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Sample records for bases legales relacionadas

  1. Quality of life in patients with age-related macular degeneration with monocular and binocular legal blindness Qualidade de vida de pacientes com degeneração macular relacionada à idade com cegueira legal monocular e binocular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Ferrari Marback

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the quality of life for persons affected by age-related macular degeneration that results in monocular or binocular legal blindness. METHODS: An analytic transversal study using the National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25 was performed. Inclusion criteria were persons of both genders, aged more than 50 years old, absence of cataracts, diagnosis of age-related monocular degeneration in at least one eye and the absence of other macular diseases. The control group was paired by sex, age and no ocular disease. RESULTS: Group 1 (monocular legal blindness was composed of 54 patients (72.22% females and 27.78% males, aged 51 to 87 years old, medium age 74.61 ± 7.27 years; group 2 (binocular legal blindness was composed of 54 patients (46.30% females and 53.70% males aged 54 to 87 years old, medium age 75.61 ± 6.34 years. The control group was composed of 40 patients (40% females and 60% males, aged 50 to 81 years old, medium age 65.65 ± 7.56 years. The majority of the scores were statistically significantly higher in group 1 and the control group in relation to group 2 and higher in the control group when compared to group 1. CONCLUSIONS: It was evident that the quality of life of persons with binocular blindness was more limited in relation to persons with monocular blindness. Both groups showed significant impairment in quality of life when compared to normal persons.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a qualidade de vida de portadores de degeneração macular relacionada à idade com cegueira legal monocular e binocular. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado estudo transversal analítico por meio do questionário National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25. Os critérios de inclusão foram: indivíduos de ambos os sexos, idade maior que 50 anos, ausência de catarata, diagnóstico de degeneração macular relacionada à idade avançada em pelo menos um dos olhos, sem outras maculopatias. O Grupo Controle

  2. LEGAL BASES OF INSTITUTE OF PUBLIC SERVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkhireeva A. S.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article some features of legal regulation of the institute of public service are considered. The analysis of the norms of the service rights establishing the special administrative legal status of public servants is carried out. The author investigated the considerable list of the pre-revolutionary, soviet and modern legal literature devoted to topical issues of institute of public service. The main concept of this article is that the institute of public service is considered by us from a systemic position. For example, the content of the concept of "state position" from the point of view of both standard the contents, and opinions of representatives of the scientific doctrine is revealed. The author's definition of the legal category "state position" is offered. Besides, various concepts of understanding of the concept "public service" are presented in article. Thus the author paid attention to the fact that earlier in the domestic legislation there was no common opinion and standard establishment of the legal category of "public service". The main signs of the state position by the legislation of the Russian Empire are given in article. It is noted that in pre-revolutionary Russia legislators had identified the concepts of "public servant" and "official". This approach, according to the author, wasn't the advantage of the pre-revolutionary legislation, testifying to the low level of legislative equipment

  3. Legal Bases for Dealing with Academic Dishonesty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricault, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    Academic dishonesty poses a threat to the goals of every educational institution. This article draws heavily from current literature and case law to provide an overview of academic dishonesty, paying particular attention to associated legal aspects, such as due process, the content and communication of policies, sanctions, prevention, and…

  4. La configuración de la ordenación legal relacionada a la financiación del gobierno brasileño hacia el deporte de elite: un análisis a partir de la Teoria de los Juegos de Norbert Elias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Moraes e Silva

    2015-11-01

    La configuración de la ordenación legal relacionada a la financiación del gobierno brasileño hacia el deporte de elite: un análisis a partir de la Teoria de los Juegos de Norbert Elias   RESUMO: O presente artigo visa mostrar quais foram as configurações que constituíram os aspectos legais relativos ao financiamento ao esporte de rendimento no Brasil. Para analisar este ordenamento jurídico tomou-se por base a teoria dos jogos de Norbert Elias, que vem como uma peça importante para a compreensão das relações de poder, nessa complexa configuração constituída às voltas do financiamento do esporte de rendimento brasileiro. A título de conclusão aponta-se que apesar de haver o investimento por parte do poder público ainda não existe uma política eficiente que possa avaliar os benefícios destes montantes no esporte de rendimento do país. Palavras-Chave: Financiamento Esportivo; Esporte Brasileiro; Poder Público; Esporte de Rendimento.   ABSTRACT: This article aims to show the settings that established the legal aspects of the funding to high performance sport in Brazil. To analyze this legal framework, we took the Game Theory of Norbert Elias as our basis, which comes as an important step to understand the power relations in this complex configuration formed around funding for Brazilian high performance sport. In conclusion, it is pointed out that although there is investment by the government, there is not an efficient policy that can evaluate the benefits of these amounts in high performance sport in the country yet. Key Words: Sports Funding; Brazilian Sport; Public Force; High Performance Sport.   RESUMEN: El objetivo del presente artículo es enseñar cuáles fueron las configuraciones que constituíran los aspectos legales relacionados a la financiación para el deporte de elite en Brasil. Para analisar esta ordenación legal se utilizó cómo base la Teoria de los Juegos de Norbert Elias, que viene cómo una importante pieza para la

  5. Patent portfolio analysis model based on legal status information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuezhao; WANG; Yajuan; ZHAO; Jing; ZHANG; Ping; ZHAO

    2014-01-01

    Purpose:This research proposes a patent portfolio analysis model based on the legal status information to chart out a competitive landscape in a particular field,enabling organizations to position themselves within the overall technology landscape.Design/methodology/approach:Three indicators were selected for the proposed model:Patent grant rate,valid patents rate and patent maintenance period.The model uses legal status information to perform a qualitative evaluation of relative values of the individual patents,countries or regions’ technological capabilities and competitiveness of patent applicants.The results are visualized by a four-quadrant bubble chart To test the effectiveness of the model,it is used to present a competitive landscape in the lithium ion battery field.Findings:The model can be used to evaluate the values of the individual patents,highlight countries or regions’ positions in the field,and rank the competitiveness of patent applicants in the field.Research limitations:The model currently takes into consideration only three legal status indicators.It is actually feasible to introduce more indicators such as the reason for invalid patents and the distribution of patent maintenance time and associate them with those in the proposed model.Practical implications:Analysis of legal status information in combination of patent application information can help an organization to spot gaps in its patent claim coverage,as well as evaluate patent quality and maintenance situation of its granted patents.The study results can be used to support technology assessment,technology innovation and intellectual property management.Originality/value:Prior studies attempted to assess patent quality or competitiveness by using either single patent legal status indicator or comparative analysis of the impacts of each indicator.However,they are insufficient in presenting the combined effects of the evaluation indicators.Using our model,it appears possible to get a

  6. Legal Issues of A Surrogacy Contract Based on Iranian Acts

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    Amir Pirouz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Assistive technologies have always opened new horizons in human's life, posed solutions to problemsand brought relief and prosperity for human beings. Iranian judicial authorities have recently recognizedthe importance of medical technologies. Accordingly, Iranian legal system has recognized surrogacy anda surrogacy contract seems unavoidable for surrogacy to be legally valid, socially acceptable andreligiously legitimate. As a legal defense of including a typical surrogacy contract in contract law, thisreview studies the four building blocks of a valid contract: the intention and consent of parties, theirlegal capacity, the subject of the contract and its legitimacy. Discussing related Iranian Acts concerningcontracts and responsibilities of parties, the authors of the present article deal with main commitmentsand responsibilities of the parties to a typical surrogacy contract: infertile couples, surrogate, fertilityclinic or medical institute, and surrogate's husband. The authors conclude that a surrogacy contract isaccepted based on article 10 of Iranian Civil Act 1928, pose some suggestions to be included in such acontract, and emphasize that a specific Act concerning surrogacy should be approved to cover rights andlegal needs of all parties to a surrogacy contract.

  7. Public assistance, drug testing, and the law: the limits of population-based legal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Player, Candice T

    2014-01-01

    In Populations, Public Health and the Law, legal scholar Wendy Parmet urges courts to embrace population-based legal analysis, a public health inspired approach to legal reasoning. Parmet contends that population-based legal analysis offers a way to analyze legal issues--not unlike law and economics--as well as a set of values from which to critique contemporary legal discourse. Population-based analysis has been warmly embraced by the health law community as a bold new way of analyzing legal issues. Still, population-based analysis is not without its problems. At times, Parmet claims too much territory for the population perspective. Moreover, Parmet urges courts to recognize population health as an important norm in legal reasoning. What should we do when the insights of public health and conventional legal reasoning conflict? Still in its infancy, population-based analysis offers little in the way of answers to these questions. This Article applies population-based legal analysis to the constitutional problems that arise when states condition public assistance benefits on passing a drug test, thereby highlighting the strengths of the population perspective and exposing its weaknesses.

  8. Framing a Knowledge Base for a Legal Expert System Dealing with Indeterminate Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araszkiewicz, Michał; Łopatkiewicz, Agata; Zienkiewicz, Adam; Zurek, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of development of formal tools for modelling legal knowledge and reasoning, the creation of a fully fledged legal decision support system remains challenging. Among those challenges, such system requires an enormous amount of commonsense knowledge to derive legal expertise. This paper describes the development of a negotiation decision support system (the Parenting Plan Support System or PPSS) to support parents in drafting an agreement (the parenting plan) for the exercise of parental custody of minor children after a divorce is granted. The main objective here is to discuss problems of framing an intuitively appealing and computationally efficient knowledge base that can adequately represent the indeterminate legal concept of the well-being of the child in the context of continental legal culture and of Polish law in particular. In addition to commonsense reasoning, interpretation of such a concept demands both legal expertise and significant professional knowledge from other domains.

  9. Framing a Knowledge Base for a Legal Expert System Dealing with Indeterminate Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araszkiewicz, Michał; Łopatkiewicz, Agata; Zienkiewicz, Adam; Zurek, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of development of formal tools for modelling legal knowledge and reasoning, the creation of a fully fledged legal decision support system remains challenging. Among those challenges, such system requires an enormous amount of commonsense knowledge to derive legal expertise. This paper describes the development of a negotiation decision support system (the Parenting Plan Support System or PPSS) to support parents in drafting an agreement (the parenting plan) for the exercise of parental custody of minor children after a divorce is granted. The main objective here is to discuss problems of framing an intuitively appealing and computationally efficient knowledge base that can adequately represent the indeterminate legal concept of the well-being of the child in the context of continental legal culture and of Polish law in particular. In addition to commonsense reasoning, interpretation of such a concept demands both legal expertise and significant professional knowledge from other domains. PMID:26495435

  10. Framing a Knowledge Base for a Legal Expert System Dealing with Indeterminate Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Araszkiewicz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite decades of development of formal tools for modelling legal knowledge and reasoning, the creation of a fully fledged legal decision support system remains challenging. Among those challenges, such system requires an enormous amount of commonsense knowledge to derive legal expertise. This paper describes the development of a negotiation decision support system (the Parenting Plan Support System or PPSS to support parents in drafting an agreement (the parenting plan for the exercise of parental custody of minor children after a divorce is granted. The main objective here is to discuss problems of framing an intuitively appealing and computationally efficient knowledge base that can adequately represent the indeterminate legal concept of the well-being of the child in the context of continental legal culture and of Polish law in particular. In addition to commonsense reasoning, interpretation of such a concept demands both legal expertise and significant professional knowledge from other domains.

  11. LEGAL BASES OF THE INSTITUTE OF PUBLIC SERVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkhireeva A. S.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article some features of legal regulation of institute of public service are considered. The analysis of the norms of the office right establishing special administrative legal status of public servants is carried out. The author investigated the considerable list of the pre-revolutionary, soviet and modern legal literature devoted to topical issues of institute of public service. The main concept of this article is that the institute of public service is considered by us from a systemacity position. For example, the content of the concept "state position" from the point of view of both standard the contents, and opinions of representatives of the scientific doctrine is opened. The author's definition of the legal category "state position" is offered. Besides, various concepts of understanding of the concept "public service" are presented in article. Thus the author paid attention that earlier in the domestic legislation there was uniform no opinion and standard establishment of the legal category "public service". The main signs of the state position by the legislation of the Russian Empire are given in article. It is noted that in pre-revolutionary Russia legislators identified the concepts "public servant" and "official". This approach, according to the author, wasn't the advantage of the pre-revolutionary legislation, testifying to the low level of legislative equipment

  12. Digital Audio Legal Recorder

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Digital Audio Legal Recorder (DALR) provides the legal recording capability between air traffic controllers, pilots and ground-based air traffic control TRACONs...

  13. Legal and methodological bases of comprehensive forensic enquiry of pornography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berdnikov D.V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article gives an analysis of the legal definition of pornography. The author identified descriptive and target criteria groups which are required for the analysis and analyses the content of descriptive criteria of pornography and the way how they should be documented. Fixing attention to the anatomical and physiological characteristics of the sexual relations is determine as necessary target criterion. It is noted that the term "pornography" is a legal and cannot be subject of expertise. That is why author underlined some methodological basis of complex psycho-linguistic and psycho-art expertise. The article presents general issue depends on expert conclusion and studies cases where the research is necessary to involve doctors, as well as criteria for expert's opinion. Besides that, author defined subject, object and main tasks of psychological studies of pornographic information.

  14. [Classification of cell-based medicinal products and legal implications: An overview and an update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Jürgen; Flory, Egbert

    2015-11-01

    In general, cell-based medicinal products do not represent a uniform class of medicinal products, but instead comprise medicinal products with diverse regulatory classification as advanced-therapy medicinal products (ATMP), medicinal products (MP), tissue preparations, or blood products. Due to the legal and scientific consequences of the development and approval of MPs, classification should be clarified as early as possible. This paper describes the legal situation in Germany and highlights specific criteria and concepts for classification, with a focus on, but not limited to, ATMPs and non-ATMPs. Depending on the stage of product development and the specific application submitted to a competent authority, legally binding classification is done by the German Länder Authorities, Paul-Ehrlich-Institut, or European Medicines Agency. On request by the applicants, the Committee for Advanced Therapies may issue scientific recommendations for classification.

  15. The use of legal knowledge-based systems in public administration: what can go wrong?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, de Hugo; Prakken, Henry; Svensson, Jörgen; Bench-Capon, Trevor J.M.; Daskalopulu, Aspassia; Winkels, Radboud

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, practical applications of legal knowledge-based systems have become increasingly common. This raises the issue of their functioning in practice and their actual influence on the quality of decisions. In this paper we investigate to what extent incorrect decisions may be caused by fa

  16. ANALYSIS OF THE REGIONAL LEGAL BASE REGULATING DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF PUBLIC PROGRAMS

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    Elena I. Dobrolyubova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The budget legislation stipulates that starting from the budget cycle of 2016, all Russian regions should form their budgets based on public (state programs. The article presents the results of the analysis of regional legal acts and regulations aimed at assessing readiness on the part of the regions to implement program budgeting practices and identifying regional specifics of such regulation. The analysis allowed to identify regional approaches to setting procedures and regulating the contents of regional public programs, evaluate the relations between program development and regional budget planning procedures, define specific approaches to monitoring and evaluating performance of regional public programs.

  17. Doenças asbesto-relacionadas

    OpenAIRE

    Terra Filho,Mário; Freitas,Jefferson Benedito Pires de; Nery, Luiz Eduardo [UNIFESP

    2006-01-01

    Apresenta-se uma revisão bibliográfica das doenças asbesto-relacionadas. São discutidos e atualizados os critérios diagnósticos, as características radiológicas, tomográficas e funcionais das alterações benignas de pleura, da asbestose, do câncer de pulmão ocupacional e do mesotelioma maligno de pleura.

  18. Abort or retry — A role for legal knowledge based systems in electronic service delivery?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenes, Ronald; Wimmer, Maria A.

    2003-01-01

    Electronic service delivery is closely tied to legal decision making. Legal decision making is by nature complicated. It involves the (strict) application of rules, but it also inevitably leaves room for discretion. If the ambition of electronic service delivery is taken seriously, this means that (

  19. Keeping Kids Safe from a Design Perspective: Ethical and Legal Guidelines for Designing a Video-Based App for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zydney, Janet Mannheimer; Hooper, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Educators can use video to gain invaluable information about their students. A concern is that collecting videos online can create an increased security risk for children. The purpose of this article is to provide ethical and legal guidelines for designing video-based apps for mobile devices and the web. By reviewing the literature, law, and code…

  20. Corpus-based critical discourse analysis as a method of exploring underlying ideologies and self-representation strategies in legal texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Potts, Amanda; Kjær, Anne Lise

    bodies of legal language are relatively rare, but extremely culturally relevant. Legal descriptions of crimes/perpetrators/victims are powerful and sometimes subjectively skewed. Further, self-representation of powerful legal bodies and their conceptualizations of ‘success’ and ‘failure’ in establishing......Legal language is an integral and foundational party of our social reality, but it is underrepresented in interdisciplinary, critical linguistic analyses. This is perhaps because language is more objective and formulaic than media texts, which can be more subjective and emotive (Kjær and Palsbro......, 2008). In this paper, I demonstrate how a corpus-based critical discourse analysis of legal language can expose hidden traces of the underlying ideologies of text creators, while demonstrating how identity can be performed in legal texts. Research is based on a half-million-word corpus of annual...

  1. Legal Hybrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Janne Rothmar

    2009-01-01

    The article discusses the inadequacy of traditional theory on legal personhood in relation to embryos and foetuses. To challenge the somewhat binary view of legal personhood according to which the ‘born alive' criterion is paramount the article demonstrates that the number of legal categories...... in which embryos and foetuses are placed are much more complex. These categories are identified using Danish legislation as an example and on that basis the article extracts and identifies the different parameters that play a part in the legal categorisation of the human conceptus....

  2. Legal Requirements for Human-Health based appeals of Wind Energy Projects in Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Michael Engel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2009 the government of the province of Ontario, Canada passed new legislation to promote the development of renewable energy facilities, including wind energy facilities in the province. Throughout the legislative process, concerns were raised with respect to the effect of wind energy facilities on human health. Ultimately, the government established setbacks and sound level limits for wind energy facilities and provided Ontario residents with the right to appeal the approval of a wind energy facility on the ground that engaging in the facility in accordance with its approval will cause serious harm to human health. The first approval of a wind facility under the new legislation was issued in 2010 and since then, Ontario’s Environmental Review Tribunal as well as Ontario’s courts have been considering evidence proffered by appellants seeking revocation of approvals on the basis of serious harm to human health. To date, the evidence has been insufficient to support the revocation of a wind facility approval. This article reviews the legal basis for the dismissal of human-health based appeals.

  3. Legal Requirements for Human-Health Based Appeals of Wind Energy Projects in Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Albert M.

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, the government of the province of Ontario, Canada passed new legislation to promote the development of renewable energy facilities, including wind energy facilities in the province. Throughout the legislative process, concerns were raised with respect to the effect of wind energy facilities on human health. Ultimately, the government established setbacks and sound level limits for wind energy facilities and provided Ontario residents with the right to appeal the approval of a wind energy facility on the ground that engaging in the facility in accordance with its approval will cause serious harm to human health. The first approval of a wind facility under the new legislation was issued in 2010 and since then, Ontario’s Environmental Review Tribunal as well as Ontario’s courts has been considering evidence proffered by appellants seeking revocation of approvals on the basis of serious harm to human health. To date, the evidence has been insufficient to support the revocation of a wind facility approval. This article reviews the legal basis for the dismissal of human-health based appeals. PMID:25520946

  4. Legal requirements for human-health based appeals of wind energy projects in ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Albert M

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, the government of the province of Ontario, Canada passed new legislation to promote the development of renewable energy facilities, including wind energy facilities in the province. Throughout the legislative process, concerns were raised with respect to the effect of wind energy facilities on human health. Ultimately, the government established setbacks and sound level limits for wind energy facilities and provided Ontario residents with the right to appeal the approval of a wind energy facility on the ground that engaging in the facility in accordance with its approval will cause serious harm to human health. The first approval of a wind facility under the new legislation was issued in 2010 and since then, Ontario's Environmental Review Tribunal as well as Ontario's courts has been considering evidence proffered by appellants seeking revocation of approvals on the basis of serious harm to human health. To date, the evidence has been insufficient to support the revocation of a wind facility approval. This article reviews the legal basis for the dismissal of human-health based appeals.

  5. Social networks and health-related quality of life: a population based study among older adults Redes sociales y calidad de vida relacionada a la salud: un estudio de base poblacional en adultos mayores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Gallegos-Carrillo

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between components of social networks and health-related quality of life (HRQL in older adults with and without depressive symptoms. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Comparative cross-sectional study with data from the cohort study "Integral Study of Depression", carried out in Mexico City during 2004. The sample was selected through a multi-stage probability design. HRQL was measured with the SF-36. Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS and the Short Anxiety Screening Test (SAST determined depressive symptoms and anxiety. T-test and multiple linear regressions were conducted. RESULTS: Older adults with depressive symptoms had the lowest scores in all HRQL scales. A larger network of close relatives and friends was associated with better HRQL on several scales. Living alone did not significantly affect HRQL level, in either the study or comparison group. CONCLUSIONS: A positive association between some components of social networks and good HRQL exists even in older adults with depressive symptoms.OBJETIVO: Examinar la relación entre componentes de redes sociales y calidad de vida relacionada con la salud (CVRS de adultos mayores con o sin síntomas depresivos. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal comparativo con datos de la cohorte "Estudio Integral de Depresión", realizado en la Ciudad de México en 2004. La muestra fue seleccionada por diseño probabilístico multietápico. La CVRS se midió con SF-36, mientras que Geriatric Depression Scale y Short Anxiety Screening Test determinaron síntomas de depresión y ansiedad. El análisis consistió de prueba T y regresiones lineales múltiples. RESULTADOS: Ancianos con síntomas de depresión reportaron puntuaciones más bajas en todas las escalas de CVRS; una red más grande de familiares y amigos se asoció con mejor CVRS en varias escalas. Vivir solo no afectó la CVRS en grupos de estudio y comparación. CONCLUSIONES: Existe una asociación positiva de algunos

  6. Legal Institutions and Economic Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, T.H.L.

    2010-01-01

    Legal institutions are critical for the development of market-based economies. This paper defines legal institutions and discusses different indicators to measure their quality and efficiency. It surveys a large historical and empirical literature showing the importance of legal institutions in expl

  7. Alternativas terapêuticas para o tratamento da degeneração macular relacionada à idade: um desafio para a saúde pública

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Cenci Guimarães

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A degeneração macular relacionada à idade (DMRI é uma das maiores causas de redução da capacidade laborativa, devida à perda da visão central e evolução para cegueira legal, impossibilitando inclusive atividades básicas como ler, escrever, cozinhar, dirigir e reconhecer a fisionomia de pessoas. A incidência desta doença vem aumentando significativamente nos últimos anos e são muitas as dúvidas sobre a escolha do tratamento mais adequado. O objetivo desta revisão é apresentar a fisiopatologia da DMRI e discutir as dificuldades do tratamento desta doença, relacionadas principalmente às vias de administração de fármacos e à escolha do procedimento clínico. Neste contexto, o uso da terapia antiangiogênica na DMRI parece ser, atualmente, o tratamento mais eficaz, devido a sua alta especificidade, pois atua de forma direta no desequilíbrio entre os fatores pró e antiangiogênicos. Entretanto, com base nas evidências atuais, o grande desafio para a saúde pública ainda está na prevenção desta doença e em seu diagnostico precoce.

  8. A Corpus-based Comparative Study of Ideational Grammatical Metaphor in Marine Engineering and Maritime Legal Regulation English

    OpenAIRE

    Xuehua Wu; Xueying Cai

    2016-01-01

    Grammatical metaphor is one of the language phenomena introduced by Halliday (2004) in the framework of functional grammar. This paper used Halliday’s metafunctional framework in marine engineering and maritime legal regulation English discourses under Prichard’s category (2003) of English for occupational purposes and English for academic purposes respectively. The analysis of data was conducted through a description of English occupational and academic texts, based on grammatical metaphor. ...

  9. Legal English Vocabulary and Its Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Kuang-zheng

    2016-01-01

    There are differences between legal English and general English. Legal English relates to the legal profession. Law needs to maintain the impression of seriousness, standardization, accuracy and objectiveness, and as a result, legal English also has these characteristics. Compared to general everyday English, the application of legal English vocabulary requires consider-ation of these characteristics. In the translation of legal content, attention is also needed to be paid to the characteristics of foren-sic linguistics. Standardized legal terms are used in the translation of legal regulations and other content to keep the characteris-tics of faithfulness, accuracy, smoothness and consistency. In this paper, legal English vocabulary is discussed based on its char-acteristics, as well as the method of translation of legal content. For practical translation of legal English, translation methods in-clude literal translation, free translation and addition and omission. These methods are briefly discussed in this paper.

  10. Legal English Vocabulary and Its Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Kuang zheng

    2016-01-01

    There are differences between legal English and general English. Legal English relates to the legal profession. Law needs to maintain the impression of seriousness, standardization, accuracy and objectiveness, and as a result, legal English also has these characteristics. Compared to general everyday English, the application of legal English vocabulary requires consideration of these characteristics. In the translation of legal content, attention is also needed to be paid to the characteristics of forensic linguistics. Standardized legal terms are used in the translation of legal regulations and other content to keep the characteristics of faithfulness, accuracy, smoothness and consistency. In this paper, legal English vocabulary is discussed based on its characteristics, as well as the method of translation of legal content. For practical translation of legal English, translation methods include literal translation, free translation and addition and omission. These methods are briefly discussed in this paper.

  11. A Corpus-based Comparative Study of Ideational Grammatical Metaphor in Marine Engineering and Maritime Legal Regulation English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuehua Wu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Grammatical metaphor is one of the language phenomena introduced by Halliday (2004 in the framework of functional grammar. This paper used Halliday’s metafunctional framework in marine engineering and maritime legal regulation English discourses under Prichard’s category (2003 of English for occupational purposes and English for academic purposes respectively. The analysis of data was conducted through a description of English occupational and academic texts, based on grammatical metaphor. The researcher conducted some statistical analysis, including frequency and percentage of ideational grammatical metaphor and its different processes of transitivity in both genres. Finally, two genres of English texts were compared statistically to show in what aspect they are significantly different or similar. The results obtained indicate that the two genres bear more similarities than differences in terms of using the nominalization of ideational grammatical metaphor. In other words, while indicating genre differences, the study proves their functional similarities in using the material process types more than other process types to convey meaning, however marine engineering English applies a little less frequency of material and relational process. Some behavior process types were found in marine engineering English texts but no behavior processes were found in marine legal English. Maritime legal English applies small amount of existential process and mental process while in marine engineering English these two types of process were not found. Both genres apply ideational metaphor to condense the information and increase the complexity of sentence structure. Keywords:  ideational grammatical metaphor, nominalization, process, marine engineering English, maritime legal regulation English

  12. Biomarcadores en enfermedades relacionadas con el sistema nervioso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elso Manuel Cruz Cruz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de biomarcadores, o marcadores biológicos para el diagnóstico y seguimiento al tratamiento de enfermedades, constituye referente frecuente en la literatura científica biomédica actual. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica empleando los recursos disponibles en la red Infomed, específicamente Ebsco, The Cochrane Librery, PubMed, Hinari y SciELO, a través de los cuales se accedieron a las bases de datos: MEDLINE, Academic Search Premier, MedicLatina y Scopus. Se recopilaron varios artículos científicos, donde se hace referencia al empleo de biomarcadores en el diagnóstico de enfermedades relacionadas con el sistema nervioso. El factor de crecimiento endotelial, la inmunoglobulina G (IgG y el sistema arginina - óxido nítrico - citrulina, se refieren como indicadores prematuros de la hemorragia subaracnoidea. La disminución del amiloide beta y el aumento de las concentraciones de proteína tau en el líquido cefalorraquídeo, se cuentan entre los biomarcadores más prometedores e informativos que indiquen precozmente el Alzheimer y otras enfermedades neurodegenerativas. Estos mismos marcadores se comportan de manera contraria a nivel plasmático. La copeptina es un biomarcador fácilmente medible, que refleja la situación de estrés a la que está sometido el organismo y se propone su uso en el diagnóstico del síndrome de Burnout; además, niveles aumentados de α-amilasa y cromogranina A (CgA salivales pueden también ser utilizadas como indicadores de este síndrome. Se logró recoger en este artículo un compendio de ejemplos de marcadores biológicos, utilizados en el diagnóstico de enfermedades relacionadas de alguna forma con el sistema nervioso

  13. Legal terminology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the chapter is to study the concept of paraphrase developed by Simonnæs for describing textual elements directed at non-experts in court decisions and intended to give insight into the legal argumentation of the court. Following a discussion of the concept of paraphrase I will study tw...

  14. Killing by organ procurement: brain-based death and legal fictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veatch, Robert M

    2015-06-01

    The dead donor rule (DDR) governs procuring life-prolonging organs. They should be taken only from deceased donors. Miller and Truog have proposed abandoning the rule when patients have decided to forgo life-sustaining treatment and have consented to procurement. Organs could then be procured from living patients, thus killing them by organ procurement. This proposal warrants careful examination. They convincingly argue that current brain or circulatory death pronouncement misidentifies the biologically dead. After arguing convincingly that physicians already cause death by withdrawing treatment, they claim no bright-line differences preclude organ removal from the living. The argument fails for those who accept the double effect doctrine or other grounds for distinguishing forgoing life support from active, intentional killing. If the goal is determining irreversible loss of somatic function, they correctly label current death pronouncement a "legal fiction." Recognizing a second, public policy meaning of the term death provides grounds for maintaining the DDR without jeopardizing procurement.

  15. Legal Ice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandsbjerg, Jeppe

    The idealised land|water dichotomy is most obviously challenged by ice when ‘land practice’ takes place on ice or when ‘maritime practice’ is obstructed by ice. Both instances represent disparity between the legal codification of space and its social practice. Logically, then, both instances call...... for alternative legal thought and practice; in the following I will emphasise the former and reflect upon the relationship between ice, law and politics. Prior to this workshop I had worked more on the relationship between cartography, geography and boundaries than specifically on ice. Listening to all...... the interesting conversations during the workshop, however, made me think that much of the concern with the Polar Regions in general, and the presence of ice in particular, reverberates around the question of how to accommodate various geographical presences and practices within the regulatory framework that we...

  16. Identification of policies for a sustainable legal trade in rhinoceros horn based on population projection and socioeconomic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Minin, Enrico; Laitila, Jussi; Montesino-Pouzols, Federico; Leader-Williams, Nigel; Slotow, Rob; Goodman, Peter S; Conway, Anthony J; Moilanen, Atte

    2015-01-01

    Between 1990 and 2007, 15 southern white (Ceratotherium simum simum) and black (Diceros bicornis) rhinoceroses on average were killed illegally every year in South Africa. Since 2007 illegal killing of southern white rhinoceros for their horn has escalated to >950 individuals/year in 2013. We conducted an ecological–economic analysis to determine whether a legal trade in southern white rhinoceros horn could facilitate rhinoceros protection. Generalized linear models were used to examine the socioeconomic drivers of poaching, based on data collected from 1990 to 2013, and to project the total number of rhinoceroses likely to be illegally killed from 2014 to 2023. Rhinoceros population dynamics were then modeled under 8 different policy scenarios that could be implemented to control poaching. We also estimated the economic costs and benefits of each scenario under enhanced enforcement only and a legal trade in rhinoceros horn and used a decision support framework to rank the scenarios with the objective of maintaining the rhinoceros population above its current size while generating profit for local stakeholders. The southern white rhinoceros population was predicted to go extinct in the wild plan de manejo y el comercio legal de cuerno de rinoceronte y usamos un marco de trabajo de apoyo a decisiones para ordenar los escenarios con el objetivo de mantener la población de rinocerontes por encima de su tamaño actual mientras se generan ganancias para los accionistas locales. Se predijo que la población de rinocerontes sureños blancos se extinguiría en menos de 20 años bajo el manejo actual. El escenario óptimo para mantener la población de rinocerontes por encima de su tamaño actual fue el de proporcionar un incremento mediano en el esfuerzo contra la caza furtiva e incrementar la multa monetaria de la condena. Sin legalizar el mercado, implementar tal escenario requeriría cubrir costos de aproximadamente $147, 000, 000 al año. Con un comercio legal de

  17. DOCTRINAL BASICS OF THE LEGAL TECHNIQUE: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS WITHIN THE EUROPEAN LEGAL FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Malko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The legal technique was initially developed as a kind of “interpreter” for the legislative will in the legal language using a specific ingenuity of legal engineering. Historically, the theoretical base of the legal technique was formed on a phased basis, essentially stimulated by state reforms, social transformations, and active legislation systematization. It should be mentioned here that legal technique is a distinctive category reflecting the political, economic, and legal situation in the historical period of a certain state development, but being extra-national in itself.The resource harmonization of the legal technique within the European legal framework means norm-setting regulations, coordination, and elaboration of common recommendations for the European countries. The cooperation in the legal technique standards harmonization will require the all-European cooperation to the new level as far as legal standards, human rights, democratic development, legitimacy and cultural cooperation are concerned.

  18. La construcción de estereotipos en base a inmigrantes "legales" e "ilegales" en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Sabarots

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available La propuesta del presente trabajo es extraer algunas reflexiones comparativas a partir de investigaciones de tipo antropológico realizadas sucesivamente sobre los inmigrantes japoneses y sus descendientes a la Argentina y posteriormente sobre inmigrantes de otros países latinoamericanos (bolivianos. Estas investigaciones se realizaron en el transcurso de las décadas de los 80's y 90's respectivamente, lo que nos permite explorar la incidencia de los cambios estructurales neoliberales en el imaginario social sobre los inmigrantes. El centro de interés es mostrar la construcción diferencial de estereotipos de acuerdo con la procedencia de los inmigrantes, que tiene sin duda componentes racistas. Tal construcción imaginaria diferencial, a saber inmigrantes "legales", deseados e inmigrantes "ilegales", indeseables, es coherente con la ideología racista y en general con el funcionamiento de los prejuicios que requieren de una mirada jerárquica de la humanidad (en sentido biológico y cultural. Se propone una interpretación que sin perder de vista la especificidad de los procesos de estigmatización, analice el racismo y los prejuicios en general como construcciones dinámicas, que se relacionan tanto con las coyunturas históricas (en nuestro caso crisis de los '80 y neoliberalismo de los '90 como con los mitos de origen de la nación argentina, como país abierto a la inmigración, "crisol de razas"; discurso encubridor de una ideología del progreso que incluye a unos colectivos y excluye a otros.This paper is a comparative study of anthropological research on Japanese immigrants to Argentina and their descendents, and immigrants from other Latin American countries (fundamentally Bolivians. Research took place during the 1980s and 1990s, respectively, which enables the impact of neoliberal structural changes on the social imaginary around immigrants to be explored. The central point is to show the differential construction of stereotypes

  19. Legal Knowledge and Agility in Public Administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Boer; T. van Engers

    2013-01-01

    To address agility in public administration, we have developed a knowledge acquisition infrastructure for legal knowledge, based on an implementation-oriented conceptualization of the legal system. Our objective is to reframe legal knowledge as a knowledge source in a design-oriented task ontology,

  20. The Bald And Golden Eagle Protection Act, Species-Based Legal Protection And The Danger Of Misidentification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann C Knobel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act of 1940 bestows legal protection on two North American eagle species in the United States of America. The Act was originally aimed at the legal protection of only one species: the Bald Eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus, the national symbol of the USA. Later the Act was amended to extend protection also to the Golden Eagle Aquila chrysaetos. The Bald Eagle was an Endangered Species, but the Golden Eagle was not formally listed as Endangered nationwide in the USA. One of the reasons for extending legal protection to the Golden Eagle under the Act was to strengthen the legal protection of the Bald Eagle, because immature Bald Eagles were being misidentified as Golden Eagles and shot. Additional factors relating to Golden Eagle mortality also made legal protection of the Golden Eagle desirable. The danger that a rare and legally protected species can be misidentified and mistaken for a more common and unprotected species can therefore serve as a reason for bestowing legal protection on the more common species as well. Other factors may also indicate that legal protection of the more common species is desirable, making the case more compelling. If this line of reasoning is applied in respect of South African birds of prey, a strong case can be made in favour of extending legal protection under the national biodiversity legislation to more species than the small number of species currently enjoying such protection. Species that are listed as Vulnerable under South African national biodiversity legislation may be misidentified as species that are not subject to such protection. Additional factors are also present that make such an extension of legal protection desirable.

  1. Legal, ethical, and procedural bases for the use of aseptic techniques to implant electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahy, Daniel M.

    2013-01-01

    animals often mask the signs of infection to avoid attracting predators (Wobeser 2006). Guidance specific to sterilization of electronic devices for implantation is limited in the wildlife record (Burger et al. 1994; Mulcahy 2003). Few biologists have been formally trained in aseptic technique, but most biologists know that electronic devices should be treated in some way to reduce the chance for infection of the host animal by bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi. Most biologists (73%) who implant devices into fishes believe aseptic techniques are important (Wagner and Cooke 2005). However, I maintain that many biologists find it difficult to place the concept of asepsis into practice in their work because of confusion about what constitutes aseptic technique, a lack of surgical knowledge and training, the perception of increased costs, or the belief that aseptic surgeries are impractical or unnecessary for their application. Some have even argued that, while compromising surgical techniques in the field might result in complications or mortalities, the money saved would allow for a compensatory increase in sample size (Anderson and Talcott 2006). In this paper I define aseptic surgical techniques, document the legal and professional guidance for performing aseptic surgeries on wild animals, and present options for sterilizing electronic devices and surgical instruments for field use.

  2. Infecções relacionadas à assistência a saúde baseada em critérios internacionais, realizada em unidade neonatal de cuidados progressivos de referência de Belo Horizonte, MG Notification of healthcare associated infections based on international criteria performed in a reference neonatal progressive care unity in Belo Horizonte, MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Maia de Castro Romanelli

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a ocorrência de infecções relacionadas à assistência à saúde em uma unidade neonatal de serviço público de referência em Belo Horizonte, MG, baseando-se em critérios internacionais. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de estudo descritivo, realizado por busca ativa, na Unidade Neonatal de Cuidados Progressivos do Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (HC/UFMG, de 2008 a 2009. A notificação de infecções baseou-se nos critérios do National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN. O banco de dados e análise foi realizado em programa interno do serviço. RESULTADOS: Foram notificados 325 episódios de infecção nos recém-nascidos, com densidade de incidência de 22,8/1.000 pacientes-dia e incidência proporcional geral de infecção de 36,7%. A sepse foi a principal infecção (62,5% notificada. A densidade de incidência de infecções foi maior em neonatos com peso menor que 750g (42,4/1.000 pacientes-dia. Observou-se 18,15 episódios de Sepse Relacionada a Cateter/1.000 Cateter Venoso Central-dia e 19,29/1.000 episódios de Sepse Relacionada a Cateter Umbilical/1.000 Cateter umbilical-dia. Em 122 (37,5% casos de infecção notificada houve isolamento de microorganismos, predominando Staphylococcus coagulase negativo e Staphylococcus aureus (51 casos. A mortalidade e letalidade foram 4,3% e 17,12%, respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: A utilização de critérios padronizados para notificação de infecções é necessária para a construção de indicadores em neonatologia, que são escassos no país e ressaltam a necessidade de avaliação dos critérios nacionais propostos pela Agencia Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA. OBJECTIVE: To describe occurence of Healthcare Related Infections in a neonatal unit of public reference service in Belo Horizonte-MG, based on international criteria. METHODS: This is a descriptive study, performed by active searching, in the Progressive Care Unit Neonatal Hospital das

  3. On Danish Legal Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaumburg-Müller, Sten

    2014-01-01

    On the basis on 1) the Danish legal writer A.S.Ørsted (1778-1860) and 2) an enquete among present day Danish legal scholars, the contribution deals with special traits in Danish legal method......On the basis on 1) the Danish legal writer A.S.Ørsted (1778-1860) and 2) an enquete among present day Danish legal scholars, the contribution deals with special traits in Danish legal method...

  4. Hipoventilação relacionada ao sono Sleep hypoventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Maria Guimarães Pereira Togeiro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Tanto SHO como as doenças neuromusculares estão relacionadas à hipoventilação durante o sono. Define-se SHO como a combinação de obesidade, hipercapnia e hipoxemia crônica durante a vigília que se agrava durante o sono. Em 90% dos casos, SHO está associada à apneia obstrutiva do sono. O diagnóstico baseia-se na presença de hipoventilação diurna e hipertensão pulmonar que não são justificadas por alterações da função pulmonar. A mortalidade dos pacientes com SHO é maior que aquela de pacientes sem hipoventilação e controlados para obesidade. As doenças neuromusculares são representadas principalmente pelas distrofias musculares. A progressão para insuficiência respiratória crônica surge como consequência da fraqueza dos músculos respiratórios e da limpeza inadequada das vias aéreas, causando atelectasias e pneumonias. Quando há uma redução maior que 50% da forca muscular respiratória, ocorre uma diminuição na CV. A medida do pico de fluxo da tosse Sleep hypoventilation is seen in patients with neuromuscular disease, as well as in those with obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS, which is defined as the combination of obesity, chronic hypercapnia, and hypoxemia during wakefulness that is aggravated during sleep. In 90% of cases, OHS is accompanied by obstructive sleep apnea. The diagnosis of OHS is based on hypoventilation and pulmonary hypertension that cannot be explained by alterations in pulmonary function. The mortality of patients with OHS is greater than is that of obese patients without hypoventilation. The principal neuromuscular diseases associated with OHS are the muscular dystrophies. The progression to chronic respiratory failure results from respiratory muscle weakness and impaired airway secretion clearance, causing atelectasis and pneumonia. With a decrease of greater than 50% in respiratory muscle strength, there is a reduction in VC. Cough peak flow < 160 L/min is associated with impaired

  5. Problem-Based Learning: An Exercise on Vermont's Legalization of Civil Unions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Susan M.; Hurlbert, Janet McNeil

    2004-01-01

    The majority of literature regarding problem-based learning demonstrates its usefulness as a teaching technique in the natural sciences curriculum. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, the broad purpose is to illustrate the application of problem-based learning for instructing students about controversial issues in sociology. Within the…

  6. PRODUÇÃO CIENTÍFICA RELACIONADA À SATISFAÇÃO EM CURSOS ONLINE: Análise Bibliométrica de Artigos da Base Web of Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Edy Dagnoni Mondini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to analyze the scientific literature related to satisfaction in online courses. Through a bibliometric analysis, articles published from 2009 to 2014 relating to the terms "satisfaction" and "online courses" were found in the research base Web of Science. 25 articles were analyzed using the criteria: (i countries of publications; (ii authors; (iii amount of publications per author; (iv number of citations in the research base; (v content; (vi methodology; (vii variables of satisfaction measurement (viii conclusions; (ix suggestions for future research. The results showed a concentration of US research on the topic and a preponderance of quantitative methods of data collection and analysis. The variables most connected to online course satisfaction were: the student / teacher interaction, the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs and the behavioral characteristics of students such as self-confidence and anxiety. In general, the articles indicated that the speed and quality of feedback provided by teachers, environment with good instructional design and self-confidence to study alone and use technology are fundamental to the satisfaction of students in online courses.

  7. Legal reality of Russia: constants and variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Valeryevich Skorobogatov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to develop the sciencebased knowledge about essential and substantial aspects of the current legal reality of Russia in the context of postclassical paradigm. Methods the methodological basis of this research is the synthesis of classical and postclassical paradigms that determine the choice of specific methods of research formallegal comparative legal modeling method hermeneutic discursive methods. Results basing on the postclassical methodology it is proved that the legal reality of Russia consists of three levels legislation law enforcement and legal behavior. The determinant level of legal reality is legal behavior that is aimed at observing the unwritten rules. The legal reality of Russia is characterized by a transgressive state of the modern Russian society expressed in broad application of nonlegislative nonlegal practices low level of legal culture legal nihilism and legal infantilism. Scientific novelty the article for the first time analyzes the ontological and phenomenological essence of the legal reality in Russia and determines its transgressive nature at the present stage of development. Practical value the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific and pedagogical activity when considering questions about the nature and content of legal development. nbsp

  8. Legal English and Adapted Legal Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvyda Liuolienė

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article aims at analysing the significance of authentic legal English text and adapted legal texts in ESP classes. The authors point out the advantages and disadvantages of legal texts and analyse the possibilities of their efficient application in the teaching process. At the initial stage of teaching English legalese, materials prepared specially for teaching purposes in textbooks seem to be more appropriate as they are adapted for a particular level for law students whereas in more advanced levels, authentic texts in a legal English classroom can more considerably contribute to the learning experience. The usage of both legal authentic materials and adapted legal texts have tangible impact on mastering legal English.

  9. Cell-based veterinary pharmaceuticals – Basic legal parameters set by the veterinary pharmaceutical law and the genetic engineering law of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Faltus

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cell-based therapies have been in use in veterinary medicine for years. However, the legal requirement of manufacturing, placing on the market and use of cell-based veterinary pharmaceuticals are not as well developed as the respective requirements of chemical pharmaceuticals. Cell-based veterinary pharmaceuticals are medicinal products in the sense of the pharmaceutical law of the European Union (EU. For that reason, such medicinal products principally require official approval for their manufacture and an official marketing authorisation for their placement on the market before being used by the veterinarian. The manufacture, placing on the market and use of cell-based veterinary pharmaceuticals without manufacturing approval and marketing authorisation is permitted only in certain exceptional cases determined by EU and individual Member State law. Violations of this requirement may have consequences for the respective veterinarian under criminal law and under the code of professional conduct in the respective Member State. The regular use of cell-based veterinary pharmaceuticals within the scope of a therapeutic emergency as well as the import of such veterinary pharmaceuticals from non-European countries for use in the EU are currently out of the question in the EU because of a lack of legal bases. Here, we review the general legal requirement of manufacturing, placing on the market and use of cell-based veterinary pharmaceuticals within the EU and point out different implementations of EU law within the different Member States.

  10. The legal aspects of a location-based mobile advertising platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beatrix Cleff, Evelyn; Gidofalvi, Gyozo

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in Information and Communication Technology (ICT), such as the increasing accuracy of Global Positioning Systems (GPSs) technology and the miniaturisation of wireless communication devices, pave the road for Location-Based Services (LBSs). Among these services, m-advertising...... is predicted to represent a high-yield revenue stream. In this article, the possibilities of using a Location-Aware Mobile Messenger (LAMM) for the purpose of m-advertising is introduced. To avoid m-advertising becoming an extremely intrusive practice by neglecting the user's privacy, the objective...... of this article is to introduce a location-based advertising platform which complies with the provisions imposed by European Union (EU) law with regard to personal data protection....

  11. Legal Philosophy - Five Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential.......This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential....

  12. Interface Entre Obesos Severos e Atividade Laboral Relacionada a Alimentos

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    A obesidade é uma doença multifatorial e envolve um grande número de determinantes na sua etiologia. O preconceito social a que o obeso é submetido pode ser mais prejudicial do que os problemas de saúde decorrentes da “doença”. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a interface entre obesos severos e a atividade laboral relacionada a alimentos. Trata-se de uma pesquisa do tipo transversal, descritiva e documental, que envolve indivíduos de ambos os sexos, portadores de obesidade severa cadast...

  13. The Methods of Constructing the Legal Support System for the Returning-home Migrant Workers’ Entrepreneurship——Based on the Perspective of Economic Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Based on the overview of concept of returning-home migrant workers’ entrepreneurship,the thesis has introduced the features of migrant workers’ entrepreneurship,as against other types of entrepreneurship,as follows. Starting from a low base and multi-level perspective;conducting entrepreneurship in manifold industries,mainly in those labor-intensive enterprises;conspicuous mutual interaction and reversibility are embodied in the group characteristics;the strong driving force of returning-home migrant workers’ entrepreneurship comes from their affection for hometown. The process of returning-home migrant workers’ entrepreneurship can be divided into three stages,namely returning rush,investing rush,and entrepreneurship rush,on which we give the analysis respectively in terms of the continuous change of social mobility,transformation on the part of the main body of entrepreneurship,and the expansion of industry field concerning entrepreneurship. More over,we have discussed the methods of constructing the legal support system for the returning-home migrant workers’ entrepreneurship. Firstly,it needs institutionalization,which is the basis of constructing the legal support system for the returning-home migrant workers’ entrepreneurship;secondly,it needs definite guiding ideology as the premise of constructing the legal support system for the returning-home migrant workers’ entrepreneurship;thirdly,it needs the precise orientation of target group as the key of constructing the legal support system for the returning-home migrant workers’ entrepreneurship;finally,appropriate support methods are the pivot of constructing the legal support system for the returning-home migrant workers’ entrepreneurship.

  14. The Legal Ethical Backbone of Conscientious Refusal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munthe, Christian; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    2017-01-01

    This article analyzes the idea of a legal right to conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals from a basic legal ethical standpoint, using refusal to perform tasks related to legal abortion (in cases of voluntary employment) as a case in point. The idea of a legal right to conscientious...... refusal is distinguished from ideas regarding moral rights or reasons related to conscientious refusal, and none of the latter are found to support the notion of a legal right. Reasons for allowing some sort of room for conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals based on the importance of cultural...... identity and the fostering of a critical atmosphere might provide some support, if no countervailing factors apply. One such factor is that a legal right to healthcare professionals’ conscientious refusal must comply with basic legal ethical tenets regarding the rule of law and equal treatment...

  15. The users of legal information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Assis Pinho

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The decision making needs must be based on current and reliable information, especially in legal environments. In Brazil, the changes in legislation are constants because of the enactments of the provisional measures. In this sense, it is necessary to know the sources and changes to satisfy the needs of users of legal area. Therefore, through an exploratory research, it aimed to do a user study, experts on legal aspects in the law library of the Regional Procurator of the Republic of the 5th Region (Brazil, which is a unit belonging to Brazil's Federal Public Ministry, with the use of a questionnaire as data collection tool. The results shows that users of legal information is more demanding and expert in their search and uses various sources, because their information needs has a high degree of difficulty.

  16. Defining Legal Moralism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Jens Damgaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses how legal moralism should be defined. It is argued that legal moralism should be defined as the position that “For any X, it is always a pro tanto reason for justifiably imposing legal regulation on X that X is morally wrong (where “morally wrong” is not conceptually equivalent...... to “harmful”)”. Furthermore, a distinction between six types of legal moralism is made. The six types are grouped according to whether they are concerned with the enforcement of positive or critical morality, and whether they are concerned with criminalising, legally restricting, or refraining from legally...... protecting morally wrong behaviour. This is interesting because not all types of legal moralism are equally vulnerable to the different critiques of legal moralism that have been put forth. Indeed, I show that some interesting types of legal moralism have not been criticised at all....

  17. Defining Legal Moralism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Jens Damgaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses how legal moralism should be defined. It is argued that legal moralism should be defined as the position that “For any X, it is always a pro tanto reason for justifiably imposing legal regulation on X that X is morally wrong (where “morally wrong” is not conceptually equivalent...

