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Sample records for bases legales relacionadas

  1. Qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde entre adultos e fatores associados: um estudo de base populacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Durães Noronha

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Objetivou-se investigar fatores associados aos Componentes Físico (CF e Mental (CM da Qualidade de Vida Relacionada à Saúde (QVRS entre adultos. Estudo de base populacional, com amostra domiciliar por conglomerados. As variáveis dependentes foram os escores do CF e CM do instrumento 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12, as independentes foram reunidas em características sociodemográficas, relativas à saúde e comportamentais. Conduziu-se regressão múltipla pelo Modelo Linear Geral com correção pelo desenho amostral. Dos 841 entrevistados, 31% e 37,2% apresentavam comprometimento no CF e CM, respectivamente, e 57% apresentaram comprometimento em pelo menos um domínio. Os escores médios foram 49,9 para CF e 47,1 para CM. Ser do sexo masculino (β = 1,94, possuir automóvel na família (β = 0,89, ter utilizado serviços odontológicos recentemente (β = 1,86, não possuir doença crônica (β = 4,60, não fazer uso de medicamento (β = 2,09, não ser tabagista (β = 2,04 e praticar atividades físicas (β = 1,73 foram associados a maiores escores do CF, enquanto não fazer uso de medicamento (β = 1,91 e não ser tabagista (β = 1,26 a maiores escores do CM. Há necessidade de mais estudos e políticas voltadas à manutenção e/ou recuperação do bem estar físico e mental de adultos sem doenças específicas.

  2. Intelligent Flowcharting Developmental Approach to Legal Knowledge Based System

    OpenAIRE

    Nitin Balaji Bilgi; Kulkarni, R. V.

    2011-01-01

    The basic aim of this research, described in this paper is to develop a hybrid legal expert system/ knowledge based system, with specific reference to the transfer of property act, within the Indian legal system which is often in demand. In this paper the authors discuss an traditional approach to combining two types of reasoning methodologies, Rule Based Reasoning (RBR) and Case Based Reasoning (CBR). In RBR module we have interpreted and implemented rules that occur in legal statutes of the...

  3. Action-Based Jurisprudence: Praxeological Legal Theory in Relation to Economic Theory, Ethics, and Legal Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Konrad Graf

    2011-01-01

    Action-based legal theory is a discrete branch of praxeology and the basis of an emerging school of jurisprudence related to, but distinct from, natural law. Legal theory and economic theory share content that is part of praxeology itself: the action axiom, the a priori of argumentation, universalizable property theory, and counterfactual-deductive methodology. Praxeological property-norm justification is separate from the strictly ethical “ought” question of selecting ends in an action conte...

  4. User interaction with legal knowledge-based systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Jacob; Breuker, J.; Leenes, R.; Winkels, R.

    2000-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of my PhD study into the persuasiveness of (legal) knowledge-based systems'. The results of three experiments show the possible problems that may arise when computerised legal decision aids are put into practice. The users in the experiments had great difficulties with j

  5. LEGAL BASES OF INSTITUTE OF PUBLIC SERVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkhireeva A. S.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article some features of legal regulation of the institute of public service are considered. The analysis of the norms of the service rights establishing the special administrative legal status of public servants is carried out. The author investigated the considerable list of the pre-revolutionary, soviet and modern legal literature devoted to topical issues of institute of public service. The main concept of this article is that the institute of public service is considered by us from a systemic position. For example, the content of the concept of "state position" from the point of view of both standard the contents, and opinions of representatives of the scientific doctrine is revealed. The author's definition of the legal category "state position" is offered. Besides, various concepts of understanding of the concept "public service" are presented in article. Thus the author paid attention to the fact that earlier in the domestic legislation there was no common opinion and standard establishment of the legal category of "public service". The main signs of the state position by the legislation of the Russian Empire are given in article. It is noted that in pre-revolutionary Russia legislators had identified the concepts of "public servant" and "official". This approach, according to the author, wasn't the advantage of the pre-revolutionary legislation, testifying to the low level of legislative equipment

  6. Action-Based Jurisprudence: Praxeological Legal Theory in Relation to Economic Theory, Ethics, and Legal Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Graf

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Action-based legal theory is a discrete branch of praxeology and the basis of an emerging school of jurisprudence related to, but distinct from, natural law. Legal theory and economic theory share content that is part of praxeology itself: the action axiom, the a priori of argumentation, universalizable property theory, and counterfactual-deductive methodology. Praxeological property-norm justification is separate from the strictly ethical “ought” question of selecting ends in an action context. Examples of action-based jurisprudence are found in existing “Austro-libertarian” literature. Legal theory and legal practice must remain distinct and work closely together if justice is to be found in real cases. Legal theorizing was shaped in religious ethical contexts, which contributed to confused field boundaries between law and ethics. The carrot and stick influence of rulers on theorists has distorted conventional economics and jurisprudence in particular directions over the course of centuries. An action-based approach is relatively immune to such sources of distortion in its methods and conclusions, but has tended historically to be marginalized from conventional institutions for this same reason.

  7. Patent portfolio analysis model based on legal status information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuezhao; WANG; Yajuan; ZHAO; Jing; ZHANG; Ping; ZHAO

    2014-01-01

    Purpose:This research proposes a patent portfolio analysis model based on the legal status information to chart out a competitive landscape in a particular field,enabling organizations to position themselves within the overall technology landscape.Design/methodology/approach:Three indicators were selected for the proposed model:Patent grant rate,valid patents rate and patent maintenance period.The model uses legal status information to perform a qualitative evaluation of relative values of the individual patents,countries or regions’ technological capabilities and competitiveness of patent applicants.The results are visualized by a four-quadrant bubble chart To test the effectiveness of the model,it is used to present a competitive landscape in the lithium ion battery field.Findings:The model can be used to evaluate the values of the individual patents,highlight countries or regions’ positions in the field,and rank the competitiveness of patent applicants in the field.Research limitations:The model currently takes into consideration only three legal status indicators.It is actually feasible to introduce more indicators such as the reason for invalid patents and the distribution of patent maintenance time and associate them with those in the proposed model.Practical implications:Analysis of legal status information in combination of patent application information can help an organization to spot gaps in its patent claim coverage,as well as evaluate patent quality and maintenance situation of its granted patents.The study results can be used to support technology assessment,technology innovation and intellectual property management.Originality/value:Prior studies attempted to assess patent quality or competitiveness by using either single patent legal status indicator or comparative analysis of the impacts of each indicator.However,they are insufficient in presenting the combined effects of the evaluation indicators.Using our model,it appears possible to get a

  8. Legal Issues of A Surrogacy Contract Based on Iranian Acts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Pirouz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Assistive technologies have always opened new horizons in human's life, posed solutions to problemsand brought relief and prosperity for human beings. Iranian judicial authorities have recently recognizedthe importance of medical technologies. Accordingly, Iranian legal system has recognized surrogacy anda surrogacy contract seems unavoidable for surrogacy to be legally valid, socially acceptable andreligiously legitimate. As a legal defense of including a typical surrogacy contract in contract law, thisreview studies the four building blocks of a valid contract: the intention and consent of parties, theirlegal capacity, the subject of the contract and its legitimacy. Discussing related Iranian Acts concerningcontracts and responsibilities of parties, the authors of the present article deal with main commitmentsand responsibilities of the parties to a typical surrogacy contract: infertile couples, surrogate, fertilityclinic or medical institute, and surrogate's husband. The authors conclude that a surrogacy contract isaccepted based on article 10 of Iranian Civil Act 1928, pose some suggestions to be included in such acontract, and emphasize that a specific Act concerning surrogacy should be approved to cover rights andlegal needs of all parties to a surrogacy contract.

  9. Framing a Knowledge Base for a Legal Expert System Dealing with Indeterminate Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araszkiewicz, Michał; Łopatkiewicz, Agata; Zienkiewicz, Adam; Zurek, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of development of formal tools for modelling legal knowledge and reasoning, the creation of a fully fledged legal decision support system remains challenging. Among those challenges, such system requires an enormous amount of commonsense knowledge to derive legal expertise. This paper describes the development of a negotiation decision support system (the Parenting Plan Support System or PPSS) to support parents in drafting an agreement (the parenting plan) for the exercise of parental custody of minor children after a divorce is granted. The main objective here is to discuss problems of framing an intuitively appealing and computationally efficient knowledge base that can adequately represent the indeterminate legal concept of the well-being of the child in the context of continental legal culture and of Polish law in particular. In addition to commonsense reasoning, interpretation of such a concept demands both legal expertise and significant professional knowledge from other domains.

  10. Framing a Knowledge Base for a Legal Expert System Dealing with Indeterminate Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araszkiewicz, Michał; Łopatkiewicz, Agata; Zienkiewicz, Adam; Zurek, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of development of formal tools for modelling legal knowledge and reasoning, the creation of a fully fledged legal decision support system remains challenging. Among those challenges, such system requires an enormous amount of commonsense knowledge to derive legal expertise. This paper describes the development of a negotiation decision support system (the Parenting Plan Support System or PPSS) to support parents in drafting an agreement (the parenting plan) for the exercise of parental custody of minor children after a divorce is granted. The main objective here is to discuss problems of framing an intuitively appealing and computationally efficient knowledge base that can adequately represent the indeterminate legal concept of the well-being of the child in the context of continental legal culture and of Polish law in particular. In addition to commonsense reasoning, interpretation of such a concept demands both legal expertise and significant professional knowledge from other domains. PMID:26495435

  11. Framing a Knowledge Base for a Legal Expert System Dealing with Indeterminate Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Araszkiewicz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite decades of development of formal tools for modelling legal knowledge and reasoning, the creation of a fully fledged legal decision support system remains challenging. Among those challenges, such system requires an enormous amount of commonsense knowledge to derive legal expertise. This paper describes the development of a negotiation decision support system (the Parenting Plan Support System or PPSS to support parents in drafting an agreement (the parenting plan for the exercise of parental custody of minor children after a divorce is granted. The main objective here is to discuss problems of framing an intuitively appealing and computationally efficient knowledge base that can adequately represent the indeterminate legal concept of the well-being of the child in the context of continental legal culture and of Polish law in particular. In addition to commonsense reasoning, interpretation of such a concept demands both legal expertise and significant professional knowledge from other domains.

  12. LEGAL BASES OF THE INSTITUTE OF PUBLIC SERVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkhireeva A. S.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article some features of legal regulation of institute of public service are considered. The analysis of the norms of the office right establishing special administrative legal status of public servants is carried out. The author investigated the considerable list of the pre-revolutionary, soviet and modern legal literature devoted to topical issues of institute of public service. The main concept of this article is that the institute of public service is considered by us from a systemacity position. For example, the content of the concept "state position" from the point of view of both standard the contents, and opinions of representatives of the scientific doctrine is opened. The author's definition of the legal category "state position" is offered. Besides, various concepts of understanding of the concept "public service" are presented in article. Thus the author paid attention that earlier in the domestic legislation there was uniform no opinion and standard establishment of the legal category "public service". The main signs of the state position by the legislation of the Russian Empire are given in article. It is noted that in pre-revolutionary Russia legislators identified the concepts "public servant" and "official". This approach, according to the author, wasn't the advantage of the pre-revolutionary legislation, testifying to the low level of legislative equipment

  13. A Task-Based Interface to Legal Databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthijssen, L.J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper addresses the problems that lawyers experience retrieving information from legal-text databases. Traditional access mechanisms of text databases require users to know how information is stored. We propose a method for index organisation which shields lawyers from the internal storage stru

  14. Legal and methodological bases of comprehensive forensic enquiry of pornography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berdnikov D.V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article gives an analysis of the legal definition of pornography. The author identified descriptive and target criteria groups which are required for the analysis and analyses the content of descriptive criteria of pornography and the way how they should be documented. Fixing attention to the anatomical and physiological characteristics of the sexual relations is determine as necessary target criterion. It is noted that the term "pornography" is a legal and cannot be subject of expertise. That is why author underlined some methodological basis of complex psycho-linguistic and psycho-art expertise. The article presents general issue depends on expert conclusion and studies cases where the research is necessary to involve doctors, as well as criteria for expert's opinion. Besides that, author defined subject, object and main tasks of psychological studies of pornographic information.

  15. Legal compliance support with an ontology-based information system

    OpenAIRE

    Mereño-Peñuela, Albert; Casanovas, Pompeu

    2010-01-01

    The Internet and Information Systems evolution have dramatically increased the amount of information hold by governments and companies. This information can be very sensitive, specially regarding personal data, so governments and industries promote acts and guidelines in order to ensure privacy and data security. Thus, companies have to consider legal and Information Technology (IT) compliance. Nevertheless, compliance assessment is still a manual task performed by experts, but steps towards ...

  16. Digital Audio Legal Recorder

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Digital Audio Legal Recorder (DALR) provides the legal recording capability between air traffic controllers, pilots and ground-based air traffic control TRACONs...

  17. [Classification of cell-based medicinal products and legal implications: An overview and an update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Jürgen; Flory, Egbert

    2015-11-01

    In general, cell-based medicinal products do not represent a uniform class of medicinal products, but instead comprise medicinal products with diverse regulatory classification as advanced-therapy medicinal products (ATMP), medicinal products (MP), tissue preparations, or blood products. Due to the legal and scientific consequences of the development and approval of MPs, classification should be clarified as early as possible. This paper describes the legal situation in Germany and highlights specific criteria and concepts for classification, with a focus on, but not limited to, ATMPs and non-ATMPs. Depending on the stage of product development and the specific application submitted to a competent authority, legally binding classification is done by the German Länder Authorities, Paul-Ehrlich-Institut, or European Medicines Agency. On request by the applicants, the Committee for Advanced Therapies may issue scientific recommendations for classification.

  18. Legal Aspects of a Location-Based Mobile Advertising Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleff, Evelyne Beatrix; Gidofalvi, Gyozo

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in communication and information technology, such as the increasing accuracy of GPS technology and the miniaturization of wireless communication devices pave the road for Location-Based Services. Among these services, mobile advertising is predicted to represent a high yield revenue...

  19. Legal Consequences of the Determination of Corporate Income Tax Base Referring to IFRS

    OpenAIRE

    Molín, Jan; Jirásková, Simona

    2014-01-01

    This paper is concerned with certain legal consequences of the determination of corporate income tax base. The introductory part analyses the term tax, discusses the constitutional dimensions of taxation, and formulates requirements as to tax legislation. The subsequent part of the contribution discusses the structure of corporate income tax base of those taxpayers, which keep accounting records. Special emphasis is placed on the relationship of accounting revenues and income that is subject ...

  20. Transformation of the fiscal results into corporate tax base in the Czech legal environment

    OpenAIRE

    Krocová, Denisa

    2016-01-01

    This bachelor thesis focuses on the issue of transformation of the fiscal results into corporate tax base in the Czech legal environment. Main goal of this thesis is to accent the major costs and revenues, which are subject to adjustment of the tax base in accordance with the Income tax Act No. 568/1993 coll. and to perform transformation of the tax base on a practical case including tax optimization methods. This bachelor thesis also expands on specific sections of the tax return which expli...

  1. Social networks and health-related quality of life: a population based study among older adults Redes sociales y calidad de vida relacionada a la salud: un estudio de base poblacional en adultos mayores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Gallegos-Carrillo

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between components of social networks and health-related quality of life (HRQL in older adults with and without depressive symptoms. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Comparative cross-sectional study with data from the cohort study "Integral Study of Depression", carried out in Mexico City during 2004. The sample was selected through a multi-stage probability design. HRQL was measured with the SF-36. Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS and the Short Anxiety Screening Test (SAST determined depressive symptoms and anxiety. T-test and multiple linear regressions were conducted. RESULTS: Older adults with depressive symptoms had the lowest scores in all HRQL scales. A larger network of close relatives and friends was associated with better HRQL on several scales. Living alone did not significantly affect HRQL level, in either the study or comparison group. CONCLUSIONS: A positive association between some components of social networks and good HRQL exists even in older adults with depressive symptoms.OBJETIVO: Examinar la relación entre componentes de redes sociales y calidad de vida relacionada con la salud (CVRS de adultos mayores con o sin síntomas depresivos. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal comparativo con datos de la cohorte "Estudio Integral de Depresión", realizado en la Ciudad de México en 2004. La muestra fue seleccionada por diseño probabilístico multietápico. La CVRS se midió con SF-36, mientras que Geriatric Depression Scale y Short Anxiety Screening Test determinaron síntomas de depresión y ansiedad. El análisis consistió de prueba T y regresiones lineales múltiples. RESULTADOS: Ancianos con síntomas de depresión reportaron puntuaciones más bajas en todas las escalas de CVRS; una red más grande de familiares y amigos se asoció con mejor CVRS en varias escalas. Vivir solo no afectó la CVRS en grupos de estudio y comparación. CONCLUSIONES: Existe una asociación positiva de algunos

  2. Biomarcadores en enfermedades relacionadas con el sistema nervioso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elso Manuel Cruz Cruz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de biomarcadores, o marcadores biológicos para el diagnóstico y seguimiento al tratamiento de enfermedades, constituye referente frecuente en la literatura científica biomédica actual. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica empleando los recursos disponibles en la red Infomed, específicamente Ebsco, The Cochrane Librery, PubMed, Hinari y SciELO, a través de los cuales se accedieron a las bases de datos: MEDLINE, Academic Search Premier, MedicLatina y Scopus. Se recopilaron varios artículos científicos, donde se hace referencia al empleo de biomarcadores en el diagnóstico de enfermedades relacionadas con el sistema nervioso. El factor de crecimiento endotelial, la inmunoglobulina G (IgG y el sistema arginina - óxido nítrico - citrulina, se refieren como indicadores prematuros de la hemorragia subaracnoidea. La disminución del amiloide beta y el aumento de las concentraciones de proteína tau en el líquido cefalorraquídeo, se cuentan entre los biomarcadores más prometedores e informativos que indiquen precozmente el Alzheimer y otras enfermedades neurodegenerativas. Estos mismos marcadores se comportan de manera contraria a nivel plasmático. La copeptina es un biomarcador fácilmente medible, que refleja la situación de estrés a la que está sometido el organismo y se propone su uso en el diagnóstico del síndrome de Burnout; además, niveles aumentados de α-amilasa y cromogranina A (CgA salivales pueden también ser utilizadas como indicadores de este síndrome. Se logró recoger en este artículo un compendio de ejemplos de marcadores biológicos, utilizados en el diagnóstico de enfermedades relacionadas de alguna forma con el sistema nervioso

  3. Legal argumentation based on foreign law An example from case law of the South African Constitutional Court

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Lollini

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to make some introductory remarks concerning the phenomenon of the circulation of ‘foreign law’ between constitutional courts. A convenient setting for some considerations regarding this legal phenomenon is the South African constitutional jurisprudence, since Section 39 of the 1996 Constitution enables the Constitutional Court to ‘consider foreign law’ when interpreting the Bill of Rights. This provision has led to the wide use of foreign jurisprudence and legislation, as well as extra-systemic parameters, that have formed the basis for models of legal argumentation. The article explores what appears to be a recurring ‘patterns’ of legal argumentation based on foreign law used by the Court which has been defined ‘probative importation’.

  4. Keeping Kids Safe from a Design Perspective: Ethical and Legal Guidelines for Designing a Video-Based App for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zydney, Janet Mannheimer; Hooper, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Educators can use video to gain invaluable information about their students. A concern is that collecting videos online can create an increased security risk for children. The purpose of this article is to provide ethical and legal guidelines for designing video-based apps for mobile devices and the web. By reviewing the literature, law, and code…

  5. Performance-Based Budgeting in South-Eastern Europe: A Legal and Economic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Maksimovska Veljanovski

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available During the 2008–2013 period, a wave of fresh ideas for introducing performance-based budgeting (PBB occurred in the region of South-Eastern Europe. Based on a theoretical framework and empirical assessment using novel methodology, this study examines the preconditions and assesses the capacities for introducing PBB in South-Eastern European (SEE countries. Generally, SEE countries have demonstrated moderate progress in implementing elements of performance budgeting. All of them follow a similar approach to embarking on these reforms, but with a different policy attention to certain aspects. On the other hand, SEE countries with limited progress demonstrate strong political commitment to kick-start this area by investing in the development of budget administration skills. The study conveys a balanced mix of political, legal, administrative and economic analysis of the core elements of PBB. The novel idea of introducing a simpler model of PBB in SEE is examined. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first systematic attempt to provide a comprehensive analysis of the institutional arrangements and prospects for adopting PBB in the region of South-Eastern Europe.

  6. Interfacing between Lawyers and Computers : An Architecture for Knowledge-based Interfaces to Legal Databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthijssen, L.J.

    1999-01-01

    Luuk Matthijssen, who studied business informatics, worked at the law faculty of Tilburg University and the computer science department of Eindhoven University of Technology. The author considers the problems of legal information retrieval from the perspective of an information analyst.

  7. Multisensory legal machines and legal act production

    OpenAIRE

    Čyras, Vytautas; Lachmayer, Friedrich

    2012-01-01

    This paper expands on the concept of legal machine which was presented first at IRIS 2011 in Salzburg. The research subjects are (1) the creation of institutional facts by machines, and (2) multimodal communication of legal content to humans. Simple examples are traffic lights and vending machines. Complicated examples are computer-based information systems in organisations, form proceedings workflows, and machines which replace officials in organisations. The actions performed ...

  8. Impacto de treinamento baseado na Iniciativa Hospital Amigo da Criança sobre práticas relacionadas à amamentação no interior do Nordeste The impact of training based on the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative on breastfeeding practices in the Northeast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia B. Coutinho

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o impacto de treinamento baseado na Iniciativa Hospital Amigo da Criança sobre práticas relacionadas à amamentação na maternidade e freqüências de aleitamento materno nos primeiros 6 meses de vida. MÉTODOS: Foram treinadas 90% das auxiliares de enfermagem e parteiras de duas maternidades (A e B de Palmares (PE. Foram entrevistadas 334 mães nas primeiras 48 horas e 10 dias após o parto, para avaliar práticas que estimulam a amamentação nas maternidades e o cumprimento do quarto ao 10º passo da Iniciativa Hospital Amigo da Criança. Uma subamostra de 166 mães recebeu sete visitas domiciliares, para avaliar as freqüências do aleitamento materno nos 6 primeiros meses de vida. Os resultados foram comparados com os de estudo de coorte realizado na área em 1998. RESULTADOS: O desempenho da maternidade B foi melhor que o da maternidade A quanto às práticas que promovem o aleitamento materno relacionadas aos passos avaliados e quanto às freqüências de amamentação exclusiva. Comparação com coorte histórica evidenciou melhora nas práticas relacionadas à amamentação nas maternidades e aumento nas freqüências do aleitamento materno exclusivo (de 21,2 para 70%, nas primeiras 48 horas após o parto e durante os 6 primeiros meses de vida. CONCLUSÕES: O treinamento promoveu mudanças parciais em algumas práticas relacionadas à amamentação, repercutindo de forma positiva sobre as freqüências de aleitamento materno e aleitamento materno exclusivo nas maternidades. Contudo, não houve mudanças expressivas nessas freqüências ao longo dos 6 meses de vida, sugerindo a necessidade de intervenções efetivas no apoio ao aleitamento exclusivo nos serviços de saúde e na comunidade.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of training based on the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative on breastfeeding practices in maternity wards and during the first 6 months of life. METHODS: Ninety percent of nursing auxiliaries and

  9. Legal Requirements for Human-Health based appeals of Wind Energy Projects in Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Michael Engel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2009 the government of the province of Ontario, Canada passed new legislation to promote the development of renewable energy facilities, including wind energy facilities in the province. Throughout the legislative process, concerns were raised with respect to the effect of wind energy facilities on human health. Ultimately, the government established setbacks and sound level limits for wind energy facilities and provided Ontario residents with the right to appeal the approval of a wind energy facility on the ground that engaging in the facility in accordance with its approval will cause serious harm to human health. The first approval of a wind facility under the new legislation was issued in 2010 and since then, Ontario’s Environmental Review Tribunal as well as Ontario’s courts have been considering evidence proffered by appellants seeking revocation of approvals on the basis of serious harm to human health. To date, the evidence has been insufficient to support the revocation of a wind facility approval. This article reviews the legal basis for the dismissal of human-health based appeals.

  10. Legal Hybrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Janne Rothmar

    2009-01-01

    The article discusses the inadequacy of traditional theory on legal personhood in relation to embryos and foetuses. To challenge the somewhat binary view of legal personhood according to which the ‘born alive' criterion is paramount the article demonstrates that the number of legal categories...... in which embryos and foetuses are placed are much more complex. These categories are identified using Danish legislation as an example and on that basis the article extracts and identifies the different parameters that play a part in the legal categorisation of the human conceptus....

  11. Legal Institutions and Economic Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, T.H.L.

    2010-01-01

    Legal institutions are critical for the development of market-based economies. This paper defines legal institutions and discusses different indicators to measure their quality and efficiency. It surveys a large historical and empirical literature showing the importance of legal institutions in expl

  12. The legal dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karsten

    , interviewing central participants in the pilot project, and by carrying out a small questionnaire based survey and a series of interviews with members of the letters’ target group. One of the most prevalent challenges addressed by the group was how to make sure to address legal matters properly. In my...... presentation, I will focus on how the group included legal matters in the new letters, and how the pilot project group involved legal advice in their considerations. I will also discuss how and when to introduce legal advice in the letter editing process, drawing on the experiences of the group members...... language changes aimed at. What to learn from the presentation: •How to design a plain language project •How to include legal advice in a plain language project •How to design a study of plain language changes...

  13. Infecções relacionadas à assistência a saúde baseada em critérios internacionais, realizada em unidade neonatal de cuidados progressivos de referência de Belo Horizonte, MG Notification of healthcare associated infections based on international criteria performed in a reference neonatal progressive care unity in Belo Horizonte, MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Maia de Castro Romanelli

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a ocorrência de infecções relacionadas à assistência à saúde em uma unidade neonatal de serviço público de referência em Belo Horizonte, MG, baseando-se em critérios internacionais. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de estudo descritivo, realizado por busca ativa, na Unidade Neonatal de Cuidados Progressivos do Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (HC/UFMG, de 2008 a 2009. A notificação de infecções baseou-se nos critérios do National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN. O banco de dados e análise foi realizado em programa interno do serviço. RESULTADOS: Foram notificados 325 episódios de infecção nos recém-nascidos, com densidade de incidência de 22,8/1.000 pacientes-dia e incidência proporcional geral de infecção de 36,7%. A sepse foi a principal infecção (62,5% notificada. A densidade de incidência de infecções foi maior em neonatos com peso menor que 750g (42,4/1.000 pacientes-dia. Observou-se 18,15 episódios de Sepse Relacionada a Cateter/1.000 Cateter Venoso Central-dia e 19,29/1.000 episódios de Sepse Relacionada a Cateter Umbilical/1.000 Cateter umbilical-dia. Em 122 (37,5% casos de infecção notificada houve isolamento de microorganismos, predominando Staphylococcus coagulase negativo e Staphylococcus aureus (51 casos. A mortalidade e letalidade foram 4,3% e 17,12%, respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: A utilização de critérios padronizados para notificação de infecções é necessária para a construção de indicadores em neonatologia, que são escassos no país e ressaltam a necessidade de avaliação dos critérios nacionais propostos pela Agencia Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA. OBJECTIVE: To describe occurence of Healthcare Related Infections in a neonatal unit of public reference service in Belo Horizonte-MG, based on international criteria. METHODS: This is a descriptive study, performed by active searching, in the Progressive Care Unit Neonatal Hospital das

  14. THE RELEVANCE OF SOCIO-LEGAL STUDIES IN LEGAL SCIENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Imanuel W. Nalle

    2015-01-01

    Some law schools in Indonesia reject socio-legal studies with epistemological arguments that puts jurisprudence as sui generis. Rejection is based argument that jurisprudence is a normative science. In fact socio-legal studies in the development of jurisprudence outside Indonesia has long existed and contributed to the legal reform. Socio-legal studies also significant for legal reform. It is caused by the existence of non doctrinal aspect in law making and implementation of the law. Therefor...

  15. Legal Corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufmann, Daniel; Pedro C. Vicente

    2005-01-01

    We challenge the conventional definition of corruption as the abuse of public office for private gain, making a distinction between legal and illegal forms of corruption, and paying more attention to corporate patterns of corruption (which also affect public corruption). We undertake to identify general determinants of the pattern of legal and illegal corruption worldwide, and present a model where both corruption (modeled explicitly in the context of allocations) and the political equilibriu...

  16. A Corpus-based Comparative Study of Ideational Grammatical Metaphor in Marine Engineering and Maritime Legal Regulation English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuehua Wu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Grammatical metaphor is one of the language phenomena introduced by Halliday (2004 in the framework of functional grammar. This paper used Halliday’s metafunctional framework in marine engineering and maritime legal regulation English discourses under Prichard’s category (2003 of English for occupational purposes and English for academic purposes respectively. The analysis of data was conducted through a description of English occupational and academic texts, based on grammatical metaphor. The researcher conducted some statistical analysis, including frequency and percentage of ideational grammatical metaphor and its different processes of transitivity in both genres. Finally, two genres of English texts were compared statistically to show in what aspect they are significantly different or similar. The results obtained indicate that the two genres bear more similarities than differences in terms of using the nominalization of ideational grammatical metaphor. In other words, while indicating genre differences, the study proves their functional similarities in using the material process types more than other process types to convey meaning, however marine engineering English applies a little less frequency of material and relational process. Some behavior process types were found in marine engineering English texts but no behavior processes were found in marine legal English. Maritime legal English applies small amount of existential process and mental process while in marine engineering English these two types of process were not found. Both genres apply ideational metaphor to condense the information and increase the complexity of sentence structure.Keywords:  ideational grammatical metaphor, nominalization, process, marine engineering English, maritime legal regulation English

  17. Legal English Vocabulary and Its Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Kuang-zheng

    2016-01-01

    There are differences between legal English and general English. Legal English relates to the legal profession. Law needs to maintain the impression of seriousness, standardization, accuracy and objectiveness, and as a result, legal English also has these characteristics. Compared to general everyday English, the application of legal English vocabulary requires consider-ation of these characteristics. In the translation of legal content, attention is also needed to be paid to the characteristics of foren-sic linguistics. Standardized legal terms are used in the translation of legal regulations and other content to keep the characteris-tics of faithfulness, accuracy, smoothness and consistency. In this paper, legal English vocabulary is discussed based on its char-acteristics, as well as the method of translation of legal content. For practical translation of legal English, translation methods in-clude literal translation, free translation and addition and omission. These methods are briefly discussed in this paper.

  18. Tackling pollution of the Mediterranean Sea from land-based sources by an integrated ecosystem approach and the use of the combined international and European legal regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Antoinette Hildering; Andrea M. Keessen; Helena F.M.W. van Rijswick

    2009-01-01

    The successful protection of marine and freshwater areas and ecosystems, including specially protected areas, is highly dependent on the effectiveness of an integrated approach to prevent and combat land-based pollution. Several legal regimes have been developed to regulate and solve this kind of pollution on the international level as well as on the European level. Therefore, this integrated approach requires coherence between European and international legal regimes and between the regulati...

  19. Legal Ice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandsbjerg, Jeppe

    The idealised land|water dichotomy is most obviously challenged by ice when ‘land practice’ takes place on ice or when ‘maritime practice’ is obstructed by ice. Both instances represent disparity between the legal codification of space and its social practice. Logically, then, both instances call...... for alternative legal thought and practice; in the following I will emphasise the former and reflect upon the relationship between ice, law and politics. Prior to this workshop I had worked more on the relationship between cartography, geography and boundaries than specifically on ice. Listening to all...

  20. Legal terminology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the chapter is to study the concept of paraphrase developed by Simonnæs for describing textual elements directed at non-experts in court decisions and intended to give insight into the legal argumentation of the court. Following a discussion of the concept of paraphrase I will study two...... texts disseminating legal concepts in different situations (Wikipedia article for general public, article from ministry aimed at children and adolescents) and especially investigate, to what extent the paraphrase concept is applicable also for describing dissemination strategies in such situations...

  1. Legality of use of drones

    OpenAIRE

    Slabá, Tereza

    2015-01-01

    The thesis analyses the legality of the use of drones in warfare based on the examination of three specific case studies. Firstly the use of armed drones in Afghanistan 2001 and 2002, then Pakistan drone strikes ongoing since 2004 and lastly the Yemen case study. A developed legal framework is used to assess the legality of the use of drones. Furthermore, it briefly touches upon the aspects of morality and ethics of the use of the unmanned aerial vehicles in combat.

  2. Legal System and Legal Chaos Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Syarifudin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Order of the universe and other objects can be described either by cosmology and physics. But from of the regularity of the object there in terms or aspect of irregularity or fractal (broken that difficult to describe by Auklides and Calculus mathematical models. Benoit Medelbrot tried to explain the chaotic objects with fractal theory which basically a branch of mathematics. The fractal theory affect the view of the law that inspired Charles Sampford which then sparked a legal chaos theory. The core of legal chaos theory is (1 social relationships , including the relationship established based on the relationship of forces (power relation, (2 the parties who make that relationship does not have the same strength or balance, and (3 at the time of execution of the respective relations based on their subjective opinions. Those three thing that is causing chaos. But the atmosphere of chaos that would eventually return to the regularity, because of the strength towing (strange attractor that in the area of law is the law and the power of the state. Chaos basically contained in the freedom -based relationship beyond the confines of order. When the towing force managed to recover the chaos so as to create harmony between order and freedom, the peace that one of the legal goal is achieved.

  3. Degeneração macular relacionada à idade: novas perspectivas Age-related macular degeneration: new perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Bittar Nehemy

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A degeneração macular relacionada à idade (DMRI é a principal causa de cegueira legal em indivíduos acima de 50 anos de idade. Embora estudos recentes tenham mostrado que o fator genético é significativo, a patogênese da degeneração macular relacionada à idade permanece obscura, e os fatores de risco não estão ainda completamente estabelecidos. Estudos multicêntricos randomizados, publicados nos últimos anos, demonstraram que uma combinação de vitaminas e minerais é eficaz na redução do risco de desenvolvimento de neovascularização e de progressão para os estágios mais avançados da degeneração macular relacionada à idade. De maneira análoga, a terapia fotodinâmica (PDT e a terapia antiangiogênica também tiveram sua eficácia comprovada no tratamento de membrana neovascular coroideana subfoveal associada à degeneração macular relacionada à idade. Ambas reduzem o risco de perda de visão e, eventualmente, permitem melhora temporária da acuidade visual. Outras modalidades de tratamento, tais como fotocoagulação a laser, remoção cirúrgica da membrana e termoterapia transpupilar (TTT, podem beneficiar apenas um pequeno subgrupo de pacientes. Uma melhor compreensão dos mecanismos fisiopatológicos e dos eventos moleculares nas diversas fases da doença deverão propiciar, em futuro próximo, melhores estratégias para o controle e tratamento da degeneração macular relacionada à idade.Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD is a major source of legal blindness in individuals older than 50 years. Even though recent reports suggest that genetics plays an important role, its pathogenesis remains puzzling and the risk factors for its occurrence are not completely established. Vitamin and mineral supplementation reduced the risk of development of choroidal neovascularization (CNV or progression to the most advanced stages of age-related macular degeneration. Photodynamic therapy (PDT and antiangiogenic therapy

  4. La construcción de estereotipos en base a inmigrantes "legales" e "ilegales" en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Sabarots

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available La propuesta del presente trabajo es extraer algunas reflexiones comparativas a partir de investigaciones de tipo antropológico realizadas sucesivamente sobre los inmigrantes japoneses y sus descendientes a la Argentina y posteriormente sobre inmigrantes de otros países latinoamericanos (bolivianos. Estas investigaciones se realizaron en el transcurso de las décadas de los 80's y 90's respectivamente, lo que nos permite explorar la incidencia de los cambios estructurales neoliberales en el imaginario social sobre los inmigrantes. El centro de interés es mostrar la construcción diferencial de estereotipos de acuerdo con la procedencia de los inmigrantes, que tiene sin duda componentes racistas. Tal construcción imaginaria diferencial, a saber inmigrantes "legales", deseados e inmigrantes "ilegales", indeseables, es coherente con la ideología racista y en general con el funcionamiento de los prejuicios que requieren de una mirada jerárquica de la humanidad (en sentido biológico y cultural. Se propone una interpretación que sin perder de vista la especificidad de los procesos de estigmatización, analice el racismo y los prejuicios en general como construcciones dinámicas, que se relacionan tanto con las coyunturas históricas (en nuestro caso crisis de los '80 y neoliberalismo de los '90 como con los mitos de origen de la nación argentina, como país abierto a la inmigración, "crisol de razas"; discurso encubridor de una ideología del progreso que incluye a unos colectivos y excluye a otros.This paper is a comparative study of anthropological research on Japanese immigrants to Argentina and their descendents, and immigrants from other Latin American countries (fundamentally Bolivians. Research took place during the 1980s and 1990s, respectively, which enables the impact of neoliberal structural changes on the social imaginary around immigrants to be explored. The central point is to show the differential construction of stereotypes

  5. Identification of policies for a sustainable legal trade in rhinoceros horn based on population projection and socioeconomic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Minin, Enrico; Laitila, Jussi; Montesino-Pouzols, Federico; Leader-Williams, Nigel; Slotow, Rob; Goodman, Peter S; Conway, Anthony J; Moilanen, Atte

    2015-01-01

    Between 1990 and 2007, 15 southern white (Ceratotherium simum simum) and black (Diceros bicornis) rhinoceroses on average were killed illegally every year in South Africa. Since 2007 illegal killing of southern white rhinoceros for their horn has escalated to >950 individuals/year in 2013. We conducted an ecological–economic analysis to determine whether a legal trade in southern white rhinoceros horn could facilitate rhinoceros protection. Generalized linear models were used to examine the socioeconomic drivers of poaching, based on data collected from 1990 to 2013, and to project the total number of rhinoceroses likely to be illegally killed from 2014 to 2023. Rhinoceros population dynamics were then modeled under 8 different policy scenarios that could be implemented to control poaching. We also estimated the economic costs and benefits of each scenario under enhanced enforcement only and a legal trade in rhinoceros horn and used a decision support framework to rank the scenarios with the objective of maintaining the rhinoceros population above its current size while generating profit for local stakeholders. The southern white rhinoceros population was predicted to go extinct in the wild Datos de Costo Económico con Referencia Espacial y de Beneficio a la Biodiversidad y la Efectividad de una Estrategia de Determinación de Costos Resumen Entre 1990 y 2007, en promedio fueron cazados ilegalmente cada año 15 rinocerontes sureños blancos (Ceratotherium simum simum) y negros (Diceros bicornis) en Sudáfrica. Desde 2007 la caza ilegal de rinocerontes sureños blancos por su cuerno ha escalado a más de 950 individuos al año en 2013. Llevamos a cabo un análisis ecológico-económico para determinar si el comercio legal de cuerno de rinoceronte sureño blanco podría facilitar la protección del rinoceronte. Se usaron modelos lineales generalizados para examinar a los conductores socio-económicos de la caza furtiva, con base en datos colectados desde 1990

  6. DOCTRINAL BASICS OF THE LEGAL TECHNIQUE: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS WITHIN THE EUROPEAN LEGAL FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Malko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The legal technique was initially developed as a kind of “interpreter” for the legislative will in the legal language using a specific ingenuity of legal engineering. Historically, the theoretical base of the legal technique was formed on a phased basis, essentially stimulated by state reforms, social transformations, and active legislation systematization. It should be mentioned here that legal technique is a distinctive category reflecting the political, economic, and legal situation in the historical period of a certain state development, but being extra-national in itself.The resource harmonization of the legal technique within the European legal framework means norm-setting regulations, coordination, and elaboration of common recommendations for the European countries. The cooperation in the legal technique standards harmonization will require the all-European cooperation to the new level as far as legal standards, human rights, democratic development, legitimacy and cultural cooperation are concerned.

