. (author). 12 refs

  9. 2-Phenylimidazolium acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Huan Yao

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available There are two 2-phenylimidazole cations and two acetate anions in the asymmetric unit of the title molecular salt, C9H9N2+·C2H3O2−. The dihredral angles between the five- and six-membered rings are 5.50 (2 and 6.90 (2° in the two molecules. The structure is stabilized by N—H...O and weak C—H...O hydrogen-bonding interactions between the cations and anions, resulting in chains propagating in [110].

  10. Synthesis and structure of [(NH2)2CSSC(NH2)2]2[OsBr6]Br2 . 3H2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudnitskaya, O. V.; Kultyshkina, E. K.; Stash, A. I.; Glukhova, A. A.; Venskovskii, N. U.

    2008-01-01

    The complex [(NH 2 ) 2 CSSC(NH 2 ) 2 ] 2 [OsBr 6 ]Br 2 . 3H 2 O is synthesized by the reaction of K 2 OsBr 6 with thiocarbamide in concentrated HBr and characterized using electronic absorption and IR absorption spectroscopy. Its crystal structure is determined by X-ray diffraction. The crystals are orthorhombic, a = 11.730(2) A, b = 14.052(3) A, c = 16.994(3) A, space group Cmcm, and Z = 4. The [OsBr 6 ] 2- anionic complex has an octahedral structure. The Os-Br distances fall in the range 2.483-2.490 A. The α,α'-dithiobisformamidinium cation is a product of the oxidation of thiocarbamide. The S-S and C-S distances are 2.016 and 1.784 A, respectively. The H 2 O molecules, Br - ions, and NH 2 groups of the cation are linked by hydrogen bonds.

  11. Fundamental and combination bands of CO2-C2H2 and CO2-C2D2 in the mid-infrared region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, M.; George, J.; Welbanks, L.; Moazzen-Ahmadi, N.

    2014-09-01

    Spectra of the weakly bound CO2-C2H2 and CO2-C2D2 complexes are observed in the regions of CO2 ν3 (≈ 2349 cm-1) and C2D2 ν3 (≈ 2440 cm-1) fundamental vibrations, using an infrared optical parametric oscillator to probe a pulsed supersonic slit-jet expansion. Five bands are measured and analysed: the fundamental asymmetric stretch of the C2D2 component, two combination bands involving the out-of-plane torsional vibrations (C2D2 ν3 + torsion and CO2 ν3 + torsion) for CO2-C2D2, and two combination bands involving an intermolecular in-plane bending vibration for CO2-C2H2 and CO2-C2D2. The resulting intermolecular frequencies are 61.408(1), 54.5(5), 39.9(5), and 39.961(1) cm-1 for CO2-C2H2 and CO2-C2D2 in-plane vibrations, and CO2-C2D2 out-of-plane torsional vibrations in CO2 and C2D2 regions, respectively. This is the first experimental determination of these intermolecular vibrational frequencies.

  12. NUMERICAL STUDY ON CONDENSATION IN IMMERSED CONTAINMENT SYSTEM OF ADVANCED SMR DURING UNCONTROLLED DEPRESSURIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susyadi Susyadi

    2017-11-01

    STUDI NUMERIK PROSES KONDENSASI PADA SISTEM PENGUNGKUNG TERENDAM UNTUK SMR SAAT DEPRESURISASI TAK TERKENDALI. Sejumlah disain reaktor modular daya kecil (SMR sedang dikembangkan dan dibangun oleh beberapa negara dan umumnya masing masing  reaktor tersebut memiliki  inovasi tersendiri. Salah satunya adalah reaktor NuScale yang menggunakan sistem penggungkung ukuran kecil berbahan logam yang terendam dalam kolam air. Pendekatan  baru ini memunculkan tantangan baru karena pengendalian  temperatur dan tekanan dalam pengungkung dilakukan tanpa sistem aktif (peralatan bertenaga listrik. Sehingga perpindahan panas dan kondensasi secara pasif merupakan parameter penting yang perlu diinvestigasi untuk disain pengungkung seperti ini.  Oleh karena itu, penelitian ini akan memeriksa kondensasi, tekanan dan pengaruh temperatur kolam terhadap kemampuan pengungkung memindahkan panas dan menjaga integritasnya. Investigasi dilakukan menggunakan simulasi numerik dengan memodelkan reaktor ke dalam program RELAP5. Hasil perhitungan menunjukkan bahwa selama depresurisasi, batas maksimum tekanan sebesar 5,5 MPa tidak terlampaui. Selain itu, disain pengungkung mampu memindahkan panas ke kolam reaktor secara pasif. Penelitian ini juga melakukan  analisis sensitivitas temperatur kolam reaktor dan hasilnya menunjukkan bahwa untuk kenaikan temperatur kolam sebesar 17 oC, pemindahan panas dari  pengungkung ke kolam hanya sedikit terpengaruh, yakni kurang dari 3 persen. Kata kunci : Pengungkung, Kondensasi, RELAP5, NuScale, Depresurisasi

  13. Efek Durasi Pencahayaan Pada Sistem HRAR Untuk Menurunkan Kandungan Minyak Solar Dalam Air Limbah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Puspitasari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Kandungan minyak di dalam air limbah industri perminyakan umumnya bersifat toksik terhadap mikroorganisme dan mengganggu proses pengolahan secara biologis. Sistem HRAR diperkirakan dapat mengatasi hambatan tersebut melalui proses fotosintesis untuk menghasilkan oksigen yang dibutuhkan mikroorganisme dalam mendegradasi senyawa hidrokarbon. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengkaji pengaruh perpanjangan waktu pencahayaan pada kemampuan HRAR dalam menurunkan kandungan minyak di dalam limbah. Variabel yang digunakan pada penelitian ini adalah variasi durasi pencahayaan dan variasi penambahan volume minyak solar yang ditambahkan ke dalam reaktor. Variasi durasi pencahayaan yang digunakan adalah pencahayaan selama 12 jam dan pencahayaan selama 24 jam. Sedangkan penambahan volume minyak solar ke dalam masing-masing reaktor adalah sebesar 346 ppm, 519 ppm dan 692 ppm. Hasil yang didapatkan dari penelitian ini adalah durasi pencahayaan selama 12 jam memiliki efek yang lebih baik terhadap penurunan konsentrasi minyak dibandingkan pencahayaan selama 24 jam. Hal ini dapat terlihat dari baiknya pertumbuhan alga dan bakteri di dalam reaktor serta tingginya penurunan konsentrasi minyak solar di dalamnya. Penurunan konsentrasi minyak solar terbaik terdapat pada reaktor dengan penambahan minyak solar sebesar 346 ppm. Pada reaktor dengan durasi pencahayaan selama 12 jam terjadi penurunan konsentrasi minyak sebesar 78,4%. Sedangkan penurunan kandungan minyak solar pada reaktor dengan durasi pencahayaan selama 24 jam adalah sebesar 73,9%.

  14. Superconductivity in the YIr2Si2 and LaIr2Si2 Polymorphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vališka, Michal; Pospíšil, Jiří; Prokleška, Jan; Diviš, Martin; Rudajevová, Alexandra; Sechovský, Vladimír

    2012-10-01

    We report on the existence of superconductivity in YIr2Si2 and LaIr2Si2 compounds in relation to the crystal structure. The two compounds crystallize in two structural polymorphs, both tetragonal. The high-temperature polymorph (HTP) is of the CaBe2Ge2 structure type (space group P4/nmm), while the low-temperature polymorph (LTP) is of the ThCr2Si2 structure type (I4/mmm). By studying the polycrystals prepared by arc melting, we observed that the rapidly cooled samples retain the HTP even at room temperature (RT) and below. Annealing such samples at ≥900 °C followed by slow cooling to RT provides the LTP. Both the HTP and LTP were subsequently studied with respect to magnetism and superconductivity by electrical resistivity, magnetization, AC susceptibility, and specific heat measurements. The HTP and LTP of both compounds behave as Pauli paramagnets. Superconductivity was found exclusively in the HTP of both compounds below TSC (= 2.52 K in YIr2Si2 and 1.24 K in LaIr2Si2). The relationships of magnetism and superconductivity with the electronic and crystal structures are discussed by comparing experimental data with the results of first-principles electronic structure calculations.

  15. K2[FeII3(P2O72(H2O2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Yang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, dipotassium diaquabis(diphosphatotriferrate(II, K2[FeII3(P2O72(H2O2], was synthesized under solvothermal conditions. The crystal structure is isotypic with its Co analogue. In the structure, there are two crystallographically distinct Fe positions; one lies on an inversion center, the other on a general position. The first Fe2+ cation adopts a regular octahedral coordination with six O atoms, whereas the other is coordinated by five O atoms and a water molecule. The [FeO6] octahedron shares its trans-edges with an adjacent [FeO5(H2O] octahedron; in turn, the [FeO5(H2O] octahedron shares skew-edges with a neighbouring [FeO6] octahedron and an [FeO5(H2O] octahedron, resulting in a zigzag octahedral chain running along [001]. The zigzag chains are linked to each other by the P2O7 diphosphate groups, leading to a corrugated iron diphosphate layer, [Fe3(P2O72(H2O2]2−, parallel to (100. The interlayer space is occupied by K+ cations, which adopt an eight-coordination to seven O atoms and one water molecule from a neighbouring iron diphosphate layer. Thus, the K+ ions not only compensate the negative charge of the layer but also link the layers into a network structure.

  16. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Enroll in the Living WIth Type 2 Diabetes Program Gestational What is Gestational Diabetes? How to Treat ... Enroll in the Living WIth Type 2 Diabetes Program In It Together We Can Help Center for ...

  17. Preventing Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sexual & Urologic Problems Clinical Trials Preventing Type 2 Diabetes Perhaps you have learned that you have a ... I lower my chances of developing type 2 diabetes? Research such as the Diabetes Prevention Program shows ...

  18. R2 Cognitive Computing

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Robonaut 2, a crew assistant robotic prototype, will be integrated with IBM’s Watson. R2 will embody the artificial intelligence to enable new levels of robotic...

  19. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High ... type 2 can control their blood glucose with healthy eating and being active. But, your doctor may need ...

  20. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or heart. Some people with type 2 can control their blood glucose with healthy eating and being ... 2 Recently Diagnosed Treatment and Care Blood Glucose Control Complications Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Enroll in the ...

  1. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Right away, your cells may be starved for energy. Over time, high blood glucose levels may hurt ... lwt2d-en.html Have Type 2 Diabetes? Our free program will help you live well. More from ...

  2. Cryptanalysis of C2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borghoff, Julia; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde; Leander, Gregor

    2009-01-01

    We present several attacks on the block cipher C2, which is used for encrypting DVD Audio discs and Secure Digital cards. C2 has a 56 bit key and a secret 8 to 8 bit S-box. We show that if the attacker is allowed to choose the key, the S-box can be recovered in 2^24 C2 encryptions. Attacking the 56...... bit key for a known S-box can be done in complexity 2^48. Finally, a C2 implementation with a 8 to 8 bit secret S-box (equivalent to 2048 secret bits) and a 56 bit secret key can be attacked in 2^53.5 C2 encryptions on average....

  3. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... levels normal. Type 2 is treated with lifestyle changes, oral medications (pills), and insulin. When glucose builds ... It Together celebrates the steps you take Help change the conversation about type 2 diabetes. » « Connect With ...

  4. UARS PEM Level 2 AXIS 2 V001 (UARPE2AXIS2) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The UARS Particle Environment Monitor (PEM) level 2 Atmosphere X-Ray Imaging Spectrometer (AXIS) unit 2 daily product contains the X-ray high-resolution spectral...

  5. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 2 Enroll in the Living WIth Type 2 Diabetes Program Gestational What is Gestational Diabetes? How to Treat Gestational Diabetes Genetics of Diabetes Diabetes Myths A Day in ...

  6. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Islanders, as well as the aged population. Patient Education Materials — Taking Care of Type 2 Diabetes This two-page introduction to type 2 diabetes is in PDF format so you can download it, print it, ...

  7. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High ... 2 can control their blood glucose with healthy eating and being active. But, your doctor may need ...

  8. Aquaporin-2 membrane targeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Emma T B; Fenton, Robert A

    2017-01-01

    The targeting of the water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2) to the apical plasma membrane of kidney collecting duct principal cells is regulated mainly by the antidiuretic peptide hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP). This process is of crucial importance for the maintenance of body water homeostasis....... In this brief review we assess the role of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and discuss the emerging concept that type 2 AVP receptor (V2R)-mediated AQP2 trafficking is cAMP-independent. the ability of the kidney to concentrate the urine and thereby maintain body water homeostasis depends on targeting....... For example, 1) stimulation with the nonspecific AC activator forskolin increases AQP2 membrane accumulation in a mouse cortical collecting duct cell line [e.g., Norregaard et al. (16)]; 2) cAMP increases CD water permeability (15); 3) the cAMP-activated protein kinase A (PKA) can phosphorylate AQP2 on its...

  9. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type 1 Type 2 Facts About Type 2 ... eating and being active. But, your doctor may need to also prescribe oral medications or insulin to ...

  10. CO2 blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003469.htm CO2 blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... a substance called bicarbonate (HCO3-). Therefore, the CO2 blood test is really a measure of your blood bicarbonate ...

  11. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About Type 2 Recently Diagnosed Treatment and Care Blood Glucose Control Complications Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Enroll in the Living With Type 2 Diabetes Program donate en -- A Future Without Diabetes - a- ...

  12. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More ... Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower ...

  13. Nb2O5

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. MgNb2–xTaxO6 (0 ≤ x ≤ 2) phases can be obtained as the major phase. (75 to 90%) by solid state reactions starting from oxides. These oxides crystallize in the orthorhombic columbite structure till x = 1⋅75 and the tetragonal trirutile structure for MgTa2O6 (x = 2⋅0). For all the compositions there exist secondary.

  14. On 2-Banach algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad, N.; Siddiqui, A.H.

    1987-11-01

    The notion of a 2-Banach algebra is introduced and its structure is studied. After a short discussion of some fundamental properties of bivectors and tensor product, several classical results of Banach algebras are extended to the 2-Banach algebra case. A condition under which a 2-Banach algebra becomes a Banach algebra is obtained and the relation between algebra of bivectors and 2-normed algebra is discussed. 11 refs

  15. supplementary2.docx

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    aaa

    Figure S1. SEM micrographs of(a) PVC and (b) TiO2@PVC-5%nanocomposite film. Table S3. Tensile strength and Young's modulusof PVC and TiO2@PVC nanocomposite film. Sample, Tensile Strength (MPa), Young's modulus (MPa). PVC, 20.26, 580.27. TiO2@PVC-5%, 29.56, 601.93. TiO2@PVC-10%, 40.52, 841.77 ...

  16. 2-Amino-4-methylpyridinium 2-hydroxybenzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhukar Hemamalini

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title molecular salt, C6H9N2+·C7H5O3−, contains two cations and two anions. Both the salicylate anions contain an intramolecular O—H...O hydrogen bond, which generates an S(6 ring. Both the 2-amino-4-methylpyridine molecules are protonated at their pyridine N atoms. In the crystal, both cations form two N—H...O hydrogen bonds to their adjacent anions, forming ion pairs. Further N—H...O links generate sheets lying parallel to the ab plane. In addition, weak C—H...O bonds and aromatic π–π stacking interactions [centroid–centroid distances = 3.5691 (9 and 3.6215 (9 Å] are observed between the cations and anions.

  17. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or heart. Some people with type 2 can control their blood glucose with healthy eating and being active. But, your doctor may need to also prescribe oral medications or insulin to help you meet your target blood glucose ... type 2 diabetes than others. Type 2 diabetes is more common in African ...

  18. 12 Layout ppp2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nubidga

    The association between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and essential hypertension (EH) is not well understood. Both conditions result ... study the relationship between I/D polymorphism of the ACE gene and hypertension in T2DM patients. ACE I/D polymorphism was ..... Definition and diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and ...

  19. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or insulin to help you meet your target blood glucose levels. Type 2 usually gets worse over time – even if ... About Type 2 Recently Diagnosed Treatment and Care Blood Glucose ... Living With Type 2 Diabetes Program donate en -- A Future Without ...

  20. Fabrication of ThO2, UO2, and PuO2-UO2 pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, D.E.; Jentzen, W.R.; McCord, R.B.

    1978-01-01

    Fabrication of ThO pellets for EBR-II irradiation testing and fabrication of UO 2 and PuO 2 -UO 2 pellets for United Kingdom Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR) irradiation testing is discussed. Effect of process parameters on density and microstructure of pellets fabricated by the cold press and sinter technique is reviewed

  1. The USSO2 Auction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Christensen, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    An annual discriminative and revenue-neutral auction is linked to the new Acid Rain Program which allows electric utilities all over the US to trade SO2 emission permits. This innovative SO2 auction distributes 2% of the permits in circulation and takes place at the Chicago Board of Trade. Early...

  2. Cryptanalysis of MD2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde; Mathiassen, John Erik; Muller, Frédéric

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the hash function MD2 which was developed by Ron Rivest in 1989. Despite its age, MD2 has withstood cryptanalytic attacks until recently. This paper contains the state-of-the-art cryptanalytic results on MD2, in particular collision and preimage attacks on the full hash...

  3. Ecosystem classification, Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.J. Robin-Abbott; L.H. Pardo

    2011-01-01

    The ecosystem classification in this report is based on the ecoregions developed through the Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC) for North America (CEC 1997). Only ecosystems that occur in the United States are included. CEC ecoregions are described, with slight modifications, below (CEC 1997) and shown in Figures 2.1 and 2.2. We chose this ecosystem...

  4. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight ... About Type 2 Enroll in the Living WIth Type 2 Diabetes Program Gestational What is Gestational Diabetes? How to ...

  5. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 2383) Give by Mail Close www.diabetes.org > Diabetes Basics > Type 2 Share: Print Page Text Size: A A A ... 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes. In type 2 diabetes, your body does not use insulin properly. ...

  6. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or insulin to help you meet your target blood glucose levels. Type 2 usually gets worse over time – even if ... About Type 2 Recently Diagnosed Treatment and Care Blood Glucose ... the Living With Type 2 Diabetes Program donate en -- A Future Without ...

  7. Angiotensin type 2 receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumners, Colin; de Kloet, Annette D; Krause, Eric G

    2015-01-01

    In most situations, the angiotensin AT2-receptor (AT2R) mediates physiological actions opposing those mediated by the AT1-receptor (AT1R), including a vasorelaxant effect. Nevertheless, experimental evidence vastly supports that systemic application of AT2R-agonists is blood pressure neutral...

  8. Methyl (2′-hydroxybiphenyl-2-yloxyacetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rabnawaz

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The three independent molecules of the title compound, C15H14O4, have similar orientations of their aromatic rings, the dihedral angles between the rings being 57.0 (1, 58.1 (1 and 58.2 (1°. In each molecule, the hydroxy group forms an intramolecular hydrogen bond to the carbonyl O atom, forming an S(10 ring motif.

  9. (E-1-Benzylidene-2,2-diphenylhydrazine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Mendoza

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C19H16N2, contains two independent molecules, both of which show an E configuration with respect to the C=N bond. The dihedral angles between the phenyl rings bonded to the hydrazine group are 81.00 (10 and 88.34 (8° in the two molecules. Intermolecular C—H...π interactions are observed in the crystal structure.

  10. Methyl (1-benzamido-2-methoxy-2-oxoethyltryptophanate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oumaima Karai

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The title molecule, C22H23N3O2, is U-shaped, with a dihedral angle of 80.76 (9° between the indole ring system and the phenyl ring. In the crystal, N—H...O hydrogen bonds combine with N—H...π and C—H...π interactions to generate a three-dimensional structure.