  18. Degeneração macular relacionada à idade: novas perspectivas Age-related macular degeneration: new perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Bittar Nehemy

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A degeneração macular relacionada à idade (DMRI é a principal causa de cegueira legal em indivíduos acima de 50 anos de idade. Embora estudos recentes tenham mostrado que o fator genético é significativo, a patogênese da degeneração macular relacionada à idade permanece obscura, e os fatores de risco não estão ainda completamente estabelecidos. Estudos multicêntricos randomizados, publicados nos últimos anos, demonstraram que uma combinação de vitaminas e minerais é eficaz na redução do risco de desenvolvimento de neovascularização e de progressão para os estágios mais avançados da degeneração macular relacionada à idade. De maneira análoga, a terapia fotodinâmica (PDT e a terapia antiangiogênica também tiveram sua eficácia comprovada no tratamento de membrana neovascular coroideana subfoveal associada à degeneração macular relacionada à idade. Ambas reduzem o risco de perda de visão e, eventualmente, permitem melhora temporária da acuidade visual. Outras modalidades de tratamento, tais como fotocoagulação a laser, remoção cirúrgica da membrana e termoterapia transpupilar (TTT, podem beneficiar apenas um pequeno subgrupo de pacientes. Uma melhor compreensão dos mecanismos fisiopatológicos e dos eventos moleculares nas diversas fases da doença deverão propiciar, em futuro próximo, melhores estratégias para o controle e tratamento da degeneração macular relacionada à idade.Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD is a major source of legal blindness in individuals older than 50 years. Even though recent reports suggest that genetics plays an important role, its pathogenesis remains puzzling and the risk factors for its occurrence are not completely established. Vitamin and mineral supplementation reduced the risk of development of choroidal neovascularization (CNV or progression to the most advanced stages of age-related macular degeneration. Photodynamic therapy (PDT and antiangiogenic therapy

  19. Identification of policies for a sustainable legal trade in rhinoceros horn based on population projection and socioeconomic models

    OpenAIRE

    Di Minin, Enrico; Laitila, Jussi; Montesino-Pouzols, Federico; Leader-Williams, Nigel; Slotow, Rob; Goodman, Peter S.; Conway, Anthony J; Moilanen, Atte

    2014-01-01

    Between 1990 and 2007, 15 southern white (Ceratotherium simum simum) and black (Diceros bicornis) rhinoceroses on average were killed illegally every year in South Africa. Since 2007 illegal killing of southern white rhinoceros for their horn has escalated to >950 individuals/year in 2013. We conducted an ecological–economic analysis to determine whether a legal trade in southern white rhinoceros horn could facilitate rhinoceros protection. Generalized linear models were used to examine the s...

  20. Victims of gender-based violence and their legal protection in Serbia: In relation to men's violence against women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučković Ivana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The main issue in this work is men's violence against women as a hate crime. The author analyzes this through a feminist perspective considering the relevance of basic facts and concepts such as gender, gender roles and socialization, power, patriarchy and women's rights. The author analyzes the position of women victims of men's violence on both the international and national level, and their legal protection, in general and especially in Serbia, using a victimological approach.

  1. Theoretical and Legal Reflections on Securities Dispositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holub Dušan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Decreasing the number of materialised securities for the benefit of electronic securities has led to distinctions between commercial and legal opinions on securities transactions. Contemporary financial markets only trade electronic securities held in securities accounts. Securities law enhances adjustments to economic realities and not to legal principles. Discrepancies between economic realities and securities regulation should be resolved in order to find a balance between successfully functioning transactions of electronic securities and legal schemes which are based on transfers of physically existing assets, which include securities, as a result of the theory of incorporations, in certain legal regulations. This article is a theoretical and legal reflection on selected issues connected with the transfer of securities with reference to discrepancies between economic realities and legal regulations.

  2. Legally high? Legal considerations of Salvia divinorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, O Hayden; Miller, Bryan Lee; Khey, David N

    2008-06-01

    The legal status of the hallucinogenic plant Salvia divinorum has been rapidly changing. Legal prohibitions on this plant native to Oaxaca, Mexico have emerged at the state level, a phenomenon that has not occurred since the passage of the Controlled Substances Act (CSA). Included will be a brief description of the plant that has only recently crept into the popular American consciousness, and a review of the different legal mechanisms through which states have controlled the plant and the pending legislation proposing controls. Lastly, the implications of various state laws are discussed.

  3. Legal socialization of personality as a phenomenon of legal psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borisova S.E.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the topic to the continuing importance of legal regulation of human behavior, the necessity of foreseeing the adverse consequences of social disorders and urgency of the prevention of deconditioning and deviant behavioral manifestations. In this regard, it is important to examine the phenomenon of legal socialization, causing interest among the representatives of the human Sciences and specialists in different branches of psychological knowledge. Taking into account the multidimensional nature of this phenomenon, it is an essential consideration of the trajectories of its occurrence in correlation with different interacting with other determinants. Such determinants include age psychological characteristics, experience crises of mental development, socially conditioned factors, and the influence of the professional environment. In article are characterized by individual patterns of legal socialization of a personality, revealing its essence, on the basis of summarizing opinions of scientists based on their own point of view. On the basis of the theoretical analysis made assumptions about the peculiarities of legal socialization of the individual occurring in different age periods of life; formulated likely areas for further study the phenomenon under research legal psychology.

  4. The Legal Ethical Backbone of Conscientious Refusal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munthe, Christian; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    2017-01-01

    This article analyzes the idea of a legal right to conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals from a basic legal ethical standpoint, using refusal to perform tasks related to legal abortion (in cases of voluntary employment) as a case in point. The idea of a legal right to conscientious refusal is distinguished from ideas regarding moral rights or reasons related to conscientious refusal, and none of the latter are found to support the notion of a legal right. Reasons for allowing some sort of room for conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals based on the importance of cultural identity and the fostering of a critical atmosphere might provide some support, if no countervailing factors apply. One such factor is that a legal right to healthcare professionals' conscientious refusal must comply with basic legal ethical tenets regarding the rule of law and equal treatment, and this requirement is found to create serious problems for those wishing to defend the idea under consideration. We conclude that the notion of a legal right to conscientious refusal for any profession is either fundamentally incompatible with elementary legal ethical requirements, or implausible because it undermines the functioning of a related professional sector (healthcare) or even of society as a whole.

  5. Dementia and legal competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filaković, Pavo; Erić, Anamarija Petek; Mihanović, Mate; Glavina, Trpimir; Molnar, Sven

    2011-06-01

    The legal competency or capability to exercise rights is level of judgment and decision-making ability needed to manage one's own affairs and to sign official documents. With some exceptions, the person entitles this right in age of majority. It is acquired without legal procedures, however the annulment of legal capacity requires a juristic process. This resolution may not be final and could be revoked thorough the procedure of reverting legal capacity - fully or partially. Given the increasing number of persons with dementia, they are often subjects of legal expertise concerning their legal capacity. On the other part, emphasis on the civil rights of mentally ill also demands their maximal protection. Therefore such distinctive issue is approached with particular attention. The approach in determination of legal competency is more focused on gradation of it's particular aspects instead of existing dual concept: legally capable - legally incapable. The main assumption represents how person with dementia is legally capable and should enjoy all the rights, privileges and obligations as other citizens do. The aspects of legal competency for which person with dementia is going to be deprived, due to protection of one's rights and interests, are determined in legal procedure and then passed over to the guardian decided by court. Partial annulment of legal competency is measure applied when there is even one existing aspect of preserved legal capability (pension disposition, salary or pension disposition, ability of concluding contract, making testament, concluding marriage, divorce, choosing whereabouts, independent living, right to vote, right to decide course of treatment ect.). This measure is most often in favour of the patient and rarely for protection of other persons and their interests. Physicians are expected to precisely describe early dementia symptoms which may influence assessment of specific aspects involved in legal capacity (memory loss, impaired task

  6. Legal method in danish law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blume, Peter Erik

    This book describes how legal method is used within the Danish legal system. Its target group is foreign lawyers and law students who have an interest in knowing how Danish law commonly is determined and applied. In the first chapters legal method and legal sources in general are defined and furt......This book describes how legal method is used within the Danish legal system. Its target group is foreign lawyers and law students who have an interest in knowing how Danish law commonly is determined and applied. In the first chapters legal method and legal sources in general are defined...... and furthermore a brief account of Danish legal history is provided. The following chapters concern: • Legal institutions, • Statute and Statutory Law • Legal Decisions • Legal Literature and Legal Knowledge • Other National Legal Sources • External Influences on Danish Law...

  7. LEGAL BASES FOR DISCLOSING CONFIDENTIAL PATIENT INFORMATION FOR PUBLIC HEALTH: DISTINGUISHING BETWEEN HEALTH PROTECTION AND HEALTH IMPROVEMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    The disclosure of confidential patient data without an individual's explicit consent should be for purposes that persons have reason to both expect and accept. We do not currently have the required level of clarity or consistency in understanding regarding the disclosure of confidential patient information for public health purposes to support effective public dialogue. The Health Service (Control of Patient Information) Regulations 2002 establish a legal basis in England and Wales for data to be disclosed for public health purposes without patient consent. Under the Regulations, there is more than one potential route towards lawful processing: Data may be processed for public health purposes under both Regulations 3 and 5. The alternatives have different safeguards and conditions attached, and their respective applicability to processing for purposes of public health improvement is currently unclear and subject to review. Beyond the need for clarity regarding the safeguards applicable to processing for particular public health purposes, there are reasons to prefer recognition that Regulation 5 is the most appropriate legal basis for disclosure when the purpose is public health improvement rather than public health protection. Where health improvement, rather than protection, is the aim, there is no justification for discarding the additional safeguards associated with processing under Regulation 5.

  8. Green public procurement – legal base and instruments supporting sustainable development in the construction industry in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozik Renata

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the respect of value, public procurement in the construction industry belongs to one of the largest ones in the domestic market. Therefore, green procurement for construction works should become the center of attention of public authorities in a broad sense, due to its scale and importance for the sustainable development. The authorities and contracting entities who spend public money should have the opportunity to apply such legal articles and instruments that allow them to both optimize public expenditures and consider the environmental factor, such as decreasing carbon emission. To make the idea of sustainable development a reality as European Union’s the most vital aim, EU law is implemented in Poland. Local authorities’ duty is to appropriately shape their policies and use the vital instrument of sustainable development, namely green public procurement. This paper presents a comparative analysis of legal regulations to illustrate the actual Polish and EU laws concerning the construction industry. Even though the generally applicable law allows to implement the idea of sustainable development efficiently, local self-government units in their regional policies do not report any need for specific solutions, or they do so only occasionally.

  9. A sense of self-suspicion: global legal pluralism and the claim to legal authority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Croce

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Legal pluralism has become common currency in many contemporary debates on law and globalization. Its main claim is that a form of global legal pluralism represents both the most accurate description of law in times of globalization and the best normative option. On the descriptive level, global legal pluralism is considered more reliable than state-based accounts. On the normative level, global legal pluralism is understood as a possibility to open up the legal realm to previously unheard voices. This article assesses these claims against the background of classic legal-pluralist scholarship. After reconstructing the emergence of global legal pluralism and then examining its epistemic and normative versions, the last two sections identify the shortcoming of this approach by underlining the absence of what the authors call ‘a sense of self-suspicion’ in drawing the map of legalities in the global sphere. The main argument put forward is that global legal pluralism is oblivious of a few key insights offered by the founding fathers of classic legal pluralism.

  10. Are AustLII and Google Enough for Legal Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Colin

    2006-01-01

    For the past ten years law students, academics and legal practitioners have relied on AustLII and various internet search engines to conduct legal research. The purpose of this article is to examine what these can offer and to note the importance of other websites when conducting legal research. This article is based on an address given to the…

  11. Muertes relacionadas con cocaina en Costa Rica durante 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Alfaro Albertazzi

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available El consumo de cocaína en Costa Rica es un problema creciente y muchas de lasmuertes pueden ser causadas por situaciones en las cuales la droga está involucrada. En este estudio todas las autopsias médico legales hechas en 1996 en este país fueron analizadas con el objeto de determinar la mortalidad y por lo tanto el impacto que ella genera en la sociedad costarricense.The cocaine consumption in Costa Rica is a growing problem and a lot of deaths can be caused by the situations in wich the drug is involved. In this study all the medicolegal autopsies done in 1996 in this country were analized to figure out the mortality and therefore, the impact it generates in Costa Rican society.

  12. TO THE QUESTION OF THE LEGAL NATURE OF MARRIAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Bondov S. N.

    2014-01-01

    The article is devoted to the analysis of various approaches to the main definitions of a family law, such as marriage, family, and marriage legal relationship. In the article we profoundly considered the legal aspects of a procedure of marriage as the act of registration of marriage is the basis of emergence of marriage legal relationship. The conditions and the bases of marriage are characterized. We made a conclusion that marriage is a legal fact establishing, changing or stopping the corr...

  13. Learning the Legalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Victoria

    1987-01-01

    Certain types of crises cry out for legal counsel. Becoming familiar with the basics of media law is suggested for public relations offices. Three types of crises that call for legal advice include: litigation or potential litigation; a violation of a law or regulation; or incidents with any hint of liability. (MLW)

  14. Legal responsibility and accountability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Chris

    2010-06-01

    Shifting boundaries in healthcare roles have led to anxiety among some nurses about their legal responsibilities and accountabilities. This is partly because of a lack of education about legal principles that underpin healthcare delivery. This article explains the law in terms of standards of care, duty of care, vicarious liability and indemnity insurance.

  15. Calidad de vida relacionada con heridas crónicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Virginia González-Consuegra

    Full Text Available El presente artículo hace una revisión bibliográfica que se inicia con un recorrido de la evolución del concepto de calidad de vida (CV y su aplicación en salud, el cual debe su importancia a la forma más amplia en que es concebido el estado de salud personal, al contener implícito el bienestar social, lo que ha generado el desarrollo de medidas que permiten captar la salud en sus dimensiones múltiples y también positivas, como las de salud percibida o de calidad de vida relacionada con la salud (CVRS. La medición de la CVRS ha mostrado su utilidad en la investigación, en la práctica clínica, en la evaluación de los servicios sanitarios y en salud pública, lo que permite -en gran medida- contribuir a mejorar la gestión del cuidado. Con el paso del tiempo y la evolución tecnológica, la esperanza de vida ha ido en aumento, con el consiguiente envejecimiento de la población, siendo frecuente la presencia de enfermedades crónicas y metabólicas que, en muchos casos, traen consigo la presencia de heridas crónicas (HC de difícil manejo, que afectan negativa y considerablemente la CVRS de la población mayor de 65 años, especialmente femenina. La literatura reciente, es profusa respecto a los diferentes instrumentos para la medición de CVRS, por lo que se hace necesario conocer de qué disponemos para poder hacer uso de las herramientas adecuadas, según la condición de salud de la persona, a fin de aproximarse a las necesidades reales de las personas a nuestro cuidado. La mayoría de las herramientas de medición de CVRS se han desarrollado en Europa y Estados Unidos, lo que exige que para ser utilizadas en poblaciones distintas a las de su origen se cumpla con la adaptación y validación respectiva, a fin de que sus resultados reflejen la percepción real de la población.

  16. The Development of Legal Policy and Legal Needs of Indonesian Immigration Law: Answered Partially, Forget the Rest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Dewansyah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The replacement of the immigration law, from Law No. 9 of 1992 to Law No. 6 of 2011 reflected the development of immigration legal policy. As a branch of administrative law that has dynamic character, the reform immigration laws should address the immigration legal needs in practice. This paper discusses the development of Indonesian immigration legal policy and to what extent these developments address the immigration legal needs. Based on the author analyses, it can be concluded, firstly, the development of immigration legal policy, in legal direction context, emphasized to face the impact of globalization both positive and negative effects, and other developments in the future. In legal substances aspect, the current immigration legal policy change various principles immigration laws, such as the principle of selective policies are balanced with the principle of respect for human rights, although in certain settings are not in line with human rights (as in the case of the period of temporary prohibition to leave Indonesia, that can be extended continuously. In legal form and scope context, Indonesian immigration legal policy today, is more concerned with the rules of immigration law in detail than ever before. Secondly, the development of immigration legal policy answered the immigration legal needs particularly, such as in the case of human smuggling, but forget the rest of the immigration legal needs, in terms of the handling of illegal immigrants, asylum seekers and refugees.

  17. Evidence-based process for decision-making in the analysis of legal demands for medicines in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Tatiana Aragão; Osorio-de-Castro, Claudia Garcia Serpa; Pepe, Vera Lúcia Edais

    2013-11-01

    Legal actions have been playing a significant role as an alternative pathway to access to medicines in Brazil. These lawsuits demand medicines used in Primary Health Care as well as medicines that are still in clinical research and have not been market approved by the Brazilian National Agency for Sanitary Surveillance (ANVISA). The goal was to analyze medicines demanded through lawsuits brought to the judicial district which includes the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from July/2007 to June/2008. The medicines in 281 lawsuits were examined for their respective indications, classified according to their presence in publicly-funded lists, market approval by ANVISA, compliance with national clinical guidelines, existence of alternative therapies in lists and support of indication by scientific evidence. Six different categories were described, which are deemed useful to managers and the Judiciary in decision-making. The support of evidence is of utmost importance for medicines that are not included in public funding lists and also for those with no available therapeutic alternatives.

  18. Perfil de Calidad de Vida relacionada con la salud del adolescente, 1970-2013: meta-análisis

    OpenAIRE

    Holguín Velásquez, Anlly Banessa; Jaramillo Álvarez, Alejandra María; Galeano Buitrago, Lesly Julieth; Higuita Gutiérrez, Luis Felipe; Profesor. Microbiólogo y Bioanalista, Magister Educación y Desarrollo Humano. Centro internacional de Educación y Desarrollo Humano. Grupo de Investigación Salud y Sostenibilidad, Escuela de Microbiología, Universidad de Antioquia.; Cardona Arias, Jaiberth Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Objetivo: describir el impacto de diferentes enfermedades sobre la Calidad de vida relacionada con la salud (CVRS) del adolescente a partir de investigaciones publicadas entre 1970 y 2013Métodos: revisión sistemática de la literatura en 6 bases datos multidisciplinarias, aplicando un protocolo con las etapas de identificación, tamización, elección e inclusión. Se extrajeron los promedios de los puntajes de cada dimensión de calidad de vida. Las enfermedades se clasificaron según la CIE-10. Lo...

  19. Legal Services: The Army Legal Assistance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    legal services providedpro bono publico are not always on a no-fee basis because a reduced fee for professional services may be permissible in such...y f o u n d w i t h i n a p r i n c i p a l residence. Pro bono publico Legal services provided by civilian attorneys “for the public good or welfare...business activities, 3–6, 3–8 P r i v i l e g e , a t t o r n e y - c l i e n t , 3 – 8 , 4 – 3 , 4 – 8 , 5–5 Prisoners, 2–5 Pro bono publico , 3–7

  20. PROBLEMS OF LEGAL REGULATION OF FREE LEGAL HELP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savchenko M. S.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The authors of the article analyze the legal grounds of free legal assistance marking the novels of legislation regulated by the federal law “On free legal assistance in the Russian Federation” and problems connected with its realization. There were given the characteristics of subjects of state and non-state systems of free legal assistance in the article. The special attention is paid to the specificity of the activity of state and municipal agencies, legal clinics, non-state centers of free legal assistance. The authors consider the peculiarities of legislation of the subjects of the Russian Federation setting the guarantee of rights on getting of free legal assistance. The problems of legal assistance under the presenting of citizens’ interests in arbitrary courts, problems of legal clinics assistance quality, problems of legal provision of the activity of municipal legal agencies are analyzed in the article. Due to the practice of realization of legislation in the Krasnodar region there were made the conclusions on the reasonability of extending of the list of citizens’ categories having the right for free legal assistance and cases of such assistance, giving the compulsory authority to the agreement on free legal assistance; the introduction of the article on municipal legal agencies into the Federal law; working outs of standards of the activity of legal clinics and systems of preparations to the legal assistance of students and teachers

  1. Old Assyrian Legal Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Thomas Klitgaard

    This work presents a comprehensive analysis of legal practices and dispute processing in Old Assyrian society c. 1950-1800 B.C. in the ancient Near East.......This work presents a comprehensive analysis of legal practices and dispute processing in Old Assyrian society c. 1950-1800 B.C. in the ancient Near East....

  2. FINANCIAL AND LEGAL RELATIONSHIP AND THE LEGAL REGULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkebuchava Yekaterina Bezhanovna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the problems of financial and legal relationship and legal regulation. The financial activities of the state can not be carried out beyond the legal relations. Financial relations are expressed outwardly in the forms that are identified by the state as it is connected with the fact of its existence. With the help of law the state in the financial sphere determines and sets the types of budget revenues, taxation procedures, methods of currency use, etc. Administrative and legal regulation of financial relations is made up of such components as financial and legal relationships and legal regulation. This is why the concepts of "legal effect" and "legal regulation" come to the fore. According to the author, the term "legal regulation" and "legal effect" are not identical and have different meanings. Therefore it is necessary to distinguish between the "regulation" and "effect". This would eliminate naming the same thing with different words.

  3. Hacia una base normativa mexicana en la medición de calidad de vida relacionada con la salud, mediante el Formato Corto 36 Towards a mexican normative standard for measurement of the Short Format 36 health-related quality of life instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Durán-Arenas

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Presentar los resultados de la aplicación del cuestionario de formato corto 36 (SF-36 en dos estados de México (Sonora y Oaxaca, comparando con los niveles de calidad de vida en las provincias de Canadá y en Estados Unidos de América. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Los datos provienen de la encuesta de acceso, uso y calidad de los servicios de salud en dos estados de México. El instrumento del SF-36 incluye 36 preguntas que generan ocho dimensiones diferentes sobre calidad de vida relacionada con la salud; a partir de estas dimensiones, se estima un componente físico y otro mental. Para el análisis se calcularon las calificaciones promedio para cada dimensión del SF-36 para toda la muestra, por género y grupos de edad, en cada estado. Las diferencias regionales se evaluaron mediante la diferencia en los promedios. RESULTADOS: Se obtuvo respuesta de 98.5% de las 4 200 viviendas seleccionadas, con porcentajes de respuesta similar en Oaxaca y Sonora. Respondieron al cuestionario 5 961 individuos mayores de 25 años de edad. Los hombres tuvieron mayores puntajes que las mujeres en todas las dimensiones y en los dos componentes. En uno u otro sexo la mayor variación en los adultos hasta de 64 años de edad tendió a concentrarse en tres dimensiones: salud general, función social y salud mental; en el grupo de 65 a 74 años de edad se concentró en función social y salud mental; y en mayores de 75 años, en salud mental. Se observó variación en un número mayor de dimensiones en los grupos de adultos jóvenes (25 a 44 años, mientras que en las mujeres se observó una mayor variación en los extremos, en los grupos de edad de 25 a 34 años de edad y de 75 y más. Los puntajes promedio en nuestra muestra fueron más altos que los observados en Canadá y Estados Unidos de América en cinco de las dimensiones y en los dos componentes, en tanto que Canadá presentó puntajes más altos en las tres dimensiones escalas restantes (salud general

  4. 债权式众筹的法律风险及规制%Legal risk and regulation of debt based crowd-funding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    瞿婵

    2016-01-01

    With the vigorous development of internet banking, crowd-funding industry provides a new way to solve the financing problem for smal and medium enterprises, but also provides people with a diversified investment channels. Crowd-funding in our country does not have specifical y regulated laws, but also exists some conflicts with the existing laws and regulations, leading to legal risks faced by investors, such as asymmetric information, contract fraud, the safety of funds, lack of management platform, the author from the concept and character of the basic theory, focuses on the analysis of legal risks of debt based crowd-funding, and puts forward some suggestions.%随着互联网金融的蓬勃发展,众筹行业为解决中小企业融资难的问题提供了全新的思路,也为民众提供了多元化的投资渠道。债权式众筹在我国现行法律框架下不仅没有具体法律加以规范,而且还与现行法律的规定存在一定的冲突,导致投资者面临着信息不对称、合同欺诈、资金安全、缺乏平台管理等法律风险,笔者从众筹的概念特征等基本理论入手,重点分析债权式众筹在我国发展中所面临的法律风险,提出一些规范债权式众筹发展的建议。

  5. 余额宝的法律风险分析--基于PEST分析%The Legal Risk Analysis of Balance Treasure---Based on PEST Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫金兰

    2015-01-01

    Balance treasure as a web-based financial creative attempt launched a powerful impact on the fi-nancial markets. Through PEST analysis tools,this paper analyzes the macro environment of balance treasure,finds balance treasure disintermediation Internet financial form is the trend of the development of the financial markets. However,issues emerge in endlessly,such as the lack of social credit,risk disclosure and reveal inadequate,and le-gal compliance risks,this presents new opportunities and challenges for regulatory authorities. So regulators should strengthen the construction of Internet financial credit management system,establish deposit insurance system which can corresponded to the balance treasure,and improve the legal system of Internet financial.%余额宝作为基于互联网金融的创造性尝试给金融市场带来了巨大的冲击。通过PEST工具对余额宝所处的宏观环境进行分析,发现余额宝去中介化的互联网金融形式已是金融市场发展的趋势。但是社会信用缺失、风险披露和揭示不充分、法律合规风险等问题层出不穷,给监管部门提出了新的挑战,应采取加强互联网金融的信用管理体系建设、建立与余额宝相适应的存款保险制度、完善互联网金融的法律体系等措施予以完善。

  6. Research on the Legal English Teaching Practice Based on the Theory of Translation Teaching Method%基于翻译教学法的高校法律英语教学实践研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄敏

    2015-01-01

    Legal English is an important course in college. English teachers should know its nature as a communication tool, and employs appropriate ways to improve students'English ability and legal quality, in order to train inter-disciplinary talents. Based on this, translation teaching method was used here , from the aspects of content, form and concept, it discusses the legal English teaching methods.%法律英语是一门重要的课程,教师应该明确法律英语作为语言交流工具的本质,采用恰当方法,提高学习者的英语水平和法律素养,更好地培养复合型人才.基于此,采用翻译教学法,从内容、形式和理念出发,探讨了高校法律英语教学方法.

  7. Interventions for Learning Disabilities: Does a Journal-Based Change in Focus and Article Type Reflect or Influence Legal Mandates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleary, Daniel F.; Rowlette, Emily Fuller; Pelchar, Taylor K.; Bain, Sherry K.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether there was a noticeable shift in focus from general to specific learning disabilities, and in the types of articles (narrative or empirically based) in the Journal of Learning Disabilities (JLD) between 1995 to 2000. A pilot study had revealed an increase in empirically based articles and a shift toward specifically…

  8. Constitutional Legal Regulation And The Reasons For The Legal Nihilism Existence In Modern Russian Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy E. Nekrasov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present article questions of constitutional and legal regulation and reason for the legal nihilism existence, methods and forms of fight against legal nihilism are considered. Reasons of low legal culture in modern Russian society and ways of the population's legal literacy increase in general are allocated. These problems are extremely topical today as at the 1990th when there was a reorientation of values, ideals and the principles and legislative base was significantly changed, people were simply lost, and it was extremely difficult for them to realize and accept new, absolutely other reality. Today peculiar spiritual and valuable "reconstruct" did not pass completely and the state is obliged to help citizens to carry out it most without serious consequences and successfully. In the conclusion authors draw a conclusion that: first, the problem of legal nihilism more than ever now is particularly acute for modern Russian society. The policy of the state has to be directed by the consciousness of citizens, who understand that law is the integral and obligatory part of the order in the country and that it is one of the basic for any person. Secondly, one of the ways to overcome the legal nihilism consists in the increase of the legal culture level along with the development of effective legal policy. Thirdly, legal idealism, reevaluation of opportunities in law gains especially wide circulation in the years of changes in response to social expectations an insufficiently skilled legislator forms a belief that it is enough to adopt good laws, and all problems would be solved.

  9. INFECÇÃO DO TRATO URINÁRIO RELACIONADA AO CATETER: PERFIL DE SENSIBILIDADE ANTIMICROBIANA

    OpenAIRE

    Silvana Kelie Souza de Almeida Barros; Gilselena Kerbauy; Elma Mathias Dessunti

    2013-01-01

    Estudio descriptivo, cuantitativo, cuyo objetivo fue analizar la prevalencia de microorganismos y perfil de sensibilidad a antimicrobianos en uroculturas de pacientes con infección del tracto urinario relacionada al catéter. Se investigaron 394 registros médicos de pacientes adultos en Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos del Hospital Universitario de Londrina-Paraná, Brasil, de abril a diciembre de 2011. La prevalencia de infección de tracto urinario relacionada al catéter fue 34,0% (134) y 2,2% (3...

  10. Acoso escolar, apoyo social y calidad de vida relacionada con la salud

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    El marco teórico hace una revisión de la literatura sobre acoso escolar, su concepción actual y debates sobre su definición, la investigación y los factores de riesgo y protección en el acoso escolar. Además, se analiza y la literatura sobre la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud en los distintos roles que se encuentran en las situaciones de acoso escolar y los efectos en los mismos sobre la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud. Contenido: La metodología y los resultados de la tes...

  11. Legal Bases for the Use of Force Against International Terrorism: The U.S. Paradigm of Humanitarian Self-Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-04-01

    n. 59, (Citing H. KELSEN , PRINCIPLES OF INTERNATIONAL LAW 383 (1966)). 127 STONE, supra note 43, at 94-101. 36 ... the extreme view asserts that...also Thomas M. Franck, United Nations Based Prospects for a New Global Order, 22 N.Y.U. J. INT’L L. & POL. 601, 614 (1990); HANS KEESEN, THE LAW OF

  12. Modeling complex metabolic reactions, ecological systems, and financial and legal networks with MIANN models based on Markov-Wiener node descriptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duardo-Sánchez, Aliuska; Munteanu, Cristian R; Riera-Fernández, Pablo; López-Díaz, Antonio; Pazos, Alejandro; González-Díaz, Humberto

    2014-01-27

    The use of numerical parameters in Complex Network analysis is expanding to new fields of application. At a molecular level, we can use them to describe the molecular structure of chemical entities, protein interactions, or metabolic networks. However, the applications are not restricted to the world of molecules and can be extended to the study of macroscopic nonliving systems, organisms, or even legal or social networks. On the other hand, the development of the field of Artificial Intelligence has led to the formulation of computational algorithms whose design is based on the structure and functioning of networks of biological neurons. These algorithms, called Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), can be useful for the study of complex networks, since the numerical parameters that encode information of the network (for example centralities/node descriptors) can be used as inputs for the ANNs. The Wiener index (W) is a graph invariant widely used in chemoinformatics to quantify the molecular structure of drugs and to study complex networks. In this work, we explore for the first time the possibility of using Markov chains to calculate analogues of node distance numbers/W to describe complex networks from the point of view of their nodes. These parameters are called Markov-Wiener node descriptors of order k(th) (W(k)). Please, note that these descriptors are not related to Markov-Wiener stochastic processes. Here, we calculated the W(k)(i) values for a very high number of nodes (>100,000) in more than 100 different complex networks using the software MI-NODES. These networks were grouped according to the field of application. Molecular networks include the Metabolic Reaction Networks (MRNs) of 40 different organisms. In addition, we analyzed other biological and legal and social networks. These include the Interaction Web Database Biological Networks (IWDBNs), with 75 food webs or ecological systems and the Spanish Financial Law Network (SFLN). The calculated W

  13. Commission on Legal Matters

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    What is a commission within the Staff Association (SA)? A commission is a working group of the CERN Staff Council, led by a staff representative. The commission is composed mainly of staff representatives, but interested members of the SA can apply to participate in the work of a commission. What is the commission on legal matters? The commission on legal matters works on texts governing the employment conditions of staff (Employed Members of Personnel and Associated Members of Personnel). This covers legal documents such as the Staff Rules and Regulations, administrative and operational circulars, as well as any other document relating to employment conditions. How is the work organised in this commission? The revision process of the text is generally done along following lines: The HR department, and its legal experts, proposes new texts or modifications to existing texts. A schedule for the study of these texts is established each year and this calendar by the commission to plan its work. The new or modi...

  14. Legalization White Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United States Catholic Conference, Washington, DC.

    The second step of implementation of the legalization program of the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA) began on November 7, 1988. This second step is the process by which undocumented immigrants, initially granted temporary residence, may adjust to their status change to permanent resident. Certain aspects of the adjustment are…

  15. Minimally legally invasive dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, R

    2014-12-01

    One disadvantage of the rapid advances in modern dentistry is that treatment options have never been more varied or confusing. Compounded by a more educated population greatly assisted by online information in an increasingly litigious society, a major concern in recent times is increased litigation against health practitioners. The manner in which courts handle disputes is ambiguous and what is considered fair or just may not be reflected in the judicial process. Although legal decisions in Australia follow a doctrine of precedent, the law is not static and is often reflected by community sentiment. In medical litigation, this has seen the rejection of the Bolam principle with a preference towards greater patient rights. Recent court decisions may change the practice of dentistry and it is important that the clinician is not caught unaware. The aim of this article is to discuss legal issues that are pertinent to the practice of modern dentistry through an analysis of legal cases that have shaped health law. Through these discussions, the importance of continuing professional development, professional association and informed consent will be realized as a means to limit the legal complications of dental practice.

  16. [Teenage pregnancies, legal aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogue, Fanny

    2016-01-01

    Minor girls are legally considered as incapable, under the authority of their parents. Difficulties can arise when a minor becomes pregnant. The law takes account of this situation: under certain conditions, she can decide by herself to undertake certain actions, medical or otherwise, without the consent of her parents. These include access to contraception, abortion or anonymous birth.

  17. Euthanasia: Some Legal Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koza, Pamela

    1976-01-01

    Several sections of the Criminal Code of Canada which are relevant to the issue of euthanasia are discussed. In addition, the value placed on the sanctity of life by the law, the failure to recognize motive in cases of euthanasia, and disparate legal and medical definitions of death are also considered. (Author)

  18. Medical-legal aspects of the fungal infection drug therapy in neonatology: evidence-based medicine and off-label prescribing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Ciuffi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to focus on the well-known issue of the clinical use of off-label drug therapy in neonatology with respect to evidence-based medicine, with particular reference to antifungal products, in comparison with the wider use in pediatric and adult population. Then we considered the new regulatory approaches carried out in the past decade by the FDA (Food and Drug Administration and the EMA (European Medicine Agency, aimed to improve newborn and children population inclusion into scientific trials and to promote drug labeling with respect to pediatric indications, and the goals nowadays achieved through the American Pediatric Research Equity Act / Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act and the European Pediatric Investigation Plans. Finally we pointed out, on the basis of the Italian regulatory framework, the Italian medical-legal liability profiles related to the use of off-label therapies in neonatology. Further efforts are required in the international context to carry forward the process started while in the particular Italian scenario it is to be hoped that a general change of mind towards the off-label drug use in neonatology clinical practice may take place.

  19. Criminal Regulations of Cybercrime Based on the Principle of Legality%论罪刑法定原则下网络犯罪的刑法规制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯帅

    2015-01-01

    对网络犯罪的刑法规制,必须在罪刑法定原则的前提下展开,并充分利用刑法解释方法。扩大解释和类推解释虽然存在界限模糊的“灰色地带”,但在多数情形下,解释对象是否在刑法语义通常的“射程”内是显而易见的。在处理网络犯罪时,要注意区分哪些是借助了网络这种工具的传统犯罪,哪些是传统犯罪行为方式的扩张形式,哪些是传统罪名通过各种解释方法根本无法涵盖的新型网络犯罪。%Criminal regulations of cybercrime must be made based on the principle of legality, and it is essential to make full use of interpretations of the Criminal Law.It is suggested that when dealing with cybercrimes it isimportant to indentify traditional crimes by means of the Internet, or expansion of traditional crimes, or new cybercrimes.

  20. Update Legal Documents Using Hierarchical Ranking Models and Word Clustering

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Minh Quang Nhat; Nguyen, Minh Le; Shimazu, Akira

    2010-01-01

    Our research addresses the task of updating legal documents when newinformation emerges. In this paper, we employ a hierarchical ranking model tothe task of updating legal documents. Word clustering features are incorporatedto the ranking models to exploit semantic relations between words. Experimentalresults on legal data built from the United States Code show that the hierarchicalranking model with word clustering outperforms baseline methods using VectorSpace Model, and word cluster-based ...

  1. Influence of the wording of evaluation items on outcome-based evaluation results for large-group teaching in anatomy, biochemistry and legal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Sven; Pyka, Katharina; Mueller, Tjark; von Streinbuechel, Nicole; Raupach, Tobias

    2016-11-01

    Student learning outcome is an important dimension of teaching quality in undergraduate medical education. Measuring an increase in knowledge during teaching requires repetitive objective testing which is usually not feasible. As an alternative, student learning outcome can be calculated from student self-ratings. Comparative self-assessment (CSA) gain reflects the performance difference before and after teaching, adjusted for initial knowledge. It has been shown to be a valid proxy measure of actual learning outcome derived from objective tests. However, student self-ratings are prone to a number of confounding factors. In the context of outcome-based evaluation, the wording of self-rating items is crucial to the validity of evaluation results. This randomized trial assessed whether including qualifiers in these statements impacts on student ratings and CSA gain. First-year medical students self-rated their initial (then-test) and final (post-test) knowledge for lectures in anatomy, biochemistry and legal medicine, respectively, and 659 questionnaires were retrieved. Six-point scales were used for self-ratings with 1 being the most positive option. Qualifier use did not affect then-test ratings but was associated with slightly less favorable post-test ratings. Consecutively, mean CSA gain was smaller for items containing qualifiers than for items lacking qualifiers (50.6±15.0% vs. 56.3±14.6%, p=0.079). The effect was more pronounced (Cohen's d=0.82) for items related to anatomy. In order to increase fairness of outcome-based evaluation and increase the comparability of CSA gain data across subjects, medical educators should agree on a consistent approach (qualifiers for all items or no qualifiers at all) when drafting self-rating statements for outcome-based evaluation.

  2. Did Legalized Abortion Lower Crime?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Ted

    2004-01-01

    Changes in homicide and arrest rates were compared among cohorts born before and after legalization of abortion and those who were unexposed to legalized abortion. It was found that legalized abortion improved the lives of many women as they could avoid unwanted births.

  3. Sanction in the Russian legal reality; level research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Valeryevich Krasnov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to form scientifically grounded knowledge on the role and place of legal sanctions in the Russian legal reality at all levels. Methods general philosophic methods dialectic synergetic phenomenological general scientific methods systemicstructural logical specificscientific methods formaljuridical comparativelegal. Results basing on the systemicstructural and comparative research of the levels of legal reality as well as the functions and roles performed by each sanction it is shown how the conceptions of the sanctions and objectives of their implementation depend on subjective and objective factors how the official confirmation of the functions of legal sanctions in Russia differs from their actual implementation in the legal reality. In the Russian legal reality we propose to extinguish several levels law awareness and legal mentality law proper and law enforcement practice and legal behavior the subjectrsquos view on justice and its correlation with the existing law. At each level the legal sanctions perform a certain role and are represented in a certain form. The necessity is actualized to use abroad range of methods for legal sanctions research sociological psychological statistical in order to more specifically confirm their content in legislation and predict their efficient implementation. Scientific novelty for the first time the attempt is made to study the role and function of legal sanctions at different levels of legal reality. Practical value the main provisions and conclusions can be used in both scientificeducational activity and in elaborating drafts of legislative acts to confirm legal sanctions. The authorrsquos comments and proposals can be used for estimating the probable informational and motivational impact of sanction on the human conscience and behavior and when evaluating the interestsrsquo conflict in forming the sanctions content. nbsp

  4. Immigrant health: legal tools/legal barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moua, Mee; Guerra, Fernando A; Moore, Jill D; Valdiserri, Ronald O

    2002-01-01

    The United States is a country of immigrants, our government having been formed by recent arrivals. This trend has continued throughout our history; according to the Center for Immigration Studies, more than 26 million immigrants have settled in the United States since 1970, and approximately one million new immigrants come to the United States each year. The immigrant population faces highly diverse health issues that states, cities, and counties must address, many of which pose significant legal and policy issues. Social, cultural, and linguistic factors complicate those challenges, as does the overlay of federal immigration and health policy. Two federal laws, the Welfare Reform Act of 1996 and Title VI of the federal Civil Rights Act of 1964, have affected immigrants in two very different ways. The former made it difficult for immigrants to qualify for publicly funded benefits. In contrast, Title VI made it easier for immigrants to obtain benefits by requiring federally funded service providers to offer translating services to persons with limited English language skills. Tuberculosis treatment is perhaps the most pressing health need among recent arrivals to the United States. Methods to slow down and hopefully eliminate this disease are underway, but a more comprehensive approach to not only tuberculosis but to immigrant health in general is needed. Indeed, it will benefit those directly affected by tuberculosis and will have serious implications for the entire population for generations to come.

  5. Cultural Dimensions Of Legal Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sierocka Halina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the intention for precision and accuracy, legal discourse is oftentimes complex, archaic and ambiguous - which gives rise to contentious interpretation. Moreover, little or no attention is paid to the cultural dimension of legal discourse, which plays a critical role in the translation and interpretation of legal texts, as well as in the application of law. This paper endeavours to illustrate the impact the culture, or, more precisely, legal culture has on the way legal texts are construed or translated and to present problems which arise in the interpretation, translation and application of law as a result of cultural diversities

  6. Legal Assistance Guide: Wills

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    requirements, state living will statutes, state death and gift taxes, and adoption of the Uniform Gifts to Minors Act. Several forms designed to be...health care, and a summary of state living will legislation. Legal assistance attorneys are advised that these state and territorial statutes are subject... state living will statutes is Gelfand, Living Will Statutes: The First Decade, 5 Wis. Law. Rev. 737 (1987). a A recent article addressing the types of

  7. BASE DE DADOS TERRITORIAIS NECESSÁRIAS À ANÁLISE DE UM SISTEMA DE RESERVA LEGAL EXTRA-PROPRIEDADE NO ESTADO DE GOIÁS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Eduardo Ferreira

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo geral a compilação ecaracterização das bases de dados utilizadas no âmbitodo projeto “Cenários Econômicos para a Troca de ReservaLegal Extra-Propriedade no Estado de Goiás”. Maisespecificamente, realizou-se uma análise de índicessócio-econômicos e de cobertura vegetal remanescentepara uma malha hexagonal adotada pelo projeto, perfazendotodo o Estado. Dentre os resultados principais,destaca-se atual aspecto negativo da paisagem de Cerradoem Goiás, tanto em termos de Estado (45% da áreaoriginal convertida em pastagens e 18% em agricultura,municípios (85% com passivos ambientais e de mesoregião(Centro e Sul Goiano com menos de 20% de coberturavegetal nativa. Quanto aos índices sociais (IDH,GINI, Pobreza e Densidade Populacional, fica demonstradoque o desenvolvimento em Goiás, ainda longe deser sustentável em termos ambientais, é maior em áreascom atividades agrícolas intensas, como nas meso-regiõesSul e Centro Goiano, e menor ao Norte e Nordeste doestado, onde estão concentradas as maiores proporçõesde pobres, concentração de renda e, curiosamente, remanescentesde Cerrado. Este estudo indica a adoção depráticas econômicas para a manutenção/regeneração dabiodiversidade do bioma Cerrado, complementar ao respeitodas Áreas de Preservação Permanente, sobretudoàquelas com função ripária aos cursos hidrográficos.

  8. Language and Culture in International Legal Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Kocbek

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary business world, partners belonging to different nations, and hence different cultures, conduct business operations in either the language of one of the parties involved or in a third, neutral language, serving as lingua franca. Thus, language skills, as an essential component of the communicative competence, imply a certain extent of implicit or explicit translating and interpreting. The functionalist approaches in translation science, and most of all the Skopos theory by J. H. Vermeer, view translation as an intercultural transfer, which inevitably entails taking into account intercultural differences. As intercultural business communication is directly affected by the legal systems of the cultures involved, the communicating parties need to be acquainted with both the source and target legal systems. This is especially the case with English, as the Anglo-American legal system, based essentially on common law, differs substantially from continental law, to which most of the European countries belong. English as the world’s most commonly used lingua franca will have to be adapted to its new function by adopting terms and concepts from other cultures and, within the EU, take into consideration the existing discrepancies between the continental and the Anglo-American legal systems. In this paper, cases of non-equivalence regarding legal terms are illustrated with examples from company law. In conclusion, some linguistic and cultural implications of the use of English as lingua franca, as well as their impact on teaching and learning practices are presented.

  9. Positive Legal Responsibility in the Family Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel A. Matveev

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present article author bases on the analysis of doctrinal and normative sources attempt to substantiate the existence of positive legal responsibility. Author defines the specificity of positive familial liability in the mechanism of self- identity of lawful behavior. Considering the nature of family legal liability, author proves independence of family-legal responsibility; it differs from civil, criminal and administrative responsibility. Author gives own definition of family-legal responsibility, gives characteristic features of this type of liability and justifies own view of the concept of responsibility in the modern family. Author substantiates view that family liability is expressed in multiple sanctions fixable current family law. Author notes that measures of family - legal responsibility are: annulment of the marriage, deprivation and restriction of parental rights, abolition of adoption, custody, guardianship, termination of child in a foster family placement, deprivation of the right to communicate with the child, taking away a child, termination or limitation of the obligation to subject the material contents of family relationship to other entities. Justifying own views, author relies on the opinions of scholars, experts, as well as a number of other competent persons.

  10. Economic and Legal Aspects of Electronic Money

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otakar Schlossberger

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The term “electronic money” first appeared in Czech legislation in 2002 as the result of the transposition of legislation into the Czech Republic’s legal system in anticipation of the country’s accession to the European Union. This term subsequently reappeared in 2009 during the recodification of the legal regulation of payment services, payment systems and electronic money. At this time, the definition was subjected to certain changes which continue to exert a significant influence on current practice with respect to the issuance and subsequent use of electronic money. This paper addresses the term “virtual money” and considers the mutual relationships between “electronic money”, “cashless money” and “virtual money” from the point of view of selected legal and economic approaches. The aim of the paper is to employ the analytical method in order to investigate selected legal and economic aspects of the various interpretations of the categories “electronic money”, “cashless money” and “virtual money”. A comparative analysis approach will be applied so as to ascertain both the legal and economic differences between these categories and general conclusions will be suggested employing the deduction method. The article is further concerned with the influence of these categories on the monetary base and money supply indicators.

  11. [Drugs legalization and public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laranjeira, Ronaldo

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this article is to: (1) evaluate the rationality and opportunity of this debate; (2) try to establish links with legal drugs; (3) evaluate the available data on the effect of legalization of a drug; and (4) propose an alternative drug police based on clear objectives to be reached; (5) describe how Sweden is dealing with the theme of drugs restriction as a social care. Methodologically the text constitutes in a summary of readings and elaborations of the author, placed to incite a discussion. It is concluded that four aspects need to be taken into consideration when a drug police of a country is analyzed, they are: (1) external factors influence the police: international agreements, health and social assistance police, individual rights, authority and autonomy of physicians and other professionals; (2) the objective established influence formal polices and its implementation; (3) the symbolic influence that excels the implementation. Influent people make declarations that strongly reach the legitimacy and adhesion to actions; (4) formal polices and their implementation receive direct influence to socially perceived damages by the drugs use, which could be independent of the real level of its use in a determined society.

  12. BITCOIN - BETWEEN LEGAL AND INFORMAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana MAFTEI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The proliferation of technology emphasized new forms of payment. During the last years, current literature highlighted the role of virtual currency, the channels of payment through digital coins and the importance of assimilation of such platforms. Bitcoin or BTC is known as a digital coin, issued for the first time in 2009 and based on a peer to peer system. The difference from other forms of payment is that BTC is not controlled by any institution or central authority. BTC transactions have grown rapidly, ”asking" for regulation measures or legal approval of governments. Although BTC has become very popular, the market is poor and unfortunately of no confidence. There is a lack of regulation which can determine a number of risks associated with criminal financing activities. However, the legal status of Bitcoin is present in many European countries like Belgium, Bulgaria, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Lithuania, Norway, Poland, Slovenia, Switzerland or Turkey. Also, this type of currency has experienced a rapid evolution among coffee shops and restaurants.

  13. Competitive Legal Professionals’ use of Technology in Legal Practice and Legal Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T du Plessis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Advances in the information and communication technologies have led to the availability of a range of primary and secondary legal research publications online via the Internet, rather than on other storing devices such as compact discs or publications in the print media. Not only has information and communication technology (ICT impacted on the availability of legal information resources, but its effects are also noticed in various law-related areas such as legal practice management, legal education, corporate governance and the law per se. The question addressed by this article is whether the application of ICTs has an effect on the practice of law, and specifically whether information and knowledge management affects the processes of legal research in modern legal practice. Various issues are considered in this regard, including what the concept of knowledge management (KM entails in a law firm and what the current KM trends in South African law firms are. The article investigates global trends in the application of ICTs for legal research purposes, what the specific applications of KM in support of legal research may be, how information technology applications and KM systems and strategies can support the legal research process, and what the benefits of KM are to legal research. It finally discusses the impact technology has had on the skills required of competitive legal professionals.

  14. THEORETICAL ANALYSIS STUDY OF FORMATION OF FUTURE LEGAL LAWYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Stepanovich Shevlakov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with topical issues of formation of legal consciousness of future lawyers in high school. Obtained kinds of legal consciousness of future lawyers, determined its structure. Dedicated components of justice are mutually reinforcing, and provide an opportunity for further development of the personality of the future specialist, their personal growth.The purpose: to carry out theoretical analysis of the problem of formation of legal consciousness of future lawyers.The novelty is based. On the analysis of theoretical appro-aches of pedagogy, psychology, law, the notion of «lawfulness of the future of the law student», which is regarded as a form of social consciousness, which is a set of legal views and feelings, expressing the attitude to the law and legal phenomena that have regulatory in character and which includes know-ledge of legal phenomena and their evaluation from the point of view of fairness and justice, formed in the process of studying in the University.Results: this article analyzes different approaches to understanding the content and essence of the concept of legal consciousness of the legal profession. Define the types and structure of legal consciousness of future lawyers.

  15. The COUNSELOR Project: Understanding Legal Argument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    cannot reasonably expect the judge to maintain a " tabula rasa " mentality, where his y decision is presumably based only on the propositions presented...this is the case, then the role of the audience becomes crucial. Since the audience in legal argumentation is a very specialized group, it is

  16. ECONOMIC - LEGAL ASPECTS OF OLYMPIC MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voevodina S. S.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The economic and legal aspects of Olympic marketing have been analyzed in the article. The development of the Olympic marketing tools is also being discussed. Along with this, the necessity of the formulation of the marketing activity law is based in the article

  17. Achievements in Building The Legal System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In the past three decades,people have gained an increasingly deeper under-standing of the law,and theories on democracy and justice have been en-riched.A socialist legal framework has been developing and the rule of law has becomea basic governing principle.China has made unprecedented achievements in promoting law-based governance.