  7. The Bald And Golden Eagle Protection Act, Species-Based Legal Protection And The Danger Of Misidentification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann C Knobel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act of 1940 bestows legal protection on two North American eagle species in the United States of America. The Act was originally aimed at the legal protection of only one species: the Bald Eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus, the national symbol of the USA. Later the Act was amended to extend protection also to the Golden Eagle Aquila chrysaetos. The Bald Eagle was an Endangered Species, but the Golden Eagle was not formally listed as Endangered nationwide in the USA. One of the reasons for extending legal protection to the Golden Eagle under the Act was to strengthen the legal protection of the Bald Eagle, because immature Bald Eagles were being misidentified as Golden Eagles and shot. Additional factors relating to Golden Eagle mortality also made legal protection of the Golden Eagle desirable. The danger that a rare and legally protected species can be misidentified and mistaken for a more common and unprotected species can therefore serve as a reason for bestowing legal protection on the more common species as well. Other factors may also indicate that legal protection of the more common species is desirable, making the case more compelling. If this line of reasoning is applied in respect of South African birds of prey, a strong case can be made in favour of extending legal protection under the national biodiversity legislation to more species than the small number of species currently enjoying such protection. Species that are listed as Vulnerable under South African national biodiversity legislation may be misidentified as species that are not subject to such protection. Additional factors are also present that make such an extension of legal protection desirable.

  8. Legal, ethical, and procedural bases for the use of aseptic techniques to implant electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahy, Daniel M.

    2013-01-01

    animals often mask the signs of infection to avoid attracting predators (Wobeser 2006). Guidance specific to sterilization of electronic devices for implantation is limited in the wildlife record (Burger et al. 1994; Mulcahy 2003). Few biologists have been formally trained in aseptic technique, but most biologists know that electronic devices should be treated in some way to reduce the chance for infection of the host animal by bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi. Most biologists (73%) who implant devices into fishes believe aseptic techniques are important (Wagner and Cooke 2005). However, I maintain that many biologists find it difficult to place the concept of asepsis into practice in their work because of confusion about what constitutes aseptic technique, a lack of surgical knowledge and training, the perception of increased costs, or the belief that aseptic surgeries are impractical or unnecessary for their application. Some have even argued that, while compromising surgical techniques in the field might result in complications or mortalities, the money saved would allow for a compensatory increase in sample size (Anderson and Talcott 2006). In this paper I define aseptic surgical techniques, document the legal and professional guidance for performing aseptic surgeries on wild animals, and present options for sterilizing electronic devices and surgical instruments for field use.

  9. Problem-Based Learning: An Exercise on Vermont's Legalization of Civil Unions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Susan M.; Hurlbert, Janet McNeil

    2004-01-01

    The majority of literature regarding problem-based learning demonstrates its usefulness as a teaching technique in the natural sciences curriculum. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, the broad purpose is to illustrate the application of problem-based learning for instructing students about controversial issues in sociology. Within the…

  10. A Storytelling Learning Model for Legal Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuano, Nicola; De Maio, Carmen; Gaeta, Angelo; Mangione, Giuseppina Rita; Salerno, Saverio; Fratesi, Eleonora

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a learning model based on "Storytelling" and its application in the context of legal education helping build challenging training resources that explain, to common citizens with little or no background about legal topics, concepts related to "Legal Mediation" in general and in specific…

  11. Legal Knowledge and Agility in Public Administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Boer; T. van Engers

    2013-01-01

    To address agility in public administration, we have developed a knowledge acquisition infrastructure for legal knowledge, based on an implementation-oriented conceptualization of the legal system. Our objective is to reframe legal knowledge as a knowledge source in a design-oriented task ontology,

  12. SPAM -- Technological and Legal Aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Banday, M Tariq

    2011-01-01

    In this paper an attempt is made to review technological, economical and legal aspects of the spam in detail. The technical details will include different techniques of spam control e.g., filtering techniques, Genetic Algorithm, Memory Based Classifier, Support Vector Machine Method, etc. The economic aspect includes Shaping/Rate Throttling Approach/Economic Filtering and Pricing/Payment based spam control. Finally, the paper discusses the legal provisions for the control of spam. The scope of the legal options is limited to USA, European Union, New Zealand, Canada, Britain and Australia.

  13. Ethico-legal aspects of hospital-based blood transfusion practice; implications of professional negligence to medical practitioners: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orkuma J.A

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Blood transfusion is predominantly a hospital-based practice in many resourceconstrained economies like Nigeria, wherein the sourcing, storage, processing and clinical use of blood and blood products resides in the often financial and manpower constrained hospitals. Aim: To identify the ethical and legal issues related to hospital-based blood transfusion practice for medical practitioner. Methods: Relevant articles retrieved via PubMed/MEDLINE and Google scholar search engines were used. Results: This review found that, medical practitioners are directly or vicariously liable in professional negligence in hospital-based transfusion injuries. The potential weaknesses in hospital-based blood transfusion practice as ethically identified include; transfusion transmissible infections, blood group incompatibility, haemolytic transfusion reaction, failure to obtain informed consent and challenges of haemovigillance. However from the cases considered, medical practitioners are more professionally liable where they withhold a transfusion or transfuse blood group incompatible transfusion or fail to obtain an informed consent for blood transfusion especially amongst Jehovah’s Witness adherents. Conclusion: Medical practitioners at hospital-based transfusion centres are professionally liable for negligence due to blood transfusion injuries by their clinical, laboratory or general administrative oversight at different levels of hospital management. It is recommended that, they carry out this duty cautiously. While error reporting should be encouraged, litigations against them should be pursued cautiously in order not to encourage defensive blood transfusion practices in fear of claims or litigations to the disadvantage of the patients. Mediation or arbitration systems which are faster, less expensive and often less punitive but help strengthen the blood transfusion services should be encouraged.

  14. Identification of policies for a sustainable legal trade in rhinoceros horn based on population projection and socioeconomic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Minin, Enrico; Laitila, Jussi; Montesino-Pouzols, Federico; Leader-Williams, Nigel; Slotow, Rob; Goodman, Peter S; Conway, Anthony J; Moilanen, Atte

    2015-01-01

    Between 1990 and 2007, 15 southern white (Ceratotherium simum simum) and black (Diceros bicornis) rhinoceroses on average were killed illegally every year in South Africa. Since 2007 illegal killing of southern white rhinoceros for their horn has escalated to >950 individuals/year in 2013. We conducted an ecological–economic analysis to determine whether a legal trade in southern white rhinoceros horn could facilitate rhinoceros protection. Generalized linear models were used to examine the socioeconomic drivers of poaching, based on data collected from 1990 to 2013, and to project the total number of rhinoceroses likely to be illegally killed from 2014 to 2023. Rhinoceros population dynamics were then modeled under 8 different policy scenarios that could be implemented to control poaching. We also estimated the economic costs and benefits of each scenario under enhanced enforcement only and a legal trade in rhinoceros horn and used a decision support framework to rank the scenarios with the objective of maintaining the rhinoceros population above its current size while generating profit for local stakeholders. The southern white rhinoceros population was predicted to go extinct in the wild Costo Económico con Referencia Espacial y de Beneficio a la Biodiversidad y la Efectividad de una Estrategia de Determinación de Costos Resumen Entre 1990 y 2007, en promedio fueron cazados ilegalmente cada año 15 rinocerontes sureños blancos (Ceratotherium simum simum) y negros (Diceros bicornis) en Sudáfrica. Desde 2007 la caza ilegal de rinocerontes sureños blancos por su cuerno ha escalado a más de 950 individuos al año en 2013. Llevamos a cabo un análisis ecológico-económico para determinar si el comercio legal de cuerno de rinoceronte sureño blanco podría facilitar la protección del rinoceronte. Se usaron modelos lineales generalizados para examinar a los conductores socio-económicos de la caza furtiva, con base en datos colectados desde 1990 hasta 2013, y

  15. Applying for Jobs Online: Examining the Legality of Internet-based Application Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, J. Craig; Tye, Mary G.; Vodanovich, Stephen J.

    2000-01-01

    Results of an examination of 41 Internet-based state job application forms indicated that 97.5 percent possessed at least one inadvisable question especially related to past salary, age, and driver's license information. States with larger populations had more problematic questions than less populated states. (JOW)

  16. A Legal Perspective on Performance-Based Pay for Teachers. Working Paper 2008-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, James E.

    2008-01-01

    Merit pay is now in the midst of a renaissance. Hundreds of school districts are experimenting with some type of performance-based pay system. At least six states have statewide or pilot programs, and the federal government has spent close to $100 million on the Teacher Incentive Fund. Whether such programs will last, encourage the start of…

  17. Legal Principles, Legal Values and Legal Norms: are they the same or different?

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan Daci

    2010-01-01

    Legal principles, legal values, and legal norms are essentially part of the same notion. Often in legal literature, legal principles are considered to be legal norms, general legal norms, legal values etc. In fact, legal principles are just legal norms that different from the latter are legal norms of general application that ignore specific legal facts. They can be considered as basic norms that represent the general consensus on basic society understandings. As such they are also kinds of d...

  18. On Danish Legal Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaumburg-Müller, Sten

    2014-01-01

    On the basis on 1) the Danish legal writer A.S.Ørsted (1778-1860) and 2) an enquete among present day Danish legal scholars, the contribution deals with special traits in Danish legal method......On the basis on 1) the Danish legal writer A.S.Ørsted (1778-1860) and 2) an enquete among present day Danish legal scholars, the contribution deals with special traits in Danish legal method...

  19. Calidad de vida relacionada con heridas crónicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Virginia González-Consuegra

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo hace una revisión bibliográfica que se inicia con un recorrido de la evolución del concepto de calidad de vida (CV y su aplicación en salud, el cual debe su importancia a la forma más amplia en que es concebido el estado de salud personal, al contener implícito el bienestar social, lo que ha generado el desarrollo de medidas que permiten captar la salud en sus dimensiones múltiples y también positivas, como las de salud percibida o de calidad de vida relacionada con la salud (CVRS. La medición de la CVRS ha mostrado su utilidad en la investigación, en la práctica clínica, en la evaluación de los servicios sanitarios y en salud pública, lo que permite -en gran medida- contribuir a mejorar la gestión del cuidado. Con el paso del tiempo y la evolución tecnológica, la esperanza de vida ha ido en aumento, con el consiguiente envejecimiento de la población, siendo frecuente la presencia de enfermedades crónicas y metabólicas que, en muchos casos, traen consigo la presencia de heridas crónicas (HC de difícil manejo, que afectan negativa y considerablemente la CVRS de la población mayor de 65 años, especialmente femenina. La literatura reciente, es profusa respecto a los diferentes instrumentos para la medición de CVRS, por lo que se hace necesario conocer de qué disponemos para poder hacer uso de las herramientas adecuadas, según la condición de salud de la persona, a fin de aproximarse a las necesidades reales de las personas a nuestro cuidado. La mayoría de las herramientas de medición de CVRS se han desarrollado en Europa y Estados Unidos, lo que exige que para ser utilizadas en poblaciones distintas a las de su origen se cumpla con la adaptación y validación respectiva, a fin de que sus resultados reflejen la percepción real de la población.

  20. Muertes relacionadas con cocaina en Costa Rica durante 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Alfaro Albertazzi

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available El consumo de cocaína en Costa Rica es un problema creciente y muchas de lasmuertes pueden ser causadas por situaciones en las cuales la droga está involucrada. En este estudio todas las autopsias médico legales hechas en 1996 en este país fueron analizadas con el objeto de determinar la mortalidad y por lo tanto el impacto que ella genera en la sociedad costarricense.The cocaine consumption in Costa Rica is a growing problem and a lot of deaths can be caused by the situations in wich the drug is involved. In this study all the medicolegal autopsies done in 1996 in this country were analized to figure out the mortality and therefore, the impact it generates in Costa Rican society.

  1. The Methods of Constructing the Legal Support System for the Returning-home Migrant Workers’ Entrepreneurship——Based on the Perspective of Economic Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Based on the overview of concept of returning-home migrant workers’ entrepreneurship,the thesis has introduced the features of migrant workers’ entrepreneurship,as against other types of entrepreneurship,as follows. Starting from a low base and multi-level perspective;conducting entrepreneurship in manifold industries,mainly in those labor-intensive enterprises;conspicuous mutual interaction and reversibility are embodied in the group characteristics;the strong driving force of returning-home migrant workers’ entrepreneurship comes from their affection for hometown. The process of returning-home migrant workers’ entrepreneurship can be divided into three stages,namely returning rush,investing rush,and entrepreneurship rush,on which we give the analysis respectively in terms of the continuous change of social mobility,transformation on the part of the main body of entrepreneurship,and the expansion of industry field concerning entrepreneurship. More over,we have discussed the methods of constructing the legal support system for the returning-home migrant workers’ entrepreneurship. Firstly,it needs institutionalization,which is the basis of constructing the legal support system for the returning-home migrant workers’ entrepreneurship;secondly,it needs definite guiding ideology as the premise of constructing the legal support system for the returning-home migrant workers’ entrepreneurship;thirdly,it needs the precise orientation of target group as the key of constructing the legal support system for the returning-home migrant workers’ entrepreneurship;finally,appropriate support methods are the pivot of constructing the legal support system for the returning-home migrant workers’ entrepreneurship.

  2. Legal reality of Russia: constants and variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Valeryevich Skorobogatov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to develop the sciencebased knowledge about essential and substantial aspects of the current legal reality of Russia in the context of postclassical paradigm. Methods the methodological basis of this research is the synthesis of classical and postclassical paradigms that determine the choice of specific methods of research formallegal comparative legal modeling method hermeneutic discursive methods. Results basing on the postclassical methodology it is proved that the legal reality of Russia consists of three levels legislation law enforcement and legal behavior. The determinant level of legal reality is legal behavior that is aimed at observing the unwritten rules. The legal reality of Russia is characterized by a transgressive state of the modern Russian society expressed in broad application of nonlegislative nonlegal practices low level of legal culture legal nihilism and legal infantilism. Scientific novelty the article for the first time analyzes the ontological and phenomenological essence of the legal reality in Russia and determines its transgressive nature at the present stage of development. Practical value the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific and pedagogical activity when considering questions about the nature and content of legal development. nbsp

  3. Legal Philosophy - Five Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential.......This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential....

  4. The users of legal information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Assis Pinho

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The decision making needs must be based on current and reliable information, especially in legal environments. In Brazil, the changes in legislation are constants because of the enactments of the provisional measures. In this sense, it is necessary to know the sources and changes to satisfy the needs of users of legal area. Therefore, through an exploratory research, it aimed to do a user study, experts on legal aspects in the law library of the Regional Procurator of the Republic of the 5th Region (Brazil, which is a unit belonging to Brazil's Federal Public Ministry, with the use of a questionnaire as data collection tool. The results shows that users of legal information is more demanding and expert in their search and uses various sources, because their information needs has a high degree of difficulty.

  5. Hacia una base normativa mexicana en la medición de calidad de vida relacionada con la salud, mediante el Formato Corto 36 Towards a mexican normative standard for measurement of the Short Format 36 health-related quality of life instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Durán-Arenas

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Presentar los resultados de la aplicación del cuestionario de formato corto 36 (SF-36 en dos estados de México (Sonora y Oaxaca, comparando con los niveles de calidad de vida en las provincias de Canadá y en Estados Unidos de América. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Los datos provienen de la encuesta de acceso, uso y calidad de los servicios de salud en dos estados de México. El instrumento del SF-36 incluye 36 preguntas que generan ocho dimensiones diferentes sobre calidad de vida relacionada con la salud; a partir de estas dimensiones, se estima un componente físico y otro mental. Para el análisis se calcularon las calificaciones promedio para cada dimensión del SF-36 para toda la muestra, por género y grupos de edad, en cada estado. Las diferencias regionales se evaluaron mediante la diferencia en los promedios. RESULTADOS: Se obtuvo respuesta de 98.5% de las 4 200 viviendas seleccionadas, con porcentajes de respuesta similar en Oaxaca y Sonora. Respondieron al cuestionario 5 961 individuos mayores de 25 años de edad. Los hombres tuvieron mayores puntajes que las mujeres en todas las dimensiones y en los dos componentes. En uno u otro sexo la mayor variación en los adultos hasta de 64 años de edad tendió a concentrarse en tres dimensiones: salud general, función social y salud mental; en el grupo de 65 a 74 años de edad se concentró en función social y salud mental; y en mayores de 75 años, en salud mental. Se observó variación en un número mayor de dimensiones en los grupos de adultos jóvenes (25 a 44 años, mientras que en las mujeres se observó una mayor variación en los extremos, en los grupos de edad de 25 a 34 años de edad y de 75 y más. Los puntajes promedio en nuestra muestra fueron más altos que los observados en Canadá y Estados Unidos de América en cinco de las dimensiones y en los dos componentes, en tanto que Canadá presentó puntajes más altos en las tres dimensiones escalas restantes (salud general

  6. Defining Legal Moralism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Jens Damgaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses how legal moralism should be defined. It is argued that legal moralism should be defined as the position that “For any X, it is always a pro tanto reason for justifiably imposing legal regulation on X that X is morally wrong (where “morally wrong” is not conceptually equivalent...... to “harmful”)”. Furthermore, a distinction between six types of legal moralism is made. The six types are grouped according to whether they are concerned with the enforcement of positive or critical morality, and whether they are concerned with criminalising, legally restricting, or refraining from legally...... protecting morally wrong behaviour. This is interesting because not all types of legal moralism are equally vulnerable to the different critiques of legal moralism that have been put forth. Indeed, I show that some interesting types of legal moralism have not been criticised at all....

  7. Victims of gender-based violence and their legal protection in Serbia: In relation to men's violence against women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučković Ivana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The main issue in this work is men's violence against women as a hate crime. The author analyzes this through a feminist perspective considering the relevance of basic facts and concepts such as gender, gender roles and socialization, power, patriarchy and women's rights. The author analyzes the position of women victims of men's violence on both the international and national level, and their legal protection, in general and especially in Serbia, using a victimological approach.

  8. Legal argumentation based on foreign law
    An example from case law of the South African Constitutional Court

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Lollini

    2007-01-01

    This article aims to make some introductory remarks concerning the phenomenon of the circulation of ‘foreign law’ between constitutional courts. A convenient setting for some considerations regarding this legal phenomenon is the South African constitutional jurisprudence, since Section 39 of the 1996 Constitution enables the Constitutional Court to ‘consider foreign law’ when interpreting the Bill of Rights. This provision has led to the wide use of foreign jurisprudence and legislation, as w...

  9. THE MEXICAN PETROLEUM MODELS FOR PRIVATE PARTICIPATION : THE LEGAL POSSIBILITY TO ADOPT A NORWEGIAN PETROLEUM BASED MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    One of the main challenges of Mexico is the development of its Petroleum System. A mixture of a bad administration, corruption and a highly restricted juridical scheme has, technically and financially, collapsed the industry. At the present situation, Mexico not only needs foreign and local investors but also experienced players due to a lack of economic resources and technical expertise, especially on deep waters petroleum exploitation. The main legal problem is the Mexican constitutional fr...

  10. Modelling Agent Attitudes in Legal Reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    Afzal Ballim; Tomas By; Yorick Wilks; Christian Lieske

    2012-01-01

    Common approaches to using artificial intelligence techniques in legal reasoning have generally been based on the logical reasoning methods developed in AI. In most cases, such systems can be considered to be expert systems applied in the legal domain. Other aspects of AI technology that rely more heavily on human psychology or behavioural patterns have rarely been used. This paper aims to show that some of these techniques have a rightful place in legal reasoning, and in particular that the ...

  11. Legal Scholarship: The Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovits, Richard S.

    1998-01-01

    Outlines content of a law-school course in legal scholarship, describes course mechanics, and reports on its success. A section explains why law students should be given additional instruction in jurisprudence, legal history, and social science. Discusses legal education's content and quality, effects of student-run law reviews, and…

  12. Theoretical and Legal Reflections on Securities Dispositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holub Dušan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Decreasing the number of materialised securities for the benefit of electronic securities has led to distinctions between commercial and legal opinions on securities transactions. Contemporary financial markets only trade electronic securities held in securities accounts. Securities law enhances adjustments to economic realities and not to legal principles. Discrepancies between economic realities and securities regulation should be resolved in order to find a balance between successfully functioning transactions of electronic securities and legal schemes which are based on transfers of physically existing assets, which include securities, as a result of the theory of incorporations, in certain legal regulations. This article is a theoretical and legal reflection on selected issues connected with the transfer of securities with reference to discrepancies between economic realities and legal regulations.

  13. The Representation of Legal Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Daskalopulu, Aspassia; Sergot, Marek

    2001-01-01

    The paper outlines ongoing research on logic-based tools for the analysis and representation of legal contracts of the kind frequently encountered in large-scale engineering projects and complex, long-term trading agreements. We consider both contract formation and contract performance, in each case identifying the representational issues and the prospects for providing automated support tools.

  14. 生态文明下的环境法制%Ecological Civilization based Environment legal system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡巧雨; 郭莉; 惠权

    2015-01-01

    Ecological civilization construction process is restricted by many factors such as environmental awareness, environmental legislation, administrative law enforcement and judicial defects, legal policy. Meanwhile the construction of ecological civilization is facing many problems, namely public participation, ecological compensation, environmental responsibility and disputes. We should perfect legislation, law enforcement and judicial construction, improve the mechanism of public participation and ecological compensation, environmental public interest litigation system to solve these problems. This paper analyzed the relationship between ecological civilization and environment legal system, combined with the construction plight of China's ecological legal system, then put forward a series of safeguard measures on environmental rule by law to improve ecological civilization construction, from the perspective of the legislative, executive and judicial. In order to achieve the tasks of scientific development concept, harmonious society construction, and ultimately the coordinated development of environment, society and economy.%生态文明建设的进程受到诸多因素的制约,如生态环境意识、环境立法、行政执法和司法缺陷、法律政策等,同时生态文明建设中面临诸多的难题,如公众参与、生态补偿、环境责任及环境纠纷等,应通过完善立法、执法及司法建设,以及完善公众参与机制、生态补偿机制、环境公益诉讼制度等保障机制来解决这些问题。本文首先通过比较分析生态文明与环境法制的关系,结合我国生态法制建设困境,提出了完善生态文明建设的一系列的环境法治保障措施,即从立法、执法、司法角度,从而实现科学发展观,构建和谐社会,最终实现环境—社会—经济协调发展的任务。

  15. 生态文明下的环境法制%Ecological Civilization based Environment legal system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡巧雨; 郭莉; 惠权

    2015-01-01

    生态文明建设的进程受到诸多因素的制约,如生态环境意识、环境立法、行政执法和司法缺陷、法律政策等,同时生态文明建设中面临诸多的难题,如公众参与、生态补偿、环境责任及环境纠纷等,应通过完善立法、执法及司法建设,以及完善公众参与机制、生态补偿机制、环境公益诉讼制度等保障机制来解决这些问题。本文首先通过比较分析生态文明与环境法制的关系,结合我国生态法制建设困境,提出了完善生态文明建设的一系列的环境法治保障措施,即从立法、执法、司法角度,从而实现科学发展观,构建和谐社会,最终实现环境—社会—经济协调发展的任务。%Ecological civilization construction process is restricted by many factors such as environmental awareness, environmental legislation, administrative law enforcement and judicial defects, legal policy. Meanwhile the construction of ecological civilization is facing many problems, namely public participation, ecological compensation, environmental responsibility and disputes. We should perfect legislation, law enforcement and judicial construction, improve the mechanism of public participation and ecological compensation, environmental public interest litigation system to solve these problems. This paper analyzed the relationship between ecological civilization and environment legal system, combined with the construction plight of China's ecological legal system, then put forward a series of safeguard measures on environmental rule by law to improve ecological civilization construction, from the perspective of the legislative, executive and judicial. In order to achieve the tasks of scientific development concept, harmonious society construction, and ultimately the coordinated development of environment, society and economy.

  16. Las Etapas de La Gestión del Conocimiento: Perspectivas relacionadas a las cadenas hoteleras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Sass de Haro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Las Etapas de La Gestión del Conocimiento: Perspectivas relacionadas a las cadenas hoteleras - La gestión del conocimiento es una práctica organizativa que produce beneficios para la toma de decisiones. En un mercado cada vez más competitivo como la hotelería, trabajar efectivamente con la información y el conocimiento es importante. A partir de esto, el objetivo de este trabajo es analizar la aplicación de las cuatro etapas de la gestión del conocimiento (creación, transmisión, almacenamiento y aplicación en las cadenas hoteleras. Se trata de una investigación exploratoria con base en la bibliografía al respecto. Los resultados indican que la aplicación en las cadenas hoteleras de las cuatro etapas de la gestión del conocimiento es más que una tendencia, la gestión del conocimiento en hoteles se hace necesaria en un mercado cada vez más dinámico y globalizado.As Etapas da Gestão do Conhecimento: Perspectivas relacionadas a cadeias hoteleiras - A gestão do conhecimento é uma prática organizacional que produz benefícios para a tomada de decisões. Em um mercado cada vez mais competitivo, como o hoteleiro, trabalhar efetivamente com a informação e o conhecimento, é importante. A partir disto, o objetivo deste trabalho é o de analisar a aplicação das quatro etapas da gestão do conhecimento (criação, transmissão, armazenamento e aplicação nas cadeias hoteleiras. Trata-se de uma pesquisa exploratória e bibliográfica. Os resultados indicam que a aplicação das quatro etapas da gestão do conhecimento às cadeias hoteleiras é mais que uma tendência. A gestão do conhecimento em meios de hospedagem se faz necessária em um mercado cada vez mais dinâmico e globalizado.The Stages of Knowledge Management: perspectives related to the hotel chains - The knowledge management is an organizational practice that produces benefits for decision making. In an increasingly competitive market like the hotel industry, is

  17. Legal method in danish law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blume, Peter Erik

    This book describes how legal method is used within the Danish legal system. Its target group is foreign lawyers and law students who have an interest in knowing how Danish law commonly is determined and applied. In the first chapters legal method and legal sources in general are defined...... and furthermore a brief account of Danish legal history is provided. The following chapters concern: • Legal institutions, • Statute and Statutory Law • Legal Decisions • Legal Literature and Legal Knowledge • Other National Legal Sources • External Influences on Danish Law...

  18. A sense of self-suspicion: global legal pluralism and the claim to legal authority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Croce

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Legal pluralism has become common currency in many contemporary debates on law and globalization. Its main claim is that a form of global legal pluralism represents both the most accurate description of law in times of globalization and the best normative option. On the descriptive level, global legal pluralism is considered more reliable than state-based accounts. On the normative level, global legal pluralism is understood as a possibility to open up the legal realm to previously unheard voices. This article assesses these claims against the background of classic legal-pluralist scholarship. After reconstructing the emergence of global legal pluralism and then examining its epistemic and normative versions, the last two sections identify the shortcoming of this approach by underlining the absence of what the authors call ‘a sense of self-suspicion’ in drawing the map of legalities in the global sphere. The main argument put forward is that global legal pluralism is oblivious of a few key insights offered by the founding fathers of classic legal pluralism.

  19. Are AustLII and Google Enough for Legal Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Colin

    2006-01-01

    For the past ten years law students, academics and legal practitioners have relied on AustLII and various internet search engines to conduct legal research. The purpose of this article is to examine what these can offer and to note the importance of other websites when conducting legal research. This article is based on an address given to the…

  20. Main Timber Legality Verification Schemes in the World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Based on introduction of the timber legality verification schemes,the article provides a detailed review of existing legality verification schemes covering aspects such as definition of legality,verification process.It aims to help Chinese companies understand the different requirements and evidence of compliance required by legislation,public and private procurement policies.

  1. A more coherent European wide legal language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viola Heutger

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I would like to elaborate on the interaction between law and language. The use of the different (legal languages of the European Union Member States is one of the most practical and most difficult problems in the process of European integration. The linguistic matters are directly contacting all legal issues. In February 2003 the Commission launched an Action Plan on a more coherent European Contract Law. With this Action Plan a sector specific approach of legal and linguistic harmonization will start. On of the official aims will be the preparation of a common frame of reference, providing a pan-European terminology and rules. This contribution will reflect the need of a better and more coherent legal language use on a European Union level and describe a more concept-based approach of linguistic legal integration.

  2. Principle of criminal legality as a fundamental human right

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann Monteiro de Castro, Henrique

    2012-01-01

    This work aims to discuss the principle of legality in criminal law, principle qualified as a fundamental human right. The criminal legality is a natural guarantee of citizens, having basic character in any state that pretends itself democratic, reflecting main feature of the legal systems based on justice and rationality. As it is clear that the principle of legality seems to be a constitutional guarantee of individual, its analysis is essential for understanding a principled view of the cri...

  3. LEGAL GUARANTEES OF FARMERS’ TRADE UNIONS’ FUNCTIONING IN POLAND

    OpenAIRE

    Jakub Gołaś

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of the article is to present legal basis and guarantees of the farmers’ trade unions’ functioning in Poland. The presented research was based on a thorough examination of national legal acts, which constitute both legal background and foundation of farmer’s unions’ activities and internal structure. The author tries to introduce both the individual legal and system guarantees which are dedicated to farmers’ organization and which exact acts shall...

  4. TO THE QUESTION OF THE LEGAL NATURE OF MARRIAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Bondov S. N.

    2014-01-01

    The article is devoted to the analysis of various approaches to the main definitions of a family law, such as marriage, family, and marriage legal relationship. In the article we profoundly considered the legal aspects of a procedure of marriage as the act of registration of marriage is the basis of emergence of marriage legal relationship. The conditions and the bases of marriage are characterized. We made a conclusion that marriage is a legal fact establishing, changing or stopping the corr...

  5. Zygostates alleniana (Orchidaceae: Epidendroideae: Cymbidieae: Oncidiinae: estructura floral relacionada con la polinización

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómiz, Natalia E.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The genus Zygostates Lindl. (Orchidaceae comprises about 20 species of small Neotropical epiphytic plants, represented in its southernmost limit by the species Z. alleniana. In this paper, we studied morphological and anatomical floral characteristics of this species related to pollination mechanism. We confirmed the presence of the unicellular trichomes on the base of the lip and side lobes secreting oil, constituting a trichomal elaiophore. The oil is deposited beneath the cuticle at the apex of the trichomes forming small blisters. The oil could represent a reward for the species Lophopedia nigrispinis, which would be a potential pollinator of Z. alleniana in a natural area within the geographic range of this plant species. Moreover, we prove that the reconfiguration of the pollinaruim is due to the dehydration of the walls cell. This reconfiguration could favor cross-pollination mechanism already described for other species of the family Orchidaceae. Finally, we discuss the floral characters present in Z. alleniana with closely related species.El género Zygostates Lindl. (Orchidaceae comprende aproximadamente 20 especies de pequeñas plantas epífitas con distribución neotropical, representado en su límite más austral por la especie Z. alleniana. En el presente trabajo se estudian morfológica y anatómicamente las características florales de esta especie relacionadas con el mecanismo de polinización. Se confirma la presencia de tricomas unicelulares en la base del labelo y lóbulos laterales que actúan secretando aceite, constituyendo un elaióforo tricomatoso. El aceite se deposita por debajo de la cutícula en el ápice de los tricomas formando pequeñas ampollas. El aceite podría representar una recompensa para la especie Lophopedia nigrispinis, la cual sería un posible polinizador de Z. alleniana en un área natural dentro del rango de distribución geográfica de esta especie vegetal. Por otro lado, se comprueba que la

  6. Should Drugs Be Legalized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambliss, William; Scorza, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    Presents two opposing viewpoints concerning the legalization of drugs. States that control efforts are not cost effective and suggests that legalization with efforts at education is a better course of action (W. Chambliss). The opposing argument contends that the cost in human suffering negates any savings in dollars gained through legalization…

  7. Introduction: Understanding Legal Evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Heine (Klaus)

    2012-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In recent years, the study of legal evolution has become more systematic, and there have emerged various approaches to the study of legal evolution. However, until now, there has been no consensus as to which of these approaches is the most appropriate for the purposes

  8. Legal responsibility and accountability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Chris

    2010-06-01

    Shifting boundaries in healthcare roles have led to anxiety among some nurses about their legal responsibilities and accountabilities. This is partly because of a lack of education about legal principles that underpin healthcare delivery. This article explains the law in terms of standards of care, duty of care, vicarious liability and indemnity insurance.

  9. The allocation of the burden of proof in mixed disputes in legal and non-legal contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.T. Feteris

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the problems pertaining to the allocation of the burden of proof in mixed disputes in legal and non-legal contexts are addressed. First the traditional view on the allocation of the burden of proof based on Whately’s legal conception of ‘presumption’ is discussed. Whately’s proposal is

  10. The Development of Legal Policy and Legal Needs of Indonesian Immigration Law: Answered Partially, Forget the Rest

    OpenAIRE

    Bilal Dewansyah

    2015-01-01

    The replacement of the immigration law, from Law No. 9 of 1992 to Law No. 6 of 2011 reflected the development of immigration legal policy. As a branch of administrative law that has dynamic character, the reform immigration laws should address the immigration legal needs in practice. This paper discusses the development of Indonesian immigration legal policy and to what extent these developments address the immigration legal needs. Based on the author analyses, it can be concluded, firstly, t...

  11. Corpus-based critical discourse analysis as a method of exploring underlying ideologies and self-representation strategies in legal texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Potts, Amanda; Kjær, Anne Lise

    reports by the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY). Key semantic domain analysis (Rayson, 2008) is used to identify the most salient themes in the legal texts compared to reference corpora of general written English, indicating areas for closer analysis. Results show...... bodies of legal language are relatively rare, but extremely culturally relevant. Legal descriptions of crimes/perpetrators/victims are powerful and sometimes subjectively skewed. Further, self-representation of powerful legal bodies and their conceptualizations of ‘success’ and ‘failure’ in establishing...

  12. Qualidade de vida relacionada com a visão em pacientes com degeneração macular relacionada à idade neovascular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Picoto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar o impacto da degeneração macular relacionada à idade (DMRI na qualidade de vida relacionada com a visão (QVRV numa amostra de pacientes portugueses. Métodos: Estudo observacional em corte transversal, não comparativo no qual foram incluídos 68 pacientes seguidos no departamento de Retina Médica do Serviço de Oftalmologia do Centro Hospitalar de Lisboa Ocidental, entre janeiro e abril de 2011. A QVRV foi avaliada por meio do questionário National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ-25, traduzido para o português. Os scores obtidos foram analisados e correlacionados com os seguintes parâmetros idade, sexo, lateralidade da doença, tempo de follow-up, acuidade visual (AV e EFC iniciais e finais do melhor (MO e pior olho (PO. Resultados: A AV do PO apresentou valor preditivo nos scores global, atividade para longe, visão cromática, visão periférica, desempenho, função social e saúde mental (p<0,05. Num modelo de multivariáveis com inclusão de todos os parâmetros clínicos analisados, as variáveis estudadas explicaram 60% da variância do score global (SG com um valor preditivo de 0,08 (R2 0,57, p=0,088. Conclusões: A DMRI NV está associada a uma diminuição da QVRV. A AV do PO tem valor preditivo nos scores do NEI-VFQ-25.

  13. Inheritance Legal System in Indonesia: A Legal Justice for People

    OpenAIRE

    Yeni Salma Barlinti

    2013-01-01

    As one of Asian countries, Indonesia has varied of cultures and religions. This variety affects positive laws in Indonesia, one of them is inheritance law. Indonesia has three inheritance legal systems, that is, adat inheritance law, Islamic inheritance law, and western inheritance law. Adat inheritance law is a norm of local adat community about inheritance. Islamic inheritance law is a norm of inheritance based on al Qur’an (Islamic holy book) and hadis (words, acts, and silence of Prophet ...

  14. The Development of Legal Policy and Legal Needs of Indonesian Immigration Law: Answered Partially, Forget the Rest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Dewansyah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The replacement of the immigration law, from Law No. 9 of 1992 to Law No. 6 of 2011 reflected the development of immigration legal policy. As a branch of administrative law that has dynamic character, the reform immigration laws should address the immigration legal needs in practice. This paper discusses the development of Indonesian immigration legal policy and to what extent these developments address the immigration legal needs. Based on the author analyses, it can be concluded, firstly, the development of immigration legal policy, in legal direction context, emphasized to face the impact of globalization both positive and negative effects, and other developments in the future. In legal substances aspect, the current immigration legal policy change various principles immigration laws, such as the principle of selective policies are balanced with the principle of respect for human rights, although in certain settings are not in line with human rights (as in the case of the period of temporary prohibition to leave Indonesia, that can be extended continuously. In legal form and scope context, Indonesian immigration legal policy today, is more concerned with the rules of immigration law in detail than ever before. Secondly, the development of immigration legal policy answered the immigration legal needs particularly, such as in the case of human smuggling, but forget the rest of the immigration legal needs, in terms of the handling of illegal immigrants, asylum seekers and refugees.

  15. Legal Aspects of Grey Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Schöpfel, Joachim; Lipinski, Tomas A

    2012-01-01

    International audience The paper provides insight into legal issues of grey literature. Based on a short overview of recent studies on grey literature and intellectual property, it suggests a typology of copyright protection for grey literature, in particular for PhD and Master's theses, reports, conference papers, working papers, datasets and preprints. New trends in copyright and scientific communication are mentioned in so far as grey literature is concerned: digital rights, creative co...

  16. Legal training of students in medical schools

    OpenAIRE

    Kablukov, А. А.; Strakhova, O. Р.

    2014-01-01

    Legal training of medical workers is an urgent problem that must be solved in order to improve the comprehensive process of teaching students at the Ukrainian medical schools. An example of implementation the initial stage of legal training for medical students based on existing training programs, within existing departments is described in this article. The acquisition of the primary skills for students in fi nding and selecting the legal documents and the ability to navigate skillfully in t...