  11. Investigation of the Na2(H2PO2)2 - Ba(H2PO2)2 - H2O Water-Salt Ternary System at Room Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Erge, Hasan; Turan, Hakan; Kul, Ali Riza

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In this study, the solubility, density, conductivity and phase equilibria of the Na2(H2PO2)2-Ba(H2PO2)2-H2O ternary system located in the structure of the Na+, Ba2+, (H2PO2)-//H2O quaternary reciprocal water-salt system were investigated using physicochemical analysis methods. Material and Methods: Riedel-de Haen and Merck salts were used to investigate the solubility and phase equilibria of the Na2(H2PO2)2 -Ba(H2PO2)2-H2O ternary water–salt system at room temperature Res...

  12. Excitation energies and oscillator strengths for the 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    L) and velocity () forms, for the 12 22 26 32 36 3 2 e → 12 22 26 32 35 32 2 o, 2o, 2Fo transitions in V4+ ion of the potassium isoelectronic sequence by employing multiconfiguration Hartree–Fock (MCHF) method ...

  13. MECP2 Duplication Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Signorini, Cinzia; De Felice, Claudio; Leoncini, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) and MECP2 duplication syndrome (MDS) are neurodevelopmental disorders caused by alterations in the methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene expression. A relationship between MECP2 loss-of-function mutations and oxidative stress has been previously documented in RTT patients...... and murine models. To date, no data on oxidative stress have been reported for the MECP2 gain-of-function mutations in patients with MDS. In the present work, the pro-oxidant status and oxidative fatty acid damage in MDS was investigated (subjects n = 6) and compared to RTT (subjects n = 24) and healthy...... condition (subjects n = 12). Patients with MECP2 gain-of-function mutations showed increased oxidative stress marker levels (plasma non-protein bound iron, intraerythrocyte non-protein bound iron, F2-isoprostanes, and F4-neuroprostanes), as compared to healthy controls (P ≤ 0.05). Such increases were...

  14. On the simultaneous Pell equations x 2 - (4m 2 - 1)y 2 = y 2 - pz 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Let m be a positive integer, and let p be an odd prime. By using certain properties of Pell and quartic diophantine equations with some elementary number theory methods, we prove that the system of equations x2 - (4m2 - 1)y2 = 1 and y2 - pz2 = 1 has positive integer solutions (x, y, z) if and only if p ≡ 7(mod 8) and m = 1/4 ...

  15. JcDREB2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yuehui; Liu, Kun; Zhang, Ju; Li, Xiaoli; Xu, Kedong; Zhang, Yi; Qi, Jing; Yu, Deshui; Wang, Jian; Li, Chengwei

    2017-01-01

    Transcription factors of the AP2/ERF family play important roles in plant growth, development, and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, a physic nut AP2/ERF gene, JcDREB2 , was functionally characterized. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that JcDREB2 was expressed mainly in the leaf and could be induced by abscisic acid but suppressed by gibberellin (GA) and salt. Transient expression of a JcDREB2-YFP fusion protein in Arabidopsis protoplasts cells suggested that JcDREB2 is localized in the nucleus. Rice plants overexpressing JcDREB2 exhibited dwarf and GA-deficient phenotypes with shorter shoots and roots than those of wild-type plants. The dwarfism phenotype could be rescued by the application of exogenous GA 3 . The expression levels of GA biosynthetic genes including OsGA20ox1 , OsGA20ox2 , OsGA20ox4 , OsGA3ox2, OsCPS1 , OsKO2 , and OsKAO were significantly reduced in plants overexpressing JcDREB2 . Overexpression of JcDREB2 in rice increased sensitivity to salt stress. Increases in the expression levels of several salt-tolerance-related genes in response to salt stress were impaired in JcDREB2 -overexpressing plants. These results demonstrated not only that JcDREB2 influences GA metabolism, but also that it can participate in the regulation of the salt stress response in rice.

  16. Photolysis of H2O-H2O2 Mixtures: The Destruction of H2O2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffler, M. J.; Fama, M.; Baragiola, R. A.; Carlson, R. W.

    2013-01-01

    We present laboratory results on the loss of H2O2 in solid H2O + H2O2 mixtures at temperatures between 21 and 145 K initiated by UV photolysis (193 nm). Using infrared spectroscopy and microbalance gravimetry, we measured the decrease of the 3.5 micrometer infrared absorption band during UV irradiation and obtained a photodestruction cross section that varies with temperature, being lowest at 70 K. We use our results, along with our previously measured H2O2 production rates via ionizing radiation and ion energy fluxes from the spacecraft to compare H2O2 creation and destruction at icy satellites by ions from their planetary magnetosphere and from solar UV photons. We conclude that, in many cases, H2O2 is not observed on icy satellite surfaces because the H2O2 photodestruction rate is much higher than the production rate via energetic particles, effectively keeping the H2O2 infrared signature at or below the noise level.

  17. Study of the solubility, viscosity and density in Na+, Zn2+/Cl− − H2O, Na+ − Zn2+ − (H2PO2)− − H2O, Na+, Cl−/(H2PO2)− − H2O, and Zn2+, Cl−/(H2PO2)− − H2O ternary systems, and in Na+, Zn2+/Cl−, (H2PO2)−//H2O reciprocal quaternary system at 273.15 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adiguzel, Vedat; Erge, Hasan; Alisoglu, Vahit; Necefoglu, Hacali

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The physicochemical properties of ternary and one quaternary have been studied. • Reciprocal quaternary systems’ solubility and phase equilibrium have been studied. • In all systems the solid phases have been found. • It was found that Zn(H 2 PO 2 ) 2 salt contains 70% of the general crystallization field. - Abstract: The solubility and the physicochemical properties (density, viscosity) in the Na-Zn- Cl-H 2 O), (Na + Zn + H 2 PO 2 + H 2 O), (Na + Cl + H 2 PO 2 + H 2 O), and (Zn + Cl + H 2 PO 2 + H 2 O) ternaries, and in Na + , Zn 2+ /Cl − , (H 2 PO 2 ) − //H 2 O reciprocal quaternary systems at T = 273.15 K were investigated by using the isothermal method. The diagrams of ternary salts systems, (NaCl + ZnCl 2 + H 2 O), (NaCl + NaH 2 PO 2 + H 2 O), (NaH 2 PO 2 + Zn(H 2 PO 2 ) 2 + H 2 O), (ZnCl 2 + Zn(H 2 PO 2 ) 2 + H 2 O), are plotted in figures 1–4. However, whole ions of reciprocal quaternary salt systems are plotted in figure 5. Additionally, the density and viscosity values of ternary systems vs. their corresponding composition values in weight per cent are plotted in figures 6–10. At the (i) (ZnCl 2 + Zn(H 2 PO 2 ) 2 + H 2 O), (ii) (NaCl + ZnCl 2 + H 2 O), (iii) (NaCl + NaH 2 PO 2 + H 2 O), (iv) (NaH 2 PO 2 + Zn(H 2 PO 2 ) 2 + H 2 O) ternary systems the solid phase compositions have been determined as: (i) Zn(H 2 PO 2 ) 2 ⋅ H 2 O, Zn(H 2 PO 2 ) 2 , ZnCl 22H 2 O, (ii) NaCl, 2NaCl ⋅ ZnCl 22H 2 O, and ZnCl 22H 2 O, (iii) NaCl and NaH 2 PO 2 ⋅ H 2 O, (iv) Zn(H 2 PO 2 ) 2 ⋅ H 2 O and NaH 2 PO 2 ⋅ H 2 O, respectively. On the other hand reciprocal quaternary system was observed as: ZnCl 22H 2 O, 2NaCl ⋅ ZnCl 22H 2 O, Zn(H 2 PO 2 ) 2 ⋅ H 2 O, NaH 2 PO 2 ⋅ H 2 O, NaCl. According to results, the least soluble salt was Zn(H 2 PO 2 ) 2 . The crystallization field of this salt, being the largest in comparison with those of other salts, occupied 70% of the general crystallization field

  18. European wind turbine standards 2 (EWTS-2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierik, J.T.G.; Dekker, J.W.M.; Braam, H. [and others

    1999-03-01

    A summary is given of the main results of the European Wind Turbine Standards II project. EWTS-II was completed in 1998 and included investigations on: 1) wind farms-wind field and turbine loading; 2) complex terrain and fatigue loading; 3) extreme wind conditions; 4) quantification of failure probabilities; 5) integration of blade tests in design; 6) power performance in complex terrain; 7) site evaluation. In addition to these scientific evaluations, the EWTS-II participants established an organization of qualified measuring institute in the field of wind energy, the MEASNET organization. MEASNET unified measurement procedures of the participating institutes and guarantees qualified measurements and mutual acceptance among its members. (LN)

  19. (S-2-[(2-Hydroxybenzylazaniumyl]-4-(methylsulfanylbutanoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Brancatelli

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The zwitterionic title compound, C12H17NO3S, is a reduced Schiff base derived from (S-N-(2-hydroxybenzylidenemethionine. An intramolecular interaction between the N—H and carboxylate groups forms a roughly planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.1405 Å five-membered ring containing the H(N, N, Cα, C(carboxylate and O atoms in a pentagonal conformation. In the crystal, a supramolecular triangle-shaped motif is generated by molecules held together by O—H...O and N—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  20. ALOS-2 initial results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankaku, Yukihiro; Suzuki, Shinichi; Shimada, Masanobu

    2015-10-01

    The Advanced Land Observing Satellite-2 (ALOS-2) was launched from Tanegashima Space Center by H-IIA rocket successfully on 24th May 2014. ALOS-2 carries the Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar-2 (PALSAR-2) as the state-of-the-art L-band SAR system which succeeds to PALSAR onboard ALOS. PALSAR-2 uses almost whole bandwidth allocated for L-band active sensor of Earth Exploration Satellites Service specified by the Radio Regulation in order to realize the high resolution observation, and also, it transmits more than 6 kW power for lower Noise Equivalent Sigma Zero using 180 TRMs driven by Gallium Nitride (GaN) amplifier which is the first use in space. Furthermore, because ALOS-2 carries the SAR system only, PALSAR-2 antenna can be mounted under the satellite body. It enables to observe right-/left-looking observation by satellite maneuvering. And the high accuracy orbit control to maintain the satellite within 500 m radius tube against the reference orbit enables high coherence for the InSAR processing. Using these new technologies, ALOS-2 has been operating to fulfill the mission requirements such as disaster monitoring and so on. This document introduces the initial result of ALOS-2 from the first year operation.

  1. 1,2,3-Triazoles as inhibitors of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 2 (IDO2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhrig, Ute F; Majjigapu, Somi Reddy; Caldelari, Daniela; Dilek, Nahzli; Reichenbach, Patrick; Ascencao, Kelly; Irving, Melita; Coukos, George; Vogel, Pierre; Zoete, Vincent; Michielin, Olivier

    2016-09-01

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 2 (IDO2) is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of diseases that involve immune escape such as cancer. In contrast to IDO1, only a very limited number of inhibitors have been described for IDO2 due to inherent difficulties in expressing and purifying a functionally active, soluble form of the enzyme. Starting from our previously discovered highly efficient 4-aryl-1,2,3-triazole IDO1 inhibitor scaffold, we used computational structure-based methods to design inhibitors of IDO2 which we then tested in cellular assays. Our approach yielded low molecular weight inhibitors of IDO2, the most active displaying an IC50 value of 51μM for mIDO2, and twofold selectivity over hIDO1. These compounds could be useful as molecular probes to investigate the biological role of IDO2, and could inspire the design of new IDO2 inhibitors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. 2-Hydroxy-4-(prop-2-ynyloxybenzaldehyde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Velmurugan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C10H8O3, contains two independent molecules, both of which are almost planar (r.m.s deviations for all non-H atoms of 0.044 and 0.053 Å. The dihedral angles between the benzene ring and the prop-1-yne group are 3.47 (1 and 3.07 (1° in the two molecules, and the prop-1-yne groups adopt extended conformations. In each molecule, an intramolecular O—H...O hydrogen bond involving the OH and aldehyde substituents forms an S(6 ring. In the crystal, molecules are linked into cyclic centrosymmetric dimers via C—H...O hydrogen bonds, generating R22(14 ring motifs. The crystal structure is further stabilized by aromatic π–π stacking interactions between the benzene rings [centroid–centroid distances = 3.813 (2 and 3.843 (2 Å

  3. Physics at LEP2. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altarelli, G.; Sjoestrand, T.; Zwirner, F.

    1995-01-01

    This is final report of the Workshop on Physics at LEP2, held at CERN during 1995. The first part of vol. 1 is devoted to aspects of machine physics of particular relevance to experiments, including the energy, luminosity and interaction regions, as well as the measurement of beam energy. The second part of vol. 1 is a relatively concise, but fairly complete, handbook on the physics of e + e - annihilation above the WW threshold and up to √s∼200 GeV. It contains discussions on WW cross-sections and distributions, W mass determination, Standard Model processes, QCD and gamma-gamma physics, as well as aspects of discovery physics, such as Higgs, new particle searches, triple gauge boson couplings and Z'. The second volume contains a review of the existing Monte Carlo generators for LEP2 physics. These include generators for WW physics, QCD and gamma-gamma processes, Bhabha scattering and discovery physics. A special effort was made to co-ordinate the different parts, with a view to achieving a systematic and balanced review of the subject, rather than just publishing a collection of separate contributions. (orig.)

  4. Neutral Kaon Spectrometer 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneta, M.; Beckford, B.; Fujii, T.; Fujii, Y.; Futatsukawa, K.; Han, Y. C.; Hashimoto, O.; Hirose, K.; Ishikawa, T.; Kanda, H.; Kimura, C.; Maeda, K.; Nakamura, S. N.; Suzuki, K.; Tsukada, K.; Yamamoto, F.; Yamazaki, H.

    2018-04-01

    A large-acceptance spectrometer, Neutral Kaon Spectrometer 2 (NKS2), was newly constructed to explore various photoproduction reactions in the gigaelectronvolt region at the Laboratory of Nuclear Science (LNS, currently ELPH), Tohoku University. The spectrometer consisted of a dipole magnet, drift chambers, and plastic scintillation counters. NKS2 was designed to separate pions and protons in a momentum range of less than 1 GeV/ c, and was placed in a tagged photon beamline. A cryogenic H2/D2 target fitted to the spectrometer were designed. The design and performance of the detectors are described. The results of the NKS2 experiment on analyzing strangeness photoproduction data using a 0.8-1.1 GeV tagged photon beam are also presented.

  5. Reactor BR2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubel, P.

    2000-01-01

    The BR2 reactor is still SCK-CEN's most important nuclear facility. After an extensive refurbishment to compensate for the ageing of the installation, the reactor was restarted in April 1997. Various aspects concerning the operation of the BR2 Reactor, the utilisation of the CALLISTO loop and the irradiation programme, the BR2 R and D programme and the production of isotopes and of NTD-silicon are discussed. Progress and achievements in 1999 are reported

  6. Reactor BR2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubel, P

    2000-07-01

    The BR2 reactor is still SCK-CEN's most important nuclear facility. After an extensive refurbishment to compensate for the ageing of the installation, the reactor was restarted in April 1997. Various aspects concerning the operation of the BR2 Reactor, the utilisation of the CALLISTO loop and the irradiation programme, the BR2 R and D programme and the production of isotopes and of NTD-silicon are discussed. Progress and achievements in 1999 are reported.

  7. 2-(Methylsulfanylcyclododecanone tosylhydrazone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dao-Quan Wang

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C20H32N2O2S2, has been synthesized by the reaction of α-methylsulfanylcyclododecanone and p-toluenesulfonylhydrazine. In the crystal structure, the conformation of the non-benzenoid ring is [3333] and the methylsulfanyl group is in the α-side exo position. The molecules are linked by intermolecular N—H...S hydrogen bonds.

  8. (2Z-2-{[N-(2-Formylphenyl-4-methylbenzenesulfonamido]methyl}-3-(4-methylphenylprop-2-enenitrile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kannan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C25H22N2O3S, the sulfonyl-bound benzene ring forms dihedral angles of 36.8 (2 and 81.4 (2°, respectively, with the formylbenzene and methylbenzene rings. The molecular conformation is stabilized by an intramolecular C—H...O hydrogen bond, which generates an S(5 ring motif. The crystal packing is stabilized by C—H...O hydrogen bonds, which generate C(11 chains along the b axis. The crystal packing is further stabilized by π–π interactions [centroid–centroid distance = 3.927 (2 Å].

  9. supp2.doc

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Conditions: 100 °C, 2 h. The title compound 4a (123.6 mg, 88% yield) was obtained as a white solid after passing through a short silica gel column chromatography (CHCl3/EtOAc, 8:2). M.p.: 196.8-197.9°C; 1H NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ = 2.25 (s, 3H), 3.82 (s, 3H), 7.10-7.13 (m, 4H), 7.48 (d, J = 8.5 Hz, 2H), 7.81 (d, ...

  10. P2X receptors

    OpenAIRE

    North, R. Alan

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) activates cell surface P2X and P2Y receptors. P2X receptors are membrane ion channels preferably permeable to sodium, potassium and calcium that open within milliseconds of the binding of ATP. In molecular architecture, they form a unique structural family. The receptor is a trimer, the binding of ATP between subunits causes them to flex together within the ectodomain and separate in the membrane-spanning region so as to open a central channel. P2...

  11. CRAC2 model description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, L.T.; Alpert, D.J.; Burke, R.P.; Johnson, J.D.; Ostmeyer, R.M.; Aldrich, D.C.; Blond, R.M.

    1984-03-01

    The CRAC2 computer code is a revised version of CRAC (Calculation of Reactor Accident Consequences) which was developed for the Reactor Safety Study. This document provides an overview of the CRAC2 code and a description of each of the models used. Significant improvements incorporated into CRAC2 include an improved weather sequence sampling technique, a new evacuation model, and new output capabilities. In addition, refinements have been made to the atmospheric transport and deposition model. Details of the modeling differences between CRAC2 and CRAC are emphasized in the model descriptions

  12. 2-Iodo-5-nitrothiophene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Yan Xu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C4H2INO2S, was synthesized by nitration of iodothiophene with acetyl nitrate. The molecule is essentially planar, withthe nitro group tilted by 1.78 (19° and the iodine atom displaced by 0.0233 (2 Å with respect to the thiophene ring. In the crystal structure, adjacent molecules are linked through weak I...O interactions [3.039 (2Å], forming chains extending along the b axis.

  13. INTRACELLULAR Ca2+ HOMEOSTASIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahdevi Nandar Kurniawan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ca2+ signaling functions to regulate many cellular processes. Dynamics of Ca2+ signaling or homeostasis is regulated by the interaction between ON and OFF reactions that control Ca2+ flux in both the plasma membrane and internal organelles such as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER and mitochondria. External stimuli activate the ON reactions, which include Ca2+ into the cytoplasm either through channels in the plasma membrane or from internal storage like in ER. Most of the cells utilize both channels/sources, butthere area few cells using an external or internal source to control certain processes. Most of the Ca2+ entering the cytoplasm adsorbed to the buffer, while a smaller part activate effect or to stimulate cellular processes. Reaction OFF is pumping of cytoplasmic Ca2+ using a combination mechanism of mitochondrial and others. Changes in Ca2+ signal has been detected in various tissues isolated from animals induced into diabetes as well as patients with diabetes. Ca2+ signal interference is also found in sensory neurons of experimental animals with diabetes. Ca2+ signaling is one of the main signaling systems in the cell.