  18. Legal Literacy for Teachers: A Neglected Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmel, David; Militello, Matthew

    2007-01-01

    In this article, David Schimmel and Matthew Militello document the legal knowledge and training of teachers based on a survey of more than thirteen hundred K-12 respondents in seventeen states. The findings from this study suggest that most educators (1) are uninformed or misinformed about student and teacher rights; (2) have taken no course in…

  19. FUZZY LOGIC IN LEGAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Gonul BALKIR

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of examination of every case within its peculiar conditions in social sciences requires different approaches complying with the spirit and nature of social sciences. Multiple realities require different and various perceptual interpretations. In modern world and social sciences, interpretation of perception of valued and multi-valued have been started to be understood by the principles of fuzziness and fuzzy logic. Having the verbally expressible degrees of truthness such as true, very true, rather true, etc. fuzzy logic provides the opportunity for the interpretation of especially complex and rather vague set of information by flexibility or equivalence of the variables’ of fuzzy limitations. The methods and principles of fuzzy logic can be benefited in examination of the methodological problems of law, especially in the applications of filling the legal loopholes arising from the ambiguities and interpretation problems in order to understand the legal rules in a more comprehensible and applicable way and the efficiency of legal implications. On the other hand, fuzzy logic can be used as a technical legal method in legal education and especially in legal case studies and legal practice applications in order to provide the perception of law as a value and the more comprehensive and more quality perception and interpretation of value of justice, which is the core value of law. In the perception of what happened as it has happened in legal relationships and formations, the understanding of social reality and sociological legal rules with multi valued sense perspective and the their applications in accordance with the fuzzy logic’s methods could create more equivalent and just results. It can be useful for the young lawyers and law students as a facilitating legal method especially in the materialization of the perception and interpretation of multi valued and variables. Using methods and principles of fuzzy logic in legal

  20. Zygostates alleniana (Orchidaceae: Epidendroideae: Cymbidieae: Oncidiinae: estructura floral relacionada con la polinización

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómiz, Natalia E.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The genus Zygostates Lindl. (Orchidaceae comprises about 20 species of small Neotropical epiphytic plants, represented in its southernmost limit by the species Z. alleniana. In this paper, we studied morphological and anatomical floral characteristics of this species related to pollination mechanism. We confirmed the presence of the unicellular trichomes on the base of the lip and side lobes secreting oil, constituting a trichomal elaiophore. The oil is deposited beneath the cuticle at the apex of the trichomes forming small blisters. The oil could represent a reward for the species Lophopedia nigrispinis, which would be a potential pollinator of Z. alleniana in a natural area within the geographic range of this plant species. Moreover, we prove that the reconfiguration of the pollinaruim is due to the dehydration of the walls cell. This reconfiguration could favor cross-pollination mechanism already described for other species of the family Orchidaceae. Finally, we discuss the floral characters present in Z. alleniana with closely related species.El género Zygostates Lindl. (Orchidaceae comprende aproximadamente 20 especies de pequeñas plantas epífitas con distribución neotropical, representado en su límite más austral por la especie Z. alleniana. En el presente trabajo se estudian morfológica y anatómicamente las características florales de esta especie relacionadas con el mecanismo de polinización. Se confirma la presencia de tricomas unicelulares en la base del labelo y lóbulos laterales que actúan secretando aceite, constituyendo un elaióforo tricomatoso. El aceite se deposita por debajo de la cutícula en el ápice de los tricomas formando pequeñas ampollas. El aceite podría representar una recompensa para la especie Lophopedia nigrispinis, la cual sería un posible polinizador de Z. alleniana en un área natural dentro del rango de distribución geográfica de esta especie vegetal. Por otro lado, se comprueba que la

  1. Qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde em portadores de hemofilia

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira , Adriana Aparecida

    2012-01-01

    A hemofilia é uma condição potencialmente incapacitante, cujo tratamento está associado a elevados custos financeiros. Os portadores dessa coagulopatia apresentam alta carga de morbidade devido ao desenvolvimento precoce de artropatia hemofílica. A avaliação da qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde representa as perspectivas do paciente sobre o impacto causado em sua vida pela doença e pelo tratamento. O objetivo do presente estudo foi...

  2. Lesão liquenóide oral relacionada ao amálgama

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardes,Vanessa Fátima; Garcia,Bruna Gonçalves; Souto,Giovanna Ribeiro; Novaes-Junior,João Batista; Maria Cássia Ferreira de AGUIAR; Mesquita, Ricardo Alves

    2007-01-01

    A lesão liquenóide oral relacionada ao amálgama, condição rara na prática odontológica, constitui importante diagnóstico diferencial no grupo das leucoplasias orais. Relatam-se dois casos que apresentaram rápida resolução clínica após a substituição das restaurações de amálgama.

  3. INFECÇÃO DO TRATO URINÁRIO RELACIONADA AO CATETER: PERFIL DE SENSIBILIDADE ANTIMICROBIANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Kelie Souza de Almeida Barros

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudio descriptivo, cuantitativo, cuyo objetivo fue analizar la prevalencia de microorganismos y perfil de sensibilidad a antimicrobianos en uroculturas de pacientes con infección del tracto urinario relacionada al catéter. Se investigaron 394 registros médicos de pacientes adultos en Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos del Hospital Universitario de Londrina-Paraná, Brasil, de abril a diciembre de 2011. La prevalencia de infección de tracto urinario relacionada al catéter fue 34,0% (134 y 2,2% (3 desarrollaron sepsis. Los microorganismos más comunes aislados en los cultivos de orina fueron: Candida sp (44,4%, Acinetobacter baumannii (9,7% y Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9,2%. La última representó 86,7% de resistencia a cefalosporinas de tercera generación y Acinetobacter baumannii 83,3% a los carbapenémicos. La Klebsiella pneumoniae presentó 87,5% de resistencia a cefalosporinas de tercera y cuarta generación y 75,0% a carbapenémicos. La resistencia bacteriana es frecuente en infecciones del tracto urinario relacionadas al catéter, y las medidas de control deben ser resaltadas.

  4. Did Legalized Abortion Lower Crime?

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between the legalization of abortion and subsequent decreases in crime. In a current study, researchers estimate that the legalization of abortion explains over half of the recent decline in national crime rates. The association is identified by correlating changes in crime with changes in the abortion ratio weighted by the proportion of the criminal population exposed to legalized abortion. In this paper, I use an alternative identification strategy. I an...

  5. Qualidade de vida relacionada com a visão em pacientes com degeneração macular relacionada à idade neovascular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Picoto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar o impacto da degeneração macular relacionada à idade (DMRI na qualidade de vida relacionada com a visão (QVRV numa amostra de pacientes portugueses. Métodos: Estudo observacional em corte transversal, não comparativo no qual foram incluídos 68 pacientes seguidos no departamento de Retina Médica do Serviço de Oftalmologia do Centro Hospitalar de Lisboa Ocidental, entre janeiro e abril de 2011. A QVRV foi avaliada por meio do questionário National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ-25, traduzido para o português. Os scores obtidos foram analisados e correlacionados com os seguintes parâmetros idade, sexo, lateralidade da doença, tempo de follow-up, acuidade visual (AV e EFC iniciais e finais do melhor (MO e pior olho (PO. Resultados: A AV do PO apresentou valor preditivo nos scores global, atividade para longe, visão cromática, visão periférica, desempenho, função social e saúde mental (p<0,05. Num modelo de multivariáveis com inclusão de todos os parâmetros clínicos analisados, as variáveis estudadas explicaram 60% da variância do score global (SG com um valor preditivo de 0,08 (R2 0,57, p=0,088. Conclusões: A DMRI NV está associada a uma diminuição da QVRV. A AV do PO tem valor preditivo nos scores do NEI-VFQ-25.

  6. Calidad de vida relacionada con la salud en pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Barros-Higgins

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes. La calidad de vida relacionada con la salud se puede afectar en personas con enfermedad renal crónica. Objetivo. Determinar la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud de los pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica (ERC y su relación con variables sociodemográficas y datos clínicos. Materiales y métodos. Estudio analítico de corte transversal realizado en 80 personas con diagnóstico de enfermedad renal crónica. Participaron los pacientes que asistieron a la Unidad Renal y al servicio de hospitalización durante los meses de estudio. Se aplicó el cuestionario Kidney Disease Quality of Life (KDQOL-SF, valorando ocho dimensiones genéricas de la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud y tres específicas relacionadas con la enfermedad renal. Se compararon las variables socio demográficas y las relacionadas con la enfermedad con las dimensiones del KDQOOL-36. Resultados. El 23.5% de la población estudiada tenía entre 61 y 70 años y 51.3% eran hombres. Se obtuvieron promedios bajos en las dimensiones carga de la enfermedad renal (40.3, salud física (33.4 y salud mental (43.5 del componente genérico. Se encontró una correlación significativa de la edad con las dimensiones efectos de la enfermedad renal en la vida diaria (0.238, p=0.03 y el componente genérico salud física (-0.242, p=0.03. Un trabajo remunerado se correlacionó positivamente con los componentes genéricos salud física (0.499, p=0.001 y salud mental (0.375, p=0.001 y la carga de la enfermedad renal se correlacionó negativamente con el tiempo de diagnóstico de enfermedad renal (-0.241, p=0.02. Conclusión. La enfermedad renal crónica tiene una carga sobre la calidad de vida de los pacientes en términos de salud física, salud mental y carga de la enfermedad.

  7. 基于法律风险损失的研究:CPA与客户之间的合作博弈%A Research Based on the Legal Risk Loss:The Cooperative Game between CPA and the Customer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张云; 张金凤

    2013-01-01

    CPA与客户之间的合作关系因法律风险进而影响到审计质量,基于法律风险损失的视角,对CPA与客户之间的合作博弈进行重复博弈分析。结果表明:在法律风险损失足够大的情况下,CPA与客户各自理性的选择应是相互再合作,即CPA履行职责,客户提供真实的信息,从而提高审计质量。因此,规避法律风险损失对提高审计质量有积极作用,对我国相关法律政策也具有一定的借鉴意义。%Between CPA and customer relations of cooperation for legal risk and affect the quality of the audit, based on the perspective of legal risk loss, repeated the game analysis of cooperative game between CPA and the customers. The results show that: in the legal risk loss is large enough, CPA customers and their rational choice should be mutual cooperation, namely CPA duties, provide truthful information, so as to improve the quality of audit. Therefore, to avoid legal risk has a positive ef-fect on improving audit quality, but also has certain reference significance to our country's relevant laws and policies.

  8. Geneletter: An Internet-based newsletter on the ethical, legal, and social implications of genetics. Final report to the Department of Energy [Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reilly, Philip; Wertz, Dorothy C.

    2001-05-01

    The GeneLetter (http://www.geneletter.org) is an Internet newsletter on ethical, legal, and social issues in genetics, designed for a wide and varied audience, some of whom may not be familiar with genetic science. It appears every two months, with a variety of long and short feature articles on ethics and on genetic disorders, a section on new federal and state legislation, an international section, a student corner, book and video reviews, a summary of genetics in the news, and a list of upcoming conferences. Feature articles have ventured into an area of wide general concern, behavioral genetics. The newsletter also has an interactive chatbox and the opportunity of more private communications with the editors via email. The purpose of the GeneLetter is to help fill a communication and knowledge gap on ethical, legal and social issues surrounding genetics.

  9. Legality Principle of Crimes and Punishments in Iranian Legal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibzadeh, Mohammad Ja'far

    2006-01-01

    The Principle of legality of crimes and punishments (nullum crimen, nulla poena sine lege) refers to the fact that an act is not considered a crime and deserves no punishment, unless the Legislator determines and announces the criminal title and its penalty before. The legality principle protects individual security by ensuring basic individual…

  10. AGILE: a methodology for Advanced Governance of Information services through Legal Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Boer; G. Sileno

    2013-01-01

    To address agility in public administration, the Agile project developed a reference knowledge acquisition infrastructure for legal knowledge, based on a dynamic and design-oriented conceptualization of the legal system. The main objective of the project was to reframe legal knowledge as a knowledge

  11. El sistema médico-legal y forense portugués The Portuguese medico-legal and forensic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Nuno Vieira

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Los primeros textos legales que contienen algunas normas relacionadas con las pericias médico-legales en Portugal se remontan al siglo XVI, pero no sería hasta el siglo XIX cuando aparecen los primeros servicios públicos y cuando surge la enseñanza de la medicina legal en la universidad como disciplina autónoma. Se crearon los primeros servicios médico-legales oficiales (morgues que existieron hasta 1918 cuando fueron suprimidas pasando a denominarse Institutos de Medicina Legal de Coimbra, Oporto y Lisboa. Posteriormente se unificaron en un único Instituto Nacional de Medicina Legal que tiene su sede en Coimbra e integra las tres delegaciones de él dependientes, localizadas en Oporto, Coimbra y Lisboa. En las Delegaciones existen 4 servicios técnicos periciales: Patología Forense, Clínica Forense, Toxicología Forense y Genética y Biología Forense. Así mismo existe una red de 31 Gabinetes Médico-Legales dispersos por el país con dependencia orgánica de los anteriores. En el aspecto formativo e investigador cabe mencionar que las Delegaciones funcionan íntimamente articuladas con las Facultades de Medicina del país. La disciplina de Medicina Legal es obligatoria en todas las licenciaturas de medicina y también en las Facultades de Derecho de todas las universidades públicas. En este ámbito de la enseñanza debe destacarse finalmente la existencia, desde 1918, de un postgrado específico en el ámbito de la medicina legal. Portugal dispone también del llamado Laboratorio de Policía Científica (LPC, en el ámbito de la policía judicial, perteneciendo a ésta y teniendo competencias solo en el ámbito de la investigación criminal.In Portugal, the first regulatory texts referring to medico- legal practice date back to the sixteenth century, but it was not until much later, in the nineteenth century, with the development of legal medicine as an independent university discipline, that the first medico-legal public services

  12. 75 FR 47632 - Thomson Reuters Legal, Legal Editorial Operations, Cleveland Office, Including Workers Whose...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... Employment and Training Administration Thomson Reuters Legal, Legal Editorial Operations, Cleveland Office..., applicable to workers of Thomson Reuters Legal, Legal Editorial Operations, Cleveland Office, Independence... that some workers separated from employment at the Independence, Ohio location of Thomson Reuters...

  13. Legal aspects of Brexit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu – Horia Maican

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Brexit referendum vote has mainly political implications and no direct legal effect. The article 50 of the Treaty on European Union allows member states to withdraw from the European Union in accordance with its own constitutional requirements. After the referendum is a period of two years from the british notice of intention to withdraw to negotiate terms of exit unless all the other member states agree to extend it. Article 50 put the balance of power firmly in the hands of the 27 other states more than the leaving state. After the time limit in article 50 is expiring, Europen Union in theory law ceases to apply in the United Kingdom. In the same time, separating European law from british national law will be an complicated process.

  14. The legal dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karsten

    Plain language changes in the municipality of Stevns In 2014 the municipality of Stevns in Denmark carried out a pilot project to initiate a plain language initiative covering the entire municipality. The pilot project involved a small section of Social Services and dealt with the reformulation...... of a series of letters. The group consisted of the project leader, the section’s head, and five staff members. The staff members went through the letters that they send out to citizens in order to edit them to plain language principles. I followed the process from beginning to end by observing meetings...... language changes aimed at. What to learn from the presentation: •How to design a plain language project •How to include legal advice in a plain language project •How to design a study of plain language changes...

  15. Legal and actual central bank independence

    OpenAIRE

    Artha, I.K.D.S.; de Haan, J.

    2010-01-01

    Indicators of central bank independence (CBI) based on the interpretation central bank laws in place may not capture the actual independence of the central bank. This paper develops an indicator of actual independence of the Bank Indonesia (BI), the central bank of Indonesia, for the period 1953-2008 and compares it with a new legal CBI indicator based on Cukierman (1992). The indicator of actual independence captures institutional and economic factors that affect CBI. We find that before 199...

  16. Studying Legal Cultures and Encounters?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the cultural and other turns in relation to legal culture and situates Western legal culture in context. It deals with concepts and their relations to trends and fashions and introduces methodological reflections such as use of interdisciplinary methods, personal experience...... and looks at the overlapping roles of authors as activists, teachers, communicators etc....

  17. Legal risk management in shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siig, Kristina

    The book discusses the most typical legal challenges met in the chartering, broker, agent or port management part of the shipping industry. It discusses these issues in both English and Scandinavian law and gives indications on how to best ensure your legal risk management in these parts...

  18. Legal Quality, Inequality, and Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    Previous findings suggest that income inequality leads to lower legal quality. This paper argues that voters' tolerance of inequality exerts an additional influence. Empirical findings suggest that inequality leads to lower legal quality due to its effect on trust while the tolerance of inequalit......, proxied by the political ideology of the median voter, exerts an independent influence....

  19. Legal Quality, Inequality, and Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2004-01-01

    Previous findings suggest that income inequality leads to lower legal quality. This paper argues that voters' tolerance of inequality exerts an additional influence. Empirical findings suggest that inequality leads to lower legal quality due to its effect on trust while the tolerance of inequalit......, proxied by the political ideology of the median voter, exerts an independent influence....

  20. Legal Principles and Legislative Instrumentalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gribnau, J.L.M.; Soeteman, A.

    2003-01-01

    Instrumentalist legislation usually underestimates the importance of legal principles in modern law. Legal principles are the normative core of a value oriented conception of law. They function as essential criteria of evaluation for lawmaking by the legislator and the executive. In fact, legislator

  1. Concept Of The Legal System Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr E. Zhigockiy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present article an attempt to provide a theoretical analysis of the legal system, and to consider the law as one of the most complicated social phenomena was made. Author notes, that the contradictions prevailing in public practice are unpredictable. Doctrines of law are varied in their approaches, scores and results, but based on a common foundation: the law for people always acted as a certain order in a society, where the differences begin. Author draws attention to the fact, that the state and the law ensure the order in society by removing contradictions and achieving social compromises. The legal reality is divided into certain groups of legal systems, there is a classification. If we are relying on the identification of groups of the same order, there is the theoretical generality as the level of the theory of law on the legal systems basis. Analysis of the political and legal systems will draw attention to the democratic and totalitarian regimes. Totalitarian regimes are characterized by law as means of violence, the means of coercion and suppression. The majority of democratic regimes are characterized by the use of law as a means of social harmony and social compromise. In conclusion, author underlines, that the theory of law can be made not only at the level of each country. This level is a necessary basis for the theory, but not its completion. Based on the individual characteristics of each country's law, that is descended from the general and particular to an individual, the theory can and should continue to make the way back from the individual to the particular and the general.

  2. FREEDOM OF CONSCIENCE LEGAL AND RELIGIOUS IMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius ANDREESCU

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Conscience is a defining existential reality of man, whose meaning can be seen only through an interdisciplinary unceasing effort of thinking and knowledge. In this study, we aim to make such an analysis of the conscience as an ontological foundation and characteristic of man, in its individual and social dimension, whose basis is made up of philosophical, theological and legal ideas, concepts and theories. Freedom of conscience is the main feature of the manifestations of man as a person within the specific environment of his/her existence. From the legal point of view, freedom of conscience is a complex fundamental right requesting a wide legislative system in order to establish and guarantee it. In our opinion, both the basis and the legitimacy of the legal system protecting the freedom of conscience are given by the philosophical truths and the truths of faith, as expressed in theological writings and meditations. In this study, we identify the theological and philosophical bases of the freedom of conscience and their reflection in the legal field.

  3. Legality of Tawarruq in Islamic Finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Yuhanis Bt Ismon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective – Islamic finance has been established as an alternative to the conventional banking system which is made up component not permitted under Shariah. Tawarruq is one of the Islamic finance products which commonly used in Islamic banks. This research assesses two important areas which include the principle of Tawarruq in Fiqh perspective and the practical aspect of such principle in Islamic banks in Malaysia.Method – The method used for this research is comparative analysis.Result – This research begins to explore the different views of the proponent and opponents toward the legality of Tawarruq in Fiqh . Instead of considering the basic condition of the valid sale, the other aspect has to be pondered by the contemporary scholars to render Tawarruq is valid sale according to Shariah. The legality of Tawarruq has been debate by some scholars. Due to that, there are different resolution and rulings from Islamic countries on legality of of Tawarruq . In the practical aspect, Tawarruq has been used in Malaysia by Bursa Malaysia Suq Al Sila' as a trading platform and it uses Crude Palm Oil (CPO as the commodity in Tawarruq transaction. While, in the Middle East, it uses London Metal Exchange (LME in dealing with commodity transaction through Tawarruq principle.Conclusion – Based on the legal argument on the permissibility of Tawarruq , it can be summarized that Tawarruq is permissible but subject to certain condition. Provided that genuine Tawarruq is permissible than organized Tawarruq in Tawarruq transaction.Keywords: Tawarruq, Murabahah

  4. Legal Language in Intercultural Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Janulevičienė

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the considerable role of legal translation in intercultural communication. Effective intercultural communication requires sufficient language skills and also extensive knowledge of the cultures involved, which encompass official social behaviour norms, enshrined in the corresponding legal systems. The basic legal terms often pose substantial difficulties even for experienced translators and, hence, to communication, because these terms nominate concepts that are inherently linked with culture, moral values and legal tradition of a given country. In intercultural communication the most widely used legal English is permeated by Anglo-Saxon legal system and concepts which have little or no equivalents in Romano-Germanic or other continental law countries. The authors present a comparative analysis of the translation strategies employed by the compilers of two main English-Lithuanian law dictionaries (V. Bitinaitė „Mokomasis anglų-lietuvių kalbų teisės terminų žodynas“ and O. Armalytė, L. Pažūsis. „Anglų-lietuvių kalbų teisės žodynas“ in translation of the English-Welsh law terms defining abstract common law terms, some specific English-Welsh legal professions and the English-Welsh court names. The findings of the analysis reveal the difficulties which the dictionary compilers have to cope with when translating culture-bound terms and the strategies chosen by them for problematic translations. The research also highlights the role of the legal language translator as the key figure in facilitating different cultural background comprehension of the legal terms and, what is even more important, specific aspects of legal systems; the latter being necessary for efficacious intercultural cooperation.

  5. COMPARATIVE LEGAL STUDIES: ROMANO-GERMANIC LEGAL SYSTEMS IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC STATES

    OpenAIRE

    Dmitry A. Verkhoturov; Andrey A. Verkhoturov

    2013-01-01

    The article analyzes the differences in the national legal doctrines of the Asia-Pacific countries included in the Romano-Germanic legal family of legal systems. The article shows that various Pacific Rim countries of the same legal family have substantial differences between national legal systems. The article also identifies main trends of comparative legal studies development in these countries.

  6. EL SÍNDROME DE CAÍDAS Y LA CALIDAD DE VIDA RELACIONADA CON LA SALUD EN EL ADULTO MAYOR

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Objetivo: Asociar la presencia de caidas con algunos factores de riesgo y con la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud. Material y metodos: Estudio de casos y controles definidos con base en el diagnostico de caidas en adultos mayores de una Clinica de Medicina Familiar de la Ciudad de Mexico. Se aplicaron los cuestionarios: De calidad de vida, Perfil de Salud de Nottingham, y el modelo Hendrich II de riesgo de caida, para asociar variables se utilizo razon de momias con intervalos de conf...

  7. Empirical Legal Research: The Gap between Facts and Values and Legal Academic Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans L. Leeuw

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available While traditional legal scholarship is under pressure and debates are taking place on the aims and methods of the academic study of law, at the same time empirical legal research is blossoming if not booming. The more empirical legal research is a growth industry, the more important it is to understand and discuss epistemological, methodological and translational problems of this field of study. This paper focuses on problems of a translational character, i.e. how to bring empirical evidence to the fore, in such a way that it can be understood and used by lawyers, legislators and regulators. And how to deal with the gap between facts (‘evidence’ and values, also known as the fact-value dichotomy. Our perspective is what students of law, including PhD candidates and legal practitioners (in training, need to know about this problem and how to address it. The paper summarizes several approaches to this gap problem, based on Giesen (2015 and continues with a critical analysis of his due process approach. Our analysis is that the gap problem continues to exist despite Giesen’s suggestions. Therefore four other approaches are put forward, two from the field of evaluation studies, one from argumentational analysis and one from empirically informed ethics. Finally, the paper discusses the relevance of these approaches for the legal curriculum.

  8. Variables relacionadas con la natalidad en los sectores urbano y rural de la provincia del Guayas

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    La natalidad es una de las principales componentes de cambio de una población, por lo que en nuestro trabajo presentamos una visión general de la natalidad, las determinantes de la natalidad en el Ecuador y el mundo. Además no podemos dejar a un lado otras componentes demográficas, como lo son la mortalidad y la migración, así que presentamos algunas consideraciones sobre mortalidad y migración en el Ecuador. Nuestro estudio se ha enfocado al análisis de las variables relacionadas con la...

  9. Calidad del sueño relacionada con el rendimiento académico de

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar Carrillo, Katherine; Santos R., Gabriela; Carhuancho-Aguilar, José

    2013-01-01

    La calidad del sueño está directamente relacionada al buen funcionamiento de los procesos cognitivos, así como al bienestar de los seres humanos. En los estudiantes de Medicina Humana, los procesos de memoria a corto y largo plazo toman especial importancia para el aprendizaje del contenido académico.Objetivo: Demostrar la existencia de una relación entre la calidad del sueño y el rendimiento académico de los alumnos del curso de Fisiología Humana de la Facultad de Medicina Humana de la Unive...

  10. The Relationship between the Law, Legal Norm, Legal Order and Normativity in Postmodern Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona DUMINICĂ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that the existence of people in society cannot happen at random, but be organized. In one way or another, all human activities are generally subject to the law, meaning that they cannot unfold in an unorganized manner or outside of a certain social order without being subject to rules and principles promoted either by the group or by society. Based on these considerations, this article aims to discuss the particularities of the relationship between law, legal norms, order legal and normativity in postmodern society.

  11. European stem cell research in legal shackles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielen, Myrthe G; de Vries, Sybe A; Geijsen, Niels

    2013-12-11

    Advances in stem cell biology have raised legal challenges to the patentability of stem cells and any derived technologies and processes. In 1999, Oliver Brüstle was granted a patent for the generation and therapeutic use of neural cells derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). The patent was challenged and put before the European Court of Justice, which ruled that inventions involving the prior destruction of human embryos cannot be patented. The legal maneuvering around this case demonstrates that the future of stem cell-based patents in Europe remains unsettled. Furthermore, owing to the European Court's broad definition of hESC as 'any cell that is capable of commencing development into a human being,' novel technologies that could eliminate the need for hESCs, such as induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), are at risk of being included under the same ruling. Advances in the in vitro development of germ cells from pluripotent stem cells may one day provide a direct developmental path from iPSC to oocyte and sperm, and, according to the European Court's reasoning, legally equate iPSCs with human embryos. In this review, we will briefly discuss the Brüstle v Greenpeace case and the implications of the European Court of Justice's ruling. We will identify potential risks for stem cell research and future therapeutics resulting from the broad legal definition of the human embryo. Finally, we will broach the current legal landscape, as this broad definition has also created great uncertainty about the status of human iPSCs.

  12. preliminary study of American legal culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周杨

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is a preliminary study of American legal culture. Nowadays more and more scholars see the importance of legal culture and do studies on it. The author selects a number of American legal TV plays and movies; analyzes their topics, main characters, and plots; then finds out why United States adopt the legal system; what kind of legal culture it has; and how the legal culture is reflected in those movies and TV plays. The author hopes this thesis can work not only as an insight into the American legal culture, but also a source of reference for china to improve its legal system.

  13. A Software Tool for Legal Drafting

    CERN Document Server

    Gorín, Daniel; Schapachnik, Fernando; 10.4204/EPTCS.68.7

    2011-01-01

    Although many attempts at automated aids for legal drafting have been made, they were based on the construction of a new tool, completely from scratch. This is at least curious, considering that a strong parallelism can be established between a normative document and a software specification: both describe what an entity should or should not do, can or cannot do. In this article we compare normative documents and software specifications to find out their similarities and differences. The comparison shows that there are distinctive particularities, but they are restricted to a very specific subclass of normative propositions. The rest, we postulate, can be dealt with software tools. For such an enterprise the \\FormaLex tool set was devised: an LTL-based language and companion tools that utilize model checking to find out normative incoherences in regulations, contracts and other legal documents. A feature-rich case study is analyzed with the presented tools.

  14. A Software Tool for Legal Drafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Gorín

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Although many attempts at automated aids for legal drafting have been made, they were based on the construction of a new tool, completely from scratch. This is at least curious, considering that a strong parallelism can be established between a normative document and a software specification: both describe what an entity should or should not do, can or cannot do. In this article we compare normative documents and software specifications to find out their similarities and differences. The comparison shows that there are distinctive particularities, but they are restricted to a very specific subclass of normative propositions. The rest, we postulate, can be dealt with software tools. For such an enterprise the FormaLex tool set was devised: an LTL-based language and companion tools that utilize model checking to find out normative incoherences in regulations, contracts and other legal documents. A feature-rich case study is analyzed with the presented tools.

  15. End of FY10 report - used fuel disposition technical bases and lessons learned : legal and regulatory framework for high-level waste disposition in the United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiner, Ruth F.; Blink, James A. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA); Rechard, Robert Paul; Perry, Frank (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Jenkins-Smith, Hank C. (University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK); Carter, Joe (Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, Aiken, SC); Nutt, Mark (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Cotton, Tom (Complex Systems Group, Washington DC)

    2010-09-01

    This report examines the current policy, legal, and regulatory framework pertaining to used nuclear fuel and high level waste management in the United States. The goal is to identify potential changes that if made could add flexibility and possibly improve the chances of successfully implementing technical aspects of a nuclear waste policy. Experience suggests that the regulatory framework should be established prior to initiating future repository development. Concerning specifics of the regulatory framework, reasonable expectation as the standard of proof was successfully implemented and could be retained in the future; yet, the current classification system for radioactive waste, including hazardous constituents, warrants reexamination. Whether or not consideration of multiple sites are considered simultaneously in the future, inclusion of mechanisms such as deliberate use of performance assessment to manage site characterization would be wise. Because of experience gained here and abroad, diversity of geologic media is not particularly necessary as a criterion in site selection guidelines for multiple sites. Stepwise development of the repository program that includes flexibility also warrants serious consideration. Furthermore, integration of the waste management system from storage, transportation, and disposition, should be examined and would be facilitated by integration of the legal and regulatory framework. Finally, in order to enhance acceptability of future repository development, the national policy should be cognizant of those policy and technical attributes that enhance initial acceptance, and those policy and technical attributes that maintain and broaden credibility.

  16. IT Security Standards and Legal Metrology - Transfer and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, F.; Hartmann, V.; Grottker, U.; Richter, D.

    2014-08-01

    Legal Metrology's requirements can be transferred into the IT security domain applying a generic set of standardized rules provided by the Common Criteria (ISO/IEC 15408). We will outline the transfer and cross validation of such an approach. As an example serves the integration of Legal Metrology's requirements into a recently developed Common Criteria based Protection Profile for a Smart Meter Gateway designed under the leadership of the Germany's Federal Office for Information Security. The requirements on utility meters laid down in the Measuring Instruments Directive (MID) are incorporated. A verification approach to check for meeting Legal Metrology's requirements by their interpretation through Common Criteria's generic requirements is also presented.

  17. Affirmation of the Legal Status of Taxpayers in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božović Srđa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Public needs cannot be adequately funded without a clear and legally based affirmative legal status of taxpayers. The promotion and protection of their rights and regular fulfilment of tax obligations by taxpayers is the basis of fiscal and financial stability of the country and other public collectivities. It is essential for Montenegro to overcome the traditional gap between taxpayers and tax administration through their partnership. At the same time, we must not jeopardize the basic purpose of taxation - legal and timely payment of taxes. Simple and stable tax regulations and a non-discriminating and subtle approach to building tax discipline and development of tax morale should serve that purpose.

  18. (THE LEGAL CONCEPT OF) BAD FAITH

    OpenAIRE

    Alferillo, Pascual E.; Academia Nacional de Derecho de Córdoba.

    2011-01-01

    In the present investigation examines bad faith trying to decipher if it has enough conceptual and operational independence for typical autonomous legal figure. In this course and, based on the collection of the normative background in Latin American and European civil codes which is mentioned in seeks to establish the common  parameters that guide the construction of its concept. From this, analyses the differences and links with the criminal intent and guilt, to conclude that the figure has...

  19. Calidad de vida relacionada con la salud en pacientes con enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. López Cortés

    Full Text Available Fundamento. Determinar la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud en pacientes con enfermedad de Crohn y colitis ulcerosa, así como evaluar las diferencias en función del sexo, tipo de enfermedad y otras variables sociodemográficas. Método. Estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal en 100 pacientes atendidos en el servicio de Digestivo del Complejo Hospitalario de Navarra. Se empleó un cuestionario con variables sociodemográficas y clínicas, además del Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire-32, en su versión adaptada al castellano, para medir la calidad de vida. Resultados. La media de la puntuación total del cuestionario de calidad vida es de 166 puntos (D.T.=40,06 sobre un máximo de 232. Se han hallado diferencias estadísticamente significativas en función del tipo de enfermedad (p=0,005 y el sexo (p=0,001. Conclusiones. Las personas con enfermedad de Crohn o sexo femenino perciben peor calidad de vida relacionada con la salud respecto a pacientes con colitis ulcerosa u hombres.

  20. Dislipidemia relacionada à fibrose cística Cystic fibrosis-related dyslipidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crésio de Aragão Dantas Alves

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Esse artigo tem por objetivo rever o conhecimento atual sobre a fisiopatologia, o diagnóstico e a abordagem da dislipidemia relacionada à fibrose cística (DFC. A pesquisa bibliográfica utilizou os bancos de dados Medline e Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (1987-2007, selecionando os artigos mais relevantes sobre o tema. A DFC é caracterizada por hipertrigliceridemia e/ou hipocolesterolemia e deficiência de ácidos graxos essenciais. Seus principais fatores de risco são: insuficiência pancreática, dieta rica em carboidratos, hepatopatias, estado inflamatório e corticoterapia. Não existem recomendações específicas sobre a triagem, que habitualmente é realizada a partir do diagnóstico e, em intervalos regulares, com maior freqüência, nos indivíduos pertencentes aos grupos de risco. O tratamento inclui: dieta balanceada, reposição de micronutrientes, vitaminas e fibras, além de exercício físico regular de acordo com a tolerância individual. Na grande maioria dos casos, a hipertrigliceridemia da DFC não atinge valores que indiquem o uso de hipolipemiantes. Conclui-se que existem poucos trabalhos na literatura sobre a freqüência, etiologia e manejo da DFC. A recomendações preventivas e terapêuticas para a hipertrigliceridemia são extrapoladas de diretrizes para indivíduos sem fibrose cística. Mais pesquisas são necessárias para investigar a associação da deficiência de ácidos graxos essenciais com a fisiopatologia da fibrose cística. Como a hipertrigliceridemia é um importante fator de risco para doença arterial coronariana, estudos prospectivos irão contribuir para o melhor entendimento da história natural dessa complicação bem como definir maneiras de preveni-la e tratá-la.This article aims to review the physiopathology, diagnosis and treatment of cystic fibrosis-related dyslipidemia (CFD. Bibliographic searches of the Medline and Latin American and Caribbean Health

  1. CULTURAL AND LEGAL FACTORS OF OPTIMIZATION OF THE IDEOLOGY OF STATE-BUILDING IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Krasnokutskyi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Purpose is to investigate the legal cultural phenomenon in the riches of the contours of its essence, raising the level of this phenomenon as part of the system of determinants of the optimization of ideology of state-building in modern Ukraine. Methodology. The study is based on the principles of materialist dialectics and the principles of historicism, social determinism, complexity. The scientific novelty. The cultural and legal factors of optimization of the ideology of state-building are conceptually considered for the first time in modern Ukraine; three methodological points that should be targeted in the definition of «legal culture» are outlined; the definition of legal culture is improved; a working template program of improvement and increase of the level of legal culture in contemporary Ukrainian society is developed; four key conceptual areas of the program are outlined. Conclusions. Legal culture can be defined as a separate category to mark the legal system which was historically formed and the institutions of a state-organized society that are correlated with it, and also the legal knowledge and motives, forms, techniques and methods of legal activities, values, estimates with the necessity inherent to every people, class, nation, community groups, to the individual person at a certain stage of their development. Rise of the level of legal awareness is one of the leading systematic factors, cultural and code keys to optimizing the development of state-building ideology in the conditions of today's Ukraine. The program for the improvement and enhancement of legal culture in contemporary Ukrainian society is composed of four major conceptual areas: the growth of basic legal literacy; the rise of their legal awareness; the increase of theoretical justification of the existing legal reality, the prospects for its future development, the increase of the efficiency of the legal theory; progressive formation of legal ideology.

  2. The Legal System in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The present legal system dates back to the late 1970s. The Sino-Foreign Equity Joint Venture (JV) Law of 1979 was the first step towards creating laws to meet the changing political and economic landscape.

  3. Federal Aviation Administration Legal Interpretations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Legal Interpretations and the Chief Counsel's opinions are now available at this site. Your may choose to search by year or by text search. Please note that not all...

  4. Essence and classification of legal guarantees of creditors’ rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra M. Sil’chenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to conduct a comprehensive study of the concept of legal guarantees of creditorsrsquo rights and to identify some features of guarantees on the basis of the presented classification. Methods general scientific deduction comparative and system analysis formal logical method and special comparative legal and structuralfunctional methods. Results basing on the evaluation of different scientistsrsquo opinions the definition of the notion laquolegal guarantees of creditorsrsquo rightsraquo is given. Four classifications of legal guarantees of creditorsrsquo rights are proposed. Scientific novelty author39s definition of the notion laquolegal guarantees of creditorsrsquo rightsraquo is given. The essence of legal guarantees in general and legal rights of creditors in particular is defined. Classifications of legal guarantees of creditorsrsquo rights are given by the content and methods of implementation of creditorsrsquo rights guarantees by forms of providing guarantees to creditors general and special guarantees by the form of termination of legal personrsquos activity. The classifications are described in detail through examples. Practical value the results of this research can be used in scientificresearch activity. Theoretical conclusions formulated in the work can be used in the process of improving of the existing legislation and practice of its application.

  5. Legal Aspects of Telepathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Dierks

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In some legal surroundings telepathology is considered a breach of registrational barriers. The recommendation of the G 8 states in Europe for required legislation in telemedicine suggests to recognise that the localization of the remote health care professional defines the site not only of licensure but also of liability. This approach must be considered helpful, since it can solve many problems brought about by the doubtful results of private international law and conventions like the European Union (EU and Lugano Convention. Under today's conditions in private international law it must be considered essential to agree upon a choice of law and stipulate a court of jurisdiction when doing telepathology. However, the opposing aims of insuring the patients claims and avoiding jurisdictions that exceed the local expectations of the medical professional must be reconciled. Data protection and data security are other crucial topics that require attention. Generally speaking, the principles of minimum data exchange, anonymity, pseudonymity and cryptography must be established as a basis for all telepathology procedures. Only when personal data is needed, its use can be legitimated. Written consent of the patient is advised. To guarantee a cross‐border security level the regulations of the EU‐Data Protection Directive need to be transformed into national law. In practise, cross‐border dataflow shall only take place where the security level can be maintained even within the other country. Finally, reimbursement questions must be answered to establish a sound economical basis for telepathology. The spatial distance between the participants may yield the question, whether the service has been rendered to an extent necessary and sufficient for reimbursement. If reimbursement takes place on a cross‐border or cross‐regional level, severe disturbances of the health systems can occur. Regulation schemes or treaties need therefore to be developed to

  6. Why do women not prefer much older men? a hypothesis based on alterations in male reproductive physiology related to increased age Por que mulheres não preferem homens muito mais velhos que elas? uma hipótese baseada em alterações da fisiologia reprodutiva masculina relacionadas ao aumento da idade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luísa Helena Pinheiro Spinelli

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary Psychology studies suggest that women prefer slightly older or similarly aged partners, although to date few hypotheses have been put forth to explain this pattern of choice. Several recent studies have shown changes in male reproductive parameters as a result of increased age. In the current review of medical literature, we found evidence that much older men are more likely to be infertile, women with much older partners are more likely to experience problems during pregnancy, and children of much older men are more likely to have genetic abnormalities. Based on these findings, we suggest that reproducing with much older men does not represent the best reproductive option for women, which would explain the female preference for only slightly older or similarly-aged mates.Estudos de Psicologia Evolucionista sugerem que as mulheres preferem parceiros um pouco mais velhos ou de idade semelhante, embora apresentem, até agora, poucas hipóteses para explicar esse padrão de preferência. Recentemente, vários estudos têm demonstrado alterações nos parâmetros reprodutivos masculinos como resultado do aumento da idade. Em revisão da literatura médica atual, encontramos evidências de que homens muito mais velhos são mais susceptíveis de serem inférteis, mulheres com parceiros muito mais velhos são mais propensas a sofrer com problemas durante a gravidez e filhos de homens muito mais velhos são mais propensos a ter anomalias genéticas. Com base nestes resultados, sugerimos que reproduzir com homens muito mais velhos não representa a melhor opção reprodutiva para as mulheres, o que explicaria a preferência feminina por parceiros apenas um pouco mais velhos ou de mesma faixa etária.

  7. What are the boundaries of legal guardianship in Alzheimer’s disease? An evidence-based update in the context of the Brazilian Civil Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe K. Sudo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Civil Code, which came into force in 2002, established a functional criterion for guardianship proceedings and introduced the concept of “limited guardianship,” applied to cases in which incapacity to exercise civil rights is partial. With population aging and the growth in the number of older people with cognitive impairments, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD, the need to invoke legal remedies against elder abuse increased; however, difficulties in assessing capacity still lead to a majority of decisions in favor of plenary guardianship. The present article compiled data on capacity in AD subjects. The varying degrees of decision-making impairment at different stages of AD might be compatible with limited guardianship in milder cases of the disease.

  8. The Francis Report--dento-legal implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Martin

    2015-05-01

    This article explores the potential implications of the Francis Report for members of the dental team from a dento-legal perspective. It looks at the broad recommendations in light of the existing ethical environment in which dental registrants work and asks what is new and what the recommendations will actually mean for dental professionals in practical terms. Clinical Relevance: The fundamental recommendations of the Francis Report, namely, that those who provide care should put patients' interests first and be open about outcomes and performance, are not new concepts. A breach of these ethically based expectations may, however, create grounds for legal proceedings, which is clearly a significant point for all members of the dental team. It is therefore important to be aware of what is expected of those providing clinical care.

  9. Abortion in Iranian legal system: a review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Abbasi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Abortion traditionally means, "to miscarry" and is still known as a problem which societies has been trying to reduce its rate by using legal means. Despite the pregnant women and fetuses have being historically supported; abortion was firstly criminalized in 1926 in Iran, 20 years after establishment of modern legal system. During next 53 years this situation changed dramatically, so in 1979, the time of Islamic Revolution, aborting fetuses before 12 weeks and therapeutic abortion (TA during all the pregnancy length was legitimate, based on regulations that used medical justification. After 1979 the situation changed into a totally conservative and restrictive approach and new Islamic concepts as "Blood Money" and "Ensoulment" entered the legal debates around abortion. During the next 33 years, again a trend of decriminalization for the act of abortion has been continuing. Reduction of punishments and omitting retaliation for criminal abortions, recognizing fetal and maternal medical indications including some immunologic problems as legitimate reasons for aborting fetuses before 4 months and omitting the fathers' consent as a necessary condition for TA are among these changes. The start point for this decriminalization process was public and professional need, which was responded by religious government, firstly by issuing juristic rulings (Fatwas as a non-official way, followed by ratification of "Therapeutic Abortion Act" (TAA and other regulations as an official pathway. Here, we have reviewed this trend of decriminalization, the role of public and professional request in initiating such process and the rule-based language of TAA.

  10. A Basic Classification of Legal Institutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiter, Dick W.P.

    1997-01-01

    The author offers a general definition of legal institutions. A distinction between institutional legal concepts, legal institutions and social institutions makes it possible to define legal institutions as systems of valid presentations of what must occur in social reality in order that the former

  11. A Goddess for semiotics of law and legal discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan M. Broekman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The work of the great American philosopher Charles Sanders Peirce (1839-1914 becomes more and more appreciated beyond the boundaries of his pragmatism, a philosophical mainstream he founded in the early 20th century. This essay is inspired by five points of interest, all of which focus on law and legal discourse. Firstly, one should acknowledge that his proposal pertaining to a general theory of signs, which he called ‘semeiotics’ around 1860, leads to an untraditional and in-depth understanding of legal discourse: in essence, of law as a system of specific meanings and signs. Semiotics in general became a substantial part of his ‘evolutionary cosmology,’ an all-embracing approach to tackle classical and modern philosophical issues. Secondly, his anthropological intuition based on semiotics, (concentrated in the formula ‘man is a sign’ became important for our understanding of a human subject’s position in law, as author of a legal discourse as well as an individual subjected to law. Thirdly, the tensions between chance and continuity in legal discourse are of focal interest for the creation of legal meaning in law’s practices. Novelty, Peirce suggested in this context, occurs by the grace of chance rather than of continuity and fixed traditions. Fourthly, Roberta Kevelson (1931-1998 explored and expanded the field of legal semiotics on the basis of the works of Peirce. In doing so, she established an American tradition of legal semiotics distinct from a European tradition, which related more to linguists, psychologists and philosophers embracing structuralism. Fifthly, Tyche, the Ancient Goddess of fate and fortune, is because of Peirce’s references more at home in the US legal semiotic tradition. Her fame and influence reaches beyond law and became supported by recent archaeological discoveries, publications and exhibitions, which not only provide information about her background, but also underline her possible influence on

  12. Dermatological legal claims in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Sachiko; Isogawa, Naoyuki; Ushiro, Shin; Ayuzawa, Junko; Furue, Masutaka

    2008-07-01

    Health-care safety management has recently been highlighted for patient safety. However, specialist-based risks in clinical settings have hardly been discussed in Japan so far. A review of dermatological legal claims may delineate these risks. This study examined court precedents from the databases "Courts in Japan" and LEX/DB. Thirty-four dermatology-related civil cases were found from 1968-2006. Of the 34 cases, 32 (94%) were judged and two (6%) were retried. Of these 32 cases, 11 (34%) were appealed to higher courts. Among the 34 litigations, the defendants of eight (23%) were dermatology specialists, 20 (59%) were non-dermatologists and six (18%) of unknown specialty. The defendants' negligence was determined at either level in court in 25 of the 34 cases. The negligence in these 25 cases was categorized into five groups: (i) delayed diagnosis (none); (ii) complication during diagnosis procedure (one, 4%); (iii) inappropriate treatment (nine, 36%); (iv) complication during treatment procedure (10, 40%); and (v) insufficient informed consent (five, 20%). The present study may help to improve strategies for health-care safety management in the dermatological field in Japan.

  13. LEGAL ENTITIES IN ROMANIAN PRIVATE INTERNATIONAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berlingher Remus Daniel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Legal entities play an increasing role in international economic relations, as well as in political, cultural, social or human relations. Any legal entity is subject to the law of a certain country, as it can only exist or function on the basis of legal provisions. In this sense, the paper analyses the law applicable to the organic statute of a legal entity, the importance and criteria underlying the establishment of a legal entity’s nationality, the recognition of foreign legal entities in Romania, as well as the rights and obligations of foreign legal entities residing in our country.

  14. 论法律概念的实践逻辑——兼论案例教学法的理论基础%On the Practical Logic of Legal Concepts:In Addition on the Theoretical Base of Case Pedagogy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈庆

    2011-01-01

    法律概念与自然科学概念至少存在两个方面区别:法律概念具有"实践性",自然科学概念具有"理论性";大部分法律概念具有"类同性",大部分自然科学概念具有"相同性"。"实践性"构成了法律概念的本体论特征,"类同性"构成了法律概念的逻辑特征。因此,法律概念具有自身的实践逻辑。兰戴尔最先提倡的案例教学法是建立在一种有缺陷的法律科学构想基础上的。法律概念的实践逻辑构成案例教学法的理论基础。%Legal concepts are the basic units of legal knowledge.Legal concepts,which are practical and analogy,are different from the concepts of natural science,which are theoretical and univocal.Legal concepts have their practical logic,which is based on the practicality and analogy of legal concepts.The case pedagogy which Christopher Columbus Langdell first advocated is based on a kind of defective concept of legal science.It is necessary to reconstruct the theoretical base of case pedagogy.It is the practical logic of legal concepts that is the theoretical base of case pedagogy.

  15. Legal capacity of the elderly in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannouli, Vaitsa; Tsolaki, Magda

    2014-01-01

    Legal capacity of the elderly people in Greece is of great legal, medical and social importance, but has received little attention till now from medical literature. This paper aims to study whether elderly people with dementia are able to participate in legal contracts like sales, purchases, loans, leases, donations and testaments. We tried to introduce a new test for the above legal-financial contracts and show some preliminary findings. The test consists of six examined relevant domains concerning basic monetary skills, cash transactions, bank statement management, financial conceptual knowledge, knowledge of potential heirs (beneficiaries) and assets/estate and finally the decision making process for different dilemmas on sales, purchases, loans, leases, donations and testaments. We studied 203 people. Eighty three people were healthy, 64 with Alzheimer's disease (AD) (10 with severe AD, 22 with moderate, and 32 with mild AD), 10 with Parkinson's disease (PD), and 46 with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI). Individuals were included in the study only if they were aged 60 and over and only if they had a partner or a guardian who could give information on the individual's daily living. The exclusion criteria were predefined as follows: history of any other mental health disease and/or any other serious somatic health disease except for their official diagnosis of dementia. Results showed statistically significant differences with all three groups of patients characterized as incapable for legal-financial actions. Patients with severe AD (P<0.001), patients with moderate AD (P<0.001), patients with mild AD (P<0.001), patients with PD (P<0.001) and aMCI patients (P<0.001) differed significantly from healthy controls. Further research should include more extensive sampling of elderly patients with varying demographic characteristics in Greece, to confirm and expand our initial findings. In conclusion, our new test which is based on Marson's theoretical model

  16. On the perfection of the legal supervision system of equity-based crowdfunding in China%论我国股权众筹法律监管制度的完善

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾要波

    2016-01-01

    The equity-based crowdfunding is a relatively innovative technology combining financing and the In-ternet technology , whose purpose is to facilitate the fund raising of those emergent , fledgling and innovative en-terprises .The relevant issues such as legal supervision , risk control have prompted leading countries in equity -based crowdfunding to introduce regulations and laws .However , there has been no regulations as to the legality of equity-based crowdfunding and its risk control .Based on the actual circumstances in our country and compa-ring the development and supervision of equity -based crowdfunding abroad and at home , this paper proposes that the supervision on the platforms of transaction and investors should be gradually strengthened .%股权众筹是金融与互联网融合的创新技术,其宗旨是帮助那些成长型、初创型、创新型企业尽快完成低成本的融资。股权众筹涉及的法律监管、风险控制问题使世界各个股权众筹较发达的国家纷纷出台相关的管理法案或者法规。对于股权众筹是否合乎法律以及如何对其进行风险控制,我国目前尚无具体的规定。从我国股权众筹的实际发展情况入手,对比国外股权众筹发展及监管情况总结出中国应该根据国内股权众筹的实际情况逐步加强对交易平台、投资者等的相关监管。

  17. LEGAL AND ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVES ON THE LEGAL PENALTY INTEREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Diana APAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The legal evaluation of the penalty interest, meaning the ex lege determination of its level is applicable only in the case of non-fulfillment of a monetary payment obligation. The applicability of the system of legal evaluation of the interest is generally determined by the absence of a document that ascertains the agreement of the parties, such as a contract, through which the parties, following this agreement, evaluate the prejudice caused by the non-fulfillment of a monetary payment obligation, before the prejudice has occurred. The legal evaluation of the penalty interest, as a component of the regulation in the field of legal interest has the purpose to ensure creditor’s protection. Regardless of the prejudice caused to the creditor, the legal penalty interest shall be determined by relating it to a variable benchmark that is the level of the reference interest rate of the National Bank of Romania, which is the monetary policy interest rate of the National Bank of Romania.