  17. 债权式众筹的法律风险及规制%Legal risk and regulation of debt based crowd-funding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    瞿婵

    2016-01-01

    With the vigorous development of internet banking, crowd-funding industry provides a new way to solve the financing problem for smal and medium enterprises, but also provides people with a diversified investment channels. Crowd-funding in our country does not have specifical y regulated laws, but also exists some conflicts with the existing laws and regulations, leading to legal risks faced by investors, such as asymmetric information, contract fraud, the safety of funds, lack of management platform, the author from the concept and character of the basic theory, focuses on the analysis of legal risks of debt based crowd-funding, and puts forward some suggestions.%随着互联网金融的蓬勃发展,众筹行业为解决中小企业融资难的问题提供了全新的思路,也为民众提供了多元化的投资渠道。债权式众筹在我国现行法律框架下不仅没有具体法律加以规范,而且还与现行法律的规定存在一定的冲突,导致投资者面临着信息不对称、合同欺诈、资金安全、缺乏平台管理等法律风险,笔者从众筹的概念特征等基本理论入手,重点分析债权式众筹在我国发展中所面临的法律风险,提出一些规范债权式众筹发展的建议。

  18. Legal System and Legal Chaos Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Syarifudin; Indah Febriani

    2015-01-01

    Order of the universe and other objects can be described either by cosmology and physics. But from of the regularity of the object there in terms or aspect of irregularity or fractal (broken) that difficult to describe by Auklides and Calculus mathematical models. Benoit Medelbrot tried to explain the chaotic objects with fractal theory which basically a branch of mathematics. The fractal theory affect the view of the law that inspired Charles Sampford which then sparked a legal chaos theory....

  19. PROBLEMS OF LEGAL REGULATION OF FREE LEGAL HELP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savchenko M. S.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The authors of the article analyze the legal grounds of free legal assistance marking the novels of legislation regulated by the federal law “On free legal assistance in the Russian Federation” and problems connected with its realization. There were given the characteristics of subjects of state and non-state systems of free legal assistance in the article. The special attention is paid to the specificity of the activity of state and municipal agencies, legal clinics, non-state centers of free legal assistance. The authors consider the peculiarities of legislation of the subjects of the Russian Federation setting the guarantee of rights on getting of free legal assistance. The problems of legal assistance under the presenting of citizens’ interests in arbitrary courts, problems of legal clinics assistance quality, problems of legal provision of the activity of municipal legal agencies are analyzed in the article. Due to the practice of realization of legislation in the Krasnodar region there were made the conclusions on the reasonability of extending of the list of citizens’ categories having the right for free legal assistance and cases of such assistance, giving the compulsory authority to the agreement on free legal assistance; the introduction of the article on municipal legal agencies into the Federal law; working outs of standards of the activity of legal clinics and systems of preparations to the legal assistance of students and teachers

  20. Legal Protections for Privacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, David W.

    1977-01-01

    Individual interest in privacy is a multiple legal issue, roughly divided into four parts according to different types of law: constitutional, statutory, administrative, and common law. Policy implications of this issue for institutions are discussed. (Editor/LBH)

  1. Old Assyrian Legal Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Thomas Klitgaard

    This work presents a comprehensive analysis of legal practices and dispute processing in Old Assyrian society c. 1950-1800 B.C. in the ancient Near East.......This work presents a comprehensive analysis of legal practices and dispute processing in Old Assyrian society c. 1950-1800 B.C. in the ancient Near East....

  2. Innovative Legal Approaches to Address Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L; Teret, Stephen P; Sugarman, Stephen D; Rutkow, Lainie; Brownell, Kelly D

    2009-01-01

    Context: The law is a powerful public health tool with considerable potential to address the obesity issue. Scientific advances, gaps in the current regulatory environment, and new ways of conceptualizing rights and responsibilities offer a foundation for legal innovation. Methods: This article connects developments in public health and nutrition with legal advances to define promising avenues for preventing obesity through the application of the law. Findings: Two sets of approaches are defined: (1) direct application of the law to factors known to contribute to obesity and (2) original and innovative legal solutions that address the weak regulatory stance of government and the ineffectiveness of existing policies used to control obesity. Specific legal strategies are discussed for limiting children's food marketing, confronting the potential addictive properties of food, compelling industry speech, increasing government speech, regulating conduct, using tort litigation, applying nuisance law as a litigation strategy, and considering performance-based regulation as an alternative to typical regulatory actions. Finally, preemption is an overriding issue and can play both a facilitative and a hindering role in obesity policy. Conclusions: Legal solutions are immediately available to the government to address obesity and should be considered at the federal, state, and local levels. New and innovative legal solutions represent opportunities to take the law in creative directions and to link legal, nutrition, and public health communities in constructive ways. PMID:19298420

  3. Research on the Legal English Teaching Practice Based on the Theory of Translation Teaching Method%基于翻译教学法的高校法律英语教学实践研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄敏

    2015-01-01

    Legal English is an important course in college. English teachers should know its nature as a communication tool, and employs appropriate ways to improve students'English ability and legal quality, in order to train inter-disciplinary talents. Based on this, translation teaching method was used here , from the aspects of content, form and concept, it discusses the legal English teaching methods.%法律英语是一门重要的课程,教师应该明确法律英语作为语言交流工具的本质,采用恰当方法,提高学习者的英语水平和法律素养,更好地培养复合型人才.基于此,采用翻译教学法,从内容、形式和理念出发,探讨了高校法律英语教学方法.

  4. FINANCIAL AND LEGAL RELATIONSHIP AND THE LEGAL REGULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkebuchava Yekaterina Bezhanovna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the problems of financial and legal relationship and legal regulation. The financial activities of the state can not be carried out beyond the legal relations. Financial relations are expressed outwardly in the forms that are identified by the state as it is connected with the fact of its existence. With the help of law the state in the financial sphere determines and sets the types of budget revenues, taxation procedures, methods of currency use, etc. Administrative and legal regulation of financial relations is made up of such components as financial and legal relationships and legal regulation. This is why the concepts of "legal effect" and "legal regulation" come to the fore. According to the author, the term "legal regulation" and "legal effect" are not identical and have different meanings. Therefore it is necessary to distinguish between the "regulation" and "effect". This would eliminate naming the same thing with different words.

  5. Interventions for Learning Disabilities: Does a Journal-Based Change in Focus and Article Type Reflect or Influence Legal Mandates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleary, Daniel F.; Rowlette, Emily Fuller; Pelchar, Taylor K.; Bain, Sherry K.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether there was a noticeable shift in focus from general to specific learning disabilities, and in the types of articles (narrative or empirically based) in the Journal of Learning Disabilities (JLD) between 1995 to 2000. A pilot study had revealed an increase in empirically based articles and a shift toward specifically…

  6. Prácticas indígenas relacionadas con la enfermedad

    OpenAIRE

    María Clara Quintero Laverde

    2001-01-01

    Las prácticas de cuidado de la salud, relacionadas con la enfermedad, han estado presentes a través de la historia de la humanidad. El presente artículo relaciona dichas prácticas en algunas de las principales tribus indígenas que poblaban el territorio colombiano a la llegada de los españoles. Estas tribus, representadas por las culturas chibcha y caribe, contaban con conocimientos médicos avanzados, y en sus comunidades la figura de los chamanes, los brujos, los a...

  7. Funcionalidade e qualidade de vida relacionada com a saúde em doentes com edema venoso

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Sara; Crisóstomo, Rute

    2015-01-01

    Objetivo: Avaliar a funcionalidade e a qualidade de vida relacionada com a saúde em indivíduos com edema venoso por insuficiência venosa crónica nos membros inferiores. Relevância: Pretende-se perceber quais as consequências da insuficiência venosa crónica, de forma a melhorar a intervenção da Fisioterapia. Amostra: Participaram 50 indivíduos, 24 no Grupo Edema e 26 no Grupo Controlo. Materiais e métodos: Foi realizado um estudo transversal, comparativo e correlacional, utilizando-...

  8. Utilidad de un conector desinfectable en la profilaxis de la bacteriemia relacionada con cateter

    OpenAIRE

    Yébenes Reyes, Juan Carlos

    2005-01-01

    Consultable des del TDX Títol obtingut de la portada digitalitzada La utilización de los catéteres venosos centrales es esencial en las unidades de cuidados. Su uso, sin embargo, no está exento de riesgos, como la bacteriemia relacionada con catéter, con una morbimortalidad asociada significativa. Conociendo la importancia de la via endoluminal en la patogénesis de la bacteriemia por catéter, el objetivo de está tesis es observar la utilidad de un nuevo conector desinfectable que no req...

  9. Caracterización de propiedades relacionadas con la textura de suspensiones de fibras alimentarias

    OpenAIRE

    CÓRDOBA SEQUEIRA, ARTURO

    2008-01-01

    La fibra dietética es un componente que, además de ser beneficioso para la salud, puede resultar adecuado para aumentar la viscosidad y otras propiedades relacionadas de determinados productos. No obstante, la procedencia de la misma, así como su concentración y el modo en que se adicione puede afectar a su funcionalidad. En este trabajo se ha realizado un estudio de las propiedades físico-químicas y estructurales de fibras dietéticas procedentes de diferentes frutas (limón, naranja y manzana...

  10. Prácticas indígenas relacionadas con la enfermedad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Clara Quintero Laverde

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Las prácticas de cuidado de la salud, relacionadas con la enfermedad, han estado presentes a través de la historia de la humanidad. El presente artículo relaciona dichas prácticas en algunas de las principales tribus indígenas que poblaban el territorio colombiano a la llegada de los españoles. Estas tribus, representadas por las culturas chibcha y caribe, contaban con conocimientos médicos avanzados, y en sus comunidades la figura de los chamanes, los brujos, los adivinos y hechiceros eran relevantes.

  11. Dislipidemia relacionada à fibrose cística Cystic fibrosis-related dyslipidemia

    OpenAIRE

    Crésio de Aragão Dantas Alves; Daniela Seabra Lima

    2008-01-01

    Esse artigo tem por objetivo rever o conhecimento atual sobre a fisiopatologia, o diagnóstico e a abordagem da dislipidemia relacionada à fibrose cística (DFC). A pesquisa bibliográfica utilizou os bancos de dados Medline e Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (1987-2007), selecionando os artigos mais relevantes sobre o tema. A DFC é caracterizada por hipertrigliceridemia e/ou hipocolesterolemia e deficiência de ácidos graxos essenciais. Seus principais fatores de risc...

  12. Scientifically Based Research and Peer-Reviewed Research under the IDEA: The Legal Definitions, Applications, and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirkel, Perry A.; Rose, Tessie

    2009-01-01

    A systematic analysis of the references to "scientifically based research" (SBR) and closely related terms, such as "peer-reviewed research" (PRR), in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) legislation, regulations, commentary, and case law reveal that SBR and its primary variants apply largely to state support obligations, such as…

  13. Dislipidemia relacionada à fibrose cística Cystic fibrosis-related dyslipidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crésio de Aragão Dantas Alves

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Esse artigo tem por objetivo rever o conhecimento atual sobre a fisiopatologia, o diagnóstico e a abordagem da dislipidemia relacionada à fibrose cística (DFC. A pesquisa bibliográfica utilizou os bancos de dados Medline e Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (1987-2007, selecionando os artigos mais relevantes sobre o tema. A DFC é caracterizada por hipertrigliceridemia e/ou hipocolesterolemia e deficiência de ácidos graxos essenciais. Seus principais fatores de risco são: insuficiência pancreática, dieta rica em carboidratos, hepatopatias, estado inflamatório e corticoterapia. Não existem recomendações específicas sobre a triagem, que habitualmente é realizada a partir do diagnóstico e, em intervalos regulares, com maior freqüência, nos indivíduos pertencentes aos grupos de risco. O tratamento inclui: dieta balanceada, reposição de micronutrientes, vitaminas e fibras, além de exercício físico regular de acordo com a tolerância individual. Na grande maioria dos casos, a hipertrigliceridemia da DFC não atinge valores que indiquem o uso de hipolipemiantes. Conclui-se que existem poucos trabalhos na literatura sobre a freqüência, etiologia e manejo da DFC. A recomendações preventivas e terapêuticas para a hipertrigliceridemia são extrapoladas de diretrizes para indivíduos sem fibrose cística. Mais pesquisas são necessárias para investigar a associação da deficiência de ácidos graxos essenciais com a fisiopatologia da fibrose cística. Como a hipertrigliceridemia é um importante fator de risco para doença arterial coronariana, estudos prospectivos irão contribuir para o melhor entendimento da história natural dessa complicação bem como definir maneiras de preveni-la e tratá-la.This article aims to review the physiopathology, diagnosis and treatment of cystic fibrosis-related dyslipidemia (CFD. Bibliographic searches of the Medline and Latin American and Caribbean Health

  14. Modeling complex metabolic reactions, ecological systems, and financial and legal networks with MIANN models based on Markov-Wiener node descriptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duardo-Sánchez, Aliuska; Munteanu, Cristian R; Riera-Fernández, Pablo; López-Díaz, Antonio; Pazos, Alejandro; González-Díaz, Humberto

    2014-01-27

    The use of numerical parameters in Complex Network analysis is expanding to new fields of application. At a molecular level, we can use them to describe the molecular structure of chemical entities, protein interactions, or metabolic networks. However, the applications are not restricted to the world of molecules and can be extended to the study of macroscopic nonliving systems, organisms, or even legal or social networks. On the other hand, the development of the field of Artificial Intelligence has led to the formulation of computational algorithms whose design is based on the structure and functioning of networks of biological neurons. These algorithms, called Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), can be useful for the study of complex networks, since the numerical parameters that encode information of the network (for example centralities/node descriptors) can be used as inputs for the ANNs. The Wiener index (W) is a graph invariant widely used in chemoinformatics to quantify the molecular structure of drugs and to study complex networks. In this work, we explore for the first time the possibility of using Markov chains to calculate analogues of node distance numbers/W to describe complex networks from the point of view of their nodes. These parameters are called Markov-Wiener node descriptors of order k(th) (W(k)). Please, note that these descriptors are not related to Markov-Wiener stochastic processes. Here, we calculated the W(k)(i) values for a very high number of nodes (>100,000) in more than 100 different complex networks using the software MI-NODES. These networks were grouped according to the field of application. Molecular networks include the Metabolic Reaction Networks (MRNs) of 40 different organisms. In addition, we analyzed other biological and legal and social networks. These include the Interaction Web Database Biological Networks (IWDBNs), with 75 food webs or ecological systems and the Spanish Financial Law Network (SFLN). The calculated W

  15. Medical-legal aspects of the fungal infection drug therapy in neonatology: evidence-based medicine and off-label prescribing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Ciuffi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to focus on the well-known issue of the clinical use of off-label drug therapy in neonatology with respect to evidence-based medicine, with particular reference to antifungal products, in comparison with the wider use in pediatric and adult population. Then we considered the new regulatory approaches carried out in the past decade by the FDA (Food and Drug Administration and the EMA (European Medicine Agency, aimed to improve newborn and children population inclusion into scientific trials and to promote drug labeling with respect to pediatric indications, and the goals nowadays achieved through the American Pediatric Research Equity Act / Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act and the European Pediatric Investigation Plans. Finally we pointed out, on the basis of the Italian regulatory framework, the Italian medical-legal liability profiles related to the use of off-label therapies in neonatology. Further efforts are required in the international context to carry forward the process started while in the particular Italian scenario it is to be hoped that a general change of mind towards the off-label drug use in neonatology clinical practice may take place.

  16. Constitutional Legal Regulation And The Reasons For The Legal Nihilism Existence In Modern Russian Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy E. Nekrasov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present article questions of constitutional and legal regulation and reason for the legal nihilism existence, methods and forms of fight against legal nihilism are considered. Reasons of low legal culture in modern Russian society and ways of the population's legal literacy increase in general are allocated. These problems are extremely topical today as at the 1990th when there was a reorientation of values, ideals and the principles and legislative base was significantly changed, people were simply lost, and it was extremely difficult for them to realize and accept new, absolutely other reality. Today peculiar spiritual and valuable "reconstruct" did not pass completely and the state is obliged to help citizens to carry out it most without serious consequences and successfully. In the conclusion authors draw a conclusion that: first, the problem of legal nihilism more than ever now is particularly acute for modern Russian society. The policy of the state has to be directed by the consciousness of citizens, who understand that law is the integral and obligatory part of the order in the country and that it is one of the basic for any person. Secondly, one of the ways to overcome the legal nihilism consists in the increase of the legal culture level along with the development of effective legal policy. Thirdly, legal idealism, reevaluation of opportunities in law gains especially wide circulation in the years of changes in response to social expectations an insufficiently skilled legislator forms a belief that it is enough to adopt good laws, and all problems would be solved.

  17. Five Models of Legal Science

    OpenAIRE

    Núñez Vaquero, Álvaro

    2013-01-01

    This paper pursues three goals. First, some traditional concepts of ‘legal science’ will be analysed, and a definition of ‘legal science ampio sensu’, ‘legal science stricto sensu’ and ‘legal dogmatics’ will be proposed. Second, a reconstruction of five models of ‘legal science ampio sensu’ will be presented to show the different methodological alternatives available to legal scholars. Third, I claim that it is necessary (for conceptual reasons) to argue for moral reasons when choosing a lega...

  18. The role of legal translation in legal harmonization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.J.W. Baaij

    2012-01-01

    Papers gepresenteerd op de conferentie, 'The Role of Legal Translation in Legal Harmonization', georganiseerd in Amsterdam op 21 januari 2011, door The Amsterdam Circle for Law & Language (ACLL) en the Centre for the Study of European Contract Law (CSECL).

  19. Why do women not prefer much older men? a hypothesis based on alterations in male reproductive physiology related to increased age Por que mulheres não preferem homens muito mais velhos que elas? uma hipótese baseada em alterações da fisiologia reprodutiva masculina relacionadas ao aumento da idade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luísa Helena Pinheiro Spinelli

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary Psychology studies suggest that women prefer slightly older or similarly aged partners, although to date few hypotheses have been put forth to explain this pattern of choice. Several recent studies have shown changes in male reproductive parameters as a result of increased age. In the current review of medical literature, we found evidence that much older men are more likely to be infertile, women with much older partners are more likely to experience problems during pregnancy, and children of much older men are more likely to have genetic abnormalities. Based on these findings, we suggest that reproducing with much older men does not represent the best reproductive option for women, which would explain the female preference for only slightly older or similarly-aged mates.Estudos de Psicologia Evolucionista sugerem que as mulheres preferem parceiros um pouco mais velhos ou de idade semelhante, embora apresentem, até agora, poucas hipóteses para explicar esse padrão de preferência. Recentemente, vários estudos têm demonstrado alterações nos parâmetros reprodutivos masculinos como resultado do aumento da idade. Em revisão da literatura médica atual, encontramos evidências de que homens muito mais velhos são mais susceptíveis de serem inférteis, mulheres com parceiros muito mais velhos são mais propensas a sofrer com problemas durante a gravidez e filhos de homens muito mais velhos são mais propensos a ter anomalias genéticas. Com base nestes resultados, sugerimos que reproduzir com homens muito mais velhos não representa a melhor opção reprodutiva para as mulheres, o que explicaria a preferência feminina por parceiros apenas um pouco mais velhos ou de mesma faixa etária.

  20. [Teenage pregnancies, legal aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogue, Fanny

    2016-01-01

    Minor girls are legally considered as incapable, under the authority of their parents. Difficulties can arise when a minor becomes pregnant. The law takes account of this situation: under certain conditions, she can decide by herself to undertake certain actions, medical or otherwise, without the consent of her parents. These include access to contraception, abortion or anonymous birth.

  1. Euthanasia: Some Legal Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koza, Pamela

    1976-01-01

    Several sections of the Criminal Code of Canada which are relevant to the issue of euthanasia are discussed. In addition, the value placed on the sanctity of life by the law, the failure to recognize motive in cases of euthanasia, and disparate legal and medical definitions of death are also considered. (Author)

  2. Legalization White Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United States Catholic Conference, Washington, DC.

    The second step of implementation of the legalization program of the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA) began on November 7, 1988. This second step is the process by which undocumented immigrants, initially granted temporary residence, may adjust to their status change to permanent resident. Certain aspects of the adjustment are…

  3. The legal framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legal provisions relating to the construction of nuclear generating stations are examined. the forthcoming public inquiry concerning Sizewell 'B' is, of course, of immediate topical interest, but in whatever form that inquiry eventually unfolds, it is important to judge the appropriateness of present procedures against the likelihood of a continuing programme of new nuclear generating stations over the next decade or so. (author)

  4. Defeasibility in Legal Reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    Sartor, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    I shall first introduce the idea of reasoning, and of defeasible reasoning in particular. I shall then argue that cognitive agents need to engage in defeasible reasoning for coping with a complex and changing environment. Consequently, defeasibility is needed in practical reasoning, and in particular in legal reasoning

  5. Commission on Legal Matters

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    What is a commission within the Staff Association (SA)? A commission is a working group of the CERN Staff Council, led by a staff representative. The commission is composed mainly of staff representatives, but interested members of the SA can apply to participate in the work of a commission. What is the commission on legal matters? The commission on legal matters works on texts governing the employment conditions of staff (Employed Members of Personnel and Associated Members of Personnel). This covers legal documents such as the Staff Rules and Regulations, administrative and operational circulars, as well as any other document relating to employment conditions. How is the work organised in this commission? The revision process of the text is generally done along following lines: The HR department, and its legal experts, proposes new texts or modifications to existing texts. A schedule for the study of these texts is established each year and this calendar by the commission to plan its work. The new or modi...

  6. Legal Language in Intercultural Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Violeta Janulevičienė; Sigita Rackevičienė

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the considerable role of legal translation in intercultural communication. Effective intercultural communication requires sufficient language skills and also extensive knowledge of the cultures involved, which encompass official social behaviour norms, enshrined in the corresponding legal systems. The basic legal terms often pose substantial difficulties even for experienced translators and, hence, to communication, because these terms nominate concepts that are inherentl...

  7. BASE DE DADOS TERRITORIAIS NECESSÁRIAS À ANÁLISE DE UM SISTEMA DE RESERVA LEGAL EXTRA-PROPRIEDADE NO ESTADO DE GOIÁS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Eduardo Ferreira

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo geral a compilação ecaracterização das bases de dados utilizadas no âmbitodo projeto “Cenários Econômicos para a Troca de ReservaLegal Extra-Propriedade no Estado de Goiás”. Maisespecificamente, realizou-se uma análise de índicessócio-econômicos e de cobertura vegetal remanescentepara uma malha hexagonal adotada pelo projeto, perfazendotodo o Estado. Dentre os resultados principais,destaca-se atual aspecto negativo da paisagem de Cerradoem Goiás, tanto em termos de Estado (45% da áreaoriginal convertida em pastagens e 18% em agricultura,municípios (85% com passivos ambientais e de mesoregião(Centro e Sul Goiano com menos de 20% de coberturavegetal nativa. Quanto aos índices sociais (IDH,GINI, Pobreza e Densidade Populacional, fica demonstradoque o desenvolvimento em Goiás, ainda longe deser sustentável em termos ambientais, é maior em áreascom atividades agrícolas intensas, como nas meso-regiõesSul e Centro Goiano, e menor ao Norte e Nordeste doestado, onde estão concentradas as maiores proporçõesde pobres, concentração de renda e, curiosamente, remanescentesde Cerrado. Este estudo indica a adoção depráticas econômicas para a manutenção/regeneração dabiodiversidade do bioma Cerrado, complementar ao respeitodas Áreas de Preservação Permanente, sobretudoàquelas com função ripária aos cursos hidrográficos.

  8. Sanction in the Russian legal reality; level research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Valeryevich Krasnov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to form scientifically grounded knowledge on the role and place of legal sanctions in the Russian legal reality at all levels. Methods general philosophic methods dialectic synergetic phenomenological general scientific methods systemicstructural logical specificscientific methods formaljuridical comparativelegal. Results basing on the systemicstructural and comparative research of the levels of legal reality as well as the functions and roles performed by each sanction it is shown how the conceptions of the sanctions and objectives of their implementation depend on subjective and objective factors how the official confirmation of the functions of legal sanctions in Russia differs from their actual implementation in the legal reality. In the Russian legal reality we propose to extinguish several levels law awareness and legal mentality law proper and law enforcement practice and legal behavior the subjectrsquos view on justice and its correlation with the existing law. At each level the legal sanctions perform a certain role and are represented in a certain form. The necessity is actualized to use abroad range of methods for legal sanctions research sociological psychological statistical in order to more specifically confirm their content in legislation and predict their efficient implementation. Scientific novelty for the first time the attempt is made to study the role and function of legal sanctions at different levels of legal reality. Practical value the main provisions and conclusions can be used in both scientificeducational activity and in elaborating drafts of legislative acts to confirm legal sanctions. The authorrsquos comments and proposals can be used for estimating the probable informational and motivational impact of sanction on the human conscience and behavior and when evaluating the interestsrsquo conflict in forming the sanctions content. nbsp

  9. Immigrant health: legal tools/legal barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moua, Mee; Guerra, Fernando A; Moore, Jill D; Valdiserri, Ronald O

    2002-01-01

    The United States is a country of immigrants, our government having been formed by recent arrivals. This trend has continued throughout our history; according to the Center for Immigration Studies, more than 26 million immigrants have settled in the United States since 1970, and approximately one million new immigrants come to the United States each year. The immigrant population faces highly diverse health issues that states, cities, and counties must address, many of which pose significant legal and policy issues. Social, cultural, and linguistic factors complicate those challenges, as does the overlay of federal immigration and health policy. Two federal laws, the Welfare Reform Act of 1996 and Title VI of the federal Civil Rights Act of 1964, have affected immigrants in two very different ways. The former made it difficult for immigrants to qualify for publicly funded benefits. In contrast, Title VI made it easier for immigrants to obtain benefits by requiring federally funded service providers to offer translating services to persons with limited English language skills. Tuberculosis treatment is perhaps the most pressing health need among recent arrivals to the United States. Methods to slow down and hopefully eliminate this disease are underway, but a more comprehensive approach to not only tuberculosis but to immigrant health in general is needed. Indeed, it will benefit those directly affected by tuberculosis and will have serious implications for the entire population for generations to come.

  10. Competitive Legal Professionals’ use of Technology in Legal Practice and Legal Research

    OpenAIRE

    T du Plessis

    2008-01-01

    Advances in the information and communication technologies have led to the availability of a range of primary and secondary legal research publications online via the Internet, rather than on other storing devices such as compact discs or publications in the print media. Not only has information and communication technology (ICT) impacted on the availability of legal information resources, but its effects are also noticed in various law-related areas such as legal practice management, legal e...

  11. Licensing of large industrial plants. Legal regulations and recent judicature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author arrives at a conclusion by examining prerequisites for licensing, their legal implementation, based on lawful standardization, and the dimensions of constitutional rights, including questions of third-party protection. In section ''licensing procedures'', he discusses the right for planning, true and false categorization of partial licensing, the participation of the public, exclusion of objections, protection of constitutional rights through procedures, and the legal consequences of judicial procedural errors. Within the frame of administrative controls, authority for court actions, control density, and effective, temporary legal protection are discussed. The author is of the opinion that the legal uncertainty, so often deplored is slowly disappearing. (HSCH)

  12. Cultural Dimensions Of Legal Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sierocka Halina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the intention for precision and accuracy, legal discourse is oftentimes complex, archaic and ambiguous - which gives rise to contentious interpretation. Moreover, little or no attention is paid to the cultural dimension of legal discourse, which plays a critical role in the translation and interpretation of legal texts, as well as in the application of law. This paper endeavours to illustrate the impact the culture, or, more precisely, legal culture has on the way legal texts are construed or translated and to present problems which arise in the interpretation, translation and application of law as a result of cultural diversities

  13. FINANCIAL AND LEGAL RELATIONSHIP AND THE LEGAL REGULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Екатерина Бежановна Ткебучава

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the problems of financial and legal relationship and legal regulation. The financial activities of the state can not be carried out beyond the legal relations. Financial relations are expressed outwardly in the forms that are identified by the state as it is connected with the fact of its existence. With the help of law the state in the financial sphere determines and sets the types of budget revenues, taxation procedures, methods of currency use, etc. Administrative and legal regulation of financial relations is made up of such components as financial and legal relationships and legal regulation. This is why the concepts of "legal effect" and  "legal regulation" come to the fore. According to the author, the term "legal regulation" and "legal effect" are not identical and have different meanings. Therefore it is necessary to distinguish between the "regulation" and "effect". This would eliminate naming the same thing with different words. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-4-16

  14. Avaliação cognitiva: leitura, escrita e habilidades relacionadas Evaluación cognitiva: lectura, escritura y capacidades relacionadas Cognitive evaluation: reading, writing and related abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monilly Ramos Araujo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa teve como objetivo a análise dos múltiplos domínios envolvidos na leitura e escrita de crianças e adolescentes. Foram investigados 162 sujeitos, de ambos os sexos, com idades variando entre 08 e 16 anos, cursando a 2ª, 3ª e 4ª séries do Ensino Fundamental da rede pública de uma cidade do interior do Nordeste. O desempenho cognitivo das crianças foi analisado através de atividades que envolviam leitura e ditado de palavras e de pseudopalavras, consciência fonológica, processamento auditivo e visual e velocidade de processamento. Os resultados revelaram atraso no desenvolvimento das habilidades avaliadas, com imprecisão e distorções no uso das rotas fonológica e lexical. Conclui-se que é preciso delinear projetos de intervenção visando desenvolver as habilidades de consciência fonológica, processamento auditivo e velocidade de processamento em crianças nas fases iniciais da aquisição da leitura e escrita.La investigación tuvo como objetivo el análisis de los múltiples dominios envueltos en la lectura y escritura de niños y adolescentes. Se analizaron 162 sujetos, de ambos sexos, con edad entre 08 y 16 años, estudiando en 2ª, 3ª y 4ª series de la escuela primaria de la red pública de una ciudad en el interior del noreste. El rendimiento cognitivo de los niños se examinó a través de actividades relacionadas con lectura y dictado de palabras y pseudopalabras, conciencia fonológica, visual y auditiva y velocidad de procesamiento. Los resultados revelaron retraso en el desarrollo de las competencias evaluadas, con inexactitud y distorsiones en el uso de las rutas fonológica y lexical. Se deduce que es necesario esbozar proyectos de mediación para el desarrollo de las capacidades de conciencia fonológica, procesamiento auditivo y velocidad de procesamiento en niños en las primeras etapas de la adquisición de la lectura y escritura.Multiple domains involved in children and young people's reading and

  15. Language and Culture in International Legal Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Kocbek

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary business world, partners belonging to different nations, and hence different cultures, conduct business operations in either the language of one of the parties involved or in a third, neutral language, serving as lingua franca. Thus, language skills, as an essential component of the communicative competence, imply a certain extent of implicit or explicit translating and interpreting. The functionalist approaches in translation science, and most of all the Skopos theory by J. H. Vermeer, view translation as an intercultural transfer, which inevitably entails taking into account intercultural differences. As intercultural business communication is directly affected by the legal systems of the cultures involved, the communicating parties need to be acquainted with both the source and target legal systems. This is especially the case with English, as the Anglo-American legal system, based essentially on common law, differs substantially from continental law, to which most of the European countries belong. English as the world’s most commonly used lingua franca will have to be adapted to its new function by adopting terms and concepts from other cultures and, within the EU, take into consideration the existing discrepancies between the continental and the Anglo-American legal systems. In this paper, cases of non-equivalence regarding legal terms are illustrated with examples from company law. In conclusion, some linguistic and cultural implications of the use of English as lingua franca, as well as their impact on teaching and learning practices are presented.

  16. Economic and Legal Aspects of Electronic Money

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otakar Schlossberger

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The term “electronic money” first appeared in Czech legislation in 2002 as the result of the transposition of legislation into the Czech Republic’s legal system in anticipation of the country’s accession to the European Union. This term subsequently reappeared in 2009 during the recodification of the legal regulation of payment services, payment systems and electronic money. At this time, the definition was subjected to certain changes which continue to exert a significant influence on current practice with respect to the issuance and subsequent use of electronic money. This paper addresses the term “virtual money” and considers the mutual relationships between “electronic money”, “cashless money” and “virtual money” from the point of view of selected legal and economic approaches. The aim of the paper is to employ the analytical method in order to investigate selected legal and economic aspects of the various interpretations of the categories “electronic money”, “cashless money” and “virtual money”. A comparative analysis approach will be applied so as to ascertain both the legal and economic differences between these categories and general conclusions will be suggested employing the deduction method. The article is further concerned with the influence of these categories on the monetary base and money supply indicators.

  17. Positive Legal Responsibility in the Family Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel A. Matveev

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present article author bases on the analysis of doctrinal and normative sources attempt to substantiate the existence of positive legal responsibility. Author defines the specificity of positive familial liability in the mechanism of self- identity of lawful behavior. Considering the nature of family legal liability, author proves independence of family-legal responsibility; it differs from civil, criminal and administrative responsibility. Author gives own definition of family-legal responsibility, gives characteristic features of this type of liability and justifies own view of the concept of responsibility in the modern family. Author substantiates view that family liability is expressed in multiple sanctions fixable current family law. Author notes that measures of family - legal responsibility are: annulment of the marriage, deprivation and restriction of parental rights, abolition of adoption, custody, guardianship, termination of child in a foster family placement, deprivation of the right to communicate with the child, taking away a child, termination or limitation of the obligation to subject the material contents of family relationship to other entities. Justifying own views, author relies on the opinions of scholars, experts, as well as a number of other competent persons.

  18. [Drugs legalization and public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laranjeira, Ronaldo

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this article is to: (1) evaluate the rationality and opportunity of this debate; (2) try to establish links with legal drugs; (3) evaluate the available data on the effect of legalization of a drug; and (4) propose an alternative drug police based on clear objectives to be reached; (5) describe how Sweden is dealing with the theme of drugs restriction as a social care. Methodologically the text constitutes in a summary of readings and elaborations of the author, placed to incite a discussion. It is concluded that four aspects need to be taken into consideration when a drug police of a country is analyzed, they are: (1) external factors influence the police: international agreements, health and social assistance police, individual rights, authority and autonomy of physicians and other professionals; (2) the objective established influence formal polices and its implementation; (3) the symbolic influence that excels the implementation. Influent people make declarations that strongly reach the legitimacy and adhesion to actions; (4) formal polices and their implementation receive direct influence to socially perceived damages by the drugs use, which could be independent of the real level of its use in a determined society.

  19. BITCOIN - BETWEEN LEGAL AND INFORMAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana MAFTEI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The proliferation of technology emphasized new forms of payment. During the last years, current literature highlighted the role of virtual currency, the channels of payment through digital coins and the importance of assimilation of such platforms. Bitcoin or BTC is known as a digital coin, issued for the first time in 2009 and based on a peer to peer system. The difference from other forms of payment is that BTC is not controlled by any institution or central authority. BTC transactions have grown rapidly, ”asking" for regulation measures or legal approval of governments. Although BTC has become very popular, the market is poor and unfortunately of no confidence. There is a lack of regulation which can determine a number of risks associated with criminal financing activities. However, the legal status of Bitcoin is present in many European countries like Belgium, Bulgaria, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Lithuania, Norway, Poland, Slovenia, Switzerland or Turkey. Also, this type of currency has experienced a rapid evolution among coffee shops and restaurants.

  20. Adaptaciones musculares relacionadas a áreas corporales que participan activamente en el vuelo de Anhima cornuta (Aves: Anseriformes, Anhimidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antonio Manzanares

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available La forma y correspondencia entre la anatomía muscular y ósea revela en gran medida el hábito locomotor de cualquier ave. Las especies pertenecientes a la Familia Anhimidae son relevantes dentro de las Aves, debido a las adaptaciones óseas (y por lo tanto, musculares que presentan, como la pérdida de procesos uncinados, el desarrollo de espolones metarcapales, la extrema neumatización y el notable desarrollo de forámenes. Se analizaron anatómicamente y numéricamente (superficie de origen e inserción, longitud en reposo y masa los componentes musculares relacionados a las zonas de la columna vertebral, tronco, miembros y cinturas de tres ejemplares de Anhima cornutade distintos sexos y se compararon con lo estudiado en 4 ejemplares de especies relacionadas (Dendrocygna bicolory Dendrocygna viduata, Anatidae. El estudio reveló que en Anhima existe un gran desarrollo de los músculos intercostales e intervertebrales (torácicos y lumbares, evidenciando una adaptación a la ausencia de procesos uncinados. En Anhimaexisten fascículos proporcionalmente menos pesados y de menor tamaño que en Dendrocygna, indicando morfológicamente la ocurrencia de un vuelo menos desarrollado en el primero. Algunos tendones y fibras musculares metacarpales cuya inserción ocurre en el primer dígito en Dendrocygna, en Anhimase insertan en la base de los espolones proximal y distal, demostrando el poco control del vuelo en Anhima. La musculatura de los miembros posteriores en Anhimaes mucho más desarrollada, tanto en tamaño, como en masa proporcional, evidenciando una gran actividad en esta zona en la propulsión del vuelo y en hábitos terrestres

  1. Competitive Legal Professionals’ use of Technology in Legal Practice and Legal Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T du Plessis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Advances in the information and communication technologies have led to the availability of a range of primary and secondary legal research publications online via the Internet, rather than on other storing devices such as compact discs or publications in the print media. Not only has information and communication technology (ICT impacted on the availability of legal information resources, but its effects are also noticed in various law-related areas such as legal practice management, legal education, corporate governance and the law per se. The question addressed by this article is whether the application of ICTs has an effect on the practice of law, and specifically whether information and knowledge management affects the processes of legal research in modern legal practice. Various issues are considered in this regard, including what the concept of knowledge management (KM entails in a law firm and what the current KM trends in South African law firms are. The article investigates global trends in the application of ICTs for legal research purposes, what the specific applications of KM in support of legal research may be, how information technology applications and KM systems and strategies can support the legal research process, and what the benefits of KM are to legal research. It finally discusses the impact technology has had on the skills required of competitive legal professionals.

  2. Legal Literacy for Teachers: A Neglected Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmel, David; Militello, Matthew

    2007-01-01

    In this article, David Schimmel and Matthew Militello document the legal knowledge and training of teachers based on a survey of more than thirteen hundred K-12 respondents in seventeen states. The findings from this study suggest that most educators (1) are uninformed or misinformed about student and teacher rights; (2) have taken no course in…

  3. Citing Legal Material in APA Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Allan G., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Guidelines are offered to authors on the correct citation format for legal references, including statutes and regulations, court decisions, and law review articles. Standards are based on those published by the Harvard Law Review Association and the American Psychological Association. (DB)

  4. Achievements in Building The Legal System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In the past three decades,people have gained an increasingly deeper under-standing of the law,and theories on democracy and justice have been en-riched.A socialist legal framework has been developing and the rule of law has becomea basic governing principle.China has made unprecedented achievements in promoting law-based governance.