  14. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CHIP For Parents & Kids Safe at School Everyday Life Children and Type 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's ...

  15. Synthesis, characterization and antifungal studies of metalloquinolone [Cd2(nal2(phen2(Cl2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Debnath

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel dinuclear, distorted octahedral complex of nalidixic acid (nal with Cd(II metal ion with the formula [Cd2(Nal2(Phen2(Cl2] has been synthesized in the presence of N-containing heterocyclic ligand, 1,10-phenanthroline (phen. The synthesized metal complex was characterized using CHN analysis, Fourier transformed infra-red, thermo gravimetric analysis, differential scanning chalorimetry, nuclear magnetic resonance, ultra violet-visible and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The newly synthesized complex shows more pronounced antifungal activity compared with the parent quinolone against four fungi, namely Pythium aphanidermatum, Sclerotinia rolfsii, Rhizoctonia solani and Rhizoctonia bataticola.

  16. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood ...

  17. Web 2.0

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Sam

    2012-01-01

    Web 2.0 is a highly accessible introductory text examining all the crucial discussions and issues which surround the changing nature of the World Wide Web. It not only contextualises the Web 2.0 within the history of the Web, but also goes on to explore its position within the broader dispositif of emerging media technologies.The book uncovers the connections between diverse media technologies including mobile smart phones, hand-held multimedia players, ""netbooks"" and electronic book readers such as the Amazon Kindle, all of which are made possible only by the Web 2.0. In addition, Web 2.0 m

  18. SAFIRA. Sub-project B 1.3: Development of coupled in-situ reactors and optimisation of the geochemical processes in the discharge of different in situ reactor sytems. Final report; SAFIRA. Teilprojekt B 1.3: Entwicklung von gekoppelten in situ-Reaktoren und Optimierung der geochemischen Prozesse im Abstrom von verschiedenen in situ-Reaktor-Systemen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahmke, A.; Schaefer, D.; Koeber, R.; Plagentz, V.

    2002-12-01

    The Bitterfeld ground water is contaminated with many different pollutants over a large area. Long-term measures like reactive barriers for purification are required. However, groundwater contaminated with multiple contaminants cannot be purified by a single reactive material; for this reason, the effectivity of combinations of different reactive materials was investigated. Of the combinations investigated, reducing iron and activated carbon connected in series was the most effective: The iron will remove the reducible chlorinated hydrocarbons, while the rest of the contaminants are adsorbed to the activated carbon. Iron and ORC was another interesting option, but the combination of iron and activated carbon was found to be the most favourable option. Until a better method is available, it is recommended to connect iron and activated carbon in parallel for removing contaminant mixtures. Directly behind reactive iron barriers (also when combined with activated carbon), the limiting values of the Freshwater Ordinance for Fe(II) and pH are exceeded. Directly behind ORC reactors, the limiting values for Mg and pH are exceeded. Investigations in the outflow of these reactive materials showed that the high pH values are buffered by contact with the aquifer material to values typical of aquifers, which usually are below the limiting values of the Freshwater Ordinance. However, as the buffer capacity of the soil is exhausted, a zone with a higher pH starts to grow in the aquifer. The growth of this zone depends on the pH and on the aquifer material. Especially in soils as found at Bitterfeld, with a high concentration of organic matter, we find long-term desorption of pollutants from the aquifer materials which will burden the purified water leaving the water treatment system and prohibit its utilization. [German] Der Grundwasserleiter im Raum Bitterfeld ist grossraeumig mit vielen verschiedenen Substanzen kontaminiert. Aufgrund der grossraeumigen Erstreckung kommen nur langfristig kostenguenstige passive Massnahmen wie reaktive Barrieren zur Sanierung in Frage. Grundwasser, das mit mehreren und unterschiedlich reagierenden Stoffen kontaminiert ist, kann jedoch nicht mit Hilfe eines einzelnen reaktiven Materials gereinigt werden, daher wurde die Effektivitaet von Kombinationen unterschiedlicher reaktiver Materialien zur Sanierung untersucht. Von den untersuchten Kombinationen erwies sich die Hintereinanderschaltung von reduzierendem Eisen und Aktivkohle als besonders effektiv. Reduzierbare chlorierte Kohlenwasserstoffe werden im Eisen entfernt, die verbleibenden Kontaminanten adsorbieren auf der Aktivkohle. Auch die Hintereinanderschaltung von Eisen und Sauerstoff abgebenden ORC, in denen ein aerober mikrobieller Abbau statt findet, ist zur Entfernung von Mischkontaminationen geeignet. Eine Kostenschaetzung zeigt, dass die Kombination von Eisen und Aktivkohle in Abhaengigkeit von der Zusammensetzung der Kontamination guenstiger als Aktivkohle allein sein kann und generell guenstiger als die Kombination von Eisen und ORC ist. Ohne ein guenstigeres Verfahren zum Einbringen von Sauerstoff in den Aquifer wird die Hintereinanderschaltung von Eisen und Aktivkohle zur Sanierung von Mischkontaminationen empfohlen. Im direkten Abstrom von reaktiven Eisenbarrieren (auch in Kombination mit Aktivkohle) sind die Grenzwerte fuer Fe(II) und pH entsprechend der Trinkwasserverordnung ueberschritten. Im Abstrom von ORC-Reaktoren werden die zulaessigen Werte fuer Mg und pH ueberschritten. Untersuchungen im Abstrom dieser reaktiven Materialien zeigen, dass die hohen pH-Werte durch den Kontakt mit dem Aquifermaterial auf Aquifer-typische Werte gepuffert werden, die ueblicherweise unter den Grenzwerten der Trinkwasserverordnung liegen. Mit Erschoepfen der Pufferkapazitaet des Bodens breitet sich jedoch eine Zone mit erhoehtem pH-Wert im Aquifer aus. Die Geschwindigkeit dieser Ausbreitung haengt vom pH-Wert und dem Aquifermaterial ab. Gerade fuer sehr Organik reiche Boeden wie in Bitterfeld wird auch eine lange anhaltende Desorption von Schadstoffen aus dem Aquifermaterial beobachtet, durch die das saubere Wasser, das die Sanierungsanlage verlaesst, wieder mit Schadstoffen beladen wird, was zu einer anhaltenden Nutzungseinschraenkung fuehrt. (orig.)

  19. Procedure to determine the optimal main primary coolant pump parameters of the FRG-1 reactor. P.1: Development concept, optimization criteria and general logical structure of the procedure; Verfahren zur Bestimmung der optimalen Kenndaten der Hauptprimaerumwaelzpumpe nach der Kernkompaktierung des Reaktors FRG-1. T.1: Entwicklungskonzept, Optimierungskriterien und allgemeine logische Struktur des Verfahrens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pihowicz, W. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Zentralabteilung Forschungsreaktoren

    1998-12-31

    First a development concept of the procedure was derived. Following this concept the procedure has to be derived stepwise, i.e. on subsequent logical levels. Furthermore, the report contains the results of the first two logical levels. On the first (basic) level the optimization criteria had been formulated. The general logical structure of the procedure results from the second logical level (macro level) of the evaluation process. This structure consists of four determination blocks, one identification unit and some determination elements as well as their logical interconnections in the form of decision and result units. The blocks serve for the realization of the closed and composed partial tasks of the procedure. They themselves form the complicated but not yet deviced partial structures, which again are the logical connections of the determination elements. In contrast to the blocks all determination elements are simple enough, so that their direct mathematical determination becomes possible. They serve for the solution of simple partial tasks. (orig.) [Deutsch] Zuerst wurde ein Konzept zur Entwicklung des Verfahrens erstellt. Nach dem Konzept soll das Verfahren stufenweise, auf nacheinander folgenden logischen Ebenen abgeleitet werden. Ausserdem enthaelt die Abhandlung noch die auf den zwei anfaenglichen logischen Ebenen des Entwicklungsprozesses erzielten Resultate. Auf der ersten Ebene (Grundebene) wurden die Optimierungskriterien formuliert. Die allgemeine logische Struktur des Verfahrens ergibt sich als Resultat der zweiten logischen Ebene (Makroebene) des Entwicklungsprozesses. Diese Struktur setzt sich aus vier Bestimmungsbloecken, einer Identifikationseinheit und einigen Bestimmungselementen sowie ihrer logischen Verknuepfung in Form der Entscheidungs- und Ergebniseinheiten zusammen. Die Bloecke dienen zur Realisierung der geschlossenen und zusammengesetzten Teilaufgaben des Verfahrens. Sie bilden selbst die komplizierten, jedoch noch nicht abgeleiteten Teilstrukturen, die wieder die logischen Verbindungen der Bestimmungselemente sind. Im Unterschied zu den Bloecken sind alle Bestimmungselemente ausreichend elementar, so dass ihre direkte mathematische Erfassung schon moeglich wird. Sie dienen zur Loesung der einfachen Teilaufgaben. (orig.)

  20. 2π or not 2π

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olley, Robert; McGovern, Iggy

    2008-04-01

    Robert Crease's article "Constant failure" (February p18) struck a chord with me - even after many years, I remember the feeling of "cognitive dissonance" I experienced when being taught that the formula for the circumference of a circle was 2πr rather than πD. Suggesting that Archimedes might have been wrong to have defined π as the ratio of circumference to diameter rather than radius, is, however, going a bit too far. In those days, the fundamental dichotomy was between the geometers who thought in terms of circumference, diameter and their ratio; and the astronomers, who used the radius in their calculation of chord tables. Hipparchus used a circle of radius of 3438 for his chord tables, since this is the nearest integer to the number of minutes in one radian, but Ptolemy preferred 3600 as it is easier to calculate with in the sexagesimal system. The geometers, however, did not think of their ratio as a number.

  1. Outsourcing CO2 Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S. J.; Caldeira, K. G.

    2009-12-01

    CO2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels are the primary cause of global warming. Much attention has been focused on the CO2 directly emitted by each country, but relatively little attention has been paid to the amount of emissions associated with consumption of goods and services in each country. This consumption-based emissions inventory differs from the production-based inventory because of imports and exports of goods and services that, either directly or indirectly, involved CO2 emissions. Using the latest available data and reasonable assumptions regarding trans-shipment of embodied carbon through third-party countries, we developed a global consumption-based CO2 emissions inventory and have calculated associated consumption-based energy and carbon intensities. We find that, in 2004, 24% of CO2 emissions are effectively outsourced to other countries, with much of the developed world outsourcing CO2 emissions to emerging markets, principally China. Some wealthy countries, including Switzerland and Sweden, outsource over half of their consumption-based emissions, with many northern Europeans outsourcing more than three tons of emissions per person per year. The United States is both a big importer and exporter of emissions embodied in trade, outsourcing >2.6 tons of CO2 per person and at the same time as >2.0 tons of CO2 per person are outsourced to the United States. These large flows indicate that CO2 emissions embodied in trade must be taken into consideration when considering responsibility for increasing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations.

  2. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or insulin to help you meet your target blood glucose levels. Type 2 usually gets worse over time – even if you don’t need medications at first, you may need to later on. Some groups have a higher risk for developing type 2 ...

  3. Spot 1 Spot 2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2011-08-23

    Aug 23, 2011 ... Gel Idx/Pos. 129/F4. Plate [#] Name. [1] T056P10. Rank. Protein Name. Accession No. Protein. Protein. Total Ion. Total Ion. Score. Score. Score. C. I. %. C. I. %. 1. Myosin regulatory light chain 2, ventricular/cardiac. MLRV_MOUSE. 661. 100. 507. 100 muscle isoform OS=Mus musculus GN=Myl2 PE=1 SV.

  4. 129 - 134 Abdullahi 2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2015-12-02

    Dec 2, 2015 ... 1Department of Pharmacology, Bayero University, Kano. 2Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. 3Department ..... thesis. Department of Pharmacology,. University of Science and Technology, Kumasi,. Pp 22 – 28. Daisy, P., Eliza, J. and Farook, K.A. (2009): A novel.

  5. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A A A Listen En Español Facts About Type 2 Type 2 diabetes is the most common ... 5% back to the Association. Shopdiabetes.org: Your Stress-Free System for Family Dinners! - 2017-03-book- ...

  6. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A A Listen En Español Facts About Type 2 Type 2 diabetes is the most common form ... program will help you live well. More from diabetes.org Healthy Recipes: Delicious Recipe Kits Delivered - 2017- ...

  7. Diabetes Type 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. With type 2 diabetes, the more common type, your body does not ... You have a higher risk of type 2 diabetes if you are older, have obesity, have a ...

  8. ExaSP2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-09-08

    ExaSP2 is a reference implementation of typical linear algebra algorithms and workloads for a quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) electronic structure code. The algorithm is based on a recursive second-order Fermi-Operator expansion method (SP2) and is tailored for density functional based tight-binding calculations of material systems.

  9. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Where Do I Begin With Type2? Living With Type 1 Diabetes Enroll in the Living WIth Type 2 Diabetes ... Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And Stay Fit Types ...

  10. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Care of Type 2 Diabetes This two-page introduction to type 2 diabetes is in PDF format ... to the Association. Shopdiabetes.org: Your Stress-Free System for Family Dinners! - 2017-03-book-oclock-scramble. ...

  11. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is the most common form of diabetes. In type 2 diabetes, your body does not use insulin properly. This is called insulin resistance. At first, ... insulin to keep your blood glucose levels normal. Type 2 is treated with lifestyle ... (pills), and insulin. When glucose builds up in the blood instead ...

  12. Eindverslag regionale versketen 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soethoudt, J.M.; Liesveld, R.; Amstel, van M.; Duineveld, M.

    2011-01-01

    Regionale Versketen 2 is een vervolgproject op het gelijkname project fase 1 dat in 2008 is afgerond. Beide trajecten zijn ondersteund door TransForum. Nadat in fase 1 de organisatie MijnBoer is ontstaan, is in fase 2 de ontwikkeling en verdere groei ervan ondersteund. Dit document rapporteert

  13. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... from Diabetes Forecast® magazine: lp-type-2, . In this section Diabetes Basics Type 2 Facts About Type ... Your Stress-Free System for Family Dinners! A year of delicious meals to help prevent and manage ...

  14. Thought 2 Talk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent F.

    Thought2Talk is a crash course on argument, reasoning and logical method honoring the Swedish poet and Bishop of Lund, Esaias Tegnér, who once said: The words and thoughts of men are born together: To speak obscurely is to think obscurely. In 100 humorous yet erudite pages, Thought2Talk takes...

  15. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... lwt2d-en.html Have Type 2 Diabetes? Our free program will help you live well. More from diabetes.org Healthy Recipes: Delicious Recipe Kits Delivered - 2017-03-chefd.html Healthy Recipes Delicious ... Your Stress-Free System for Family Dinners! - 2017-03-book-oclock- ...

  16. Creative Artist 2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Precious

    appears so natural to the English native-speaker, may be unthinkable in the structure and use of a Nigerian second language (L2) learner and vice versa. The way the L2 speaker thinks, will reflect in his or her communicative use of English because of cross-cultural variance, language and thought. This has implications for ...

  17. supp2.doc

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1-naphthyl)Methanes. PAPIA DUTTA, MRINAL SAIKIA, RASHMIJYOTI DAS and RULI BORAH*. Table of Contents Page no. SI- 1 Selected spectra of Bisnaphthols (4) 2-5. SI-2 Selected spectra of Dibenzoxanthene (5) 6-9. SI-3 Spectra of keto ...

  18. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A A Listen En Español Facts About Type 2 Type 2 diabetes is the most common form ... Your Stress-Free System for Family Dinners! A year of delicious meals to help prevent and manage ...

  19. Tramadolium 2-chlorobenzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Sheshadri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the title molecular salt, C16H26NO2+·C7H4ClO2−, {systematic name: [2-hydroxy-2-(3-methoxyphenylcyclohexylmethyl]dimethylammonium 2-chlorobenzoate}, the cyclohexane ring of the cation exhibits a chair conformation with the aromatic and amine substituents in equatorial orientations and the hydroxyl group in an axial orientation. In the anion, the dihedral angle between the aromatic ring and the carboxylate group is 39.16 (13°. In the crystal, the cations are linked to the anions by O—H...O, N—H...O and C—H...O hydrogen bonds, generating [010] chains. Further C—H...O and C—H...π interactions are also observed, which link the chains into a three-dimensional framework.

  20. DOE-2 basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-08-01

    DOE-2 provides the building design and research communities with an up-to-date, unbiased, well-documented public-domain computer program for building energy analysis. DOE-2 predicts the hourly energy use and energy cost of a building given hourly weather information and a description of the building and its HVAC equipment and utility rate structure. DOE-2 is a portable FORTRAN program that can be used on a large variety of computers, including PC's. Using DOE-2, designers can determine the choice of building parameters that improve energy efficiency while maintaining thermal comfort. The purpose of DOE-2 is to aid in the analysis of energy usage in buildings; it is not intended to be the sole source of information relied upon for the design of buildings. The judgment and experience of the architect/engineer still remain the most important elements of building design.

  1. DOE-2 basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-08-01

    DOE-2 provides the building design and research communities with an up-to-date, unbiased, well-documented public-domain computer program for building energy analysis. DOE-2 predicts the hourly energy use and energy cost of a building given hourly weather information and a description of the building and its HVAC equipment and utility rate structure. DOE-2 is a portable FORTRAN program that can be used on a large variety of computers, including PC`s. Using DOE-2, designers can determine the choice of building parameters that improve energy efficiency while maintaining thermal comfort. The purpose of DOE-2 is to aid in the analysis of energy usage in buildings; it is not intended to be the sole source of information relied upon for the design of buildings. The judgment and experience of the architect/engineer still remain the most important elements of building design.

  2. Beta2-microglobulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drüeke, Tilman B; Massy, Ziad A

    2009-01-01

    Among the uremic toxins in the "middle molecule" range, beta2-microglobulin (beta2-M) is certainly one of the most frequently studied compounds. Its serum level increases with the progression of chronic kidney disease, to reach very high concentrations in patients with end-stage kidney disease. It is the major protein component of dialysis-related amyloidosis, a dramatic complication which results from high extracellular concentration and posttranslational modification of beta2-M and a number of other promoters of amyloid fibril formation and deposition in osteo-articular tissues. Effective removal of beta2-M can be achieved with highly effective hemodialysis and hemodiafiltration techniques but predialysis session serum levels cannot be normalized. The prevalence and severity of beta2-M amyloidosis appear to have decreased in the last 20 years, although its occurrence may simply be delayed.