  18. Sources of Hong Kong Civil Legal Proceedings Legal Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena P. Ermakova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present article author gives characteristic of the civil legal proceedings sources of legal regulation in Hong Kong: statute law, delegated legislation, general law, the Chinese common law. System of the Hong Kong law sources completely corresponds to the system of England civil procedural law sources. Till June 30, 1997 Hong Kong was a colony of the Great Britain. Since 1997 Hong Kong became a special administrative region of the People's Republic of China (PRC. Laws of Hong Kong on courts, on proofs, on the legal aid, on administration of justice contain references to the corresponding English legal acts. The feature of the Hong Kong legal system is due to the fact that Hong Kong Basic Law of 1990 sets on the territory of the country a simultaneous action of two systems of the legislation until 2047: legislation of Hong Kong created before 1997 under the influence Great Britain and legislation of People's Republic of China which regulates questions of foreign policy and country’s defense. The list of sources of the civil procedural law of Hong Kong includes: 1 statute law; 2 delegated legislation (rule of courts; 3 general law (precedents. Author gives opinions of jurists and practicians both from China, and from other countries, present own definitions and justifications.

  19. Attitudes towards cannabis legalization in Iceland

    OpenAIRE

    Sigurbjörg Lára Kristinsdóttir 1991

    2016-01-01

    The debate on whether or not cannabis should be legalized has been growing in recent years. The legality of cannabis varies from country to country. Possession of cannabis have been decriminalized or legalized in numerous countries. The main aim of the present study was to examine both what characterizes those who are in favor of cannabis legalization and the potential effect on the community and cannabis consumption if cannabis would be legalized. The participants were 1198 obtained from an ...

  20. Doenças asbesto-relacionadas Asbestos-related diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Terra Filho

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Apresenta-se uma revisão bibliográfica das doenças asbesto-relacionadas. São discutidos e atualizados os critérios diagnósticos, as características radiológicas, tomográficas e funcionais das alterações benignas de pleura, da asbestose, do câncer de pulmão ocupacional e do mesotelioma maligno de pleura.This chapter presents a bibliographic review of asbestos-related diseases. The latest diagnostic, radiological, computed tomography and lung function aspects of benign pleural disease, asbestosis, occupational lung cancer and mesothelioma are discussed.

  1. Aspectos psicossociais e qualidade de vida da degenerescência macular relacionada com a idade

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, I; José Pais Ribeiro

    2006-01-01

    A degenerescência macular relacionada com a idade é uma patologia que provoca diminuição da acuidade visual e possível perda irreversível da visão, constituindo a principal causa de cegueira nos países ocidentais. Trata-se de uma doença crónica com tendência aumentar e que tem um significativo impacto na vida do doente e da sua família, bem como um impacto colossal em termos económicos para os sistemas de saúde, o que tem contribuído para o interesse crescente pelo desenvolvime...

  2. Exploring the secret history of the legal service of the European Executives, 1952-1967

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten

    key private archives, consequently constitutes the first attempt to write a history of the legal service of the European executives from 1952 to 1967. With the functions and actions of the legal service being very far from the public spotlight, the story presented here has until now been completely...... the jurisprudence of the Court of Justice. However, it has not yet been able to refute or confirm Stein’s thesis. In fact, our knowledge about the legal service of the European executives (i.e. the legal service of the High Authority from 1952-1958 and the common legal service for all three executives from 1958......-1967) is still fairly limited. Historical literature on the history of the European executives has largely ignored the legal aspects of the European administration and the nature of the legal service. This paper, which is based on until now unused primary sources from the Commission archive as well as several...

  3. The Legal Regulation of Cybersecurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius Štitilis

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cybercrime has become a global phenomenon, which is causing more harm to individual citizens, organizations, society and the state. Most countries in the world compare cybercrime with offences such as terrorism and drug trafficking due to its risks and profitability. Cybersecurity is the central category to fight cybercrime in cyberspace. Therefore, the strategic legal regulation of cybersecurity is one of the most relevant problems in EU, including Lithuania. So far cybersecurity legal regulation analysis in scientific literature has been rather limited. The European Commission, together with the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, has published a cybersecurity strategy alongside a Commission proposed directive on network and information security (NIS. The cybersecurity strategy – “An Open, Safe and Secure Cyberspace” - represents the EU’s comprehensive vision on how best to prevent and respond to cyber disruptions and attacks. The purpose of its is to further European values of freedom and democracy and ensure the digital economy can safely grow. Specific actions are aimed at enhancing cyber resilience of information systems, reducing cybercrime and strengthening EU international cyber-security policy and cyber defence. The main goal of the paper is to analyze and compare the EU cybersecurity strategy and experience of several foreign countries with the strategic legal regulation of cybersecurity in Lithuania. The article consists of four parts. The first part dealt with the EU cybersecurity strategy. The second part of the article examines the comparative aspect of foreign cybersecurity strategic legal regulation. The third part deals with attempts in Lithuania to draft cybersecurity law and the holistic approach of cybersecurity legal regulation. The fourth part examines Lithuanian cybersecurity strategy and comments on the main probleas related with the strategy. Several different approaches

  4. Salud y conductas relacionadas con la salud según la atracción y la conducta sexual

    OpenAIRE

    Glòria Pérez; Marc Martí-Pastor; Mercè Gotsens; Xavier Bartoll; Elia Diez; Carme Borrell

    2015-01-01

    Objetivo: Describir la salud percibida, la salud mental y algunas conductas relacionadas con la salud según la atracción y la conducta sexual en los residentes en Barcelona en 2011. Métodos: Se analizó la salud percibida y mental, los trastornos crónicos y las conductas relacionadas con la salud, en 2675 personas de 15 a 64 años de edad teniendo en cuenta la atracción y la conducta sexual en el marco de la Encuesta de Salud de Barcelona 2011. Se ajustaron modelos multivariados de regresión...

  5. 法学话语中的法律解释规则%The Legal Interpretation Rules in Legal Discourse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈金钊

    2014-01-01

    法律解释方法的核心是法律解释规则,即各种理解、解释和运用法律的规则。几乎所有关于法律解释方法的理论,其目标都是探寻法律解释规则的构建与运用。为了证成这一判断,梳理与不同意识形态相匹配的具体法律方法很有必要。这种概括不是对法律方法纯粹历史的考察,重心在于说明法律解释规则的实践意义。我国的法律方法论研究即将进入第二个发展阶段,即在关注一般理论研究的基础上,开始法律解释规则及其运用研究。这是展现法学理论和法律方法论实用品格的开始。对法律解释规则的认识可以从多个角度展开,重点从法治意识形态、法律方法的进化以及与相近概念的比较三个方面进行诠释。%The core of legal interpretation methods lies in legal interpretation rules , which are used to un-derstand , interpret and apply the law .Nearly all theories on legal interpretation methods set targets on how to construct and use legal interpretation rules .With the purpose of justifying this proposition , it’ s necessary to comb specific legal methods matching with ruling of law in different ideologies and historic periods .The sum-marization is rather focusing on illuminating practical significance of legal interpretation rules than pure historic review.The study on legal methodology in our country has evolved into the second development stage , starting to study on legal interpretation rules and the their application based on researches of general theories , which stands for the emergence of practical feature of jurisprudence and legal methodology .Different perspectives can be used to understand legal interpretation rules , among which three aspects are analyzed in this paper such as , the legal ideology , the evolution of legal methods and the comparison with similar concepts .

  6. Legal framework for food fortification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dijkhuizen, Marjoleine Amma; Wieringa, Frank Tammo; Soekarjo, Damayanti D

    2013-01-01

    Food fortification is a cost-effective, powerful, and sustainable strategy to combat micronutrient deficiency, with the potential to reach large sections of the population with minimal cost and effort. However, the implementation of food fortification on a systematic and large scale, for instance...... in national programs, has often been challenging. This paper takes a closer look at food fortification efforts and legislation mechanisms in Vietnam and Indonesia in order to determine specific factors and components in the legal framework that are crucial to the success of fortification programs...... of food fortification programs, as it shapes to a large extent the implementation of food fortification. The legal framework is instrumental to ensure the quality, safety, availability, cost-effectiveness, and sustainability of food fortification. In the first place, the legal framework should specify...

  7. Accountable care organizations: legal concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanbar, S Sandy

    2011-01-01

    The Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs) shared savings program has serious concerns about anti-trust and anti-fraud laws. Additionally, ACOs present several other legal concerns relating to the duties and responsibilities of the physician-hospital partnership. The federal regulations hold physicians who participate in the ACO shared savings program to the highest standards of care without offering them protection from liability. The structure and procedures required of ACOs may be detrimental and may significantly impact the liability of its contracting physicians. Therefore, it behooves physicians to obtain legal advice regarding one's estate planning and legal asset protection or wealth management techniques, and to thoroughly review the agreement with one's attorney before signing a contract with an ACO.

  8. Adjustment of legally binding local plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvingel, Line Træholt; Aunsborg, Christian; Christensen, Finn Kjær

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, and by law, new urban areas in Denmark are regulated and planned through legally binding local plans. Recently a tendency has occurred: The municipalities make the legally binding local plans quite open for future adjustment, and they are using a substantial amount of ‘empowerment......, which seem to be beyond the scope of the Danish Planning Act. This paper deals with this problem through case studies and a legal analysis of present law. If the combination of the legally binding local plan and subsequent added requirements is misused, it will weaken the legal rights of the citizens...... the considerations of legal rights, the extend of the legal use of empowerment provisions and the combination of the use of legal binding local plans and other legal instruments such as easements and sales agreements....

  9. Semi-legal family life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Mikkel

    2012-01-01

    In 2002, the Danish government introduced new legislation on family reunification to restrict the transnational arranged marriages that were occurring among some immigrant groups. Since then, thousands of people have emigrated from Denmark to Sweden where, as citizens of the European Union......, they are entitled to family reunification. In this article, I introduce the concept of semi-legality to describe the situation whereby Pakistani transnational couples commute on a regular basis between their legal residences in Sweden and their places of work or networks of friends and family in Denmark...... patterns and family life among Pakistani immigrants but also have long- lasting effects on the relationship between minorities and majorities in Denmark....

  10. Knowledge discovery from legal databases

    CERN Document Server

    Stranieri, Andrew; Schauer, Frederick

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge Discovery from Legal Databases is the first text to describe data mining techniques as they apply to law. Law students, legal academics and applied information technology specialists are guided thorough all phases of the knowledge discovery from databases process with clear explanations of numerous data mining algorithms including rule induction, neural networks and association rules. Throughout the text, assumptions that make data mining in law quite different to mining other data are made explicit.  Issues such as the selection of commonplace cases, the use of discretion as a form

  11. Legal theory, legal practice and drama (1200-1600)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouhaïk-Gironès, M.; Gabay, S.; Koopmans, J.; Lavéant, K.

    2011-01-01

    Theatre and the law always have a complex relationship. An analysis of French legal sources from the Middle Ages and the early modern period clearly points to the tension between the conceptual and the practical sides of drama. Three main issues will be addressed: codification by the Church, what no

  12. The Relationship between EU Legal Order and Albanian Legal Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merisë Rukaj

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an analysis of the interaction of Community law with the national law and in particular the ratio between Community - Albanian law. Main purpose of this paper is to clarify the position of the international legal order and in particular that of the Community in the Albanian legal regulated by constitutional provisions. During the analysis of the interaction between the Community and the Albanian law a question arises in case of a conflictual confrontation between the two legal systems, which one will be applied? Such situation always occurs in the cases when a provision of EU law transfers the rights and imposes direct obligations to the citizens of the EU while the content of this provision collides with the rule of national law. To resolve such a situation, the Republic of Albania has held a definite stance: bigotry retains superiority of international versus national law, positioning it in the hierarchy of sources of law immediately after the Constitution of the Republic of Albania. It is clear that the Albanian constitution legislators have been aware of their European perspective and for this fact the EU law and its legal order can survive only if compliance and protection is guaranteed by two cornerstones: direct applicability of Community law and the advantage of Community law over national law. They are two fundamental principles of European law which guarantee the implementation of the uniform and priority of the right of the EU in all Member States.

  13. Legal Research in a Changing Information Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T du Plessis

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the advent of the latest constitutional dispensation in South Africa, legal researchers have been presented with new opportunities for research into constitutional issues, development and the relationship between constitutional law and other fields. This article investigates how information technology applications can support the legal research process and what the benefits of technology are likely to be to legal research. Furthermore, it investigates the changes and the impact that electronic resources and the digital information environment might have on legal research. This entails a study of the unique characteristics of digital legal research and of the challenges that legal researchers face in a changing information environment.

  14. Discussion of the Euthanasia Legalization Based on the Quality of Life%基于生命质量视角的安乐死问题探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧运森; 田侃; 喻小勇; 贺云龙

    2015-01-01

    Along with the rapid development of Chinese economy, peoples demand for quality of life also increases.The quality of terminal life is well concerned.Euthanasia involves the safety of human life and social stability and the discussion on the implementation of euthanasia must be treated carefully under the imperfect medical insurance system.This paper aims at analyzing the legalization of euthanasia implications for the quality of life from the implementation object, subject, conditions and procedures, which puts forward reference for the pursuit of a higher quality of life for the community.%伴随中国经济的迅猛发展,人们对生存质量的要求也随之提高,生命临终质量也被广泛的重视。安乐死涉及到人的生命权利保障和社会的安全稳定,在医疗保障体系尚不完善的条件下对安乐死的实施必须慎重对待。本文通过探讨安乐死对人的生存质量和生命临终质量影响的基础上,提出实施安乐死应对实施对象、实施主体、实施条件和实施程序等方面进行限定,为提升人的生命质量提供一定的参考。

  15. Avaliação cognitiva: leitura, escrita e habilidades relacionadas Evaluación cognitiva: lectura, escritura y capacidades relacionadas Cognitive evaluation: reading, writing and related abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monilly Ramos Araujo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa teve como objetivo a análise dos múltiplos domínios envolvidos na leitura e escrita de crianças e adolescentes. Foram investigados 162 sujeitos, de ambos os sexos, com idades variando entre 08 e 16 anos, cursando a 2ª, 3ª e 4ª séries do Ensino Fundamental da rede pública de uma cidade do interior do Nordeste. O desempenho cognitivo das crianças foi analisado através de atividades que envolviam leitura e ditado de palavras e de pseudopalavras, consciência fonológica, processamento auditivo e visual e velocidade de processamento. Os resultados revelaram atraso no desenvolvimento das habilidades avaliadas, com imprecisão e distorções no uso das rotas fonológica e lexical. Conclui-se que é preciso delinear projetos de intervenção visando desenvolver as habilidades de consciência fonológica, processamento auditivo e velocidade de processamento em crianças nas fases iniciais da aquisição da leitura e escrita.La investigación tuvo como objetivo el análisis de los múltiples dominios envueltos en la lectura y escritura de niños y adolescentes. Se analizaron 162 sujetos, de ambos sexos, con edad entre 08 y 16 años, estudiando en 2ª, 3ª y 4ª series de la escuela primaria de la red pública de una ciudad en el interior del noreste. El rendimiento cognitivo de los niños se examinó a través de actividades relacionadas con lectura y dictado de palabras y pseudopalabras, conciencia fonológica, visual y auditiva y velocidad de procesamiento. Los resultados revelaron retraso en el desarrollo de las competencias evaluadas, con inexactitud y distorsiones en el uso de las rutas fonológica y lexical. Se deduce que es necesario esbozar proyectos de mediación para el desarrollo de las capacidades de conciencia fonológica, procesamiento auditivo y velocidad de procesamiento en niños en las primeras etapas de la adquisición de la lectura y escritura.Multiple domains involved in children and young people's reading and

  16. Sleep and rest needs of seniors: a study grounded in the work of Henderson Necesidades relacionadas al sueño/reposo de ancianos: estudio fundamentado en Henderson Necessidades relacionadas ao sono/repouso de idosos: estudo fundamentado em Henderson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Wilker Bezerra Clares

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify the sleep/rest needs of an elderly population cared for by the Family Health Strategy, based on Virginia Henderson's theoretical framework. METHOD: This descriptive, quantitative study was conducted from May to June, 2011 through the application of a questionnaire to 52 seniors living in an area covered by a Primary Health Care (PHC unit in Fortaleza, CE, Brazil. The data were analyzed using statistical software. RESULTS: the sleep disorders most frequently reported by the seniors were: sleeping less than four hours a night (84.6%, daytime sleepiness (71.2%, nighttime awakenings (71.2%, and the use of sleep medications (21.2%. Association was significant in relation to the variables: age (p=0.05, morbidities (p=0.02, smoking (p=0.01, and pain when moving (p=0.05. CONCLUSION: The sleep/rest needs of seniors were significantly associated with socio-economic factors and health conditions.OBJETIVO: Analizar las demandas de necesidades relacionadas al sueño/reposo de una población anciana en el ámbito de la Estrategia Salud de la Familia, fundamentada en el referencial de Virginia Henderson. MÉTODOS: Estudio de abordaje cuantitativo, descriptivo, realizado entre mayo y junio del 2011, mediante la aplicación de un formulario a 52 ancianos residentes en el área cubierta por una unidad básica de salud de Fortaleza-CE. Los datos fueron analizados por medio de un software estadístico. RESULTADOS: Los problemas de sueño más comunes entre los ancianos fueron: dormir menos de 4 horas por noche (84,6%, somnolencia diurna (71,2%, despertares nocturnos (71,2%, uso de medicamentos para dormir (21,2%. El análisis de asociación se mostró significativo con las variables, edad (p=0,05, presencia de morbilidad (p=0,02, tabaquismo (p=0,01 y dolor al moverse (p=0,05. CONCLUSIÓN: Las demandas para la necesidad de dormir/reposar en los ancianos estuvieron asociados significativamente a factores socioeconómicos y condiciones de salud

  17. The curious case of legal translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Cornelius

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the nature and scope of legal translation which is an under-researched area in South Africa. In this article the author predicts that the demand for competent legal translators will increase in the future, evidenced by a recent call by the Department of Justice and Constitutional Development(DoJ&CD, inviting applications for ten positions for “legislative language practitioners”. However, legal translation differs substantially from general translation in the sense that legal translation is subject to heavy restrictions at all levels and legal considerations are of paramount importance in a country such as South Africa, which provides for eleven official languages. Legal translation involves different legal languages, different legal systems and different cultural systems that require specialised knowledge and skills of the translator. The aim of this article is to investigate the core competencies and skills the legal translator must have; to consider the balance between legal competence and translation or linguistic competence; and to propose a discourse-analytical method of source text analysis, developed by Bhatia as a simplification strategy, as this may be a powerful tool in the training of legal translators in South Africa. Recent developments in South Africa relating to the Department of Arts and Culture’s obligation to translate legislation into all official languages, have important consequences for legal translation in general and the training of legal translators in particular.

  18. Legal restrictions and Investment Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensink, B.W.; Scholtens, B.

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the impact of legal restrictions on investment growth at the firm level. With the help of a unique firm-level survey database, we analyze whether firm investments are related to the efficiency and quality of the judiciary. Furthermore, we analyze whether the investment behavior of large a

  19. Legal restrictions and investment growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensink, B.W.; Scholtens, B.

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the impact of legal restrictions on investment growth at the firm level. With the help of a unique firm-level survey database, we analyze whether firm investments are related to the efficiency and quality of the judiciary, Furthermore, we analyze whether the investment behavior of large a

  20. [The debate over drug legalization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babín Vich, Francisco de Asís

    2013-01-01

    The debate over drug legalization appears frequently in the media as a potential solution to issues such as drug trafficking and other problems related to drug use. In Spain, private consumption or even the production of small quantities of certain plants, whose active ingredients are considered illegal drugs, if clearly for own consumption are not practices criminalized by any law. In addition, a drug addict is considered a person who is ill. Although it has not always been like that even in the countries that have called for this debate, where at times the law prosecutes consumers. The population of our country, according to the views expressed in the opinion polls, prefer to increase preventive measures, foster the treatment freely assumed by drug addicts and make stricter the repression on drug trafficking. Therefore, when speaking of "legalization" we should be scrupulous with the semantics; legalize and decriminalize are not the same, it is not the same decriminalize consumption than decriminalize trafficking, neither is the same decriminalize private consumption than public consumption. Decriminalize private consumption is a fact in our country. Beyond this, we advocate for the strict need to analyze from a scientific perspective the hypothetical benefits that would result from drug legalization. Certainly, from the public health perspective, they are hard to find. We believe that the same logic applied to tobacco, increasing the restrictions on its use, is the path to follow with any addictive substance.

  1. Legal Issues in Nursing Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapp, Marshall B.

    This paper examines the variety of legal rules and processes which have been established to assess and ensure that the quality of care provided in nursing homes satisfies an acceptable level. It begins with a general overview of nursing home law. Areas discussed in this section include: (1) sources of nursing home law; (2) theories of liability;…

  2. Learned Treatise and Legal Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster-Swendsen, Mia

    2010-01-01

    of the royal court from the time of the reign of Cnut the Great to the author's present. In Danish as well as international scholarship this deceptively simple text has frequently been treated either as a ‘law code' or ‘law book' in itself or as a reflection of actual legal practice. Yet here I will contend...

  3. [Legal aspects of ritual circumcision].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, M; Schott, G E; Rascher, W; Bender, A W

    2009-12-01

    Female circumcision (genital mutilation) is a criminal violation of human rights under German law. Even with consent of the person to be circumcised and/or her legal representative this procedure must not be carried out since a consent to female circumcision is unethical and therefore void. As much consent as there is on female circumcision the legal situation with ritual male circumcision is very unclear. In practice and unnoticed by the public male circumcision is carried out - be it for medical or ritual reasons - without deeper-going reflexions on the clearness of the medical indication or the legal situation with ritual circumcision. From the medical aspect there are big differences between female and male circumcision but also certain parallels. Various reasons, partly founded in prejudice and misinformation, make people refrain from regarding circumcision of boys also as illegal. Contrary to the prevailing opinion male circumcision also represents a bodily harm which a doctor can only carry out after a preoperative interview and with the consent of the affected person. Since ritual male circumcision does not serve the wellbeing of a child it is not possible for the parents to give their consent to the circumcision in lieu of the child. Male circumcision is only permitted if the child has given his consent and is thus only legally permitted if the child has reached an age at which he is mature enough to understand the meaning and extent of such an action which is hardly the case before he has completed his 16 (th) year.

  4. Legal Scholarship as a Vocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luban, David

    2001-01-01

    Explores the more purely theoretical side of the legal scholar's vocation, using Max Weber's text on the scholar's role titled "Science as a Vocation." Discusses the consequences of the tension between law schools' generalist "pretensions" and increasingly specialist character, and Weber's fact/value distinction. (EV)

  5. Pre-paid Legal Services

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Siyuan

    2008-01-01

    pre-paid legal services is the new system to defend the high trial fees. It's very popular in the USA. There are some benefits to their customs, and it is still a young system so it also has some weakness. I think it also can be introduces into China.

  6. Adaptaciones musculares relacionadas a áreas corporales que participan activamente en el vuelo de Anhima cornuta (Aves: Anseriformes, Anhimidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antonio Manzanares

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available La forma y correspondencia entre la anatomía muscular y ósea revela en gran medida el hábito locomotor de cualquier ave. Las especies pertenecientes a la Familia Anhimidae son relevantes dentro de las Aves, debido a las adaptaciones óseas (y por lo tanto, musculares que presentan, como la pérdida de procesos uncinados, el desarrollo de espolones metarcapales, la extrema neumatización y el notable desarrollo de forámenes. Se analizaron anatómicamente y numéricamente (superficie de origen e inserción, longitud en reposo y masa los componentes musculares relacionados a las zonas de la columna vertebral, tronco, miembros y cinturas de tres ejemplares de Anhima cornutade distintos sexos y se compararon con lo estudiado en 4 ejemplares de especies relacionadas (Dendrocygna bicolory Dendrocygna viduata, Anatidae. El estudio reveló que en Anhima existe un gran desarrollo de los músculos intercostales e intervertebrales (torácicos y lumbares, evidenciando una adaptación a la ausencia de procesos uncinados. En Anhimaexisten fascículos proporcionalmente menos pesados y de menor tamaño que en Dendrocygna, indicando morfológicamente la ocurrencia de un vuelo menos desarrollado en el primero. Algunos tendones y fibras musculares metacarpales cuya inserción ocurre en el primer dígito en Dendrocygna, en Anhimase insertan en la base de los espolones proximal y distal, demostrando el poco control del vuelo en Anhima. La musculatura de los miembros posteriores en Anhimaes mucho más desarrollada, tanto en tamaño, como en masa proporcional, evidenciando una gran actividad en esta zona en la propulsión del vuelo y en hábitos terrestres

  7. On Reconstruction of Enterprise Legal Counsel Membership Mechanism--Based on the Angle of View for Settings of State-owned Enterprise Legal Counsel Membership%论重构企业法律顾问的隶属体制--以国有企业法律顾问机构的设置为视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李远和

    2014-01-01

    国有企业法律顾问的管制性作用能否发挥,直接关系着企业法律风险能否有效预防和股东(国家)意志能否实现;国有企业的法律顾问隶属于企业,是企业的职工,企业直接决定法律顾问的升迁、晋级;目前,推行国有企业法律顾问制度存有困难,其症结主要体现在法律顾问的事务性工作是隶属主体的需求,但法律顾问的管制性工作与隶属主体的需求相悖;当前,国有企业的法律顾问之隶属体制没有为法律顾问管制性工作提供充分保障;国有企业法律顾问隶属于股东(国家即国务院国资委或省国资委)的新机制是发挥法律顾问管制性功能的制度保障;提出了从保障法律顾问的相对超然地位和保障企业自主经营权之间寻找平衡,重构国有企业法律顾问的隶属体制,不断创新法律顾问机构的工作机制。%Whether state-owned enterprise legal advisers can play a regulatory role is directly related to whether the enterprise law risk can effectively be prevented and the will of shareholders (country)can be realized.The state-owned enterprise legal counsel belongs to an enterprise,who is employee.Enter-prises directly determine the promotion of the legal counsel.At present,it is really difficulty to put legal counsel system into use,the key problem is that the work of legal counsel is a need of employers,but the work of legal counsel may be opposite to the needs of employers.Now,legal counsel membership system of state-owned enterprises does not provide enough guarantees with the regulatory work of state-owned enterprise legal counsel.The state-owned enterprise legal counsel belongs to the shareholders (the coun-try i.e.state-owned assets supervision and administration commission of the state council and provinces) as a new system is the systematic guarantee to the regulatory affairs of state-owned enterprise legal coun-sel.So the author puts forward an

  8. [Communication in health care - legal aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, András

    2016-04-24

    This paper is focusing on the legal aspects of communication in health care, especially on doctor-patient relationship, responsibility for information, communication of adverse events, and legal declarations.

  9. Analysis of Fuzzy Words in Legal English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵波

    2015-01-01

    With the development of legal English,fuzzy words are poured into legislative language and judicial practice constantly.Hence,this paper aims at exploring the application and funtion of different kinds of fuzzy words in legal English.

  10. A study on the improvement of the legal system concerning Korean Atomic Energy Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Il Un; Jung, Jong Hak; Kim, Jae Ho; Moon, Jong Wook; Kim, In Sub [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-03-15

    Cause-effect analysis, adjustment, and generalization of the current atomic energy act are contents of this research. These are to be based on the legal theory. Analysis of the current atomic energy act from the viewpoint of constitutional law and administrative law. Review of the other domestic legal systems which have similar problems as the atomic energy act has. Inquiry about the operation of nuclear legal systems of foreign nations.

  11. Legal Requirements of School Administrators Inlight of Modern Administrative Demands in Education

    OpenAIRE

    Carvajal Delgado, Dennisse

    2014-01-01

    This article is the conclusion of a research project analyzing the legal requirements pertaining to Costa Rica´s educational administrative system in light of modern demands and guidelines for educational administrators in addressing legal demands. This will serve as a legal framework guideline for school directors from the 4th circuit of the Metropolitan Regional Education Office in San Jose (DRESJC). This research project is qualitative as well as phenomenological and based on open intervie...

  12. 论传媒舆论引导法律制度的完善——基于对转基因生物安全性争议典型案例的分析%How to Perfect Media Public Opinion's Guidance of Legal System——Based on Typical Cases of Transgenic Safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱娉; 王德强

    2011-01-01

    传媒是舆论的中介,传媒对公共舆论进行正确的引导十分重要。以转基因生物安全性争议的3个典型案例为例,分析了传媒舆论引导在法律制度上的不足,并有针对性地提出完善舆论引导法律制度的建议:完善相关的法律法规;实现网络舆论的法治化;明确网络传媒的法律地位;建立健全传媒的诚信制度;增强媒体从业人员的法律意识等。%Media,the medium of public opinion,is very important to correctly guide public opinion.Based on analyzing three typical cases on transgenic safety,this paper points out the problems relevant to legal system on public opinion guidance to the media and pertinently puts forward several suggestions on how to perfect the guidance of public opinion on legal system,such as perfection of relevant laws and regulations,implementation of legality of network public opinion,confirmance of legal status of network media,establishment of good faith system of media and improvement of legal awareness for media professionals.

  13. Circuitos online de comunicação relacionada ao consumo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernani Coelho Neto

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O artigo discute o papel da internet na circulação de informações sobre produtos e serviços e apresenta a noção de circuitos online de comunicação relacionada ao consumo. A análise destaca a ampliação da interação entre consumidores através da internet como um fenômeno da comunicação contemporânea e suas implicações sobre o processo de construção da experiência de consumo. Palavras-chave: Comunicação; consumo; internet; interação entre consumidores. ABSTRACT The article argues the role of the Internet in the circulation of informations on products and services and presents the notion of circuits online of communication related to the consumption. The analysis detaches the magnifying of the interaction between consumers through the Internet as a phenomenon of the contemporary communication and its implications on the process of construction of the consumption experience. Keywords: Communication; consumption; internet; consumer interactions.

  14. Incapacidade relacionada à dor lombar crônica: prevalência e fatores associados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina de Góes Salvetti

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A incapacidade relacionada à dor lombar crônica (DLC é um fenômeno complexo e multifatorial. O objetivo desse estudo foi identificar a prevalência e os fatores associados à incapacidade em pacientes com dor lombar crônica. Estudo transversal com amostra composta por 177 pacientes com DLC, de três serviços de saúde; que responderam ao formulário com dados demográficos, ao Inventário de Depressão de Beck, às Escalas Oswestry Disability Index, de autoeficácia para dor crônica, Tampa de Cinesiofobia e de Fadiga de Piper. A prevalência de incapacidade foi de 65% (IC95%: 57,5 - 72,0 e era de moderada a grave em 80,7% dos pacientes. O modelo de regressão múltipla identificou três fatores independentemente associados à incapacidade: ausência de trabalho remunerado, autoeficácia baixa e depressão. Os fatores associados à incapacidade identificados são modificáveis. Intervenções como recolocação no trabalho, tratamento para a depressão e reconceitualização da crença de autoeficácia podem ter um impacto importante na prevenção e redução de incapacidade.

  15. CARACTERÍSTICAS ANATÔMICAS RELACIONADAS AO VALOR NUTRITIVO DE GRAMÍNEAS FORRAGEIRAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paciullo Domingos Sávio Campos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Entre as características anatômicas relacionadas ao valor nutritivo de gramíneas, destacam-se a proporção de tecidos e a espessura da parede celular. Tais características apresentam altas correlações com os teores de fibra, de lignina e de proteína bruta (PB e com os coeficientes de digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS. Os tecidos de baixa digestão correlacionam-se negativamente com a PB e a DIVMS e positivamente com os teores de fibra e de lignina, enquanto aqueles rapidamente digeridos mostram correlações positivas com a PB e com a DIVMS e negativas com os teores de fibra e lignina. A digestão de alguns tecidos é limitada, não somente pelo efeito negativo da lignina sobre a digestão da parede celular, mas também pelo compacto arranjo das células de alguns tecidos e pela elevada espessura da parede celular. As relações entre a anatomia da planta e o valor nutritivo realçam a possibilidade da utilização de características anatômicas na avaliação do valor nutritivo de gramíneas forrageiras.

  16. Qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde de pessoas com diabetes mellitus tipo 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loisláyne Barros Leal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue evaluar la Calidad de Vida Relacionada a la Salud de personas con Diabetes Mellitus tipo 2. Investigación transversal, realizada con 100 diabéticos. La recolección de datos se llevó a cabo entre marzo y abril de 2012, en dos equipos de la Estrategia Salud de la Familia de Picos, PI, Brasil, a través de entrevista individual. Se aplicó formulario con variables socioeconómicas, clínicas y el Medical Outcomes Study 36 – Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36. El promedio entre los componentes del SF-36 osciló de 34,8 (Aspectos físicos a 72,0 (Salud mental. Hubo asociación estadísticamente significativa del dolor y la capacidad funcional con el sexo, así como de la capacidad funcional y los aspectos emocionales con la actividad física (p <0,05. En conclusión, los participantes presentaron mejor evaluación en la calidad de vida en las dimensiones que integran el componente mental.

  17. CREENCIAS EN SALUD EN MUJERES UNIVERSITARIAS RELACIONADAS CON LA TOMA DE CITOLOGÍA VAGINAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Restrepo Forero

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación se orientó al estudio de la relación existente entre las variables psicosociales propuestas por el Modelo de Creencias en Salud y la realización de la citología vaginal por parte de una muestra de mujeres universitarias entre los 18 y 27 años. En la primera fase del estudio se construyó una batería de instrumentos con el fin de evaluar las diferentes variables de interés: sociodemográficas, psicosociales, de riesgo, y relacionadas con la conducta saludable; en la segunda fase se realizó un estudio descriptivo correlacional exploratorio con una muestra de 110 mujeres universitarias. Se observaron diferentes asociaciones entre las variables evaluadas y la realización de la citología vaginal, en donde las variables barreras percibidas, motivación para la salud y señales para la acción, mostraron asociaciones importantes con la realización y mantenimiento de dicha conducta saludable.

  18. The role of advocacy in occasioning community and organizational change in a medical-legal partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Carpenter, Kaston D; Collie-Akers, Vicki; Colvin, Jeffrey D; Cronin, Katie

    2013-01-01

    Health disparities among low-income individuals remain a significant problem. A number of social determinants are associated with adverse health outcomes. Medical-legal partnerships address legal concerns of low-income individuals to improve health and wellness in adults and children. The Medical-Legal Partnership at Legal Aid of Western Missouri provides free direct legal services for patients with legal concerns affecting health. There is limited evidence regarding the association between advocacy-related efforts and changes within both the medical-legal partnership structure and in health-care facilities. Three health-care organizations in Kansas City, MO participated in implementing the medical-legal partnership model between 2007 and 2010. Advocacy efforts conducted by key medical-legal partnership personnel were strongly associated with changes in health-care organizations and within the medical-legal partnership structure. This study extends the current evidence base by examining the types of advocacy efforts required to bring about community and organizational changes.

  19. Research and experience report 2009. Developments in the technical and legal basis of nuclear oversight; Erfahrungs- und Forschungsbericht 2009. Entwicklungen im Bereich der Grundlagen der nuklearen Aufsicht/Rapport sur la recherche et les experiences en 2009. Developpements dans les bases techniques et legales pour la surveillance nucleaire/Research and experience report 2009. Developments in the technical and legal basis of nuclear oversight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-04-15

    additional intake points in the cooling water outlet. There have been defects and incidents in the construction of the new plants at Olkiluoto (Finland) and Flamanville (France) relating to concreting work and inadequate welding specifications. ENSI will develop a new surveillance concept for the construction of NPPs, so that Switzerland is prepared in time for any new builds. ENSI maintains active links with international organisations, particularly with IAEA, OECD/NEA and WENRA and also has a series of bilateral agreements with France, Germany, Austria and the USA. The ENSI contribution to current negotiations on greater global harmonisation is based on the stringent nuclear safety standards in Switzerland. At the 3{sup rd} Review Conference of the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management, Switzerland received a rating of good for its Country Report: other countries welcomed the transparency of the master plan procedure and the participation of the public and neighbouring countries. The research programme at the rock laboratories of Mont Terri and Grimsel also received a positive reception. According to the main requirements of IAEA and the Swiss Nuclear Energy Act, since 1 January 2009 ENSI has been an independent nuclear regulatory body reporting directly to the Federal Council (Swiss national government). The existing ordinances and guidelines are continuously amended to accord with the recent legislation on nuclear energy and also are harmonised with international standards. A new ordinance based on the Nuclear Energy Act took effect in 2009. In addition ENSI completed 8 guidelines, either new or revisions

  20. Organizational Factors Affecting Legalization in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, John W.

    Legalization here refers to the introduction into the educational system of new legal rules, emanating from outside the routine channels of educational management. It includes general legal rules from legislation, from the courts, or from higher administrative levels. The key to the definition is lack of integration of the new rules with the main…

  1. Morocco : Legal and Judicial Sector Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    The overall legal framework in Morocco is not a priority area for reform. The law-making process, however, is weak, resulting in poorly drafted laws, and legal dissemination is inadequate. Legal education relies upon outdated curricula and is offered in competing languages, French and Arabic, the selection of which largely determines students' choices for future employment. The training of...

  2. 34 CFR 85.965 - Legal proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal proceedings. 85.965 Section 85.965 Education...) Definitions § 85.965 Legal proceedings. Legal proceedings means any criminal proceeding or any civil judicial proceeding, including a proceeding under the Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act (31 U.S.C. 3801-3812), to...

  3. 29 CFR 1471.965 - Legal proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal proceedings. 1471.965 Section 1471.965 Labor... AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1471.965 Legal proceedings. Legal proceedings means any criminal proceeding or any civil judicial proceeding, including a proceeding under the Program Fraud...

  4. 22 CFR 1006.965 - Legal proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Legal proceedings. 1006.965 Section 1006.965...) Definitions § 1006.965 Legal proceedings. Legal proceedings means any criminal proceeding or any civil judicial proceeding, including a proceeding under the Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act (31 U.S.C....

  5. 2 CFR 180.965 - Legal proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Legal proceedings. 180.965 Section 180.965... § 180.965 Legal proceedings. Legal proceedings means any criminal proceeding or any civil judicial proceeding, including a proceeding under the Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act (31 U.S.C. 3801-3812), to...

  6. 7 CFR 3017.965 - Legal proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Legal proceedings. 3017.965 Section 3017.965... Legal proceedings. Legal proceedings means any criminal proceeding or any civil judicial proceeding, including a proceeding under the Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act (31 U.S.C. 3801-3812), to which...

  7. 21 CFR 1404.965 - Legal proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Legal proceedings. 1404.965 Section 1404.965 Food... (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1404.965 Legal proceedings. Legal proceedings means any criminal proceeding or any civil judicial proceeding, including a proceeding under the Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act (31...

  8. 22 CFR 1508.965 - Legal proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Legal proceedings. 1508.965 Section 1508.965...) Definitions § 1508.965 Legal proceedings. Legal proceedings means any criminal proceeding or any civil judicial proceeding, including a proceeding under the Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act (31 U.S.C....

  9. 28 CFR 0.13 - Legal proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal proceedings. 0.13 Section 0.13... Attorney General § 0.13 Legal proceedings. (a) Each Assistant Attorney General and Deputy Assistant... to conduct any legal proceeding, civil or criminal, including grand jury proceedings and...

  10. Importância da assistência de enfermagem no manejo de complicação relacionada ao cateter totalmente implantável

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Mendes Bruzi; Danielle Cabral Mendes

    2011-01-01

    Trata-se de relato de experiência com paciente do sexo feminino, 30 anos, com diagnóstico de recaída de Leucemia Mielóide Aguda, submetida à implantação de cateter e que apresentou necrose na ferida cirúrgica. Foram utilizados com sucesso: colagenase, alginato de cálcio e loção oleosa à base de ácidos graxos essenciais. Ficou claro que as complicações relacionadas a cateteres conferem um grande desafio à enfermagem oncológica além de determinarem atraso no tratamento oncológico. A correta tom...

  11. Importância da assistência de enfermagem no manejo de complicação relacionada ao cateter totalmente implantável

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Mendes Bruzi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de relato de experiência com paciente do sexo feminino, 30 anos, com diagnóstico de recaída de Leucemia Mielóide Aguda, submetida à implantação de cateter e que apresentou necrose na ferida cirúrgica. Foram utilizados com sucesso: colagenase, alginato de cálcio e loção oleosa à base de ácidos graxos essenciais. Ficou claro que as complicações relacionadas a cateteres conferem um grande desafio à enfermagem oncológica além de determinarem atraso no tratamento oncológico. A correta tomada de decisão o quanto antes é de extrema importância e evita a retirada precoce do cateter.

  12. 75 FR 49528 - Thomson Reuters Legal, Legal Editorial Operations Cleveland Office Including Workers Whose...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... Employment and Training Administration Thomson Reuters Legal, Legal Editorial Operations Cleveland Office... Assistance on June 22, 2010, applicable to workers of Thomson Reuters Legal, Legal Editorial Operations... unemployment insurance (UI) tax account under the name West Publishing Corporation, a Thomson Reuters...

  13. Neurological legal disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhakrishna H

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurological disorders with a prolonged course, either remediable or otherwise are being seen increasingly in clinical practice and many such patients are young and are part of some organization or other wherein their services are needed if they were healthy and fit. The neurologists who are on the panel of these organizations are asked to certify whether these subjects are fit to work or how long they should be given leave. These certificates may be produced in the court of law and may be subjected to verification by another neurologist or a medical board. At present there are no standard guidelines in our country to effect such certification unlike in orthopedic specialty or in ophthalmology. The following is a beginning, based on which the neurologist can certify the neurological disability of such subjects and convey the same meaning to all neurologists across the country.

  14. Legal Personality of Inter-Governmental International Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Jura

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Upon the incorporation of an inter-governmental international organization, the states assign to such entities some of their powers, based on which the organization will promote the collective interests of its members. Thus, the international organizations perform some public functions based on which they enter in contact with other entities of international order, such as different states or other organizations. Manifesting as such, they acquire their own legal personality, distinct from that of the states forming it, and which it is opposable erga omnes. The scope of such article is to examine the legal personality of inter-governmental international organizations providing one apprehends the limits of their juridical personality. In the achievement of such objective, I have developed both the internal juridical personality and the international juridical personality of international organizations, recording the manner of manifestation of such legal personality.

  15. Shall we marry? Legal marriage as a commitment event in same-sex relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schecter, Ellen; Tracy, Allison J; Page, Konjit V; Luong, Gloria

    2008-01-01

    This study is a part of an exploratory study of 50 married and unmarried same-sex couples in Massachusetts conducted by the Wellesley Centers for Women following legalization of same-sex marriage in Massachusetts in 2004. This article examines whether and how legalization of same-sex marriage impacted same-sex partners' commitment to one another, presentation to others as a couple, and treatment as a couple by others. Roughly one-quarter of the couples studied chose not to mark their commitment with ceremonies of any kind, while nearly three-fourths of the couples had either commitment (non-legal) ceremonies, legal weddings, or both. While decisions to legally marry largely were based on gaining legal protections, unforeseen impacts on self and relationships with family, friends, and the larger society revealed multiple layers of meaning. Implications of the study for public policy and social change are discussed.

  16. Legal issues in the development of geopressured-geothermal resources of Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmer, D.B.; Rogers, K.; Vanston, J.H.; Elmer, D.B.; Gustavson, T.C.; Kreitler, C.W.; Letlow, K.; Lopreato, S.C.; Meriwether, M.; Ramsey, P.; Rogers, K.E.; Williamson, J.K.

    1976-01-01

    The legal issues are discussed in two areas: legal scholarship and legal support. Scholorship is distinguished from support by concentration on abstract analyses of issue that include resource definition, ownership, taxation, and multistate reservoirs. Support is based entirely on those legal tasks called up by the technical work schedule in the areas of Resource Assessment, Advanced Research and Technology, Institutional and Environmental, and Resonance Utilization. The legal section will, in the future, make recommendations and implement procedures designed to assist in the rapid and orderly development of the resource. The PERT (Program Evaluation Review Techniques) chart for sequencing of legal scholarship and support tasks is included. An oral presentation on geothermal resources in Texas, a resource model for the resource utilization section, and some excerpts from legislation pertaining to geothermal energy are provided in an Appendix. (MCW)

  17. Legal briefing: Healthcare ethics committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Thaddeus Mason

    2011-01-01

    This issue's "Legal Briefing" column covers recent legal developments involving institutional healthcare ethics committees. This topic has been the subject of recent articles in JCE. Healthcare ethics committees have also recently been the subject of significant public policy attention. Disturbingly, Bobby Schindler and others have described ethics committees as "death panels." But most of the recent attention has been positive. Over the past several months, legislatures and courts have expanded the use of ethics committees and clarified their roles concerning both end-of-life treatment and other issues. These developments are usefully grouped into the following eight categories: 1. Existence and availability. 2. Membership and composition. 3. Operating procedures. 4. Advisory roles. 5. Decision-making and gate-keeping roles. 6. Confidentiality. 7. Immunity. 8. Litigation and court cases.

  18. Legal issues in radon affairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massuelle, M.H. [Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay aux Roses (France)

    1999-12-01

    In France, it was only recently that cases related to high radon concentrations in dwellings received substantial publicity. This irruption of radon as a public health issue came with the general progress of scientific knowledge and the availability of a research capacity in France able to develop expertise. We are interested here in the legal implications of issues that arise from the lag between the activity of expertsand the regulatory activity in the domain of radon. We use the term expertise very broadly, to cover the practical application of research findings, the relation of the researchers with the community, and finally the acts by which experts provide their knowledge to the community. We first examine the course by which science developed the radon issue and the way they organized to move from research to expertise; here we try to characterize the various needs for radon expertise. We then discuss the legal difficulties associated with radon expertise.

  19. Mediation in Legal English Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chovancová Barbora

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mediation is a language activity that has been unjustly neglected when preparing law students for their future professional careers. When trained in a professional context, students need to develop and improve complex communicative skills. These include not only the traditional language skills such as reading, writing, listening and speaking, but also more advanced skills such as summarizing, providing definitions, changing registers etc. All these are involved in the students’ acquisition of ‘soft skills’ that are particularly important for students of law since much of their future work involves interpersonal lawyer-client interaction. This article argues that mediation is a crucial (though previously underestimated skill and that law-oriented ESP instruction should provide training aimed at developing this skill. Showing a practical application of this approach, the paper demonstrates that mediation can be successfully integrated in the legal English syllabus and make the learning of legal English more effective.

  20. Digital Identity - The Legal Person?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Clare

    This paper examines the concept of digital identity which the author asserts is now evident in the United Kingdom as a consequence of the Identity Cards Act (UK) 2006 and the National Identity Scheme it establishes. The nature and functions of the concept, particularly the set of information which constitutes an individual’s transactional identity, are examined. The paper then considers the central question of who, or what, is the legal person in a transaction i.e. who or what enters into legal relations. The analysis presents some intriguing results which were almost certainly not envisaged by the legislature. The implications extend beyond the United Kingdom to similar schemes in other jurisdictions, and to countries, like Australia, which may implement such a scheme.

  1. Prospects of ASEAN Legal Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Agus Riyanto

    2016-01-01

    Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is a regional organization in the countries of Southeast Asia established in Bangkok, Thailand, on August 8, 1967 (the Bangkok Declaration) by Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. One form of cooperation that could further encourage the establishment of ASEAN's goal was legal cooperation. This was because, this cooperation could further strengthen cooperation in politics, economy, social and culture in Southeast Asia. ...

  2. Surrogacy: Ethical and Legal Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pikee Saxena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Surrogacy refers to a contract in which a woman carries a pregnancy "for"another couple. Number of infertile couples from all over the World approach India where commercial surrogacy is legal. Although this arrangement appears to be beneficial for all parties concerned,there are certain delicate issues which need to be addressed through carefully framed laws in order to protect the rights of the surrogate mother and the intended parents.

  3. Legal Rights for Criminal Minors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    IN a theft case cracked in Guiyang City, Guizhou Province, the seven juvenile delinquents involved were mainly junior middle school students around 13 to 14 years old. What are the legal rights they can enjoy when brought to trial? It is clearly defined in the Law of the People's Republic of China for the Protection of Minors enforced on September 4, 1991. Minors refers to citizens below the age of 18.

  4. Legal Liability in Environmental Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion RUSU

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available As a member of the European Union and of other regional and world organizations responsible for global environmental protection, Romania has adopted internally a set of measures aimed at protecting the environment. In this paper we conducted a general review of the developments of the way of legal defense of the most important environmental values at international and national level, with an emphasis on internal legal rules. We also examined briefly the civil, administrative, and criminal liability of individual and legal entity that violates the current environmental laws. Our research regards the means by which there are protected by the rules of law the main values of the environment, by examination and critical remarks. The results of the research presented at the conclusions, highlight the need to harmonize the national legislation with the European one and the need to amend and supplement the New Criminal Code with a special chapter covering major environmental offenses. The study is useful for those who carry out their activity in this domain, especially professors and students of the law faculty

  5. Calidad de vida relacionada con la salud en la enfermedad de Parkinson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Cano-de la Cuerda

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La enfermedad de Parkinson (EP es un trastorno neurológico, discapacitante y progresivo caracterizado por múltiples síntomas motores y no motores que contribuyen al deterioro en la calidad de vida del paciente. La diversidad de síntomas asociados a la enfermedad y su manejo afectan a la funcionalidad y las expectativas del individuo sobre su bienestar físico, social y mental, que son los componentes fundamentales de la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud (CVRS. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue identificar las principales dimensiones de la CVRS afectadas en una población con EP con un grado de afectación leve-moderado. Treinta y seis pacientes con EP completaron este estudio transversal. Se emplearon el estadio de Hoehn y Yarh, el Unified Parkinson's Disease Rate Scale, la escala de actividades de la vida diaria de Schwab y England y el Test Get Up & Go. La calidad de vida fue valorada con el EuroQoL-5D y con el cuestionario Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire-39 items. Las dimensiones del PDQ-39, excepto el dominio PDQ-39 Dolor, así como el cuestionario EuroQoL-5D se correlacionaron de manera significativa con la gravedad de la enfermedad. La CVRS se correlacionó con el estado funcional de los pacientes. Únicamente el dominio PDQ-39 Dolor se correlacionó con el riesgo de caídas. Nuestros resultados sugieren que la CVRS de los pacientes con EP, en un estado leve-moderado de afectación, está muy influenciada por la gravedad de la enfermedad y el estado funcional.

  6. SOCIAL LEGAL TRANSFORMATION OF PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohaib Mukhtar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan came into being in 1947. It struggled a lot during its initial days. It did not come to consensus to make a constitution until 1956 but later on military regime intervened. It is a drawback of Pakistan that laws and the constitution are not made indeed for its people rather they are made for the selfish elite who come into the power time to time without the support of the people. An unelected person cannot make a law for the betterment of the people he always do things for his own interest. Purpose - To point out weaknesses and hindrances in the social legal transformation of Pakistan and to recommend changes and best possible ways to build a highly social legal transformed society. Design/methodology/approach - The treatise is made taking into account the qualitative approach by looking into the historical prospect of social legal issues of Pakistan and to come to a conclusion to draw a better picture if followed the suggested steps. Findings - The paper includes the review of the history and weaknesses in legal transformation and comprehensive suggested steps to be followed to overcome the weaknesses and deficiencies. Research limitations/implications - The paper is limited to the social and legal aspects of the transformation in Pakistan and does not go into the deep details of politics and culture. Practical implications - Suggested steps can be followed by the legislature to make amendments in laws and to make more suitable laws which is a necessity for the better social transformation of Pakistan. Originality/Value - The research is a good piece and has an importance in its field and may help a lot in the development of the country and the region specially and the world at large generally. Keywords: Islamic rulers of the sub-continent; British India and its laws; Constitution of Pakistan 1956,1962 and 1973. Research type: The said research is a critical analysis on the development and transformation of Pakistan with respect to law

  7. Causas múltiplas de morte relacionadas à tuberculose no Estado do Rio de Janeiro entre 1999 e 2001

    OpenAIRE

    SANTO, Augusto Hasiak

    2006-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Avaliar a mortalidade relacionada à tuberculose por meio de causas múltiplas. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados todos os óbitos de residentes no Estado do Rio de Janeiro entre 1999 e 2001 nos quais havia menção de tuberculose na declaração de óbito. As disposições da Organização Mundial da Saúde foram usadas para caracterizar causa básica e causas associadas (não básicas) de morte. RESULTADOS: Nas mortes por tuberculose as afecções relacionadas à sua história natural foram as principais caus...