  5. ECONOMIC - LEGAL ASPECTS OF OLYMPIC MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voevodina S. S.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The economic and legal aspects of Olympic marketing have been analyzed in the article. The development of the Olympic marketing tools is also being discussed. Along with this, the necessity of the formulation of the marketing activity law is based in the article

  6. Expectancy and Professional Norms in Legal Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Dorrit; Hjort-Pedersen, Mette

    2013-01-01

    . These parameters focus on the degree to which the use of explicitation and implicitation is considered to influence meaning transfer, authentic English legal language and style, and the informative function of the translation in a defined translational situation. Based on Chesterman’s categorization of norms...

  7. LEGAL GUARANTEES OF FARMERS’ TRADE UNIONS’ FUNCTIONING IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Gołaś

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the article is to present legal basis and guarantees of the farmers’ trade unions’ functioning in Poland. The presented research was based on a thorough examination of national legal acts, which constitute both legal background and foundation of farmer’s unions’ activities and internal structure. The author tries to introduce both the individual legal and system guarantees which are dedicated to farmers’ organization and which exact acts shall be considered as the direct legal basis of the guarantees. Having regard to the fact that even the Polish Constitution introduces transparent and direct legal frameworks for functioning of farmers’ trade unions, the author intends to prove that individual farmers’ unions’ operations should be considered as a fundamental and basic feature of the national agricultural system. The presented work should be also considered as thorough examination of legal provisions presented in the Act on individual farmers’ trade unions of 7th April 1989 (Ustawa…, 2015b, which is direct legal basis for functioning guarantees of the agricultural unions. The author shows how the Act is governing such fundamental issues as creation, registration, liquidation or legal operational guarantees of each individual farmers’ trade unions operating under the Act.

  8. THEORETICAL ANALYSIS STUDY OF FORMATION OF FUTURE LEGAL LAWYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Stepanovich Shevlakov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with topical issues of formation of legal consciousness of future lawyers in high school. Obtained kinds of legal consciousness of future lawyers, determined its structure. Dedicated components of justice are mutually reinforcing, and provide an opportunity for further development of the personality of the future specialist, their personal growth.The purpose: to carry out theoretical analysis of the problem of formation of legal consciousness of future lawyers.The novelty is based. On the analysis of theoretical appro-aches of pedagogy, psychology, law, the notion of «lawfulness of the future of the law student», which is regarded as a form of social consciousness, which is a set of legal views and feelings, expressing the attitude to the law and legal phenomena that have regulatory in character and which includes know-ledge of legal phenomena and their evaluation from the point of view of fairness and justice, formed in the process of studying in the University.Results: this article analyzes different approaches to understanding the content and essence of the concept of legal consciousness of the legal profession. Define the types and structure of legal consciousness of future lawyers.

  9. CREENCIAS EN SALUD EN MUJERES UNIVERSITARIAS RELACIONADAS CON LA TOMA DE CITOLOGÍA VAGINAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Restrepo Forero

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación se orientó al estudio de la relación existente entre las variables psicosociales propuestas por el Modelo de Creencias en Salud y la realización de la citología vaginal por parte de una muestra de mujeres universitarias entre los 18 y 27 años. En la primera fase del estudio se construyó una batería de instrumentos con el fin de evaluar las diferentes variables de interés: sociodemográficas, psicosociales, de riesgo, y relacionadas con la conducta saludable; en la segunda fase se realizó un estudio descriptivo correlacional exploratorio con una muestra de 110 mujeres universitarias. Se observaron diferentes asociaciones entre las variables evaluadas y la realización de la citología vaginal, en donde las variables barreras percibidas, motivación para la salud y señales para la acción, mostraron asociaciones importantes con la realización y mantenimiento de dicha conducta saludable.

  10. Qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde de pessoas com diabetes mellitus tipo 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loisláyne Barros Leal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue evaluar la Calidad de Vida Relacionada a la Salud de personas con Diabetes Mellitus tipo 2. Investigación transversal, realizada con 100 diabéticos. La recolección de datos se llevó a cabo entre marzo y abril de 2012, en dos equipos de la Estrategia Salud de la Familia de Picos, PI, Brasil, a través de entrevista individual. Se aplicó formulario con variables socioeconómicas, clínicas y el Medical Outcomes Study 36 – Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36. El promedio entre los componentes del SF-36 osciló de 34,8 (Aspectos físicos a 72,0 (Salud mental. Hubo asociación estadísticamente significativa del dolor y la capacidad funcional con el sexo, así como de la capacidad funcional y los aspectos emocionales con la actividad física (p <0,05. En conclusión, los participantes presentaron mejor evaluación en la calidad de vida en las dimensiones que integran el componente mental.

  11. Geneletter: An Internet-based newsletter on the ethical, legal, and social implications of genetics. Final report to the Department of Energy [Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reilly, Philip; Wertz, Dorothy C.

    2001-05-01

    The GeneLetter (http://www.geneletter.org) is an Internet newsletter on ethical, legal, and social issues in genetics, designed for a wide and varied audience, some of whom may not be familiar with genetic science. It appears every two months, with a variety of long and short feature articles on ethics and on genetic disorders, a section on new federal and state legislation, an international section, a student corner, book and video reviews, a summary of genetics in the news, and a list of upcoming conferences. Feature articles have ventured into an area of wide general concern, behavioral genetics. The newsletter also has an interactive chatbox and the opportunity of more private communications with the editors via email. The purpose of the GeneLetter is to help fill a communication and knowledge gap on ethical, legal and social issues surrounding genetics.

  12. The contribution of ontologies to the creation of knowledge bases for the management of legal compliance in occupational health and safety

    OpenAIRE

    Vigneron, Jonathan; Guarnieri, Franck; Rallo, Jean-Marc

    2013-01-01

    Occupational health and safety (OHS) is at the heart of corporate policies and the increasing trend towards litigation has contributed to the inflated number of regulatory texts published each year. OHS professionals are therefore faced with the need to process a growing amount of data in order to remain in compliance. They train themselves in law, draw upon internal expertise (the company's legal department) or external consultants (advisory and enforcement agencies) and equip themselves wit...

  13. 基于法律风险损失的研究:CPA与客户之间的合作博弈%A Research Based on the Legal Risk Loss:The Cooperative Game between CPA and the Customer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张云; 张金凤

    2013-01-01

    CPA与客户之间的合作关系因法律风险进而影响到审计质量,基于法律风险损失的视角,对CPA与客户之间的合作博弈进行重复博弈分析。结果表明:在法律风险损失足够大的情况下,CPA与客户各自理性的选择应是相互再合作,即CPA履行职责,客户提供真实的信息,从而提高审计质量。因此,规避法律风险损失对提高审计质量有积极作用,对我国相关法律政策也具有一定的借鉴意义。%Between CPA and customer relations of cooperation for legal risk and affect the quality of the audit, based on the perspective of legal risk loss, repeated the game analysis of cooperative game between CPA and the customers. The results show that: in the legal risk loss is large enough, CPA customers and their rational choice should be mutual cooperation, namely CPA duties, provide truthful information, so as to improve the quality of audit. Therefore, to avoid legal risk has a positive ef-fect on improving audit quality, but also has certain reference significance to our country's relevant laws and policies.

  14. Security: a supranational legal asset

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Monteiro Guedes Valente

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of security as a manysided, multifunctional and multilevel regulation topology which requires its several actors to view legal assets from a polygonal perspective worthy of legal protection from local to global and from global to local space. The concept of security as a supranational legal asset requires criminal legislation which defines the principles of criminal policy and the intervention of criminal Law, barriers to security trends and to the attempt to ...

  15. Legal uncertainty and contractual innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Yaron Leitner

    2005-01-01

    Although innovative contracts are important for economic growth, when firms face uncertainty as to whether contracts will be enforced, they may choose not to innovate. Legal uncertainty can arise if a judge interprets the terms of a contract in a way that is antithetical to the intentions of the parties to the contract. Or sometimes a judge may understand the contract but overrule it for other reasons. How does legal uncertainty affect firms’ decisions to innovate? In “Legal Uncertainty and C...

  16. El sistema médico-legal y forense portugués The Portuguese medico-legal and forensic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Nuno Vieira

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Los primeros textos legales que contienen algunas normas relacionadas con las pericias médico-legales en Portugal se remontan al siglo XVI, pero no sería hasta el siglo XIX cuando aparecen los primeros servicios públicos y cuando surge la enseñanza de la medicina legal en la universidad como disciplina autónoma. Se crearon los primeros servicios médico-legales oficiales (morgues que existieron hasta 1918 cuando fueron suprimidas pasando a denominarse Institutos de Medicina Legal de Coimbra, Oporto y Lisboa. Posteriormente se unificaron en un único Instituto Nacional de Medicina Legal que tiene su sede en Coimbra e integra las tres delegaciones de él dependientes, localizadas en Oporto, Coimbra y Lisboa. En las Delegaciones existen 4 servicios técnicos periciales: Patología Forense, Clínica Forense, Toxicología Forense y Genética y Biología Forense. Así mismo existe una red de 31 Gabinetes Médico-Legales dispersos por el país con dependencia orgánica de los anteriores. En el aspecto formativo e investigador cabe mencionar que las Delegaciones funcionan íntimamente articuladas con las Facultades de Medicina del país. La disciplina de Medicina Legal es obligatoria en todas las licenciaturas de medicina y también en las Facultades de Derecho de todas las universidades públicas. En este ámbito de la enseñanza debe destacarse finalmente la existencia, desde 1918, de un postgrado específico en el ámbito de la medicina legal. Portugal dispone también del llamado Laboratorio de Policía Científica (LPC, en el ámbito de la policía judicial, perteneciendo a ésta y teniendo competencias solo en el ámbito de la investigación criminal.In Portugal, the first regulatory texts referring to medico- legal practice date back to the sixteenth century, but it was not until much later, in the nineteenth century, with the development of legal medicine as an independent university discipline, that the first medico-legal public services

  17. [Legal medicine and dentistry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Attilio, M; Centobeni, R; D'Arcangelo, C

    1996-04-01

    With reference to cases of American dentists sued for "malpractice" during the 80s, the authors summarise the causes why, initially, the American lawyers found it difficult to plead on behalf of their clients. Therefore, the authors suggest a number of measures in order to reduce the probability of being sued by patients. In particular, they focus attention on:--the duty to treat patients, with reference to experimentation on humans within the context of scientific research and citing the Declaration of Helsinki;--informed consent, with particular emphasis on the need to inform the patient regarding all aspects of treatment, including any risks or presumed complications that might arise during and after treatment;--professional liability, drawing a distinction between moral responsibility (regulated by the Code of Professional Practice) and legal liability (involving the legal field). Lastly, the authors underline the need to perfect and increase the awareness of the "management" risk of a dental practice, drawing special attention to the need to keep precise records on patients receiving treatment: radiographical and photographical examination, remote and recent medical history, the current state of teeth and gums, the presence of clicks and/or crepitus on ATM, cephalea, spontaneous and/or provoked pain involving masticatory and cervical muscles, obtaining the informed consent of the patient. PMID:8926985

  18. Complicações locais na pele, relacionadas à aplicação de insulina Complicaciones locales en la piel relacionadas a la aplicación de insulina Skin site complications related to insulin application

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Gasparelli Camata

    2003-01-01

    A administração de insulina constitui um dos aspectos importantes na educação em diabetes. Este estudo enfoca as complicações locais na pele, relacionadas à aplicação de insulina. Foram entrevistados 51 portadores de diabetes mellitus, em uma instituição particular, no interior do Estado de São Paulo. Os resultados apontam que o hematoma foi a complicação mais freqüente e está relacionada, principalmente, à técnica incorreta de aplicação. Conclui-se que os profissionais de saúde precisam traç...

  19. Breast cancer. Selected legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynstra, N A

    1994-07-01

    Several legal and ethical issues may arise during the course of screening for and diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. Among the most active legal areas are reimbursement for therapies deemed experimental by certain insurance companies, such as high dose chemotherapy/autologous bone marrow transplantation (HDCT/ABMT) and off-label drug use; these reimbursement issues are discussed. Legal issues in mammography screening and insurance coverage and legal issues relative to informed consent in breast cancer treatment also are discussed. PMID:8004625

  20. Semi-legal family life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Mikkel

    2012-01-01

    , they are entitled to family reunification. In this article, I introduce the concept of semi-legality to describe the situation whereby Pakistani transnational couples commute on a regular basis between their legal residences in Sweden and their places of work or networks of friends and family in Denmark....... The married couples subjected to this mobile lifestyle are always in a process of becoming illegal, which is the consequence of ‘overstaying’ in Denmark or ‘understaying’ in Sweden. Besides its legal aspects, a semi-legal status also has significant moral implications that not only restructure marriage...

  1. Legality Principle of Crimes and Punishments in Iranian Legal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibzadeh, Mohammad Ja'far

    2006-01-01

    The Principle of legality of crimes and punishments (nullum crimen, nulla poena sine lege) refers to the fact that an act is not considered a crime and deserves no punishment, unless the Legislator determines and announces the criminal title and its penalty before. The legality principle protects individual security by ensuring basic individual…

  2. The Influence of Lawyers, Legal Language and Legal Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharf, James C.

    1976-01-01

    Attempts to summarize the impact that lawyers, legal language and legal thinking have had on the contemporary practice of industrial psychology; clarifies what for an increasing number of psychologists has become the very trying experience of a Title VII court procedding. (Author/RK)

  3. Calidad de vida relacionada con la salud en la enfermedad de Parkinson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Cano-de la Cuerda

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La enfermedad de Parkinson (EP es un trastorno neurológico, discapacitante y progresivo caracterizado por múltiples síntomas motores y no motores que contribuyen al deterioro en la calidad de vida del paciente. La diversidad de síntomas asociados a la enfermedad y su manejo afectan a la funcionalidad y las expectativas del individuo sobre su bienestar físico, social y mental, que son los componentes fundamentales de la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud (CVRS. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue identificar las principales dimensiones de la CVRS afectadas en una población con EP con un grado de afectación leve-moderado. Treinta y seis pacientes con EP completaron este estudio transversal. Se emplearon el estadio de Hoehn y Yarh, el Unified Parkinson's Disease Rate Scale, la escala de actividades de la vida diaria de Schwab y England y el Test Get Up & Go. La calidad de vida fue valorada con el EuroQoL-5D y con el cuestionario Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire-39 items. Las dimensiones del PDQ-39, excepto el dominio PDQ-39 Dolor, así como el cuestionario EuroQoL-5D se correlacionaron de manera significativa con la gravedad de la enfermedad. La CVRS se correlacionó con el estado funcional de los pacientes. Únicamente el dominio PDQ-39 Dolor se correlacionó con el riesgo de caídas. Nuestros resultados sugieren que la CVRS de los pacientes con EP, en un estado leve-moderado de afectación, está muy influenciada por la gravedad de la enfermedad y el estado funcional.

  4. Pautas, creencias y prácticas de crianza relacionadas con el castigo y su transmisión generacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Pulido

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación tuvo como objetivo describir las pautas, creencias y prácticas de crianza relacionadas con el castigo y su transmisión generacional en cuatro familias de nivel socioeconómico bajo de la ciudad de Bogotá. Utilizamos entrevistas semiestructuradas, historias de vida, observaciones de campo, y el Software Atlas.ti para analizar los resultados. Encontramos que las pautas de crianza relacionadas con el castigo están enmarcadas en el rol del abuelo o de la abuela como cuidador o cuidadora entre semana, en el del padre o madre como cuidador o cuidadora de fin de semana, y en el del niño o niña como el sujeto travieso. Las creencias se establecen en torno al niño o niña como fuerte y frágil, y al castigo como formador, ambivalente, maltratante y temido.

  5. Pautas, creencias y prácticas de crianza relacionadas con el castigo y su transmisión generacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlyn Peña

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación tuvo como objetivo describir las pautas, creencias y prácticas de crianza relacionadas con el castigo y su transmisión generacional en cuatro familias de nivel socioeconómico bajo de la ciudad de Bogotá. Utilizamos entrevistas semiestructuradas, historias de vida, observaciones de campo, y el Software Atlas.ti para analizar los resultados. Encontramos que las pautas de crianza relacionadas con el castigo están enmarcadas en el rol del abuelo o de la abuela como cuidador o cuidadora entre semana, en el del padre o madre como cuidador o cuidadora de fin de semana, y en el del niño o niña como el sujeto travieso. Las creencias se establecen en torno al niño o niña como fuerte y frágil, y al castigo como formador, ambivalente, maltratante y temido.

  6. AGILE: a methodology for Advanced Governance of Information services through Legal Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Boer; G. Sileno

    2013-01-01

    To address agility in public administration, the Agile project developed a reference knowledge acquisition infrastructure for legal knowledge, based on a dynamic and design-oriented conceptualization of the legal system. The main objective of the project was to reframe legal knowledge as a knowledge

  7. Legal and actual central bank independence

    OpenAIRE

    Artha, I.K.D.S.; J. de Haan

    2010-01-01

    Indicators of central bank independence (CBI) based on the interpretation central bank laws in place may not capture the actual independence of the central bank. This paper develops an indicator of actual independence of the Bank Indonesia (BI), the central bank of Indonesia, for the period 1953-2008 and compares it with a new legal CBI indicator based on Cukierman (1992). The indicator of actual independence captures institutional and economic factors that affect CBI. We find that before 199...

  8. Lesão de nervo cutâneo antebraquial lateral relacionada à venipuntura: o que saber?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. Ramos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Justificativa e objetivos: a venipuntura é um dos procedimentos mais comuns na prática anestésica cotidiana. Embora geralmente inócuas, lesões de nervos periféricos com sequelas graves foram descritas após venipuntura. Apresentamos um caso de lesão de nervo cutâneo antebraquial lateral relacionada à venipuntura, juntamente com as informações de diagnóstico e prognóstico essenciais para a prática cotidiana. Relato de caso: paciente do sexo masculino, 27 anos, submetido à venipuntura de fossa antecubital direita, com uma agulha de calibre 20, para avaliação metabólica de rotina. O paciente sofreu uma dor aguda, tipo choque elétrico, que percorreu a face lateral do antebraço desde a fossa antecubital proximal até o pulso lateral direito e a base do polegar direito. Após 24 horas, o paciente ainda sentia a dor semelhante a choque elétrico que foi classificada como 8/10 no braço distal lateral direito, no pulso lateral direito e na base do polegar, acompanhada de parestesia. Fizemos uma revisão da literatura e o paciente recebeu orientação sobre os resultados publicados a respeito desse tipo de lesão. Durante o acompanhamento, o paciente relatou que a disestesia diminuiu cerca de 3-4 semanas após a lesão inicial e que não restou déficit neurológico. Conclusões: lesões de nervos periféricos foram descritas pós-venipuntura, mas a literatura é limitada. Os nervos da fossa antecubital estão classicamente localizados em um plano logo abaixo - e muito próximos - das veias, o que os torna susceptíveis a lesões durante a flebotomia; além disso, sabe-se que existe uma extensa variação anatômica, o que sugere que mesmo uma venipuntura satisfatória não traumática pode danificar diretamente esses nervos. O anestesiologista deve estar ciente dessa possível complicação e também do diagnóstico e prognóstico para orientar os pacientes de forma adequada, caso essa complicação ocorra.

  9. Designing a controlled natural language for the representation of legal norms

    OpenAIRE

    Höfler, Stefan; Bünzli, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    Controlled Legal German (CLG) is a controlled natural language being developed for the representation of legal norms contained in Swiss statutes and regulations. This paper discusses the main design requirements CLG faces and the strategies it applies to meet them. CLG aims at providing representations for legal norms that are both formal and can be easily understood and veried by legal experts. It must combine an unambiguous semantics based on FOL and deontic concepts with close syntactic pr...

  10. Confidence in social world as a factor of legal consciousness in teenagers

    OpenAIRE

    Dostovalov S.G.

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with processes of legal awareness formation in teens. A developed personal sense of legal awareness is defined as a necessary condition for the formation of civil society. We demonstrate the relationship between personal legal awareness and the phenomenon of trust, and show the significance of studying trust in adolescents. Based on the study results, we determine the role of trust in social world as one of the major factors influencing the formation of the legal awareness i...

  11. MORTALIDADE E RISCOS ASSOCIADOS A INFECÇÃO RELACIONADA À ASSISTÊNCIA À SAÚDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Sena Souza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La infección relacionada con la atención sanitaria es una de las principales causas de morbimortalidad entre los pacientes hospitalizados. El objetivo de este estudio epidemiológico fue determinar la mortalidad y los riesgos asociados con el fallecimiento de pacientes adultos con la infección relacionada con la atención sanitaria ingresados en un hospital universitario en el periodo de un año. Los datos de los pacientes se obtuvieron de registros de notificación de infecciones. La tasa de mortalidad asociada con las infecciones fue del 38,4%, y fueron clasificados como un factor que contribuye en el 87,1% de las muertes. La asociación de la infección relacionada con la atención sanitaria con el fallecimiento fue estadísticamente significativa entre pacientes clínicos (41,3%, que presentaron comorbilidad asociadas a el diagnóstico (55,8%, con infección cardiovascular (62,2%, neumonía (48,9%, que desarrollaron sepsis (69,0%, colonizados (45,2% o infectados (44,7% por microorganismos multirresistentes. Se concluyó que las infecciones contribuyeron a la muerte de la mayoría de los pacientes.

  12. Legal Citation at a Crossroads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bast, Carol; Harrell, Susan W.

    2004-01-01

    Legal citation, seemingly unchanged for years, has approached a crossroads. The year 2003 marked the publication of the second edition of the "ALWD Citation Manual: A Professional System of Citation." This new citation manual may soon be preferred over "The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation" as the primary reference in legal writing classes…

  13. Legal risk management in shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siig, Kristina

    The book discusses the most typical legal challenges met in the chartering, broker, agent or port management part of the shipping industry. It discusses these issues in both English and Scandinavian law and gives indications on how to best ensure your legal risk management in these parts...

  14. Studying Legal Cultures and Encounters?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the cultural and other turns in relation to legal culture and situates Western legal culture in context. It deals with concepts and their relations to trends and fashions and introduces methodological reflections such as use of interdisciplinary methods, personal experience...... and looks at the overlapping roles of authors as activists, teachers, communicators etc....

  15. Legal Language, on the Fly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Peter

    2006-01-01

    US federal, state, and municipal courts are facing a severe shortage of qualified interpreters as the non-English-speaking population in the country soars. Virginia Benmaman, a professor of Hispanic studies and legal interpretation advocate, runs a bilingual legal interpretation program at the College of Charleston that helps students tackle the…

  16. Legal Quality, Inequality, and Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2004-01-01

    Previous findings suggest that income inequality leads to lower legal quality. This paper argues that voters' tolerance of inequality exerts an additional influence. Empirical findings suggest that inequality leads to lower legal quality due to its effect on trust while the tolerance of inequality...

  17. Legal Quality, Inequality, and Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    Previous findings suggest that income inequality leads to lower legal quality. This paper argues that voters' tolerance of inequality exerts an additional influence. Empirical findings suggest that inequality leads to lower legal quality due to its effect on trust while the tolerance of inequality...

  18. TUBERCULOSIS: MEDICO-LEGAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Vetrugno

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is a diffusive infectious disease whose typical behavior differentiates it from other infectious diseases spread by human-to-human transmission (flu, chicken pox, cholera, etc. which follow a classically epidemic pattern. Indeed, in the presence of a known source of Koch bacilli capable of spreading them by air, not all exposed individuals inhale the bacteria, not all those who inhale them absorb them, not all those who absorb them are unable to eliminate them, not all who are able to eliminate them do so using delayed hypersensitivity, not all those who react with delayed hypersensitivity suffer lasting tissue damage (among other things, minor, not all who suffer tissue damage have anatomical sequelae, not all those who have anatomical sequelae, however minimal, become carriers of bacilli in the latent period. The vast majority (90-95% of the latter – which are in any case a portion, not the totality of those exposed – remain asymptomatic throughout their lives and never develop active tuberculosis. Based on these biological characteristics and the legal concepts of “epidemic” and “disease,” it becomes highly problematic, if not impossible, to assert both that tuberculosis can cause events of sufficient magnitude to be associated with the crime of “epidemic,” and that the mere diagnosis of a latent tuberculosis infection is sufficient to assume the presence of an illness legally prosecutable in criminal proceedings or a disability prosecutable in civil proceedings. Further, clinically apparent tuberculosis is a temporarily—in some cases permanently—disabling condition, and in certain work environments, even with the difficulties caused by the lack of available effective diagnostic tools and the insidious behavior of the disease in the early stages, it appears appropriate to engage in targeted monitoring, also for the early identification of persons who may become ill.

  19. Tuberculosis: medico-legal aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetrugno, G; De-Giorgio, F; D'Alessandro, F; Scafetta, I; Berloco, F; Buonsenso, D; Abbate, F; Scalise, G; Pascali, V L; Valentini, P

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a diffusive infectious disease whose typical behaviour differentiates it from other infectious diseases spread by human-to-human transmission (flu, chicken pox, cholera, etc.) that follow a classic epidemic pattern. Indeed, in the presence of a known source of Koch bacilli that is capable of spreading the bacteria by air, not all exposed individuals inhale the bacteria, not all those who inhale them absorb them, not all those who absorb the bacteria are unable to eliminate them, not all who are able to eliminate them do so using delayed hypersensitivity, not all those who react with delayed hypersensitivity suffer lasting tissue damage (among other things, minor), not all who suffer tissue damage have anatomical sequelae, and not all those who have anatomical sequelae, however minimal, become carriers of bacilli in the latent period. The vast majority (90-95%) of the latter - which are in any case a portion, not the totality of those exposed - remain asymptomatic throughout their lives and never develop active tuberculosis. Based on these biological characteristics and the legal concepts of "epidemic" and "disease," it becomes highly problematic, if not impossible, to assert both that tuberculosis can cause events of sufficient magnitude to be associated with the crime of "epidemic," and that the mere diagnosis of a latent tuberculosis infection is sufficient to assume the presence of an illness legally prosecutable in criminal proceedings or a disability prosecutable in civil proceedings. Furthermore, clinically apparent tuberculosis is a temporarily-and in some cases permanently-disabling condition, and in certain work environments, even with the difficulties caused by the lack of available effective diagnostic tools and the insidious behaviour of the disease in the early stages, targeted monitoring to identify other persons who may become ill is appropriate. PMID:24804006

  20. Concept Of The Legal System Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr E. Zhigockiy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present article an attempt to provide a theoretical analysis of the legal system, and to consider the law as one of the most complicated social phenomena was made. Author notes, that the contradictions prevailing in public practice are unpredictable. Doctrines of law are varied in their approaches, scores and results, but based on a common foundation: the law for people always acted as a certain order in a society, where the differences begin. Author draws attention to the fact, that the state and the law ensure the order in society by removing contradictions and achieving social compromises. The legal reality is divided into certain groups of legal systems, there is a classification. If we are relying on the identification of groups of the same order, there is the theoretical generality as the level of the theory of law on the legal systems basis. Analysis of the political and legal systems will draw attention to the democratic and totalitarian regimes. Totalitarian regimes are characterized by law as means of violence, the means of coercion and suppression. The majority of democratic regimes are characterized by the use of law as a means of social harmony and social compromise. In conclusion, author underlines, that the theory of law can be made not only at the level of each country. This level is a necessary basis for the theory, but not its completion. Based on the individual characteristics of each country's law, that is descended from the general and particular to an individual, the theory can and should continue to make the way back from the individual to the particular and the general.

  1. Legality of Tawarruq in Islamic Finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Yuhanis Bt Ismon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective – Islamic finance has been established as an alternative to the conventional banking system which is made up component not permitted under Shariah. Tawarruq is one of the Islamic finance products which commonly used in Islamic banks. This research assesses two important areas which include the principle of Tawarruq in Fiqh perspective and the practical aspect of such principle in Islamic banks in Malaysia.Method – The method used for this research is comparative analysis.Result – This research begins to explore the different views of the proponent and opponents toward the legality of Tawarruq in Fiqh . Instead of considering the basic condition of the valid sale, the other aspect has to be pondered by the contemporary scholars to render Tawarruq is valid sale according to Shariah. The legality of Tawarruq has been debate by some scholars. Due to that, there are different resolution and rulings from Islamic countries on legality of of Tawarruq . In the practical aspect, Tawarruq has been used in Malaysia by Bursa Malaysia Suq Al Sila' as a trading platform and it uses Crude Palm Oil (CPO as the commodity in Tawarruq transaction. While, in the Middle East, it uses London Metal Exchange (LME in dealing with commodity transaction through Tawarruq principle.Conclusion – Based on the legal argument on the permissibility of Tawarruq , it can be summarized that Tawarruq is permissible but subject to certain condition. Provided that genuine Tawarruq is permissible than organized Tawarruq in Tawarruq transaction.Keywords: Tawarruq, Murabahah

  2. End of FY10 report - used fuel disposition technical bases and lessons learned : legal and regulatory framework for high-level waste disposition in the United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiner, Ruth F.; Blink, James A. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA); Rechard, Robert Paul; Perry, Frank (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Jenkins-Smith, Hank C. (University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK); Carter, Joe (Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, Aiken, SC); Nutt, Mark (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Cotton, Tom (Complex Systems Group, Washington DC)

    2010-09-01

    This report examines the current policy, legal, and regulatory framework pertaining to used nuclear fuel and high level waste management in the United States. The goal is to identify potential changes that if made could add flexibility and possibly improve the chances of successfully implementing technical aspects of a nuclear waste policy. Experience suggests that the regulatory framework should be established prior to initiating future repository development. Concerning specifics of the regulatory framework, reasonable expectation as the standard of proof was successfully implemented and could be retained in the future; yet, the current classification system for radioactive waste, including hazardous constituents, warrants reexamination. Whether or not consideration of multiple sites are considered simultaneously in the future, inclusion of mechanisms such as deliberate use of performance assessment to manage site characterization would be wise. Because of experience gained here and abroad, diversity of geologic media is not particularly necessary as a criterion in site selection guidelines for multiple sites. Stepwise development of the repository program that includes flexibility also warrants serious consideration. Furthermore, integration of the waste management system from storage, transportation, and disposition, should be examined and would be facilitated by integration of the legal and regulatory framework. Finally, in order to enhance acceptability of future repository development, the national policy should be cognizant of those policy and technical attributes that enhance initial acceptance, and those policy and technical attributes that maintain and broaden credibility.

  3. Legal Language in Intercultural Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Janulevičienė

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the considerable role of legal translation in intercultural communication. Effective intercultural communication requires sufficient language skills and also extensive knowledge of the cultures involved, which encompass official social behaviour norms, enshrined in the corresponding legal systems. The basic legal terms often pose substantial difficulties even for experienced translators and, hence, to communication, because these terms nominate concepts that are inherently linked with culture, moral values and legal tradition of a given country. In intercultural communication the most widely used legal English is permeated by Anglo-Saxon legal system and concepts which have little or no equivalents in Romano-Germanic or other continental law countries. The authors present a comparative analysis of the translation strategies employed by the compilers of two main English-Lithuanian law dictionaries (V. Bitinaitė „Mokomasis anglų-lietuvių kalbų teisės terminų žodynas“ and O. Armalytė, L. Pažūsis. „Anglų-lietuvių kalbų teisės žodynas“ in translation of the English-Welsh law terms defining abstract common law terms, some specific English-Welsh legal professions and the English-Welsh court names. The findings of the analysis reveal the difficulties which the dictionary compilers have to cope with when translating culture-bound terms and the strategies chosen by them for problematic translations. The research also highlights the role of the legal language translator as the key figure in facilitating different cultural background comprehension of the legal terms and, what is even more important, specific aspects of legal systems; the latter being necessary for efficacious intercultural cooperation.

  4. Factores asociados a calidad de vida relacionada con la salud de pacientes trasplantados de riñón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Pérez Blancas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El Trasplante Renal es la terapia renal sustitutiva que proporciona mayores beneficios a los pacientes con Insuficiencia Renal Crónica Terminal. Aún así, el paciente que ha recibido un injerto renal, sigue siendo un enfermo crónico que no tiene resueltos sus problemas de salud y cuya calidad de vida está asociada con diferentes factores que pueden influir en la misma. Objetivo: Conocer la producción científica sobre la CVRS del paciente TR. Metodología: Se realizó una búsqueda en las bases de datos de Pubmed, Science Direct, Google Académico, Scielo y Scopus. Se incluyeron artículos científicos escritos en inglés y español. Posteriormente se analizaron los artículos que trataban sobre la calidad de vida en el paciente trasplantado renal, excluyendo aquellos artículos que no presentaban resultados o no aportaban suficientes datos y aquellos que tenían como objeto de estudio pacientes pediátricos. Resultados: Se han incluido en esta revisión 42 artículos publicados entre el año 2000 y 2015. La mayoría de los estudios son trasversales y observacionales descriptivos y el Short Form-36 Health Survey es el instrumento más usado. Las variables estudiadas han sido género, edad, estado civil, nivel de estudios, datos bioquímicos, empleo, ingresos, tratamiento inmunosupresor, problemas psicológicos, diagnóstico principal, tiempo post TR, tiempo en diálisis, trasplante vivo vs cadáver y comorbilidades. Los datos que han mostrado correlación significativa sobre CVRS han sido género, estado civil, ingresos, nivel de estudios, datos bioquímicos, tratamiento, tiempo en diálisis y comorbilidades. Conclusiones: A la vista de estos resultados podemos afirmar que los factores que influyen de manera positiva sobre la CVRS son el sexo masculino, estar casado o tener pareja, alto nivel de estudios, niveles elevados de hemoglobina y hematocrito, y trasplante renal procedente de donante vivo. El TR presenta mejor CVRS

  5. COMPARATIVE LEGAL STUDIES: ROMANO-GERMANIC LEGAL SYSTEMS IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC STATES

    OpenAIRE

    Dmitry A. Verkhoturov; Andrey A. Verkhoturov

    2013-01-01

    The article analyzes the differences in the national legal doctrines of the Asia-Pacific countries included in the Romano-Germanic legal family of legal systems. The article shows that various Pacific Rim countries of the same legal family have substantial differences between national legal systems. The article also identifies main trends of comparative legal studies development in these countries.

  6. Embarazo y calidad de vida relacionada con la salud: Estudio transversal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Ramírez Vélez

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES-CO X-NONE X-NONE Objetivo: Evaluar e identificar los factores determinantes de la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud (CVRS durante el embarazo.Métodos: Estudio descriptivo exploratorio en 64 gestantes nulíparas. Las participantes completaron el cuestionario de CVRS SF-12v2 (versión colombiana estándar del Medical Outcome Study Short-Form Health Survey-SF12-, y encuesta de factores determinantes sociodemográficos (edad, procedencia, nivel de educación, estado civil y situación laboral durante el segundo trimestre del embarazo.Resultados: La edad media de las participantes fue 19.1±2.7 años y la edad gestacional 17.6 ±3.4 semanas. Las puntuaciones más altas de la CVRS se presentaron en los dominios de vitalidad (56±11, seguido de salud mental (51±10 y salud general (50±11. Por otra parte, la puntuación de CVRS más baja fue acusada en los dominios rol emocional (18±5 y rol físico (25±4. Un mayor nivel socioeconómico se correlacionó significativamente con mejor puntuación en el Cuestionario de Salud SF-12v2 en los dominios función física, salud general, función social, rol emocional y salud mental.Estar casada o en unión libre se correlacionó significativamente con todos los dominios del SF-12v2, con excepción del dominio dolor corporal.Conclusiones: Si bien se ha incluido una evaluación exhaustiva de las variables socioeconómicas necesarias para evaluar e identificar los factores determinantes en la CVRS durante el embarazo, se necesitan más estudios que puedan guiar las expectativas de las mujeres, sus proveedores de atención de salud y políticas públicas.

  7. DROGAS RELACIONADAS A CASOS DE INTOXICAÇÕES EM CÃES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Almeida ABREU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: As intoxicações provocadas por drogas ocorrem com frequência em animais de companhia e, muitas das vezes estão relacionadas a medicamentos de uso humano. Metodologia e objetivo: trata-se de um estudo retrospectivo referente aos casos de intoxicações provocadas por drogas em cães atendidos em duas Clinicas Veterinárias no município de Itaperuna /RJ com o objetivo de avaliar a incidência de intoxicação em animais bem como o perfil dos animais acometidos quanto ao sexo e idade e as drogas mais frequentemente envolvidas. Resultados: no período avaliado (2010 a 2012 foram atendidos no total 1.963 cães, dentre os quais 270 receberam o diagnóstico de intoxicação provocada por fármacos (13,75% dos animais atendidos e 1.693 receberam outros diagnósticos (86,25% dos cães atendidos. Dentre os animais intoxicados, 51,85% eram fêmeas e 48,15% machos. A média de idade no ano de 2010, somando-se machos e fêmeas, foi de 2,6 anos enquanto que no ano de 2011 foi 2,1 anos e em 2012 foi de 3,2 anos. Os fármacos relacionados aos casos de intoxicação foram os Organofosforados (32,96%, seguidos pelo grupo químico das Amidinas (27,41%, pelos Carbamatos (22,59%, pelos Piretróides (15,19%, pelas Avermectinas (1,48% e pelas Tetraciclinas (0,37%. Conclusões: os quadros de intoxicação em cães são mais frequentes em fêmeas, em animais com idade entre dois e três anos, sendo os agrotóxicos os fármacos mais envolvidos, em especial os organofosforados. Os resultados implicam na necessidade de orientação adequada aos proprietários quanto ao uso de produtos ectoparasiticidas.

  8. Legal Aspects of Radioactive Waste Management: Relevant International Legal Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The responsible use of nuclear technology requires the safe and environmentally sound management of radioactive waste, for which countries need to have stringent technical, administrative and legal measures in place. The legal aspects of radioactive waste management can be found in a wide variety of legally binding and non-binding international instruments. This overview focuses on the most relevant ones, in particular those on nuclear safety, security, safeguards and civil liability for nuclear damage. It also identifies relevant regional instruments concerning environmental matters, in particular, with regard to strategic environmental assessments (SEAs), environmental impact assessments (EIAs), public access to information and participation in decision-making, as well as access to justice

  9. Empirical Legal Research: The Gap between Facts and Values and Legal Academic Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans L. Leeuw

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available While traditional legal scholarship is under pressure and debates are taking place on the aims and methods of the academic study of law, at the same time empirical legal research is blossoming if not booming. The more empirical legal research is a growth industry, the more important it is to understand and discuss epistemological, methodological and translational problems of this field of study. This paper focuses on problems of a translational character, i.e. how to bring empirical evidence to the fore, in such a way that it can be understood and used by lawyers, legislators and regulators. And how to deal with the gap between facts (‘evidence’ and values, also known as the fact-value dichotomy. Our perspective is what students of law, including PhD candidates and legal practitioners (in training, need to know about this problem and how to address it. The paper summarizes several approaches to this gap problem, based on Giesen (2015 and continues with a critical analysis of his due process approach. Our analysis is that the gap problem continues to exist despite Giesen’s suggestions. Therefore four other approaches are put forward, two from the field of evaluation studies, one from argumentational analysis and one from empirically informed ethics. Finally, the paper discusses the relevance of these approaches for the legal curriculum.