  3. P2X receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, R Alan

    2016-08-05

    Extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) activates cell surface P2X and P2Y receptors. P2X receptors are membrane ion channels preferably permeable to sodium, potassium and calcium that open within milliseconds of the binding of ATP. In molecular architecture, they form a unique structural family. The receptor is a trimer, the binding of ATP between subunits causes them to flex together within the ectodomain and separate in the membrane-spanning region so as to open a central channel. P2X receptors have a widespread tissue distribution. On some smooth muscle cells, P2X receptors mediate the fast excitatory junction potential that leads to depolarization and contraction. In the central nervous system, activation of P2X receptors allows calcium to enter neurons and this can evoke slower neuromodulatory responses such as the trafficking of receptors for the neurotransmitter glutamate. In primary afferent nerves, P2X receptors are critical for the initiation of action potentials when they respond to ATP released from sensory cells such as taste buds, chemoreceptors or urothelium. In immune cells, activation of P2X receptors triggers the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 1β. The development of selective blockers of different P2X receptors has led to clinical trials of their effectiveness in the management of cough, pain, inflammation and certain neurodegenerative diseases.This article is part of the themed issue 'Evolution brings Ca(2+) and ATP together to control life and death'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  4. SCN2A encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Katherine B.; McMahon, Jacinta M.; Carvill, Gemma L.; Tambunan, Dimira; Mackay, Mark T.; Rodriguez-Casero, Victoria; Webster, Richard; Clark, Damian; Freeman, Jeremy L.; Calvert, Sophie; Olson, Heather E.; Mandelstam, Simone; Poduri, Annapurna; Mefford, Heather C.; Harvey, A. Simon

    2015-01-01

    Objective: De novo SCN2A mutations have recently been associated with severe infantile-onset epilepsies. Herein, we define the phenotypic spectrum of SCN2A encephalopathy. Methods: Twelve patients with an SCN2A epileptic encephalopathy underwent electroclinical phenotyping. Results: Patients were aged 0.7 to 22 years; 3 were deceased. Seizures commenced on day 1–4 in 8, week 2–6 in 2, and after 1 year in 2. Characteristic features included clusters of brief focal seizures with multiple hourly (9 patients), multiple daily (2), or multiple weekly (1) seizures, peaking at maximal frequency within 3 months of onset. Multifocal interictal epileptiform discharges were seen in all. Three of 12 patients had infantile spasms. The epileptic syndrome at presentation was epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizures (EIMFS) in 7 and Ohtahara syndrome in 2. Nine patients had improved seizure control with sodium channel blockers including supratherapeutic or high therapeutic phenytoin levels in 5. Eight had severe to profound developmental impairment. Other features included movement disorders (10), axial hypotonia (11) with intermittent or persistent appendicular spasticity, early handedness, and severe gastrointestinal symptoms. Mutations arose de novo in 11 patients; paternal DNA was unavailable in one. Conclusions: Review of our 12 and 34 other reported cases of SCN2A encephalopathy suggests 3 phenotypes: neonatal-infantile–onset groups with severe and intermediate outcomes, and a childhood-onset group. Here, we show that SCN2A is the second most common cause of EIMFS and, importantly, does not always have a poor developmental outcome. Sodium channel blockers, particularly phenytoin, may improve seizure control. PMID:26291284

  5. SCALE Code System 6.2.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rearden, Bradley T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jessee, Matthew Anderson [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The SCALE Code System is a widely used modeling and simulation suite for nuclear safety analysis and design that is developed, maintained, tested, and managed by the Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division (RNSD) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). SCALE provides a comprehensive, verified and validated, user-friendly tool set for criticality safety, reactor physics, radiation shielding, radioactive source term characterization, and sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. Since 1980, regulators, licensees, and research institutions around the world have used SCALE for safety analysis and design. SCALE provides an integrated framework with dozens of computational modules including 3 deterministic and 3 Monte Carlo radiation transport solvers that are selected based on the desired solution strategy. SCALE includes current nuclear data libraries and problem-dependent processing tools for continuous-energy (CE) and multigroup (MG) neutronics and coupled neutron-gamma calculations, as well as activation, depletion, and decay calculations. SCALE includes unique capabilities for automated variance reduction for shielding calculations, as well as sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. SCALE’s graphical user interfaces assist with accurate system modeling, visualization of nuclear data, and convenient access to desired results. SCALE 6.2 represents one of the most comprehensive revisions in the history of SCALE, providing several new capabilities and significant improvements in many existing features.

  6. Type 2 diabetes models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Dorte Xenia

    2012-01-01

    This chapter deals with type 2 diabetes in vivo models and techniques suitable for testing new anti-diabetic compounds. In particular, the testing of TRP antagonist for beneficial effects against type 2 diabetes is considered. There are many choices of both in vitro techniques and in vivo models......, impaired glucose tolerance, impaired insulin secretion, and insulin resistance in vivo and should, thus, be sufficient to demonstrate preclinical proof of concept of a TRP antagonist in type 2 diabetes in rodents. The experiments are suggestions and could be replaced or supplemented by others....

  7. N2C2M2 Experimentation and Validation: Understanding Its C2 Approaches and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    the organization and execution of the experiments, specifically, Col. Fernando Freire , LtCol. António Flambó, LtCol. José Martins, LtCol. Paulo ...of ELICIT Experimental Data. Paper presented at the 13th ICCRTS, Seattle, USA, 2008. [13.] Manso, Marco, and Paulo Nunes. ELICIT and the Future C2...detailed mapping between C2 CRM variables and ELICIT refer to: MANSO, Marco, and Paulo NUNES. ELICIT and the Future C2: Theoretical Foundations for the

  8. TMI-2 core examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbins, R.R.; MacDonald, P.E.; Owen, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    The examination of the damaged core at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor is structured to address the following safety issues: fission product release, transport, and deposition; core coolability; containment integrity; and recriticality during severe accidents; as well as zircaloy cladding ballooning and oxidation during so-called design basis accidents. The numbers of TMI-2 components or samples to be examined, the priority of each examination, the safety issue addressed by each examination, the principal examination techniques to be employed, and the data to be obtained and the principal uses of the data are discussed in this paper

  9. CO2-neutral fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goede, A. P. H.

    2015-08-01

    The need for storage of renewable energy (RE) generated by photovoltaic, concentrated solar and wind arises from the fact that supply and demand are ill-matched both geographically and temporarily. This already causes problems of overcapacity and grid congestion in countries where the fraction of RE exceeds the 20% level. A system approach is needed, which focusses not only on the energy source, but includes conversion, storage, transport, distribution, use and, last but not least, the recycling of waste. Furthermore, there is a need for more flexibility in the energy system, rather than relying on electrification, integration with other energy systems, for example the gas network, would yield a system less vulnerable to failure and better adapted to requirements. For example, long-term large-scale storage of electrical energy is limited by capacity, yet needed to cover weekly to seasonal demand. This limitation can be overcome by coupling the electricity net to the gas system, considering the fact that the Dutch gas network alone has a storage capacity of 552 TWh, sufficient to cover the entire EU energy demand for over a month. This lecture explores energy storage in chemicals bonds. The focus is on chemicals other than hydrogen, taking advantage of the higher volumetric energy density of hydrocarbons, in this case methane, which has an approximate 3.5 times higher volumetric energy density. More importantly, it allows the ready use of existing gas infrastructure for energy storage, transport and distribution. Intermittent wind electricity generated is converted into synthetic methane, the Power to Gas (P2G) scheme, by splitting feedstock CO2 and H2O into synthesis gas, a mixture of CO and H2. Syngas plays a central role in the synthesis of a range of hydrocarbon products, including methane, diesel and dimethyl ether. The splitting is accomplished by innovative means; plasmolysis and high-temperature solid oxygen electrolysis. A CO2-neutral fuel cycle is

  10. 2-(4-Methoxyphenoxyacetohydrazide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Liu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C9H12N2O3, was synthesized by the reaction of ethyl 2-(4-methoxyphenoxyacetate with hydrazine hydrate in ethanol. In the acetohydrazide group, the N—N bond is relatively short [1.413 (2 Å], suggesting some degree of electronic delocalization in the molecule. In the crystal, molecules are linked into sheets lying parallel to the ab plane by N—H...N and N—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  11. CO2-neutral fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goede A. P. H.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for storage of renewable energy (RE generated by photovoltaic, concentrated solar and wind arises from the fact that supply and demand are ill-matched both geographically and temporarily. This already causes problems of overcapacity and grid congestion in countries where the fraction of RE exceeds the 20% level. A system approach is needed, which focusses not only on the energy source, but includes conversion, storage, transport, distribution, use and, last but not least, the recycling of waste. Furthermore, there is a need for more flexibility in the energy system, rather than relying on electrification, integration with other energy systems, for example the gas network, would yield a system less vulnerable to failure and better adapted to requirements. For example, long-term large-scale storage of electrical energy is limited by capacity, yet needed to cover weekly to seasonal demand. This limitation can be overcome by coupling the electricity net to the gas system, considering the fact that the Dutch gas network alone has a storage capacity of 552 TWh, sufficient to cover the entire EU energy demand for over a month. This lecture explores energy storage in chemicals bonds. The focus is on chemicals other than hydrogen, taking advantage of the higher volumetric energy density of hydrocarbons, in this case methane, which has an approximate 3.5 times higher volumetric energy density. More importantly, it allows the ready use of existing gas infrastructure for energy storage, transport and distribution. Intermittent wind electricity generated is converted into synthetic methane, the Power to Gas (P2G scheme, by splitting feedstock CO2 and H2O into synthesis gas, a mixture of CO and H2. Syngas plays a central role in the synthesis of a range of hydrocarbon products, including methane, diesel and dimethyl ether. The splitting is accomplished by innovative means; plasmolysis and high-temperature solid oxygen electrolysis. A CO2-neutral fuel

  12. Type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DeFronzo, Ralph A; Ferrannini, Ele; Groop, Leif

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an expanding global health problem, closely linked to the epidemic of obesity. Individuals with T2DM are at high risk for both microvascular complications (including retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy) and macrovascular complications (such as cardiovascular...... that multiple antidiabetic agents, used in combination, will be required to maintain normoglycaemia. The treatment must not only be effective and safe but also improve the quality of life. Several novel medications are in development, but the greatest need is for agents that enhance insulin sensitivity, halt...

  13. Tetrodoxtoxin Immunoassays. Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-14

    anti-TTX antibodies. These compounds were prepared by the same procedure as 10 with the substitution of levulinic acid and 6-maleimido-2-hexanone...11) for acetone. The syntheses are shown in Schemes 1 and 2. HO CHPH/HCI O levulinic acid £>=fiH2 + SH* HOjC -Or° HaCO’ OU TTXL Scheme 1...results, separate and characterize TTXM and TTXL isomers. Synthesize radiolabeled derivatives of 11 and levulinic acid to facilitate determination of

  14. 2nd UNet conference

    CERN Document Server

    Menasche, Daniel; Sabir, Essaïd; Pellegrini, Francesco; Benjillali, Mustapha

    2017-01-01

    This volume offers the proceedings of the 2nd UNet conference, held in Casablanca May 30 - June 1, 2016. It presents new trends and findings in hot topics related to ubiquitous computing/networking, covered in three tracks and three special sessions: Main Track 1: Context-Awareness and Autonomy Paradigms Track Main Track 2: Mobile Edge Networking and Virtualization Track Main Track 3: Enablers, Challenges and Applications Special Session 1: Smart Cities and Urban Informatics for Sustainable Development Special Session 2: Unmanned Aerial Vehicles From Theory to Applications Special Session 3: From Data to Knowledge: Big Data applications and solutions.

  15. Pro Android 2

    CERN Document Server

    Hashimi, S; MacLean, Dave

    2010-01-01

    Pro Android 2 shows you how to build real-world and fun mobile applications using Google's latest Android SDK. This new edition is fully updated for Android 2, covering everything from the fundamentals of building applications for embedded devices to advanced concepts such as custom 3D components, OpenGL, and touchscreens including gestures. While other Android development guides simply discuss topics, Pro Android 2 offers the combination of expert insight and real sample applications that work. * Discover the design and architecture of the Android SDK through practical examples, and how to bu

  16. Mass spectral studies on quadruply bonded molybdenum complexes, Mo2(S2PF2)4 and Mo2(S2PMe2)4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quamrul Islam, M.

    1993-01-01

    The electron impact mass spectrum of Mo 2 (S 2 PF 2 ) 4 shows the molecular ion which releases a PF 2 group to produce the most abundant ion, Mo 2 S 8 P 3 F 6 + . This ion fragments by releasing a series of groups such as PF 2 , PFS and PF 2 S. For Mo 2 (S 2 PMe 2 ) 4 Desorption Chemical Ionization (DCI) technique is required to see the molecular ion. The parent ion fragments by the loss Me 2 S, PMe 2 S and PMe 3 groups. Loss of PMe 3 from molecular ion suggests rearrangement before fragmentation - a process not observed for Mo 2 (S 2 PF 2 ) 4 . The difference in mass spectral fragmentation patterns is in agreement with the different structures of the two compounds. (author). 14 refs., 1 tab

  17. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... People Working to Stop Diabetes Common Terms Diabetes Statistics Infographics Living with Diabetes Home Recently Diagnosed Where ... Basics Symptoms Type 1 Type 2 Gestational Myths Statistics Common Terms Genetics Living With Diabetes Recently Diagnosed ...

  18. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... Medicare Medicaid & CHIP For Parents & Kids Safe at School Everyday Life Children and Type 2 Diabetes Know ... Cure Father of the Year Stop Diabetes at School Tour de Cure Women's Series Do-It-Yourself ...

  19. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... Type 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License For Lawyers Food & ... Terms Genetics Living With Diabetes Recently Diagnosed Treatment & Care Complications Health Insurance For Parents & Kids Know Your Rights We ...

  20. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral ... 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License For Lawyers Food & ...

  1. Contaminant Candidate List 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — CCL 2 is a list of contaminants that are currently not subject to any proposed or promulgated national primary drinking water regulations, that are known or...

  2. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... Health Insurance Update The Health Insurance Marketplace Health Insurance From an Employer Options for the Uninsured Medicare Medicaid & CHIP For Parents & Kids Safe at School Everyday Life Children and Type 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights ...

  3. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's ...

  4. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... Professional Books Patient Access to Research Student Resources History of Diabetes Resources for School Projects How to Reference ... Basics Symptoms Type 1 Type 2 Gestational Myths Statistics Common ... of Events Local Offices Volunteer Opportunities Signature Events Camps ...

  5. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... for Association Events Messaging Tools Recruiting Advocates Local Market Planning Training Webinars News & Events Advocacy News Call ... others. Type 2 diabetes is more common in African Americans, Latinos, Native Americans, and Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders, ...

  6. TMI-2 analysis exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    On March 28, 1979 an accident at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) nuclear power plant led to melting of approximately 50% of the reactor's core. Since the TMI-2 accident has not been duplicated in an experimental facility, TMI-2 provides a unique opportunity to assess the capability of our severe accident analysis methods to simulate an accident in a full scale nuclear power plant. In this regard the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) in collaboration with the US Department of Energy (DOE), has established a Joint Task Group to analyze various periods of the accident in an effort to benchmark severe accident computer codes. Participants in the analysis exercise and contributors to this report are provided and the results and conclusions that may be drawn from these results of the benchmark analyses are documented in this report. 12 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs

  7. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... medications or insulin to help you meet your target blood glucose levels. Type 2 usually gets worse ... Advocacy Take Action Advocacy Priorities News & Events The Cost of Diabetes Advocate Toolkit Call to Congress Research & ...

  8. BCL-2--general considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldoveanu, E; Stoian, I; Voinea, L; Marta, D; Popescu, L M

    1998-01-01

    BCL-2 protein is a oncoprotein considered to have an important role in the regulation of programmed cell death--apoptosis. The intracellular localization, the relation with other oncoproteins, the antioxidant function and the pathological implications are discussed.

  9. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy 8 Tips for Caregivers Health Insurance Health ... type 2 diabetes, your body does not use insulin properly. This is called insulin resistance. At first, ...

  10. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... to Give Close Are You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose ...

  11. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... Children and Type 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License ... Find Your Local Office Find your local diabetes education program Calendar of Events Wellness Lives Here Awareness ...

  12. ARLearn 2.0

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ternier, Stefaan; Tabuenca, Bernardo; Klemke, Roland; Specht, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Ternier, S., Tabuenca, B., Klemke, R., & Specht, M. (2012). ARLearn (version 2.0) [Software]. Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open Universiteit. Available under the GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL3)

  13. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... Life Children and Type 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's ... going into cells, it can cause two problems: Right away, your cells may be starved for energy. ...

  14. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... Practice Ways to Give Close Are You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking ...

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    Full Text Available ... Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood ... For Parents & Kids Safe at School Everyday Life Children and Type 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights Employment ...

  16. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... the Living WIth Type 2 Diabetes Program Gestational What is Gestational Diabetes? How to Treat Gestational Diabetes ... Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning What Can I Eat? Making Healthy Food Choices Diabetes ...

  17. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High ... What Can I Drink? Fruit Dairy Food Tips Eating Out Quick Meal Ideas Snacks Nutrient Content Claims ...

  18. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... Treatment and Care Blood Glucose Control Complications Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Enroll in the Living With Type 2 Diabetes Program donate en -- A Future Without Diabetes - a-future- ...

  19. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License For Lawyers Food & Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals ...

  20. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day ...

  1. Multiple Stages 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, John

    Multiple stages 2: theatrical futures, set design, community plays, cultural capitals, democracy & drama, WWII dramas, performance on adoption, promenade about emigration, qualities in political theatre, performance analysis, dramaturgical education, Toulmin Variations...

  2. New ALPHA-2 magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    On 21 June, members of the ALPHA collaboration celebrated the handover of the first solenoid designed for the ALPHA-2 experiment. The magnet has since been successfully installed and is working well.   Khalid Mansoor, Sumera Yamin and Jeffrey Hangst in front of the new ALPHA-2 solenoid. “This was the first of three identical solenoids that will be installed between now and September, as the rest of the ALPHA-2 device is installed and commissioned,” explains ALPHA spokesperson Jeffrey Hangst. “These magnets are designed to allow us to transfer particles - antiprotons, electrons and positrons - between various parts of the new ALPHA-2 device by controlling the transverse size of the particle bunch that is being transferred.” Sumera Yamin and Khalid Mansoor, two Pakistani scientists from the National Centre for Physics in Islamabad, came to CERN in February specifically to design and manufacture these magnets. “We had the chance to work on act...

  3. Y2K UPDATE

    CERN Multimedia

    Sverre JARP

    1999-01-01

    Concerning Y2K preparation, please note the following:Everybody, who has a NICE installation on his/her PC, needs to log in to NICE at least once before Xmas to get the Y2K update installed. This applies especially to dual boot systems.The test schedule on Y2Kplus.cern.ch will be prolonged. The last restart took place on 10 November and two more will take place on 24 November and 8 December, respectively. The Oracle users responsible for the maintenance of Oracle Forms applications which include PL/SQL blocks where date fields are handled with the default format are requested to contact oracle.support@cern.ch at their earliest convenience.Sverre Jarp (CERN Y2K co-ordinator, phone: 74944)

  4. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... Medicare Medicaid & CHIP For Parents & Kids Safe at School Everyday Life Children and Type 2 Diabetes Know ... Cure Father of the Year Stop Diabetes at School Tour de Cure Women's Series Destination Races Do- ...

  5. The g-2 ring

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The precise measurement of "g-2", the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, required a special muon storage ring with electrostatic focussing and very accurate knowledge of the magnetic bending field. For more details see under photo 7405430.

  6. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In type 2 diabetes, your body does not use insulin properly. This is called insulin resistance. At ... 1995-2018. American Diabetes Association. All rights reserved. Use of this website constitutes acceptance of our Terms ...

  7. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... Funding the Next Generation of Brilliant Researchers Diabetes Pro: Professional Resources Online We Support Your Doctor Clinical ... Type 2 Diabetes Recipes for Healthy Living Diabetes Pro: Professional Resources Shop Diabetes » Close nonprofit software

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    Full Text Available ... Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search ... Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health ...

  9. Treating Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type 2 diabetes need to: eat a healthy, balanced diet and follow a meal plan get regular exercise ... with scheduling meals and insulin injections. Remember, a balanced diet, regular physical activity, and a healthy weight can ...