  8. Pautas, creencias y prácticas de crianza relacionadas con el castigo y su transmisión generacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Pulido

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación tuvo como objetivo describir las pautas, creencias y prácticas de crianza relacionadas con el castigo y su transmisión generacional en cuatro familias de nivel socioeconómico bajo de la ciudad de Bogotá. Utilizamos entrevistas semiestructuradas, historias de vida, observaciones de campo, y el Software Atlas.ti para analizar los resultados. Encontramos que las pautas de crianza relacionadas con el castigo están enmarcadas en el rol del abuelo o de la abuela como cuidador o cuidadora entre semana, en el del padre o madre como cuidador o cuidadora de fin de semana, y en el del niño o niña como el sujeto travieso. Las creencias se establecen en torno al niño o niña como fuerte y frágil, y al castigo como formador, ambivalente, maltratante y temido.

  9. Pautas, creencias y prácticas de crianza relacionadas con el castigo y su transmisión generacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlyn Peña

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación tuvo como objetivo describir las pautas, creencias y prácticas de crianza relacionadas con el castigo y su transmisión generacional en cuatro familias de nivel socioeconómico bajo de la ciudad de Bogotá. Utilizamos entrevistas semiestructuradas, historias de vida, observaciones de campo, y el Software Atlas.ti para analizar los resultados. Encontramos que las pautas de crianza relacionadas con el castigo están enmarcadas en el rol del abuelo o de la abuela como cuidador o cuidadora entre semana, en el del padre o madre como cuidador o cuidadora de fin de semana, y en el del niño o niña como el sujeto travieso. Las creencias se establecen en torno al niño o niña como fuerte y frágil, y al castigo como formador, ambivalente, maltratante y temido.

  10. Lesão de nervo cutâneo antebraquial lateral relacionada à venipuntura: o que saber?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. Ramos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Justificativa e objetivos: a venipuntura é um dos procedimentos mais comuns na prática anestésica cotidiana. Embora geralmente inócuas, lesões de nervos periféricos com sequelas graves foram descritas após venipuntura. Apresentamos um caso de lesão de nervo cutâneo antebraquial lateral relacionada à venipuntura, juntamente com as informações de diagnóstico e prognóstico essenciais para a prática cotidiana. Relato de caso: paciente do sexo masculino, 27 anos, submetido à venipuntura de fossa antecubital direita, com uma agulha de calibre 20, para avaliação metabólica de rotina. O paciente sofreu uma dor aguda, tipo choque elétrico, que percorreu a face lateral do antebraço desde a fossa antecubital proximal até o pulso lateral direito e a base do polegar direito. Após 24 horas, o paciente ainda sentia a dor semelhante a choque elétrico que foi classificada como 8/10 no braço distal lateral direito, no pulso lateral direito e na base do polegar, acompanhada de parestesia. Fizemos uma revisão da literatura e o paciente recebeu orientação sobre os resultados publicados a respeito desse tipo de lesão. Durante o acompanhamento, o paciente relatou que a disestesia diminuiu cerca de 3-4 semanas após a lesão inicial e que não restou déficit neurológico. Conclusões: lesões de nervos periféricos foram descritas pós-venipuntura, mas a literatura é limitada. Os nervos da fossa antecubital estão classicamente localizados em um plano logo abaixo - e muito próximos - das veias, o que os torna susceptíveis a lesões durante a flebotomia; além disso, sabe-se que existe uma extensa variação anatômica, o que sugere que mesmo uma venipuntura satisfatória não traumática pode danificar diretamente esses nervos. O anestesiologista deve estar ciente dessa possível complicação e também do diagnóstico e prognóstico para orientar os pacientes de forma adequada, caso essa complicação ocorra.

  11. [Medical, ethical and legal issues in cryopreservation of human embryos].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beca, Juan Pablo; Lecaros, Alberto; González, Patricio; Sanhueza, Pablo; Mandakovic, Borislava

    2014-07-01

    Embryo cryopreservation improves efficiency and security of assisted reproduction techniques. Nonetheless, it can be questionable, so it must be justified from technical, legal and ethical points of view. This article analyses these perspectives. Embryo cryopreservation maximizes the probability of pregnancy, avoids new ovary stimulations and reduces the occurrence of multiple gestations. There is consensus that the in vitro embryo deserves legal protection by its own, although not as a newborn. Very few countries prohibit embryo cryopreservation based on the legal duty to protect human life since fecundation. Those countries that allow it, privilege women's reproductive rights. In Chile and in Latin America, no laws have been promulgated to regulate human assisted reproduction. The moral status of the embryo depends on how it is considered. Some believe it is a potential person while others think it is just a group of cells, but all recognize that it requires some kind of respect and protection. There is lack of information about the number of frozen embryos and their final destination. As a conclusion the authors propose that women or couples should have the right to decide autonomously, while institutions ought to be clear in their regulations. And the legislation must establish the legal status of the embryo before its implantation, the couples' rights and the regulation of the embryo cryopreservation. Personal, institutional or legal decisions must assume a concept about the moral status of the human embryo and try to avoid their destruction or indefinite storage.

  12. The Effect of Nunan's Six Elements of Task to Improve Students Competencies in Legal English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Wang

    2016-01-01

    This paper is to study the effect of the six elements of task put forward by Nunan on the improvement of students' competencies in legal English, hoping to provide an important glimpse of how current legal English teaching in Chinese universities meets the requirements of the curriculum and the needs of the learners. Based on a case study of…

  13. Specification of the Legal Knowledge Interchange Format: Deliverable 1.1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, A.; Di Bello, M.; van den Berg, K.; Gordon, T.; Förhécz, A.; Vas, R.

    2007-01-01

    The main technical objectives of work package 1 are to develop a first version of a Legal Knowledge Interchange Format (LKIF), building upon emerging XML-based standards of the Semantic Web, including RDF and OWL, and Application Program Interfaces (APIs) for interacting with legal knowledge systems

  14. Watch Out for the Under Toad : Role and Method of Interdisciplinary Contextualisation in Comparative Legal Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Mak (Elaine)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThis article studies the significance of insights from non- legal disciplines (such as political science, economics, and sociology) for comparative legal research and the methodology connected with such ‘interdisciplinary contextualisation’. Based on a theoretical analysis concerning the

  15. MORTALIDADE E RISCOS ASSOCIADOS A INFECÇÃO RELACIONADA À ASSISTÊNCIA À SAÚDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Sena Souza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La infección relacionada con la atención sanitaria es una de las principales causas de morbimortalidad entre los pacientes hospitalizados. El objetivo de este estudio epidemiológico fue determinar la mortalidad y los riesgos asociados con el fallecimiento de pacientes adultos con la infección relacionada con la atención sanitaria ingresados en un hospital universitario en el periodo de un año. Los datos de los pacientes se obtuvieron de registros de notificación de infecciones. La tasa de mortalidad asociada con las infecciones fue del 38,4%, y fueron clasificados como un factor que contribuye en el 87,1% de las muertes. La asociación de la infección relacionada con la atención sanitaria con el fallecimiento fue estadísticamente significativa entre pacientes clínicos (41,3%, que presentaron comorbilidad asociadas a el diagnóstico (55,8%, con infección cardiovascular (62,2%, neumonía (48,9%, que desarrollaron sepsis (69,0%, colonizados (45,2% o infectados (44,7% por microorganismos multirresistentes. Se concluyó que las infecciones contribuyeron a la muerte de la mayoría de los pacientes.

  16. The Impact of Medical Marijuana Legalization on Violent Crime

    OpenAIRE

    Aalen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Since the mid 90s 20 US states and DC have legalized medical marijuana, and similar reforms are being contemplated in several other states. To evaluate the pros and cons of medical marijuana reform it is important to know its impact on the well being of society as a whole. In the present thesis I hypothesize that medical marijuana legalization has lead to lower violence rates, based on a review of prior research suggesting that stricter illicit drug law enforcement may increase violence rates...

  17. Epigenetics and Child Psychiatry: Ethical and Legal Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Christopher R

    2015-10-01

    Epigenetics has the potential to revolutionize diagnosis and treatment in psychiatry, especially child psychiatry, as it may offer the opportunity for early detection and prevention, as well as development of new treatments. As with the previous introduction of genetic research in psychiatry, there is also the problem of unrealistic expectations and new legal and ethical problems. This article reviews the potential contributions and problems of epigenetic research in child psychiatry. Previous legal and ethical issues in genetic research serve as a guide to those in epigenetic research. Recommendations for safeguards and guidelines on the use of epigenetics with children and adolescents are outlined based on the identified issues.

  18. Ensayos con animales: aspectos éticos y legales

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    El Objetivo principal del trabajo Ensayos con animales: Aspectos éticos y legales es proponer medidas que permitan disminuir el uso de animales de experimentación. Para ello se han desarrollado otros objetivos secundarios encaminados a facilitar la tarea de los investigadores: Recopilar la normativa ética y legal, facilitar el acceso a la terminología, esquematizar el protocolo de investigación establecido en la normativa, verificar la existencia de bases de datos de las investigaciones, estu...

  19. IT Security Standards and Legal Metrology – Transfer and Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiel F.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Legal Metrology’s requirements can be transferred into the IT security domain applying a generic set of standardized rules provided by the Common Criteria (ISO/IEC 15408. We will outline the transfer and cross validation of such an approach. As an example serves the integration of Legal Metrology’s requirements into a recently developed Common Criteria based Protection Profile for a Smart Meter Gateway designed under the leadership of the Germany’s Federal Office for Information Security. The requirements on utility meters laid down in the Measuring Instruments Directive (MID are incorporated. A verification approach to check for meeting Legal Metrology’s requirements by their interpretation through Common Criteria’s generic requirements is also presented.

  20. Research on Criminal Legal Aids for Migrant Workers in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianfeng XU

    2016-01-01

    With the acceleration of industrialization,urbanization,as well as the reform and opening-up,the amount of migrant workers is increasing sharply. However,the specialty of criminal cases is ignored,rights of migrant farmers and legal aids for them are neglected,making them commit crimes for lack of basic knowledge of laws and failing to be treated with fairness. The aim of enjoying human rights is a failure.Based on the legal aids for migrant workers,the paper discusses how to protect legal rights of migrant workers in criminal cases and make them enjoy fairness of laws,making laws play a true part in criminal cases and fulfill the aim of human rights protection.

  1. Consentimiento informado en el balón intragástrico avalado por SENPE, SEEDO, SEN y SECO: aspectos médico-legales Informed consent in the intragastric balloon supported by SENPE, SEEDO, SEN and SECO: legal aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Abilés

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El Balón Intragástrico (BIG es una técnica invasiva, no quirúrgica, de carácter temporal, para el tratamiento de la obesidad, cuyos resultados dependen en gran medida de la colaboración del paciente. Objetivo: El objetivo es adaptar el Consentimiento Informado propio de la cirugía bariátrica, a un método que reviste las características especiales descritas. Material y método: Se utiliza el Consentimiento Informado propuesto por la ASAC para cirugía bariátrica, así como 8 sentencias relacionadas con el BIG tal como se hallan en la base de datos WESTLAW ES. Resultado: La revisión de las sentencias define el tratamiento mediante BIB como tratamiento con intención curativa y no satisfactiva, con obligación de medios aunque no de resultados, por parte del médico tratante. Se han de respetar además las obligaciones de una información correcta y completa -incluyendo las pautas dietéticas a seguir-, así como de las alternativas terapéuticas posibles, y por fin, de una constancia del proceso por escrito. Conclusiones: El Consentimiento Informado es un importante documento médico-legal cuyo contenido debe tener en cuenta la jurisprudencia recientemente aparecida en el campo de las técnicas mínimamente invasivas para el tratamiento de la obesidad.Introduction: Intra-gastric balloon (IGB is an invasive, temporary, non-surgical technique for the treatment of obesity. Its outcomes mainly depend on the patient's collaboration. Objective: The aim was to adapt the informed consent used for bariatric surgery to a method that has especial characteristics. Materials and methods: We used the informed consent proposed by ASAC for bariatric surgery and 8 statements related to IGB included in the WESTLAW ES database. Results: The review of the statements defines the IGB treatment as a curative-intended and non-satisfactive therapy with an obligation of the means used, but not the outcomes, by the treating physician. Moreover

  2. The Legal Content of School Psychology Journals: A Systematic Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaheer, Imad; Zirkel, Perry A.

    2014-01-01

    The many challenges that school psychologists face inevitably include legal issues. In light of the agreement between the two primary professional organizations for school psychologists that understanding of law is a critical competency, this study analyzed the extent of law-based articles in leading school psychology journal articles published…

  3. Islamic Law and Legal Education in Modern Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakissa, Aria Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines the transmission of Islamic legal knowledge in modern Egypt. It is based on two years of ethnographic fieldwork in Cairo among formally trained Islamic scholars. With governmental permission, I was able to attend classes at both al-Azhar's Faculty of Shari'ah and Cairo University's Dar al-'Ulum. I…

  4. Anti-corruption policy in the system of legal measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Viktorovna Filonenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to determine the scientificmethodological foundations of anticorruption policy. Methods dialectical approach to cognition of social phenomena allows to explore the combination of objective and subjective factors influencing the formation and implementation of anticorruption policy. The author39s model of anticorruption policy is based on the wide range of logical methods of information processing modeling abstraction analysis analogy. Scientific hypothesis and formal legal analysis were also used. Results basing on comparison of the recent theoreticallegal criminallegal and criminological research in the field of legal and anticorruption policy the scientificmethodological foundations of anticorruption policy are disclosed. The authors attempt to systematize the scientific interpretation of anticorruption policy. The concept of legal policy its forms tools subjects and typesare discussed. As a result it becomes possible to describe the current anticorruption policy using terminology from the theory of legal policy. This approach can increase the effectiveness of modern anticorruption policy as it allows to clearly see the gaps and shortcomings in lawmaking and law enforcement during the anticorruption policy implementation. Scientific novelty the article makes an attempt to describe the current anticorruption policy with the use of terminology and models developed in the theoretical and legal research for the characterization of legal policy and its particular directions. Practical significance the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific and pedagogical work when considering questions about the nature and trends of the modern anticorruption policy development. The applied approach allows to bring together criminal law criminology and theoreticallegal research of anticorruption policy. nbsp

  5. Factores asociados a calidad de vida relacionada con la salud de pacientes trasplantados de riñón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Pérez Blancas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El Trasplante Renal es la terapia renal sustitutiva que proporciona mayores beneficios a los pacientes con Insuficiencia Renal Crónica Terminal. Aún así, el paciente que ha recibido un injerto renal, sigue siendo un enfermo crónico que no tiene resueltos sus problemas de salud y cuya calidad de vida está asociada con diferentes factores que pueden influir en la misma. Objetivo: Conocer la producción científica sobre la CVRS del paciente TR. Metodología: Se realizó una búsqueda en las bases de datos de Pubmed, Science Direct, Google Académico, Scielo y Scopus. Se incluyeron artículos científicos escritos en inglés y español. Posteriormente se analizaron los artículos que trataban sobre la calidad de vida en el paciente trasplantado renal, excluyendo aquellos artículos que no presentaban resultados o no aportaban suficientes datos y aquellos que tenían como objeto de estudio pacientes pediátricos. Resultados: Se han incluido en esta revisión 42 artículos publicados entre el año 2000 y 2015. La mayoría de los estudios son trasversales y observacionales descriptivos y el Short Form-36 Health Survey es el instrumento más usado. Las variables estudiadas han sido género, edad, estado civil, nivel de estudios, datos bioquímicos, empleo, ingresos, tratamiento inmunosupresor, problemas psicológicos, diagnóstico principal, tiempo post TR, tiempo en diálisis, trasplante vivo vs cadáver y comorbilidades. Los datos que han mostrado correlación significativa sobre CVRS han sido género, estado civil, ingresos, nivel de estudios, datos bioquímicos, tratamiento, tiempo en diálisis y comorbilidades. Conclusiones: A la vista de estos resultados podemos afirmar que los factores que influyen de manera positiva sobre la CVRS son el sexo masculino, estar casado o tener pareja, alto nivel de estudios, niveles elevados de hemoglobina y hematocrito, y trasplante renal procedente de donante vivo. El TR presenta mejor CVRS

  6. 互联网众筹融资的《证券法》适用问题研究%The Legal Research on Internet-based Crowdfunding and The Security Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁文卓

    2015-01-01

    Crowdfunding ,the use of Internet to raise money through small contributions from a large number of investors ,could cause a revolution in small‐business financing .However ,crowdfunding also poses some problems under The Interpretation of the Supreme People's Court of Several Issues on the SpecificApplicationofLawintheHandlingofCriminalCasesaboutIllegalFund‐raising.Inthisarti‐cle ,the author proposed that crowdfunding sometimes involves the sale of securities ,triggering the regis‐tration requirements of T he Security L aw .As a result ,the definition of security should be enlarged under The Security Law .We need to learn overseas experience represented by the JOBS Act ,and accurately de‐fine the legal status and characteristics of crowdfunding .We also need to make the appropriate response to the legal structure and regulatory system of crowdfunding based on the proper coordination between the capital formation and investor protection .%众筹融资作为一种处于萌芽期的互联网金融模式,由于面临数量众多的投资者且融资金额较大,极易触碰非法集资的红线。通过分析,众筹融资本质是一种证券发行行为,筹资者、众筹平台、投资人这三方参与主体分别对应着发行人、证券交易所和投资者这三种《证券法》下的特定主体。但由于我国《证券法》的适用范围过窄,导致众筹融资无法适用《证券法》而被冠以“非法集资”的罪名。因此,扩大“证券”的范围是为众筹融资“正名”的直接途径,同时借鉴美国2012年JOBS法案中对众筹融资注册豁免的经验,在妥善协调资本形成与投资者保护关系的基础上,针对众筹融资的法律构造和监管制度作出相应的回应。

  7. Construction of Agricultural Water Rights Configuration Program Based on the Perspective of Legal Procedure%基于法律程序视野中的农业水权配置程序构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭莉

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural water rights is paid enough attention to in recent years,while relevant theoretical study was thin.Besides keeping a substantive and technical eye on agricultural water rights,it is essential to focus on the procedure.Based on the perspective of legal procedure,the author conducted a theoretical analysis on agricultural water rights configuration and proposed the procedural design.And reviewed from the following three aspects:1) the program frame of agricultural water rights configuration should guard right restriction power,promote the communication of power and rights,so as to achieve benign interaction of them.The agricultural water rights configuration should include three fundamental philosophies,which are dialogue,restriction and trust; 2) Legal protection procedure in various stages should be designed according to the agricultural water rights configuration; 3) Several problems are needed to recognize deeply.Agricultural water rights configuration is a long-term complex systems engineering,need various domain experts' cooperation and track management in the whole lifecycle from links of systematic planning,periodical program implementation,post-evaluation and revise.In this process,legal procedure guard is also needed.%农业水权制度近年来倍受国家重视,而相关理论研究较为薄弱.除了给予实体性、技术性的关注之外,必须加以程序性的关注.基于法律程序的视角,对农业水权配置进行了理论分析,并提出了程序性的设计.从三方面进行了论述:1)农业水权配置的程序框架应当是保障权利制约权力、促进权力与权利的对话并由此达成二者之间共信的良性互动的模式,农业水权配置应包括对话、制约、共信三个基本理念;2)根据农业水权配置的不同阶段,设计各个阶段的法律保障程序;3)提出今后需深化认识的几个问题.农业水权配置是一项长期、复杂的系统工程,需各领域专家

  8. Mortalidade por intoxicacao ocupacional relacionada a agrotoxicos, 2000-2009, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Sousa Santana

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar o coeficiente de mortalidade por intoxicações ocupacionais relacionadas aos agrotóxicos no Brasil. MÉTODOS: Utilizaram-se dados do Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade de 2000 a 2009 referentes aos diagnósticos de intoxicação por agrotóxicos, T60.0-T60.4, T60.8 e T60.9, X48, Y18, e Z578 da CID-10, para a causa básica ou associadas; a natureza ocupacional foi identificada pelo registro no campo , e se a era na agropecuária. Foram excluídos homicídios e suicídios. Para cálculo da mortalidade, o número de trabalhadores da agropecuária foi obtido do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, projeções do Sistema de Contas Nacionais. RESULTADOS: Foram encontrados registros de 2.052 óbitos por intoxicação por agrotóxicos no Brasil, dos quais 36,2% (n = 743 não continham dados sobre a ocupação. Dentre os 1.309 restantes, 679 (51,9% eram trabalhadores da agropecuária. A mortalidade por intoxicação ocupacional por agrotóxicos caiu de 0,56/100.000 (2000 a 2001 para 0,39/100.000 (2008 a 2009 entre trabalhadores no período, maior queda entre os homens que entre as mulheres. Os homens tiveram maiores estimativas de mortalidade por esse tipo de intoxicação em todos os anos. A maior parte dos óbitos foi causada por agrotóxicos do tipo organofosforados e carbamatos. O número de óbitos por esse tipo de intoxicação declinou em todas as regiões, exceto no Nordeste. CONCLUSÕES: É necessária a melhoria dos registros das declarações de óbito, em especial da ocupação e da relação dos diagnósticos com o trabalho, fundamentais para o controle e prevenção mais adequados para esses acidentes de trabalho. Atenção especial deve ser dirigida à região Nordeste do Brasil.

  9. Embarazo y calidad de vida relacionada con la salud: Estudio transversal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Ramírez Vélez

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES-CO X-NONE X-NONE Objetivo: Evaluar e identificar los factores determinantes de la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud (CVRS durante el embarazo.Métodos: Estudio descriptivo exploratorio en 64 gestantes nulíparas. Las participantes completaron el cuestionario de CVRS SF-12v2 (versión colombiana estándar del Medical Outcome Study Short-Form Health Survey-SF12-, y encuesta de factores determinantes sociodemográficos (edad, procedencia, nivel de educación, estado civil y situación laboral durante el segundo trimestre del embarazo.Resultados: La edad media de las participantes fue 19.1±2.7 años y la edad gestacional 17.6 ±3.4 semanas. Las puntuaciones más altas de la CVRS se presentaron en los dominios de vitalidad (56±11, seguido de salud mental (51±10 y salud general (50±11. Por otra parte, la puntuación de CVRS más baja fue acusada en los dominios rol emocional (18±5 y rol físico (25±4. Un mayor nivel socioeconómico se correlacionó significativamente con mejor puntuación en el Cuestionario de Salud SF-12v2 en los dominios función física, salud general, función social, rol emocional y salud mental.Estar casada o en unión libre se correlacionó significativamente con todos los dominios del SF-12v2, con excepción del dominio dolor corporal.Conclusiones: Si bien se ha incluido una evaluación exhaustiva de las variables socioeconómicas necesarias para evaluar e identificar los factores determinantes en la CVRS durante el embarazo, se necesitan más estudios que puedan guiar las expectativas de las mujeres, sus proveedores de atención de salud y políticas públicas.

  10. DROGAS RELACIONADAS A CASOS DE INTOXICAÇÕES EM CÃES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Almeida ABREU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: As intoxicações provocadas por drogas ocorrem com frequência em animais de companhia e, muitas das vezes estão relacionadas a medicamentos de uso humano. Metodologia e objetivo: trata-se de um estudo retrospectivo referente aos casos de intoxicações provocadas por drogas em cães atendidos em duas Clinicas Veterinárias no município de Itaperuna /RJ com o objetivo de avaliar a incidência de intoxicação em animais bem como o perfil dos animais acometidos quanto ao sexo e idade e as drogas mais frequentemente envolvidas. Resultados: no período avaliado (2010 a 2012 foram atendidos no total 1.963 cães, dentre os quais 270 receberam o diagnóstico de intoxicação provocada por fármacos (13,75% dos animais atendidos e 1.693 receberam outros diagnósticos (86,25% dos cães atendidos. Dentre os animais intoxicados, 51,85% eram fêmeas e 48,15% machos. A média de idade no ano de 2010, somando-se machos e fêmeas, foi de 2,6 anos enquanto que no ano de 2011 foi 2,1 anos e em 2012 foi de 3,2 anos. Os fármacos relacionados aos casos de intoxicação foram os Organofosforados (32,96%, seguidos pelo grupo químico das Amidinas (27,41%, pelos Carbamatos (22,59%, pelos Piretróides (15,19%, pelas Avermectinas (1,48% e pelas Tetraciclinas (0,37%. Conclusões: os quadros de intoxicação em cães são mais frequentes em fêmeas, em animais com idade entre dois e três anos, sendo os agrotóxicos os fármacos mais envolvidos, em especial os organofosforados. Os resultados implicam na necessidade de orientação adequada aos proprietários quanto ao uso de produtos ectoparasiticidas.

  11. Study on the Legal Attributes and Open Utilization Mechanisms Based on Analysis of the Panton Principles for Scientific Data%从Panton原则看科学数据的法律属性与开放利用机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷秀洁; 李华伟

    2012-01-01

    Open data in science is a new trend after the free software movement and open access, which can not fit a va- riety of waivers and licenses which are designed for software or content. The object attributes have been analyzed from the sources, types, the rights and their belongings, as well as the subject study based on the stakeholders and influencing fac- tors. Following the Panton Principles, the legal mechanics of open data in science have been studied. Finally, according to the development of open data in China, a few suggestions have been provided.%开放科学数据是继自由软件运动、开放存取运动之后又一新兴的开放趋势,不能直接套用现有的许可机制。文章从科学数据来源、类型、权利与归属分析了科学数据的客体特征:从利益相关者和影响因素分析了开放科学数据的相关主体;以Panton原则为主线,分析了开放科学数据的利用机制。最后,结合国内开放科学数据现状提供了建议。

  12. Cannabis Use When it's Legal

    OpenAIRE

    Ours, J. C. van

    2005-01-01

    This paper uses information about prime age individuals living in Amsterdam, to study whether the use of alcohol, or tobacco stimulates the use cannabis, i.e. whether alcohol or cannabis are stepping stones for cannabis.The special element of the study is that it concerns the use in an environment where not only alcohol and tobacco but also cannabis is a legal drug.It turns out that alcohol and cannabis are intertemporal substitutes while tobacco and cannabis are intertemporal complements.Onl...

  13. Marketing legal services on the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Mikołajczyk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes accessible means of marketing legal services under restrictive regulations in the Polish market. As attorneys-at-law and legal advisers face significant legal and ethical limitations in their market communication, they are forced to seek alternative tools of promoting their services and reaching potential clients. Electronic media turned out to be an effective and convenient channel in marketing legal services, often prevailing offline marketing communication. The article presents legal restrictions in the market, with emphasis to fundamental barriers that prevent implementation of traditional marketing tools and techniques broadly available in market communication. The second part presents selected tools of online marketing applicable in promotion of legal services, examplified with their use in practice.

  14. TEACHING LEGAL ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BADEA ELENA CODRUTA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, legal English has attracted increasing interest and awareness, especially because English is predominantly the language of international legal practice. Legal English must be seen in the overall context of English for Specific Purposes , as it shares the important elements of need analysis, syllabus design, course design, and materials selection and development which are common to all fields of work in ESP. As with other varieties of ESP, Legal English implies the definition of a specific language corpus, usages of various teaching strategies and emphasis on particular kinds of communication in a specific context.The article aims to highlight some aspects of teaching legal English by a non-native teacher who is not an expert in law. It particularly focuses attention on the development of basic communication skills and the use of lexical approaches in successful language acquisition in legal English.

  15. The Impact of Legalized Abortion on Crime

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    We offer evidence that legalized abortion has contributed significantly to recent crime reductions. Crime began to fall roughly 18 years after abortion legalization. The 5 states that allowed abortion in 1970 experienced declines earlier than the rest of the nation, which legalized in 1973 with Roe v. Wade. States with high abortion rates in the 1970s and 1980s experienced greater crime reductions in the 1990s. In high abortion states, only arrests of those born after abortion legaliz...

  16. 资源型城市可持续发展的法律支持%Legal Support on Sustainable Development of Resource-based Cities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷玉萍

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays,in legislation concerning sustainable development of resource-based cities in China,there exist the following problems,such as lacking of individual legislation on protection of mineral resources,imperfect in legislative system on environmental supervision on mineral resources,incomplete in control system on mine owners and exploration-right holders,too general and hard to use the articles of laws,and too many blanks in the laws.Thereby,the government should hold the principle of sustainable development to enact special and local legislations on mineral resources,increase legislation on environmental protection on resource-based cities,reform management system on mineral resources,take administration by law and increase law enforcement.%目前,我国资源型城市可持续发展立法存在的问题,主要体现缺乏矿产资源保护的单项立法,矿产资源环境监管立法体制不佳,采矿权人、探矿权人的监督制度不健全,法条笼统可操作性差、法律制度空白点多等方面。加强资源型城市可持续发展的立法,要坚持可持续发展的原则,开展矿产资源的专项立法和地方立法,强化资源型城市环保立法措施,改革矿产资源管理体制,坚持依法行政,加大执法力度。

  17. Criminal-legal prohibitions in the soviet juridical discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey V. Skorobogatov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to determine the place of criminal law prohibitions in the formation development and functioning of the Soviet legal discourse. Methods dialectic approach to the research of social phenomena which allows to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the unity of the objective and subjective factors as well as postmodern paradigm giving the opportunity to explore the legal reality at different levels including the lawinterpretation one. Dialectical approach and postmodern paradigm have determined the choice of specific research methods comparative hermeneutics discursive formally legal. Results basing on the analysis of normativelegal acts regulating criminal legal relations in the USSR the development of the Soviet criminal law was considered since its emergence to termination of existence. Conclusion on its restrictive nature was made which was in line with the main task of this sector of law ndash the protection of the Soviet system and socialist property from criminal encroachments. The normative regulatory basis of criminal law prohibitions determined the general nature of the Soviet legal discourse which was designed to prove the necessity and expediency of such means of protecting public and state interests in the period of building communism. Scientific novelty on the basis of use of the complex classical and postclassical methods the article for the first time studies the role of criminal law prohibitions in the development of Soviet legal discourse. Practical value the key issues and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific and pedagogical activity while researching the issues of the nature and trends of development of the Soviet criminal law.

  18. Minors and Sexting: Legal Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorang, Melissa R; McNiel, Dale E; Binder, Renée L

    2016-03-01

    Sexting is the sending or forwarding of sexually explicit photographs or videos of the sender or someone known to the sender via cell phone. It has become common practice among young people, as cell phones are being given to adolescents at ever younger ages. Youths often send messages without giving appropriate thought to the content of the images. In studies on the subject, rates of minors who have sent sexual images range from 4 to 25 percent, depending on the age of the youths surveyed, the content of the messages and other factors. Because transferring and viewing sexually explicit material when the subject is a minor can be considered child pornography, there can be serious legal consequences. Several states have enacted legislation to help differentiate between child pornography and sexting by minors. The trend reflected in statutes has been that minors involved in sexting without other exacerbating circumstances should be charged with a less serious offense. There is no clear national consensus on how sexting by minors is adjudicated, and therefore we compared several statutes. Case examples are used to illustrate the range of legal outcomes, from felony charges to no charges. Two sexting episodes that were followed by suicide are described. We also address the role of the forensic mental health professional.

  19. Investigating legal aspects of cyberbullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Simone; Smith, Peter K; Blumberg, Herbert H

    2012-11-01

    In the UK schools are required by law to protect students from bullying; the responsibility of teachers to govern such behaviour has been extended outside the school setting to include cyberbullying. In this investigation, cyberbullying in secondary education is explored from the student perspective using a qualitative method of enquiry. Reported awareness and understanding about the legal aspects of cyberbullying are investigated; consideration is given to legislation, cybercrime, children's rights, school sanctions and safeguarding responsibilities. A total of 197 male and female students aged between 11 and 14 years old participated. Despite the availability of information on guidelines and legislation at national, local, and school level, this does not appear to have reached ground level of the individual student. There is a considerable gap between what students should know and what they report to be aware of with regard to legal aspects of cyberbullying. To address concerns of keeping up with the pace of change in cyberbullying, a collaborative approach is required with young people and adults sharing expertise.

  20. [Legal aspects of mineral waters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callipo, C

    1976-01-01

    The Author takes up the subject of the report in order to carry out a comprehensive legal recognition of the mineral water regulations in Italy and emphasizes that in this field the results of scientific conclusions, or rather of the various scientific branches (medical hydrology, microbiology, chemics, hydrogeology, medical clinics, pharmacology, etc.) supply a cognitive support to the legislator and the substantial contents to the legal standards. He therefore illustrates the two main outlines of the rules, i.e. the hygienic sanitary one and the mineral one: such lay-out is subsequently related to the implementation of the Regions on one hand and to the enforcement of CEE-rules on the other. This has led to the fact that the hygienic-sanitary legislation was confirmed to the State while the mineral one was transferred to the Regions. After having shown up contrasts and expressed the necessity of clearness and uniformity of rules and criteria, the Author connects these requirements mainly with the implementation of hygienic-sanitary surveillance and consequently with the evaluation of the banal bacterical contents under the point of view of merit--i.e. the rules should include the probative results of science--as well as from a point of view of coordinated allotments of competence by the various organisms.

  1. Attitudes towards drug legalization among drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Roberto A; Richard, Alan J

    2002-01-01

    Research shows that support for legalization of drugs varies significantly among different sociodemographic and political groups. Yet there is little research examining the degree of support for legalization of drugs among drug users. This paper examines how frequency and type of drug use affect the support for legalization of drugs after adjusting for the effects of political affiliation and sociodemographic characteristics. A sample of 188 drug users and non-drug users were asked whether they would support the legalization of marijuana, cocaine, and heroin. Respondents reported their use of marijuana, crack, cocaine, heroin, speedball, and/or methamphetamines during the previous 30 days. Support for legalization of drugs was analyzed by estimating three separate logistic regressions. The results showed that the support for the legalization of drugs depended on the definition of "drug user" and the type of drug. In general, however, the results showed that marijuana users were more likely to support legalizing marijuana, but they were less likely to support the legalization of cocaine and heroin. On the other hand, users of crack, cocaine, heroin, speedball, and/or methamphetamines were more likely to support legalizing all drugs including cocaine and heroin.

  2. Medico-legal autopsies in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sara Tangmose; Lynnerup, Niels

    2011-01-01

    At 2.7% in 1970, the Danish medico-legal autopsy frequency was lower than recent frequencies observed in the Nordic countries (4-24%). The aim of this study was to analyse trends in the number and frequency of Danish medico-legal autopsies.......At 2.7% in 1970, the Danish medico-legal autopsy frequency was lower than recent frequencies observed in the Nordic countries (4-24%). The aim of this study was to analyse trends in the number and frequency of Danish medico-legal autopsies....

  3. The moral legalization analysis in our country

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解小平

    2013-01-01

    the moral legalization is a controversial topic, but the proper moral legalization has become a consensus. China Is in the period of social transition , the moral anomie problem has become the wounds of the state and society, through analyzing the problems existing in the moral legalization at the present stage,.proposed to fol ow the tradition and reality, try to find the ethics which is suitable for our country, The cycle of the legislation, law enforcement and judicial wil help the moral legalization, so as to create a more harmonious society.

  4. METALINGUISTIC ESSENCE OF THE LEGAL DISCURSIVE SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Yurievna Panteleeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the formation process of the discursive space of the legal field. It is shown that the metalanguage is a key communication tool in the discursive space of the legal field and becomes a means of expressing the attitude to the realities of the legal sphere, the environment of operating their relationships. It is noted that the subject and subjectless discourses in the professional legal sphere reflect semantic relationships between the written and the said. It is stated that description of the meta-linguistic nature of legal discourse can complement the knowledge in the discursive space of the legal field.An equally important source for the formation of discursive space of the legal field are legal texts (legislative that are created by professional lawyers taking into consideration the peculiarities of the professional sphere.Thus, metalinguistic innovations of subjective and subjectless discourses in the language in general and in the language of law enforcement in particular, enhance the law enforcement activity promoting universal human values in the discursive space of the legal field.

  5. Aspectos sociodemograficos e clinicos da qualidade de vida relacionada a saude bucal em adolescentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Glazer Peres

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência e identificar fatores sociodemográficos e parâmetros bucais associados ao impacto negativo da condição bucal na qualidade de vida de adolescentes. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados dados de 5.445 adolescentes entre 15 e 19 anos que participaram do inquérito nacional de saúde bucal (SBBrasil 2010, considerando a complexidade do desenho amostral. O desfecho foi a qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde bucal, avaliada por meio do questionário Oral Impacts on Daily Performance e analisada de forma discreta. As variáveis de exposição foram sexo, cor da pele, escolaridade, renda familiar, idade, cárie não tratada, perda dentária, dor de dente, oclusopatias, sangramento gengival, cálculo dentário e bolsa periodontal. Foram conduzidas análises de regressão de Poisson e apresentadas as razões de médias (RM, com respectivos intervalos de 95% de confiança (IC95%. RESULTADOS: Dos pesquisados, 39,4% relataram pelo menos um impacto negativo na qualidade de vida. Após o ajuste, a média do impacto negativo foi de 1,52 (IC95%1,16;2,00 vez maior no sexo feminino e 1,42 (IC95% 1,01;1,99, 2,66 (IC95% 1,40;5,07 e 3,32 (IC95% 1,68;6,56 vezes maior nos pardos, amarelos e indígenas, respectivamente, em relação aos brancos. Quanto menor a escolaridade, maior a média de impacto negativo (RM 2,11, IC95% 1,30;3,41, assim como em indivíduos com renda familiar até R$ 500,00 (RM 1,84, IC95% 1,06;3,17 comparados aos de maior renda. Encontrou-se maior impacto na qualidade de vida entre adolescentes com quatro ou mais lesões de cáries não tratadas (RM 1,53, IC95% 1,12;2,10, uma ou mais perdas dentárias (RM 1,44, IC95%1,16;1,80, com dor de dente (RM 3,62, IC95% 2,93;4,46 e com oclusopatia grave (RM 1,52, IC95% 1,04;2,23 e muito grave (RM 1,32, IC95% 1,01;1,72. CONCLUSÕES: Os adolescentes brasileiros relataram alto impacto negativo da saúde bucal na sua qualidade de vida. A iniquidade em sua distribuição deve ser

  6. Legal Training and the Reshaping of French Elite: Lessons from an Ethnography of Law Classes in Two French Elite Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israël, Liora; Vanneuville, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    The article examines the nature of contemporary legal training in two French elite higher education institutions--one dedicated to prepare for legal careers in the economic field, the other one to train top civil servants--in order to assess the role of legal knowledge in the shaping of French contemporary elites. Based on observations of law…

  7. 78 FR 51696 - Restrictions on Legal Assistance to Aliens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ... 45 CFR Part 1626 Restrictions on Legal Assistance to Aliens AGENCY: Legal Services Corporation... Legal Services Corporation (LSC or Corporation) regulation on legal assistance to aliens. The revisions are intended to implement three statutory changes on aliens eligible for legal assistance from...

  8. Aspects of legal communitarianism in Greece: between Millet and citizenship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Tsitselikis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Legal and political percepts pertaining to ethnic belonging in Greece are closely linked to the ideological understanding of Greekness, a legacy of the Ottoman Greek-Orthodox millet system. Complementary to this image of the national self, minority protection law on Muslims and Jews was and still is partially formed through millet-like paradigms. Greece’s territorial expansion made all inhabitants of the annexed provinces Greek citizens en masse: in addition to those that were deemed eligible to belong to the Greek nation, Jewish and Muslim communities also acquired Greek citizenship. For these communities the self-autonomy of the Ottoman millet structure in education and religious matters was transformed into minority protection, through special rights (community schools, Moufti’s jurisdiction, Muslim foundations, military conscription attributable through religion to citizens of the state. En Grecia, la interpretación ideológica del carácter griego está estrechamente relacionada con los preceptos legales y políticos relativos a la pertenencia étnica, legado del sistema millet otomano griego-ortodoxo. Como complemento a esta percepción de la identidad nacional, la ley de protección de las minorías musulmanas y judías estuvo, y todavía está parcialmente formada por paradigmas milletianos. La expansión territorial de Grecia convirtió de forma masiva a los habitantes de las provincias anexadas en ciudadanos griegos: entre los que se consideró que reunían los requisitos necesarios para pertenecer a la nación griega, se encontraban las comunidades judías y musulmanas. En ambos casos, la autonomía en temas de educación y religión que disfrutaban dentro de la estructura milletiana de los otomanos, se transformó en protección minoritaria, a través de derechos especiales (escuelas de la comunidad, jurisdicción Moufti, fundaciones musulmanas, el reclutamiento militar atribuibles a los ciudadanos del estado a través de la

  9. Modern legal periodicals of China%中国近代的法律期刊

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王健

    2007-01-01

    Driven by the importation of western learning to China by Protestant missionaries in the nineteenth century and compilation and publication of legal and political serial books and magazines by students studying in Japan in the late Tsing Dynasty, modem Chinese legal periodicals appeared officially and developed vigorously. These legal periodicals facilitated the modem transformation of traditional Chinese ideology and academy in terms of the purposes, editing mode, academic specifications, writing techniques and language styles of some typical periodicals. As the periodicals were widely spread and demonstrated throughout universities, legal communities and judicial and legislative authorities, more people acquired common background in such aspects as thoughts and writing techniques. As the adhesive of professional communityof media and an important means of maintaining knowledge production ,periodicals created some new authority of saying, based on which the tradition of modem Chinese legal system has been established.

  10. Legal versus illegal U.S. immigration and source country characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratsberg, B

    1995-01-01

    "Based on micro data from the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) on legal immigrants as well as on legalization applications that followed the passage of IRCA [the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986], this study exploits the variation in legal and illegal immigration flows across seventy source countries to examine the sensitivity of immigration flows to underlying source country characteristics. The study finds that earnings in the source country and the distance from the United States form significant deterrents of both legal and illegal immigration flows. We also find that illegal immigration is more sensitive to such factors than is legal immigration." The impact of the North American Free Trade Agreement on U.S. immigration from Mexico is also assessed.

  11. Harmonization of Islamic Law in National Legal System A Comparative Study between Indonesian Law and Malaysian Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeni Salma Barlinti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article compares Indonesian legal system and Malaysian legal system. The government legalized Islamic law in national legislateions, which are in effect for Muslim people. To facilitate dispute settlement, there is a religious court to solve Islamic dispute based on Islamic Law. The exsistence of Islamic law in Indonesia and Malaysia has similarity and differentiation. The similarities among others are: the Muslim-majority in both countries pushes the government to put Islamic law into force, Islamic law must be written into constitution or legislation. It is needed to have legal basis when performing Islamic law, the existence of religious court is very important in dispute settlement related to Islamic law. The Influence of western legal system is very strong in national legal system. Nevertheless, the western legal system differ substantially from Islamic legal system, and Islamic law was implemented limitedly based upon western legislation. It was limited to family law. While the differentiation are: the way of implementation of western legal system into national legal system and the form of legislation Indonesia has one legislation, which is in effect to all of Indonesian people. On the contrary, Malaysia has many enactments, which are different from one to another in each negeri.

  12. Calidad de vida relacionada con la salud en pacientes de un programa de cirugía mayor ambulatoria

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Gorjón, Clara Isabel

    2015-01-01

    [ES]Nuestro trabajo esta sustentado por tres pilares fundamentales; la Cirugía Mayor Ambulatoria (CMA) régimen quirúrgico sin ingreso, la Calidad de Vida Relacionada con la Salud (CVRS), objeto a estudio y la herramienta de trabajo cuestionario genérico de calidad de vida SF-36. La CMA tiene ventajas tanto clínicas como socioeconómicas y existe un interés creciente por el estudio de la calidad de vida. El conocimiento de la calidad asistencial de una unidad de CMA en Cirugía General a tra...

  13. Patologías Relacionadas con el Tracto Reproductivo en Herbívoros, Carnívoros y Primates

    OpenAIRE

    J B Mesa-Cruz

    2010-01-01

    Una gran proporción del conocimiento en patologías relacionadas al tracto reproductivo en herbívoros, carnívoros y primates ha sido producto de la investigación realizada en animales de compañía o con importancia económica y de salud humana. Esta revisión bibliográfica tiene como objetivo abordar y describir brevemente  enfermedades del tracto reproductivo de origen infeccioso, no infeccioso y finalmente considerar algunos aspectos importantes en condiciones de cautiverio  que afectan la habi...

  14. Calidad de vida relacionada con la obesidad y la depresión en el seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN)

    OpenAIRE

    Barcones-Molero, (M.F.) María Fe

    2016-01-01

    Las características sociodemográficas, clínicas y de estilos de vida de la muestra son similares a las descritas para personas con sobrepeso u obesidad en poblaciones comparables. La obesidad produce un impacto negativo sobre la Calidad de Vida Relacionada con la Salud, afectando más al área física que a la psicosocial y, en concreto, las mayores consecuencias adversas se encuentran para los dominios de Dolor corporal y de Función física.La disminución ponderal en personas con ...

  15. Calidad de vida relacionada con la obesidad y la depresión en el seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN)

    OpenAIRE

    Barcones-Molero, (M.F.) María Fe

    2017-01-01

    Las características sociodemográficas, clínicas y de estilos de vida de la muestra son similares a las descritas para personas con sobrepeso u obesidad en poblaciones comparables. La obesidad produce un impacto negativo sobre la Calidad de Vida Relacionada con la Salud, afectando más al área física que a la psicosocial y, en concreto, las mayores consecuencias adversas se encuentran para los dominios de Dolor corporal y de Función física.La disminución ponderal en personas con ...

  16. Causas múltiplas de morte relacionadas à tuberculose no Estado de São Paulo, 1998

    OpenAIRE

    Augusto Hasiak Santo; Celso Escobar Pinheiro; Margarete Silva Jordani

    2003-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Estudar a mortalidade relacionada à tuberculose no Estado de São Paulo segundo causas múltiplas de morte, e suas inter-relações com outras causas básicas. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados os óbitos ocorridos e no Estado de São Paulo, em 1998, tendo como causa a tuberculose. Os dados foram obtidos na Fundação Sistema Estadual de Análise de Dados (SEADE). As causas de morte pelas formas clínicas da tuberculose foram codificadas no agrupamento A15-A19 e suas seqüelas na categoria B90, segundo ...

  17. Conciencia ambiental y conducta sustentable relacionada con el uso de energía para iluminación

    OpenAIRE

    Graciela Lucía Tonello; Natalia Valladares

    2015-01-01

    La conciencia ambiental es definida como un concepto multidimensional que constituye la dimensión actitudinal del comportamiento pro ambiental. En un contexto global y local de crisis energética, el presente trabajo tuvo como objetivos investigar las interrelaciones entre las diferentes dimensiones de la conciencia ambiental y la posible sustentabilidad detrás de conductas relacionadas con el uso de la iluminación, en una muestra de estudiantes universitarios. La metodología incluyó el desarr...

  18. Calidad de vida relacionada con la salud, emociones negativas y apoyo social en pacientes con psoriasis vulgar

    OpenAIRE

    Vinaccia, Stefano; Universidad de San Buenaventura; Quiceno, Japcy Margarita; Universidad de San Buenaventura; Martínez, Ángela María; Universidad de San Buenaventura; Arbeláez, Claudia Patricia; Universidad de San Buenaventura

    2013-01-01

    El propósito de la siguiente investigación fue evaluar la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud y su relación con la ansiedad-depresión y el apoyo social en 55 pacientes con diagnóstico de psoriasis vulgar leve. Para evaluar la calidad de vida se utilizó el Índice de Calidad de Vida en Dermatología; la ansiedad-depresión fue evaluada mediante el cuestionario HAD, y el cuestionario AS se usó para medir apoyo social. En conclusión, se hallaron niveles clínicamente significativos de ansiedad-...

  19. Variables relacionadas con la respuesta a terapia sistémica primaria en el cáncer de mama

    OpenAIRE

    Bravo Hernández, José Antonio

    2016-01-01

    OBJETIVOS: La finalidad del presente estudio es identificar variables relacionadas con el cáncer de mama como factores predictivos de respuesta a la Terapia Sistémica Primaria, estudiar la correlación entre las respuesta clínica, radiológica y patológica y tratar de definir subgrupos de pacientes “respondedores” y “no respondedores” a la TSP basados en las variables analizadas. MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo sobre 64 pacientes diagnosticas de cáncer de mama y trata...

  20. Legal Translation Dictionaries for Learners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    . Lexicographers should therefore design their dictionaries so that they contain intra-lingual or contrastive descriptions of the relevant genre conventions. As illustrated in Nielsen (2000) whether the best solution is to retain the genre conventions found in the SL text or to adopt the conventions used in TL...... to treat one or few sub-fields extensively at the expense of the other sub-fields. Furthermore, Nord (2005), among others, shows that translation is not limited to terms but also concerns syntactic structures and genre conventions in the two cultures concerned and involves the use of various translation...... are used across sub-genres within the legal genre, e.g. contracts and statutes, so translators are likely to meet them relatively often and need to know how to translate them. Examples of relevant syntactic constructions are pre-modified syntagmas with a noun as the head word, and the use of inversion...

  1. The concept of disability discrimination and its legal construction

    OpenAIRE

    Whittle, R

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the key issues surrounding the legal construction of the concept of discrimination based on disability. This paper examines these issues in the context of the European Community’s framework directive on equal treatment in employment and occupation , in order to highlight the particular needs which must be addressed in developing laws to combat such discrimination. Where relevant, the paper contrasts the approach necessary for disability based discrimi...

  2. Student Discipline: Legal, Empirical, and Educational Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J. John, III, Ed.; Bennett, Christine, Ed.

    This book presents four perspectives on student discipline: legal and historical, empirical, educational, and futuristic. Part I examines the legal history of student discipline in papers by J. John Harris III, Richard E. Fields, and A. Reynaldo Contreras (Chapter 1); Richard E. Fields (Chapter 2); and David G. Carter, Sr. and Cynthia L. Jackson…

  3. Cannabis use and support for cannabis legalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palali, Ali; van Ours, Jan

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the determinants of the support for cannabis legalization finding a causal effect of personal experience with cannabis use. Current and past cannabis users are more in favor of legalization. We relate this finding to self-interest and inside information about potential dangers of cann

  4. The Legalization of the School Psychologists' World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirp, David L.; Kirp, Lauren M.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the increasing tendency of legal rules to shape school psychologist's conduct. The article suggests that "the legalization of the school psychologist's world" may afford an opportunity to reshape, in more "nonformal" and collegial ways, relationships with other school professions, students, and parents. (Author)

  5. Legal Regulation Of Oil Production In Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel A. Byshkov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article sources of legal regulation of production and public administration in the sphere of production of mineral energy resources by the legislation of Mexico are considered. Standards of the international legal acts, the Constitution of Mexico and the special industry legislation in the sphere of use of mineral resources are investigated.