  10. The Relationship between the Law, Legal Norm, Legal Order and Normativity in Postmodern Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona DUMINICĂ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that the existence of people in society cannot happen at random, but be organized. In one way or another, all human activities are generally subject to the law, meaning that they cannot unfold in an unorganized manner or outside of a certain social order without being subject to rules and principles promoted either by the group or by society. Based on these considerations, this article aims to discuss the particularities of the relationship between law, legal norms, order legal and normativity in postmodern society.

  11. A Software Tool for Legal Drafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Gorín

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Although many attempts at automated aids for legal drafting have been made, they were based on the construction of a new tool, completely from scratch. This is at least curious, considering that a strong parallelism can be established between a normative document and a software specification: both describe what an entity should or should not do, can or cannot do. In this article we compare normative documents and software specifications to find out their similarities and differences. The comparison shows that there are distinctive particularities, but they are restricted to a very specific subclass of normative propositions. The rest, we postulate, can be dealt with software tools. For such an enterprise the FormaLex tool set was devised: an LTL-based language and companion tools that utilize model checking to find out normative incoherences in regulations, contracts and other legal documents. A feature-rich case study is analyzed with the presented tools.

  12. A Software Tool for Legal Drafting

    CERN Document Server

    Gorín, Daniel; Schapachnik, Fernando; 10.4204/EPTCS.68.7

    2011-01-01

    Although many attempts at automated aids for legal drafting have been made, they were based on the construction of a new tool, completely from scratch. This is at least curious, considering that a strong parallelism can be established between a normative document and a software specification: both describe what an entity should or should not do, can or cannot do. In this article we compare normative documents and software specifications to find out their similarities and differences. The comparison shows that there are distinctive particularities, but they are restricted to a very specific subclass of normative propositions. The rest, we postulate, can be dealt with software tools. For such an enterprise the \\FormaLex tool set was devised: an LTL-based language and companion tools that utilize model checking to find out normative incoherences in regulations, contracts and other legal documents. A feature-rich case study is analyzed with the presented tools.

  13. preliminary study of American legal culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周杨

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is a preliminary study of American legal culture. Nowadays more and more scholars see the importance of legal culture and do studies on it. The author selects a number of American legal TV plays and movies; analyzes their topics, main characters, and plots; then finds out why United States adopt the legal system; what kind of legal culture it has; and how the legal culture is reflected in those movies and TV plays. The author hopes this thesis can work not only as an insight into the American legal culture, but also a source of reference for china to improve its legal system.

  14. Documents and legal texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section treats of the following Documents and legal texts: 1 - Canada: Nuclear Liability and Compensation Act (An Act respecting civil liability and compensation for damage in case of a nuclear incident, repealing the Nuclear Liability Act and making consequential amendments to other acts); 2 - Japan: Act on Compensation for Nuclear Damage (The purpose of this act is to protect persons suffering from nuclear damage and to contribute to the sound development of the nuclear industry by establishing a basic system regarding compensation in case of nuclear damage caused by reactor operation etc.); Act on Indemnity Agreements for Compensation of Nuclear Damage; 3 - Slovak Republic: Act on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage and on its Financial Coverage and on Changes and Amendments to Certain Laws (This Act regulates: a) The civil liability for nuclear damage incurred in the causation of a nuclear incident, b) The scope of powers of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (hereinafter only as the 'Authority') in relation to the application of this Act, c) The competence of the National Bank of Slovakia in relation to the supervised financial market entities in the financial coverage of liability for nuclear damage; and d) The penalties for violation of this Act)

  15. The legal dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karsten

    Plain language changes in the municipality of Stevns In 2014 the municipality of Stevns in Denmark carried out a pilot project to initiate a plain language initiative covering the entire municipality. The pilot project involved a small section of Social Services and dealt with the reformulation o...... language changes aimed at. What to learn from the presentation: •How to design a plain language project •How to include legal advice in a plain language project •How to design a study of plain language changes......Plain language changes in the municipality of Stevns In 2014 the municipality of Stevns in Denmark carried out a pilot project to initiate a plain language initiative covering the entire municipality. The pilot project involved a small section of Social Services and dealt with the reformulation...... of a series of letters. The group consisted of the project leader, the section’s head, and five staff members. The staff members went through the letters that they send out to citizens in order to edit them to plain language principles. I followed the process from beginning to end by observing meetings...

  16. Legalized abortion in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, T M

    1967-10-01

    The enactment of the Eugenic Protection Act in Japan was followed by many changes. The population explosion was stemmed, the birth rate was halved, and while the marriage rate remained steady the divorce rate declined. The annual total of abortions increased until 1955 and then slowly declined. The highest incidence of abortions in families is in the 30 to 34 age group when there are four children in the family. As elsewhere abortion in advanced stages of pregnancy is associated with high morbidity and mortality. There is little consensus as to the number of criminal abortions. Reasons for criminal abortions can be found in the legal restrictions concerning abortion: Licensing of the abortionist, certification of hospitals, taxation of operations and the requirement that abortion be reported. Other factors are price competition and the patient's desire for secrecy. Contraception is relatively ineffective as a birth control method in Japan. Oral contraceptives are not yet government approved. In 1958 alone 1.1 per cent of married women were sterilized and the incidence of sterilization was increasing. PMID:6062283

  17. Access to legal abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    Countries are grouped by the nature and extent of access to legal abortion. The categories include abortion on demand, for social reasons, for health reasons, for rape or incest or to save a mother's life, and only to save a mother's life. Abortion on demand is available for about 40% of the world's population and may have restrictions, such as parental consent or approval of state committees or physicians. There are 22 countries in Europe, 12 in the former Soviet Union, four in Asia, four in the Americas, one in the Middle East (Turkey), and one in Africa (Tunisia) which provide access to early abortion on demand. Abortion for social and economic reasons is available to 21% of the world's population in five countries in Asia, three in Europe (Great Britain, Finland, and Hungary), and one in Africa (Zambia). Abortion for health reasons is available to 16% of the world's population located in 21 countries in Africa, eight in the Americas, seven in Asia, five in Europe, and four in the Middle East. Laws governing about 5% of the world's population permit abortion only in the case of rape, incest, or when a mother's life is in danger (Brazil, Mexico, and Sudan). 18% of the world's population is covered by laws which permit an abortion only when a mother's life is in danger; this includes 19 countries in Africa, 11 in the Americas, nine in Asia, seven in the Middle East, and one in Europe (Ireland). PMID:12287145

  18. What are the boundaries of legal guardianship in Alzheimer’s disease? An evidence-based update in the context of the Brazilian Civil Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe K. Sudo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Civil Code, which came into force in 2002, established a functional criterion for guardianship proceedings and introduced the concept of “limited guardianship,” applied to cases in which incapacity to exercise civil rights is partial. With population aging and the growth in the number of older people with cognitive impairments, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD, the need to invoke legal remedies against elder abuse increased; however, difficulties in assessing capacity still lead to a majority of decisions in favor of plenary guardianship. The present article compiled data on capacity in AD subjects. The varying degrees of decision-making impairment at different stages of AD might be compatible with limited guardianship in milder cases of the disease.

  19. Attitudes to legalizing cannabis use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jenny; van Ours, Jan C; Grossman, Michael

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate the relationship between cannabis use and attitudes to legalizing the use of cannabis. Predictions from theory provide a means of learning about the roles of information, self interest and regret in explaining differences in attitudes to legalization between those who currently use, those who have used in the past and those who have never used. Our empirical investigation suggests that users have a greater awareness of cannabis not being as harmful as abstainers think it is. This may explain why individuals are more inclined to be in favor of legalizing cannabis once they have used it themselves. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27037958

  20. Legal Considerations for Electronic Health Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostofi, Sherry; Hoffman, Andrew L

    2015-05-01

    Electronic health record (EHR) solutions provide many potential benefits for dental practices, whether those programs run internally on a dental practice's computers or are cloud-based solutions. However, these programs also create new risks for a dental practice, which may be mitigated through due diligence and adequate contractual provisions to ensure protection for dentists. This article addresses the legal considerations associated with a dentist entering into a service contract with an EHR vendor. PMID:26798899

  1. Legal Dilemmas in Fighting Asymmetrical Conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pnina Sharvit Baruch

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available What legal rules apply to armed confrontations against non-state elements in areas populated by civilians? What rules apply when the enemy does not honor the basic laws of warfare - does not distinguish itself from the local population, and even uses it for shelter and as a base of operations? This essay, which presents my position on the issue, refers to such confrontations as "asymmetrical conflicts."

  2. IT Security Standards and Legal Metrology - Transfer and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, F.; Hartmann, V.; Grottker, U.; Richter, D.

    2014-08-01

    Legal Metrology's requirements can be transferred into the IT security domain applying a generic set of standardized rules provided by the Common Criteria (ISO/IEC 15408). We will outline the transfer and cross validation of such an approach. As an example serves the integration of Legal Metrology's requirements into a recently developed Common Criteria based Protection Profile for a Smart Meter Gateway designed under the leadership of the Germany's Federal Office for Information Security. The requirements on utility meters laid down in the Measuring Instruments Directive (MID) are incorporated. A verification approach to check for meeting Legal Metrology's requirements by their interpretation through Common Criteria's generic requirements is also presented.

  3. Affirmation of the Legal Status of Taxpayers in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božović Srđa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Public needs cannot be adequately funded without a clear and legally based affirmative legal status of taxpayers. The promotion and protection of their rights and regular fulfilment of tax obligations by taxpayers is the basis of fiscal and financial stability of the country and other public collectivities. It is essential for Montenegro to overcome the traditional gap between taxpayers and tax administration through their partnership. At the same time, we must not jeopardize the basic purpose of taxation - legal and timely payment of taxes. Simple and stable tax regulations and a non-discriminating and subtle approach to building tax discipline and development of tax morale should serve that purpose.

  4. Indian legal system and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Choudhary Laxmi; Shikha, Deep

    2013-01-01

    Although there was a rich tradition of legal system in Ancient India, the present judicial system of the country derives largely from the British system and is based on English Common Law, a system of law based on recorded judicial precedents. Earlier legislations in respect of mental health were primarily concerned with custodial aspects of persons with mental illness and protection of the society. Indian laws are also concerned with determination of competency, diminished responsibility and/or welfare of the society. United Nations Convention for Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD) was adopted in 2006, which marks a paradigm shift in respect of disabilities (including disability due to mental illness) from a social welfare concern to a human right issue. The new paradigm is based on presumption of legal capacity, equality and dignity. Following ratification of the convention by India in 2008, it became obligatory to revise all the disability laws to bring them in harmony with the UNCRPD. Therefore, the Mental Health Act - 1987 and Persons with Disability Act - 1995 are under process of revision and draft bills have been prepared. Human right activists groups are pressing for provisions for legal capacity for persons with mental illness in absolute terms, whereas the psychiatrists are in favor of retaining provisions for involuntary hospitalization in special circumstances.

  5. On the perfection of the legal supervision system of equity-based crowdfunding in China%论我国股权众筹法律监管制度的完善

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾要波

    2016-01-01

    The equity-based crowdfunding is a relatively innovative technology combining financing and the In-ternet technology , whose purpose is to facilitate the fund raising of those emergent , fledgling and innovative en-terprises .The relevant issues such as legal supervision , risk control have prompted leading countries in equity -based crowdfunding to introduce regulations and laws .However , there has been no regulations as to the legality of equity-based crowdfunding and its risk control .Based on the actual circumstances in our country and compa-ring the development and supervision of equity -based crowdfunding abroad and at home , this paper proposes that the supervision on the platforms of transaction and investors should be gradually strengthened .%股权众筹是金融与互联网融合的创新技术,其宗旨是帮助那些成长型、初创型、创新型企业尽快完成低成本的融资。股权众筹涉及的法律监管、风险控制问题使世界各个股权众筹较发达的国家纷纷出台相关的管理法案或者法规。对于股权众筹是否合乎法律以及如何对其进行风险控制,我国目前尚无具体的规定。从我国股权众筹的实际发展情况入手,对比国外股权众筹发展及监管情况总结出中国应该根据国内股权众筹的实际情况逐步加强对交易平台、投资者等的相关监管。

  6. Aspectos sociodemograficos e clinicos da qualidade de vida relacionada a saude bucal em adolescentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Glazer Peres

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência e identificar fatores sociodemográficos e parâmetros bucais associados ao impacto negativo da condição bucal na qualidade de vida de adolescentes. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados dados de 5.445 adolescentes entre 15 e 19 anos que participaram do inquérito nacional de saúde bucal (SBBrasil 2010, considerando a complexidade do desenho amostral. O desfecho foi a qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde bucal, avaliada por meio do questionário Oral Impacts on Daily Performance e analisada de forma discreta. As variáveis de exposição foram sexo, cor da pele, escolaridade, renda familiar, idade, cárie não tratada, perda dentária, dor de dente, oclusopatias, sangramento gengival, cálculo dentário e bolsa periodontal. Foram conduzidas análises de regressão de Poisson e apresentadas as razões de médias (RM, com respectivos intervalos de 95% de confiança (IC95%. RESULTADOS: Dos pesquisados, 39,4% relataram pelo menos um impacto negativo na qualidade de vida. Após o ajuste, a média do impacto negativo foi de 1,52 (IC95%1,16;2,00 vez maior no sexo feminino e 1,42 (IC95% 1,01;1,99, 2,66 (IC95% 1,40;5,07 e 3,32 (IC95% 1,68;6,56 vezes maior nos pardos, amarelos e indígenas, respectivamente, em relação aos brancos. Quanto menor a escolaridade, maior a média de impacto negativo (RM 2,11, IC95% 1,30;3,41, assim como em indivíduos com renda familiar até R$ 500,00 (RM 1,84, IC95% 1,06;3,17 comparados aos de maior renda. Encontrou-se maior impacto na qualidade de vida entre adolescentes com quatro ou mais lesões de cáries não tratadas (RM 1,53, IC95% 1,12;2,10, uma ou mais perdas dentárias (RM 1,44, IC95%1,16;1,80, com dor de dente (RM 3,62, IC95% 2,93;4,46 e com oclusopatia grave (RM 1,52, IC95% 1,04;2,23 e muito grave (RM 1,32, IC95% 1,01;1,72. CONCLUSÕES: Os adolescentes brasileiros relataram alto impacto negativo da saúde bucal na sua qualidade de vida. A iniquidade em sua distribuição deve ser

  7. Security: a supranational legal asset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Monteiro Guedes Valente

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the concept of security as a manysided, multifunctional and multilevel regulation topology which requires its several actors to view legal assets from a polygonal perspective worthy of legal protection from local to global and from global to local space. The concept of security as a supranational legal asset requires criminal legislation which defines the principles of criminal policy and the intervention of criminal Law, barriers to security trends and to the attempt to enhance the principle of presumed hazard as a basis for criminal intervention. We contend that the obstacle to "human self-objectification" in the global polygon is a (new world legal order as humanity's future balance.

  8. Federal Aviation Administration Legal Interpretations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Legal Interpretations and the Chief Counsel's opinions are now available at this site. Your may choose to search by year or by text search. Please note that not all...

  9. Legal Translation Dictionaries for Learners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    Legal translation dictionaries for learners are reference tools that can help users with domain-specific discourse in a foreign language. The most common type is the bilingual law dictionary covering several or all the sub-fields within the general field of law. However, such law dictionaries tend...... strategies. When learners translate legal texts into a foreign language, it is important that their dictionaries can help them produce texts that conform to the expected style. This style requirement may be met by producing translations that use natural and idiomatic language, and really crafted dictionaries...... may provide the help needed. Beginners and intermediate learners are unlikely to be familiar with the syntactic structures used in legal language and which distinguish it from LGP and other LSPs, especially those structures that are unusual and complex. The optimal legal translation dictionary...

  10. The Legal System in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The present legal system dates back to the late 1970s. The Sino-Foreign Equity Joint Venture (JV) Law of 1979 was the first step towards creating laws to meet the changing political and economic landscape.

  11. Legal Aspects of Telepathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Dierks

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In some legal surroundings telepathology is considered a breach of registrational barriers. The recommendation of the G 8 states in Europe for required legislation in telemedicine suggests to recognise that the localization of the remote health care professional defines the site not only of licensure but also of liability. This approach must be considered helpful, since it can solve many problems brought about by the doubtful results of private international law and conventions like the European Union (EU and Lugano Convention. Under today's conditions in private international law it must be considered essential to agree upon a choice of law and stipulate a court of jurisdiction when doing telepathology. However, the opposing aims of insuring the patients claims and avoiding jurisdictions that exceed the local expectations of the medical professional must be reconciled. Data protection and data security are other crucial topics that require attention. Generally speaking, the principles of minimum data exchange, anonymity, pseudonymity and cryptography must be established as a basis for all telepathology procedures. Only when personal data is needed, its use can be legitimated. Written consent of the patient is advised. To guarantee a cross‐border security level the regulations of the EU‐Data Protection Directive need to be transformed into national law. In practise, cross‐border dataflow shall only take place where the security level can be maintained even within the other country. Finally, reimbursement questions must be answered to establish a sound economical basis for telepathology. The spatial distance between the participants may yield the question, whether the service has been rendered to an extent necessary and sufficient for reimbursement. If reimbursement takes place on a cross‐border or cross‐regional level, severe disturbances of the health systems can occur. Regulation schemes or treaties need therefore to be developed to

  12. Legal aspects of purchasing contract

    OpenAIRE

    Roth, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    This bachelor’s thesis on the legal aspects of purchase contracts discusses theories of purchase contracts, and compares differences in purchase contract legal regulations from the perspective of the Civil Code and Commercial Code. Particular types of agreement are also described here, such as Contract for the Sale of an Enterprise, Hire Purchase Contract, and Barter Contract. The practical section also includes a questionnaire, whose respondents are both potential purchasers and those who ha...

  13. Critical Thinking and Legal Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Guido Pincione

    2009-01-01

    We often lack clear procedures for assessing statements and arguments advanced in everyday conversations, political campaigns, advertisements, and the other multifarious uses to which ordinary language can be put. Critical thinking is a method for evaluating arguments couched in ordinary, non-formal language. Legal education should foster this argumentative skill as an ability to assess the open-end variety of arguments that may arise in legal disputes. I will argue that the ability of critic...

  14. Postponing the legal retirement age

    OpenAIRE

    Lacomba, Juan Antonio; Lagos, Francisco Miguel

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the reform of the pensionable age as an answer to the future financing problems of public pension systems. We use a two-staged model where, first, the government decides the redistribution level of the pension system and, secondly, individuals face a voting process on the legal retirement age. The results suggest that governments attempting to postpone the legal retirement age should increase the degree of intra-generational redistribution of the pension system in order to...

  15. Calidad de vida relacionada con la salud y obesidad en un centro de atención primaria

    OpenAIRE

    Barajas Gutiérrez Miguel Angel; Robledo Martín Elisa; Tomás García Nuria; Sanz Cuesta Teresa; García Martín Pilar; Cerrada Somolinos Inmaculada

    1998-01-01

    FUNDAMENTO. Evaluar la asociación entre la obesidad y dos aspectos de la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud: autopercepción de salud y bienestar psicológico en pacientes adscritos a un centro de salud. MÉTODOS. Estudio transversal descriptivo sobre 167 pacientes entre 20 y 70 años, con índice de masa corporal ³ 30. Se realizó entrevista clínica para la obtención de las variables sociodemográficas y clínicas de cada paciente y la administración de 2 cuestionarios: 1) Perfil de Salud de N...

  16. Fadiga relacionada ao câncer: uma revisão Cancer-related fatigue: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Maira Paschoin de Oliveira Campos; Benjamin Joseph Hassan; Rachel Riechelmann; Auro del Giglio

    2011-01-01

    A fadiga relacionada ao câncer (FRC) é um dos sintomas mais prevalentes em pacientes com câncer, sendo reportada por 50% a 90% dos pacientes durante o curso da doença ou do seu tratamento, impactando na qualidade de vida de forma severa além de diminuir a capacidade funcional diária dos pacientes. Uma abordagem ampla deve ser realizada com orientações gerais sobre fadiga, além da determinação de um plano individualizado de abordagem terapêutica. Pacientes com fadiga moderada ou severa devem s...

  17. Utilidad de un conector desinfectable en la profilaxis de la bacteriemia relacionada con cateter en pacientes criticos

    OpenAIRE

    Yebenes Reyes, Juan Carlos

    2003-01-01

    La utilización de los catéteres venosos centrales es esencial en las unidades de cuidados. Su uso, sin embargo, no está exento de riesgos, como la bacteriemia relacionada con catéter, con una morbimortalidad asociada significativa. Conociendo la importancia de la via endoluminal en la patogénesis de la bacteriemia por catéter, el objetivo de está tesis es observar la utilidad de un nuevo conector desinfectable que no requiere la utilización de agujas (Smartsite", Alaris Medicals Systems, San ...

  18. Causas múltiplas de morte relacionadas à tuberculose no Estado de São Paulo, 1998

    OpenAIRE

    Augusto Hasiak Santo; Celso Escobar Pinheiro; Margarete Silva Jordani

    2003-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Estudar a mortalidade relacionada à tuberculose no Estado de São Paulo segundo causas múltiplas de morte, e suas inter-relações com outras causas básicas. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados os óbitos ocorridos e no Estado de São Paulo, em 1998, tendo como causa a tuberculose. Os dados foram obtidos na Fundação Sistema Estadual de Análise de Dados (SEADE). As causas de morte pelas formas clínicas da tuberculose foram codificadas no agrupamento A15-A19 e suas seqüelas na categoria B90, segundo ...

  19. Calidad de vida relacionada con la salud, emociones negativas y apoyo social en pacientes con psoriasis vulgar

    OpenAIRE

    Vinaccia, Stefano; Universidad de San Buenaventura; Quiceno, Japcy Margarita; Universidad de San Buenaventura; Martínez, Ángela María; Universidad de San Buenaventura; Arbeláez, Claudia Patricia; Universidad de San Buenaventura

    2013-01-01

    El propósito de la siguiente investigación fue evaluar la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud y su relación con la ansiedad-depresión y el apoyo social en 55 pacientes con diagnóstico de psoriasis vulgar leve. Para evaluar la calidad de vida se utilizó el Índice de Calidad de Vida en Dermatología; la ansiedad-depresión fue evaluada mediante el cuestionario HAD, y el cuestionario AS se usó para medir apoyo social. En conclusión, se hallaron niveles clínicamente significativos de ansiedad-...

  20. Special and inclusive education on brazilian legal system

    OpenAIRE

    Erenice Natália Soares de Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    In Brazil, the legal system where special and inclusive education is based upon is broad and has conquered some enhancements. However, we can observe contradictions and normative conflicts that affect its application into the teaching system’s organization and the inclusive education implementation. This reflection was conducted through this study, which has as an main objective, to identify divergences among various legal dispositions in force and the necessity to overcome them, taking into ...

  1. Transsexualism in Spain: a Cultural and Legal Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia Soley-Beltran

    2007-01-01

    In this paper I will present an overview of the current legal, social and political situation of transsexual and transgendered people in Spain. The study is based on qualitative data gathered from in-depth interviews with transsexual people, transgendered activists and legal experts in Spain, including some aspects of a cross-cultural comparison between Spain and the UK. The empirical study accounts for the development of social policies related to sex-reassignment and their evolution in the ...

  2. The Francis Report--dento-legal implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Martin

    2015-05-01

    This article explores the potential implications of the Francis Report for members of the dental team from a dento-legal perspective. It looks at the broad recommendations in light of the existing ethical environment in which dental registrants work and asks what is new and what the recommendations will actually mean for dental professionals in practical terms. Clinical Relevance: The fundamental recommendations of the Francis Report, namely, that those who provide care should put patients' interests first and be open about outcomes and performance, are not new concepts. A breach of these ethically based expectations may, however, create grounds for legal proceedings, which is clearly a significant point for all members of the dental team. It is therefore important to be aware of what is expected of those providing clinical care.

  3. Abortion in Iranian legal system: a review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Abbasi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Abortion traditionally means, "to miscarry" and is still known as a problem which societies has been trying to reduce its rate by using legal means. Despite the pregnant women and fetuses have being historically supported; abortion was firstly criminalized in 1926 in Iran, 20 years after establishment of modern legal system. During next 53 years this situation changed dramatically, so in 1979, the time of Islamic Revolution, aborting fetuses before 12 weeks and therapeutic abortion (TA during all the pregnancy length was legitimate, based on regulations that used medical justification. After 1979 the situation changed into a totally conservative and restrictive approach and new Islamic concepts as "Blood Money" and "Ensoulment" entered the legal debates around abortion. During the next 33 years, again a trend of decriminalization for the act of abortion has been continuing. Reduction of punishments and omitting retaliation for criminal abortions, recognizing fetal and maternal medical indications including some immunologic problems as legitimate reasons for aborting fetuses before 4 months and omitting the fathers' consent as a necessary condition for TA are among these changes. The start point for this decriminalization process was public and professional need, which was responded by religious government, firstly by issuing juristic rulings (Fatwas as a non-official way, followed by ratification of "Therapeutic Abortion Act" (TAA and other regulations as an official pathway. Here, we have reviewed this trend of decriminalization, the role of public and professional request in initiating such process and the rule-based language of TAA.

  4. Abortion in Iranian legal system: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Mahmoud; Shamsi Gooshki, Ehsan; Allahbedashti, Neda

    2014-02-01

    Abortion traditionally means, "to miscarry" and is still known as a problem which societies has been trying to reduce its rate by using legal means. Despite the pregnant women and fetuses have being historically supported; abortion was firstly criminalized in 1926 in Iran, 20 years after establishment of modern legal system. During next 53 years this situation changed dramatically, so in 1979, the time of Islamic Revolution, aborting fetuses before 12 weeks and therapeutic abortion (TA) during all the pregnancy length was legitimate, based on regulations that used medical justification. After 1979 the situation changed into a totally conservative and restrictive approach and new Islamic concepts as "Blood Money" and "Ensoulment" entered the legal debates around abortion. During the next 33 years, again a trend of decriminalization for the act of abortion has been continuing. Reduction of punishments and omitting retaliation for criminal abortions, recognizing fetal and maternal medical indications including some immunologic problems as legitimate reasons for aborting fetuses before 4 months and omitting the fathers' consent as a necessary condition for TA are among these changes. The start point for this decriminalization process was public and professional need, which was responded by religious government, firstly by issuing juristic rulings (Fatwas) as a non-official way, followed by ratification of "Therapeutic Abortion Act" (TAA) and other regulations as an official pathway. Here, we have reviewed this trend of decriminalization, the role of public and professional request in initiating such process and the rule-based language of TAA.

  5. Método bundle na redução de infecção de corrente sanguínea relacionada a cateteres centrais: revisão integrativa Método bundle en la redución de infecciones relacionadas a catéteres centrales: una revisión integrativa Care bundle to reduce central venous catheter-related bloodstream infection: an integrative review

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Dane Pereira Brachine; Maria Angélica Sorgini Peterlini; Mavilde da Luz Gonçalves Pedreira

    2012-01-01

    Trata-se de uma revisão integrativa da literatura, que objetivou identificar intervenções baseadas em evidência que compõem o método bundle, designados à redução de infecção de corrente sanguínea relacionada ou associada a cateter intravenoso central. Para a coleta de dados online, em bases nacionais e internacionais, foram utilizados a palavra-chave bundle e os descritores catheter-related infection, infection control e central venous catheterization, resultando, após aplicação dos critérios...

  6. A Basic Classification of Legal Institutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiter, Dick W.P.

    1997-01-01

    The author offers a general definition of legal institutions. A distinction between institutional legal concepts, legal institutions and social institutions makes it possible to define legal institutions as systems of valid presentations of what must occur in social reality in order that the former

  7. A Goddess for semiotics of law and legal discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan M. Broekman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The work of the great American philosopher Charles Sanders Peirce (1839-1914 becomes more and more appreciated beyond the boundaries of his pragmatism, a philosophical mainstream he founded in the early 20th century. This essay is inspired by five points of interest, all of which focus on law and legal discourse. Firstly, one should acknowledge that his proposal pertaining to a general theory of signs, which he called ‘semeiotics’ around 1860, leads to an untraditional and in-depth understanding of legal discourse: in essence, of law as a system of specific meanings and signs. Semiotics in general became a substantial part of his ‘evolutionary cosmology,’ an all-embracing approach to tackle classical and modern philosophical issues. Secondly, his anthropological intuition based on semiotics, (concentrated in the formula ‘man is a sign’ became important for our understanding of a human subject’s position in law, as author of a legal discourse as well as an individual subjected to law. Thirdly, the tensions between chance and continuity in legal discourse are of focal interest for the creation of legal meaning in law’s practices. Novelty, Peirce suggested in this context, occurs by the grace of chance rather than of continuity and fixed traditions. Fourthly, Roberta Kevelson (1931-1998 explored and expanded the field of legal semiotics on the basis of the works of Peirce. In doing so, she established an American tradition of legal semiotics distinct from a European tradition, which related more to linguists, psychologists and philosophers embracing structuralism. Fifthly, Tyche, the Ancient Goddess of fate and fortune, is because of Peirce’s references more at home in the US legal semiotic tradition. Her fame and influence reaches beyond law and became supported by recent archaeological discoveries, publications and exhibitions, which not only provide information about her background, but also underline her possible influence on

  8. Legal capacity of the elderly in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannouli, Vaitsa; Tsolaki, Magda

    2014-01-01

    Legal capacity of the elderly people in Greece is of great legal, medical and social importance, but has received little attention till now from medical literature. This paper aims to study whether elderly people with dementia are able to participate in legal contracts like sales, purchases, loans, leases, donations and testaments. We tried to introduce a new test for the above legal-financial contracts and show some preliminary findings. The test consists of six examined relevant domains concerning basic monetary skills, cash transactions, bank statement management, financial conceptual knowledge, knowledge of potential heirs (beneficiaries) and assets/estate and finally the decision making process for different dilemmas on sales, purchases, loans, leases, donations and testaments. We studied 203 people. Eighty three people were healthy, 64 with Alzheimer's disease (AD) (10 with severe AD, 22 with moderate, and 32 with mild AD), 10 with Parkinson's disease (PD), and 46 with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI). Individuals were included in the study only if they were aged 60 and over and only if they had a partner or a guardian who could give information on the individual's daily living. The exclusion criteria were predefined as follows: history of any other mental health disease and/or any other serious somatic health disease except for their official diagnosis of dementia. Results showed statistically significant differences with all three groups of patients characterized as incapable for legal-financial actions. Patients with severe AD (P<0.001), patients with moderate AD (P<0.001), patients with mild AD (P<0.001), patients with PD (P<0.001) and aMCI patients (P<0.001) differed significantly from healthy controls. Further research should include more extensive sampling of elderly patients with varying demographic characteristics in Greece, to confirm and expand our initial findings. In conclusion, our new test which is based on Marson's theoretical model

  9. Legal capacity of the elderly in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannouli, Vaitsa; Tsolaki, Magda

    2014-01-01

    Legal capacity of the elderly people in Greece is of great legal, medical and social importance, but has received little attention till now from medical literature. This paper aims to study whether elderly people with dementia are able to participate in legal contracts like sales, purchases, loans, leases, donations and testaments. We tried to introduce a new test for the above legal-financial contracts and show some preliminary findings. The test consists of six examined relevant domains concerning basic monetary skills, cash transactions, bank statement management, financial conceptual knowledge, knowledge of potential heirs (beneficiaries) and assets/estate and finally the decision making process for different dilemmas on sales, purchases, loans, leases, donations and testaments. We studied 203 people. Eighty three people were healthy, 64 with Alzheimer's disease (AD) (10 with severe AD, 22 with moderate, and 32 with mild AD), 10 with Parkinson's disease (PD), and 46 with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI). Individuals were included in the study only if they were aged 60 and over and only if they had a partner or a guardian who could give information on the individual's daily living. The exclusion criteria were predefined as follows: history of any other mental health disease and/or any other serious somatic health disease except for their official diagnosis of dementia. Results showed statistically significant differences with all three groups of patients characterized as incapable for legal-financial actions. Patients with severe AD (P<0.001), patients with moderate AD (P<0.001), patients with mild AD (P<0.001), patients with PD (P<0.001) and aMCI patients (P<0.001) differed significantly from healthy controls. Further research should include more extensive sampling of elderly patients with varying demographic characteristics in Greece, to confirm and expand our initial findings. In conclusion, our new test which is based on Marson's theoretical model

  10. LEGAL ENTITIES IN ROMANIAN PRIVATE INTERNATIONAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berlingher Remus Daniel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Legal entities play an increasing role in international economic relations, as well as in political, cultural, social or human relations. Any legal entity is subject to the law of a certain country, as it can only exist or function on the basis of legal provisions. In this sense, the paper analyses the law applicable to the organic statute of a legal entity, the importance and criteria underlying the establishment of a legal entity’s nationality, the recognition of foreign legal entities in Romania, as well as the rights and obligations of foreign legal entities residing in our country.

  11. LEGAL AND ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVES ON THE LEGAL PENALTY INTEREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Diana APAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The legal evaluation of the penalty interest, meaning the ex lege determination of its level is applicable only in the case of non-fulfillment of a monetary payment obligation. The applicability of the system of legal evaluation of the interest is generally determined by the absence of a document that ascertains the agreement of the parties, such as a contract, through which the parties, following this agreement, evaluate the prejudice caused by the non-fulfillment of a monetary payment obligation, before the prejudice has occurred. The legal evaluation of the penalty interest, as a component of the regulation in the field of legal interest has the purpose to ensure creditor’s protection. Regardless of the prejudice caused to the creditor, the legal penalty interest shall be determined by relating it to a variable benchmark that is the level of the reference interest rate of the National Bank of Romania, which is the monetary policy interest rate of the National Bank of Romania.

  12. Introduction: Legal Transplantation in Contemporary China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JiangShigong

    2004-01-01

    Putting a socialist legal system in place in China since the 1980s has been a process of "legal transplantation," one which was in fact rooted in the legal reforms of the late Qing Dynasty (1644-1911). While widely subscribed to in legal scholarship, the farreaching impact of this transplantation has lacked careful theoretical reflection. This special issue presents some recent efforts of academics to re-examine legal transplantation, paying attention to its social, cultural and political aspects.

  13. Professionalism under the Legal Services Act 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Boon, A.

    2010-01-01

    The Legal Services Act 2007 represents an ambitious attempt to reconcile consumerism and professionalism. The Act created a Legal Services Board to oversee the regulation of the legal services market in England and Wales. The Board was also placed under a duty to promote consumer interests and to encourage an independent, strong, diverse and effective legal profession and to promote professional principles. The article examines the actual and prospective impacts of the Act on the legal profes...

  14. Attitudes towards cannabis legalization in Iceland

    OpenAIRE

    Sigurbjörg Lára Kristinsdóttir 1991

    2016-01-01

    The debate on whether or not cannabis should be legalized has been growing in recent years. The legality of cannabis varies from country to country. Possession of cannabis have been decriminalized or legalized in numerous countries. The main aim of the present study was to examine both what characterizes those who are in favor of cannabis legalization and the potential effect on the community and cannabis consumption if cannabis would be legalized. The participants were 1198 obtained from an ...

  15. Neutropenia relacionada con la quimioterapia en tumores sólidos. Hospital General Universitario Camilo Cienfuegos Enero 2009- 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yania Luisa Jiménez Madrigal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal y retrospectivo referente al comportamiento de la neutropenia relacionada con la quimioterapia en tumores sólidos en el período comprendido Enero 2009- 2013 atendido en el servicio de oncología del Hospital General Universitario Camilo Cienfuegos de la provincia Sancti-Spíritus. La población la conformaron 230 enfermos neutropénicos relacionados con la quimioterapia. La investigación describe de forma general la relación existente entre la neutropenia con la quimioterapia, localización tumoral, entidades nosológicas asociadas, edad, sexo, tratamientos quimioterapéuticos y antibióticos más utilizados. Pudo observarse que existe alta incidencia de neutropenia relacionada con la quimioterapia en pacientes con cáncer de pulmón, el grupo más afectado fue el de 50-59 años predominando el sexo femenino con un alto índice de hipertensos asociados. Los tratamientos más utilizados fueron Etopóxido-Platino y Ceftrixone-Amikacina.

  16. LASIK em programa de treinamento médico: complicações relacionadas a microcerátomos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonçalves Eliana Domingues

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as complicações da ceratomileuse assistida por excimer laser in situ - LASIK - relacionadas ao microcerátomo em um centro de treinamento médico. MÉTODOS: O total de 1611 olhos submetidos a ceratomileuse assistida por excimer laser in situ foram estudados retrospectivamente no período de janeiro de 1998 a junho de 2000 no setor de cirurgia refrativa do Departamento de Oftalmologia da UNIFESP-EPM. RESULTADOS: As complicações relacionadas com o microcerátomo na ceratomileuse assistida por excimer laser in situ foram 26 (1,61%, das quais 9 (34,61% foram de lamelas incompletas, 9 (34,61% finas, 2 (7,69% lamelas sem pedículo, 5 (19,23% irregulares e 1 (3,84% perfurada. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência de complicações com microcerátomo em centro de treinamento médico foi baixa e o treinamento de residentes e estagiários mostrou ser uma prática viável.

  17. Qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde de pacientes com câncer em quimioterapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Cristina Nicolussi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudio transversal,cuyo objetivo fue evaluar la Calidad de Vida relacionada con la Salud en pacientes con cáncer en quimioterapia, identificar dominios afectados y asociarlos con datos sociodemográficos, clínicos y terapéuticos de la amuestra. Llevado a cado con 152 pacientes entre 2009-2011 en dos centros de quimioterapia, en Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil. Se utilizó el instrumento Quality of Life Questionnaire Core-30 . La Calidad de Vida general fue considerada buena, los dominios afectados fueran: función emocional, desarrollo de papel, dolor, fatiga, insomnio y pérdida de apetito. Pacientes del sexo femenino, entre 40-60 años, económicamente activos, con cáncer gástrico, pulmón, neurológico y piel, con metástasis y los pacientes que se sometieron a cirugía y/o radioterapia concomitante presentaran déficit en varias áreas y presencia de más síntomas. El cáncer y su tratamiento afectaran de alguna manera los pacientes, causando déficits en las funciones desarrolladas e más síntomas, perjudicando la Calidad de Vida Relacionada con la Salud.