  10. Wn(2) algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feigin, B.L.; Semikhatov, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    We construct W-algebra generalizations of the sl-circumflex(2) algebra-W algebras W n (2) generated by two currents E and F with the highest pole of order n in their OPE. The n=3 term in this series is the Bershadsky-Polyakov W 3 (2) algebra. We define these algebras as a centralizer (commutant) of the Uqs-bar (n vertical bar 1) quantum supergroup and explicitly find the generators in a factored, 'Miura-like' form. Another construction of the W n (2) algebras is in terms of the coset sl-circumflex(n vertical bar 1)/sl-circumflex(n). The relation between the two constructions involves the 'duality' (k+n-1)(k'+n-1)=1 between levels k and k' of two sl-circumflex(n) algebras

  11. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... A Day in the Life of Diabetes Famous People Working to Stop Diabetes Common Terms Diabetes Statistics ... hurt your eyes, kidneys, nerves or heart. Some people with type 2 can control their blood glucose ...

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    Full Text Available ... Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning What Can I ... levels may hurt your eyes, kidneys, nerves or heart. Some people with type 2 can control their ...

  13. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... year of delicious meals to help prevent and manage diabetes. Ask the Experts: Learn to Live Well ... It Together celebrates the steps you take Help change the conversation about type 2 diabetes. » « Connect With ...

  14. Facts about Type 2

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  15. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools ...

  16. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C ... Type 2 is treated with lifestyle changes, oral medications (pills), and insulin. When glucose builds up in ...

  17. Proto-2 seduces America

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Proto-2, an ALICE detector prototype, overcame its prototype status to become a real part of the STAR experiment at the US Brookhaven National Laboratory. After more than two years across the ocean, it has just arrived back at CERN.

  18. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ≡ Are You ... diabetes news, research and food & fitness tips. Email: Sign Up Thank you for signing up ' + ' '); $('.survey-form'). ...

  19. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... is Gestational Diabetes? How to Treat Gestational Diabetes Genetics of Diabetes Diabetes Myths A Day in the ... 1 Type 2 Gestational Myths Statistics Common Terms Genetics Living With Diabetes Recently Diagnosed Treatment & Care Complications ...

  20. (V2P) Framework

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) Framework. 139. The ERP system could also provide customer relationship management (CRM) and supplier relationship management (SRM) systems that could achieve some of the other business objectives (BO2, BO4 and BO5), as set out ...

  1. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... Basics Living with Diabetes Food & Fitness In My Community Advocacy Research & Practice Ways to Give Close Are You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower ...

  2. N = 2 string amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooguri, H.

    1995-08-01

    In physics, solvable models have played very important roles. Understanding a simple model in detail teaches us a lot about more complicated models in generic situations. Five years ago, C. Vafa and I found that the closed N = 2 string theory, that is a string theory with the N = 2 local supersymmetry on the worldsheet, is classically equivalent to the self-dual Einstein gravity in four spacetime dimensions. Thus this string theory is solvable at the classical level. More recently, we have examined the N = 2 string partition function for spacial compactifications, and computed it to all order in the string perturbation expansion. The fact that such computation is possible at all suggests that the N = 2 string theory is solvable even quantum mechanically

  3. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... a Member Donate Now! One Time Monthly In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type ... Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower ...

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    Full Text Available ... You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower ... EXPO Volunteer Opportunities Sponsorship and Exhibit Opportunities Camp Learning at Camp Find a Camp Fundraising Events Step ...

  5. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... 2 Diabetes Program Gestational What is Gestational Diabetes? How to Treat Gestational Diabetes Genetics of Diabetes Diabetes ... Advances Type 1 Research Highlights Research Excellence Honorees How We Fund Research Funding the Next Generation of ...

  6. Facts about Type 2

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  7. NSP2 Target Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) provided a second round of funds in 2009. NSP2 provides grants to states, local governments, nonprofits and a...

  8. Facts about Type 2

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  13. Facts about Type 2

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  16. Facts about Type 2

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  17. Facts about Type 2

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  18. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... is the most common form of diabetes. In type 2 diabetes, your body does not use insulin properly. This is called insulin resistance. At first, the pancreas makes extra insulin to ...

  19. Facts about Type 2

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  20. COMBINE 2 seminar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt; Jacobsen, Kim

    1995-01-01

    A seminar about the COMBINE project was described. Further, the project was described in generel, i.e. the COMBINE´s data model (IDM), the data exchange system (DES) and the different I/O-systems included in COMBINE 2......A seminar about the COMBINE project was described. Further, the project was described in generel, i.e. the COMBINE´s data model (IDM), the data exchange system (DES) and the different I/O-systems included in COMBINE 2...

  1. 2,6-Diazidotoluene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Spiess

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the title compound, C7H6N6, consists of almost planar molecules with C—N distances of 1.429 (2 and 1.428 (2 Å. The H atoms of the methyl group are disordered over two sites with occupancy factors of 0.69 and 0.31. The azide groups show typical geometry for covalently bound azides.

  2. Delta 2.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skott, Jeppe; Skott, Charlotte Krog; Jess, Kristine

    DELTA 2.0 er en ny og helt opdateret udgave af Delta, der i ti år været brugt i matematiklærernes grund-, efter- og videreuddannelse. DELTA 2.0 er seriens almene fagdidaktik. Der er også fagdidaktiske overvejelser i de øvrige bøger i serien, men de er knyttet til specifikt matematisk indhold. DEL...

  3. Vol 41 No 2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    At the time of this publication, the all too familiar statistics continue to hit the headlines: Since the beginning of the epidemic, almost 78 million people have been infected with the HIV virus and about 39 million people have died of HIV. Globally, 35.0 million. [33.2–37.2 million] people were living with HIV at the end of 2013.

  4. At NA2

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    One of the NA2 calorimeter sections is moved in. The NA2 calorimeter was divided in two halves, to the left and the right of the beam, each half consisting of sheets of passive high Z material interleaved with blades of plastic scintillators. The photo shows on the right, the upstream 'electron' module with eleven lead plates for a total radiation length of 20.

  5. Small kernel2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan-Zhuo; Ding, Shuo; Wang, Yong; Li, Cui-Ling; Shen, Yun; Meeley, Robert; McCarty, Donald R; Tan, Bao-Cai

    2017-06-01

    Vitamin B 6 , an essential cofactor for a range of biochemical reactions and a potent antioxidant, plays important roles in plant growth, development, and stress tolerance. Vitamin B 6 deficiency causes embryo lethality in Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ), but the specific role of vitamin B 6 biosynthesis in endosperm development has not been fully addressed, especially in monocot crops, where endosperm constitutes the major portion of the grain. Through molecular characterization of a small kernel2 ( smk2 ) mutant in maize, we reveal that vitamin B 6 has differential effects on embryogenesis and endosperm development in maize. The B 6 vitamer pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) is drastically reduced in both the smk2 embryo and the endosperm. However, whereas embryogenesis of the smk2 mutant is arrested at the transition stage, endosperm formation is nearly normal. Cloning reveals that Smk2 encodes the glutaminase subunit of the PLP synthase complex involved in vitamin B 6 biosynthesis de novo. Smk2 partially complements the Arabidopsis vitamin B 6 -deficient mutant pdx2.1 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae pyridoxine auxotrophic mutant MML21. Smk2 is constitutively expressed in the maize plant, including developing embryos. Analysis of B 6 vitamers indicates that the endosperm accumulates a large amount of pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate (PMP). These results indicate that vitamin B 6 is essential to embryogenesis but has a reduced role in endosperm development in maize. The vitamin B 6 required for seed development is synthesized in the seed, and the endosperm accumulates PMP probably as a storage form of vitamin B 6 . © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Spiral 2 Week

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The main goal of this meeting is to present and discuss the current status of the Spiral-2 project at GANIL in front of a large community of scientists and engineers. Different issues have been tackled particularly the equipment around Spiral-2 like injectors, cryo-modules or beam diagnostics, a workshop was devoted to other facilities dedicated to radioactive ion beam production. This document gathers only the slides of the presentations

  7. Learn2Control

    OpenAIRE

    Engell, Sebastian; Hüfner, Martin; Kraja, Toni; Tometzki, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    In diesem Beitrag wird die webbasierte Lernumgebung Learn2Control vorgestellt, welche die klassische Lehre in der Ingenieurausbildung an der Technischen Universität Dortmund ergänzt. Learn2Control bietet den Studierenden die Möglichkeit, theoretische Kenntnisse des Regelungsentwurfs mit projektorientierter Arbeit mit Hilfe von authentischen Regelungsentwurfsprojekten zu vertiefen. Die Modellierungs-, Analyse- und Reglerentwurfsaufgaben werden auf Webseiten durchgeführt, die durch eine moderne...

  8. Bioinspired Poly(2-oxazolines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Schlaad

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Poly(2-oxazolines are regarded as pseudopeptides, thus bioinspired polymers, due to their structural relationship to polypeptides. Materials and solution properties can be tuned by varying the side-chain (hydrophilic-hydrophobic, chiral, bioorganic, etc., opening the way to advanced stimulus-responsive materials and complex colloidal structures. The bioinspired “smart” solution and aggregation behavior of poly(2-oxazolines in aqueous environments are discussed in this review.

  9. Spiral 2 Week

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The main goal of this meeting is to present and discuss the current status of the Spiral-2 project at GANIL in front of a large community of scientists and engineers. Different issues have been tackled particularly the equipment around Spiral-2 like injectors, cryo-modules or beam diagnostics, a workshop was devoted to other facilities dedicated to radioactive ion beam production. This document gathers only the slides of the presentations.

  10. 2,3-Diaminophenazine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyu Fu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we synthesized 2,3-diaminophenazine (DAP from o-phenylenediamine (OP using fungal laccase as a biocatalyst. The conversion ratio of OP monomer was 85% and the yield of the final purified product, DAP, was 63%. The structure of the main product, DAP, was confirmed by using several spectroscopy techniques (UV-VIS, IR, 2D-NMR, and MS.

  11. K2-99

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, A. M. S.; Gandolfi, D.; Barragan, O.

    2017-01-01

    We report the discovery from K2 of a transiting planet in an 18.25-d, eccentric (0.19 +/- 0.04) orbit around K2-99, an 11th magnitude subgiant in Virgo. We confirm the planetary nature of the companion with radial velocities, and determine that the star is a metal-rich ([ Fe/H] = 0.20 +/- 0.05) s...... in the system, perhaps a brown dwarf orbiting with a period of several hundred days....

  12. 49 CFR 173.115 - Class 2, Divisions 2.1, 2.2, and 2.3-Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....1 or 2.3. (c) Division 2.3 (Gas poisonous by inhalation). For the purpose of this subchapter, a gas poisonous by inhalation (Division 2.3) means a material which is a gas at 20 °C (68 °F) or less and a... because when tested on laboratory animals it has an LC50 value of not more than 5000 mL/m3 (see § 173.116...

  13. Materials specific work at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe and in cooperation with the industrial partners ALKEM and Interatom for the development of nuclear oxide fuels for fission reactors; Materialspezifische Arbeiten im Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe und in Kooperation mit den Industriepartnern ALKEM und Interatom zur Entwicklung oxidischer Kernbrennstoffe fuer Spaltungsreaktoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleykamp, H.; Muehling, G.

    2005-09-15

    investigated such as LWR-UO2, LWR-MOX, HTR and Cermet fuels. The most important results were also presented in this report. [German] Uran-Plutonium-Oxid-Brennstoff wurde im Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe und bei der Fa. ALKEM zunaechst fuer die Kritikalitaetsexperimente im SNEAK-Reaktor sowie nachfolgend fuer stationaere Brennstabbestrahlungen in den Reaktoren FR2, BR2, DFR, Rapsodie, Phenix und KNK II hergestellt. Die Fertigungsschritte umfassten zuerst das mechanische Mischen von UO2 und PuO2 mit unmittelbar anschliessendem Pressen und Sintern der Tabletten, spaeter die verbesserten Methoden, wie das optimierte Comahlen und die Ammoniumuranylplutonyl-Cofaellung. Es wurde ueberwiegend die Tablettenherstellung beschrieben, ferner wurden auch alternative Verfahren zur Brennstabherstellung durch Vibrations- und Heissschlagverdichtung diskutiert. Die ersten Kapsel- und Prueflingsbestrahlungen im FR2 und BR2 dienten zur Absicherung der maximal moeglichen Betriebsdaten, wie Stablaengenleistung, Huelltemperatur und Abbrand im Rahmen der Brennstabentwicklung. Im spaeteren Verlauf wurden in Kooperation mit der Fa. Interatom Klein- und Grossbuendelbestrahlungen in den schnellen Reaktoren zur Kontrolle der Spezifikationen fuer den kommerziellen schnellen Brutreaktor SNR 300 durchgefuehrt. Meilensteine waren der in einem Brennelement des Reaktors KNK II erzielte maximale Abbrand von 175 GWd/t Metall, entsprechend 18,6 % der schweren Atome, und die im Phenix-Reaktor erreichten Schaedigungsraten der Huellwerkstoffe von 140 dpa NRT. Zunehmende Bedeutung gewannen spaeter die stationaeren Bestrahlungen defekter Mischoxid-Brennstaebe sowie die Transientenexperimente im Leistungszyklierbetrieb, die lokalen Kuehlungsstoerungen und die schweren Reaktorstoerfaelle in den Reaktoren Siloe, HFR, BR2 bzw. CABRI, die alle in internationaler Partnerschaft durchgefuehrt wurden. Ein weiteres Aufgabenfeld war die chemische Analytik an den festen Rueckstaenden und den Nachfaellungen von bestrahlten Mischoxid

  14. SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND BIOACTIVITY Zn2+, Cu2+ ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The work extended to synthesis the Zn2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Co2+, Mn2+, Ru3+, Fe3+,. VO2+ and UO2. 2+ complexes with the prepared ligand to evaluate the effect of azo group on the microbicides activities of the prepared compounds. All compounds were characterized by spectroscopic and analytical tools like elemental and ...

  15. Oxygen labelled CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuster, K.-D.; Heller, H.

    1989-01-01

    Tests were carried out as to whether additional information concerning pulmonary gas exchange could be obtained from the application of oxygen labelled carbon dioxide. Single breath experiments were performed on two healthy subjects with 0.1 percent C 16 O 18 O and 2.8 percent C 18 O 2 in the inspiratory gas. Breath-hold time was varied between 0.5-20s in different experiments. The 18 O-concentration of the end-expired gas bi-exponentially decreased with increasing breath-hold time. The high and low rate constants 4s -1 and 0.12s -1 for C 18 O 2 and 2.5s -1 and 0.87s -1 for C 16 O 18 O were derived, respectively. These results, together with model calculations, suggest: 1) the rapid disappearance of C 18 O 2 from the alveolar space is primarily limited by diffusion, so that this isotopic species can be applied to quantify pulmonary diffusing conditions; 2) the lower disappearance rate of C 16 O 18 O is caused by a lower equilibration kinetics in blood, so that this isotopic species offers a possibility to study carbonic anhydrase activity of the red cells in vivo; 3) the slow phase of label decay is influenced by both alveolar dead space and carbonic anhydrase activity of the pulmonary tissues. Pathological dead spaces are expected to be sensitively detectable by C 16 O 18 O as well as by C 18 O 2 . (author). 4 refs.; 4 figs

  16. Frustrated pyrochlore oxides, Y2Mn2O7, Ho2Mn2O7, and Yb2Mn2O7: Bulk magnetism and magnetic microstructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greedan, J.E.; Raju, N.P.; Maignan, A.

    1996-01-01

    The bulk magnetic properties, including de and ac susceptibilities and heat capacity, of the pyrochlore oxides Ho2Mn2O7 and Yb2Mn2O7 are reported and compared with those of the previously studied Y2Mn2O7. In the latter case the magnetic Mn4+ ions occupy the 16c sites in Fd3m which define...... a potentially frustrated three-dimensional array of corner sharing tetrahedra. For Ho2Mn2O7 and Yb2Mn2O7 magnetic rare earth ions occupy the 16d sites, as shown by powder neutron diffraction, which are topologically equivalent to the 16c sites but displaced by a vector (1/2 1/2 1/2). Ho2Mn2O7 and Yb2Mn2O7....... Surprisingly, neutron diffraction data for both Ho2Mn2O7 and Yb2Mn2O7 show resolution limited reflections of magnetic origin in contrast to the heat capacity results. The resolution of the neutron diffraction data places a minimum on the correlation length of 100 Angstrom. Small angle neutron scattering data...

  17. Excitation energies and oscillator strengths for the 1s2 2s2 3d 2D e ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    involving electronic transitions induced by energetic radiation [15]. Tiwary [16] calculated the excitation energies and oscillator strengths, of both the length ( fL) and velocity ( fV) forms, for the inner-shell excitation 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6. 3d 2De → 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p5 3d2 2Po, 2Do, 2Fo transitions using the configuration in-.

  18. KCd2[N(CN)2]5(H2O)4: an enmeshed honeycomb grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlueter, John A; Geiser, Urs; Funk, Kylee A

    2008-02-01

    The title compound, poly[potassium [diaquapenta-micro(2)-dicyanamido-dicadmium(II)] dihydrate], {K[Cd(2)(C(2)N(3))(5)(H(2)O)(2)].2H(2)O}(n), contains two-dimensional anionic sheets of {[Cd(2){N(CN)(2)}(H(2)O)(2)](-)}(n) with a modified (6,3)-net (layer group cm2m, No. 35). Two sets of equivalent sheets interpenetrate orthogonally to form a tetragonal enmeshed grid.

  19. CO2 chemical valorization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerlero De Rosbo, Guillaume; Rakotojaona, Loic; Bucy, Jacques de; Clodic, Denis; Roger, Anne-Cecile; El Khamlichi, Aicha; Thybaud, Nathalie; Oeser, Christian; Forti, Laurent; Gimenez, Michel; Savary, David; Amouroux, Jacques

    2014-07-01

    Facing global warming, different technological solutions exist to tackle carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions. Some inevitable short term emissions can be captured so as to avoid direct emissions into the atmosphere. This CO 2 must then be managed and geological storage seems to currently be the only way of dealing with the large volumes involved. However, this solution faces major economic profitability and societal acceptance challenges. In this context, alternative pathways consisting in using CO 2 instead of storing it do exist and are generating growing interest. This study ordered by the French Environment and Energy Management Agency (ADEME), aims at taking stock of the different technologies used for the chemical conversion of CO 2 in order to have a better understanding of their development potential by 2030, of the conditions in which they could be competitive and of the main actions to be implemented in France to foster their emergence. To do this, the study was broken down into two main areas of focus: The review and characterization of the main CO 2 chemical conversion routes for the synthesis of basic chemical products, energy products and inert materials. This review includes a presentation of the main principles underpinning the studied routes, a preliminary assessment of their performances, advantages and drawbacks, a list of the main R and D projects underway, a focus on emblematic projects as well as a brief analysis of the markets for the main products produced. Based on these elements, 3 routes were selected from among the most promising by 2030 for an in-depth modelling and assessment of their energy, environmental and economic performances. The study shows that the processes modelled do have favorable CO 2 balances (from 1 to 4 t-CO 2 /t-product) and effectively constitute solutions to reduce CO 2 emissions, despite limited volumes of CO 2 in question. Moreover, the profitability of certain solutions will remain difficult to reach, even with an

  20. TMI-2 pyrophoricity studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baston, V.F.; Austin, W.E.; Hoffstetter, K.J.; Owen, D.E.