  6. Legal Issues for Mobile Servant Robots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fosch Villaronga, Eduard; Virk, Gurvinder S.; Rodic, Aleksandar; Borangiu, Theodor

    2017-01-01

    This paper identifies key legal issues which are emerging for Mobile Servant Robots (MSRs), a sub-type of Personal Care Robots (PCR) defined in ISO 13482. New cases are likely to be introduced in the market soon even though appropriate and specific binding legal regulations regarding MSRs are missin

  7. The political economy of legal knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bonilla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The production, exchange and use of legal knowledge are subject to a political economy. These processes are governed by a series of rules and principles that determine the conditions allowing the creation, commerce and consumption of legal theories, doctrines and practices. Consequently, this political economy is not neutral; it constructs a specific subject of knowledge that acts within a particular space and time. Thus, this paper has two objectives. Firstly, it seeks to describe and analyze the political economy model that dominates our legal and political imagination. As such, it aims at examining the conceptual structure of what I call the free market of legal ideas model. Secondly, this paper aims at describing and analyzing an alternative model of political economy that would best ex- plain the real dynamics that regulate the generation, exchange, and use of legal knowledge. To achieve this objective, the paper highlights the conceptual structures that form what I call the colonial model of the production of legal knowledge. Therefore, the paper seeks to specify the subject of legal knowledge production established by these two models, as well as their concepts of time and space. Likewise, it seeks to specify the precise rules and principles that determine the ways in which these models imagine the production, exchange, and use of legal knowledge. 

  8. Duties: Legal? Moral? Religious? or Social?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Ann

    1990-01-01

    Presents activities in which students are asked to (1) identify sources of duties affecting individual behavior; (2) define and give examples of legal, as well as social, religious and moral duties; (3) and compare social, religious, moral, and legal duties and discuss their relationships. (DB)

  9. Extracting legal arguments from forensic Bayesian networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, Sjoerd; Prakken, Hendrik; Meyer, John-Jules Charles; Renooij, Silja; Verheij, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Recent developments in the forensic sciences have confronted the field of legal reasoning with the new challenge of reasoning under uncertainty. Forensic results come with uncertainty and are described in terms of likelihood ratios and random match probabilities. The legal field is unfamiliar with n

  10. Exploring Technological Frontiers: Autonomy in Legal Scholarship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Lyria Bennett

    2010-01-01

    In 1999, Barton Beebe critiqued a "golden age" of space law in the 1950s and 1960s in which obscure legal issues concerning space exploration and aliens were addressed. This article describes a more recent "golden age" in legal scholarship, namely that relating to virtual worlds such as World of Warcraft and Second Life. The author examines the…

  11. European New Legal Realism and International Law:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Jakob v. H.; Madsen, Mikael Rask

    2015-01-01

    complex analysis which takes legal validity seriously but as a genuinely empirical object of study. This article constructs this position by identifying a distinctively European realist path which takes as its primary inspirations Weberian sociology of law and Alf Ross’ Scandinavian Legal Realism...

  12. Transformations of China's Legal System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    FROM "rule of man" to "building a legal sys- tem," to "rule of law" and finally, to the "rule of the Constitution," the development of China's legal structure epitomizes its learning curve of state governance

  13. 31 CFR 3.3 - Legal review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal review. 3.3 Section 3.3 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury CLAIMS REGULATIONS AND INDEMNIFICATION OF DEPARTMENT OF TREASURY EMPLOYEES Claims Under the Federal Tort Claims Act § 3.3 Legal review....

  14. 31 CFR 3.22 - Legal review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal review. 3.22 Section 3.22 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury CLAIMS REGULATIONS AND INDEMNIFICATION OF DEPARTMENT OF TREASURY EMPLOYEES Claims Under the Small Claims Act § 3.22 Legal review....

  15. Traditional Festivals to Become Legal Holidays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ As nearly everyone knows already,the state is going to rearrange the schedule of legal holidays. The four traditional Chinese festivals, inluding Mid-Autumn Day, Dragon Boat Festival,Tomb-Sweeping Day and Spring Festival Eve, will be made into legal holidays. As for the Golden Week system, should it be continued or canceled?

  16. Expectancy and Professional Norms in Legal Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Dorrit; Hjort-Pedersen, Mette

    2013-01-01

    into expectancy and professional norms, the study leads us to set up two assumptions about the existence of norms at the macro-strategic level that may impact on attitudes across members of different discourse communities within the legal domain. These norms, we believe, may be useful in legal translation...

  17. Embedding Mahr in the European Legal System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A collection of articles investigating the legal and social implications and challenges of the continuing Muslim practice of paying mahr(dower) in connection with marriage.......A collection of articles investigating the legal and social implications and challenges of the continuing Muslim practice of paying mahr(dower) in connection with marriage....

  18. Cannabis use and support for cannabis legalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palali, A. (Ali); van Ours, J.C. (Jan C.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe investigate the determinants of the support for cannabis legalization finding a causal effect of personal experience with cannabis use. Current and past cannabis users are more in favor of legalization. We relate this finding to self-interest and inside information about potential dan

  19. Abortion Legalization and Life-Cycle Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananat, Elizabeth Oltmans; Gruber, Jonathan; Levine, Phillip

    2007-01-01

    The early-1970s abortion legalization led to a significant drop in fertility. We investigate whether this decline represented a delay in births or a permanent reduction in fertility. We combine Census and Vital Statistics data to compare the lifetime fertility of women born in early-legalizing states, whose peak childbearing years occurred in the…

  20. The Theory of the Legal State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. J. Du Plessis

    1981-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, which has not been published before, the late Prof. du Plessis lays bare the philosophical roots of the liberal-democratic state, or the legal state, as he preferred to call it. After a recapitulative version of the theory of the legal state, het indicates the origin of this form in Greek philosophy and in Medieval thought. The stress, however, is on the Modem Era, in which he distinuishes two main periods in the development of the theory of the legal state:the jusnaturalistic period and thepositivistic or formal period.He argues that positivism has destroyed the original ideal o f individual freedom in facts by regarding justice as a purely formal matter susceptible to any content. All guarantees for individual freedom which rested on a universal normative system fe ll away. The state defines its own competence and limits itself to legal forms in all its activities. The legal state thus merely becomes the state, any state as determined by fixed rules o f its own making to which it binds itselfin all its functioning. Law sinks to a mere form in which the juristic personality of the state manifests its supremacy, and from this there is only one step to the concept that the state is identical with law, so that any state necessarily is a legal state, and any state action which is formally correct, is legal. The article concludes with a brief representation o f the author’s own political and legal vision.

  1. 29 CFR 98.965 - Legal proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Legal proceedings. 98.965 Section 98.965 Labor Office of the... proceedings. Legal proceedings means any criminal proceeding or any civil judicial proceeding, including a proceeding under the Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act (31 U.S.C. 3801-3812), to which the Federal...

  2. Brain death: legal obligations and the courts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkle, Christopher M; Pope, Thaddeus M

    2015-04-01

    Brain death, or death determined by neurologic criteria, has been legally adopted in all U.S. states for decades. Despite its long-established history, a lack of clear understanding has led to disputes requiring a legal forum for resolution. Recently, physicians and hospitals across the country have been impacted by a growing number of disputes about brain death. The authors offer clinicians a historical perspective on the evolution of brain death as a legal cause of death in the United States. They then review the more common legal categories of disputes encountered, including representative court cases for each. This overview provides physicians with a general legal perspective on brain death so they may better appreciate the pertinent issues if and when later confronted.

  3. The Network of French Legal Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Mazzega, Pierre; Boulet, Romain; 10.1145/1568234.1568271

    2012-01-01

    We propose an analysis of the codified Law of France as a structured system. Fifty two legal codes are selected on the basis of explicit legal criteria and considered as vertices with their mutual quotations forming the edges in a network which properties are analyzed relying on graph theory. We find that a group of 10 codes are simultaneously the most citing and the most cited by other codes, and are also strongly connected together so forming a "rich club" sub-graph. Three other code communities are also found that somewhat partition the legal field is distinct thematic sub-domains. The legal interpretation of this partition is opening new untraditional lines of research. We also conjecture that many legal systems are forming such new kind of networks that share some properties in common with small worlds but are far denser. We propose to call "concentrated world".

  4. Reserva legal nacional: concepto y elementos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loiralith Margarita Chirinos Portillo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo de investigación tiene como objetivo general determinar la reserva legal nacional en la Constitución de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela de 1999. Se utiliza la estrategia de investigación documental y el método analítico. Las fuentes para la recolección de información corresponden a cinco ámbitos: constitucional, legal, sublegal, doctrinal y jurisprudencial. La reserva legal nacional se conceptúa como materias específicas de com- petencia nacional que por disposición constitucional o por congelación del rango legal requieren ser reguladas exclusivamente mediante actos jurídicos normativos de rango legal: la ley formal o el decreto con fuerza de ley propiamente dicho, con exclusión del acto jurídico normativo de rango sublegal: el reglamento ejecutivo.

  5. "Legal Highs"--An Emerging Epidemic of Novel Psychoactive Substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawilska, Jolanta B

    2015-01-01

    During the last decade, there has been an increase in the availability and use of novel psychoactive substances (NPS), also known as "legal highs," across the world. They include a wide range of products, from natural plant-originated substances to synthetic compounds, that can be purchased both online and from high street retailers. "Legal highs" mimic psychoactive effects of illicit drugs of abuse. However, they are claimed to consist of compounds that are legal to sell, possess, and use, often labeled as "not for human consumption" to circumvent drug abuse legislation. Based on the spectrum of their actions on cognitive processes, mood, and behavior, "legal highs" can be classified into four basis categories: amphetamine- and ecstasy-like stimulants, synthetic cannabinoids (SCs), hallucinogenic/dissociative, and opioid-like compounds. NPS may, however, exhibit a combination of these actions due to their designed chemical structure. Although the prevalence and pattern of NPS use differ between various countries, the most popular groups are SCs and psychostimulants, described in this chapter. Currently, there is limited information available on the potential acute toxicity (harms) associated with the use of these substances. However, the number of intoxicated people presenting with emergencies is constantly increasing, providing evidence that negative health and social consequences may indeed seriously affect recreational and chronic users.

  6. Commercial sexual practices before and after legalization in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seib, Charrlotte; Dunne, Michael P; Fischer, Jane; Najman, Jackob M

    2010-08-01

    The nature of sex work changes over time for many reasons. In recent decades around the world, there has been movement toward legalization and control of sex economies. Studies of the possible impact of legalization mainly have focused on sexually transmitted infections and violence, with little attention to change in the diversity of sexual services provided. This study examined the practices of sex workers before and after legalization of prostitution. Cross-sectional surveys of comparable samples of female sex workers were conducted in 1991 (N = 200, aged 16-46 years) and 2003 (N = 247, aged 18-57 years) in Queensland, Australia, spanning a period of major change in regulation of the local industry. In 2003, male clients at brothels and private sole operators (N = 161; aged 19-72 years) were also interviewed. Over time, there was a clear increase in the provision of "exotic" sexual services, including bondage and discipline, submission, fantasy, use of sex toys, golden showers, fisting, and lesbian double acts, while "traditional" services mostly remained at similar levels (with substantial decrease in oral sex without a condom). Based on comparisons of self-reports of clients and workers, the demand for anal intercourse, anal play, and urination during sex apparently exceeded supply, especially in licensed brothels. Within this population, legalization of sex work coincided with a substantial increase in diversity of services, but it appears that in the regulated working environments, clients who prefer high risk practices might not dictate what is available to them.

  7. The legalization of small scale mining in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Urán

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The following article presents conceptual and analytical elements that allow us to broaden the debate about the legalization of the mining in Colombia. Looking for items to be able to propose alternatives in order to consolidate a new mining process socially and environmentally sustainable, claiming the value of the ancestral practices and forms of the redistributive production. To this end, it is necessary to start with the discussion of the concepts of formalization and legality, so that we can generate a theoretical framework that will allow us to explore such delicate matter, we will continue to make the framework socio-political, in which it is based that strategy. Then there is a brief context of thereformulation of legal mining, focusing our attention particularly standards which involves or has effects on artisanal mining and/or small-scale mining. There we will find ourselves with a debate on the typology of the mining and the current difficulties to define schemasof legalization or formalization of small-scale mining in Colombia. To conclude with a proposal to formalize as a mechanism of transition to an administrative system - legislativethat will connect more effectively with the realities and skills of the ethnic communities that practice small-scale mining.

  8. 基于法治中国建设的大学生法律素养培育%Legal Literacy Cultivation of College Students Based on the Rule of Law in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜波; 陈焘

    2015-01-01

    法治是治国理政的基本方式,全面推进依法治国是建设中国特色社会主义现代化国家的重要内容。当代大学生是法治建设的“生力军”,其法律素养状况对推进法治中国建设具有深远的影响,决定着能否承担得起历史赋予的法治使命。当前,大学生参与法治建设仍存在一些盲点和误区,既与法治教育有关,也与法治实践的参与不足密切相连。基于此,应以法律素养培育为目标,教育大学生深刻理解领悟法治理念;牢固树立规则意识,自觉规范日常行为,以训练有素的行为惯性展示大学生的法律素养;拓展大学生实际参与法治实践的路径,增进他们对法治的直观感受,在实践中砥砺法治品格,弘扬法治精神,传递法治正能量。%The rule of law is the basic way of governing ,and comprehensively promoting the rule of law is an important content of modern socialist country with Chinese characteristics .Contemporary college students are the“fresh troops”of the rule of law construction ,their legal literacy status has far‐reaching influences on promoting the rule of law construction in China ,and determines w hether can afford the rule of law mission that history gives .At present ,there are still some blind spots and errors that the college students participate in the construction of the rule of law ,which associates with the rule of law education ,and also closely connects with lack of the participation of the rule of law .Based on this ,we should confirm legal literacy cultivation as the goal ,and educate college students to deeply understand the rule of law concept ;firmly establish the consciousness of rules ,regulate daily behavior consciously , and show students' literacy under the rule of law with well‐trained behavior inertia;expand college students'actual participation in the path of the rule of law practice ,improve their intuitive sense of the rule of law

  9. 76 FR 81408 - Contractor Legal Management Requirements; Acquisition Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... Part 719 48 CFR Parts 931, 952 and 970 RIN 1990-AA37 Contractor Legal Management Requirements... proposing to revise existing regulations covering contractor legal management requirements. Conforming... must identify this NOPR on Contractor Legal Management Requirements, and provide regulatory...

  10. Qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde de pacientes com câncer em quimioterapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Cristina Nicolussi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudio transversal,cuyo objetivo fue evaluar la Calidad de Vida relacionada con la Salud en pacientes con cáncer en quimioterapia, identificar dominios afectados y asociarlos con datos sociodemográficos, clínicos y terapéuticos de la amuestra. Llevado a cado con 152 pacientes entre 2009-2011 en dos centros de quimioterapia, en Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil. Se utilizó el instrumento Quality of Life Questionnaire Core-30 . La Calidad de Vida general fue considerada buena, los dominios afectados fueran: función emocional, desarrollo de papel, dolor, fatiga, insomnio y pérdida de apetito. Pacientes del sexo femenino, entre 40-60 años, económicamente activos, con cáncer gástrico, pulmón, neurológico y piel, con metástasis y los pacientes que se sometieron a cirugía y/o radioterapia concomitante presentaran déficit en varias áreas y presencia de más síntomas. El cáncer y su tratamiento afectaran de alguna manera los pacientes, causando déficits en las funciones desarrolladas e más síntomas, perjudicando la Calidad de Vida Relacionada con la Salud.

  11. Neutropenia relacionada con la quimioterapia en tumores sólidos. Hospital General Universitario Camilo Cienfuegos Enero 2009- 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yania Luisa Jiménez Madrigal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal y retrospectivo referente al comportamiento de la neutropenia relacionada con la quimioterapia en tumores sólidos en el período comprendido Enero 2009- 2013 atendido en el servicio de oncología del Hospital General Universitario Camilo Cienfuegos de la provincia Sancti-Spíritus. La población la conformaron 230 enfermos neutropénicos relacionados con la quimioterapia. La investigación describe de forma general la relación existente entre la neutropenia con la quimioterapia, localización tumoral, entidades nosológicas asociadas, edad, sexo, tratamientos quimioterapéuticos y antibióticos más utilizados. Pudo observarse que existe alta incidencia de neutropenia relacionada con la quimioterapia en pacientes con cáncer de pulmón, el grupo más afectado fue el de 50-59 años predominando el sexo femenino con un alto índice de hipertensos asociados. Los tratamientos más utilizados fueron Etopóxido-Platino y Ceftrixone-Amikacina.

  12. Avaliação da mortalidade de neonatos e crianças relacionada ao uso do cateter venoso central: revisão sistemática Evaluación de la mortalidad de neonatos y niños relacionada al uso del cateter venoso central: revisión sistemática Evaluation of the mortality of neonates and children related to the use of central venous catheters: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janislei Giseli Dorociaki Stocco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a mortalidade relacionada às infecções no uso de cateter venoso central em recém-nascidos e crianças hospitalizadas. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de uma revisão sistemática, cujos estudos foram identificados nas bases de dados Medline, Embase, Lilacs, Cinahl, SciELO e Cochrane, em referências bibliográficas de artigos e outras revisões. Dois revisores independentes identificaram os estudos relevantes, analisaram a qualidade metodológica e, posteriormente, os dados foram extraídos. RESULTADOS: Foram encontrados 1.000 artigos, dos quais 16 se relacionavam à infecção de cateter e só dois mencionaram mortalidade. Dos estudos achados, verificou-se que a sepse primária foi a principal complicação relacionada ao uso de cateter venoso central, e sendo os micro-organismos mais prevalentes nestas infecções a Candida sp e Enterococcus sp com impacto significante para a mortalidade em neonatos e crianças. CONCLUSÃO: Observou-se nesta revisão que a sepse primária foi a complicação mais prevalente relacionada ao cateter central.OBJETIVO: Evaluar la mortalidad relacionada a las infecciones en el uso del cateter venoso central en recién nacidos y niños hospitalizados. MÉTODOS: Se trata de una revisión sistemática, cuyos estudios fueron identificados en las bases de datos Medline, Embase, Lilacs, Cinahl, SciELO y Cochrane, en referencias bibliográficas de artículos y otras revisiones. Dos revisores independientes identificaron los estudios relevantes, analizaron la calidad metodológica y, posteriormente, los datos fueron extraidos. RESULTADOS: Se encontraron 1.000 artículos, de los cuales 16 se relacionaban a la infección del cateter y sólo dos mencionaron mortalidad. De los estudios encontrados, se verificó que la sepsis primaria fue la principal complicación relacionada al uso del cateter venoso central, y siendo los microorganismos más prevalentes en estas infecciones la Candida sp y Enterococcus sp con impacto

  13. The Adequacy of Doctor Patient the Relationship to the Requirements of Validity of the legal Transaction: the Doctor Patient Relationship as legal Phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Romero Beltrão

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This work is interdisciplinary and aims to examine the adequacy of the patient-physician relationship to the requirements of validity of legal business. The doctor-patient relationship needs a complete overview on the elements and requirements that constitute its validity in law. As a starting point analyzes the doctor-patient relationship as a legal fact, to then verify the validity requirements of the patient medical legal business, capable agent, object and lawful manner prescribed by law. Investigating the manifestation of the will as the main element of the legal transaction to define the end of the study the importance of the doctor-patient relationship by law, based on the General Theory of Civil Law.

  14. THE LEGALITY OF DIVORCE IN THE PERSPECTIVE OF HADITH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwan Hasbi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cerai talak (formula for divorce and Cerai gugat (sue for divorce are two terms of termination of marriage bond in Indonesia. The formula of divorce is a term that coincides with a divorce coming from the will of a husband and sue for divorce is the desire of a wife to separate from her husband. Islamic Law legalizes the right of wives in cases of divorce redeem (khulu‘ and fasakh because of syiqaq. On the other side, there are signs setting the rights up, so that the given reasons to use the rights must be legal in syar‘i. The reasons for the legality of divorce is a common-cause factor, so that the banning with threatening hadiths as well as those of the hadiths that say wives must obey their husbands, the wives should not hurt their husband and the wives are prisoners of husbands are all categorized into general. At another angle, there also the hadiths concerning with the status a couple husband and wife is heaven and hell for them in a household. Contextualization of hadiths that ban a wife asking for divorce without any legal cause from Syar‘i, and also those of the hadiths legalize khulu‘ are the realization of the conjugal lives with regards to the mandate of Allah and religious values. The facts of a wife sue for divorce to her husband are the conditions related to a confusion occurred in a household which are influenced by a variety of factors, i.g. economy, adultery, polygamy, social strata and others. A sue for divorce which is Syar’i based condition is a disagreement prolonged strife after peace held between the two sides and act endangers a wife

  15. Multiculturalism and legal plurality in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Dabner

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The great multicultural experiment that is Australia has engendered a reconsideration of core values. Even the traditionally conservative legal system has not been immune. While the law remains anchored in its British Christian common-law traditions, the influence of other cultures and beliefs are emerging. Taking the term multiculturalism to encompass all cultures, including indigenous peoples as well as new comers, two instances of this are the partial accommodation of Indigenous customary law and a debate over the accommodation of Islamic law principles. The adoption of “foreign” legal concepts poses a dilemma for a liberal democratic society. On one hand, such a society might be expected to embrace wholesale legal plurality. However, there may be some foreign legal principles that are resisted on the basis that they are unacceptable to a free and equal society. The challenge is how to acknowledge the customary and religious laws of minorities whilst establishing one legal framework that applies to all, equally, and without discrimination and protects vulnerable parties. This article explores the implications for the legal system of a multicultural Australia. Taking the instances of Indigenous and Islamic law, it will be observed that legal plurality exists in Australia but largely in the shadows where the vulnerable of society lack protection. It proposes an institutional response that might help shine a light on these shadows.

  16. Michel Troper and french legal realism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Glučina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The name of Michel Troper has become an inevitable reference in constitutional law and legal theory textbooks. This author kick-started his academic career with a thesis on a subject of separation of powers, thus prolonging the tradition of numerous French legal scholars, namely, that of providing contemporary discernment of French classical constitutional doctrines. Charles Eisenmann innovative views on the necessity of displacing attention from the theories and to the process of emergence, forms and functioning of those theories have had a decisive influence on Troper's scientific development. His Nanterre period is when general legal theory becomes of his primary interest. In the same manner as his mentor before him, Troper perceives Kelsen's theoretical paradigm as a starting point and engages in a polemical dialogue with the ideas of the Viennese jurist, deciding to push his somewhat rudimentary theory of interpretation of law to its extreme consequences. Affiliating his theoretical enterprise to movements and schools of thought such as American, Scandinavian and, primarily, Italian legal realism, Troper elaborates his own theory of interpretation of law ( TRI which will promptly become notorious for its alleged radicality. In the subsequent period of his career, Troper introduces the theory of legal constraints ( TCJ, destined to enable him to preserve his loyalty to positivist epistemology while striving to amend the radicality of the TRI by mobilising the concept of a specific causality supposedly inherent both to the legal system and the legal agents' mindset.

  17. Complicações locais na pele, relacionadas à aplicação de insulina Complicaciones locales en la piel relacionadas a la aplicación de insulina Skin site complications related to insulin application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Gasparelli Camata

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available A administração de insulina constitui um dos aspectos importantes na educação em diabetes. Este estudo enfoca as complicações locais na pele, relacionadas à aplicação de insulina. Foram entrevistados 51 portadores de diabetes mellitus, em uma instituição particular, no interior do Estado de São Paulo. Os resultados apontam que o hematoma foi a complicação mais freqüente e está relacionada, principalmente, à técnica incorreta de aplicação. Conclui-se que os profissionais de saúde precisam traçar estratégias efetivas que propiciem segurança aos sujeitos, a fim de prevenir as complicações na pele.La administración de insulina constituye uno de los aspectos importantes en la educación en diabetes. Este estudio enfoca las complicaciones locales en la piel relacionadas a la aplicación de insulina. Fueron entrevistados 51 portadores de diabetes mellitus en una institución particular en el interior del Estado de São Paulo. Los resultados muestran que el hematoma fue la complicación más frecuente y está relacionado principalmente con la técnica incorrecta de aplicación. Se concluye que los profesionales de salud necesitan establecer estrategias efectivas que propicien seguridad a los sujetos, con el fin de prevenir las complicaciones en la piel.Insulin administration is one of the important aspects in diabetes education. This study focuses on skin site complications related to insulin application. Fifty-one people with diabetes mellitus were interviewed at a private institution in São Paulo State. Results showed that hematomas were the most frequent complication and that they mainly resulted from the use of incorrect application techniques. It was concluded that health professionals must design effective strategies in order to provide safety to subjects and prevent skin complications.

  18. The risk assessment of legalization of criminal proceeds by entities of initial financial monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Smaglo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article has explored the features of the risk assessment of legalization of criminal proceeds by entities of initial financial monitoring. The author has grounded the necessity and importance of the risk assessing of legalization of criminal proceeds by entities of initial financial monitoring as they can both directly carry out financial transactions for legalization of illegal proceeds, and also facilitate their implementation. The paper has proposed the method of the risk assessing of legalization of criminal proceeds by a commercial bank. The method is based on the point scale and is characterized by the following advantages in comparison with the existing ones: it gives enough accurate assessment, it combines the evaluation of quantitative and qualitative indicators, it is simple and convenient in use. The developed method of the risk assessing of legalization of criminal proceed based on the point scale, can be used by a commercial bank to determine the effectiveness of the system of risk management legalization of proceeds or for the purpose of determining the comprehensive risk of legalization of criminal proceeds of a particular financial transaction, and by the National Bank of Ukraine to determine the frequency of inspections of commercial banks on the issues of financial monitoring.

  19. Law and Islamic finance: How legal origins affect Islamic finance development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rihab Grassa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers have shown that differences in legal origin explain differences in financial development. Using historical comparisons and cross-country regressions for 30 countries observed for the period from 2005 to 2010, this study tried to assess if different legal origins impacted on the development of Islamic finance. More particularly, this paper tried to assess empirically why and how Shari'a Law's legal origins adopted wholly or partially (combined with Common or Civil Law could explain the level of development of Islamic finance in different jurisdictions. Firstly, we found that countries adopting a Shari'a legal system had a very well developed Islamic financial system. Secondly, we found that countries, adopting a mixed legal system based on Common Law and Shari'a Law, were characterized by the flexibility of their legal systems to make changes to their laws in response to the changing socioeconomic conditions and that these helped the development of the Islamic financial industry. However, we found that countries, adopting a mixed legal system based on both Civil Law and Shari'a Law, were less flexible in making changes to their old laws and this thwarted the development of the Islamic financial industry in these countries. Thirdly, we found that the concentration of Muslim population (the percentage of Muslim population had a positive effect on the development of the Islamic banking system. Also, the level of income had a positive and significant effect on the development of Islamic banking.

  20. DRONE OPERATORS – LEGAL RESPONSIBILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei-Alexandru STOICA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Drones or unmanned or remote vehicles represent a new generation of devices that were designed to help mankind achieve better results in areas that were proven to hazardous. By developing drones, new areas of economic activities have been unlocked for better exploitation, but at the same time, the lack of a proper legal system to back-up the new technology allowed a new wave of gray-lined uses of drones that must be tackled. As the Director of the 21st Century Defense Initiative at the Brookings Institute1 explains in an interview in 2012 that “a revolutionary technology is a game-changing technology on a historic level. It is technology like gunpowder, or the steam engine, or the atomic bomb”. With this in mind, drones mark the revolution to carry out strikes from thousands of kilometers away, while also ensuring a permanent eye in the sky for both military and also law enforcement operations. The aforementioned facts are just small percentages of what a drone is truly capable of and its full potential will only be unlocked once artificial intelligence will become an integral part of robotics.

  1. Public Claims: A Legal Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer Budak

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In order for a claim to exist, the host there has to be two parties. In case of public claims one of the parties is the state, special provincial administration and municipalities; while the debtor consists of the natural and legal persons. The definition of public claims is provided by The Procedure Law of Collection of Public Claims. One claims, the quality of the public claims not cause any, may be excluded from the scope of Law No. 6183. All the claims of public administration are not public claims. However, any private claim can have the security of a public claim. For this reason the criteria used to define a public claim differ. Arrangements, which can render a public claim a privileged claim, exist in the relevant Code. The aim of this study is to define the concept of public claim expressed in the relevant code and to determine the conditions under which a claim not stated in the Code can be considered a public claim in the light of court decisions.

  2. Introducing legal method when teaching stakeholder theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Governments are particularly salient stakeholders for business ethics. They act on societal needs and social expectations, and have the political and legal powers to restrict or expand the economic freedoms of business as well as the legitimacy and often urgency to do so. We draw on two examples......: the Business & Human Rights regime from a UN Global Compact perspective; and mandatory CSR reporting. Supplying integrated teaching notes and generalising on the examples, we explain how legal method may help students of business ethics, organisation and management – future managers – in their analysis...... to the business ethics literature by explaining how legal method complements stakeholder theory for organisational practice....

  3. Review of: Legal practice and cultural diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinding, Niels Valdemar

    2010-01-01

    This anthology comprises contributions from a conference on legal practice and cultural diversity held in London in July 2007, but the editors take their cue from the speech made in February 2008 by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Dr Rowan Williams. The questions central to the book are the same...... that arose after the speech by the Archbishop: whether or to what extent cultural difference should be recognized by legal systems. Legal practice and cultural diversity, edited by Ralph Grillo, Roger Ballard, Alessandro Ferrari, Andre´ J. Hoekema, Marcel Maussen, and Prakash Shah, Farnham, UK, Ashgate, 2009...

  4. Legal Inheritance in the Republic of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Hamdi Podvorica

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Legal inheritance is one of the most important institutions of inheritance law which regulates the process of legal transition of property of the decedent to one or several heirs. The establish-ment of the legal framework has brought about new reforms to the Inheritance Law. This has enabled the enrichment and functio-ning of the law. A particularly important step was taken towards regulation of legal procedures regarding to how courts, other or-gans and other persons should act regarding inheritance issues. Concretization of the legal authorizations of bodies authorized to enforce the procedure of processing hereditary property has estab-lished the legal basis for realization of the iso jure principle, accor-ding to which, at the moment of death of the person, the heirs gain the right of inheritance and the hereditary property is never left without a titleholder. This is a great advantage that we have noted in undertaking this analysis of the norms in this work, because leaving hereditary property for a longer period of time without a titleholder would render the property vulnerable to des-truction, theft and extermination. The goal of this paper is to avoid focusing only on finding the positive sides of the normative regulation of the legal inheritance process, but also in finding practical deficiencies that are weighing down at the moment on this important process in Kosovo, and in proposing measures for overcoming them. The dark side of the legal inheritance process is linked to the inefficiency of courts and the still fragile legal system in Kosovo. By implementing empirical methods, we have come to the con-clusion that the low number of judges in proportion with the huge number of cases has become a key liability for practical implemen-tation of the principle of initiating the legal procedure ex officio. The failure in enforcing this principle and initiating the procedu-res for processing of hereditary property by courts, even though they

  5. Controle de infecção relacionada a cateter venoso central impregnado com antissépticos: revisão integrativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Verônica Ferrareze Ferreira

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O uso de cateter venoso central é apontado como um dos principais fatores para infecção da corrente sanguínea. Objetiva-se, neste estudo, buscar evidências científicas sobre o controle de infecção relacionada ao cateter venoso central impregnado com antissépticos utilizado em pacientes adultos hospitalizados. Para seleção dos estudos, foram utilizadas as bases de dados LILACS, CINAHL e MEDLINE. Totalizaram-se nove artigos por meio da revisão integrativa da literatura. As publicações acerca da utilização de cateteres impregnados com antissépticos mostraram diferença estatisticamente significante quanto à redução da colonização microbiana. Entretanto, apenas um estudo demonstrou redução na ocorrência da infecção. Diante das análises dos estudos, há necessidade de pesquisas adicionais em diferentes populações de pacientes com a finalidade de efetuar generalizações.

  6. Sleep Forensics: a critical review of the literature and brief comments on the Brazilian legal situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Nonato Delgado-Rodrigues

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Sleep medicine is a relatively new field among Medical Sciences. Its legal aspects are still obscure, either for lack of knowledge of the biological mechanisms underlying violent behaviour during sleep or the virtual absence of clear legal and uniformly accepted guidelines as to whether to punish or treat those disorders. An updated review of the pertinent literature was performed to determine the most prevalent pathological conditions involving violence and sleep and to identify their most common precipitating factors, attempting to provide some technical support to aid Brazilian medical-experts or assistants in preparing substantial and scientific-based reports in a legal environment.

  7. [Mandatory or voluntary vaccinations? Juridical and medico-legal aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molendini, L O; Zanetti, A; Buzzi, F

    2003-01-01

    The Italian juridical and legislative aspects of vaccination based on a compulsory system are presented considering the medico-legal questions. The prospective of a voluntary system, as anticipated by many normatives and other official documents, is examined. The experience of some local health authorities on cases of in observance of the vaccinal obligation are detailed Finally professional risks for vaccinal operators are examined and the need of specific guidelines for parents' consent to compulsory vaccination during infancy is prospected.

  8. The changing demographic, legal, and technological contexts of political representation

    OpenAIRE

    Forest, Benjamin

    2005-01-01

    Three developments have created challenges for political representation in the U.S. and particularly for the use of territorially based representation (election by district). First, the demographic complexity of the U.S. population has grown both in absolute terms and in terms of residential patterns. Second, legal developments since the 1960s have recognized an increasing number of groups as eligible for voting rights protection. Third, the growing technical capacities of computer technology...

  9. 对赌协议法律效力研究--以我国现行法为视角%Research on the Legal Effect of the Valuation Adjustment Mecha nism---Based on the Current Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍陆文英

    2014-01-01

    文章研究了对赌协议的相关理论基础,认定对赌协议的法律性质是一种射幸合同,其法律效力应符合合同法的中合同效力的相关规定,同时作为一种商业合同,公司法及诸多证券方面的监管规定都对对赌协议的内容和效力有所限制,并且实践中债权人保护和上市公司股权明晰是对对赌协议限制最大的因素,建议从合同角度出发评判对赌协议的效力,首先其必须符合主体适格、意思表示真实、内容合法,其次,它不能违反特别法的强制性规定,不得对损害债权人利益,不得影响上市公司股权的公开透明。%This thesis studies the theory foundation of Valuation Adjustment Mechanism ( VAM) , ascertaining the legal nature of VAM is a kind of aleatory contract.Its legal effect should be comply with the relevant provi-sions on the legal effect of contract , at the same time as a commercial contract , VAM ’ s content and legal effect is limited by the company law and the securities regulation .The protection of creditors and listing Cor-poration practice clear stake limits the VAM ’ s legal effect most.We think that the legal effect of VAM can be judged from the contract perspective evaluation , firstly it must comply with the subject qualification , genuine intention expressed and lawful content , secondly , it can not violate mandatory provisions of law , not to damage the interests of the creditors , and shall not affect the transparency of listing Corporation equity.

  10. The Uneven Legal Push for Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wind, Marlene; Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg; Rotger, Gabriel Pons

    2009-01-01

    National courts have been key players in the legal push for Europe, though notably to varying degrees. This paper examines the persisting variations in the referral rates of national courts and the underlying causal factors, aiming to better understand why some member states' courts have been more...... reluctant to join in the legal push for Europe. By using econometric methods, it challenges the modified neofunctionalist argument that the extent of intra-EC trade explains the referral practice of the individual member states. Majoritarian democracy is hypothesized as a causal factor in the low referral...... of majoritarian democracy on the number of referrals. The paper concludes that, owing to the uneven legal push for Europe, some member states and their citizens remain at arms' length from the legal integration process - and, in consequence, from the full impact of European integration....

  11. 21 CFR 120.9 - Legal basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION HAZARD ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) SYSTEMS General Provisions § 120.9 Legal basis. Failure of a processor to have and to implement a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP... implementation of its HACCP system....

  12. The legal status of Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamura, M.; Ferraris, L.; Miozzo, D.; Musso, L.; Siccardi, F.

    2011-03-01

    An exponential improvement of numerical weather prediction (NWP) models was observed during the last decade (Lynch, 2008). Civil Protection (CP) systems exploited Meteo services in order to redeploy their actions towards the prediction and prevention of events rather than towards an exclusively response-oriented mechanism1. Nevertheless, experience tells us that NWP models, even if assisted by real time observations, are far from being deterministic. Complications frequently emerge in medium to long range forecasting, which are subject to sudden modifications. On the other hand, short term forecasts, if seen through the lens of criminal trials2, are to the same extent, scarcely reliable (Molini et al., 2009). One particular episode related with wrong forecasts, in the Italian panorama, has deeply frightened CP operators as the NWP model in force missed a meteorological adversity which, in fact, caused death and dealt severe damage in the province of Vibo Valentia (2006). This event turned into a very discussed trial, lasting over three years, and intended against whom assumed the legal position of guardianship within the CP. A first set of data is now available showing that in concomitance with the trial of Vibo Valentia the number of alerts issued raised almost three folds. We sustain the hypothesis that the beginning of the process of overcriminalization (Husak, 2008) of CPs is currently increasing the number of false alerts with the consequent effect of weakening alert perception and response by the citizenship (Brezntiz, 1984). The common misunderstanding of such an issue, i.e. the inherent uncertainty in weather predictions, mainly by prosecutors and judges, and generally by whom deals with law and justice, is creating the basis for a defensive behaviour3 within CPs. This paper intends, thus, to analyse the social and legal relevance of uncertainty in the process of issuing meteo-hydrological alerts by CPs. Footnotes: 1 The Italian Civil Protection is working

  13. The legal status of Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Altamura

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available An exponential improvement of numerical weather prediction (NWP models was observed during the last decade (Lynch, 2008. Civil Protection (CP systems exploited Meteo services in order to redeploy their actions towards the prediction and prevention of events rather than towards an exclusively response-oriented mechanism1.

    Nevertheless, experience tells us that NWP models, even if assisted by real time observations, are far from being deterministic. Complications frequently emerge in medium to long range forecasting, which are subject to sudden modifications. On the other hand, short term forecasts, if seen through the lens of criminal trials2, are to the same extent, scarcely reliable (Molini et al., 2009.

    One particular episode related with wrong forecasts, in the Italian panorama, has deeply frightened CP operators as the NWP model in force missed a meteorological adversity which, in fact, caused death and dealt severe damage in the province of Vibo Valentia (2006. This event turned into a very discussed trial, lasting over three years, and intended against whom assumed the legal position of guardianship within the CP. A first set of data is now available showing that in concomitance with the trial of Vibo Valentia the number of alerts issued raised almost three folds. We sustain the hypothesis that the beginning of the process of overcriminalization (Husak, 2008 of CPs is currently increasing the number of false alerts with the consequent effect of weakening alert perception and response by the citizenship (Brezntiz, 1984.

    The common misunderstanding of such an issue, i.e. the inherent uncertainty in weather predictions, mainly by prosecutors and judges, and generally by whom deals with law and justice, is creating the basis for a defensive behaviour3 within CPs. This paper intends, thus, to analyse the social and legal relevance of uncertainty in the process of issuing

  14. Stacking the Jury: Legal Professionals' Peremptory Challenges Reflect Jurors' Levels of Implicit Race Bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Mike; DeVaul-Fetters, Amanda; Gawronski, Bertram

    2016-08-01

    Most legal systems are based on the premise that defendants are treated as innocent until proven guilty and that decisions will be unbiased and solely based on the facts of the case. The validity of this assumption has been questioned for cases involving racial minority members, in that racial bias among jury members may influence jury decisions. The current research shows that legal professionals are adept at identifying jurors with levels of implicit race bias that are consistent with their legal interests. Using a simulated voir dire, professionals assigned to the role of defense lawyer for a Black defendant were more likely to exclude jurors with high levels of implicit race bias, whereas prosecutors of a Black defendant did the opposite. There was no relation between professionals' peremptory challenges and jurors' levels of explicit race bias. Implications for the role of racial bias in legal decision making are discussed.

  15. Role Of The Law And Legal Knowledge In The History Of The Domestic State Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla V. Kareva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present article features of formation and development of the Old Russian, Russian law and jurisprudence and their role in the history of the domestic state are revealed. Author research traditions and bases of the Russian law and sense of justice, which are important for modern Russia, its legal system and statehood: domination of ethical beginnings over legal and collective law over the right of personality. Author carries out analysis of the domestic law formation stages, connected with emergence of outstanding legal monuments ("the Russkaya Pravda", Cathedral code of 1649. Special attention is paid to Peter I's transformations, first of all, in the sphere of law-making and legislation, and also in improvement of legal education in the Russian Empire. The role of Moscow and St. Petersburg Universities within which the main source of legal knowledge were lectures given by the designated professors. Author explains value of the famous reformer M.M. Speransky's versatile activity for the development of Russian legal system, law and legal education, because "the Speransky law school" was directed on preparing teachers of jurisprudence, systematization of Russian legislation, increase of the role of law and legislation in the formation of constitutional state.

  16. [Incapacitated persons - participation rights and the legal concept of the capacity to consent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damm, Reinhard

    2016-09-01

    Legal problems related to the capacity to consent and decision-making have recently become increasingly important. This concerns the prerequisites and limitations of legal participation as a basis of social participation. Among the relevant social spheres and fields of action, this particulary concerns medicine and health care as well as disability and care. At the normative level, with a view to those concerned, this leads to fundamental questions resulting from the tension between self-determination and care as basic legal and ethical standards. At the empirical level, there are debates between the law and the sciences with regard to the relevant knowledge base for the assessment of (in)capacity to consent. The traditional controversies about the relevant legal criteria determining the existence or absence of capacity to consent are intensified by some recent legal developments, two of which must be highlighted. One of these is the postulate, increasingly emphasized by courts and legislator, of an at least communicative involvement of persons incapable to give consent in the decision-making process. The other is the fundamental discussion of medical ethics on concepts of assisted self-determination and supported decision-making, the consequences of which will also be of relevance at the legal level. Insofar, the development of guardianship law and the legal requirements of the UN Disability Rights Convention are of particular importance.

  17. Cannabis Use and Support for Cannabis Legalization

    OpenAIRE

    Palali, A.; Ours, J. C. van

    2014-01-01

    textabstractWe investigate the determinants of the support for cannabis legalization finding a causal effect of personal experience with cannabis use. Current and past cannabis users are more in favor of legalization. We relate this finding to self-interest and inside information about potential dangers of cannabis. While the self-interest effect is not very surprising, the effect of inside information suggests that cannabis use is not as harmful as cannabis users originally thought it was be...

  18. Privacy and legal issues in cloud computing

    CERN Document Server

    Weber, Rolf H

    2015-01-01

    Adopting a multi-disciplinary and comparative approach, this book focuses on emerging and innovative attempts to tackle privacy and legal issues in cloud computing, such as personal data privacy, security and intellectual property protection. Leading international academics and practitioners in the fields of law and computer science examine the specific legal implications of cloud computing pertaining to jurisdiction, biomedical practice and information ownership. This collection offers original and critical responses to the rising challenges posed by cloud computing.

  19. Understanding How Grammatical Aspect Influences Legal Judgment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M Sherrill

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that grammatical aspect can bias how individuals perceive criminal intentionality during discourse comprehension. Given that criminal intentionality is a common criterion for legal definitions (e.g., first-degree murder, the present study explored whether grammatical aspect may also impact legal judgments. In a series of four experiments participants were provided with a legal definition and a description of a crime in which the grammatical aspect of provocation and murder events were manipulated. Participants were asked to make a decision (first- vs. second-degree murder and then indicate factors that impacted their decision. Findings suggest that legal judgments can be affected by grammatical aspect but the most robust effects were limited to temporal dynamics (i.e., imperfective aspect results in more murder actions than perfective aspect, which may in turn influence other representational systems (i.e., number of murder actions positively predicts perceived intentionality. In addition, findings demonstrate that the influence of grammatical aspect on situation model construction and evaluation is dependent upon the larger linguistic and semantic context. Together, the results suggest grammatical aspect has indirect influences on legal judgments to the extent that variability in aspect changes the features of the situation model that align with criteria for making legal judgments.

  20. Understanding How Grammatical Aspect Influences Legal Judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrill, Andrew M; Eerland, Anita; Zwaan, Rolf A; Magliano, Joseph P

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that grammatical aspect can bias how individuals perceive criminal intentionality during discourse comprehension. Given that criminal intentionality is a common criterion for legal definitions (e.g., first-degree murder), the present study explored whether grammatical aspect may also impact legal judgments. In a series of four experiments participants were provided with a legal definition and a description of a crime in which the grammatical aspect of provocation and murder events were manipulated. Participants were asked to make a decision (first- vs. second-degree murder) and then indicate factors that impacted their decision. Findings suggest that legal judgments can be affected by grammatical aspect but the most robust effects were limited to temporal dynamics (i.e., imperfective aspect results in more murder actions than perfective aspect), which may in turn influence other representational systems (i.e., number of murder actions positively predicts perceived intentionality). In addition, findings demonstrate that the influence of grammatical aspect on situation model construction and evaluation is dependent upon the larger linguistic and semantic context. Together, the results suggest grammatical aspect has indirect influences on legal judgments to the extent that variability in aspect changes the features of the situation model that align with criteria for making legal judgments.

  1. Legal Issues in the Use of Student Test Scores and Value-Added Models (VAM) to Determine Educational Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullin, Diana

    2013-01-01

    A growing number of states and local schools across the country have adopted educator evaluation and accountability programs based on the use of student test scores and value-added models (VAM). A wide array of potential legal issues could arise from the implementation of these programs. This article uses legal analysis and social science evidence…

  2. Evaluating the application of eu environmental standards in european public banks’ investment projects in third countries : Towards legal environmental indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.N. Ratsiborinskaya (Daria)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe topic lies primarily in the field of European environmental law. It focuses on the ‘export’ of European environmental legal standards to the third countries by the Europe-based investment banks (such as EBRD, EIB, NIB). In 2006 these banks voluntarily agreed to apply the EU legal env

  3. EL INSTITUTO DE MEDICINA LEGAL Y CIENCIAS FORENSES FRENTE AL NUEVO SISTEMA PENAL ACUSATORIO

    OpenAIRE

    Prada Bautista, Saray Jessenia; Ochoa Florez, Sandra Yaneth

    2008-01-01

    Nuestro trabajo busca mostrar la realidad de cómo funciona el Instituto de Medicina Legal, cómo debería funcionar, cuáles podrían ser las alternativas para encontrar un equilibrio, de tal forma que la administración de justicia cumpla de manera pronta y eficaz su objetivo con base en los aportes técnico-científicos que el Instituto Nacional de Medicina Legal suministre.

  4. 45 CFR 505.2 - Persons under legal disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Persons under legal disability. 505.2 Section 505... under legal disability. (a) Claims may be submitted on behalf of persons who, being otherwise eligible... legal disability, by the natural or legal guardian, committee, conservator, curator, or any other...

  5. Legal Nature and Functions of Referendum in Constitutional Law Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucherenko, Petr A.; Sangadzhiev, Badma.V.; Velibekov, Murad C.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the study of the legal nature and functions of the referendum is conditioned by the increasing dynamics of development of direct democracy in the developed countries and the needs to legalize it in constitutional and legal norms to ensure stability in society. The purpose of this paper is to define the legal nature of the…

  6. Existence of vagueness and vague expression in legal English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石继鹏

    2008-01-01

    The language of legal English is a kind of customary language, which includes some words, phrases and mode of expression with its unique style. One of the most important characteristics of legal English is exact in its usage. But in some situations, vague expressions are found in legal English. This is written to probe into some linguistic aspects of legal documents: vagueness and ambiguity.

  7. Legal aid for victims in criminal proceedings in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Costa Ramos, Vânia

    2014-01-01

    The following article gives an overview of legal aid for victims in criminal cases in Portugal. It addresses the issues of a victim’s access to a lawyer, when and how the right is granted (right to legal assistance), and under what circumstances the victim has a right to financial legal aid (right to financial legal aid).

  8. Calidad de vida relacionada con la salud en pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 Health Related Quality of life in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2

    OpenAIRE

    Hervás, A; Zabaleta, A.; Miguel,G; Beldarrain, O.; Díez, J.

    2007-01-01

    Fundamento: Evaluar el impacto de la diabetes mellitus tipo 2 en calidad de vida relacionada con la salud. Material y métodos: Estudio observacional transversal. Emplazamiento: una zona básica de salud de la Comunidad Foral Navarra (12.200 habitantes). Selección mediante muestreo aleatorio simple (n=95) del universo de pacientes diagnosticados de diabetes mellitus tipo 2 de nuestra zona básica de salud (n=655). Métodos: Calidad de vida relacionada con la salud valorada con los cuestionarios g...

  9. Alimentação e qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde de pessoas com hipertensão arterial sistêmica

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia Costa dos Santos da Silva; Silvana Maria Coelho Leite Fava; Juliana Pereira Machado; Simone Maria Muniz da Silva Bezerra; Michelle Pita Tavares Gonçalves; Eugenia Velludo Veiga

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo fue analizar la asociación entre nutrición y calidad de vida relacionada con la salud de personas con hipertensión arterial sistémica. Estudio descriptivo, analítico, con 397 personas hipertensas inscritas en una unidad de la Estrategia de Salud Familiar del sur de Minas Gerais, MG, Brasil, realizado entre abril y julio de 2013. Se utilizó el instrumento Minichal para evaluar la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud y otro para nutrición. Se encontró el valor promedio de 4,2 en...

  10. Evaluation of the legal consequences of action affects neural activity and emotional experience during the resolution of moral dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletti, Carolina; Sarlo, Michela; Palomba, Daniela; Rumiati, Rino; Lotto, Lorella

    2015-03-01

    In any modern society killing is regarded as a severe violation of the legal codes that is subjected to penal judgment. Therefore, it is likely that people take legal consequences into account when deciding about the hypothetical killing of one person in classic moral dilemmas, with legal concerns contributing to decision-making. In particular, by differing for the degree of intentionality and emotional salience, Footbridge- and Trolley-type dilemmas might promote differential assignment of blame and punishment while implicating the same severity of harm. The present study was aimed at comparing the neural activity, subjective emotional reactions, and behavioral choices in two groups of participants who either took (Legal group) or did not take (No Legal group) legal consequences into account when deciding on Footbridge-type and Trolley-type moral dilemmas. Stimulus- and response-locked ERPs were measured to investigate the neural activity underlying two separate phases of the decision process. No difference in behavioral choices was found between groups. However, the No Legal group reported greater overall emotional impact, associated with lower preparation for action, suggesting greater conflict between alternative motor responses representing the different decision choices. In contrast, the Legal group showed an overall dampened affective experience during decision-making associated with greater overall action readiness and intention to act, reflecting lower conflict in responding. On these bases, we suggest that in moral dilemmas legal consequences of actions provide a sort of reference point on which people can rely to support a decision, independent of dilemma type.

  11. LEGAL CHALLENGES POSED BY WI FI NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim DOBRINOIU

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the electronic communications market is in a high development, and this trend will not be diminished even by the newly world economic crisis. Studies show a significant growth in people’s interest for Information Society (IS services, with emphasize on the mobility of the resources. On the other hand, Internet has become more than a “network of networks”, but a way of life, and user’s addict to computer systems and IS services often reveal interesting aspects and controversial in the same time. Modern forms of electronic communications rely more and more on the wireless Internet connections (Wi Fi, and this conclusion could be eventually based on the following realities: 1 Users continue to migrate to wireless technology; 2 Users prefer wireless connectivity; 3 Users are attracted by costless Internet connections; 4 Users are fascinated by the possibility of hiding their online activity and behaviour. Although certain security measures can be easily applied in order to prevent the spread of cyber related crimes, the wireless (Wi Fi connection to Internet also rise up a lot of controversial aspects, most of them about the legality of the connection itself, topic that the authors try to approach in this study.