  18. Affirmative action in medical education: a legal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, L B; Helms, C M

    1998-03-01

    The use of affirmative action programs as part of the effort to increase the presence of minorities in medical education and the physician workforce has come under greater legal scrutiny. The authors describe the history of the legal theory behind affirmative action, giving examples from the evolving case law and from Department of Education guidelines. They identify legal pitfalls in the areas of admission and financial aid, including the categorization of students by race, racially disproportionate financial aid awards after accounting for need, racially disproportionate amounts of scholarships as opposed to loans, and, for public medical schools, differential treatment of out-of-state students based on race. Medical schools should be aware of this legal framework so that they can construct affirmative action programs that comply with the law while maintaining momentum toward diversification. PMID:9526449

  19. Avaliação da mortalidade de neonatos e crianças relacionada ao uso do cateter venoso central: revisão sistemática Evaluación de la mortalidad de neonatos y niños relacionada al uso del cateter venoso central: revisión sistemática Evaluation of the mortality of neonates and children related to the use of central venous catheters: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janislei Giseli Dorociaki Stocco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a mortalidade relacionada às infecções no uso de cateter venoso central em recém-nascidos e crianças hospitalizadas. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de uma revisão sistemática, cujos estudos foram identificados nas bases de dados Medline, Embase, Lilacs, Cinahl, SciELO e Cochrane, em referências bibliográficas de artigos e outras revisões. Dois revisores independentes identificaram os estudos relevantes, analisaram a qualidade metodológica e, posteriormente, os dados foram extraídos. RESULTADOS: Foram encontrados 1.000 artigos, dos quais 16 se relacionavam à infecção de cateter e só dois mencionaram mortalidade. Dos estudos achados, verificou-se que a sepse primária foi a principal complicação relacionada ao uso de cateter venoso central, e sendo os micro-organismos mais prevalentes nestas infecções a Candida sp e Enterococcus sp com impacto significante para a mortalidade em neonatos e crianças. CONCLUSÃO: Observou-se nesta revisão que a sepse primária foi a complicação mais prevalente relacionada ao cateter central.OBJETIVO: Evaluar la mortalidad relacionada a las infecciones en el uso del cateter venoso central en recién nacidos y niños hospitalizados. MÉTODOS: Se trata de una revisión sistemática, cuyos estudios fueron identificados en las bases de datos Medline, Embase, Lilacs, Cinahl, SciELO y Cochrane, en referencias bibliográficas de artículos y otras revisiones. Dos revisores independientes identificaron los estudios relevantes, analizaron la calidad metodológica y, posteriormente, los datos fueron extraidos. RESULTADOS: Se encontraron 1.000 artículos, de los cuales 16 se relacionaban a la infección del cateter y sólo dos mencionaron mortalidad. De los estudios encontrados, se verificó que la sepsis primaria fue la principal complicación relacionada al uso del cateter venoso central, y siendo los microorganismos más prevalentes en estas infecciones la Candida sp y Enterococcus sp con impacto

  20. Ethical and legal dilemmas in infertility treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragojević-Dikić Svetlana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main characteristics of the new millennium is the affirmation of human rights in all aspects of human existence, with the intention of turning declarative statements into reality. Development of up-to-date assisted reproductive technologies (ART and their application in infertility treatment have raised numerous ethical, legal, religious, social and other questions. In vitro fertilization, donation of gametes, embryos and pre-embryos, cryopreservation of gametes, embryos, ovarian and testicular tissues, embryo transfer, genetic reproductive techniques, cloning and other sophisticated methods used in infertility treatment require cooperation between the medical and legal professions. Ethical aspects of human reproduction and assisted fertilization are based on full respect of the life of an individual even before conception, from pre-embryo stage, via embryo stage and fetus stage to a newborn infant. Regarding investigative and clinical projects, this standpoint implies the legalization of all ART procedures, unencumbered exchange of information and consensus about their application, and adherence to the basic ethical principles of autonomy benefit, justice and common welfare. Ethical postulates provide unequivocal directions in the creation of new life and resolve all possible ethical dilemmas, protecting the rights of doctors and participant in relevant procedures alike and reasserting the crucial principle - respect of human dignity.

  1. Advanced radiographic practice - the legal aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allied health and nursing professionals are continuing to expand their responsibilities into clinical areas outside their traditional spheres of interest; typically, many of these new responsibilities are found within the medical (doctor) domain. Such responsibilities are often at an advanced clinical level and consequently higher demands are placed upon the professionals, not least in terms of clinical updating, competence to practice and also legal liability. This article explores the legal implications of practising at an advanced clinical level with particular reference to legal claims. The first part of the article commences with an outline of pertinent law in England and Wales. The latter part of the article explores actual cases from which allied health professionals (eg radiographers) can gain valuable information. Throughout the article suggestions for good practice are indicated. Examples of good practice include: the need to base your practice on evidence and peer practice; the need to keep detailed records (protocols) of such practice; the need to know when you are at the limit of your ability; and as such when to ask for advice from a medical practitioner/radiologist

  2. The Legal Regulation of Cybersecurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius Štitilis

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cybercrime has become a global phenomenon, which is causing more harm to individual citizens, organizations, society and the state. Most countries in the world compare cybercrime with offences such as terrorism and drug trafficking due to its risks and profitability. Cybersecurity is the central category to fight cybercrime in cyberspace. Therefore, the strategic legal regulation of cybersecurity is one of the most relevant problems in EU, including Lithuania. So far cybersecurity legal regulation analysis in scientific literature has been rather limited. The European Commission, together with the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, has published a cybersecurity strategy alongside a Commission proposed directive on network and information security (NIS. The cybersecurity strategy – “An Open, Safe and Secure Cyberspace” - represents the EU’s comprehensive vision on how best to prevent and respond to cyber disruptions and attacks. The purpose of its is to further European values of freedom and democracy and ensure the digital economy can safely grow. Specific actions are aimed at enhancing cyber resilience of information systems, reducing cybercrime and strengthening EU international cyber-security policy and cyber defence. The main goal of the paper is to analyze and compare the EU cybersecurity strategy and experience of several foreign countries with the strategic legal regulation of cybersecurity in Lithuania. The article consists of four parts. The first part dealt with the EU cybersecurity strategy. The second part of the article examines the comparative aspect of foreign cybersecurity strategic legal regulation. The third part deals with attempts in Lithuania to draft cybersecurity law and the holistic approach of cybersecurity legal regulation. The fourth part examines Lithuanian cybersecurity strategy and comments on the main probleas related with the strategy. Several different approaches

  3. Defeasible reasoning with legal conditionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzo Castañeda, Lupita Estefania; Knauff, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Valid conclusions can be defeated if people can think of conditions that prevent the consequent to occur although the antecedent is given. The goal of the present research was to investigate how people consider these conditions when reasoning with legal conditionals such as "If a person kills another human, then this person should be punished for manslaughter." In Experiments 1 and 2 legal conditionals were presented to participants together with exculpatory circumstances, i.e., counterexamples. The participants' task was to decide whether they would adhere to the legal conditional rule and punish the offender. Participants were either lawyers (i.e., advanced law students and graduate lawyers) or legal laypeople. We found that laypeople often ignore exculpatory circumstances and adhere to the conditional rule when offences evoked high levels of moral outrage. Lawyers did not show this effect. In Experiment 3 laypeople showed difficulties even when asked to simply imagine exculpatory circumstances for highly morally outrageous offences. Results provide new evidence for the role of emotions - like moral outrage - in the consideration of counterexamples to legal conditionals. PMID:26689704

  4. Compliance work for food contact materials: feasibility of the legally required safety assessment of an epoxy/amine-based coating for domestic water pipe restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillner, Jocelyn; Grob, Koni

    2014-01-01

    Options were explored for fulfilling the legally required safety assessment for a widely applied epoxy/amine coating used for restoring corroded domestic drinking water supply systems. The coating was made up of two components mixed shortly before application, the first mainly consisting of bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE), the second of various amines. The analytically identified starting substances were all authorised, but only constituted a small proportion of the low molecular mass material left after curing and potentially migrating into water. Reaction products synthesised from constituents of the starting components (expected oligomers) could not be eluted from GC even after derivatisation, indicating that standard GC-MS screening would miss most potential migrants. They were detectable by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) after acetylation. HPLC with MS or fluorescence detection was possible for constituents including a BADGE moiety, but phenalkamines could not be detected with adequate sensitivity. Possibilities for determining long-term migration relevant for chronic toxicity are discussed. Analysis in water shortly after application of the coating overestimates migration if migration decreases over time and requires detection limits far out of reach. Analysis of a solvent extract of the coating is easier and provides an upper estimate of what could migrate into the drinking water over the years. However, to satisfy the regulatory requirements, components of the complex mixture need to be identified at lower proportions than those accessible. In vitro testing of the whole mixture for genotoxicity is expected to fail because of the required sensitivity and the glycidyl functions probably wrongly resulting in positive tests. The difficulties in dealing with this situation are discussed. PMID:24761990

  5. Discussion of the Euthanasia Legalization Based on the Quality of Life%基于生命质量视角的安乐死问题探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧运森; 田侃; 喻小勇; 贺云龙

    2015-01-01

    Along with the rapid development of Chinese economy, peoples demand for quality of life also increases.The quality of terminal life is well concerned.Euthanasia involves the safety of human life and social stability and the discussion on the implementation of euthanasia must be treated carefully under the imperfect medical insurance system.This paper aims at analyzing the legalization of euthanasia implications for the quality of life from the implementation object, subject, conditions and procedures, which puts forward reference for the pursuit of a higher quality of life for the community.%伴随中国经济的迅猛发展,人们对生存质量的要求也随之提高,生命临终质量也被广泛的重视。安乐死涉及到人的生命权利保障和社会的安全稳定,在医疗保障体系尚不完善的条件下对安乐死的实施必须慎重对待。本文通过探讨安乐死对人的生存质量和生命临终质量影响的基础上,提出实施安乐死应对实施对象、实施主体、实施条件和实施程序等方面进行限定,为提升人的生命质量提供一定的参考。

  6. 基于生命质量视角的安乐死问题探讨%Discussion of the Euthanasia Legalization Based on the Quality of Life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧运森; 田侃; 喻小勇; 贺云龙

    2015-01-01

    伴随中国经济的迅猛发展,人们对生存质量的要求也随之提高,生命临终质量也被广泛的重视。安乐死涉及到人的生命权利保障和社会的安全稳定,在医疗保障体系尚不完善的条件下对安乐死的实施必须慎重对待。本文通过探讨安乐死对人的生存质量和生命临终质量影响的基础上,提出实施安乐死应对实施对象、实施主体、实施条件和实施程序等方面进行限定,为提升人的生命质量提供一定的参考。%Along with the rapid development of Chinese economy, peoples demand for quality of life also increases.The quality of terminal life is well concerned.Euthanasia involves the safety of human life and social stability and the discussion on the implementation of euthanasia must be treated carefully under the imperfect medical insurance system.This paper aims at analyzing the legalization of euthanasia implications for the quality of life from the implementation object, subject, conditions and procedures, which puts forward reference for the pursuit of a higher quality of life for the community.

  7. Complicações locais na pele, relacionadas à aplicação de insulina Complicaciones locales en la piel relacionadas a la aplicación de insulina Skin site complications related to insulin application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Gasparelli Camata

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available A administração de insulina constitui um dos aspectos importantes na educação em diabetes. Este estudo enfoca as complicações locais na pele, relacionadas à aplicação de insulina. Foram entrevistados 51 portadores de diabetes mellitus, em uma instituição particular, no interior do Estado de São Paulo. Os resultados apontam que o hematoma foi a complicação mais freqüente e está relacionada, principalmente, à técnica incorreta de aplicação. Conclui-se que os profissionais de saúde precisam traçar estratégias efetivas que propiciem segurança aos sujeitos, a fim de prevenir as complicações na pele.La administración de insulina constituye uno de los aspectos importantes en la educación en diabetes. Este estudio enfoca las complicaciones locales en la piel relacionadas a la aplicación de insulina. Fueron entrevistados 51 portadores de diabetes mellitus en una institución particular en el interior del Estado de São Paulo. Los resultados muestran que el hematoma fue la complicación más frecuente y está relacionado principalmente con la técnica incorrecta de aplicación. Se concluye que los profesionales de salud necesitan establecer estrategias efectivas que propicien seguridad a los sujetos, con el fin de prevenir las complicaciones en la piel.Insulin administration is one of the important aspects in diabetes education. This study focuses on skin site complications related to insulin application. Fifty-one people with diabetes mellitus were interviewed at a private institution in São Paulo State. Results showed that hematomas were the most frequent complication and that they mainly resulted from the use of incorrect application techniques. It was concluded that health professionals must design effective strategies in order to provide safety to subjects and prevent skin complications.

  8. 法学话语中的法律解释规则%The Legal Interpretation Rules in Legal Discourse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈金钊

    2014-01-01

    法律解释方法的核心是法律解释规则,即各种理解、解释和运用法律的规则。几乎所有关于法律解释方法的理论,其目标都是探寻法律解释规则的构建与运用。为了证成这一判断,梳理与不同意识形态相匹配的具体法律方法很有必要。这种概括不是对法律方法纯粹历史的考察,重心在于说明法律解释规则的实践意义。我国的法律方法论研究即将进入第二个发展阶段,即在关注一般理论研究的基础上,开始法律解释规则及其运用研究。这是展现法学理论和法律方法论实用品格的开始。对法律解释规则的认识可以从多个角度展开,重点从法治意识形态、法律方法的进化以及与相近概念的比较三个方面进行诠释。%The core of legal interpretation methods lies in legal interpretation rules , which are used to un-derstand , interpret and apply the law .Nearly all theories on legal interpretation methods set targets on how to construct and use legal interpretation rules .With the purpose of justifying this proposition , it’ s necessary to comb specific legal methods matching with ruling of law in different ideologies and historic periods .The sum-marization is rather focusing on illuminating practical significance of legal interpretation rules than pure historic review.The study on legal methodology in our country has evolved into the second development stage , starting to study on legal interpretation rules and the their application based on researches of general theories , which stands for the emergence of practical feature of jurisprudence and legal methodology .Different perspectives can be used to understand legal interpretation rules , among which three aspects are analyzed in this paper such as , the legal ideology , the evolution of legal methods and the comparison with similar concepts .

  9. Legal aspects of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The legal basis for the use of nuclear energy is generally given by an Atomic Energy Act. Additionally, however, a system of regulations and standards has to be set up to lay down more detailed requirements. The fundamental philosophy and strategy has to be specified by governmental organizations. For the specification and implementation of the requirements some minimum organizational arrangements are necessary, which are not only restricted to governmental organizations. Furthermore procedural regulations have to be laid down before the implementation phase. This includes aspects like public participation in the licensing procedure. In practice, however, the implementation of the legal requirements always shows some weakness of the basic legal requirements. To learn from this experience some examples are presented, which gave rise to difficulties in the implementation procedure. (orig./RW)

  10. Adjustment of legally binding local plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvingel, Line Træholt; Aunsborg, Christian; Christensen, Finn Kjær;

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, and by law, new urban areas in Denmark are regulated and planned through legally binding local plans. Recently a tendency has occurred: The municipalities make the legally binding local plans quite open for future adjustment, and they are using a substantial amount of ‘empowerment......, which seem to be beyond the scope of the Danish Planning Act. This paper deals with this problem through case studies and a legal analysis of present law. If the combination of the legally binding local plan and subsequent added requirements is misused, it will weaken the legal rights of the citizens...... the considerations of legal rights, the extend of the legal use of empowerment provisions and the combination of the use of legal binding local plans and other legal instruments such as easements and sales agreements....

  11. Controle de infecção relacionada a cateter venoso central impregnado com antissépticos: revisão integrativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Verônica Ferrareze Ferreira

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O uso de cateter venoso central é apontado como um dos principais fatores para infecção da corrente sanguínea. Objetiva-se, neste estudo, buscar evidências científicas sobre o controle de infecção relacionada ao cateter venoso central impregnado com antissépticos utilizado em pacientes adultos hospitalizados. Para seleção dos estudos, foram utilizadas as bases de dados LILACS, CINAHL e MEDLINE. Totalizaram-se nove artigos por meio da revisão integrativa da literatura. As publicações acerca da utilização de cateteres impregnados com antissépticos mostraram diferença estatisticamente significante quanto à redução da colonização microbiana. Entretanto, apenas um estudo demonstrou redução na ocorrência da infecção. Diante das análises dos estudos, há necessidade de pesquisas adicionais em diferentes populações de pacientes com a finalidade de efetuar generalizações.

  12. Knowledge discovery from legal databases

    CERN Document Server

    Stranieri, Andrew; Schauer, Frederick

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge Discovery from Legal Databases is the first text to describe data mining techniques as they apply to law. Law students, legal academics and applied information technology specialists are guided thorough all phases of the knowledge discovery from databases process with clear explanations of numerous data mining algorithms including rule induction, neural networks and association rules. Throughout the text, assumptions that make data mining in law quite different to mining other data are made explicit.  Issues such as the selection of commonplace cases, the use of discretion as a form

  13. Learned Treatise and Legal Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster-Swendsen, Mia

    2010-01-01

    of the royal court from the time of the reign of Cnut the Great to the author's present. In Danish as well as international scholarship this deceptively simple text has frequently been treated either as a ‘law code' or ‘law book' in itself or as a reflection of actual legal practice. Yet here I will contend...... that the Lex castrensis is in fact a political-legal treatise masked as pseudo-history with an explicit didactic purpose as a ‘schoolbook' for future administrators. As a learned ideological construct with a remarkable afterlife, Sven's work may be regarded as part of the intellectual preparation for future...

  14. Free Legal Services - Attracting Legal Talent for Public Involvement Groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the public service responsibilities of lawyers, and how they can fulfill the annual goal of performing pro bono services by serving certain public involvement groups, including organization involved in Constitutional issues and environmental protection matters. Public involvement groups should consider their needs for legal services and consider soliciting lawyers to serve on their boards or to volunteer legal services which will assist those lawyers in fulfilling their professional obligations under Rules of Professional Conduct. The group should identify specific activities and tasks that require the skills and training of a lawyer, including corporate governance issues; conflict-of-interest questions; the statutory construction of laws, regulations and ordinances; or analysis of potential liability. The addition of a lawyer to advisory boards for governmental agencies and for non-profit boards of charitable, religious, civic, community, environmental and educational organizations may provide those boards with knowledge, analytical approaches and insights that complement the abilities of other board members. Rules of Professional Conduct applicable to lawyers include admonitions for lawyers to provide 'Public Service'. Representative of many rules, the American Bar Association Model Rule 6.1, entitled 'Voluntary Pro Bono Publico Service' addresses every lawyer's professional responsibility to provide legal services to those 'unable to pay'. This Model Rule exhorts each lawyer to provide fifty (50) hours of legal services without fee or expectation of fee to persons of limited means or charitable, religious or civic, community, governmental and educational organizations or to individuals, groups or organizations seeking 'to secure or protect civil rights, civil liberties, or public rights, or charitable, religious, civic, community, governmental and educational organizations in matters in furtherance of their purposes, where the payment of

  15. On Reconstruction of Enterprise Legal Counsel Membership Mechanism--Based on the Angle of View for Settings of State-owned Enterprise Legal Counsel Membership%论重构企业法律顾问的隶属体制--以国有企业法律顾问机构的设置为视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李远和

    2014-01-01

    国有企业法律顾问的管制性作用能否发挥,直接关系着企业法律风险能否有效预防和股东(国家)意志能否实现;国有企业的法律顾问隶属于企业,是企业的职工,企业直接决定法律顾问的升迁、晋级;目前,推行国有企业法律顾问制度存有困难,其症结主要体现在法律顾问的事务性工作是隶属主体的需求,但法律顾问的管制性工作与隶属主体的需求相悖;当前,国有企业的法律顾问之隶属体制没有为法律顾问管制性工作提供充分保障;国有企业法律顾问隶属于股东(国家即国务院国资委或省国资委)的新机制是发挥法律顾问管制性功能的制度保障;提出了从保障法律顾问的相对超然地位和保障企业自主经营权之间寻找平衡,重构国有企业法律顾问的隶属体制,不断创新法律顾问机构的工作机制。%Whether state-owned enterprise legal advisers can play a regulatory role is directly related to whether the enterprise law risk can effectively be prevented and the will of shareholders (country)can be realized.The state-owned enterprise legal counsel belongs to an enterprise,who is employee.Enter-prises directly determine the promotion of the legal counsel.At present,it is really difficulty to put legal counsel system into use,the key problem is that the work of legal counsel is a need of employers,but the work of legal counsel may be opposite to the needs of employers.Now,legal counsel membership system of state-owned enterprises does not provide enough guarantees with the regulatory work of state-owned enterprise legal counsel.The state-owned enterprise legal counsel belongs to the shareholders (the coun-try i.e.state-owned assets supervision and administration commission of the state council and provinces) as a new system is the systematic guarantee to the regulatory affairs of state-owned enterprise legal coun-sel.So the author puts forward an

  16. Legal Research in a Changing Information Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T du Plessis

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the advent of the latest constitutional dispensation in South Africa, legal researchers have been presented with new opportunities for research into constitutional issues, development and the relationship between constitutional law and other fields. This article investigates how information technology applications can support the legal research process and what the benefits of technology are likely to be to legal research. Furthermore, it investigates the changes and the impact that electronic resources and the digital information environment might have on legal research. This entails a study of the unique characteristics of digital legal research and of the challenges that legal researchers face in a changing information environment.

  17. 论传媒舆论引导法律制度的完善——基于对转基因生物安全性争议典型案例的分析%How to Perfect Media Public Opinion's Guidance of Legal System——Based on Typical Cases of Transgenic Safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱娉; 王德强

    2011-01-01

    传媒是舆论的中介,传媒对公共舆论进行正确的引导十分重要。以转基因生物安全性争议的3个典型案例为例,分析了传媒舆论引导在法律制度上的不足,并有针对性地提出完善舆论引导法律制度的建议:完善相关的法律法规;实现网络舆论的法治化;明确网络传媒的法律地位;建立健全传媒的诚信制度;增强媒体从业人员的法律意识等。%Media,the medium of public opinion,is very important to correctly guide public opinion.Based on analyzing three typical cases on transgenic safety,this paper points out the problems relevant to legal system on public opinion guidance to the media and pertinently puts forward several suggestions on how to perfect the guidance of public opinion on legal system,such as perfection of relevant laws and regulations,implementation of legality of network public opinion,confirmance of legal status of network media,establishment of good faith system of media and improvement of legal awareness for media professionals.

  18. Research and experience report 2009. Developments in the technical and legal basis of nuclear oversight; Erfahrungs- und Forschungsbericht 2009. Entwicklungen im Bereich der Grundlagen der nuklearen Aufsicht/Rapport sur la recherche et les experiences en 2009. Developpements dans les bases techniques et legales pour la surveillance nucleaire/Research and experience report 2009. Developments in the technical and legal basis of nuclear oversight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-04-15

    additional intake points in the cooling water outlet. There have been defects and incidents in the construction of the new plants at Olkiluoto (Finland) and Flamanville (France) relating to concreting work and inadequate welding specifications. ENSI will develop a new surveillance concept for the construction of NPPs, so that Switzerland is prepared in time for any new builds. ENSI maintains active links with international organisations, particularly with IAEA, OECD/NEA and WENRA and also has a series of bilateral agreements with France, Germany, Austria and the USA. The ENSI contribution to current negotiations on greater global harmonisation is based on the stringent nuclear safety standards in Switzerland. At the 3{sup rd} Review Conference of the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management, Switzerland received a rating of good for its Country Report: other countries welcomed the transparency of the master plan procedure and the participation of the public and neighbouring countries. The research programme at the rock laboratories of Mont Terri and Grimsel also received a positive reception. According to the main requirements of IAEA and the Swiss Nuclear Energy Act, since 1 January 2009 ENSI has been an independent nuclear regulatory body reporting directly to the Federal Council (Swiss national government). The existing ordinances and guidelines are continuously amended to accord with the recent legislation on nuclear energy and also are harmonised with international standards. A new ordinance based on the Nuclear Energy Act took effect in 2009. In addition ENSI completed 8 guidelines, either new or revisions

  19. Complicaciones relacionadas con catéteres venosos centrales en niños críticamente enfermos

    OpenAIRE

    Miguelena, Dayra; PARDO, ROSALBA; Moron Duarte, Lina Sofía

    2014-01-01

    Objetivo La colocación de catéteres centrales (CVC) es una práctica común para el manejo de pacientes críticos. El propósito de este estudio fue identificar las principales complicaciones y conocer la incidencia de las complicaciones mecánicas e infecciosas relacionadas con la colocación de catéteres venosos centrales en niños críticamente enfermos.Materiales y Métodos Estudio descriptivo realizado entre octubre 2011 a marzo 2012 en todos los niños críticamente enfermos a quienes se les coloc...

  20. Plataforma para Avaliação da Qualidade de Vida Relacionada com a Saúde em Oncologia

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Joaquim José de Almeida Soares

    2012-01-01

    A percepção que um indivíduo tem sobre o seu lugar na vida, dependente da sua cultura e dos seus valores, define a Qualidade de Vida (QdV) individual. Aplicada num contexto de Saúde define-se como: Qualidade de Vida Relacionada com a Saúde (QdVRS). A avaliação da QdVRS é um objectivo em Medicina, usada em investigação clínica, na prática médica, em estudos económicos de saúde e no planeamento de medidas e estratégias de gestão de saúde. A obtenção de auto-resposta do doente ...

  1. Legal Scholarship as a Vocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luban, David

    2001-01-01

    Explores the more purely theoretical side of the legal scholar's vocation, using Max Weber's text on the scholar's role titled "Science as a Vocation." Discusses the consequences of the tension between law schools' generalist "pretensions" and increasingly specialist character, and Weber's fact/value distinction. (EV)

  2. Pre-paid Legal Services

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Siyuan

    2008-01-01

    pre-paid legal services is the new system to defend the high trial fees. It's very popular in the USA. There are some benefits to their customs, and it is still a young system so it also has some weakness. I think it also can be introduces into China.

  3. Legal Education in China Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, R. St. J.

    1980-01-01

    Education in law, which was suspended during the 1976 Chinese Cultural Revolution, is now being steadily developed. Since 1978 the concept of law nihilism has been repudiated, juridical debate has expanded, publications and translated articles are appearing, and legal advisory offices have reappeared. (MSE)

  4. Student Centred Legal Language Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Christine

    1998-01-01

    Describes a self-study legal-language program for university students studying German that included computer-assisted language learning and satellite television. The program was tested for two years at a European university. This paper examines the program's rationale, pedagogical objectives, and theoretical considerations within the context of…

  5. [The debate over drug legalization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babín Vich, Francisco de Asís

    2013-01-01

    The debate over drug legalization appears frequently in the media as a potential solution to issues such as drug trafficking and other problems related to drug use. In Spain, private consumption or even the production of small quantities of certain plants, whose active ingredients are considered illegal drugs, if clearly for own consumption are not practices criminalized by any law. In addition, a drug addict is considered a person who is ill. Although it has not always been like that even in the countries that have called for this debate, where at times the law prosecutes consumers. The population of our country, according to the views expressed in the opinion polls, prefer to increase preventive measures, foster the treatment freely assumed by drug addicts and make stricter the repression on drug trafficking. Therefore, when speaking of "legalization" we should be scrupulous with the semantics; legalize and decriminalize are not the same, it is not the same decriminalize consumption than decriminalize trafficking, neither is the same decriminalize private consumption than public consumption. Decriminalize private consumption is a fact in our country. Beyond this, we advocate for the strict need to analyze from a scientific perspective the hypothetical benefits that would result from drug legalization. Certainly, from the public health perspective, they are hard to find. We believe that the same logic applied to tobacco, increasing the restrictions on its use, is the path to follow with any addictive substance.

  6. The curious case of legal translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Cornelius

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the nature and scope of legal translation which is an under-researched area in South Africa. In this article the author predicts that the demand for competent legal translators will increase in the future, evidenced by a recent call by the Department of Justice and Constitutional Development(DoJ&CD, inviting applications for ten positions for “legislative language practitioners”. However, legal translation differs substantially from general translation in the sense that legal translation is subject to heavy restrictions at all levels and legal considerations are of paramount importance in a country such as South Africa, which provides for eleven official languages. Legal translation involves different legal languages, different legal systems and different cultural systems that require specialised knowledge and skills of the translator. The aim of this article is to investigate the core competencies and skills the legal translator must have; to consider the balance between legal competence and translation or linguistic competence; and to propose a discourse-analytical method of source text analysis, developed by Bhatia as a simplification strategy, as this may be a powerful tool in the training of legal translators in South Africa. Recent developments in South Africa relating to the Department of Arts and Culture’s obligation to translate legislation into all official languages, have important consequences for legal translation in general and the training of legal translators in particular.

  7. DNA profiling: Social, legal, or biological parentage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA profiling in forensic casework is based on comparison of the results of biological evidence with direct reference samples of the individual concerned or with indirect references of his close blood relatives. The selection of reference samples for analysis is crucial to the success of a case; it not only depends on the authenticity of the reference samples, but also on the authenticity of the biological relation of the donors with the person in question. There are situations when the social or legal relationship is not the biological one and there is a need to educate investigating officers, forensic analysts, and the judiciary about the associated problems.

  8. Analysis of Fuzzy Words in Legal English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵波

    2015-01-01

    With the development of legal English,fuzzy words are poured into legislative language and judicial practice constantly.Hence,this paper aims at exploring the application and funtion of different kinds of fuzzy words in legal English.

  9. What is the role of legal systems in financial intermediation? Theory and evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Bottazzi, L.; Da Rin, M.; Hellmann, T.

    2009-01-01

    We develop a theory and empirical test of how the legal system affects the relationship between a venture investor and an entrepreneur. The theory uses a double moral hazard framework to show how optimal contracts and investor actions depend on the quality of the legal system. The empirical evidence is based on a sample of European venture capital deals. The main results are that with better legal protection, investors give more non-contractible support and demand more downside protection, an...

  10. A study on the improvement of the legal system concerning Korean Atomic Energy Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Il Un; Jung, Jong Hak; Kim, Jae Ho; Moon, Jong Wook; Kim, In Sub [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-03-15

    Cause-effect analysis, adjustment, and generalization of the current atomic energy act are contents of this research. These are to be based on the legal theory. Analysis of the current atomic energy act from the viewpoint of constitutional law and administrative law. Review of the other domestic legal systems which have similar problems as the atomic energy act has. Inquiry about the operation of nuclear legal systems of foreign nations.

  11. The Blind Spot of Corporate Social Responsibility: Changing the legal framework of the firm

    OpenAIRE

    Levillain, Kevin; Segrestin, Blanche

    2014-01-01

    CSR research is generally based on the assumption that responsible behaviour is compatible with the legal framework of the firm and its standard strategic approaches. Could this hypothesis be misleading? This paper exhibits some recent practical innovations in the USA that have had to move away from the CSR research framework to provide a more constructive approach to social and environmental impacts. The new legal provisions in question revise the legal framework of firms and their corporate...

  12. A study on the improvement of the legal system concerning Korean Atomic Energy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cause-effect analysis, adjustment, and generalization of the current atomic energy act are contents of this research. These are to be based on the legal theory. Analysis of the current atomic energy act from the viewpoint of constitutional law and administrative law. Review of the other domestic legal systems which have similar problems as the atomic energy act has. Inquiry about the operation of nuclear legal systems of foreign nations

  13. Teaching legal english as a second language

    OpenAIRE

    BADEA ELENA CODRUTA

    2012-01-01

    In the last two decades, legal English has attracted increasing interest and awareness, especially because English is predominantly the language of international legal practice. Legal English must be seen in the overall context of English for Specific Purposes , as it shares the important elements of need analysis, syllabus design, course design, and materials selection and development which are common to all fields of work in ESP. As with other varieties of ESP, Legal English implies the def...

  14. Marketing legal services on the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Alicja Mikołajczyk

    2014-01-01

    This article describes accessible means of marketing legal services under restrictive regulations in the Polish market. As attorneys-at-law and legal advisers face significant legal and ethical limitations in their market communication, they are forced to seek alternative tools of promoting their services and reaching potential clients. Electronic media turned out to be an effective and convenient channel in marketing legal services, often prevailing offline marketing communication. The artic...

  15. Método bundle na redução de infecção de corrente sanguínea relacionada a cateteres centrais: revisão integrativa Método bundle en la redución de infecciones relacionadas a catéteres centrales: una revisión integrativa Care bundle to reduce central venous catheter-related bloodstream infection: an integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Dane Pereira Brachine

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de uma revisão integrativa da literatura, que objetivou identificar intervenções baseadas em evidência que compõem o método bundle, designados à redução de infecção de corrente sanguínea relacionada ou associada a cateter intravenoso central. Para a coleta de dados online, em bases nacionais e internacionais, foram utilizados a palavra-chave bundle e os descritores catheter-related infection, infection control e central venous catheterization, resultando, após aplicação dos critérios de inclusão, amostra de quinze artigos. Este trabalho evidenciou cinco intervenções como as mais frequentemente empregadas na construção dos bundles: higienização das mãos, gluconato de clorexidina como antisséptico para pele, uso de barreira máxima de precaução durante a inserção cateter, evitar acessar veia femoral e verificar necessidade diária de permanência do cateter, com sua remoção imediata quando não mais indicado. A maioria dos estudos demonstrou resultados estatisticamente significantes na redução de infecção de corrente sanguínea relacionada ou associada a cateter intravenoso central.Esta es una revisión integradora tuvo como objetivo identificar intervenciones basadas en evidencias que componen método bundle de reducción de infección sanguínea relacionadas o asociadas con catéter intravenoso central. Para recopilar los datos en las bases brasileñas e internacionales, utilizando la palabra clave bundle y los descriptores infecciones relacionadas con catéteres, control de infecciones y cateterización venosa central, identificando, con los criterios de inclusión, muestra de quince artículo. Este estudio muestra cinco intervenciones como comúnmente empleadas en los métodos bundles: higiene de las manos, clorhexidina como antiséptico para la piel, uso de precaución de barrera máxima durante la inserción del catéter, evitar el acceso de la vena femoral y comprobar la necesidad diaria del cat

  16. Neurological legal disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhakrishna H

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurological disorders with a prolonged course, either remediable or otherwise are being seen increasingly in clinical practice and many such patients are young and are part of some organization or other wherein their services are needed if they were healthy and fit. The neurologists who are on the panel of these organizations are asked to certify whether these subjects are fit to work or how long they should be given leave. These certificates may be produced in the court of law and may be subjected to verification by another neurologist or a medical board. At present there are no standard guidelines in our country to effect such certification unlike in orthopedic specialty or in ophthalmology. The following is a beginning, based on which the neurologist can certify the neurological disability of such subjects and convey the same meaning to all neurologists across the country.

  17. Linguistic Form of the Legal Norm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia IGNATESCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The legal norm is a legal normative judgment in a normative proposition logical form, expressed in a grammatical sentence. It is not the grammatical sentences, neither the propositional forms which are legal, but the normative judgment that gives particular significance to the general form and cognitive value to the information embedded in the grammatical propositional construct.

  18. Rules of Ethics for Legal Advisers

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Falkowska

    2010-01-01

    The profession of a legal adviser is a profession of public confidence, which imposes on its representatives distinctive legal and ethical requirements. The article presents the basic regulations of the new Legal Adviser Code of Ethics, which came into force in 2008.

  19. "Legal Language": Varieties, Genres, Registers, Discourses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzon, Dennis

    1997-01-01

    Analyzes classification of "legal language," clarifying terms such as "variety,""genre,""register," and "discourse," and related issues in languages for special purposes, particularly as they apply to professions. Argues that "genre," not "register," is the most appropriate term for legal language, and that study of legal discourse should focus on…

  20. Organizational Factors Affecting Legalization in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, John W.

    Legalization here refers to the introduction into the educational system of new legal rules, emanating from outside the routine channels of educational management. It includes general legal rules from legislation, from the courts, or from higher administrative levels. The key to the definition is lack of integration of the new rules with the main…

  1. Morocco : Legal and Judicial Sector Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    The overall legal framework in Morocco is not a priority area for reform. The law-making process, however, is weak, resulting in poorly drafted laws, and legal dissemination is inadequate. Legal education relies upon outdated curricula and is offered in competing languages, French and Arabic, the selection of which largely determines students' choices for future employment. The training of...

  2. Bibliography on Public Access to Legal Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinertsen, Gail

    1986-01-01

    This annotated bibliography of literature on public access to legal information is categorized into three sections: public access to legal information and materials in law libraries, access in non-law libraries, and non-prison libraries' responsibility to provide legal information to prisoners. (CLB)

  3. 33 CFR 326.5 - Legal action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... directly to the U.S. Attorney. Because of the unique legal system in the Trust Territories, all cases over... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal action. 326.5 Section 326.5... § 326.5 Legal action. (a) General. For cases the district engineer determines to be appropriate, he...

  4. Propriedades relacionadas à acidez e basicidade a partir da abordagem em química computacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio R. B. Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Analytical Chemistry books lack a clear link between thermodynamic and equilibrium approaches involving acids and bases. In this work, theoretical calculations were performed to search for these relations. An excellent relationship was found between difference in Gibbs free energy, ∆G of acid dissociation reaction and ∆G of hydrolysis reaction of the corresponding conjugate base. A relationship between ∆G of hydrolysis reaction of conjugate acids and their corresponding atomic radius was also identified, showing that stability plays an important role in hydrolysis reactions. Finally, the importance of solvation in acid/base behavior was demonstrated when comparing the corresponding theoretical and experimental ∆G´s.

  5. Prevenção de infecções de corrente sanguínea relacionadas a cateter em pacientes em hemodiálise Prevención de infecciones del torrente sanguíneo relacionadas al catéter de pacientes en hemodiálisis Prevention of Catheter-Related Bloodstream Infections in Patients on Hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayana Souza Fram

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Realizar uma revisão sistemática sobre medidas padronizadas para prevenção de infecções relacionadas a cateter em pacientes em hemodiálise. MÉTODOS: Foi realizada uma revisão sobre a prevenção de infecções em hemodiálise nas bases de dados Medline, Embase, SciElo, Lilacs e Cochrane Library de estudos publicados entre os anos de 1990 e 2008. RESULTADOS: Foram encontrados 293 artigos e destes 12 foram incluídos no estudo. CONCLUSÃO: Foi evidenciada a importância da aplicação de um conjunto de medidas de controle de infecções pelos profissionais da saúde para prevenir a infecção nesta população de pacientes.OBJETIVO: Realizar una revisión sistemática sobre las medidas patronizadas para la prevención de infecciones relacionadas al catéter de pacientes en hemodiálisis. MÉTODOS: Fue realizada una revisión sobre la prevención de infecciones en hemodiálisis en las bases de datos Medline, Embase, SciElo, Lilacs y Cochrane Library de estudios publicados entre los años de 1990 al 2008. RESULTADOS: Fueron encontrados 293 artículos y de éstos 12 fueron incluidos en el estudio. CONCLUSIÓN: Se evidenció la importancia de la aplicación de un conjunto de medidas de control de infecciones por los profesionales de la salud para prevenir la infección en esta población de pacientes.OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review of the literature on the prevention of catheter-related bloodstream infections in patients on hemodialysis. METHODS: A literature search was performed in Medline, Embase, Scielo, Lilacs, and Cochrane databases for articles published from 1990 to 2008. RESULTS: Two hundred ninety- three articles were retrieved. However, only 12 studies were included in this review. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that health care providers use several infection control measures to prevent bloodstream infections in this patient population.