    1984-11-01

    This report summarizes an extensive literature review and experimental evaluation of the pyrophoric potential of debris and material from within the TMI-2 reactor system. The literature on pyrophoricity recommends educated caution during handling of the TMI-2 core debris because of the presence of zirconium, zirconium alloys, and the potential for some oxidizable zirconium compounds. Laboratory testing of zirconium-bearing TMI-2 core debris specimens obtained from locations within the reactor vessel show no pyrophoric potential. These data support TMI-2 accident analyses that have concluded that most of the zirconium particulates in the core were oxidized by the high temperature steam environment during the accident. In addition, the presence of other constituents in the core debris effectively dilutes any oxidizable zirconium, thereby rendering sustained propagation of any pyrophoric events unlikely. Consequently, a reactor defueling scheme has been developed for TMI-2 which acknowledges that, while complete understanding of the zirconium oxidation state is impossible, the safe handling techniques to be used during defueling minimize the concern for any pyrophoric event

  1. CO{sub 2} geothermal heat probe - Phase 2; CO{sub 2}-Erdwaermesonde - Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grueniger, A.; Wellig, B.

    2009-12-15

    In this project the fluid dynamics and thermodynamics inside a CO{sub 2} geothermal heat probe have been investigated. The functionality of such a probe, which works like a thermosyphon, was analyzed by means of a simulation model in MATLAB. The model couples the behaviour inside the heat probe with the heat conduction in the earth. A parameter study revealed that the self-circulation character of such a probe leads to flattening of the vertical earth temperature profile near the probe and, hence, leads to more uniform heat removal along the probe. The circulation of CO{sub 2} even goes on when the heat pump is off. This might be advantageous for the regeneration phase. The heat transfer resistance of the evaporating CO{sub 2} film flowing down the probe wall is very small compared to the conduction resistance of the earth. Therefore, no difference has been found between the performances of a conventional heat pipe and a configuration where the liquid phase injection is distributed on different height stages along the probe. It is estimated that the seasonal performance factor of heat pumps can be improved by 15-25% with a CO{sub 2} geothermal heat probe. The main advantage is that the heat transfer to the evaporator of the heat pump (condensation of CO{sub 2} / evaporation of refrigerant) is much more efficient than in a conventional brine probe without phase change. Furthermore, no circulation pump is needed. (authors)

  2. 2-arylureidobenzoic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valgeirsson, Jon; Nielsen, Elsebet Ø; Peters, Dan

    2003-01-01

    A series of 2-arylureidobenzoic acids (AUBAs) was prepared by a short and effective synthesis, and the pharmacological activity at glutamate receptors was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The compounds showed noncompetitive antagonistic activity at the kainate receptor subtype GluR5. The most potent...... on the benzoic acid moiety (ring A), whereas ring B tolerated a variety of substituents, but with a preference for lipophilic substituents. The most potent compounds had a 4-chloro substituent on ring A and 3-chlorobenzene (6b), 2-naphthalene (8h), or 2-indole (8k) as ring B and had IC(50) values of 1.3, 1.......2, and 1.2 microM, respectively, in a functional GluR5 assay. Compound 6c (IC(50) = 4.8 microM at GluR5) showed activity in the in vivo ATPA rigidity test, indicating that 6c has better pharmacokinetic properties than 8h, which was inactive in this test. The AUBAs are the first example of a series...

  3. Kemi 2.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesson, Anne Boie

    2014-01-01

    temaer, hvor eleverne laver deres eget didaktiske design indenfor rammerne af lærerens didaktiske design. Fokus i gruppearbejdet er udarbejdelse af web 2.0-produkter og meningsforhandling. Lærerens rolle er at hjælpe når der er behov for det, fremfor at lave almindelig tavleundervisning. Kemi 2.0 ligger......I dette projekt undersøges det hvordan kemi C på stx kan gøres it-baseret og almendannende. Løsningen er elevaktiverende og temabaseret undervisning samt fokus på kompetencer, fremfor kun på kvalifikationer. Det didaktiske design af kemi 2.0 er baseret på socialkonstruktivismen og inspireret af...... Dewey, Kolb, Illeris, Wenger og Luhmann. De unge karakteriseres med udgangspunkt i forskellige generationsbeskrivelser, og principper for didaktik 2.0, der imødekommer de unges forventninger og måder at lære på, skitseres. Principperne i kemi 2.0 er længerevarende gruppearbejde indenfor vedkommende...

  4. Uranium dioxide behaviour in gaseous dissociating system N2O4 reversible 2NO2 reversible 2NO + O2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobets, L.V.; Klavsut', G.N.; Dolgov, V.M.; Umrejko, D.S.

    1985-01-01

    Behaviour of uranium dioxide in gaseous dissociating system N 2 O 4 reversible 2NO 2 reversible 2NO+O 2 in the temperature range 25-800 deg C and under pressures 0.1-10.0 MPa is investigated. It is shown, that at atmospheric pressure and temperatures 25-150 deg C nitrosonium trinitratouranylate NO(UO 2 (NO 3 ) 3 ) (NTNU) is the final product. Influence of UO 2 sample dispersion on the kinetics of the compound formation is studied, and suppositions are made on the process mechanism. It is ascertained, that NTNU formation is realized via intermediate stage of epsilon-UO 3 formation. It is detected, that with an increase in pressure the process accelerates and the range of NTNU formation and stability is expanded. At temperatures above 150 deg C uranium oxides with oxidation states more than four are the main products of the interaction. In the temperature range 150-450 deg C and at atmospheric pressure oxides of the composition UOsub(2+x)(x=0.3-1.0) are formed, and at higher temperatures - onlyU 3 O 8 . An increase in pressure in the system shifts theexistence boundaries of the oxides formed to the side of higher temperatures

  5. OLI 2.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin; Gammelgaard, Jens; Feng, Liyun

    2013-01-01

    as they can explain the majority of the EM MNEs; and instead of rejecting them altogether, we should modify, extend and refine them by taking into account those challenging phenomena of the EM MNEs. In this paper, we take on Dunning’s OLI paradigm and present our redefinition effort. In what we call the OLI 2.0...... that the various writings of Stephen Hymer, the intellectual father of the IB field, have covered, explicitly or implicitly, most of the ideas of the three elements of our OLI 2.0 model. Therefore, the new OLI 2.0 model can be treated as partly a rediscovery of Hymer’s insights.......When it comes to the debate on whether the traditional theories of MNE and foreign direct investment (FDI) are adequate to account for the rise of emerging market (EM) MNEs, our stance is that although some EM MNEs do challenge the conventional wisdom, the existing theories are still valuable...

  6. CO2 cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, Timothy N.; Byrne, Shane; Colaprete, Anthony; Forget, Francois; Michaels, Timothy I.; Prettyman, Thomas H.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter discusses the use of models, observations, and laboratory experiments to understand the cycling of CO2 between the atmosphere and seasonal Martian polar caps. This cycle is primarily controlled by the polar heat budget, and thus the emphasis here is on its components, including solar and infrared radiation, the effect of clouds (water- and CO2-ice), atmospheric transport, and subsurface heat conduction. There is a discussion about cap properties including growth and regression rates, albedos and emissivities, grain sizes and dust and/or water-ice contamination, and curious features like cold gas jets and araneiform (spider-shaped) terrain. The nature of the residual south polar cap is discussed as well as its long-term stability and ability to buffer atmospheric pressures. There is also a discussion of the consequences of the CO2 cycle as revealed by the non-condensable gas enrichment observed by Odyssey and modeled by various groups.

  7. CO2NNIE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Benjamin Bjerre; Andersen, Ove; Lewis-Kelham, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    We propose a system for calculating the personalized annual fuel consumption and CO2 emissions from transportation. The system, named CO2NNIE, estimates the fuel consumption on the fastest route between the frequent destinations of the user. The travel time and fuel consumption estimated are based...... on 3.8 billion GPS records from 16 thousand cars and 198 million records from 218 cars annotated with fuel consumption data, respectively. The fuel consumption estimates from the system are validated using fuel-pump data. We find that estimates have good accuracy, i.e., are generally within 10......% of the actual fuel consumption (4.6% deviation on average). We conclude, that the system provides new detailed information on CO2 emissions and fuel consumption for any make and model....

  8. Wavetrain 2 : Deliverable 28

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chozas, Julia Fernandez

    Denmark (the Danish TSO) and counts with the interest and collaboration of the wave device developers Pelamis, Wave Dragon and Wavestar. The second case study assesses the macro-economic impact of the introduction of a 100MW farm in Portugal. An Input-Output model based on Leontief theory was developed......This deliverable presents a selection of case studies on socio-economic aspects of wave energy, developed by Wavetrain2 partners SPOK and WavEC, that represent key areas of research during the WT2 period. More information and a few other case studies can be also found in the previous deliverables D...... technologies will reduce these costs.The results of this work will be presented in a paper and an oral presentation at ICOE2012, the International Conference on Ocean Energy, to be held in Dublin on October 2012 (2). This study is part of a collaborative project among Spok ApS, Aalborg University and Energinet...

  9. Biosphere 2 anew

    Science.gov (United States)

    The seven scientists who volunteered to live in Biosphere 2 for the past 6.5 months will be reentering the real world this Saturday, September 17, as Biosphere's new management team shifts into high gear to revitalize the $150 million sealed ecosystem's science plan. The new management team stepped in April 1 after a court order obtained by the project's owner Ed Bass kicked out its then prevailing management team. In mid-August, Biosphere 2 announced that it had joined forces with Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory in a nonprofit venture to set a new research agenda for the reportedly troubled 3.2-acre facility. Biosphere has commissioned about a dozen white papers to be written during the next 7 months to help articulate the optimum science program. “The past really isn't the issue,” says biogeochemist Bruno Marino, Biosphere's new research director.

  10. TOUGH2 software qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruess, K.; Simmons, A.; Wu, Y.S.; Moridis, G.

    1996-02-01

    TOUGH2 is a numerical simulation code for multi-dimensional coupled fluid and heat flow of multiphase, multicomponent fluid mixtures in porous and fractured media. It belongs to the MULKOM ({open_quotes}MULti-KOMponent{close_quotes}) family of codes and is a more general version of the TOUGH simulator. The MULKOM family of codes was originally developed with a focus on geothermal reservoir simulation. They are suited to modeling systems which contain different fluid mixtures, with applications to flow problems arising in the context of high-level nuclear waste isolation, oil and gas recovery and storage, and groundwater resource protection. TOUGH2 is essentially a subset of MULKOM, consisting of a selection of the better tested and documented MULKOM program modules. The purpose of this package of reports is to provide all software baseline documents necessary for the software qualification of TOUGH2.

  11. TOUGH2 software qualification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruess, K.; Simmons, A.; Wu, Y.S.; Moridis, G.

    1996-02-01

    TOUGH2 is a numerical simulation code for multi-dimensional coupled fluid and heat flow of multiphase, multicomponent fluid mixtures in porous and fractured media. It belongs to the MULKOM (open-quotes MULti-KOMponentclose quotes) family of codes and is a more general version of the TOUGH simulator. The MULKOM family of codes was originally developed with a focus on geothermal reservoir simulation. They are suited to modeling systems which contain different fluid mixtures, with applications to flow problems arising in the context of high-level nuclear waste isolation, oil and gas recovery and storage, and groundwater resource protection. TOUGH2 is essentially a subset of MULKOM, consisting of a selection of the better tested and documented MULKOM program modules. The purpose of this package of reports is to provide all software baseline documents necessary for the software qualification of TOUGH2

  12. SoxB2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anishchenko, Evgeniya; Arnone, Maria Ina; D'Aniello, Salvatore

    2018-01-01

    Current studies in evolutionary developmental biology are focused on the reconstruction of gene regulatory networks in target animal species. From decades, the scientific interest on genetic mechanisms orchestrating embryos development has been increasing in consequence to the fact that common features shared by evolutionarily distant phyla are being clarified. In 2011, a study across eumetazoan species showed for the first time the existence of a highly conserved non-coding element controlling the SoxB2 gene, which is involved in the early specification of the nervous system. This discovery raised several questions about SoxB2 function and regulation in deuterostomes from an evolutionary point of view. Due to the relevant phylogenetic position within deuterostomes, the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus represents an advantageous animal model in the field of evolutionary developmental biology. Herein, we show a comprehensive study of SoxB2 functions in sea urchins, in particular its expression pattern in a wide range of developmental stages, and its co-localization with other neurogenic markers, as SoxB1 , SoxC and Elav . Moreover, this work provides a detailed description of the phenotype of sea urchin SoxB2 knocked-down embryos, confirming its key function in neurogenesis and revealing, for the first time, its additional roles in oral and aboral ectoderm cilia and skeletal rod morphology. We concluded that SoxB2 in sea urchins has a neurogenic function; however, this gene could have multiple roles in sea urchin embryogenesis, expanding its expression in non-neurogenic cells. We showed that SoxB2 is functionally conserved among deuterostomes and suggested that in S. purpuratus this gene acquired additional functions, being involved in ciliogenesis and skeletal patterning.

  13. 2-Ethynylpyridine dimers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakarić, Danijela; Spanget-Larsen, Jens

    2018-01-01

    are used to study possible 2-EP dimer structures as well as their distribution in an inert solvent such as tetrachloroethene. Experimentally, the ≡C–H stretching vibration of the 2-EPmonomer absorbs close to 3300 cm−1, whereas a broad band withmaximum around 3215 cm−1 emerges as the concentration rises...... model with counterpoise correction predict that the two most stable dimers are of the pi-stacked variety, closely followed by dimers with intermolecular ≡C–H···N hydrogen bonding; the predicted red shifts of the ≡C–H stretching wavenumbers due to hydrogen bonding are in the range 54 – 120 cm–1...

  14. Endothelin-1 and -2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Compeer, Matthijs G; Suylen, Dennis P L; Hackeng, Tilman M

    2012-01-01

    AIMS: Endothelin-1 (ET-1) and endothelin-2 (ET-2; Trp(6)Leu(7)ET-1) are expressed by different cell types, but are considered to display identical pharmacological properties on endothelin receptors. We studied agonist-dependent aspects of endothelin(A) (ET(A))-receptor function and the importance...... arterial responses to ET-1. SIGNIFICANCE: Arterial smooth muscle ET(A)-receptor function displays agonist-dependent aspects. This involves roles of amino acids on position 6 and 7 of the endothelin sequence. Agonist-dependent pathologies may benefit from the design of specific, agonist-selective ET...

  15. Science 2.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldrop, M Mitchell

    2008-05-01

    Science 2.0 generally refers to new practices of scientists who post raw experimental results, nascent theories, claims of discovery and draft papers on the Web for others to see and comment on. Proponents say these "open access" practices make scientific progress more collaborative and therefore more productive. Critics say scientists who put preliminary findings online risk having others copy or exploit the work to gain credit or even patents. Despite pros and cons, Science 2.0 sites are beginning to proliferate; one notable example is the OpenWetWare project started by biological engineers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

  16. SERT 2 gimbal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavesky, R. J.; Hurst, E. B.

    1971-01-01

    The gimbal system is described that was designed to mount the thruster and to reposition the thrust vector of a mercury ion bombardment thruster through the center of gravity of the SERT 2 assembly. The SERT 2 assembly was launched 3 February 1970. The gimbal ring, gimbal mounts, bearings, actuators, and environmental testing are described. Due to the accurate alinements provided, it was not necessary to use the gimbal for the intended function. However, the gimbals were operated successfully numerous times in space after 8 months of storage.

  17. Heterotic M2-branes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Lambert

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We construct the action for N M2-branes on S1/Z2. The resulting theory has a gauge anomaly but this can be cancelled if the two fixed point planes each support 8 chiral Fermions in the fundamental of U(N. Taking the low energy limit leads to the worldsheet theory of N free heterotic strings whose quantization induces an E8 spacetime gauge symmetry on each fixed point plane. Thus this paper presents a non-abelian worldvolume analogue of the classic Hořava–Witten analysis.

  18. Programming Amazon EC2

    CERN Document Server

    Vliet, Jurg

    2011-01-01

    If you plan to use Amazon Web Services to run applications in the cloud, the end-to-end approach in this book will save you needless trial and error. You'll find practical guidelines for designing and building applications with Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) and a host of supporting AWS tools, with a focus on critical issues such as load balancing, monitoring, and automation. How do you move an existing application to AWS, or design your application so that it scales effectively? How much storage will you require? Programming Amazon EC2 not only helps you get started, it will also keep y

  19. Nu2U

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hans Eibe; Williamson, Trevor

    Abstract In September 2014, nine months after launching a major growth opportunity, Jenny Dunne, managing director of Nu2U, called for an extraordinary status meeting with her COO and CMO. A fast-growing online retailer of refurbished household appliances, Nu2U planned to acquire market share...... by improving internal logistics and delivery services, aided by a new, fully integrated software system. The company's gross profit had been increasing steadily, but recent accounts revealed a fall in net profit margins. It became apparent that implementation of the business plan for the project...

  20. Reactor BR2: Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubel, P.

    2000-01-01

    The BR2 reactor is still SCK-CEN's most important nuclear facility. After an extensive refurbishment to compensate for the ageing of the installation, the reactor was restarted in April 1997. A safety audit was conduced by the IAEA, the conclusions of which demonstrated the excellent performance of the plant in terms of operational safety. In 1999, the CALLISTO facility was extensively used for various programmes involving LWR pressure vessel materials, IASCC of LWR structural materials, fusion reactor materials and martensic steels for use in ADS systems. In 1999, BR2's commercial programmes were further developed

  1. Marginalia no. 2

    OpenAIRE

    Library, Merrill-Cazier

    1997-01-01

    Volume 1, Number 2 (Issue no. 2): Winter issue 1997 INTO A BRAVE NEW WORLD?-Guest commentator, Prof. Larry Cannon on the loss of the card catalogue INTERNET WIZARDRY- Kevin Brewer describes interesting Web sites and how to access them. BETTER THAN CASH-Giving Through capital gains profits “FRIENDSHIP FOR LIBRARIES”-What Friends offer & what it members get back JOIN FRIENDS COUPON & REPLY ENVELOPE EUPHORIA OF READING-Fungus on old paper & ‘enlightening’ drug-like euphoria ...

  2. Beginning Android 2

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The Android development platform, created by Google and the Open Handset Alliance, is a platform in its truest sense, encompassing hundreds of classes beyond the traditional Java classes and open source components that ship with the SDK. With Beginning Android 2, you'll learn how to develop applications for Android 2.x mobile devices, using simple examples that are ready to run with your copy of the SDK. Author, Android columnist, writer, developer, and community advocate Mark L. Murphy will show you what you need to know to get started programming Android applications, including how to craft

  3. Plating on Zircaloy-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dini, J.W.; Johnson, H.R.; Jones, A.

    1979-03-01

    Zircaloy-2 is a difficult alloy to coat with an adherent electroplate because it easily forms a tenacious oxide film in air and aqueous solutions. Procedures reported in the literature and those developed at SLL for surmounting this problem were investigated. The best results were obtained when specimens were first etched in either an ammonium bifluoride/sulfuric acid or an ammonium bifluoride solution, plated, and then heated at 700 0 C for 1 hour in a constrained condition. Machining threads in the Zircaloy-2 for the purpose of providing sites for mechanical interlocking of the plating also proved satisfactory

  4. D2-tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Sioutas, Spyros; Pantazos, Kostas

    2015-01-01

    We present a new overlay, called the Deterministic Decentralized tree (D2-tree). The D2-tree compares favorably to other overlays for the following reasons: (a) it provides matching and better complexities, which are deterministic for the supported operations; (b) the management of nodes (peers......-balancing scheme of elements into nodes is deterministic and general enough to be applied to other hierarchical tree-based overlays. This load-balancing mechanism is based on an innovative lazy weight-balancing mechanism, which is interesting in its own right....