  12. Ethical and legal challenges in bioenergy governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg, Christian; Anker, Helle Tegner; Sandøe, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The article focuses on the interplay between two factors giving rise to friction in bioenergy governance: profound value disagreements (e.g. the prioritizing of carbon concerns like worries over GHG emissions savings over non-carbon related concerns) and regulatory complexity (in terms of regulat......The article focuses on the interplay between two factors giving rise to friction in bioenergy governance: profound value disagreements (e.g. the prioritizing of carbon concerns like worries over GHG emissions savings over non-carbon related concerns) and regulatory complexity (in terms...... of regulatory measures and options). We present ethical and legal analyses of the current stalemate on bioenergy governance in the EU using two illustrative cases: liquid biofuels for transport and solid biomass-based bioenergy. The two cases disclose some similarities between these two factors......, but the remaining differences may partly explain, or justify, contrasting forms of governance. While there seems to be no easy way in which the EU and national governments can deal with the multiple sustainability issues raised by bioenergy, it is argued that failure to deal explicitly with the underlying value...

  13. Legal aspects of termination of employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, R B

    1984-10-01

    Legal issues involved in termination of employment are identified, and practical implications of these issues for employers and employees are discussed. There is no general protection against arbitrary dismissal from employment in the United States. Federal statutes restricting termination at will are listed; each state also may have laws protecting employees from arbitrary dismissal. Cases in which state courts have established exceptions to the termination-at-will general rule are described; these suits have been based upon breach of contract, tort, or "public policy" exceptions such as refusing to commit an unlawful act, performing a public obligation or upholding the law, and whistle-blowing. Considering the evolving limits on the termination-at-will general rule, practical advice for employers and employees regarding documentation of interviews, content of appointment letters, and recognition of employee rights is presented. While the termination-at-will general rule appears to be eroding, there does not seem to be a clear trend against which to draw any general conclusions. The cases indicate that courts will find some theory to redress outrageous conduct or clear violations of an employer's policies.

  14. On Historical Contextualisation: Some Critical Socio-Legal Reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorie Charlesworth

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the relationship of historico-legal studies to the wider context of socio-legal studies. It issues a challenge to rethink the nature and role of legal history in the light of socio-legal theory and the extent to which it out to be used by legal scholars. The discussion explores the benefits to socio-legal studies of interdisciplinarity. It suggests that historical reconstructions that contextualise the law should be properly acknowledged as a subgenre at least of the socio-legal movement, not simply perceived as an add-on methodology.

  15. [Marketability of food supplements - criteria for the legal assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitweg-Lehmann, Evelyn

    2017-03-01

    To be placed on the market legally, food supplements have to meet national and European food law regulations. This is true for all substances used as well as for the labeling on the packaging of and the advertising for food supplements. The food business operator is responsible for its compliance with all regulations. Therefore, in this article, a concise step-by-step assessment is presented, covering all necessary legal requirements to market food supplements. Additionally, all steps are visualized in a flow chart. All vitamins, minerals and other substances used have to meet the legal conditions. Food business operators have to make sure that their products do not contain medicinal ingredients based on their pharmacologic effect. It is prohibited to place medicinal products as food supplements on the market. Furthermore, food business operators have to make sure that their products are not non-authorized novel foods according to the novel food regulation (EC) no. 258/97. Also, food supplements have to meet the requirements of article 14 of Regulation (EC) No. 178/2002 concerning the safety of foodstuff. Food shall not be placed on the market if it is unsafe. For food supplements that fail the German food-related legal standards but are legally manufactured in another EU member state or are legally put into circulation, the importer requires the so-called general disposition, which must be applied for at the BVL according to § 54 of the German Food and Feed Act. Another possibility for food which fails to meet German food law is to apply for a certificate of exemption according to § 68 of the Food and Feed Act. The food business operator has to meet the harmonized regulations concerning maximum and minimum levels of additives, flavors and enzymes. The packaging has to meet the compulsory labeling as well the voluntary labeling, like health claims. The BVL is also the relevant authority for other tasks concerning food supplements. A figure shows all

  16. Legal abortion in Georgia, 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitz, A M; Oberle, M; Zaro, S M

    1984-02-01

    According to data reported to the Georgia Department of Human Resources (DHR), the number of induced abortions performedin Georgia in 1980 decreased for the 1st time since 1968 when the state legalized abortion. To verify this reported decrease, the DHR data were compared with statistics obtained by the Alan Guttmacher Institute in a 1980 survey of abortion providers in Georgia. Since the AGI contacts providers directly, its statistics are considered a more accurate reflection of abortions performed. According to the DHR, the number of abortions dropped from 36,579 in 1979 to 33,288 in 1980, a 9% decrease, and the abortion rate fell from 26.6/1000 women ages 15-44 years to 23.9/1000. AGI data indicated a drop from 38,760 abortions in 1979 to 37,890 in 1980, a 2% decrease. Since both sources noted a similar trend despite differences in data collection methods, the 1980 decline in abortion procedures in Georgia is considered to represent a true decline rather than s statistical artifact. The sociodemographic characteristics of women obtaining abortions in Georgia in 1980 were also analyzed on the basis of DHR data. Although the number of abortions in Georgia performed on Georgia residents increased 2.5% from 1979-80 to 90.7%, the abortion ratio for residents decreased from 367.7 to 327.4 abortions/1000 live births. There was little change in the age, race, or marital status distribution of women receiving abortions. The ratio for white women was 317 abortions/1000 live births and that for blacks was 342/1000. The abortion ratio for unmarried women (1166/1000) was 13 times that for married women (88/1000). The number of repeat abortions decreased form 34% in 1979 to 29% in 1980. Moreover, 93% of women obtaining abortions did so in the 1st 12 weeks of gestation compared with 89% in 1979. The percentage of abortions performed in clinics increased from 66.5% in 1979 to 75.3% in 1980, with suction curettage accounting for 85% of all abortions in the 1st 12 weeks of

  17. Método bundle na redução de infecção de corrente sanguínea relacionada a cateteres centrais: revisão integrativa Método bundle en la redución de infecciones relacionadas a catéteres centrales: una revisión integrativa Care bundle to reduce central venous catheter-related bloodstream infection: an integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Dane Pereira Brachine

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de uma revisão integrativa da literatura, que objetivou identificar intervenções baseadas em evidência que compõem o método bundle, designados à redução de infecção de corrente sanguínea relacionada ou associada a cateter intravenoso central. Para a coleta de dados online, em bases nacionais e internacionais, foram utilizados a palavra-chave bundle e os descritores catheter-related infection, infection control e central venous catheterization, resultando, após aplicação dos critérios de inclusão, amostra de quinze artigos. Este trabalho evidenciou cinco intervenções como as mais frequentemente empregadas na construção dos bundles: higienização das mãos, gluconato de clorexidina como antisséptico para pele, uso de barreira máxima de precaução durante a inserção cateter, evitar acessar veia femoral e verificar necessidade diária de permanência do cateter, com sua remoção imediata quando não mais indicado. A maioria dos estudos demonstrou resultados estatisticamente significantes na redução de infecção de corrente sanguínea relacionada ou associada a cateter intravenoso central.Esta es una revisión integradora tuvo como objetivo identificar intervenciones basadas en evidencias que componen método bundle de reducción de infección sanguínea relacionadas o asociadas con catéter intravenoso central. Para recopilar los datos en las bases brasileñas e internacionales, utilizando la palabra clave bundle y los descriptores infecciones relacionadas con catéteres, control de infecciones y cateterización venosa central, identificando, con los criterios de inclusión, muestra de quince artículo. Este estudio muestra cinco intervenciones como comúnmente empleadas en los métodos bundles: higiene de las manos, clorhexidina como antiséptico para la piel, uso de precaución de barrera máxima durante la inserción del catéter, evitar el acceso de la vena femoral y comprobar la necesidad diaria del cat

  18. Regulatory criteria: Legal or ecological thresholds?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J.M.; Skorupa, J.P.; Schwarzbach, S.E. [Fish and Wildlife Service, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Selenium-laden irrigation drainwater has been identified as a significant threat to breeding waterfowl and shorebirds in terminal sink environments throughout the western United States. Due to historic wetland habitat losses, irrigation drainwater disposal ponds represent virtually all the available breeding habitat for waterbirds in the southern San Joaquin Valley of California. Egg selenium residues from birds breeding at these ponds have been monitored by the US Fish and Wildlife Service since 1987, and physiological risk thresholds for individual and population-level hatchability and teratogenesis have been determined from these studies. For Blacknecked stilt populations, egg selenium below 3 ppm may be considered a safe level, hatchability is significantly depressed at mean egg selenium concentrations above 8 ppm, and induction of teratogenesis is virtually certain at egg selenium levels above 18 ppm (p < 0.05). Egg samples collected in 1993 from these ponds showed concentrations as high as 160 ppm. Despite the high degree of statistical confidence in these effects thresholds, and the incidence of selenium-induced bird death and deformity at these ponds, regulation of evaporation ponds has been problematic. Existing civil statutes regarding water quality are dependent on risk-based criteria, but irrigation drainwater is exempted from these regulations. The only applicable law is the Migratory Bird Treaty Act, a criminal statute with no risk-based guidelines, and consequently no wildlife safety factors. The authors present data from the San Joaquin Valley in the context of these regulatory and legal limitations. Evaluation of acute and chronic models for ambient water quality indicate that this approach may not provide adequate protection for breeding birds. Based on the inadequacy of these models, the authors consider the development of regulatory criteria for egg selenium, a standard which is ecologically relevant.

  19. PRIVATE REGULATORY LEGAL ACTS IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    OpenAIRE

    Magomedov, Ruslan

    2014-01-01

    Regulatory legal acts possess certain characteristics, the presence of which determines their qualities. Historically the development of forms of law in the world followed various tracks, which led to appearance of several legal systems. That is why the notion and the meaning of regulatory legal acts in them does not always coincide. This article presents a notion of private regulatory legal acts and an issue of their presence in the Russian legal system. In that context a notion of regulator...

  20. Prevenção de infecções de corrente sanguínea relacionadas a cateter em pacientes em hemodiálise Prevención de infecciones del torrente sanguíneo relacionadas al catéter de pacientes en hemodiálisis Prevention of Catheter-Related Bloodstream Infections in Patients on Hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayana Souza Fram

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Realizar uma revisão sistemática sobre medidas padronizadas para prevenção de infecções relacionadas a cateter em pacientes em hemodiálise. MÉTODOS: Foi realizada uma revisão sobre a prevenção de infecções em hemodiálise nas bases de dados Medline, Embase, SciElo, Lilacs e Cochrane Library de estudos publicados entre os anos de 1990 e 2008. RESULTADOS: Foram encontrados 293 artigos e destes 12 foram incluídos no estudo. CONCLUSÃO: Foi evidenciada a importância da aplicação de um conjunto de medidas de controle de infecções pelos profissionais da saúde para prevenir a infecção nesta população de pacientes.OBJETIVO: Realizar una revisión sistemática sobre las medidas patronizadas para la prevención de infecciones relacionadas al catéter de pacientes en hemodiálisis. MÉTODOS: Fue realizada una revisión sobre la prevención de infecciones en hemodiálisis en las bases de datos Medline, Embase, SciElo, Lilacs y Cochrane Library de estudios publicados entre los años de 1990 al 2008. RESULTADOS: Fueron encontrados 293 artículos y de éstos 12 fueron incluidos en el estudio. CONCLUSIÓN: Se evidenció la importancia de la aplicación de un conjunto de medidas de control de infecciones por los profesionales de la salud para prevenir la infección en esta población de pacientes.OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review of the literature on the prevention of catheter-related bloodstream infections in patients on hemodialysis. METHODS: A literature search was performed in Medline, Embase, Scielo, Lilacs, and Cochrane databases for articles published from 1990 to 2008. RESULTS: Two hundred ninety- three articles were retrieved. However, only 12 studies were included in this review. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that health care providers use several infection control measures to prevent bloodstream infections in this patient population.

  1. LEGAL ISSUES AND REGULATION OF POLITICAL PARTIES IN LITHUANIA DURING THE INTER-WAR YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Ivanauskaitė

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The research discusses the compounds of social – political parties, their development and legal regulation. Design/methodology/approach – The research is based on qualitative research, which helps to identify and define the problems of legal regulation of political parties. Method of data and documents analysis, content analysis, and historical method are used. Findings – The research tries to avoid considerations of political issues, but legal and historical issues are discussed. It concentrates on the general legal principles of the formation of political parties and associations and their changes. It considers the development of party system regulation and studies the practical problems of legal and factual reality mismatches. In order to carry out a comprehensive scientific study the existing de jure legal framework and the consequent de facto reality is reviewed. The research proves not only that there were some differences between existed legal framework and de facto reality. Also, it defines the requirements to the general principles of regulation of political parties and determines correspondence of existing legal regulation to basic democratic standards. Research limitations/implications – Documents are the most important form of available data. Documents can contain data recorded in monographs, journals, magazines, articles, acts, judgments, official documents etc. Documents can also make up part of records maintained by various individuals and institutions such as libraries, archives, the police etc. The existing judgments, reports and circular notes of Seimas of the Republic of Lithuania, the Ministry of Interiors Affairs, chiefs of staff of districts and police are scientifically significant. However, it should be noted that not all documents have been maintained. Practical implications – The research pays attention to the changes of legal regulation of political parties and its dependence on regime. Moreover

  2. Legal responsibility and the labor law application of managers in the Municipality of Gjilani businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zymer Tafaj

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the behavior of managers who lead businesses in the Gjilani municipality and their legal responsibility during their activities based on law. It consists of two phases. In the first phase we analyze the international literature that deals with this topic in a systematic interpretation. While in the second phase we analyze data’s collected from the field. In the second phase we have interviewed 15 managers, that have implied their perceptions about legal responsibility and on the other hand we have also interviewed 15 employees analyzing their legal responsibility. Among the most interesting findings in this paper, is that the managers of Gjilani municipality are aware about the legal responsibility theoretically, while most of them do not fulfill the obligations, by placing their interests in first place, with the aim of achieving more revenues by breaking the law.

  3. DNA paternity tests in Spain without the mother's consent: the legal responsibility of the laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrot, C; Sánchez, C; Ortega, M; De Alcaraz-Fossoul, J; Carreras, C; Medallo, J; Bono, N; Royes, A; Gené, M

    2014-01-01

    It is technically feasible to perform paternity diagnosis testing solely involving an alleged father and his descendent. However, there are serious legal and ethical problems for forensic genetics laboratories when it comes to paternity testing cases for investigating the alleged father-child relationship if the biological mother has not given consent to access her genetic information. Based on the Spanish Constitution, the new Code of Ethics of the Spanish Medical Association includes several articles on studies about genetic information and their acceptance by all the individuals involved. This problem is greater when the child is a minor, mentally incapacitated or psychologically incapable, because current Spanish law requires informed consent from legal representatives, but the law does not typify what happens when one parent gives consent (the putative father) and the other parent (the mother) does not agree. The aim of this study is to put forward legal solutions to avoid potential legal problems.

  4. La Medicina Legal en Antioquia: primera parte Legal medicine in Antioquia: first part

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Enrique Escobar Gónima

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo describe aspectos históricos de la Medicina legal en Antioquia, con énfasis en las personas que fueron importantes para su desarrollo inicial. THIS WORK DESCRIBES HISTORICAL aspects of legal medicine in Antioquia, Colombia. Emphasis is done on people who were important in its initial development.

  5. Diversification of farm enterprises in the USA: legal incentives and legal obstacles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grossman, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on legal incentives and legal obstacles to diversification in the US. It first outlines some farm characteristics that may influence diversification. It then turns to the possible impact of the agricultural tenancy relationship on diversification and the relevance of land-use re

  6. Law in Context: Teaching Legal Studies through the Lens of Extra-Legal Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sandra K.; DiMatteo, Larry A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to persuade legal studies teachers of the benefits of using works from other disciplines to illustrate the rationales for law, the greater context in which the legal order operates, and the relationship between law and society. The tangential benefits of using works from other disciplines are the enhancement of the…

  7. Sexsomnia: sleep sex research and its legal implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organ, Alexandria; Fedoroff, J Paul

    2015-05-01

    "Sleep sex," also known as sexsomnia, is a sleep disorder characterized by sexual behaviors committed while asleep. There has recently been increased interest in sexsomnia due to controversies arising in legal trials that have been widely publicized in the social and public media. This article attempts to marshal the current information about sexsomnia from the forensic literature and provides an overview of sexsomnia including common features, precipitating factors, prevalence rates, diagnostic procedures, and treatment. As sexsomnia represents a condition in which sexual acts are committed without awareness or intention, this paper also reviews the development of sexsomnia as a legal defense and summarizes Canadian case law on the topic. It provides an overview of the hurdles presented to defense attorneys attempting to utilize the defense and examines popular public notions surrounding the legitimacy of sexsomnia and the possibility of malingering. We conclude that sexsomnia is a legitimate sleep disorder for which case law now exists to support its use in legal defenses based on automatism. The question of whether it is an example of "sane" or "insane" automatism remains to be determined by the courts. Regardless of whether or not sexsomnia is determined to be a mental disorder by the courts, it is now a recognized and well-described sleep disorder that can be safely treated and managed by knowledgeable clinicians.

  8. The legal duty of local government to facilitate development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theo Scheepers

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Local government in South Africa is not only facing challenges normally associated with a process of development or transformation, but needs to adjust its focus according to the new development paradigm unfolding in South Africa. Developmental local government has to accomplish this task according to the mandate issued in the Constitution and within a specific legal-institutional and value framework The legal-institutional framework is based on a set of development law principles contained in new generation legislation. The value framework consists of community values as well as constitutional values reflecting individual and community values, norms and principles. This framework imposes a legal and moral duty as well as corresponding obligations on municipalities to plan and implement future socio-economic development of the areas for which they are responsible according to a new set of development principles and values. These principles make it incumbent upon municipalities to manage development through a people-centred and community-driven process. This article briefly deals with the nature and content of the duties and responsibilities of municipalities emanating from a new development paradigm when facilitating the development process within their areas of jurisdiction.

  9. Hereditary breast and gynecological tumors: Italian legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DI Vella, Giancarlo

    2016-10-01

    The availability of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures that lower the risk for developing hereditary family-related tumors is weighed against Italian ethical and legal provisions. The healthcare environment in which a professional works should require that he possess specific technical, relational and medical competencies based upon legal orientation in addition to scientific evidence. Particular emphasis is attributed to the doctor-patient relationship, with explicit reference to the following: 1) all of the information at hand that is required to achieve a "therapeutic alliance" that combines the best interests of the patient with treatment options; 2) the completeness and intelligibility of health records, as they are likely to explain the background logic and the following of scientific clinical procedure; 3) the observance of guidelines and protocols, and their relevance to the legal responsibility of the individual and health care companies; 4) the need of a multidisciplinary approach in the treatment of these patients and the obligation of the team to have malpractice insurance. Advances on "provisions concerning liability of health personnel", which is currently awaiting approval, allows the professional to protect the patient's health without the fear of being unnecessarily censured, and unjustified from a penal or civil point of view which can deteriorate the relationship of trust and cooperation established.

  10. The changing purpose of mental health law: From medicalism to legalism to new legalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The role of law in regulating mental health detention has come to engender great contention in the legal and sociological disciplines alike. This conflict is multifaceted but is centred upon the extent to which law should control the psychiatric power of detention. In this manner the evolution of law regulating mental health detention has been seen in terms of a pendulous movement between two extremes of medicalism and legalism. Drawing on socio-legal literature, legislation, international treaties and case law this article examines the changing purpose of mental health law from an English and Council of Europe perspective by utilizing the concepts of medicalism, legalism and new legalism as descriptive devices before arguing that the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities goes further than all of these concepts and has the potential to influence mental health laws internationally.

  11. Belief and legal philosophy: a conceptual framework for Christian scholarship in undergraduate legal education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. de Freitas

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Legal education in South Africa has arrived at a discursive juncture that demands clarity on what the “purpose” of legal education should be. Debate on the purpose of legal education, more specifically for the Christian law student, becomes especially important in a society dominated by positivism, mate-rialism and pragmatism. With specific reference to the under-graduate Christian law student, this article firstly explains that the purpose of legal education should include the nurturing of the student’s belief – a belief encompassing his/her foun-dational perspective(s on reality. Secondly, in order to achieve the proper nurturing and development of the Christian law student’s belief, the importance of the teaching of legal philo-sophy is explained. In this regard, proposals are postulated pertaining to specific means by which such nurturing and development of the undergraduate Christian law student’s foundational belief can be attained.

  12. Utilization of legal and financial services of partners in dementia care study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Srijana; Judge, Katherine S; Wilson, Nancy L; Moye, Jennifer A; Snow, A Lynn; Kunik, Mark E

    2011-03-01

    Financial and legal services are unique needs of persons with dementia and their caregivers. This study examines their need for legal and financial assistance and the kinds of legal and financial services provided within Partners in Dementia Care, a telephone-based, care coordination and support service intervention delivered through a partnership between Veterans Affairs (VA) medical centers and local Alzheimer's Association chapters. Based on comprehensive assessment, and needs prioritization, care coordinators collaboratively planned action steps (specific behavioral tasks) with each caregiver/person with dementia to address the dyad's identified unmet needs. Results show that 51 (54.8%) of 93 dyads reported a need for legal and financial services. Action steps related to legal and financial need included education or assistance with legal services (27.27%), nonhealth-related financial benefits (32.32%), health-related financial benefits (21.21%), financial management/planning (9.09%), and financial support (10.1%). Comparable numbers of action steps were directed to VA (41.4%) and non-VA (58.6%) services.

  13. A critique of cannabis legalization proposals in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalant, Harold

    2016-08-01

    An editorial in this issue describes a cannabis policy framework document issued by a major Canadian research centre, calling for legalization of non-medical use under strict controls to prevent increase in use, especially by adolescents and young adults who are most vulnerable to adverse effects of cannabis. It claims that such a system would eliminate the severe personal, social and monetary costs of prohibition, diminish the illicit market, and provide more humane management of cannabis use disorders. It claims that experience with regulation of alcohol and tobacco will enable a system based on public health principles to control access of youth to cannabis without the harm caused by prohibition. The present critique argues that the claims made against decriminalization and for legalization are unsupported, or even contradicted, by solid evidence. Early experience in other jurisdictions suggests that legalization increases use by adolescents and its attendant harms. Regulation of alcohol use does not provide a good model for cannabis controls because there is widespread alcohol use and harm among adolescents and young adults. Government monopolies of alcohol sale have been used primarily as sources of revenue rather than for guarding public health, and no reason has been offered to believe they would act differently with respect to cannabis. Good policy decisions require extensive unbiased information about the individual and social benefits and costs of both drug use and proposed control measures, and value judgments about the benefit/harm balance of each option. Important parts of the necessary knowledge about cannabis are not yet available, so that the value judgments are not yet possible. Therefore, a better case can be made for eliminating some of the harms of prohibition by decriminalization of cannabis possession and deferring decision about legalization until the necessary knowledge has been acquired.

  14. [The legal status of a human corpse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodesaki, K

    2001-07-01

    A human corpse presents a number of difficulties, one of which involves difficulties associated with its legal status. A human body, once dead, is considered only as a weight of material, although it signifies continuity of what used to be a living being. A corpse is not an integral part of a human being any more. Legal human rights are only applicable to living humans, and not to a corpse. A fertilized human ovum, a human embryo, a fetus or a separated part of a (live) human body has legal-status problems that are similar to those of a corpse. In Japan, destruction, abandonment or ryotoku (take illegal possession) of a corpse, is forbidden by Japanese Criminal Law #190. This law aims to respect popular religious beliefs, rather than to protect personal rights of a given dead person. Our society needs some other way to provide a dead person with legal protection. Those of us practicing in legal medicine should remind the students in our classroom as well as ourselves of the problems just mentioned. We must always keep in mind that autopsy is exceptionally permitted by law with respect to a corpse for the larger good of society at large.

  15. [Legal consequences in cases of child abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauß, D; Richter, C; Klohs, G; Heide, S

    2013-09-01

    Medical child protection includes besides interdisciplinary diagnostics and treatment of physical and psychological symptoms also a discussion that looks at the ensuing legal consequences.This study analyses 21 criminally investigated cases of suspected child abuse from a 2 year study period and compares severity of injury to legal outcome.7 of those 21 criminal proceedings were already dropped by the prosecution and never went to trial. 4 of the 8 cases that led to a trial ended with a conviction. In all of the 4 cases that resulted in an acquittal the judges had been convinced that the child had been abused but found themselves unable to exactly identify the perpetrator. Our study's cases did not show a positive correlation between severity of injury and legal outcome.Diagnosing and treating children and minors within the context of medical child protection should always also include the ques-tion of possible legal consequences. The judicial process in cases of serious child abuse requires high medical expertise. Such expertise particularly includes the ability to determine the time of injury as exactly as possible and to provide precise written documentation of any medical findings. However, our study also shows that medical assessment is only one of many aspects in the legal response to child abuse.

  16. ERRORS AND DIFFICULTIES IN TRANSLATING LEGAL TEXTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia, CHIRILA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the accurate translation of legal texts has become highly important as the mistranslation of a passage in a contract, for example, could lead to lawsuits and loss of money. Consequently, the translation of legal texts to other languages faces many difficulties and only professional translators specialised in legal translation should deal with the translation of legal documents and scholarly writings. The purpose of this paper is to analyze translation from three perspectives: translation quality, errors and difficulties encountered in translating legal texts and consequences of such errors in professional translation. First of all, the paper points out the importance of performing a good and correct translation, which is one of the most important elements to be considered when discussing translation. Furthermore, the paper presents an overview of the errors and difficulties in translating texts and of the consequences of errors in professional translation, with applications to the field of law. The paper is also an approach to the differences between languages (English and Romanian that can hinder comprehension for those who have embarked upon the difficult task of translation. The research method that I have used to achieve the objectives of the paper was the content analysis of various Romanian and foreign authors' works.

  17. Modern Questions Of The Legal Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennadiy A. Torgashev

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present article author considers fundamental problems of law connected with equality, justice and freedom. Author proves that philosophy and law as forms of public consciousness carry out the important closely interconnected among themselves functions of the social life judgment. In the article author noted that among other forms of public consciousness law is one of difficult objects of knowledge, because law is connected with such forms of consciousness as philosophy, morals, religion, policy. The legal philosophy is the philosophical discipline having the subject the general regularities of law functioning, taken in their historical and sociocultural development, definition and the sense of legal judgment and its fundamental concepts. Law represents a set of obligatory rules of conduct (norms established by the authorized or the state. Diverse spiritual life of the society assumes a variety in the nature of law. The typology of philosophical concepts of the law and how the legal philosophy interprets legal reality is researched, various philosophical and legal concepts which are caused by two main types of rights – natural and positive are allocated. Author gives opinions of scientists, and explains own views of the author.

  18. Doença óssea relacionada com a fibrose quística: uma complicação recente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Cardoso

    2016-09-01

    Conclusões: A etiologia multifatorial e a interdependência e complexidade dos mecanismos patológicos subjacentes salientam a importância do acompanhamento dos doentes com doença óssea relacionada a fibrose quística em centros especializados que possibilitem um seguimento pluri e interdisciplinar integrado e diferenciado.

  19. Depresión y calidad de vida relacionada con la salud en pacientes con artrosis : diferencias de género

    OpenAIRE

    Martín, Ana; Vicente, Purificación; Vicente, Enrique; Sánchez, Mercedes; Galindo, Purificación; Martín, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    La artrosis es una enfermedad reumática frecuente que se asocia a un deterioro importante de la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud (CVRS). Sin embargo, el impacto de la artrosis no es igual en ambos sexos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue examinar

  20. A Patchwork of Marriages: The Legal Relevance of Marriage in a Plural Legal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsje Bonthuys

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Like many former colonies, South Africa has a plural system of family law which has historically recognized the polygynous marriages practiced by the indigenous African inhabitants of the country. However, recognition of these marriages by way of legal pluralism does not afford them equal status with the monogamous Judaeo-Christian marriage imported by European colonisers, nor does it ensure gender equality within families. Instead, the interaction between the colonial and apartheid socio-economic oppression of black people on the one hand, and legal pluralism on the other hand, produces a highly complex family law system, accurately described as ‘a patchwork of patriarchies.’ This paper argues that a far more radical transformation of family law, and one which is more likely to enhance gender equality, would be to move away from conjugality, or a sexual bond, as the basis of marriage and family law. The aim of this shift would be legal rules which recognize those relationships of kinship which have been central to African family practices and which have assisted many families to weather the multiple forms of colonial and white domination. A move away from conjugality as the primary basis of family law would also acknowledge the ever decreasing incidence of marriage and nuclear families, which characterizes contemporary South African society and would place the focus of legal regulation on the protection of socially valuable relationships, rather than the protection of marriage as an institution. Al igual que otras antiguas colonias, Sudáfrica tiene un sistema de derecho de familia plural, que ha reconocido históricamente los matrimonios en poliginia practicados por personas indígenas africanas. Sin embargo, el reconocimiento de estos matrimonios mediante pluralismo jurídico no les garantiza el mismo estatus que el matrimonio monogámico judeocristiano, ni garantiza la igualdad de género dentro de las familias. Al contrario, la

  1. Studies on the Administrative legal thoughts of Deng Xiaoping -- Based on the Background of Accession to GATY/WTO%邓小平与中国复关人世——兼论邓小平的行政法律思想

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹培忠; 周艳波; 刘桂艳

    2011-01-01

    在中国复关入世的历史进程中,邓小平从中国社会发展和国际形势的战略出发,坚持维护国家主权,为复关入世奠定基本灵活务实的原则;科学处理了台湾问题,充分体现了邓小平的维护主权原则和建立、健全科学的行政法律体系等行政法律思想,为后WTO时代履行中国入世的政府承诺,严格依法行政,实现经济全球化条件下的政府职能最优化模式的改革,实践科学发展观奠定了坚实的基础。%During the proceeding of the accession to GATT/WTO, Dong Xiaoping, from the tactic aspect of the China's social development and the international practice ,insists on the doctrine of the sovereignty for the accession to GATT/WTO to base the practical doctrine, deals with scientifically the matter of Taiwan, expresses the Dong Xiaoping's administrative legal thoughts of the maintenance sovereignty and establishment of the legal system of law and enhance the legal intendance for the base after WTO to carry out the China's commitment and to administer by law and to reform of the government optimization under the condition of the globalization and to practice the scientific development.

  2. Bacteriemia relacionada a catéter por Ochrobactrum anthropi Catheter-associated bacteremia caused by Ochrobactrum anthropi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Soloaga

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Ochrobactrum anthtropi es un bacilo gram negativo aeróbico, no fermentador de la glucosa, anteriormente conocido como Achromobacter sp o CDC grupo Vd. Ha sido aislado del medio ambiente y de infecciones en seres humanos que generalmente presentaban algún tipo de inmunocompromiso. Las infecciones por este microorganismo fueron bacteriemias relacionadas a catéteres y en ocasiones endoftalmitis, infecciones urinarias, meningitis, endocarditis, absceso hepático, osteocondritis, absceso pelviano y absceso pancreático. Se presenta el caso de un paciente de sexo masculino, de 69 años de edad, que consultó a la guardia por hipotensión sostenida y síndrome febril de cuatro días de evolución, escalofrío, sudoración profusa y deterioro del sensorio. El paciente tenía diabetes de tipo 2 y antecedente de accidente cerebrovascular. Debido a insuficiencia renal crónica presentaba un catéter de doble lumen para la diálisis. Se documentó una bacteriemia relacionada a catéter por cultivo de sangre a través de catéter y de vena periférica, utilizando el sistema automatizado de hemocultivos Bact-Alert y la metodología de tiempo diferencial (>120min. La confirmación se realizó, una vez removido el catéter, por la técnica semicuantitativa de Maki (> 15 UFC. El microorganismo fue identificado por API 20NE y Vitek 1 como Ochrobactrum anthropi.Ochrobactrum anthropi is a non-glucose fermentative, aerobic gram-negative bacillus, formerly known as Achromobacter sp or CDC group Vd. It has been isolated from the environment and from infections in usually immunocompromised human beings. The documented infections frequently involved catheter related bacteremia whereas endophthalmitis, urinary infections, meningitis, endocarditis, hepatic abscess, osteochondritis, pelvic abscess and pancreatic abscess were rarely involved. Here it is presented the case of a male patient aged 69 years with sustained hypotension, four day febrile syndrome, chill, lavish

  3. Health benefits of legal abortion: an analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrer, L B

    1985-01-01

    The abolition of legal abortion in the US would seriously threaten the health, and even the lives, of women and children. Statistics on the relationship between abortion and health attained before and after abortion was legalized were used to project some of the probable consequences of reversing the US Supreme Court's 1973 Roe v. Wade decision. Abortion has been widely practiced throughout US history, but the actual number of procedures performed before some states legalized abortion is unknown. Few legal procedures were performed for medical reasons, yet many illegal abortions took place. In 1955, a panel of experts could only provide a "best estimate" of between 200,000 and 1,200,000 illegally induced abortions occurring annually in the US. The actual number was most likely closer to the higher figure. The complication rates for illegal abortions, most of which were performed by unskilled practitioners in unsafe settings, were much higher than the rates for legal abortion now. Complications were related to ineffective or unsafe methods, Sepsis, particularly with the bacterium "Clostridium prefringens," which causes gas gangrene, was a major problem that has virtually disappeared. Each year prior to the 1970s, more than 100 women in the US died of abortion complications. Due to the fact that vital statistics reflect an incomplete ascertainment of deaths, the actual number of deaths is probably larger, possibly by as much as 50%. In 1983 more than 1.3 million procedures were performed -- a figure close to the estimated number of illegal abortions performed before 1970. In comparison, 672,000 hysterectomies and 424,000 tonsillectomy operations were performed the same year. The number of abortion-related deaths in the US decreased between 1972 and 1980, from 90 to 16. Most of this decrease resulted from the availability and safety of legal abortion. Legal abortion carries an especially low risk of death, particularly when performed in the 1st trimester. For the 1972

  4. Whither the legal control of nuclear energy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Peter [Leicester School of Law (United Kingdom). Environmental Law Unit

    1995-12-31

    International nuclear trade is governed by the regime of legal control of nuclear energy, nuclear materials, knowledge of nuclear processes and weapons. Nuclear trade is under pinned by international agreements concerning physical protection and safeguards, the control of nuclear weapons, the protection of nuclear materials from terrorist action and third part liability. The political and geographical boundary changes of the past two years have significantly altered the background against which this regime has developed. Such changes have affected nuclear trade. The paper summarised the legal control of nuclear energy between States, identifies the areas of change which may affect this regime and the consequences for international trade. Conclusions are drawn as to the development of the international legal control of nuclear energy. (author). 21 refs.

  5. The activity model of legal psychologist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Bogdanovich,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We propose an activity model of legal psychologist work. As a basis for the construction of the system of legal psychologist activity, we use trajectory of teenager living in the legal field. As the main activities within their respective specializations, we highlighted prevention, maintenance and rehabilitation. We define the main activities necessary for the development within the FGOSIII specialization 050407 “Pedagogy and Psychology of deviant behavior”: general and pathopsychologic diagnostics, development activity and psychological education, psycho-correction, psychological counseling. Accordingly, we define the types of psychological practices. We highlight the motivational and integrative practice (teaching introductory and trainee. We propose a system of training modules, ensuring the formation of the necessary competencies. The modules feature is their focus on practice (the association of training courses with the main types of psychological practice.

  6. Legal clinic gender sensitive method for law students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrušić Nevena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors discuss models of integrating gender issues, gender perspective and some gender aspects into the university education. In that context, the authors particularly focus on the concept of clinical legal education in legal clinics offering a specific practical model of teaching gender studies. Legal clinics provide for an innovative approach to gender education of prospective legal professional. The teaching method used in these legal clinics is aimed at raising students' awareness of gender issues and common gender-related biases. In the recent period, the Legal Clinic at the Law Faculty in Niš has achieved excellent results in the Clinical legal education program on the women's rights protection, which clearly proves that legal clinics have good prospects in general legal education.

  7. The Conceptual Metaphors of Law---A Comparative Study based on Chinese and English Legal Sayings%“法律”的概念隐喻--基于法律名言的汉英对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国生

    2013-01-01

    T his article systematically probes into the conceptual metaphors of “law”in legal sayings of Chinese and English from conceptual metaphorical theory .The result indicates that the two languages have the common mappings in the conceptual metaphors of law ,and show the same generative mechanism be-tween them ,that is ,hypostatization ,personification ,animalization ,Orientational metaphor ,etc .Each group of conceptual metaphors reflects the commonalities or similarities and differences in vehicles ,meta-phorical meanings ,and legal Cultural Connotations of the two nations .%文章在概念隐喻理论指导下系统探讨汉英法律名言中的“法律”概念隐喻。研究发现,汉英两种语言都有着共同的“法律”概念隐喻映射,汉英“法律”概念隐喻的生成机制是相同的,即都包括拟物化隐喻、拟人化隐喻、拟动物化隐喻、方位隐喻等。每组概念隐喻在喻体、喻义以及民族法律文化内涵方面都存在相同性或相似性以及差异。

  8. LA REFORESTACION CON QUEBRACHO COLORADO Y ALGUNAS NORMAS SILVICOLAS RELACIONADAS CON SU APROVECHAMIENTO RACIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Valentini

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available

    El presente trabajo se relaciona con la reforestación artificial
    del quebracho colorado chaqueño, en la zona húmeda del parque chaqueño y las posibilidades de regeneración natural de sus masas, estableciéndose la etapa de la hidrosere más conveniente para su instalación.
    Se determinan, en base a experiencias recientes, realizadas en establecimientos dependientes de la Administración Nacional de Bosques, los métodos silvícolas más convenientes para su conducción, cortas a clareos sucesivos y tala rasa en fajas alternas, siendo necesaria en la mayoría de los casos, la repoblación por siembra directa o plantación, por falta de portagranos.
    Los factores limitantes del desarrollo de los quebrachales más
    importantes son: las quemas de los campos, el ramoneo y pisoteo de los animales y las heladas y los golpes de sol

  9. On the Teaching Methods of legal English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓柯

    2014-01-01

    Legal English is applied and functional. It should be taught to cultivate students’ability of practice,so the time spent in instructing them linguistic structure,grammar,and translation in class should be as less as possible. The main contents should be conversational and communicative with completing certain task as the purpose. Students should be encouraged to actively participate in classroom activities and build an interactive classroom atmosphere. It is necessary for us to study intensively and enrich constantly the means and methods of teaching legal English in order to diversify teaching contents.

  10. Gardens of Justice : Critical Legal Conference 2012

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The theme for this year’s Critical Legal Conference is “Gardens of Justice”. Although the theme may be interpreted in different ways, it suggests thinking about law and justice as a physical as well as a social environment, created for specific purposes, at a certain distance from society and yet as an integral part of it. The theme also invites you to think about justice as a concrete metaphor rather than an abstract concept. Just like any ordinary garden, legal institutions affect both peop...

  11. Increasing Metaphor Awareness in Legal English Teaching

    OpenAIRE

    Campos Pardillos, Miguel Ángel

    2016-01-01

    In legal language, metaphors are a fundamental way to express and apprehend abstract notions. For instance, responsibility is perceived as WEIGHT (“the burden of proof”), falsehood or unacceptability as a DECAYING LIVING BEING (“the fruit of the rotten tree”) or the law can be used as a WEAPON (“take the law into your own hands”, “use the law as a sword and not as a shield”). This has now been accepted by the academic community, which not only recognizes the value of metaphors in legal langua...

  12. Case Briefs in Legal English Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilová Stĕpánka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A case brief can be described as a succinct summary of a case which specifies the facts, procedural history, legal issue(s, court decision and legal reasoning supporting the judgment, even though exact formats may vary. Case briefing is a demanding activity which is required from students during their law studies. The goal is to teach students to focus on the essential parts of the case and to obtain a thorough understanding of the case and the reasoning, which means the students need to employ their analytical and critical thinking skills.

  13. Relationship Marketing in Legal Services Marketing Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audronė Androšiūnaitė

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article defines the concept of professional services and evaluates the extent, to which legal services could be understood as professional services. In addition, literature analysis in the relationship marketing is presented as well as conclusions on the method for the use of relationship marketing in the development of legal services marketing strategy. Strategies of professional services marketing are completely different from other services marketing because of relations with current clients and competitors, also – singularity of the professional services.Article in Lithuanian

  14. The Uneven Legal Push for Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wind, Marlene; Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg; Rotger, Gabriel Pons

    2009-01-01

    National courts have been key players in the legal push for Europe, though notably to varying degrees. This paper examines the persisting variations in the referral rates of national courts and the underlying causal factors, aiming to better understand why some member states' courts have been more...... reluctant to join in the legal push for Europe. By using econometric methods, it challenges the modified neofunctionalist argument that the extent of intra-EC trade explains the referral practice of the individual member states. Majoritarian democracy is hypothesized as a causal factor in the low referral...

  15. Calidad de vida relacionada con la salud y trabajo en la epilepsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz C. Thomann Rey

    Full Text Available Introducción: En la monitorización de salud de la población, a medida que se controla la mortalidad prematura, van ganando terreno los indicadores de "Calidad de Vida" en detrimento de los "Cantidad de Salud". Los instrumentos de medida de Calidad de Vida Relacionados con la Salud (CVRS, pueden ayudar a valorar la aptitud de los trabajadores epilépticos. Objetivo: Observar si la empleabilidad influye en la CVRS de los pacientes epilépticos, y como están afectados los dominios de sensación energía/fatiga y funciones cognitivas, con el cuestionario QOLIE-31. Metodología: Búsqueda bibliográfica utilizando las bases de datos PubMed, Scielo, IBECS, Cochrane Plus, Google Académico y LILACS. El nivel de evidencia se estableció de acuerdo a los criterios de SIGN. Resultados: Se seleccionaron 10 artículos, de 244 artículos recuperados. De ellos, seis son estudios transversales y solo uno obtiene asociación estadísticamente significativa, p<0,001, en el análisis de regresión multivariante, entre trabajo y total QOLIE-31. De los otros cuatro, de validación, tres obtienen asociación estadísticamente significativa con p<0.001, p<0.0001 y p=0,0002, pero solo en el análisis univariante. Variables explicativas con mayor valor predictivo en los dominios de sensación de energía/fatiga y función cognitiva fueron: la frecuencia de las crisis y los síntomas depresivos. Conclusión: No se puede concluir que los epilépticos que trabajan tienen una mejor CVRS que los que no trabajan. Existen sesgos importantes de selección e información, además de diferencias culturales y sociales. Medidas de CVRS podrían ayudar, a la hora de valorar la aptitud de los enfermos epilépticos en el trabajo.

  16. Developing an Ethical and Legal Interoperability Assessment Process for Retrospective Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassé, Anne-Marie; Kirby, Emily; Fortier, Isabel

    2016-06-01

    The past decade has witnessed the creation of major international research consortia, aiming to facilitate the sharing of data from different studies to maximize health benefits. However, combining heterogeneous data across existing studies requires addressing issues related to both data harmonization and ethical and legal interoperability. This article proposes a rigorous interoperability assessment process to assess whether different data sets are sufficiently ethically and legally interoperable to allow for a given proposed research use. The methodology used to develop this process is based on a comprehensive analysis of the international ethical and legal framework governing the use of retrospective data in research, and includes the following steps: (I) finding existing processes; (II) comparing processes to identify similarities and differences and determining the limits of the "consistent whole"; (III) establishing common principles and procedures; and, (IV) changing or removing processes that do not contribute to the consistent whole. Each of these four steps were examined using step-specific methodologies, including (a) literature and policy reviews; (b) consultations with international ethical, legal and social implications (ELSI) experts; and (c) a case study piloting the proposed framework in an actual international research consortium. This assessment process takes into account key legal and ethical components such as consent, recontact, and waiver of consent. As a result, this analysis allows the development of a comprehensive filter used to verify the legal and ethical restrictions pertaining to a data set. This in turns helps in determining whether the given data set can to be used for a proposed research project, or is ethically and legally interoperable for use in research collaborations. By integrating this filter to the regular data access processes used by cohorts, not only will researchers be able to create virtual "mega-cohorts" of research

  17. The Legal Regulation of Artisan and Trade Corporations in the Cities of Medieval Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentine G. Medvedev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article features an analysis of the legal regulation of the formation and activity of artisan and trade corporations in the cities of medieval Europe. Based on the findings of an analysis of existing scientific theories, as well as a study of legal and regulatory acts, the author aims to explore the issue of the emergence of cities and workshop organizations in them and reveal their legal essence and content. The relevance of this paper is due to the fact that up until now a sufficiently definitive opinion is yet to be propounded in historical and historical/legal science as to the origin and development of such specific urban institutions as workshops and workshop corporations, with their special legal regulation. The author comes to the conclusion that the formation of cities and workshop organizations reflected the evolution of the economic and social development of medieval society, which was associated with social division of labor. The paper’s major focus is not on the statutory regulation of the work of masters and not on the regulation of workshop craft methods, which can be explained quite logically by the economic need for adapting medieval artisan production to the limited needs and capacity of the local market, and which is the subject of study for the majority of present-day scholars, but issues related to the very organization of the workshop, its position in the system of urban establishments, as well as the legal status of its members.

  18. Semantic Legal Policies for Data Exchange and Protection across Super-Peer Domains in the Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kua-Ping Cheng

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In semantic policy infrastructure, a Trusted Legal Domain (TLD, designated as a Super-Peer Domain (SPD, is a legal cage model used to circumscribe the legal virtual boundary of data disclosure and usage in the cloud. Semantic legal policies in compliance with the law are enforced at the super-peer within an SPD to enable Law-as-a-Service (LaaS for cloud service providers. In addition, cloud users could query fragmented but protected outsourcing cloud data from a law-aware super-peer, where each query is also compliant with the law. Semantic legal policies are logic-based formal policies, which are shown to be a combination of OWL-DL ontologies and stratified Datalog rules with negation, i.e., so-called non-monotonic cq-programs, for policy representation and enforcement. An agent at the super-peer is a unique law-aware guardian that provides protected data integration services for its peers within an SPD. Furthermore, agents at the super-peers specify how law-compliant legal policies are unified with each other to provide protected data exchange services across SPDs in the semantic data cloud.

  19. A Novel Model for Timed Event Extraction and Temporal Reasoning In Legal Text Documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolikipogu Ramakrishna

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Information Retrieval is in a nascent stage to provide any type of information queried by naïve user.Question Answering System is one such successful area of Information retrieval. Legal Documents (caselaw, statute or transactional document are increasing day by day with the new applications (Mobiletransactions, Medical Diagnosis reports, law cases etc. in the world. Documentation of various Businessand Human Resource (HR applications involve Legal documents. Analysis and temporal reasoning ofsuch documents is a demanding area of research. In this paper we build a novel model for timed eventextraction and temporal reasoning in legal text documents. This paper mainly works on “how one can dofurther reasoning with the extracted temporal information”. Exploring temporal information in legal textdocuments is an important task to support legal practitioner lawyer, in order to determine temporalbased context decisions. Legal documents are available in different natural languages; hence it uses NLPSystem for pre-processing steps, Temporal constraint structure for temporal expressions, associatedtagger, Post-Processor with a knowledge-based sub system helps in discovering implicit information. Theresultant information resolves temporal expressions and deals with issues such as granularity, vagueness,and a reasoning mechanism which models the temporal constraint satisfaction network.

  20. Cross-border issues in the development of medical tourism in Malaysia: legal challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemie, Puteri; Kassim, Jahn

    2009-08-01

    Strategically located at the crossroads of Asia, Malaysia has become one of the key players in the fast-growing and lucrative market for health care services in Asia. Medical travel across international boundaries has been made possible through affordable airfares and the favourable exchange rates of the Malaysian ringgit has contributed to the rise of the "medical tourism phenomenon" where medical travel is combined with visiting popular tourist destinations in Malaysia. Further, competitive medical fees and modern medical facilities have also made Malaysia a popular destination for medical tourists. Nevertheless, the increased number of foreign patients has opened up possibilities of Malaysian health care providers being subjected to malpractice claims and triggering a myriad of cross-border legal issues. Presently, there is no internationally accepted legal framework to regulate medical tourism and issues of legal redress in relation to unsatisfactory provision of treatment across international boundaries. The economic benefits of medical tourism must be based upon a solid legal regulatory framework and strong ethical standards as well as upon high-quality medical and health care services. It is therefore important to assess the existing legal framework affecting the development of medical tourism in Malaysia in order to explore the gaps, deficiencies and possibilities for legal and regulatory reform.

  1. Conciencia ambiental y conducta sustentable relacionada con el uso de energía para iluminación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Lucía Tonello

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available La conciencia ambiental es definida como un concepto multidimensional que constituye la dimensión actitudinal del comportamiento pro ambiental. En un contexto global y local de crisis energética, el presente trabajo tuvo como objetivos investigar las interrelaciones entre las diferentes dimensiones de la conciencia ambiental y la posible sustentabilidad detrás de conductas relacionadas con el uso de la iluminación, en una muestra de estudiantes universitarios. La metodología incluyó el desarrollo y administración de una encuesta con diferentes secciones para estimar la conciencia ambiental mediante escalas clasificatorias y preguntas sobre percepción de problemas ambientales, la atribución de responsabilidades, escalas estandarizadas de preocupación ambiental, conocimientos ambientales y la propensión al futuro como un rasgo de la personalidad sustentable. Los resultados en general muestran que la temática energética, al menos la referida a la iluminación tomada en este estudio, no es percibida como problemática ambiental sino como una problemática que afecta a nivel individual, y la perspectiva temporal de futuro evidenciada por la muestra está referida al tiempo futuro en sí mismo, más que como rasgo de personalidad sustentable.

  2. DESCRIPCIÓN DE UN FRAMEWORK METODOLOGICO PARA EL DESARROLLO DE APLICACIONES RELACIONADAS CON EL PATRIMONIO CULTURAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Mauricio Hincapié-Montoya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Preservar los espacios y difundirlos es una función social que debe mantener unidos a los pueblos y que no puede dejarse a un lado por el clamor y la voz del desarrollo. Para ello la tecnología juega un papel de facilitador mediático a través de la cual se puede llegar a diferentes espacios y lugares históricamente importantes pero físicamente inaccesibles por su desaparición. En los últimos años se han desarrollado aplicaciones que buscan reactivar el patrimonio cultural y hacen uso de tecnologías como realidad virtual, realidad aumentada o juegos serios. Sin embargo, la mayoría son casos de estudio en un tema particular y el área carece de un framework metodológico, que guie y facilite el desarrollo de este tipo de aplicaciones. En este articulo proponemos un framework metodológico conceptual, el cual busca guiar el desarrollo de aplicaciones relacionadas con la reactivación del patrimonio cultural al tiempo que maximiza el aprendizaje de los usuarios en este tema.

  3. Adesão e dificuldades relacionadas ao tratamento medicamentoso em pacientes com depressão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazielle Ibanez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa verificou a adesão e conhecimento de pessoas com depressão quanto à farmacoterapia prescrita, a satisfação com a equipe de saúde e as dificuldades relacionadas ao tratamento medicamentoso. Trata-se de estudo transversal, descritivo, com abordagem quali-quantitativa. Participaram do estudo 27 pessoas atendidas em um serviço ambulatorial do interior de São Paulo - Brasil. Os dados foram coletados por entrevistas semiestruturadas e revisão de prontuários e analisados por estatística descritiva e análise de conteúdo. Constatou-se que 29,6% dos pacientes não aderiam aos medicamentos e que 51,9% desconheciam a dose dos medicamentos prescritos. Como dificuldades para o seguimento da terapêutica medicamentosa, foram apontados o impacto dos sintomas depressivos sobre o autocuidado, a insatisfação com efeitos dos psicofármacos, a carência de apoio, a polifarmacoterapia e a falta de conhecimento sobre o transtorno e tratamento. Este estudo aponta fatores críticos para a promoção da segurança do paciente no seguimento da terapêutica medicamentosa.