  6. Legal Personality of Inter-Governmental International Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Jura

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Upon the incorporation of an inter-governmental international organization, the states assign to such entities some of their powers, based on which the organization will promote the collective interests of its members. Thus, the international organizations perform some public functions based on which they enter in contact with other entities of international order, such as different states or other organizations. Manifesting as such, they acquire their own legal personality, distinct from that of the states forming it, and which it is opposable erga omnes. The scope of such article is to examine the legal personality of inter-governmental international organizations providing one apprehends the limits of their juridical personality. In the achievement of such objective, I have developed both the internal juridical personality and the international juridical personality of international organizations, recording the manner of manifestation of such legal personality.

  7. What is legal medicine--are legal and forensic medicine the same?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Roy G

    2010-04-01

    Some consider the terms "forensic" and "legal" medicine to be synonymous but this is counter to the title of the Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine or the dual strands for progression to fellowship of the Australian College of Legal Medicine. The paper examines a very brief historical background to legal medicine and develops a definition of the strands thereof, namely legal and forensic medicine. It demonstrates that the two are different components of the application of medical knowledge upon the legal system. Legal medicine has greater relevance to civil and tort law, impacting upon patient care, whereas forensic medicine relates to criminal law and damage to, or by, patients.

  8. Business structures and sustainable regional legal practice: the use of incorporated legal practices by regional, rural and remote legal practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Lydia Hart

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 2007 the Legal Profession Act 2007 (Qld has offered legal practitioners a wider choice of business structure other than sole practitioner or partnership, to include incorporated legal practice ('ILP' or multidisciplinary partnership. In particular the use of ILPs offers legal practitioners a range of benefits in terms of operating a law firm consistent with business management practices. The status of ILP however comes at a cost of putting in place 'appropriate management systems'. This paper refers to the legislation and the literature on the range of business structures, before giving an insight into the actual choice of business structures used by Queensland regional, rural and remote legal practitioners. What is the awareness of the new business structures? And are there factors inhibiting RRR legal practitioners from their use? This paper draws on over 30 interviews with sole practitioners, partners and legal practitioner directors about their choice of business structure.

  9. Shall we marry? Legal marriage as a commitment event in same-sex relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schecter, Ellen; Tracy, Allison J; Page, Konjit V; Luong, Gloria

    2008-01-01

    This study is a part of an exploratory study of 50 married and unmarried same-sex couples in Massachusetts conducted by the Wellesley Centers for Women following legalization of same-sex marriage in Massachusetts in 2004. This article examines whether and how legalization of same-sex marriage impacted same-sex partners' commitment to one another, presentation to others as a couple, and treatment as a couple by others. Roughly one-quarter of the couples studied chose not to mark their commitment with ceremonies of any kind, while nearly three-fourths of the couples had either commitment (non-legal) ceremonies, legal weddings, or both. While decisions to legally marry largely were based on gaining legal protections, unforeseen impacts on self and relationships with family, friends, and the larger society revealed multiple layers of meaning. Implications of the study for public policy and social change are discussed.

  10. Legal issues in the development of geopressured-geothermal resources of Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmer, D.B.; Rogers, K.; Vanston, J.H.; Elmer, D.B.; Gustavson, T.C.; Kreitler, C.W.; Letlow, K.; Lopreato, S.C.; Meriwether, M.; Ramsey, P.; Rogers, K.E.; Williamson, J.K.

    1976-01-01

    The legal issues are discussed in two areas: legal scholarship and legal support. Scholorship is distinguished from support by concentration on abstract analyses of issue that include resource definition, ownership, taxation, and multistate reservoirs. Support is based entirely on those legal tasks called up by the technical work schedule in the areas of Resource Assessment, Advanced Research and Technology, Institutional and Environmental, and Resonance Utilization. The legal section will, in the future, make recommendations and implement procedures designed to assist in the rapid and orderly development of the resource. The PERT (Program Evaluation Review Techniques) chart for sequencing of legal scholarship and support tasks is included. An oral presentation on geothermal resources in Texas, a resource model for the resource utilization section, and some excerpts from legislation pertaining to geothermal energy are provided in an Appendix. (MCW)

  11. LA PREVENCIÓN DEL CONSUMO DE DROGAS LEGALES EN EL DOCENTE EN FORMACIÓN INICIAL DESDE LA TEORÍA HISTÓRICO-CULTURAL

    OpenAIRE

    Alexey Silva Trujillo; Juana López Toranzo

    2015-01-01

    El presente artículo aborda una problemática de vital importancia para la pedagogía cubana, en el proceso de educación para la salud del docente en formación inicial, relacionada con la prevención del consumo de drogas legales. Se fundamenta en una tendencia de orientación marxista que permite el desarrollo de una concepción científica del mundo, y la formación y crecimiento de la personalidad, con sustento teórico en el enfoque histórico-cultural. Contiene los fundamentos filosóficos, sociol...

  12. Legal issues in radon affairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massuelle, M.H. [Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay aux Roses (France)

    1999-12-01

    In France, it was only recently that cases related to high radon concentrations in dwellings received substantial publicity. This irruption of radon as a public health issue came with the general progress of scientific knowledge and the availability of a research capacity in France able to develop expertise. We are interested here in the legal implications of issues that arise from the lag between the activity of expertsand the regulatory activity in the domain of radon. We use the term expertise very broadly, to cover the practical application of research findings, the relation of the researchers with the community, and finally the acts by which experts provide their knowledge to the community. We first examine the course by which science developed the radon issue and the way they organized to move from research to expertise; here we try to characterize the various needs for radon expertise. We then discuss the legal difficulties associated with radon expertise.

  13. Mediation in Legal English Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chovancová Barbora

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mediation is a language activity that has been unjustly neglected when preparing law students for their future professional careers. When trained in a professional context, students need to develop and improve complex communicative skills. These include not only the traditional language skills such as reading, writing, listening and speaking, but also more advanced skills such as summarizing, providing definitions, changing registers etc. All these are involved in the students’ acquisition of ‘soft skills’ that are particularly important for students of law since much of their future work involves interpersonal lawyer-client interaction. This article argues that mediation is a crucial (though previously underestimated skill and that law-oriented ESP instruction should provide training aimed at developing this skill. Showing a practical application of this approach, the paper demonstrates that mediation can be successfully integrated in the legal English syllabus and make the learning of legal English more effective.

  14. Digital Identity - The Legal Person?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Clare

    This paper examines the concept of digital identity which the author asserts is now evident in the United Kingdom as a consequence of the Identity Cards Act (UK) 2006 and the National Identity Scheme it establishes. The nature and functions of the concept, particularly the set of information which constitutes an individual’s transactional identity, are examined. The paper then considers the central question of who, or what, is the legal person in a transaction i.e. who or what enters into legal relations. The analysis presents some intriguing results which were almost certainly not envisaged by the legislature. The implications extend beyond the United Kingdom to similar schemes in other jurisdictions, and to countries, like Australia, which may implement such a scheme.

  15. Legal framework for food fortification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dijkhuizen, Marjoleine Amma; Wieringa, Frank Tammo; Soekarjo, Damayanti D;

    2013-01-01

    Food fortification is a cost-effective, powerful, and sustainable strategy to combat micronutrient deficiency, with the potential to reach large sections of the population with minimal cost and effort. However, the implementation of food fortification on a systematic and large scale, for instance...... of food fortification programs, as it shapes to a large extent the implementation of food fortification. The legal framework is instrumental to ensure the quality, safety, availability, cost-effectiveness, and sustainability of food fortification. In the first place, the legal framework should specify...... the fortificants and fortification levels, as well as the food vehicles and the fortification procedures. In addition, it should ensure the commitment of policy makers and producers to fortification, regulate the costing, describe and ensure information and communication such as product labeling integrate social...

  16. Surrogacy: Ethical and Legal Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Pikee Saxena; Archana Mishra; Sonia Malik

    2012-01-01

    Surrogacy refers to a contract in which a woman carries a pregnancy “for” another couple. Number of infertile couples from all over the World approach India where commercial surrogacy is legal. Although this arrangement appears to be beneficial for all parties concerned,there are certain delicate issues which need to be addressed through carefully framed laws in order to protect the rights of the surrogate mother and the intended parents.

  17. Surrogacy: Ethical and Legal Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Pikee; Mishra, Archana; Malik, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    Surrogacy refers to a contract in which a woman carries a pregnancy “for” another couple. Number of infertile couples from all over the World approach India where commercial surrogacy is legal. Although this arrangement appears to be beneficial for all parties concerned,there are certain delicate issues which need to be addressed through carefully framed laws in order to protect the rights of the surrogate mother and the intended parents. PMID:23293432

  18. Medicina legal, peritos y peritaciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Kvitko

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se expone la evolución histórica del concepto de Medicina Legal y cómo ha sido aplicado en diversos contextos. Se resalta la labor del perito como un experto, separándolo de lo que habitualmente es considerado cuando declara en un juicio: un simple testigo. Precisamente existen marcadas diferencias entre éste y un perito, el cual debe poseer una gran cantidad de valores éticos, morales y sociales para no deformar la verdad de los hechos. Asimismo, se sugiere cuáles deben ser las partes que debe poseer una peritación médico legal para que tenga un adecuado valor como instrumento probatorio durante un proceso judicial. Todo lo anterior siempre con el fin de mejorar la Administración de JusticiaThe present work describes the historical evolution of the concept of Legal Medicine and as has been applied in various contexts. It highlights the work of the proficient such as an expert, away from what is usually considered when declared in a trial: a simple witness. Precisely there are marked differences between this witness and an expert, which must have a great amount of ethical, moral and social values not to deform the truth of the facts. It also suggests what should be the actions that you must possess as a legal medicine proficient, to have an adequate evidentiary value as a tool during a judicial process; and improving the administration of justice

  19. Prospects of ASEAN Legal Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Agus Riyanto

    2016-01-01

    Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is a regional organization in the countries of Southeast Asia established in Bangkok, Thailand, on August 8, 1967 (the Bangkok Declaration) by Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. One form of cooperation that could further encourage the establishment of ASEAN's goal was legal cooperation. This was because, this cooperation could further strengthen cooperation in politics, economy, social and culture in Southeast Asia. ...

  20. Surrogacy: ethical and legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Pikee; Mishra, Archana; Malik, Sonia

    2012-10-01

    Surrogacy refers to a contract in which a woman carries a pregnancy "for" another couple. Number of infertile couples from all over the World approach India where commercial surrogacy is legal. Although this arrangement appears to be beneficial for all parties concerned,there are certain delicate issues which need to be addressed through carefully framed laws in order to protect the rights of the surrogate mother and the intended parents. PMID:23293432

  1. Legal protection to foreign investors

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Hatchondo; Leonardo Martinez

    2011-01-01

    Foreign investment is typically considered an important source of growth for developing countries. This article describes the legal protection granted to foreign investors and its enforcement mechanisms. Governments have signed international investment agreements intended to protect foreign investors from the risk of expropriation and have increasingly chosen to issue sovereign debt in international financial centers, which expose defaulting governments to litigations in foreign national cour...

  2. Surrogacy: Ethical and Legal Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pikee Saxena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Surrogacy refers to a contract in which a woman carries a pregnancy "for"another couple. Number of infertile couples from all over the World approach India where commercial surrogacy is legal. Although this arrangement appears to be beneficial for all parties concerned,there are certain delicate issues which need to be addressed through carefully framed laws in order to protect the rights of the surrogate mother and the intended parents.

  3. Legal Rights for Criminal Minors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    IN a theft case cracked in Guiyang City, Guizhou Province, the seven juvenile delinquents involved were mainly junior middle school students around 13 to 14 years old. What are the legal rights they can enjoy when brought to trial? It is clearly defined in the Law of the People's Republic of China for the Protection of Minors enforced on September 4, 1991. Minors refers to citizens below the age of 18.

  4. The current situation and cultivation of legal professional ethics in China-based on empirical survey data%法律职业伦理现状及其培育-以实证调研数据为基础

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴鹏

    2015-01-01

    通过对法律职业共同体成员的约束和引导,法律职业伦理能够促进共同体成员的自律,有利于提高其道德水平和综合素质,有利于腐败遏制和公正司法,对于法治建设具有重要意义。调研显示,法律职业群体,尤其是律师遵守职业伦理状况不容乐观。实践中存在律师乱收费、虚假承诺、虚假宣传,公检法人员办理“人情案”现象等;这些行为对法律职业群体的形象产生影响。通过加强法律职业伦理教育、对法律职业群体进行职业伦理培训、引导等方式加强法律职业伦理的培育,能够促进法律人的职业化和法治建设。%By restraining and guiding the legal professional groups, legal professional ethics can promote the self-discipline, moral level and comprehensive qualities of the legal community members. Legal professional ethics is good for the corruption containment and judicial justice, which means a lot to the construction of the rule of law. The result of the investigation and survey indicates that the legal professional ethics is not well abided by legal occupation groups, especial by lawyers. Such as, there are lawyers who make arbitrary charges, who make fake promises and advertisements, polices, procurators and judges who deal with cases which involve human relationship, etc. These behaviors have bad inlfuences on the images of the legal community members. We can strengthen the cultivation of legal profession ethics by paying more attention on legal profession education and trainings and conduction of legal ethics. Professionalization of legal profession and the construction of the rule of law can be greatly promoted.

  5. Are xenotransplantation safeguards legally viable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florencio, P S; Ramanathan, E D

    2001-01-01

    Scientists agree on the need for robust public health safeguards to accompany the imminent introduction of xenotransplantation--clinical transplantation of animal tissue into humans. To protect society in the event of emerging infectious diseases, governments must devise a legally effective means of ensuring compliance with such safeguards. Neither consent law, the law of contracts, nor existing public health legislation can adequately enforce such compliance. Consent law serves as a mechanism of communicating the momentary waiver of legal rights, not as a durable enforcement doctrine. Because it would be essential for recipients personally to comply with public safety measures, the law of contracts would also be unable to compel compliance. Existing public health legislation would also likely be ineffective because it would need to be substantially amended to incorporate the heightened powers necessary for the periodic examination of asymptomatic xenotransplant recipients. Xenotransplantation-specific legislation would be a legally effective means of enforcing public health safeguards since it could require conforming behaviors and could impose monetary fines on those recipients who, having benefited from life-saving intervention, fail to comply. This Article argues that legislation implementing a post-xenotransplantation surveillance system should withstand constitutional scrutiny because it would not be discriminatory and because, although it would violate fundamental rights of recipients, such violations would be justified under existing constitutional doctrines. PMID:15212014

  6. THE LIMITS OF DNA TESTING USED AS EVIDENCE IN COURT. A REPORT BASED ON THE PRACTICE OF THE INSTITUTE OF LEGAL MEDICINE CLUJ-NAPOCA

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Perju-Dumbrava; Ioana Mic; Ovidiu Sorin Chiroban

    2013-01-01

    The evaluation of the evidentiary value of scientific evidence is the assessment of thestrength of the link between a finding and a person. It is usually a statisticalassessment but its presentation is full of pitfalls. The evaluation of scientific evidencemust be based on an established methodology to both evaluate, expose and interpretthe evidence. The formidable expansion in the use of DNA has not only increased theextent of interaction between forensic scientists and lawyers but more impo...

  7. Legal terminology at arm's length - the multiple dimensions of legal terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Kocbek

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is aimed at shedding new light on the multiple dimensions of legal terms which can be unearthed in the process of terminology mining as a crucial stage in translation. It proposes to view legal terminology from a sociocognitive perspective, according to which terms are perceived as expressing units of understanding based oncognitive frames rather than rendering concepts in their traditional definition. Upon closer scrutiny most of these units reveal significant information regarding their verbal and extra-verbal dimensions. We therefore suggest analysing units of understanding expressed by simple terms, multiple elements terms and phraseology as depositories of knowledge providing information on the text type in which they occur, as well as on there levant area of law, the legal system and the wider culture underlying the text. In this context, terminology mining is not intended merely as extraction of terms, but rather as their analysis, comparison and structuring which reveals aspects such as their multiple embeddedness, as well as their historical, ideological, metaphorical, status-conferringand common Latin dimension.

  8. SOCIAL LEGAL TRANSFORMATION OF PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohaib Mukhtar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan came into being in 1947. It struggled a lot during its initial days. It did not come to consensus to make a constitution until 1956 but later on military regime intervened. It is a drawback of Pakistan that laws and the constitution are not made indeed for its people rather they are made for the selfish elite who come into the power time to time without the support of the people. An unelected person cannot make a law for the betterment of the people he always do things for his own interest. Purpose - To point out weaknesses and hindrances in the social legal transformation of Pakistan and to recommend changes and best possible ways to build a highly social legal transformed society. Design/methodology/approach - The treatise is made taking into account the qualitative approach by looking into the historical prospect of social legal issues of Pakistan and to come to a conclusion to draw a better picture if followed the suggested steps. Findings - The paper includes the review of the history and weaknesses in legal transformation and comprehensive suggested steps to be followed to overcome the weaknesses and deficiencies. Research limitations/implications - The paper is limited to the social and legal aspects of the transformation in Pakistan and does not go into the deep details of politics and culture. Practical implications - Suggested steps can be followed by the legislature to make amendments in laws and to make more suitable laws which is a necessity for the better social transformation of Pakistan. Originality/Value - The research is a good piece and has an importance in its field and may help a lot in the development of the country and the region specially and the world at large generally. Keywords: Islamic rulers of the sub-continent; British India and its laws; Constitution of Pakistan 1956,1962 and 1973. Research type: The said research is a critical analysis on the development and transformation of Pakistan with respect to law

  9. Bacteriemia relacionada a catéter por Ochrobactrum anthropi Catheter-associated bacteremia caused by Ochrobactrum anthropi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Soloaga

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Ochrobactrum anthtropi es un bacilo gram negativo aeróbico, no fermentador de la glucosa, anteriormente conocido como Achromobacter sp o CDC grupo Vd. Ha sido aislado del medio ambiente y de infecciones en seres humanos que generalmente presentaban algún tipo de inmunocompromiso. Las infecciones por este microorganismo fueron bacteriemias relacionadas a catéteres y en ocasiones endoftalmitis, infecciones urinarias, meningitis, endocarditis, absceso hepático, osteocondritis, absceso pelviano y absceso pancreático. Se presenta el caso de un paciente de sexo masculino, de 69 años de edad, que consultó a la guardia por hipotensión sostenida y síndrome febril de cuatro días de evolución, escalofrío, sudoración profusa y deterioro del sensorio. El paciente tenía diabetes de tipo 2 y antecedente de accidente cerebrovascular. Debido a insuficiencia renal crónica presentaba un catéter de doble lumen para la diálisis. Se documentó una bacteriemia relacionada a catéter por cultivo de sangre a través de catéter y de vena periférica, utilizando el sistema automatizado de hemocultivos Bact-Alert y la metodología de tiempo diferencial (>120min. La confirmación se realizó, una vez removido el catéter, por la técnica semicuantitativa de Maki (> 15 UFC. El microorganismo fue identificado por API 20NE y Vitek 1 como Ochrobactrum anthropi.Ochrobactrum anthropi is a non-glucose fermentative, aerobic gram-negative bacillus, formerly known as Achromobacter sp or CDC group Vd. It has been isolated from the environment and from infections in usually immunocompromised human beings. The documented infections frequently involved catheter related bacteremia whereas endophthalmitis, urinary infections, meningitis, endocarditis, hepatic abscess, osteochondritis, pelvic abscess and pancreatic abscess were rarely involved. Here it is presented the case of a male patient aged 69 years with sustained hypotension, four day febrile syndrome, chill, lavish

  10. 互联网众筹融资的《证券法》适用问题研究%The Legal Research on Internet-based Crowdfunding and The Security Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁文卓

    2015-01-01

    Crowdfunding ,the use of Internet to raise money through small contributions from a large number of investors ,could cause a revolution in small‐business financing .However ,crowdfunding also poses some problems under The Interpretation of the Supreme People's Court of Several Issues on the SpecificApplicationofLawintheHandlingofCriminalCasesaboutIllegalFund‐raising.Inthisarti‐cle ,the author proposed that crowdfunding sometimes involves the sale of securities ,triggering the regis‐tration requirements of T he Security L aw .As a result ,the definition of security should be enlarged under The Security Law .We need to learn overseas experience represented by the JOBS Act ,and accurately de‐fine the legal status and characteristics of crowdfunding .We also need to make the appropriate response to the legal structure and regulatory system of crowdfunding based on the proper coordination between the capital formation and investor protection .%众筹融资作为一种处于萌芽期的互联网金融模式,由于面临数量众多的投资者且融资金额较大,极易触碰非法集资的红线。通过分析,众筹融资本质是一种证券发行行为,筹资者、众筹平台、投资人这三方参与主体分别对应着发行人、证券交易所和投资者这三种《证券法》下的特定主体。但由于我国《证券法》的适用范围过窄,导致众筹融资无法适用《证券法》而被冠以“非法集资”的罪名。因此,扩大“证券”的范围是为众筹融资“正名”的直接途径,同时借鉴美国2012年JOBS法案中对众筹融资注册豁免的经验,在妥善协调资本形成与投资者保护关系的基础上,针对众筹融资的法律构造和监管制度作出相应的回应。

  11. [Medical, ethical and legal issues in cryopreservation of human embryos].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beca, Juan Pablo; Lecaros, Alberto; González, Patricio; Sanhueza, Pablo; Mandakovic, Borislava

    2014-07-01

    Embryo cryopreservation improves efficiency and security of assisted reproduction techniques. Nonetheless, it can be questionable, so it must be justified from technical, legal and ethical points of view. This article analyses these perspectives. Embryo cryopreservation maximizes the probability of pregnancy, avoids new ovary stimulations and reduces the occurrence of multiple gestations. There is consensus that the in vitro embryo deserves legal protection by its own, although not as a newborn. Very few countries prohibit embryo cryopreservation based on the legal duty to protect human life since fecundation. Those countries that allow it, privilege women's reproductive rights. In Chile and in Latin America, no laws have been promulgated to regulate human assisted reproduction. The moral status of the embryo depends on how it is considered. Some believe it is a potential person while others think it is just a group of cells, but all recognize that it requires some kind of respect and protection. There is lack of information about the number of frozen embryos and their final destination. As a conclusion the authors propose that women or couples should have the right to decide autonomously, while institutions ought to be clear in their regulations. And the legislation must establish the legal status of the embryo before its implantation, the couples' rights and the regulation of the embryo cryopreservation. Personal, institutional or legal decisions must assume a concept about the moral status of the human embryo and try to avoid their destruction or indefinite storage.

  12. Mortalidade neonatal precoce relacionada a intervenções clínicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Marchese Bittencourt

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudo descritivo, transversal, que objetivou identificar a influência das intervenções clínicas realizadas na sala de parto e UTI Neonatal no óbito neonatal precoce em Cuiabá-MT, no ano de 2010. A coleta de dados foi feita em janeiro-fevereiro/2011, com base nos dados contidos nas declarações de nascidos vivos, declarações de óbito e prontuário hospitalares, sendo arquivados e tratados no programa SPSS versão 15.0. Dos 77 óbitos analisados, 94,7% dos bebês nasceram no hospital e mais de 70% morreram precocemente. As intervenções em sala de parto que se associaram ao risco de óbito precoce foram a reanimação cardiopulmonar e intubação; durante a internação, o cateter central de inserção periférica e a hemotransfusão associaram-se como fator de proteção para o óbito precoce. O conhecimento de práticas clínicas benéficas ou maléficas para a saúde do neonato é imprescindível para alcançar a qualidade do cuidado e, consequentemente, reduzir os óbitos neonatais, especialmente os precoces.

  13. California Western Law School's First-Year Course in Legal Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Peter W.

    1980-01-01

    Design and content of a legal writing program are outlined: premises on which the curriculum is based, program overview, first semester skill elements, law office memorandum preparation, appellate advocacy, grading, legal skills notebook, student instructors. Available from Union University, 80 Scotland Ave., Albany, NY 12208; $2.50, entire issue.…

  14. Specification of the Legal Knowledge Interchange Format: Deliverable 1.1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Boer; M. Di Bello; K. van den Berg; T. Gordon; A. Förhécz; R. Vas

    2007-01-01

    The main technical objectives of work package 1 are to develop a first version of a Legal Knowledge Interchange Format (LKIF), building upon emerging XML-based standards of the Semantic Web, including RDF and OWL, and Application Program Interfaces (APIs) for interacting with legal knowledge systems

  15. Watch Out for the Under Toad : Role and Method of Interdisciplinary Contextualisation in Comparative Legal Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Mak (Elaine)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThis article studies the significance of insights from non- legal disciplines (such as political science, economics, and sociology) for comparative legal research and the methodology connected with such ‘interdisciplinary contextualisation’. Based on a theoretical analysis concerning the

  16. The Effect of Nunan's Six Elements of Task to Improve Students Competencies in Legal English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Wang

    2016-01-01

    This paper is to study the effect of the six elements of task put forward by Nunan on the improvement of students' competencies in legal English, hoping to provide an important glimpse of how current legal English teaching in Chinese universities meets the requirements of the curriculum and the needs of the learners. Based on a case study of…

  17. Legal questions concerning the termination of spent fuel element reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thesis on legal aspects of the terminated spent fuel reprocessing in Germany is based on the legislation, jurisdiction and literature until January 2004. The five chapters cover the following topics: description of the problem; reprocessing of spent fuel elements in foreign countries - practical and legal aspects; operators' responsibilities according to the atomic law with respect to the reprocessing of Geman spent fuel elements in foreign countries; compatibility of the prohibition of Geman spent fuel element reprocessing in foreign countries with international law, European law and German constitutional law; results of the evaluation

  18. Ensayos con animales: aspectos éticos y legales

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio Álvarez, Lucía

    2015-01-01

    El Objetivo principal del trabajo Ensayos con animales: Aspectos éticos y legales es proponer medidas que permitan disminuir el uso de animales de experimentación. Para ello se han desarrollado otros objetivos secundarios encaminados a facilitar la tarea de los investigadores: Recopilar la normativa ética y legal, facilitar el acceso a la terminología, esquematizar el protocolo de investigación establecido en la normativa, verificar la existencia de bases de datos de las investigaciones, estu...

  19. Skeptical Legal Education: How to Develop a Critical Attitude?

    OpenAIRE

    van Klink, B.M.J.; de Vries, U.R.M.T.

    2013-01-01

    Law teachers at the university want students to develop a critical attitude. But what exactly does it mean to be critical and why is it important to be critical? How can a critical attitude be promoted? In this article we intend to elucidate the role that critical thinking may play in legal education. We will introduce the idea of skeptical legal education, which is to a large extent based on Michael Oakeshott’s understanding of liberal learning but which relativizes its insistence on the non...

  20. On legal English teaching from the lack of equivalent legal words%从中英法律词汇缺项谈法律英语教学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖珺

    2014-01-01

    Legal words are the most basic elements of law. Because of the heterogeneity of legal languages, the objective of legal vocabulary, and the differences between our country and western countries such as Britain and the United States on the legal cultures, the lack of equivalent legal words is inevitable during legal translation. Based on the discussion of this phenomenon, the teaching method of legal English translation is put forward.%法律词汇是构建法律的最基本要素,法律语言的异质性(heterogeneity)、法律词汇的对象性和我国与英美等西方国家在法律文化上的差异性,使得中英法律的翻译不可避免出现了法律词汇缺项(lack of equivalent legal words)。本文在探讨这一现象的同时,对法律英语翻译教学提出相应的对策。

  1. 资源型城市可持续发展的法律支持%Legal Support on Sustainable Development of Resource-based Cities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷玉萍

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays,in legislation concerning sustainable development of resource-based cities in China,there exist the following problems,such as lacking of individual legislation on protection of mineral resources,imperfect in legislative system on environmental supervision on mineral resources,incomplete in control system on mine owners and exploration-right holders,too general and hard to use the articles of laws,and too many blanks in the laws.Thereby,the government should hold the principle of sustainable development to enact special and local legislations on mineral resources,increase legislation on environmental protection on resource-based cities,reform management system on mineral resources,take administration by law and increase law enforcement.%目前,我国资源型城市可持续发展立法存在的问题,主要体现缺乏矿产资源保护的单项立法,矿产资源环境监管立法体制不佳,采矿权人、探矿权人的监督制度不健全,法条笼统可操作性差、法律制度空白点多等方面。加强资源型城市可持续发展的立法,要坚持可持续发展的原则,开展矿产资源的专项立法和地方立法,强化资源型城市环保立法措施,改革矿产资源管理体制,坚持依法行政,加大执法力度。

  2. Legal problems concerning productive training base in higher vocational college%高职院校生产性实训基地运行法律问题探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高慧云

    2012-01-01

      Productive training in higher vocational college is training base with real operating function. There are many law problems during operating due to productive characteristic, which include labor relationship problems, labor reward problems, body unexpected indemnify, authority of industry and commerce and tax problems. These problems influence that productive training base operates regularly. The paper points out that productive training base should operate according to law and promote its law education function;its property right should be definite and be independent legal entities. We should apply law means to reduce its law risks.%  高职院校生产性实训基地是具有真实经营功能的校内实训基地,由于其经营性特征在运行过程中出现了很多法律问题,包括劳动关系问题、劳动报酬问题、人身意外赔偿问题、工商许可和税收等问题,这些法律问题影响着生产性实训基地的正常运行。提出了生产性实训基地要依法运行、提升其法律教育功能;要明晰产权,明确生产性实训基地的独立法人地位;要运用法律手段减少其运行风险。

  3. IT Security Standards and Legal Metrology – Transfer and Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiel F.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Legal Metrology’s requirements can be transferred into the IT security domain applying a generic set of standardized rules provided by the Common Criteria (ISO/IEC 15408. We will outline the transfer and cross validation of such an approach. As an example serves the integration of Legal Metrology’s requirements into a recently developed Common Criteria based Protection Profile for a Smart Meter Gateway designed under the leadership of the Germany’s Federal Office for Information Security. The requirements on utility meters laid down in the Measuring Instruments Directive (MID are incorporated. A verification approach to check for meeting Legal Metrology’s requirements by their interpretation through Common Criteria’s generic requirements is also presented.

  4. THE LOCATION OF MOBILE COMMUNICATIONS EQUIPMENT TECHNICAL AND LEGAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim DOBRINOIU

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of the Information Technology and the large scale use of the modern cutof-the-edge means of electronic communications constitute an undisputable progress of the Knowledge Society and the creation of the new social relations based on these platforms necessitated in time also a change in the Law philosophy. If the communication by electronic means still poses nowadays an attraction for the legal experts and professionals, chiefly for the law enforcement agencies or the intelligence services, another product of science, the location, starts highlighting its benefits but also the legal challenges. The paper aims at presenting the localization of mobile communications devices, both from technical and legal perspectives, with the view to be seen and understood as an Information Society service for the citizens.

  5. Embed with the Faculty: Legal Information Skills Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nicki McLaurin; Presser, Prue

    2005-01-01

    This article evaluates the Legal Information Skills Tutorial (LIST), a successful multi-media online learning project at the University of Melbourne Law School based on the Council of Australian University Librarians (CAUL) Information Literacy Standards. (Council of Australian University Librarians, Information Literacy Standards (2001)…

  6. What Motivates Public Support for Legally Mandated Mental Health Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Amy C.; Corrigan, Patrick W.; Angell, Beth

    2005-01-01

    The use of legal coercion to compel individuals to participate in mental health treatment is expanding despite a lack of empirical support for many of its forms. Policies supporting mandated treatment are made by legislators and judges, often based on perceptions of public concern. Using data from the MacArthur Mental Health Module contained in…

  7. HISTORICAL AND LEGAL ANALYSIS OF THE FORMATION OF INFORMATION LAW

    OpenAIRE

    Indrisova Z. N.

    2014-01-01

    The article is devoted to carrying out the historical and legal analysis of the formation of information law. Based on this study, it is proposed to have classification stages of the formation of information law, which includes a pre-scientific, elementary, secondary stage, the stage of uncertainly and the modern stage

  8. Islamic Law and Legal Education in Modern Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakissa, Aria Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines the transmission of Islamic legal knowledge in modern Egypt. It is based on two years of ethnographic fieldwork in Cairo among formally trained Islamic scholars. With governmental permission, I was able to attend classes at both al-Azhar's Faculty of Shari'ah and Cairo University's Dar al-'Ulum. I…

  9. The Legal Content of School Psychology Journals: A Systematic Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaheer, Imad; Zirkel, Perry A.

    2014-01-01

    The many challenges that school psychologists face inevitably include legal issues. In light of the agreement between the two primary professional organizations for school psychologists that understanding of law is a critical competency, this study analyzed the extent of law-based articles in leading school psychology journal articles published…

  10. Students with Acquired Brain Injury: A Legal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a comprehensive and current synthesis of the legislation, regulations, policy interpretations, and case law concerning students with traumatic and nontraumatic brain injury from pre-K to grade 12. The primary focus is the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, but the scope extends to other applicable legal bases. The…

  11. Conciencia ambiental y conducta sustentable relacionada con el uso de energía para iluminación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Lucía Tonello

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available La conciencia ambiental es definida como un concepto multidimensional que constituye la dimensión actitudinal del comportamiento pro ambiental. En un contexto global y local de crisis energética, el presente trabajo tuvo como objetivos investigar las interrelaciones entre las diferentes dimensiones de la conciencia ambiental y la posible sustentabilidad detrás de conductas relacionadas con el uso de la iluminación, en una muestra de estudiantes universitarios. La metodología incluyó el desarrollo y administración de una encuesta con diferentes secciones para estimar la conciencia ambiental mediante escalas clasificatorias y preguntas sobre percepción de problemas ambientales, la atribución de responsabilidades, escalas estandarizadas de preocupación ambiental, conocimientos ambientales y la propensión al futuro como un rasgo de la personalidad sustentable. Los resultados en general muestran que la temática energética, al menos la referida a la iluminación tomada en este estudio, no es percibida como problemática ambiental sino como una problemática que afecta a nivel individual, y la perspectiva temporal de futuro evidenciada por la muestra está referida al tiempo futuro en sí mismo, más que como rasgo de personalidad sustentable.

  12. Adesão e dificuldades relacionadas ao tratamento medicamentoso em pacientes com depressão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazielle Ibanez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa verificou a adesão e conhecimento de pessoas com depressão quanto à farmacoterapia prescrita, a satisfação com a equipe de saúde e as dificuldades relacionadas ao tratamento medicamentoso. Trata-se de estudo transversal, descritivo, com abordagem quali-quantitativa. Participaram do estudo 27 pessoas atendidas em um serviço ambulatorial do interior de São Paulo - Brasil. Os dados foram coletados por entrevistas semiestruturadas e revisão de prontuários e analisados por estatística descritiva e análise de conteúdo. Constatou-se que 29,6% dos pacientes não aderiam aos medicamentos e que 51,9% desconheciam a dose dos medicamentos prescritos. Como dificuldades para o seguimento da terapêutica medicamentosa, foram apontados o impacto dos sintomas depressivos sobre o autocuidado, a insatisfação com efeitos dos psicofármacos, a carência de apoio, a polifarmacoterapia e a falta de conhecimento sobre o transtorno e tratamento. Este estudo aponta fatores críticos para a promoção da segurança do paciente no seguimento da terapêutica medicamentosa.

  13. DESCRIPCIÓN DE UN FRAMEWORK METODOLOGICO PARA EL DESARROLLO DE APLICACIONES RELACIONADAS CON EL PATRIMONIO CULTURAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Mauricio Hincapié-Montoya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Preservar los espacios y difundirlos es una función social que debe mantener unidos a los pueblos y que no puede dejarse a un lado por el clamor y la voz del desarrollo. Para ello la tecnología juega un papel de facilitador mediático a través de la cual se puede llegar a diferentes espacios y lugares históricamente importantes pero físicamente inaccesibles por su desaparición. En los últimos años se han desarrollado aplicaciones que buscan reactivar el patrimonio cultural y hacen uso de tecnologías como realidad virtual, realidad aumentada o juegos serios. Sin embargo, la mayoría son casos de estudio en un tema particular y el área carece de un framework metodológico, que guie y facilite el desarrollo de este tipo de aplicaciones. En este articulo proponemos un framework metodológico conceptual, el cual busca guiar el desarrollo de aplicaciones relacionadas con la reactivación del patrimonio cultural al tiempo que maximiza el aprendizaje de los usuarios en este tema.

  14. Anti-corruption policy in the system of legal measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Viktorovna Filonenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to determine the scientificmethodological foundations of anticorruption policy. Methods dialectical approach to cognition of social phenomena allows to explore the combination of objective and subjective factors influencing the formation and implementation of anticorruption policy. The author39s model of anticorruption policy is based on the wide range of logical methods of information processing modeling abstraction analysis analogy. Scientific hypothesis and formal legal analysis were also used. Results basing on comparison of the recent theoreticallegal criminallegal and criminological research in the field of legal and anticorruption policy the scientificmethodological foundations of anticorruption policy are disclosed. The authors attempt to systematize the scientific interpretation of anticorruption policy. The concept of legal policy its forms tools subjects and typesare discussed. As a result it becomes possible to describe the current anticorruption policy using terminology from the theory of legal policy. This approach can increase the effectiveness of modern anticorruption policy as it allows to clearly see the gaps and shortcomings in lawmaking and law enforcement during the anticorruption policy implementation. Scientific novelty the article makes an attempt to describe the current anticorruption policy with the use of terminology and models developed in the theoretical and legal research for the characterization of legal policy and its particular directions. Practical significance the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific and pedagogical work when considering questions about the nature and trends of the modern anticorruption policy development. The applied approach allows to bring together criminal law criminology and theoreticallegal research of anticorruption policy. nbsp

  15. Mortalidade por leucemias relacionada à industrialização Mortality by industrialization-related leukemias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Helena Seoane Leal

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a distribuição espacial da mortalidade por leucemia na população, buscando identificar agregados e estabelecer sua relação com os níveis de industrialização. MÉTODOS: O estudo foi realizado nas 43 regiões de governo do Estado de São Paulo, no qüinqüênio 1991-1995. Foi construído um "índice de industrialização relativo à leucemia" (IIRL baseado no número de indústrias e empregos industriais por 100.000 habitantes, valor adicionado fiscal, variedade de ramos industriais e indústrias com potenciais exposições de risco para a leucemia. O IIRL foi distribuído em cinco categorias. Verificaram-se os coeficientes padronizados de mortalidade por leucemia em cada uma das regiões, também distribuídos em cinco categorias e comparados ao mapa IIRL. RESULTADOS: As regiões mais industrializadas em ordem decrescente foram Campinas, Piracicaba, Jundiaí, Sorocaba e São Paulo. Não foi encontrada associação entre mortalidade, por nenhum tipo de leucemia, e industrialização. A região de Jales foi a que apresentou o mais alto coeficiente padronizado de mortalidade por leucemia. CONCLUSÕES: A distribuição da mortalidade por leucemia ocorreu de forma homogênea no Estado de São Paulo, não apresentando correlação com o nível de industrialização. Entretanto, aspectos relacionados ao método epidemiológico adotado -- estudo ecológico -- e ao uso do parâmetro "mortalidade por leucemia", doença cujo prognóstico tem mudado muito nas últimas décadas, limitaram a interpretação dos resultados.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the spatial distribution of mortality by leukemia in the population, looking for clusters, and to establish an association with the level of industrialization. METHOD: The study was carried out in 43 state regions of the state of São Paulo, Brazil, in the period between 1991 and 1995. It was created an Index of Industrialization-Related Leukemia (IIRL based on number of manufactures and

  16. [Current legal problems of sterilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eser, A; Koch, H G

    1982-06-01

    Voluntary sterilization has not yet acquired comprehensive legal formulation. Thus there is a legal vacuum which physicians have attempted to fill by relying on their internal professional regulations. These provide for sterilization on an indication; however, an offense against this rule is not punishable in the courts. There is a prohibition, in particular, against so-called "courtesy sterilization," but this is of little significance today when so many social indications for sterilization can be found. But in general these professional regulations provide no useful assistance in deciding when a sterilization is permitted. In criminal law sterilization done by free will is not punishable nor is any indication required. The law deals in detail with the meaning and definition of the "free will" of the person being sterilized. This involves: capacity to have a free will, what to do about persons lacking that capacity (especially minors), and necessity to ensure that that woman understands all the consequences of sterilization. The civil courts have much more to do with sterilization than the criminal ones. One ground for suit is that the sterilization was "contrary to accepted morality," although the courts will generally hold that the woman herself cannot assert this claim. Another ground is lack of consent by the woman. Another ground is improper performance by the physician, i.e., malpractice. Thus the physician has to fear most the charges of no valid consent or malpractice. Questions of insurance law are also pertinent, since an insured person can be compensated for sterilization only if the procedure is legal.