  5. NOVOSIBIRSK: VEPP-2M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    The VEPP-2M electron-positron collider at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics in Novosibirsk began a new life after completion of the booster BEP and construction of two new detectors - CMD-2 and SND. The collider covers a collision energy range from the threshold of pion pair production up to 1.4 GeV. Although this energy range is far below the summits needed to produce Z and W bosons or the top quark, it can nevertheless provide important information for a better understanding of the Standard Model and beyond

  6. CRPropa 2.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nierstenhoefer Nils

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently CRPropa 2.0 has been released as a public software package to simulate the extragalactic propagation of ultra-high energy nuclei. It includes deflections by extragalactic magnetic fields and all relevant interactions with ambient photon backgrounds. Furthermore it provides the possibility to track secondary γ-rays and neutrinos produced in the different reactions. This allows for the investigation of their connection with the primary nuclei, the so called multi-messenger approach. In this paper CRPropa 2.0 is introduced, its different components are discussed and two example applications are presented.

  7. Mo2NiB2-type Sm2Co2Al and Sm2Co2Ga compounds: Magnetic properties and giant low-temperature coercivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozkin, A. V.; Garshev, A. V.; Yapaskurt, V. O.; Yao, Jinlei; Nirmala, R.; Quezado, S.; Malik, S. K.

    2018-04-01

    The magnetic ordering of Mo2NiB2-type Sm2Co2Al and Sm2Co2Ga (Immm, No. 71, oI10) compounds has been established using bulk magnetic measurements. Polycrystalline Sm2Co2Al and Sm2Co2Ga undergo ferromagnetic transitions (TC) at 50 K and 62 K, respectively, and low-temperature field induced transitions (Tm) around 14 K and 16 K (in a field of 10 kOe), respectively. Between TC and Tm Sm2Co2Al and Sm2Co2Ga are soft ferromagnets. Below Tm Sm2Co2Al and Sm2Co2Ga exhibit permanent magnet properties with a residual magnetization per samarium of 0.38 μB and 0.36 μB, respectively, and a large coercive field of 69 kOe and 72 kOe, respectively, at 5 K. The magnetocaloric effects of Sm2Co2Al and Sm2Co2Ga were calculated in terms of isothermal magnetic entropy change and they reach maximum values of -1.62 J/kg K and -1.31 J/kg K for a field change of 50 kOe at 50 K and 58 K, respectively. Low temperature magnetic ordering with enhanced anisotropy in Sm2Co2Al and Sm2Co2Ga is accompanied by a positive magnetocaloric effect with isothermal magnetic entropy changes of +1.63 J/kg K and +1.06 J/kg K for a field change of 50 kOe at 10 K and 8 K, respectively. The magnetocaloric effects of Sm2Co2Al and Sm2Co2Ga were calculated in terms of isothermal magnetic entropy change and they reach maximum values of -1.62 J/kg K and -1.31 J/kg K for a field change of 50 kOe at 50 K and 58 K, respectively. Low temperature magnetic ordering with enhanced anisotropic effects in Sm2Co2Al and Sm2Co2Ga is accompanied by a positive magnetocaloric effect with isothermal magnetic entropy changes of +1.63 J/kg K and +1.06 J/kg K for a field change of 50 kOe at 10 K and 8 K, respectively.

  8. X2)!X3!

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Probability theory is an interesting subject because it discusses many experiments which lead to two or more apparently correct solutions and all look convincing and hence these are paradoxes. Many such paradoxes can be found in books on probability theory (Feller [1], Mood and Graybill [2]). In what follows, we discuss ...

  9. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ≡ Are ... Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten ...

  10. Inklusionspanelet - Statusnotat 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Christiane Præstgaard; Nielsen, Chantal

    2015-01-01

    Dette notat er det andet statusnotat i forskningsprojektet ”Inklusionspanelet”, som blev igangsat af Undervisningsministeriet i 2013. Formålet med projektet er bl.a. at indsamle og udbrede viden om inklusion af elever med særlige behov i folkeskolens almindelige klasser. Statusnotat 2 har til...

  11. Datablock: 2pcpx46

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-11-28

    Nov 28, 2016 ... PLAT911_ALERT_3_C Missing # FCF Refl Between THmin & STh/L= 0.600 2 Report. Alert level G. PLAT042_ALERT_1_G Calc. and Reported MoietyFormula Strings Differ Please Check. PLAT045_ALERT_1_G Calculated and Reported Z Differ by a Factor ... 0.80 Check. PLAT199_ALERT_1_G Reported ...

  12. 2. biophysical work meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    The report comprises 18 papers held at the 2nd Biophysical Work Meeting, 11 - 13 September 1991 in Schlema, Germany. The history of biophysics in Germany particularly of radiation biophysics and radon research, measurements of the radiation effects of radon and the derivation of limits, radon balneotherapy and consequences of uranium ore mining are dealt with. (orig.) [de

  13. International Perspectives. Chapter 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acampora, Alfonso P., Ed.; Nebelkopf, Ethan, Ed.

    This document contains seven papers from the ninth World Conference of Therapeutic Communities that provide an international perspective on the therapeutic community (TC) movement as it is today. Papers include: (1) "What's Happening on an International Level" (William B. O'Brien); (2) "Therapeutic Communities of America"…

  14. ASR 2.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hilarybenjamin

    2010-08-30

    Aug 30, 2010 ... and data (the asuwada African oral poetry) which form the basis of Akiwowo's sociology of knowledge. Akiwowo has a view of human sociality and a view of ..... “Akiwowo, Orature and Divination: Approaches To he Construction of An Emic Sociological Paradigm of Society” Sociological Analysis 53:2: ...

  15. Journal 2009 2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite major inroads into understanding the pathophysiology and treatment of this insidious disease, it had ... of diabetes control is such that treatment is still insufficient, with the majority of type 2 diabetes patients .... of feeds, weight loss, hair-loss, coma and death) throughout the duration of the experiment and four weeks ...

  16. Marketing 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, Carol Anne

    2008-01-01

    There is no doubt that today's student is much more savvy with using computers than the students of years gone by. This tech generation eagerly embraces the Internet, online searching, and the newer Web 2.0 technologies. This latter platform provides users with the ability to interact in a large virtual world, share/take (upload/download)…

  17. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics ...

  18. At UA2

    CERN Multimedia

    1982-01-01

    The proton-antiproton collider experiment UA2. From centre to outside: the central calorimeter, the recessed toroidal magnets (on temporary supports), and the recessed forward-backward detector structures with their drift chambers in front. (Annual Report 1982 p. 63, Fig. 5)

  19. Intersection region I-2

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1972-01-01

    Intersection region I-2 at the ISR showing the small-angle spectrometer at upper left and the large-angle rotating spectrometer on the right. The intersection is behind the wire spark chambers at the centre of the photo. The foil-covered housing appearing above the intersection is part of the "igloo" of the muon spectrometer.

  20. Decomposing V2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    grammaticalized for declarative sentences at the relevant language stages. It is, however, clear that this answer masks rather than solves the problem: what precisely is 'incomplete grammaticalization'? Importantly, it also leads to the, in my opinion, erroneous question of why and how German developed a generalized V2 ...

  1. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy 8 Tips for ... But, your doctor may need to also prescribe oral medications or insulin to help you meet your target blood glucose levels. Type 2 usually gets ... Health Advisor Tools to Know Your Risk Diabetes Basics ...

  2. Rescue Manual. Module 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This learner manual for rescuers covers the current techniques or practices required in the rescue service. The second of 10 modules contains 5 chapters: (1) patient care and handling techniques; (2) rescue carries and drags; (3) emergency vehicle operations; (4) self-contained breathing apparatus; and (5) protective clothing. Key points, an…

  3. UJAS 2.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Consequently, yield hardly exceeds 2.9 t ha-1 yet a potential of 10 t ha-1 can be realised. This study was conducted to determine the effect of seasons and the small seed plot technology in enhancing seed potato production in the Mt. Elgon zone. On-farm trials were conducted in Bududa, Sironko, Manafwa, Kapchorwa and.

  4. CO2-strategier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    2008-01-01

    I 2007 henvendte Lyngby-Taarbæk kommunens Agenda 21 koordinator sig til Videnskabsbutikken og spurgte om der var interesse for at samarbejde om CO2-strategier. Da Videnskabsbutikken DTU er en åben dør til DTU for borgerne og deres organisationer, foreslog Videnskabsbutikken DTU at Danmarks...

  5. More2books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Mathematics Teacher, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Reach for the Stars is AAMT's data-collection activity for National Literacy and Numeracy Week, funded by the Australian Government. This year's activity was on the theme "More2books" and many thousands of students and their teachers explored the mathematics of the books in their classrooms. This article presents a version of the…

  6. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ≡ Are You At Risk? Diabetes Basics Living with Diabetes Food & Fitness In My Community Advocacy Research & Practice Ways to Give Close Are You at ...

  7. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites ... Twitter Pinterest Youtube Instagram Diabetes Stops Here Blog Online Community Site Menu Are You at Risk? Diagnosis Lower ...

  8. BEGINNING INDONESIAN. VOLUME 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DYEN, ISIDORE

    VOLUME 2 OF A 4-VOLUME WORK ON BEGINNING INDONESIAN CONTAINS LESSONS 7-12 OF A TOTAL OF 24. THESE SIX LESSONS PROVIDE DRILLS IN BASIC INDONESIAN SENTENCE PATTERNS INVOLVING THE USE OF DIFFICULT VERBS, THE ACTIVE VOICE, INVERTED NARRATIVE CLAUSES, INTERROGATIVE WORDS, AND COUNTING METHODS. RELATED REPORTS ARE ED 010 456 THROUGH ED 010 459. (GD)

  9. C2 Agility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, Dr. William; Alberts, David S.; Bernier, Francois

    Agility is the capability to successfully effect, cope with, and/or exploit changes in circumstances. While other factors will also influence outcomes, C2 Agility enables entities to effectively and efficiently employ the resources they have in a timely manner in a variety of missions and circums...

  10. issue 2 2008.indb

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One such study conducted in rural Peru reported that the consent to participate in research is most commonly a family decision and that fathers and grandmothers are frequently influential in the decision-making process2. In that setting, individual potential participant do not decide independently whether to enrol in research ...

  11. SKIPAL, Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    Phase 2, SKIPAL incorporated the Spring Web MVC framework to facilitate future integration efforts with SKIWeb. Spring Web MVC is a web framework...based on the Model-View-Controller ( MVC ) design pattern. New events created in SKIWeb activate a database trigger that captures the id numbers of the

  12. GRIN2B encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Platzer, Konrad; Yuan, Hongjie; Schütz, Hannah

    2017-01-01

    treatment response in the respective patients still remains to be demonstrated. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to previously known features of intellectual disability, epilepsy and autism, we found evidence that GRIN2B encephalopathy is also frequently associated with movement disorder, cortical visual impairment...

  13. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy 8 Tips for ... But, your doctor may need to also prescribe oral medications or insulin to help you meet your target blood glucose levels. Type 2 usually gets worse ... Health Advisor Tools to Know Your Risk Diabetes Basics ...

  14. JOS JOURNAL 2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    administration of Isoflurane, fentanyl, diazepam or acetaminophen and development of haemolytic crises in the 22 male G6PD-deficient children. The results of post-operative audit of the identified. 22 G6PD-deficient male patients with obstructive adenotonsillectomy are represented in table 2,3 and figure 1 shown overleaf.

  15. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diabetes causes more deaths a year than breast cancer and AIDS combined. Your gift today will help us get closer ... time, high blood glucose levels may hurt your eyes, kidneys, nerves or heart. Some people with type 2 ...

  16. 4-Ethoxypyridin-2-amine

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Chen; Lihua Mao

    2008-01-01

    The title compound, C7H10N2O, crystallizes with two independent molecules in the asymmetric unit. The bond lengths and angles in the molecules are within normal ranges. The crystal structure is stabilized by intermolecular N—H...N hydrogen bonds, linking the two independent molecules into hydrogen-bonded dimers.

  17. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics ...

  18. 15 (No. 2)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mwakagugu

    and methods: All children aged 8-12 years from four government primary schools were eligible to participate. Using school registers, twenty children of each ... persist into mixed dentition (2-3, 11). Malocclusions that may occur as a result of ..... 3. da Costa OO, Orenuga OO. Dentofacial anomalies related to the digit sucking.

  19. 2. Asakitikpi.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2017-07-20

    Jul 20, 2017 ... primarily to the slow rate of decline of maternal mortality, which has only. 2. Asakitikpi.pmd. 20/07/2017 ... The consequence of the economic downturn was the mass exodus of highly qualified doctors and ... enthroned a political ruling cabal that had only a parochial interest of self- aggrandizement through ...

  20. JOS JOURNAL 2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High flow hemangiomas can be treated with anti-angiogenesis agents such as interferon alpha -b or embolization which this. 2. [15] patient may benefit from if available. Adverse effects of these agents includes hemodynamic changes, viral symptoms ,blood dyscrasias and depression. Surgical care with laser and resection ...

  1. SSYST-2 input description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyder, R.

    1980-11-01

    The codes system SSYST-2 is designed to analyse the thermal and mechanical behaviour of a fuel rod during a LOCA. The report contains a short introduction into the SSYST structure, a complete input-list for all modules and several tested input-list for a LOCA-analysis. (orig.) [de

  2. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Edited: October 27, 2015 Articles from Diabetes Forecast® magazine: lp-type-2, . In this section Diabetes Basics ... up to ride in Tour de Cure and create your team today! More from diabetes.org Healthy ...

  3. PDF 25(2)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    Louis. 2009. La maladie du sommeil au. Gabon. Cent cinquante ans d'une histoire contrastée. 1861 - 2008. Sciences et. Médecine d'Afrique. 2 : 119 - 132. Nganongo J. B. 1999. Suivi des salines ; Parc national d'Odzala, Congo. Rapports mensuels : Août, septembre, octobre, novembre, décembre. Nganongo J. B. 2000.

  4. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ≡ ... Home Food MyFoodAdvisor Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free ...

  5. Pesticider 2 i overfladevand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyeland, B.; Kvamm, B. L.

    DMU har den 29. september 1999 afholdt en metodeafprøvning: Pesticider 2 i overfladevand. Der var tilmeldt 17 danske og udenlandske laboratorier i metodeafprøvningen. Prøvningen omfattede 32 pesticider i overfladevand fra en sjællandsk sø. Koncentrationsniveauet for hver komponent var på 0,025 - 0...

  6. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tools Recruiting Advocates Local Market Planning Training Webinars News & Events Advocacy News Call to Congress The Cost of Diabetes Research & ... 2 diabetes. » « Connect With Us Register for diabetes news, research and food & fitness tips. Email: Sign Up ...

  7. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a Member Donate Now! One Time Monthly In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ≡ Are You At Risk? Diabetes Basics Living with Diabetes Food & Fitness In My Community Advocacy Research & Practice Ways ...

  8. 2.Ocholla ....pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    The African Anthropologist, Vol. 19, Nos 1&2, 2012. Résumé. Les études relatives aux LGBT au Kenya sont impopulaires car elles sont considérées comme une « zone ... and a bride price is paid. These autonomous female husbands are accepted as men in male economic roles. This dual-female marriage was economic,.

  9. Article 2 - Lagos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    on commercial real estate investments in percentage against the change of inflation ... are into direct real estate investment should look more at office properties ..... Agency. 35(33.3%). Valuation. 30(28.6%). Development. 4(3.8%). Others. -. 105(100%). Size of property mgt portfolio. Small(1-10). 2(5.7%). Medium. (11-50).

  10. pdf2xml

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Investigations by FoEI, the Environmental Investigation Agency, Greenpeace, the World Rainforest Movement, the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), and other NGOs and individual ..... In 1989/90, sales of confiscated illegally harvested logs were expected to earn the government around 2.3 million USD (Callister 1992).

  11. K2-155

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirano, Teruyuki; Dai, Fei; Livingston, John H.

    2018-01-01

    that of smaller rocky planets and larger gas-rich planets. To assess the habitability of this planet, we present a series of three-dimensional global climate simulations, assuming that K2-155d is tidally locked and has an Earth-like composition and atmosphere. We find that the planet can maintain a moderate...

  12. Saperi P2P

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Iaconesi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Il paper presenta l'architettura filosofica e logica di un progetto ongoing per la creazione di un'infrastruttura peer to peer per la diffusione dei saperi. Tale infrastruttura p2p vuole essere la base per costruire un framework aperto e orizzontale, che ospiti pratiche innovative di creazione, condivisione e disseminazione di informazioni e conoscenza.

  13. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diabetes causes more deaths a year than breast cancer and AIDS combined. Your gift today will help us get closer to ... normal. Type 2 is treated with lifestyle changes, oral medications (pills), and insulin. When glucose builds up ...

  14. The LUCID-2 Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Pinfold, James; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The LUCID-2 detector is the main online and offline luminosity provider of the ATLAS experiment. It provides over 100 different luminosity measurements from different algorithms for each of the 2808/3546 filled/total LHC bunches. LUCID was entirely redesigned in preparation for LHC Run 2: both the detector and the electronics were upgraded in order to cope with the challenging conditions expected at the LHC center of mass energy of 13 TeV with only 25 ns bunch-spacing. While LUCID-1 used gas as a Cherenkov medium, the LUCID-2 detector is in a new unique way using the quartz windows of small photomultipliers as the Cherenkov medium. The main challenge for a luminometer is to keep the efficiency constant during years of data-taking. LUCID-2 is using an innovative calibration system based on radioactive 207 Bi sources deposited on the quartz window of the readout photomultipliers. This makes it possible to accurately monitor and control the gain of the photomultipliers so that the detector efficiency can be kept...

  15. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Complications Neuropathy Foot Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & ... Non-starchy Vegetables Grains and Starchy ... form of diabetes. In type 2 diabetes, your body does not use insulin properly. This is called insulin resistance. At ...

  16. UJAS 2.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Potato production in the Mt. Elgon zone of Uganda is constrained by seasonal variations, lack of clean seed and the challenges of pests and diseases. Consequently, yield hardly exceeds 2.9 t ha-1 yet a potential of 10 t ha-1 can be realised. This study was conducted to determine the effect of seasons and the small seed ...

  17. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Type 2 Diabetes Program donate en -- #GiveForDiabetes - givefordiabetes.html #GiveForDiabetes Every 21 seconds, someone is diagnosed with ... Donate Today We Can Help - we-can-help.html Chat Online Chat Closed engagement en -- Free Type ...

  18. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... the Living WIth Type 2 Diabetes Program Gestational What is Gestational Diabetes? How to Treat Gestational Diabetes Genetics of Diabetes Diabetes Myths A Day in the Life of Diabetes Famous People Working to Stop Diabetes Common Terms Diabetes Statistics Infographics ...

  19. 1, 2, 3 ... FAIR !

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturm, C.; Sharkov, B.; Stoecker, H.

    2010-01-01

    The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research FAIR at Darmstadt/Germany will provide worldwide unique accelerator and experimental facilities allowing for a large variety of unprecedented forefront research in hadron, nuclear, atomic and plasma physics and applied sciences. The start version of FAIR, the so called Modularized Start Version includes a basic accelerator as well as three experimental modules - 1, 2, 3 FAIR!

  20. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... diabetes. » « Connect With Us Register for diabetes news, research and food & fitness tips. Email: Sign Up Thank you for ... Living WIth Type 2 Diabetes Program Food & Fitness Food Recipes Planning ... to Congress Research & Practice We Are Research Leaders We Support Your ...