  4. Legal System for China’s Forest Resource Protection:A Case Study of Poyang Lake Eco-economic Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Taking Poyang Lake Eco-economic Zone as an example,we analyzed existing problems in China’forest resource protection from the perspective of legal system.The problems include unclear property right system of forest resource,imperfect compensation mechanism for forest ecology,forest cutting quota scheme not resolutely put into practice,legal supervision of forest protection not implemented,and lack of integration in forest protection laws.Based on these problems,we put forward countermeasures and suggestions:establish clear forest resource property system;improve ecological benefit compensation mechanism in legal form;strictly implement forest cutting quota scheme;strengthen legal supervision of forest protection;and keep legal system integral for forest resource protection.

  5. Mortalidade por leucemias relacionada à industrialização Mortality by industrialization-related leukemias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Helena Seoane Leal

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a distribuição espacial da mortalidade por leucemia na população, buscando identificar agregados e estabelecer sua relação com os níveis de industrialização. MÉTODOS: O estudo foi realizado nas 43 regiões de governo do Estado de São Paulo, no qüinqüênio 1991-1995. Foi construído um "índice de industrialização relativo à leucemia" (IIRL baseado no número de indústrias e empregos industriais por 100.000 habitantes, valor adicionado fiscal, variedade de ramos industriais e indústrias com potenciais exposições de risco para a leucemia. O IIRL foi distribuído em cinco categorias. Verificaram-se os coeficientes padronizados de mortalidade por leucemia em cada uma das regiões, também distribuídos em cinco categorias e comparados ao mapa IIRL. RESULTADOS: As regiões mais industrializadas em ordem decrescente foram Campinas, Piracicaba, Jundiaí, Sorocaba e São Paulo. Não foi encontrada associação entre mortalidade, por nenhum tipo de leucemia, e industrialização. A região de Jales foi a que apresentou o mais alto coeficiente padronizado de mortalidade por leucemia. CONCLUSÕES: A distribuição da mortalidade por leucemia ocorreu de forma homogênea no Estado de São Paulo, não apresentando correlação com o nível de industrialização. Entretanto, aspectos relacionados ao método epidemiológico adotado -- estudo ecológico -- e ao uso do parâmetro "mortalidade por leucemia", doença cujo prognóstico tem mudado muito nas últimas décadas, limitaram a interpretação dos resultados.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the spatial distribution of mortality by leukemia in the population, looking for clusters, and to establish an association with the level of industrialization. METHOD: The study was carried out in 43 state regions of the state of São Paulo, Brazil, in the period between 1991 and 1995. It was created an Index of Industrialization-Related Leukemia (IIRL based on number of manufactures and

  6. On legality of e-book making services for other people as a business:Based on the case of Japanese “Jisui Daiko Service”%论代人扫描制作电子书籍的合法性--以日本“自炊代行服务案件”为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄淮舒

    2015-01-01

    Scanning and making e-books by a lawfully proper purchaser for personal use on a e-read-ing device such as Ipad (a tablet)will often be exempted from infringements for the “proper use”articles in Copyright Law.However,e-book making (for other people)as a business was ruled ille-gal by the Japanese court.Because of the differences in the Chinese and Japanese legal systems,the service is more likely to be judged legal in China.Over-protection of the copyright owner may be of legal significance but may be less beneficial to e-book industry.The key to ebook industrial develop-ment is to provide services based on customers’demand.%个人将自己合法购买的书籍扫描并制作成电子文档用于在平板电脑等设备阅读的行为通常受到各国著作权法中关于“合理使用”条款的豁免,但代人扫描制作电子书籍的服务在日本法律中则被判决为侵权。由于中日著作权法的差异,该服务在中国法律下可能获得完全不同的合法地位。过分保护权利人或许合法但未必有益,从消费者需求出发积极提供更有价值的服务才是电子书籍产业发展的关键。

  7. International legal cooperation of the Republic of Uzbekistan in the cultural and humanitarian spheres – important part of international relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuriddin Mamajonov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the International legal cooperation of the Republic of Uzbekistan in the cultural and humanitarian spheres. Analysis of the influence of the cultural and humanitarian spheres in the international relations of the states, including Uzbekistan, was carried out in the article. Additionally, more and more growing role of the so-called “culture factor” in the international politics is discussed in it. The analysis is based on the legal base of the Republic of Uzbekistan, international legal documents, research works of domestic and foreign scholars in such areas as culture, education, science, tourism and medical science.

  8. European stem cell research in legal shackles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielen, M.G.; de Vries, S.A.; Geijsen, N.

    2013-01-01

    Advances in stem cell biology have raised legal challenges to the patentability of stem cells and any derived technologies and processes. In 1999, Oliver Brustle was granted a patent for the generation and therapeutic use of neural cells derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). The patent wa

  9. Considering Layoffs? Tips for Avoiding Legal Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelderman, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The fiscal year that begins on July 1 for most colleges is expected to bring a wave of layoffs, as institutions grapple with declining state contributions, a falloff in donations, and other budget pressures. Eliminating jobs can create a number of legal pitfalls, including potential lawsuits for breach of contract or discrimination. If handled…

  10. 45 CFR 1321.71 - Legal assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... assistance in the principal language spoken by clients in areas where a significant number of clients do not speak English as their principal language. (d) A legal assistance provider may not require an older... court or administrative body, or included in a settlement. (4) When a case or matter accepted...

  11. Rape: Past and present legal regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đapović Lasta S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Rape was identified as a criminal act in the earliest known legal writings, Hamurabi's legal code (cir. 2000 BC. In the Balkans, in the Middle Ages, rape was always punished in one way or another, in the statutes of the Adriatic maritime towns, which were under the rule of the Nemanjić state or the West. All categories of women, even prostitutes and slaves, were protected by law from sexual violence in many statutes. Also in Dušan's legal code the regulation is found, severely punishing rapists. Laws following the Second Serbian Uprising, also provide severe punishment for sexual violence, especially towards women but also male minors. Legal and court practice, following the Second World War, indicate that the protection of women from sexual violence is completely inadequate and this at a time when women had achieved equal rights with men in many spheres of life. World events at the end of the 20th century: collapse of the Soviet Union: as well as the happenings in this region,: war, ethnic and religious conflicts resulted in massive rape of women, opening of brothels, trading women and family violence. Non state organizations, mainly women in expert associations, invest great effort to rectify this very unsatisfactory situation. They exert pressure for change in the law and in court practice, by which women would have more effective defense against sexual violence, as well as organized assistance for women victims of traffic, and warning of the possible danger.

  12. Nursing Homes as Teaching Institutions: Legal Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapp, Marshall B.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the trend toward affiliation of nursing homes with educational programs as clinical teaching institutions for medical, nursing, and allied health students. Reviews potential ethical and legal issues for the nursing home administrator, professional staff member, educator, and student, including informed consent, supervisory…

  13. Achieving Excellence: Mastery Learning in Legal Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinman, J. M.; Feldman, Marc

    1985-01-01

    Law schools should require excellence of all students, and mastery learning is a technique useful for structuring entire curricula or course segments to achieve high standards. A Rutgers course in contracts, torts, and legal research and writing developed to apply mastery learning strategies has proven successful. (MSE)

  14. Legal And Social Ambivalence Regarding Homosexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Robert G.

    1977-01-01

    Social controversy and legal ambivalence have been prevalent regarding homosexuality. Guardians of tradition, have all moved toward decriminalization in their own fashion. Yet this thrust has been halted by a recent Supreme Court decision. The homosexual may have to retreat to the closet unless renewal occurs. (Author)

  15. Tenure Traps: Legal Issues of Concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drapeau, Donald A.

    1995-01-01

    Offers information and observations on six areas of legal concern in circumstances where tenure is denied and the individual decides to contest the decision. Advises making the tough decisions early in the process, following the established process, and being as clear as possible in intentions and communication. (SR)

  16. The Legal Framework of Cyber Operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Ducheine

    2013-01-01

    The presentation focusses on the legal, strategic and operational framework for (military) cyber operations. Themes addressed cover: the scope of cyber security and the role of government (in general) and the armed forces (in particular); legitimacy as a principle of the rule of law and its relevanc

  17. Seven Legal Duties of a Coach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figone, Albert J.

    1989-01-01

    This article identifies seven legal duties of coaches and discusses the practical application of each. These duties relate to supervision, planning, warning of risks, providing a safe environment, evaluating players for injuries and incapacities, fairly matching players, and first aid and emergency procedures. (IAH)

  18. Development Methodology for an Integrated Legal Cadastre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hespanha, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    This Thesis describes the research process followed in order to achieve a development methodology applicable to the reform of cadastral systems with a legal basis. It was motivated by the author’s participation in one of the first surveying and mapping operations for a digital cadastre in Portugal,

  19. The Reliability and Legality of Online Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbebaku, C. A.; Adavbiele, A. Justina

    2016-01-01

    Today, the classroom beyond the border through online Open University education in Nigeria has made it possible for many students to obtain university degrees. However, the reliability and legality of such degrees have become questionable. This paper is a descriptive exploratory case study regarding the public and private sector end-users, whose…

  20. The Private Legal Governance of Domain Names

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2016-01-01

    ) and the Danish Complaints Board for Internet Domain Names (the Board) to discuss how and to what extent the domain name system balances interests between trademark owners and other users of domain names and secures the rule of law (legal certainty and predictability) with a special focus on cases where...

  1. Legal Aspects of University Autonomy in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranieri, Nina Beatriz Stocco

    2009-01-01

    State control over higher education has been provided for in the Brazilian legal system since the establishment of the republic, with university autonomy having been the object of six reforms of higher education and various federal decrees up until the federal constitution of 1988, which upheld it in Article 207. In a country with a limited and…

  2. Understanding How Grammatical Aspect Influences Legal Judgment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sherrill, Andrew M.; Eerland, Anita; Zwaan, Rolf A.; Magliano, Joseph P.

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that grammatical aspect can bias how individuals perceive criminal intentionality during discourse comprehension. Given that criminal intentionality is a common criterion for legal definitions (e.g., first-degree murder), the present study explored whether grammatical aspect

  3. Understanding how grammatical aspect influences legal judgment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Sherrill (Andrew M.); A. Eerland (Anita); R.A. Zwaan (Rolf); J.P. Magliano (Joseph P.)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractRecent evidence suggests that grammatical aspect can bias how individuals perceive criminal intentionality during discourse comprehension. Given that criminal intentionality is a common criterion for legal definitions (e.g., first-degree murder), the present study explored whether gramma

  4. Ethical and Legal Responsibilities of Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennen, Robert E.

    In the aftermath of the Watergate scandal, each profession is reviewing its ethical practices. This paper assists in this renewal by citing the code of ethical standards of APGA; reviewing the laws of the State of Nevada regarding privileged communications; and covering the legal aspects which relate to counseling situations. (Author)

  5. Children's Health in a Legal Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, Clare; Scott, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. legal system gives parents the authority and responsibility to make decisions about their children's health care, and favors parental rights over society's collective responsibility to provide for children's welfare. Neither the federal government nor state governments have an affirmative obligation to protect and promote children's…

  6. ELSA for Children Legal Research Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ó Cathaoir, Katharina Eva

    In order to support the Council of Europe ONE in FIVE Campaign to stop sexual violence against children, to contribute to the protection of children’s rights in Europe and to increase the awareness of law students on the subject, ELSA created a network-wide Legal Research Group (LRG) called ‘ELSA...

  7. The Common History of European Legal Scholarship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Wallinga (Tammo)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis paper traces the common history of European legal scholarship from its beginning in the late 12th century to the development of national codifications which started some six centuries later. During this period, Roman law was of great importance in the universities, and Justinian’s C

  8. LEGAL MATRIMONIAL REGIME IN B&H

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Krešić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Matrimonial regime between spouses or between extramarital partners, and between parents and children is regulated by the Family Law Act of Bosnia and Herzegovina Federation, hereinafter FLA B&HF (SG FBiH 35/05, 41/05, Family Law Act of the Republic of Srpska, hereinafter FLA RS (SG RS”54/02, 41/08 and the Family Law Act of Brčko District, hereinafter FLA BD (SG RS, 66/07. Legal rules used for the regulation of the matrimonial regime between spouses, as well as between spouses and third parties make matrimonial regime (Ponjavić, 2005, p. 361. Matrimonial regime between spouses in family legislation in Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H is regulated in two following ways: as legal matrimonial regime and as contract matrimonial regime. Legal regime is the one which applies on spouses if not arranged otherwise prior to contracting marriage or during marriage. In this paper the author indicates the differences between the legal matrimonial regimes of the two entities as well as those between the entities and Brčko District of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  9. Staff Exchange or Legal Alien Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rune Nørgaard

    2016-01-01

    SRA would very much like to support the exchange of best practice between members throughout the year and the Membership Committee is presently looking into the opportunities for a Staff Exchange or Legal Alien Program. However the International Section has already had the chance to provide...

  10. The Legal Recognition of Sign Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Meulder, Maartje

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an analytical overview of the different types of explicit legal recognition of sign languages. Five categories are distinguished: constitutional recognition, recognition by means of general language legislation, recognition by means of a sign language law or act, recognition by means of a sign language law or act including…

  11. USMLE Step 1 Examination: Legal Vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Bryce

    1996-01-01

    In 1994 the Federation of State Medical Boards and the National Board of Medical Examiners instituted a three-step U.S. Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE). Step one of the USMLE may be vulnerable to legal challenge on the basis of minority group bias and lack of construct validity. (SLD)

  12. Corporal Punishment: Legalities, Realities, and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchey, Patricia H.

    2003-01-01

    Presents a quiz that will help readers determine the reliability of their own perceptions relating to corporal punishment in schools. Discusses U.S. Courts and corporal punishment, worldwide and nationwide legality, and the realities of corporal punishment in the United States. Discusses implications for what teachers can do to address corporal…

  13. Introducing Legal Method When Teaching Stakeholder Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Governments are particularly salient stakeholders for business ethics. They act on societal needs and social expectations, and have the political and legal powers to restrict or expand the economic freedoms of business as well as the legitimacy and often urgency to do so. We draw on two examples:...

  14. Introducing legal method when teaching stakeholder theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Governments are particularly salient stakeholders for business ethics. They act on societal needs and social expectations, and have the political and legal powers to restrict or expand the economic freedoms of business as well as the legitimacy and often urgency to do so. We draw on two examples:...

  15. Temporal Visualization for Legal Case Histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Chanda; Allen, Robert B.; Plaisant, Catherine; Shneiderman, Ben

    1999-01-01

    Discusses visualization of legal information using a tool for temporal information called "LifeLines." Explores ways "LifeLines" could aid in viewing the links between original case and direct and indirect case histories. Uses the case of Apple Computer, Inc. versus Microsoft Corporation and Hewlett Packard Company to…

  16. Legal Transparency as a National Security Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoni Eshpar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The act of taking initiative is considered the preferred modus operandi within the various spheres that shape and define the concept of Israel’s national security: on the battlefield and in diplomacy, as well as on the media front. Conventional wisdom within all these spheres is that one should not be dragged along by the force of events, nor should one ever allow an adversary to define the terms of the battle. The legal realm, however, would appear to be an exception to this rule. Although recognition of its importance has greatly increased in recent years, thinking on the subject remains limited to the defensive and reactive; in other words, thinking is limited to the question of how to furnish the political and operational echelon with professional advice and the proper means of defense against court petitions, lawsuits, commissions of inquiry, and other legal proceedings in Israel and abroad. These are important tasks, but is it the sum total of the law’s ability to contribute to security? What about a more comprehensive legal strategy that is more proactive and takes the initiative? What benefit, if any, would it have, and at what price? This article addresses these questions by reviewing the public legal campaign, unprecedented in form and scope, waged by the Obama administration throughout its first term.

  17. Legal insider trading and stock market liquidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degryse, Hans; de Jong, Frank; Lefebvre, J.J.G.

    2016-01-01

    This paper assesses the impact of legal trades by corporate insiders on the liquidity of the firm’s stock. For this purpose, we analyze two liquidity measures and one information asymmetry measure. The analysis allows us to study as well the effect of a change in insider trading regulation, namely t

  18. Borders and Legal Criteria for Acquiring Nationality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elósegui Itxaso

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Legal criteria for acquiring nationality are crucial in the integration of persons into society, since they provide access to the right to vote. Until now, the criteria most frequently used are those of ius soli (birth and ius sanguinis (nationality is inherited from the parents, which comply with previous anthropological approaches and which jurists accept without reflection, or consider to be unshakeable traditions.The author’s proposal in this article is to accept that some of these legal criteria should be reformed, though not in an anarchic manner. On one hand, some of the ethnic criteria may be respected, but on the other, the processes of acquiring nationality should be streamlined by accepting the desire of persons wanting to change their nationality on moving to a new country of residence. Meanwhile, we must establish channels of demand for accepting the democratic values and legal system of the welcoming country, as a result of which it would be fair to call for a prior learning period before the rights to nationality and suffrage are granted. The author also adds – and accepts as being a fundamental element – some of Habermas’ inclusion theses, though she stresses that this discourse should be organised into two specific, feasible legal solutions or rather, in a realistic manner.

  19. Cannabis Use and Support for Cannabis Legalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palali, A.; van Ours, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the determinants of the support for cannabis legalizationfinding a causal effect of personal experience with cannabis use. Current and past cannabis users are more in favor of legalization. We relate this to self-interest and inside information about potential dangers of cannabis use.

  20. Child Custody: Legal Decisions and Family Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Craig A., Ed.

    This collection addresses child custody decisions and the resultant outcomes for children and their families. The first section of the book examines aspects of the legal decision-making process as well as legislative guidelines affecting custody and post-divorce issues. The second section focuses on post-divorce family patterns for fathers,…

  1. Buddhism and Legal Tradition in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mergen S. Ulanov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of the influence of Buddhism on the legal tradition in Mongolia. The scientific relevance of the study concerning the history of interaction of Buddhism and legal tradition lies in the fact that religion and law are the values and norms that regulate social relations, revealing level and condition of morality of society, determining the system of value coordinates. The analysis of the cultural-historical context of interaction of legal and religious institutions is of particular importance. In this regard, the questions regarding the history of interaction of Buddhism and legal traditions in Mongolia are of special interest. The authors consider such monuments of Mongolian law as the «Great Yasa», the Hutuktay-Sechen’s Law, the Altan Khan’s Code, the «Eighteen steppe laws», the «Ih tsaaz» (the Mongol-Oirat Code of 1640, the «Mongol Tsaadzhin Bichig» («the Mongolian law», the «Khalkha Dzhirum» and modern legislation of Mongolia. A common in the religious studies view on Buddhism as a contemplative religion, indifferent to political-legal issues, is not entirely true. The study showed that Buddhism had a significant influence on the formation of state-legal relations in Mongolia. Inclusion of the Buddhist Canon law in the national legislation contributed to strengthening of the provisions of the world religion in the Mongolian society. As a result it became an important regulator of legal relations. It also contributed to the fact that the Buddhist clergy was beginning to be perceived by the population as an important and integral part of society. After proclamation of the Mongolian People's Republic and the subsequent persecution of the Church Buddhism ceased to have any serious impact on the law. In the modern democratic Mongolia the leading role of Buddhism in the country is enshrined in law, and it is regarded as an ideological foundation for preservation of national culture and Mongols

  2. Calidad de vida relacionada con la salud en función de la categoría ponderal en la infancia Health-related quality of life across weight categories in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Piqueras

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Analizar las diferencias en calidad de vida relacionada con la salud en función de la categoría ponderal basada en el índice de masa corporal en niños y niñas de 8 a 12 años de edad. Métodos: Estudio transversal descriptivo con 678 escolares de 8 a 12 años de la provincia de Alicante (España. Se compararon las puntaciones en las dimensiones de calidad de vida relacionada con la salud, evaluada mediante la versión española del Child Health and Illness Profile-Child Edition, en función de las categorías ponderales (siguiendo los World Health Organization Child Growth Standards y del sexo. Resultados: El 28,2% y el 15,3% presentaron sobrepeso y obesidad, respectivamente. No se hallaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p > 0,05 entre las categorías ponderales en las dimensiones de calidad de vida relacionada con la salud. Conclusiones: La falta de conciencia en los niños pequeños sobre el impacto de la obesidad en la calidad de vida plantea la necesidad de intervenciones centradas en dicha salud percibida desajustada.Objective: To analyze differences in health-related quality of life across weight categories based on body mass index in boys and girls aged 8 to 12 years old. Methods: A cross-sectional study with 678 schoolchildren aged between 8 and 12 years from the province of Alicante (Spain was conducted. The scores on the dimensions of health-related quality of life, assessed by the Spanish version of the Child Health and Illness Profile-Child Edition, across the weight categories (according to the World Health Organization Child Growth Standards and sex, were compared. Results: Overweight or obesity was found in 28.2% and 15.3% of the sample, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences (p > 0.05 across the weight categories on the distinct dimensions of health-related quality of life. Conclusions: Children are unaware of the impact of obesity on quality of life. Interventions to

  3. Alpine Windharvest: development of information base regarding potentials and the necessary technical, legal and socio-economic conditions for expanding wind energy in the Alpine Space - CFD modelling evaluation - Summary of WindSim CFD modelling procedure and validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaffner, B.; Cattin, R. [Meteotest, Berne (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    This report presents the development work carried out by the Swiss meteorology specialists of the company METEOTEST as part of a project carried out together with the Swiss wind-energy organisation 'Suisse Eole'. The framework for the project is the EU Interreg IIIB Alpine Space Programme, a European Community Initiative Programme funded by the European Regional Development Fund. The project investigated the use of digital relief-analysis. The report describes the development of a basic information system to aid the investigation of the technical, legal and socio-economical conditions for the use of wind energy in the alpine area. The report deals with the use of computational fluid dynamics and wind simulation modelling techniques and their validation. Recommendations on the use of the results are made.

  4. Alpine Windharvest: development of information base regarding potentials and the necessary technical, legal and socio-economic conditions for expanding wind energy in the Alpine Space - GIS analysis Franches Montagnes, Switzerland - Documentation of GIS concepts, methods and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daellenbach, F.; Schaffner, B. [Meteotest, Berne (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    This report presents part of the development work carried out by the Swiss meteorology specialists of the company METEOTEST as part of a project carried out together with the Swiss wind-energy organisation 'Suisse Eole'. The framework for the project is the EU Interreg IIIB Alpine Space Programme, a European Community Initiative Programme funded by the European Regional Development Fund. The project investigated the use of digital relief-analysis. The series of reports describes the development and use of a basic information system to aid the investigation of the technical, legal and socio-economical conditions for the use of wind energy in the alpine area. This report documents the use of the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) methodology for the 'Franches Montagnes' Region in Switzerland, whereby the most significant of the model's layers was found to be the wind velocity layer.

  5. Alpine Windharvest: development of information base regarding potentials and the necessary technical, legal and socio-economic conditions for expanding wind energy in the Alpine Space - Alpine Space wind map - Modeling approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaffner, B.; Remund, J. [Meteotest, Berne (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    This report presents describes the development work carried out by the Swiss meteorology specialists of the company METEOTEST as part of a project carried out together with the Swiss wind-energy organisation 'Suisse Eole'. The framework for the project is the EU Interreg IIIB Alpine Space Programme, a European Community Initiative Programme funded by the European Regional Development Fund. The project investigated the use of digital relief-analysis. The series of reports describes the development and use of a basic information system to aid the investigation of the technical, legal and socio-economical conditions for the use of wind energy in the alpine area. This report discusses two modelling approaches investigated for use in the definition of a wind map for the alpine area. The method chosen and its application are discussed. The various sources of information for input to the model are listed and discussed.

  6. Alpine Windharvest: development of information base regarding potentials and the necessary technical, legal and socio-economic conditions for expanding wind energy in the Alpine Space - Digital relief analysis - Abstract of work package 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaffner, B.; Cattin, R. [Meteotest, Berne (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    This report presents an abstract of the development work carried out by the Swiss meteorology specialists METEOTEST as part of a project carried out together with the Swiss wind-energy organisation 'Suisse Eole'. The framework for the project is the EU Interreg IIIB Alpine Space Programme, a European Community Initiative Programme funded by the European Regional Development Fund. The project investigated the use of digital relief-analysis. The series of reports describes the development and use of a basic information system to aid the investigation of the technical, legal and socio-economical conditions for the use of wind energy in the alpine area. This report presents an abstract of the work done as part of the Work Package 7 of the Alpine Windharvest project.

  7. Alpine Windharvest: development of information base regarding potentials and the necessary technical, legal and socio-economic conditions for expanding wind energy in the Alpine Space - GIS analysis methodology - Workbook and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daellenbach, F.; Schaffner, B. [Meteotest, Berne (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    This report presents the development work carried out by the Swiss meteorology specialists of the company METEOTEST as part of a project carried out together with the Swiss wind-energy organisation 'Suisse Eole'. The framework for the project is the EU Interreg IIIB Alpine Space Programme, a European Community Initiative Programme funded by the European Regional Development Fund. The project investigated the use of digital relief-analysis. The report describes the development of basic information system to aid the investigation of the technical, legal and socio-economical conditions for the use of wind energy in the alpine area. The report deals with the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) methodology, which includes three steps: the identification of limiting factors for wind power production, the compilation of a GIS layer for each of these factors and, thirdly, their aggregation into a result layer. The methodology was implemented for four case studies in Austria, Italy, Slovenia and Switzerland.

  8. Medicina legal: las meningitis de origen traumático

    OpenAIRE

    Uribe Cualla, Guillermo

    2011-01-01

    El señor Inspector Municipal de Policía de Purificación, en suauto de fecha 20 de diciembre de 1933, dice lo siguiente: "Con los insertos debidos líbrese exhorto a la Oficina Médico Legal Superior de Bogotá, para que se dignen conceptuar si la infección intracraneana de que fue víctima el occiso jacinto Lozano, habría podido evitarse con un buen tratamiento médico adecuado, para que de este modo quede plenamente establecido el cuerpo del delito que es la base principal".

  9. Legal, regulatory & institutional issues facing distributed resources development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report describes legal, regulatory, and institutional considerations likely to shape the development and deployment of distributed resources. It is based on research co-sponsored by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and four investor-owned utilities (Central & South West Services, Cinergy Corp., Florida Power Corporation, and San Diego Gas & Electric Company). The research was performed between August 1995 and March 1996 by a team of four consulting firms experienced in energy and utility law, regulation, and economics. It is the survey phase of a project known as the Distributed Resources Institutional Analysis Project.

  10. Legal Origin,Endowment and Financial Development%Legal Origin, Endowment and Financial Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张世雯

    2016-01-01

    Since the rise of the economic and financial development theory, around economic and financial development of the determinants and what financial arrangements for promoting economic growth and other issues, thus resulted in a variety of im-portant theoretical debate. This paper will Define what is meant by key terms such as legal tradition and endowment, explain the channels through which legal tradition and endowment affect financial development through talking about the relationship be-tween legal origin, initial in endowment and financial development. By comparing different legal traditions or the"Origins"be-tween the The Continental Law System and Common Law System, a comprehensive analysis of the effects of different origin of law on the financial and economic development.

  11. Infecções relacionadas à assistência à saúde por Staphylococcus coagulase negativa em unidade de terapia intensiva neonatal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Ricardo Araujo da Silva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as infecções relacionadas à assistência à saúde, em unidade de terapia intensiva neonatal, causadas pelo Staphylococcus coagulase negativa, verificando o perfil de sensibilidade antimicrobiana e possíveis esquemas antibióticos eficazes. MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo retrospectivo de uma série de casos de infecções relacionadas à assistência à saúde tardias de origem hospitalar atribuída ao Staphylococcus coagulase negativa, avaliando o perfil de sensibilidade antimicrobiana. Foram estudados os recém-nascidos internados entre 1º de janeiro de 2010 a 30 de junho de 2012 em uma unidade de terapia intensiva neonatal da cidade do Rio de Janeiro, sendo todos os pacientes oriundos de outras unidades. RESULTADOS: Foram admitidos 765 pacientes, totalizando 3.051 pacientes-dia e uma densidade de incidência de infecção geral de 18,9 por 1.000 pacientes-dia. A taxa de utilização de cateteres venosos centrais foi de 71,6% e a positividade das culturas de todos os sítios para todas as infecções relacionadas à assistência à saúde foi de 68,4%. O Staphylococcus coagulase negativa foi implicado em 11 (19,2% das 57 infecções relacionadas à assistência à saúde e Klebsiela pneumoniae produtor de betalactamase de espectro estendido e Candida sp em 5 ocasiões cada. Das 11 infecções, 10 (90,9% foram atribuídas a infecções primárias de corrente sanguínea. A sensibilidade dos isolados de Staphylococcus coagulase negativa em relação à vancomicina, clindamicina, ciprofloxacin, oxacilina e gentamicina foi de 100%, 81,8%, 72,7%, 27,2%, 22,2%, respectivamente. Não houve óbito atribuído diretamente à infecção por Staphylococcus coagulase negativa. CONCLUSÃO: O Staphylococcus coagulase negativa foi o principal agente encontrado nas infecções relacionadas à assistência à saúde tardias de origem hospitalar, sendo baixas as taxas de infecções relacionadas a cateter venoso central. Em hospitais

  12. Hauke Brunkhorst: Critical Theory of Legal Revolutions: Evolutionary Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    2015-01-01

    Book review of: Critical Theory of Legal Revolutions. Evolutionary Perspective / by Hauke Brunkhorst (London: Bloomsbury, 2014, 471 pp.)......Book review of: Critical Theory of Legal Revolutions. Evolutionary Perspective / by Hauke Brunkhorst (London: Bloomsbury, 2014, 471 pp.)...

  13. BITCOIN - BETWEEN LEGAL AND INFORMAL

    OpenAIRE

    Loredana MAFTEI

    2014-01-01

    The proliferation of technology emphasized new forms of payment. During the last years, current literature highlighted the role of virtual currency, the channels of payment through digital coins and the importance of assimilation of such platforms. Bitcoin or BTC is known as a digital coin, issued for the first time in 2009 and based on a peer to peer system. The difference from other forms of payment is that BTC is not controlled by any institution or central authority. BTC transactions have...

  14. Sexual orientation and gender identity in North America: legal trends, legal contrasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, R Douglas; Bonauto, Mary

    2005-01-01

    The article provides a comparative analysis of recent legal developments with regard to LGBT rights in Canada and the United States of America. Both countries have made great progress towards better protection and full recognition of LGBT rights. Despite this progress, Canada appears to be ahead of the United States, as illustrated by two most recent court decisions (e.g. Halpern, legalizing same-sex marriage in Ontario, and Lawrence v. Texas, decriminalizing consensual sodomy in the United States).

  15. Public perceptions of arguments supporting and opposing recreational marijuana legalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, Emma E; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Heley, Kathryn; Barry, Colleen L

    2017-02-09

    In debates about recreational marijuana legalization, pro-legalization arguments highlighting economic and other potential policy benefits compete with anti-legalization arguments emphasizing public health risks. In 2016, we conducted a national survey using an online panel (N=979) designed to answer two main research questions: (1) How do Americans perceive the relative strength of competing arguments about recreational marijuana legalization? (2) How are perceptions of argument strength associated with public support for recreational marijuana legalization? We examined differences in attitudes among individuals living in states that have/have not legalized recreational marijuana and among Democrats/Independents/Republicans. Ordered logit regression assessed the relationship between perceived argument strength and public support for recreational marijuana legalization. Respondents rated pro-legalization arguments highlighting beneficial economic and criminal justice consequences as more persuasive than anti-legalization arguments emphasizing adverse public health effects. Respondents were more likely to agree with arguments highlighting legalization's potential to increase tax revenue (63.9%) and reduce prison overcrowding (62.8%) than arguments emphasizing negative consequences on motor vehicle crashes (51.8%) and youth health (49.6%). The highest rated anti-legalization arguments highlighted the conflict between state and federal marijuana laws (63.0%) and asserted that legalization will fail to eliminate the black market (57.2%). Respondents who endorsed pro-legalization economic and criminal justice arguments were more likely than other respondents to support legalization. Our findings indicate that, on both side of the recreational marijuana legalization debate, there are arguments that resonate with the American public. However, public health risk messages were viewed as less compelling than pro-legalization economic and criminal justice-oriented arguments.

  16. Marijuana Legalization: Implications for Property/Casualty Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Brenda Wells

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of states have legalized marijuana for recreational use. Though marijuana is still illegal at the Federal level, the administration will not seek to enforce the law in states that have legalized its use, consistent with a majority of Americans who indicate that they do not want Federal resources used to arrest and convict marijuana smokers in states that have legalized the substance (Ferner, 2012). With the legalization of marijuana comes interesting implications for the ...

  17. Culture of Rights and Functional Pathologies of Contemporary Legal Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sarlo, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    It's observed critically the present course of legal culture, especially around the so-called culture of rights. The legal culture is concerned with symbolic functions, which may exhibit pathologies. The symbolic functions of legal systems are briefly reviewed, which, in my opinion, are hampered or annulled by the development of some that consider pathological tendencies in contemporary legal systems, leading to a deepening dysfunctionality of law. In all this, law schools plays a central role.

  18. Labor Market Interactions Between Legal and Illegal Immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    Epstein, Gil S

    2000-01-01

    This paper looks at the situation of legal immigrants who employ illegal immigrants to provide them with various services. This enables the legal immigrants to allocate more time to other work, thereby increasing their earnings. Illegal immigrants employed by legal immigrants may specialize in certain professions and may themselves employ other illegal immigrants. An economy is evolving whose sole purpose is the provision of services by illegal immigrants for legal immigrants.

  19. Labour Market Interactions Between Legal and Illegal Immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    Epstein, Gil S

    2000-01-01

    This paper looks at the situation of legal immigrants who employ illegal immigrants to provide them with various services. This enables the legal immigrants to allocate more time to other work, thereby increasing their earnings. Illegal immigrants employed by legal immigrants may specialize in certain professions and may themselves employ other illegal immigrants. An economy is evolving whose sole purpose is the provision of services by illegal immigrants for legal immigrants.

  20. Legal perceptions of forensic DNA profiling part I: a review of the legal literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Simon J

    2005-12-01

    A forensic biologist is usually involved in the criminal justice system process somewhere between the police and the legal system, interacting in a practical context regularly and extensively with both. Forensic DNA research and development commonly involves initiatives that encroach into the neighbouring domains of the law enforcement or legal agencies. Despite this level of association, establishing meaningful cross-disciplinary communication and understanding within the justice system remains a challenge. As an example, there is an abundance of literature relating to forensic DNA profiling in legal and criminological periodicals. Such journals are perhaps outside the regular reading of forensic scientists and much of the legal discussion appears to go unnoticed. This situation is understandable; however, it is also undesirable particularly as forensic DNA developments are intertwined with significant changes in legislation and contentious issues of privacy, civil liberty and social justice. This paper attempts to address this shortcoming directly by summarising - from the viewpoint of a forensic scientist - some of the discussion in the legal literature. In particular the review focuses on discussion raising ideological and ethical concerns. Awareness of these views is of relevance to forensic science. It assists us to accurately place DNA evidence into context and to develop its role in achieving the broader criminal justice system objectives. Understanding the discussion also provides a way to enter the debate and communicate at an appropriate level the true potential of DNA to the legal community.

  1. Sesgo de respuesta en una encuesta postal poblacional sobre calidad de vida relacionada con la salud (SF-12v2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bienvenida Carpe Carpe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamentos: en las investigaciones que utilizan un cuestionario como fuente de información el sesgo asociado a la baja tasa de respuesta puede limitar la ventaja económica de las encuestas poblacionales por correo postal. El objetivo fue estimar los factores asociados a la no respuesta con énfasis en la Calidad de Vida Relacionada con la Salud (CVRS. Métodos: a las personas que respondieron a la Encuesta de Salud de Murcia-2007 (> 18 años, realizada vía telefónica, se les remitió cuatro meses después un segundo cuestionario por vía postal. Ambas evaluaciones incluían información sobre CVRS: SF-12v2 (telefónica y EQ-5D (postal. Se realizó una regresión logística para identificar los factores basales (sociodemográficos, conductas relacionadas con la salud y CVRS -sumario físico (CSF y sumario mental (CSM del SF-12v2 asociados a la no respuesta postal. Resultados: 2.078 (61,5% individuos no respondieron. Análisis multivariante: la no respuesta se asoció con el estado civil, mayor probabilidad de no responder si no estaba casado (viudo OR: 2,24; IC95% 0,61/0,88; separado/divorciado1,69;1,10/2,59; soltero 1,53;1,23/1,90 y de manera inversa con la edad (25-34 años OR:0,95;IC95% 0,69/1,29; 35-44 años 0,60; 0,43/0,85; 45-54 años 0,42; 0,29/0,60; 55-64 años-0,29; 0,20/0,43; 65-74 años 0,17; 0,11/0,26; >75 años 0,15; 0,09/0,23 y el nivel de estudios (primarios OR: 0,65; IC95% 0,48/0,86; secundarios 0,41; 0,30/0,57; superiores 0,22; 0,16/0,30. También se asoció con la CVRS pero de manera diferenciada para el CSF: las personas con puntuaciones intermedias presentaron menor probabilidad de no responder (OR: 0,73; IC95% 0,61/0,88 que para el CSM: las personas del tercil superior presentaron mayor probabilidad de no responder (OR: 1,47; 1,22/1,78. Conclusiones: la CVRS influye en la no respuesta de las encuestas postales, dando lugar a una sobrerrepresentación de los individuos con salud física media y con salud mental baja, lo

  2. INDICADORES DE CONDICIÓN FÍSICA RELACIONADA CON LA SALUD EN UNIVERSITARIOS QUE INICIAN Y TERMINAN SUS CARRERAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Adolfo Arboleda Franco

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio busca determinar y comparar algunos parámetros de la condición física relacionada a la salud (cfrs en universitarios que inician (ic y finalizan sus carreras (fc. Se hizo un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal con 280 jóvenes de ambos sexos. Se registró información sociodemográfica, estado de salud, talla, peso, índice de masa corporal (imc, adiposidad, flexibilidad isquiosural, potencia de miembros inferiores y aptitud cardiorrespiratoria (vo2 máx.. Se realizó estadística descriptiva, Prueba T para muestras independientes y prueba de Levene con una significancia p<0,05. La edad fue mayor para ambos sexos en el grupo fc. El 90,8% de la muestra total se autorreportó sana y el 38,3% refirió antecedentes familiares de ecnt en el primer grado de consanguinidad, principalmente hipertensión. Al comparar los grupos ic y fc divididos por sexo, hubo diferencias (p<0,05 para el peso, el imc, la adiposidad, el salto Abalakov y la vo máx. El cmj solo difirió en los varones. En todos los casos las diferencias fueron desfavorables para el grupo fc. No obstante, en toda la muestra el vo2 máx. comparado con estudios de referencia fue aceptable. Se concluye que el grupo fc tuvo menores valores de cfrs, quizás atribuibles al mayor promedio de edad. El vo2 máx. estimado contradice la tendencia general sobre cfrs en universitarios.

  3. Fatores associados com a qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde de idosos em hemodiálise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Faria Mendes Braga

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar fatores associados à qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde de pacientes idosos em hemodiálise. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com 223 pacientes com idade > 60 anos em hemodiálise nas unidades de diálise do município de Belo Horizonte, MG, em 2008. A qualidade de vida foi avaliada utilizando o Kidney Disease and Quality of Life - Short Form (KDQOL-SF e o Medical Outcome Survey - Short Form 36 (SF-36. Os três escores do KDQOL-SF medidos foram: componente da doença renal sumarizado (11 subescalas, componente físico sumarizado (quatro subescalas e componente mental sumarizado (quatro subescalas. RESULTADOS: Foram observadas associações negativas significativas e independentes do componente da doença renal e mental com número de doenças crônicas e tempo de tratamento (ambas. O componente físico foi menor entre os mais velhos, as mulheres, aqueles com maior número de internações e com três ou mais doenças crônicas. CONCLUSÕES: A associação consistente com presença de doenças crônicas mostra a importância do perfil de morbidade para a qualidade de vida dessa população. A identificação dos fatores associados, como aumento da idade, sexo feminino, número de internações e tempo de tratamento, pode favorecer o planejamento adequado das ações de saúde para melhor atender a esse grupo.

  4. Qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde de filhos de profissionais da área de saúde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Maria Moussi Gamallo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo mensuramos a qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde (QVRS e a fadiga de filhos de profissionais da área da saúde, com idades entre 2 e 11 anos, e avaliamos os hábitos diários e o sono dessas crianças e dos respectivos pais. Foram incluídas no estudo crianças de uma escola pública. Dados demográficos e dados de hábitos diários foram colhidos. A QVRS, o sono e a fadiga foram mensurados por questionários. Participaram 249 pais - 63,5% referiram sono adequado e 47,4% acordavam cansados. A média da idade das crianças foi 5,6 anos - 62,2% assistiam televisão no quarto, 50% usavam computador (> 4 horas/dia e 27,8% faziam atividades físicas extracurriculares. O escore do sono foi de 45,8 ± 12,2. Os escores de QVRS foram mais elevados no aspecto físico e mais baixos no emocional. Detectamos que o sono de pior qualidade dos filhos e dos pais pode estar relacionado à pior QVRS dos filhos. Concluímos que os hábitos inadequados dos pais, bem como das crianças, estão relacionados a uma diminuição da QVRS dos filhos, especialmente no aspecto emocional.

  5. Identificación molecular de mutaciones puntuales relacionadas con resistencia a drogas en VIH-1 de pacientes peruanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Yabar V

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Identificar mutaciones puntuales relacionadas con resistencia a drogas en VIH-1 de pacientes peruanos. Materiales y metodos: Se seleccionaron 11 muestras de VIH provenientes de sangre total de sujetos con tratamiento antirretroviral (ARV. Posteriormente se realizo la optimizacion de la amplificacion de 337 pb del gen de la transcriptasa reversa (tr y 377 pb de todo el gen de la proteasa (prt. Los productos de PCR fueron secuenciados directamente para el analisis de mutaciones de resistencia. Las secuencias finales fueron analizadas en programas de analisis de mutaciones de la HIV Drug Resistance Database de la Universidad de Stanford. mutaciones de la HIV Drug Resistance Database de la Universidad de Stanford. Resultados: La optimizacion de la concentracion de ADN (2,5 ng / µL asi como la concentracion de magnesio (4 mM fueron factores criticos para la amplificacion de la tr y la prt respectivamente. De otro lado, el analisis de secuencia revelo la presencia de las mutaciones T215Y y la M184V en tr, implicadas en conferir resistencia a zidovudina (AZT y estavudina (D4T asi como a lamivudina (3TC y emtricitabina (FTC respectivamente. En prt se observaron las mutaciones D30N y N88D implicadas en conferir resistencia a nelfinavir (NFV. Es importante senalar que solo tres muestras de VIH-1 presentaron mutaciones de resistencia, las demas mostraron mutaciones compensatorias. Conclusiones: Se demuestra la existencia de mutaciones de resistencia a ARV a nivel de tr y prt de VIH-1 en sujetos peruanos que reciben terapia TARGA. Se requieren de mayores estudios para establecer un perfil de resistencia a ARV en la poblacion peruana.

  6. Calidad de vida relacionada con la salud y obesidad en un centro de atención primaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barajas Gutiérrez Miguel Angel

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO. Evaluar la asociación entre la obesidad y dos aspectos de la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud: autopercepción de salud y bienestar psicológico en pacientes adscritos a un centro de salud. MÉTODOS. Estudio transversal descriptivo sobre 167 pacientes entre 20 y 70 años, con índice de masa corporal ³ 30. Se realizó entrevista clínica para la obtención de las variables sociodemográficas y clínicas de cada paciente y la administración de 2 cuestionarios: 1 Perfil de Salud de Nottingham (PSN y 2 Psychological General Well-Being (PGWB índex. RESULTADOS. Las puntuaciones medias del PSN indicaron un deterioro global moderado de la salud percibida en las pacientes obesas siendo las áreas afectadas "dolor", "movilidad física" y "reacciones emocionales". Las variables asociadas a una peor puntuación fueron el sexo femenino, la edad superior a 50 años, el bajo nivel de estudios y la presencia de patología psiquiátrica o artrosis. La puntuación total media del PGWB indica un deterioro pequeño del bienestar psicológico. El sexo femenino, la ansiedad y el bajo nivel de estudios se asociaron, asimismo, a peores puntuaciones. CONCLUSIONES. En nuestra población, se identifica un perfil de pacientes obesos con mala calidad de vida (mujeres de edad superior a 50 años con bajo nivel de estudios y presencia de patología psiquiátrica o artrosis sobre los que se plantea la conveniencia de realizar una actuación prioritaria.

  7. Palabras cotidianas equivalentes a operadores aritméticos relacionadas con la solución de problemas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Ávalos Latorre

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Los estudios sobre la solución de problemas aritméticos se han realizado predominantemen - te desde la teoría cognoscitiva, aunque la teoría conductista también se ha interesado, sigue sien - do insuficiente el conocimiento que se tiene al respecto. Para el desarrollo del presente estudio empírico experimental se aplicaron distintos en - trenamientos en la identificación de palabras de uso equivalente a sumar y restar en el lenguaje ordinario, palabras cotidianas relacionadas con operadores aritméticos y con la solución de pro - blemas. Participaron 16 estudiantes de segundo grado de primaria distribuidos en cuatro grupos: el primero, se entrenó mediante procedimiento de igualación de la muestra de primer orden, el segundo usando oraciones declarativas, el tercero recibió ambos entrenamientos y el grupo control solo respondió las pruebas. No existieron dife - rencias considerables en la identificación de las palabras de uso equivalente a la suma y la resta. El grupo expuesto al entrenamiento de palabras identificó más palabras en la postprueba que los otros grupos. El porcentaje de aciertos fue mayor en la solución de operaciones que en el recono - cimiento de palabras. Se considera irrelevante la identificación de la palabra para lograr la solución correcta del problema. Se sugiere que el aborda - je del desempeño en problemas aritméticos debe contemplar participantes con alta y con deficiente precisión de operaciones aritméticas ya que los bajos porcentajes de problemas solucionados co - rrectamente se deben más al deficiente dominio del procedimiento de sumar y restar, que al no re - conocimiento de las palabras

  8. Intensidade do Tratamento e Qualidade de Vida Relacionada com a Saúde no Cancro Pediátrico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Santos

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available ObjetivoEste estudo teve como objetivos apresentar a versão portuguesa da Escala de Classificação da Intensidade do Tratamento 3.0, uma medida objetiva para avaliar a intensidade do tratamento no cancro pediátrico, e comparar a qualidade de vida relacionada com a saúde (QdVrS em crianças/adolescentes com diferentes níveis de intensidade do tratamento.MétodoA amostra foi constituída por 129 crianças/adolescentes com cancro (98 em tratamento e 31 fora de tratamento. A intensidade do tratamento foi classificada pelos médicos oncologistas pediátricos com a Escala de Classificação da Intensidade do Tratamento 3.0 e a QdVrS foi avaliada pelas crianças/adolescentes através do DISABKIDS Chronic Generic Measure (DCGM-12.ResultadosAs análises do coeficiente de Kappa revelaram excelentes índices de fiabilidade interavaliadores. Verificou-se a existência de diferenças estatisticamente significativas na QdVrS de acordo com o nível de intensidade do tratamento. Comparações post-hoc revelaram níveis de QdVrS superiores em crianças/adolescentes com tratamentos de intensidade 2 comparativamente aos de intensidade 3 e 4.ConclusãoOs dados evidenciam a importância de intervenções para melhorar a QdVrS junto de potenciais grupos de risco, definidas de acordo com a intensidade do tratamento.

  9. 30 CFR 41.20 - Legal identity report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... legal identity and every change thereof with the appropriate district manager of the Mine Safety and... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal identity report. 41.20 Section 41.20... ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS NOTIFICATION OF LEGAL IDENTITY Operator's Report to the Mine Safety and...

  10. 48 CFR 1511.011-76 - Legal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Legal analysis. 1511.011-76... PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS 1511.011-76 Legal analysis. Contracting Officers shall insert the clause at 1552.211-76 when it is determined that the contract involves legal analysis....

  11. 48 CFR 1552.211-76 - Legal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Legal analysis. 1552.211-76... analysis. As prescribed in 1511.011-76, insert this contract clause when it is determined that the contract involves legal analysis. Legal Analysis (APR 1984) The Contractor shall furnish to the Project Officer...

  12. 25 CFR 115.102 - Adults under legal disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adults under legal disability. 115.102 Section 115.102... AND INDIVIDUAL INDIANS IIM Accounts § 115.102 Adults under legal disability. The funds of an adult who is non compos mentis or under other legal disability may be disbursed for his benefit for...

  13. School Counselors and Consultants: Legal Duties and Liabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Martha M.; Sorenson, Gail Paulus

    1993-01-01

    Provides overview of legal issues and problems salient to school counselors who provide direct services to students or indirect services through consultation. Among legal issues addressed are privacy, confidentiality, and privilege. Also covered are legal duties pertaining to handling student records, conducting research, reporting child abuse,…

  14. Exploration on the Teaching Method of Legal English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡发富

    2007-01-01

    Legal English is very important for the study and the usage of law, combing personal study and usage of law, I summarize the teaching method of legal English to help those who want to study and use Legal English to make some progress.

  15. 5 CFR 1653.13 - Processing legal processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... TSP is notified in writing that the legal process has been appealed, and that the effect of the filing... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processing legal processes. 1653.13... PROCESSES AFFECTING THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN ACCOUNTS Legal Process for the Enforcement of a Participant's...

  16. 44 CFR 6.8 - Subpoena and other legal demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... other legal demands. Access to records in systems of records by subpoena or other legal process shall be... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Subpoena and other legal demands. 6.8 Section 6.8 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT...

  17. Introduction: The Foundations of a European Legal Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.S. Taekema (Sanne)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe methods of legal scholarship today are not self-evident. There are various reasons for the growing self-consciousness of legal scholars about their methodology. One of these is the internationalisation of legal research, which among other things has generated a change in the culture

  18. The Legal Services Act: a Law Society perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Law Society, Government Relations Directorate

    2007-01-01

    Commentary from the Government Relations Directorate, Law Society published in Amicus Curiae - Journal of the Society for Advanced Legal Studies. The Journal is produced by the Society for Advanced Legal Studies at the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies, University of London.

  19. 77 FR 12754 - Contractor Legal Management Requirements; Acquisition Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... Part 719 48 Parts 931, 952 and 970 RIN 1990-AA37 Contractor Legal Management Requirements; Acquisition... covering contractor legal management requirements and make conforming amendments to the Department of... rulemaking to revise existing regulations covering contractor legal management requirements and...

  20. The OpenLaws project: Big Open Legal Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkels, R.; Schweighofer, E; Kummer, F.; Hötzendorfer, W.

    2015-01-01

    In the OpenLaws project we aim to deliver a platform that enables users to find legal information more easily, organize it the way they want and share it with others. Together with users we intend to create a network of legislation, case law, legal literature and legal experts - both on a national a