  1. The LUCID-2 Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Soluk, Richard; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The LUCID-2 detector is the main online and offline luminosity provider of the ATLAS experiment. It provides over 100 different luminosity measurements from different algorithms for each of the 2808 LHC bunches. LUCID was entirely redesigned in preparation for LHC Run 2: both the detector and the electronics were upgraded in order to cope with the challenging conditions expected at the LHC center of mass energy of 13 TeV with only 25 ns bunch-spacing. While LUCID-1 used gas as a Cherenkov medium, the LUCID-2 detector is in a new unique way using the quartz windows of small photomultipliers as the Cherenkov medium. The main challenge for a luminometer is to keep the efficiency constant during years of data-taking. LUCID-2 is using an innovative calibration system based on radioactive 207 Bi sources deposited on the quartz window of the readout photomultipliers. This makes it possible to accurately monitor and control the gain of the photomultipliers so that the detector efficiency can be kept stable at a perce...

  2. Design, Synthesis and Fungicidal Activity of 2-Substituted Phenyl-2-oxo-, 2-Hydroxy- and 2-Acyloxyethylsulfonamides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minlong Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sulfonyl-containing compounds, which exhibit a broad spectrum of biological activities, comprise a substantial proportion of and play a vital role, not only in medicines but also in agrochemicals. As a result increasing attention has been paid to the research and development of sulfonyl derivatives. A series of thirty-eight 2-substituted phenyl-2-oxo- III, 2-hydroxy- IV and 2-acyloxyethylsulfonamides V were obtained and their structures confirmed by IR, 1H-NMR, and elemental analysis. The in vitro and in vivo bioactivities against two Botrytis cinerea strains, DL-11 and HLD-15, which differ in their sensitivity to procymidone, were evaluated. The in vitro activity results showed that the EC50 values of compounds V-1 and V-9 were 0.10, 0.01 mg L−1 against the sensitive strain DL-11 and 3.32, 7.72 mg L−1 against the resistant strain HLD-15, respectively. For in vivo activity against B. cinerea, compound V-13 and V-14 showed better control effect than the commercial fungicides procymidone and pyrimethanil. The further in vitro bioassay showed that compounds III, IV and V had broad fungicidal spectra against different phytopathogenic fungi. Most of the title compounds showed high fungicidal activities, which could be used as lead compounds for further developing novel fungicidal compounds against Botrytis cinerea.

  3. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you may need to later on. Some groups have a higher risk for developing type 2 diabetes ... Online Chat Closed engagement en -- So…Do You Have Prediabetes? - 2017-01-ad-council.html So…Do ...

  4. Bike2Work 2014

    CERN Multimedia

    Herterich, Patricia Sigrid

    2014-01-01

    To celebrate the success of the 97 CERN teams, the participants gathered on Thursday 19th June at lunchtime for a "CERN critical mass". The bicyclists started at Restaurant 2 and cruised around the Meyrin site terminating with a photo session outside Restaurant 1. The colleagues based in Prevessin made a "pre-parade" to join their colleagues in Meyrin.

  5. omoya (2).pub

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    antibacterial activity of ginger (Zingiber offi- cinale Roscoe) and garlic (Allium sativum extracts on Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi. Jour. Mol. Med. and Adv. Sci., 1(4):. Antifungal activities of a pasture... Table 2: Qualitative phytochemical screening of honey and Ginger extracts. Phytochemicals. Honey. Methanol ginger ...

  6. Hayabusa2 Mission Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Sei-ichiro; Tsuda, Yuichi; Yoshikawa, Makoto; Tanaka, Satoshi; Saiki, Takanao; Nakazawa, Satoru

    2017-07-01

    The Hayabusa2 mission journeys to C-type near-Earth asteroid (162173) Ryugu (1999 JU3) to observe and explore the 900 m-sized object, as well as return samples collected from the surface layer. The Haybusa2 spacecraft developed by Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) was successfully launched on December 3, 2014 by an H-IIA launch vehicle and performed an Earth swing-by on December 3, 2015 to set it on a course toward its target Ryugu. Hayabusa2 aims at increasing our knowledge of the early history and transfer processes of the solar system through deciphering memories recorded on Ryugu, especially about the origin of water and organic materials transferred to the Earth's region. Hayabusa2 carries four remote-sensing instruments, a telescopic optical camera with seven colors (ONC-T), a laser altimeter (LIDAR), a near-infrared spectrometer covering the 3-μm absorption band (NIRS3), and a thermal infrared imager (TIR). It also has three small rovers of MINERVA-II and a small lander MASCOT (Mobile Asteroid Surface Scout) developed by German Aerospace Center (DLR) in cooperation with French space agency CNES. MASCOT has a wide angle imager (MasCam), a 6-band thermal radiator (MARA), a 3-axis magnetometer (MasMag), and a hyperspectral infrared microscope (MicrOmega). Further, Hayabusa2 has a sampling device (SMP), and impact experiment devices which consist of a small carry-on impactor (SCI) and a deployable camera (DCAM3). The interdisciplinary research using the data from these onboard and lander's instruments and the analyses of returned samples are the key to success of the mission.

  7. Influence of dissolved product gas on organism retention in biogas tower reactors; Der Einfluss geloester Produktgase auf den Organismenrueckhalt in Biogas-Turmreaktoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietsch, T.; Maerkl, H. [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg (Germany). Arbeitsbereich Bioprozess- und Bioverfahrenstechnik

    1999-07-01

    In biogas tower reactors, considerable oversaturations of CO{sub 2} dissolved in molecular form in the liquid phase can occur, compared to the thermodynamic steady state with the gas phase. In buildings of low height, upflow designs cause biological CO{sub 2} production along the reactor to saturate the liquid phase with carbonic acid, and also cause the pH value increasing from acid degradation to bind CO{sub 2} in the form of hydrogen carbonate HCO{sup -}{sub 3}. Where buildings are very high, the liquid phase becomes degassed through a decrease in CO{sub 2} partial pressure because of decreasing hydrostatic pressure along the length of the reactor. Rising gas bubbles in the liquid phase as well as enclosed gas bubbles in biomass particles slow down their sedimentation considerably and can result in flotation of biomass particles owing to gas expansion from declining hydrostatic pressure. A sedimentation characteristics for biomass under decreasing hydrostatic pressure is given. Conditions critical to biomass retention are energy input into CO{sub 2}-oversaturated liquids as well as dynamically rapid drops in pH value owing to associated CO{sub 2} degassing. (orig.) [German] In Biogas-Turmreaktoren koennen erhebliche Uebersaettigungen von molekular geloestem CO{sub 2} in der Fluessigphase gegenueber dem thermodynamischen Gleichgewichtszustand mit der Gasphase auftreten. Bei geringer Bauhoehe fuehrt bei upflow-Konzepten die biologische CO{sub 2}-Produktion entlang des Reaktors zu einer Aufsaettigung der Fluessigphase mit Kohlensaeure und der durch Saeureabbau ansteigende pH-Wert zu einer Bindung des CO{sub 2} in Form des Hydrogencarbonats HCO{sub 3}{sup -}. Sehr grosse Bauhoehen fuehren zu einer Entgasung der Fluessigphase durch Abnahme des CO{sub 2}-Partialdruckes aufgrund des abnehmenden hydrostatischen Druckes entlang der Reaktorhoehe. Aufsteigende Gasblasen in der Fluessigphase sowie eingeschlossene Gasblasen in Biomassepartikeln mindern deren

  8. Biosphere2 and Earthbuzz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburne, J. C.

    2009-12-01

    In an attempt to reach a broader audience, Biosphere 2, near Tucson, AZ, is participating in a network of science centers thanks to new funding through the Science Museum of Minnesota (SMM) and the National Center for Earth System Dynamics (NCED). Each of these centers will be tied together through an Earthbuzz kiosk, basically a networked web site that allows visitors to learn more about the work of leading local scientists in a very personal and captivating format. Content is currently being developed by Biosphere 2 researchers, staff, and graduate students that range from a public question and answer forum called “Scientist on the Spot” to science blogs by Biosphere 2 Fellows. It is hoped that this project will help educate the public about the Anthropocene, that is, the current geologic period that is so greatly affected by humankind’s impact on the health of the planet. Biosphere 2 provides a unique location to engage the public in this conversation for several reasons. First, no other destination on Earth gives the public such a physical immersion into what climate change might mean as does Biosphere 2. On the regular walking tour, visitors are guided through scaled down versions of an African savannah, a semi-arid thorn scrub, a coastal fog desert and a tropical rainforest. Digital displays of temperature and humidity confirm what your body is feeling - conditions ranging from desert aridity to tropical humidity. As one passes through the biomes of Biosphere 2, climate change is a whole body experience. Second, Biosphere 2 is also an active ecological research site - part of a unique network of sites run by the University of Arizona that allow scientists to study ecosystem processes across a range of scales - from microscopic root studies to studies encompassing large watersheds. In particular, a group of researchers is studying why large stands of pinion-juniper forests across the southwest have died in recent years. Biosphere2’s role in this

  9. THERMAL-HYDRAULIC ANALYSIS OF SMR WITH NATURALLY CIRCULATING PRIMARY SYSTEM DURING LOSS OF FEED WATER ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susyadi Susyadi

    2016-09-01

    ABSTRAK Reaktor daya kecil modular (SMR memiliki beberapa keunggulan dibanding reaktor daya besar konvensional. Dengan disain yang lebih sederhana dan terintegrasi, penerapan hukum alamiah untuk sistem keselamatannya dan biaya modal yang rendah, reaktor ini sangat cocok untuk dibangun di Indonesia. Salah satunya disain SMR yang sedang dikembangkan menerapkan gaya penggerak alami untuk sistim pendingin primernya. Dengan disain seperti itu, adalah sangat penting untuk memahami implikasinya terhadap aspek keselamatan pada seluruh kondisi operasi. Salah satu yang perlu diinvestigasi adalah kecelakaan kehilangan air umpan (LoFW. Pada studi ini, dilakukan analisis kinerja thermal hidrolik SMR yang menggunakan sistim pendinginan primer sirkulasi alam saat kecelakaan LoFW. Tujuannya adalah untuk menginvestigasi karakteristik aliran sistem primer saat kecelakaan LoFW dan untuk memastikan apakah aliran sirkulasi alam cukup untuk memindahkan panas dari teras guna menjaga kondisi tetap aman selama kecelakaan tersebut. Metoda yang digunakan adalah dengan merepresentasikan sistem reaktor ke dalam model-model generik program RELAP5 dan melakukan simulasi numerik. Hasil perhitungan menunjukkan bahwa setelah kejadian pemicu dan trip reaktor, pada sisi primer laju alirnya berfluktuasi secara signifikan dan temperatur pendinginnya menurun secara bertahap sedangkan  pada sisi sekunder kondisi uap berubah menjadi uap jenuh. Laju alir turun dari ~711 kg/detik menjadi ~263 kg/detik sebelum kembali naik lagi pada t=~46 detik. Saat laju alir di titik terendah, temperatur pusat bahan bakar dan fluida pendingin adalah sekitar  ~565 K dan  ~554 K, yang menujukkan bahwa temperatur bahan bakar masih jauh di bawah batas disain dan temperatur fluidanya juga berada di bawah titik saturasi. Keadaan ini menunjukkan bahwa saat transien kedua parameter utama termohidrolik reaktor tetap dalam kondisi yang dapat diterima sehingga dapat disimpulkan  bahwa saat  kecelakaan kehilangan air umpan, SMR

  10. Sentinel-2 Mission status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoersch, Bianca; Colin, Olivier; Gascon, Ferran; Arino, Olivier; Spoto, Francois; Marchese, Franco; Krassenburg, Mike; Koetz, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    Copernicus is a joint initiative of the European Commission (EC) and the European Space Agency (ESA), designed to establish a European capacity for the provision and use of operational monitoring information for environment and security applications. Within the Copernicus programme, ESA is responsible for the development of the Space Component, a fully operational space-based capability to supply earth-observation data to sustain environmental information Services in Europe. The Sentinel missions are Copernicus dedicated Earth Observation missions composing the essential elements of the Space Component. In the global Copernicus framework, they are complemented by other satellites made available by third-parties or by ESA and coordinated in the synergistic system through the Copernicus Data-Access system versus the Copernicus Services. The Copernicus Sentinel-2 mission provides continuity to services relying on multi-spectral high-resolution optical observations over global terrestrial surfaces. Sentinel-2 capitalizes on the technology and the vast experience acquired in Europe and the US to sustain the operational supply of data for services such as forest monitoring, land cover changes detection or natural disasters management. The Sentinel-2 mission offers an unprecedented combination of the following capabilities: ○ Systematic global coverage of land surfaces: from 56°South to 84°North, coastal waters and Mediterranean sea; ○ High revisit: every 5 days at equator under the same viewing conditions with 2 satellites; ○ High spatial resolution: 10m, 20m and 60m; ○ Multi-spectral information with 13 bands in the visible, near infra-red and short wave infra-red part of the spectrum; ○ Wide field of view: 290 km. The data from the Sentinel-2 mission are available openly and freely for all users with online easy access since December 2015. The presentation will give a status report on the Sentinel-2 mission, and outlook for the remaining ramp-up Phase, the

  11. N-[2-(2,2-Dimethylpropanamidopyrimidin-4-yl]-2,2-dimethylpropanamide n-hexane 0.25-solvate hemihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borys Ośmiałowski

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C14H22N4O2·0.25C6H14·0.5H2O, contains two independent molecules of 2,4-bis(pivaloylaminopyrimidine (M with similar conformations, one water molecule and one-half n-hexane solvent molecule situated on an inversion center. In one independent M molecule, one of the two tert-butyl groups is rotationally disordered between two orientations in a 3:2 ratio. The n-hexane solvent molecule is disordered between two conformations in the same ratio. The water molecule bridges two independent M molecules via O—H...O, N—H...O and O—H...N hydrogen bonds into a 2M·H2O unit, and these units are further linked by N—H...N hydrogen bonds into chains running in the [010] direction. Weak C—H...O interactions are observed between the adjacent chains.

  12. Design basis 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, G.; Soerensen, P. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1996-09-01

    Design Basis Program 2 (DBP2) is comprehensive fully coupled code which has the capability to operate in the time domain as well as in the frequency domain. The code was developed during the period 1991-93 and succeed Design Basis 1, which is a one-blade model presuming stiff tower, transmission system and hub. The package is designed for use on a personal computer and offers a user-friendly environment based on menu-driven editing and control facilities, and with graphics used extensively for the data presentation. Moreover in-data as well as results are dumped on files in Ascii-format. The input data is organized in a in-data base with a structure that easily allows for arbitrary combinations of defined structural components and load cases. (au)

  13. Reactor BR2. Introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubel, P

    2001-04-01

    The BR2 is a materials testing reactor and is still one of SCK-CEN's important nuclear facilities. After an extensive refurbishment to compensate for the ageing of the installation, the reactor was restarted in April 1997. During the last three years, the availability of the installation was maintained at an average level of 97.6 percent. In the year 2000, the reactor was operated for a total of 104 days at a mean power of 56 MW. In 2000, most irradiation experiments were performed in the CALLISTO PWR loop. The report describes irradiations achieved or under preparation in 2000, including the development of advanced facilities and concept studies for new programmes. An overview of the scientific irradiation programmes as well as of the R and D programme of the BR2 reactor in 2000 is given.

  14. Spiral 2 workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The accelerator and experimental facilities at GANIL will be transformed over the next 5-10 years. The centerpiece of the additions to the accelerator complex will be Spiral-2. This is the first phase of a new radioactive beam facility based on the ISOL principle. The main aim of Spiral-2 will be to produce intense, high quality beams of neutron-rich nuclei created in neutron-induced fission of heavy elements and accelerated by the existing CIME cyclotron. The principal aims of this workshop will be a) to publicize the new facilities, b) to discuss and define the science which might be carried out with them, c) to discuss the instrumentation and infrastructure required to exploit the new facilities and d) to help form collaborations of scientists wishing to design and construct the equipment needed to undertake the science programme. This document gathers most of the slides presented in the workshop.

  15. Reactor BR2. Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubel, P.

    2002-01-01

    The BR2 materials testing reactor is one of SCK-CEN's most important nuclear facilities. After an extensive refurbishment to compensate for the ageing of the installation, the reactor was restarted in April 1997. In 2001, the reactor was operated for a total of 123 days at a mean power of 59 MW in order to satisfy the irradiation conditions of the internal and external programmes using mainly the CALLISTO PWR loop. The mean consumption of fresh fuel elements was 5.26 per 1000 MWd. Main achievements in 2001 included the development of a three-dimensional full-scale model of the BR2 reactor for simulation and prediction of irradiation conditions for various experiments; the construction of the FUTURE-MT device designed for the irradiation of fuel plates under representative conditions of geometry, neutron spectrum, heat flux and thermal-hydraulic conditions and the development of in-pile instrumentation and a data acquisition system

  16. Reactor BR2. Introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubel, P

    2002-04-01

    The BR2 materials testing reactor is one of SCK-CEN's most important nuclear facilities. After an extensive refurbishment to compensate for the ageing of the installation, the reactor was restarted in April 1997. In 2001, the reactor was operated for a total of 123 days at a mean power of 59 MW in order to satisfy the irradiation conditions of the internal and external programmes using mainly the CALLISTO PWR loop. The mean consumption of fresh fuel elements was 5.26 per 1000 MWd. Main achievements in 2001 included the development of a three-dimensional full-scale model of the BR2 reactor for simulation and prediction of irradiation conditions for various experiments; the construction of the FUTURE-MT device designed for the irradiation of fuel plates under representative conditions of geometry, neutron spectrum, heat flux and thermal-hydraulic conditions and the development of in-pile instrumentation and a data acquisition system.

  17. 1-[(E-2-(2-Hydroxy-5-methylphenyldiazen-2-ium-1-yl]naphthalen-2-olate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Eddine Bouaoud

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The title zwitterion, C17H14N2O2, crystallizes with two independent molecules in the asymmetric unit, both of which are approximately planar, the dihedral angles between the benzene ring and the naphthalene ring system being 4.39 (12° in one molecule and 5.83 (12° in the other, and show an E conformation with respect to the azo double bond. An intramolecular N—H...O hydrogen bond in each molecule helps to establish their near planar conformation. In the crystal, molecules are linked through O—H...O hydrogen bonds into infinite chains running along the a-axis direction. In addition, the chains are stacked along the b axis via π–π interactions between the benzene and the naphthalene rings of adjacent molecules, the centroid–centroid distances being 3.722 (3 and 3.823 (4 Å.

  18. IDEA papers no 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassou, O.

    2002-09-01

    The Information network on the Economic Development in Aquitaine (IDEA) aims to collect and spread the environmental information concerning the Aquitaine, in order to implement an observatory of the regional environment and of the sustainable development. The IDEA paper no. 2 is devoted to the IDEA missions and their cooperation with ''Alliance pour la qualite et la performance''. This association groups actors for the development and the promotion of the quality. (A.L.B.)

  19. 2-(Naphthalen-1-ylaminocyclohexanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachid Outouch

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C16H19NO, was synthesized under solvent-free conditions by reaction of 7-oxa-bicyclo[4.1.0]heptane and naphthalen-1-amine in the presence of Ca(CF3COO2 as catalyst. The cyclohexane ring adopts a chair conformation. In the crystal, molecules are linked by intermolecular N—H...O hydrogen bonds and C—H...π interactions into chains parallel to the c axis.

  20. Beyond CMOS nanodevices 2

    CERN Document Server

    Balestra, Francis

    2014-01-01

    This book offers a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art in innovative Beyond-CMOS nanodevices for developing novel functionalities, logic and memories dedicated to researchers, engineers and students. The book will particularly focus on the interest of nanostructures and nanodevices (nanowires, small slope switches, 2D layers, nanostructured materials, etc.) for advanced More than Moore (RF-nanosensors-energy harvesters, on-chip electronic cooling, etc.) and Beyond-CMOS logic and memories applications.