  17. Aspects of legal communitarianism in Greece: between Millet and citizenship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Tsitselikis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Legal and political percepts pertaining to ethnic belonging in Greece are closely linked to the ideological understanding of Greekness, a legacy of the Ottoman Greek-Orthodox millet system. Complementary to this image of the national self, minority protection law on Muslims and Jews was and still is partially formed through millet-like paradigms. Greece’s territorial expansion made all inhabitants of the annexed provinces Greek citizens en masse: in addition to those that were deemed eligible to belong to the Greek nation, Jewish and Muslim communities also acquired Greek citizenship. For these communities the self-autonomy of the Ottoman millet structure in education and religious matters was transformed into minority protection, through special rights (community schools, Moufti’s jurisdiction, Muslim foundations, military conscription attributable through religion to citizens of the state. En Grecia, la interpretación ideológica del carácter griego está estrechamente relacionada con los preceptos legales y políticos relativos a la pertenencia étnica, legado del sistema millet otomano griego-ortodoxo. Como complemento a esta percepción de la identidad nacional, la ley de protección de las minorías musulmanas y judías estuvo, y todavía está parcialmente formada por paradigmas milletianos. La expansión territorial de Grecia convirtió de forma masiva a los habitantes de las provincias anexadas en ciudadanos griegos: entre los que se consideró que reunían los requisitos necesarios para pertenecer a la nación griega, se encontraban las comunidades judías y musulmanas. En ambos casos, la autonomía en temas de educación y religión que disfrutaban dentro de la estructura milletiana de los otomanos, se transformó en protección minoritaria, a través de derechos especiales (escuelas de la comunidad, jurisdicción Moufti, fundaciones musulmanas, el reclutamiento militar atribuibles a los ciudadanos del estado a través de la

  18. [Legal aspects of sports injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, R H B

    2005-05-01

    Victims of sports injuries have to be advised about aspects of legal liablity, especially in case of luxation or avulsion of teeth, since there still may be dental consequences years later. The transference of information by the first-aid-dentist to the sportsman's own dentist should take place with care. If the patient has no family dentist, the first-aid-dentist should at least keep the sportsman free of pain, for example by starting endodontic treatment. Because sports injuries mostly occur beyond normal practice-hours, there may be reasons to deviate from the clinical guideline. PMID:15932047

  19. DRONE OPERATORS – LEGAL RESPONSIBILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Andrei-Alexandru STOICA

    2016-01-01

    Drones or unmanned or remote vehicles represent a new generation of devices that were designed to help mankind achieve better results in areas that were proven to hazardous. By developing drones, new areas of economic activities have been unlocked for better exploitation, but at the same time, the lack of a proper legal system to back-up the new technology allowed a new wave of gray-lined uses of drones that must be tackled. As the Director of the 21st Century Defense Initiative at the Brooki...

  20. THE LEGAL CAPACITY TO TRADE

    OpenAIRE

    ADELIN UNGUREANU

    2014-01-01

    Trading is a part of our society. The man has been trading from ancient times so the amount of trades and transactions around the world is huge. In order for us to initiate, organize and deploy such trades we have to have certain rules which can help regulate the social and professional or legal aspect of trades. Therefore the sole trader capacity must be obtained and used in order for the contracts to be valid. The right and obligations that come with this capacity constitute activities t...

  1. THE LEGAL CAPACITY TO TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADELIN UNGUREANU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Trading is a part of our society. The man has been trading from ancient times so the amount of trades and transactions around the world is huge. In order for us to initiate, organize and deploy such trades we have to have certain rules which can help regulate the social and professional or legal aspect of trades. Therefore the sole trader capacity must be obtained and used in order for the contracts to be valid. The right and obligations that come with this capacity constitute activities that can be reflected and analysed by obtaining and maintain the sole trader status.

  2. Cannabis Use When it's Legal

    OpenAIRE

    van Ours, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper uses information about prime age individuals living in Amsterdam, to study whether the use of alcohol, or tobacco stimulates the use cannabis, i.e. whether alcohol or cannabis are stepping stones for cannabis.The special element of the study is that it concerns the use in an environment where not only alcohol and tobacco but also cannabis is a legal drug.It turns out that alcohol and cannabis are intertemporal substitutes while tobacco and cannabis are intertemporal complements.Onl...

  3. Legal protection. No, thank you

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the author's opinion this decision can claim to be the most extensive rejection from the highest court in respect to all attempts to stop the development of atomic energy by means of judicial help. Its consequences for the right of action in Atomic Energy Law signal the end of a functionary legal protection, or at least it could be considered as trend-setter. If the economic and political pioneers of the atomic state can rely so much on their jurisdiction, other forms of resistance must be found. (orig./HSCH)

  4. Interaction of the legal disciplines studies with the level of legal awareness (on example of students of legal disciplines)

    OpenAIRE

    Budykin S.V.; Zhigachev A.S.

    2014-01-01

    The legal awareness as a set of social attitudes to crime and criminals, punish and mainly to the law, law enforcement, judicial and penal systems today is the most relevant topic. Despite the decline in crime in recent years, the level of crime is still at a high level. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the legal disciplines on maturity of legal awareness. We tested the hypotheses that the level of legal development in law-oriented students is higher than that of o...

  5. Calidad de vida relacionada con la salud en función de la categoría ponderal en la infancia Health-related quality of life across weight categories in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Piqueras

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Analizar las diferencias en calidad de vida relacionada con la salud en función de la categoría ponderal basada en el índice de masa corporal en niños y niñas de 8 a 12 años de edad. Métodos: Estudio transversal descriptivo con 678 escolares de 8 a 12 años de la provincia de Alicante (España. Se compararon las puntaciones en las dimensiones de calidad de vida relacionada con la salud, evaluada mediante la versión española del Child Health and Illness Profile-Child Edition, en función de las categorías ponderales (siguiendo los World Health Organization Child Growth Standards y del sexo. Resultados: El 28,2% y el 15,3% presentaron sobrepeso y obesidad, respectivamente. No se hallaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p > 0,05 entre las categorías ponderales en las dimensiones de calidad de vida relacionada con la salud. Conclusiones: La falta de conciencia en los niños pequeños sobre el impacto de la obesidad en la calidad de vida plantea la necesidad de intervenciones centradas en dicha salud percibida desajustada.Objective: To analyze differences in health-related quality of life across weight categories based on body mass index in boys and girls aged 8 to 12 years old. Methods: A cross-sectional study with 678 schoolchildren aged between 8 and 12 years from the province of Alicante (Spain was conducted. The scores on the dimensions of health-related quality of life, assessed by the Spanish version of the Child Health and Illness Profile-Child Edition, across the weight categories (according to the World Health Organization Child Growth Standards and sex, were compared. Results: Overweight or obesity was found in 28.2% and 15.3% of the sample, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences (p > 0.05 across the weight categories on the distinct dimensions of health-related quality of life. Conclusions: Children are unaware of the impact of obesity on quality of life. Interventions to

  6. TEACHING LEGAL ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BADEA ELENA CODRUTA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, legal English has attracted increasing interest and awareness, especially because English is predominantly the language of international legal practice. Legal English must be seen in the overall context of English for Specific Purposes , as it shares the important elements of need analysis, syllabus design, course design, and materials selection and development which are common to all fields of work in ESP. As with other varieties of ESP, Legal English implies the definition of a specific language corpus, usages of various teaching strategies and emphasis on particular kinds of communication in a specific context.The article aims to highlight some aspects of teaching legal English by a non-native teacher who is not an expert in law. It particularly focuses attention on the development of basic communication skills and the use of lexical approaches in successful language acquisition in legal English.

  7. Infecções relacionadas à assistência à saúde por Staphylococcus coagulase negativa em unidade de terapia intensiva neonatal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Ricardo Araujo da Silva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as infecções relacionadas à assistência à saúde, em unidade de terapia intensiva neonatal, causadas pelo Staphylococcus coagulase negativa, verificando o perfil de sensibilidade antimicrobiana e possíveis esquemas antibióticos eficazes. MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo retrospectivo de uma série de casos de infecções relacionadas à assistência à saúde tardias de origem hospitalar atribuída ao Staphylococcus coagulase negativa, avaliando o perfil de sensibilidade antimicrobiana. Foram estudados os recém-nascidos internados entre 1º de janeiro de 2010 a 30 de junho de 2012 em uma unidade de terapia intensiva neonatal da cidade do Rio de Janeiro, sendo todos os pacientes oriundos de outras unidades. RESULTADOS: Foram admitidos 765 pacientes, totalizando 3.051 pacientes-dia e uma densidade de incidência de infecção geral de 18,9 por 1.000 pacientes-dia. A taxa de utilização de cateteres venosos centrais foi de 71,6% e a positividade das culturas de todos os sítios para todas as infecções relacionadas à assistência à saúde foi de 68,4%. O Staphylococcus coagulase negativa foi implicado em 11 (19,2% das 57 infecções relacionadas à assistência à saúde e Klebsiela pneumoniae produtor de betalactamase de espectro estendido e Candida sp em 5 ocasiões cada. Das 11 infecções, 10 (90,9% foram atribuídas a infecções primárias de corrente sanguínea. A sensibilidade dos isolados de Staphylococcus coagulase negativa em relação à vancomicina, clindamicina, ciprofloxacin, oxacilina e gentamicina foi de 100%, 81,8%, 72,7%, 27,2%, 22,2%, respectivamente. Não houve óbito atribuído diretamente à infecção por Staphylococcus coagulase negativa. CONCLUSÃO: O Staphylococcus coagulase negativa foi o principal agente encontrado nas infecções relacionadas à assistência à saúde tardias de origem hospitalar, sendo baixas as taxas de infecções relacionadas a cateter venoso central. Em hospitais

  8. The curious case of legal translation

    OpenAIRE

    E. Cornelius

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the nature and scope of legal translation which is an under-researched area in South Africa. In this article the author predicts that the demand for competent legal translators will increase in the future, evidenced by a recent call by the Department of Justice and Constitutional Development(DoJ&CD), inviting applications for ten positions for “legislative language practitioners”. However, legal translation differs substantially from general translation in the sense ...

  9. Juristopia : Semantic Wiki for Legal Information

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    This thesis presents the role of Semantic Web technology and in particular Topic Maps in the legal domain. It also presents a prototype and concerns for a system utilising these technologies and use of this particular Information Technology in the legal domain. The thesis also discusses the theoretical background for such systems, and the research explores technology legal professionals can benefit combining social text writing and Semantic Web technology. The thesis is supported by a Sem...

  10. Does legalized prostitution increase human trafficking?

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Seo-Young; Dreher, Axel; Neumayer, Eric

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of legalized prostitution on human trafficking inflows. According to economic theory, there are two opposing effects of unknown magnitude. The scale effect of legalized prostitution leads to an expansion of the prostitution market, increasing human trafficking, while the substitution effect reduces demand for trafficked women as legal prostitutes are favored over trafficked ones. Our empirical analysis for a cross-section of up to 150 countries shows that th...

  11. Ethics and science in brazilian legal discourse

    OpenAIRE

    Cota Marçal, Antônio; Nasser Cury, Paula Maria

    2012-01-01

    The Brazilian Constitution of 1988 declares Brazil as a Democratic State of Law. This formally democratic legal status has been facing difficulties when it comes to its material implementation. Brazilian legal procedures are still greatly influenced by the catholic heritage from Portugal in the times of colonization, translated in the present times into a strong moral set of dogmas that still reflects upon the legal production and interpretation in the country. Recently in Brazil, a debate br...

  12. Population aging and legal retirement age

    OpenAIRE

    Lacomba, Juan Antonio; Lagos, Francisco Miguel

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of population aging on the preferred legal retirement age. What is revealed is the crucial role that the indirect ???macro??? effects resulting from a change in the legal retirement age play in the optimal decision. Two Social Security systems are studied. Under a defined contribution scheme aging lowers the preferred legal retirement age. However, under a defined pension scheme the retirement age is delayed. This result shows the relevance of correctly c...

  13. The activity model of legal psychologist

    OpenAIRE

    N.V. Bogdanovich,; V.A. Chernushevich

    2014-01-01

    We propose an activity model of legal psychologist work. As a basis for the construction of the system of legal psychologist activity, we use trajectory of teenager living in the legal field. As the main activities within their respective specializations, we highlighted prevention, maintenance and rehabilitation. We define the main activities necessary for the development within the FGOSIII specialization 050407 “Pedagogy and Psychology of deviant behavior”: general and pathopsychologic diagn...

  14. Legal Costs as Barriers to Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Turrini, Alessandro Antonio; Van Ypersele, Tanguy

    2006-01-01

    Recent evidence shows that the 'home bias puzzle' in international trade may be associated with the mere presence of national borders (McCallum (1995)). In this paper we provide a theoretical framework to explain why borders may matter so much for trade. Our argument is that even between perfectly integrated and similar countries the legal system differs, so that legal costs are higher when business is done abroad. Using a matching model of trade, we show that legal costs asymmetry produce ho...

  15. The Legal Origins of Corporate Social Responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Becchetti, Leonardo; Ciciretti, Rocco; Conzo, Pierluigi

    2013-01-01

    The legal origin literature documents that civil and common law traditions have different impact on rules and economic outcomes. We contribute to this literature by investigating the relationship between corporate social responsibility and legal origins. Consistently with the main differences in historical and legal backgrounds and net of industry specific effects, the common law origin has a significant and positive impact on the Corporate Governance and Community Involvement domains, while ...

  16. Investigating legal aspects of cyberbullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Simone; Smith, Peter K; Blumberg, Herbert H

    2012-11-01

    In the UK schools are required by law to protect students from bullying; the responsibility of teachers to govern such behaviour has been extended outside the school setting to include cyberbullying. In this investigation, cyberbullying in secondary education is explored from the student perspective using a qualitative method of enquiry. Reported awareness and understanding about the legal aspects of cyberbullying are investigated; consideration is given to legislation, cybercrime, children's rights, school sanctions and safeguarding responsibilities. A total of 197 male and female students aged between 11 and 14 years old participated. Despite the availability of information on guidelines and legislation at national, local, and school level, this does not appear to have reached ground level of the individual student. There is a considerable gap between what students should know and what they report to be aware of with regard to legal aspects of cyberbullying. To address concerns of keeping up with the pace of change in cyberbullying, a collaborative approach is required with young people and adults sharing expertise. PMID:23079364

  17. Minors and Sexting: Legal Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorang, Melissa R; McNiel, Dale E; Binder, Renée L

    2016-03-01

    Sexting is the sending or forwarding of sexually explicit photographs or videos of the sender or someone known to the sender via cell phone. It has become common practice among young people, as cell phones are being given to adolescents at ever younger ages. Youths often send messages without giving appropriate thought to the content of the images. In studies on the subject, rates of minors who have sent sexual images range from 4 to 25 percent, depending on the age of the youths surveyed, the content of the messages and other factors. Because transferring and viewing sexually explicit material when the subject is a minor can be considered child pornography, there can be serious legal consequences. Several states have enacted legislation to help differentiate between child pornography and sexting by minors. The trend reflected in statutes has been that minors involved in sexting without other exacerbating circumstances should be charged with a less serious offense. There is no clear national consensus on how sexting by minors is adjudicated, and therefore we compared several statutes. Case examples are used to illustrate the range of legal outcomes, from felony charges to no charges. Two sexting episodes that were followed by suicide are described. We also address the role of the forensic mental health professional.

  18. Minors and Sexting: Legal Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorang, Melissa R; McNiel, Dale E; Binder, Renée L

    2016-03-01

    Sexting is the sending or forwarding of sexually explicit photographs or videos of the sender or someone known to the sender via cell phone. It has become common practice among young people, as cell phones are being given to adolescents at ever younger ages. Youths often send messages without giving appropriate thought to the content of the images. In studies on the subject, rates of minors who have sent sexual images range from 4 to 25 percent, depending on the age of the youths surveyed, the content of the messages and other factors. Because transferring and viewing sexually explicit material when the subject is a minor can be considered child pornography, there can be serious legal consequences. Several states have enacted legislation to help differentiate between child pornography and sexting by minors. The trend reflected in statutes has been that minors involved in sexting without other exacerbating circumstances should be charged with a less serious offense. There is no clear national consensus on how sexting by minors is adjudicated, and therefore we compared several statutes. Case examples are used to illustrate the range of legal outcomes, from felony charges to no charges. Two sexting episodes that were followed by suicide are described. We also address the role of the forensic mental health professional. PMID:26944746

  19. Investigating correlation between legal and physical property: possibilities and constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimopoulou, E.; Kitsakis, D.; Tsiliakou, E.

    2015-06-01

    Contemporary urban environment is characterized by complexity and mixed use of space, in which overlapping land parcels and different RRRs (Rights, Restrictions and Responsibilities) are frequent phenomena. Internationally, real property legislation either focuses on surface property or has introduced individual 3D real property units. The former approach merely accommodates issues related to subdivision, expropriation and transactions on part of the real property above or below surface, while the latter provides for defining and registering 3D real property units. National laws require two-dimensional real property descriptions and only a limited number of jurisdictions provide for threedimensional data presentation and recording. International awareness on 3D Cadastre may be apparent through the proposals for transition of existing cadastral systems to 3D along with legal amendments improving national 3D Cadastre legislation. Concurrently the use of appropriate data sources and the correct depiction of 3D property units' boundaries and spatial relationships need to be addressed. Spatial relations and constraints amongst real world objects could be modeled geometrically and topologically utilizing numerous modeling tools, e.g. CityGML, BIM and further sophisticated 3D software or by adapting international standards, e.g. LADM. A direct correlation between legal and physical property should be based on consistent geometry between physical and legal space, improving the accuracy that legal spaces' volumes or locations are defined. To address these issues, this paper investigates correlation possibilities and constraints between legal and physical space of typical 3D property cases. These cases comprise buildings or their interior spaces with mixed use, as well as complex structures described by explicit facade patterns, generated by procedural or by BIM ready 3D models. The 3D models presented are evaluated, regarding compliancy to physical or legal reality.

  20. Criminal-legal prohibitions in the soviet juridical discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey V. Skorobogatov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to determine the place of criminal law prohibitions in the formation development and functioning of the Soviet legal discourse. Methods dialectic approach to the research of social phenomena which allows to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the unity of the objective and subjective factors as well as postmodern paradigm giving the opportunity to explore the legal reality at different levels including the lawinterpretation one. Dialectical approach and postmodern paradigm have determined the choice of specific research methods comparative hermeneutics discursive formally legal. Results basing on the analysis of normativelegal acts regulating criminal legal relations in the USSR the development of the Soviet criminal law was considered since its emergence to termination of existence. Conclusion on its restrictive nature was made which was in line with the main task of this sector of law ndash the protection of the Soviet system and socialist property from criminal encroachments. The normative regulatory basis of criminal law prohibitions determined the general nature of the Soviet legal discourse which was designed to prove the necessity and expediency of such means of protecting public and state interests in the period of building communism. Scientific novelty on the basis of use of the complex classical and postclassical methods the article for the first time studies the role of criminal law prohibitions in the development of Soviet legal discourse. Practical value the key issues and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific and pedagogical activity while researching the issues of the nature and trends of development of the Soviet criminal law.

  1. Psychological mechanisms and periodization of legal socialization process

    OpenAIRE

    Andrianov M.S.

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with the problems of social and legal identity formation, the development of its legal awareness and legal self-determination, which is the essence of the process, denoted in legal psychology as legal socialization of an individual, which is related to traditional life cycles of age and personality changes. The content and features of the key periods of legal norms learning and of entering into legal culture are described. We identify the main social-psychological acquisitio...

  2. METALINGUISTIC ESSENCE OF THE LEGAL DISCURSIVE SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Yurievna Panteleeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the formation process of the discursive space of the legal field. It is shown that the metalanguage is a key communication tool in the discursive space of the legal field and becomes a means of expressing the attitude to the realities of the legal sphere, the environment of operating their relationships. It is noted that the subject and subjectless discourses in the professional legal sphere reflect semantic relationships between the written and the said. It is stated that description of the meta-linguistic nature of legal discourse can complement the knowledge in the discursive space of the legal field.An equally important source for the formation of discursive space of the legal field are legal texts (legislative that are created by professional lawyers taking into consideration the peculiarities of the professional sphere.Thus, metalinguistic innovations of subjective and subjectless discourses in the language in general and in the language of law enforcement in particular, enhance the law enforcement activity promoting universal human values in the discursive space of the legal field.

  3. Artificial intelligence approach to legal reasoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For artificial intelligence, understanding the forms of human reasoning is a central goal. Legal reasoning is a form that makes a new set of demands on artificial intelligence methods. Most importantly, a computer program that reasons about legal problems must be able to distinguish between questions it is competent to answer and questions that human lawyers could seriously argue either way. In addition, a program for analyzing legal problems should be able to use both general legal rules and decisions in past cases; and it should be able to work with technical concepts that are only partly defined and subject to shifts of meaning. Each of these requirements has wider applications in artificial intelligence, beyond the legal domain. This dissertation presents a computational framework for legal reasoning, within which such requirements can be accommodated. The development of the framework draws significantly on the philosophy of law, in which the elucidation of legal reasoning is an important topic. A key element of the framework is the legal distinction between hard cases and clear cases. In legal writing, this distinction has been taken for granted more often than it has been explored. Here, some initial heuristics are proposed by which a program might make the distinction

  4. The moral legalization analysis in our country

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解小平

    2013-01-01

    the moral legalization is a controversial topic, but the proper moral legalization has become a consensus. China Is in the period of social transition , the moral anomie problem has become the wounds of the state and society, through analyzing the problems existing in the moral legalization at the present stage,.proposed to fol ow the tradition and reality, try to find the ethics which is suitable for our country, The cycle of the legislation, law enforcement and judicial wil help the moral legalization, so as to create a more harmonious society.

  5. Medico-legal autopsies in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sara Tangmose; Lynnerup, Niels

    2011-01-01

    At 2.7% in 1970, the Danish medico-legal autopsy frequency was lower than recent frequencies observed in the Nordic countries (4-24%). The aim of this study was to analyse trends in the number and frequency of Danish medico-legal autopsies.......At 2.7% in 1970, the Danish medico-legal autopsy frequency was lower than recent frequencies observed in the Nordic countries (4-24%). The aim of this study was to analyse trends in the number and frequency of Danish medico-legal autopsies....

  6. Attitudes towards drug legalization among drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Roberto A; Richard, Alan J

    2002-01-01

    Research shows that support for legalization of drugs varies significantly among different sociodemographic and political groups. Yet there is little research examining the degree of support for legalization of drugs among drug users. This paper examines how frequency and type of drug use affect the support for legalization of drugs after adjusting for the effects of political affiliation and sociodemographic characteristics. A sample of 188 drug users and non-drug users were asked whether they would support the legalization of marijuana, cocaine, and heroin. Respondents reported their use of marijuana, crack, cocaine, heroin, speedball, and/or methamphetamines during the previous 30 days. Support for legalization of drugs was analyzed by estimating three separate logistic regressions. The results showed that the support for the legalization of drugs depended on the definition of "drug user" and the type of drug. In general, however, the results showed that marijuana users were more likely to support legalizing marijuana, but they were less likely to support the legalization of cocaine and heroin. On the other hand, users of crack, cocaine, heroin, speedball, and/or methamphetamines were more likely to support legalizing all drugs including cocaine and heroin.

  7. 基于法律事实建构的工程计量对合同状态补偿的研究%Compensation of Re-measurement for Contract Status Based Upon Legal Facts Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍昱辰; 纪华; 尹贻林; 刘一格

    2014-01-01

    业主与承包商就工程价款计量支付问题出现纠纷是工程项目普遍存在的现象,究其原因,由于合同实施过程中的干扰因素打破了合同签订时初始状态的平衡,而业主并未施与承包商这种合同状态变化的有效补偿。针对工程实践中的上述现象,基于法律事实建构论的视角,利用演绎法将客观事实形成法律事实的路径应用到工程计量支付中,结合现行合同范本、《建设工程工程量清单计价规范》(GB50500-2013),分析工程计量支付中的建构要素和建构路径,解析工程计量对合同状态补偿实现问题,并总结出基于13版清单计价规范的工程计量支付证据及支付程序,以规范工程实践中的计量支付活动,有利于实现工程计量对合同状态的动态补偿。%Currently,the disputes on re-measurement and payment of the project cost between the employers and contractors in the projects is very common. Such situation can be caused by the interference factors in the contract execution process,which can break the balance of the original state when the contract is signed but the employers cannot implement the effective compensation for the contract change state of the contractor. For the above phenomenon in engineering practice,perspective of the based on the presumption on the legal fact,the reasoning deduction method is used to convert the objective facts to be the directory application of the legal facts,which is further used to pay the bill of quantities and analyze the construction elements and construction path in the payment of bill of quantities,Combining with the current contract model and the Code of bills of quantities and valuation for construction works of 2013,then summarized measurement payment evidence and payment procedures based on 2013 quantity bill of calculating price to standardize the measurement payment activities in the engineering practice,which is beneficial to

  8. Sesgo de respuesta en una encuesta postal poblacional sobre calidad de vida relacionada con la salud (SF-12v2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bienvenida Carpe Carpe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamentos: en las investigaciones que utilizan un cuestionario como fuente de información el sesgo asociado a la baja tasa de respuesta puede limitar la ventaja económica de las encuestas poblacionales por correo postal. El objetivo fue estimar los factores asociados a la no respuesta con énfasis en la Calidad de Vida Relacionada con la Salud (CVRS. Métodos: a las personas que respondieron a la Encuesta de Salud de Murcia-2007 (> 18 años, realizada vía telefónica, se les remitió cuatro meses después un segundo cuestionario por vía postal. Ambas evaluaciones incluían información sobre CVRS: SF-12v2 (telefónica y EQ-5D (postal. Se realizó una regresión logística para identificar los factores basales (sociodemográficos, conductas relacionadas con la salud y CVRS -sumario físico (CSF y sumario mental (CSM del SF-12v2 asociados a la no respuesta postal. Resultados: 2.078 (61,5% individuos no respondieron. Análisis multivariante: la no respuesta se asoció con el estado civil, mayor probabilidad de no responder si no estaba casado (viudo OR: 2,24; IC95% 0,61/0,88; separado/divorciado1,69;1,10/2,59; soltero 1,53;1,23/1,90 y de manera inversa con la edad (25-34 años OR:0,95;IC95% 0,69/1,29; 35-44 años 0,60; 0,43/0,85; 45-54 años 0,42; 0,29/0,60; 55-64 años-0,29; 0,20/0,43; 65-74 años 0,17; 0,11/0,26; >75 años 0,15; 0,09/0,23 y el nivel de estudios (primarios OR: 0,65; IC95% 0,48/0,86; secundarios 0,41; 0,30/0,57; superiores 0,22; 0,16/0,30. También se asoció con la CVRS pero de manera diferenciada para el CSF: las personas con puntuaciones intermedias presentaron menor probabilidad de no responder (OR: 0,73; IC95% 0,61/0,88 que para el CSM: las personas del tercil superior presentaron mayor probabilidad de no responder (OR: 1,47; 1,22/1,78. Conclusiones: la CVRS influye en la no respuesta de las encuestas postales, dando lugar a una sobrerrepresentación de los individuos con salud física media y con salud mental baja, lo

  9. Patologías Relacionadas con el Tracto Reproductivo en Herbívoros, Carnívoros y Primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J B Mesa-Cruz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Una gran proporción del conocimiento en patologías relacionadas al tracto reproductivo en herbívoros, carnívoros y primates ha sido producto de la investigación realizada en animales de compañía o con importancia económica y de salud humana. Esta revisión bibliográfica tiene como objetivo abordar y describir brevemente  enfermedades del tracto reproductivo de origen infeccioso, no infeccioso y finalmente considerar algunos aspectos importantes en condiciones de cautiverio  que afectan la habilidad reproductiva en herbívoros, carnívoros y primates. Las especies silvestres son afectadas por enfermedades infecciosas de gran importancia zoonótica como brucelosis y leptospirosis. Por otro lado, enfermedades virales como diarrea viral bovina, herpesvirus y papilomatosis pueden afectar rumiantes, equinos y primates, respectivamente.  Adicionalmente, problemas neoplásicos como leiomiomas y de las células de Sertoli afectan hembras y machos. Los primates han sido usados como biomodelos para estudiar las enfermedades reproductivas en humanos; razón por la cual se conocen ampliamente enfermedades uterinas y de la preñez en simios y otros primates.  Patologías uterinas y ováricas pueden emerger a causa de actividades iatrogénicas como es el control poblacional por medio de acetato de melengestrol en félidos y otros carnívoros. Finalmente, la actividad reproductiva en especies silvestres en cautiverio puede ser interrumpida por una gran variedad de causas ambientales, de bienestar, de alojamiento, sociales y de salud.

  10. Calidad de vida relacionada con la salud y obesidad en un centro de atención primaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barajas Gutiérrez Miguel Angel

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO. Evaluar la asociación entre la obesidad y dos aspectos de la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud: autopercepción de salud y bienestar psicológico en pacientes adscritos a un centro de salud. MÉTODOS. Estudio transversal descriptivo sobre 167 pacientes entre 20 y 70 años, con índice de masa corporal ³ 30. Se realizó entrevista clínica para la obtención de las variables sociodemográficas y clínicas de cada paciente y la administración de 2 cuestionarios: 1 Perfil de Salud de Nottingham (PSN y 2 Psychological General Well-Being (PGWB índex. RESULTADOS. Las puntuaciones medias del PSN indicaron un deterioro global moderado de la salud percibida en las pacientes obesas siendo las áreas afectadas "dolor", "movilidad física" y "reacciones emocionales". Las variables asociadas a una peor puntuación fueron el sexo femenino, la edad superior a 50 años, el bajo nivel de estudios y la presencia de patología psiquiátrica o artrosis. La puntuación total media del PGWB indica un deterioro pequeño del bienestar psicológico. El sexo femenino, la ansiedad y el bajo nivel de estudios se asociaron, asimismo, a peores puntuaciones. CONCLUSIONES. En nuestra población, se identifica un perfil de pacientes obesos con mala calidad de vida (mujeres de edad superior a 50 años con bajo nivel de estudios y presencia de patología psiquiátrica o artrosis sobre los que se plantea la conveniencia de realizar una actuación prioritaria.

  11. Identificación molecular de mutaciones puntuales relacionadas con resistencia a drogas en VIH-1 de pacientes peruanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Yabar V

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Identificar mutaciones puntuales relacionadas con resistencia a drogas en VIH-1 de pacientes peruanos. Materiales y metodos: Se seleccionaron 11 muestras de VIH provenientes de sangre total de sujetos con tratamiento antirretroviral (ARV. Posteriormente se realizo la optimizacion de la amplificacion de 337 pb del gen de la transcriptasa reversa (tr y 377 pb de todo el gen de la proteasa (prt. Los productos de PCR fueron secuenciados directamente para el analisis de mutaciones de resistencia. Las secuencias finales fueron analizadas en programas de analisis de mutaciones de la HIV Drug Resistance Database de la Universidad de Stanford. mutaciones de la HIV Drug Resistance Database de la Universidad de Stanford. Resultados: La optimizacion de la concentracion de ADN (2,5 ng / µL asi como la concentracion de magnesio (4 mM fueron factores criticos para la amplificacion de la tr y la prt respectivamente. De otro lado, el analisis de secuencia revelo la presencia de las mutaciones T215Y y la M184V en tr, implicadas en conferir resistencia a zidovudina (AZT y estavudina (D4T asi como a lamivudina (3TC y emtricitabina (FTC respectivamente. En prt se observaron las mutaciones D30N y N88D implicadas en conferir resistencia a nelfinavir (NFV. Es importante senalar que solo tres muestras de VIH-1 presentaron mutaciones de resistencia, las demas mostraron mutaciones compensatorias. Conclusiones: Se demuestra la existencia de mutaciones de resistencia a ARV a nivel de tr y prt de VIH-1 en sujetos peruanos que reciben terapia TARGA. Se requieren de mayores estudios para establecer un perfil de resistencia a ARV en la poblacion peruana.

  12. Palabras cotidianas equivalentes a operadores aritméticos relacionadas con la solución de problemas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Ávalos Latorre

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Los estudios sobre la solución de problemas aritméticos se han realizado predominantemen - te desde la teoría cognoscitiva, aunque la teoría conductista también se ha interesado, sigue sien - do insuficiente el conocimiento que se tiene al respecto. Para el desarrollo del presente estudio empírico experimental se aplicaron distintos en - trenamientos en la identificación de palabras de uso equivalente a sumar y restar en el lenguaje ordinario, palabras cotidianas relacionadas con operadores aritméticos y con la solución de pro - blemas. Participaron 16 estudiantes de segundo grado de primaria distribuidos en cuatro grupos: el primero, se entrenó mediante procedimiento de igualación de la muestra de primer orden, el segundo usando oraciones declarativas, el tercero recibió ambos entrenamientos y el grupo control solo respondió las pruebas. No existieron dife - rencias considerables en la identificación de las palabras de uso equivalente a la suma y la resta. El grupo expuesto al entrenamiento de palabras identificó más palabras en la postprueba que los otros grupos. El porcentaje de aciertos fue mayor en la solución de operaciones que en el recono - cimiento de palabras. Se considera irrelevante la identificación de la palabra para lograr la solución correcta del problema. Se sugiere que el aborda - je del desempeño en problemas aritméticos debe contemplar participantes con alta y con deficiente precisión de operaciones aritméticas ya que los bajos porcentajes de problemas solucionados co - rrectamente se deben más al deficiente dominio del procedimiento de sumar y restar, que al no re - conocimiento de las palabras

  13. Fatores associados com a qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde de idosos em hemodiálise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Faria Mendes Braga

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar fatores associados à qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde de pacientes idosos em hemodiálise. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com 223 pacientes com idade > 60 anos em hemodiálise nas unidades de diálise do município de Belo Horizonte, MG, em 2008. A qualidade de vida foi avaliada utilizando o Kidney Disease and Quality of Life - Short Form (KDQOL-SF e o Medical Outcome Survey - Short Form 36 (SF-36. Os três escores do KDQOL-SF medidos foram: componente da doença renal sumarizado (11 subescalas, componente físico sumarizado (quatro subescalas e componente mental sumarizado (quatro subescalas. RESULTADOS: Foram observadas associações negativas significativas e independentes do componente da doença renal e mental com número de doenças crônicas e tempo de tratamento (ambas. O componente físico foi menor entre os mais velhos, as mulheres, aqueles com maior número de internações e com três ou mais doenças crônicas. CONCLUSÕES: A associação consistente com presença de doenças crônicas mostra a importância do perfil de morbidade para a qualidade de vida dessa população. A identificação dos fatores associados, como aumento da idade, sexo feminino, número de internações e tempo de tratamento, pode favorecer o planejamento adequado das ações de saúde para melhor atender a esse grupo.

  14. Qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde de filhos de profissionais da área de saúde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Maria Moussi Gamallo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo mensuramos a qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde (QVRS e a fadiga de filhos de profissionais da área da saúde, com idades entre 2 e 11 anos, e avaliamos os hábitos diários e o sono dessas crianças e dos respectivos pais. Foram incluídas no estudo crianças de uma escola pública. Dados demográficos e dados de hábitos diários foram colhidos. A QVRS, o sono e a fadiga foram mensurados por questionários. Participaram 249 pais - 63,5% referiram sono adequado e 47,4% acordavam cansados. A média da idade das crianças foi 5,6 anos - 62,2% assistiam televisão no quarto, 50% usavam computador (> 4 horas/dia e 27,8% faziam atividades físicas extracurriculares. O escore do sono foi de 45,8 ± 12,2. Os escores de QVRS foram mais elevados no aspecto físico e mais baixos no emocional. Detectamos que o sono de pior qualidade dos filhos e dos pais pode estar relacionado à pior QVRS dos filhos. Concluímos que os hábitos inadequados dos pais, bem como das crianças, estão relacionados a uma diminuição da QVRS dos filhos, especialmente no aspecto emocional.

  15. 28 CFR 543.11 - Legal research and preparation of legal documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... program or work assignment), to do legal research and to prepare legal documents. Where practical, the... correspondence (see 28 CFR part 540, subparts B and F) or through an authorized attorney visit from a retained... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal research and preparation of...

  16. 基于法治中国建设的大学生法律素养培育%Legal Literacy Cultivation of College Students Based on the Rule of Law in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜波; 陈焘

    2015-01-01

    法治是治国理政的基本方式,全面推进依法治国是建设中国特色社会主义现代化国家的重要内容。当代大学生是法治建设的“生力军”,其法律素养状况对推进法治中国建设具有深远的影响,决定着能否承担得起历史赋予的法治使命。当前,大学生参与法治建设仍存在一些盲点和误区,既与法治教育有关,也与法治实践的参与不足密切相连。基于此,应以法律素养培育为目标,教育大学生深刻理解领悟法治理念;牢固树立规则意识,自觉规范日常行为,以训练有素的行为惯性展示大学生的法律素养;拓展大学生实际参与法治实践的路径,增进他们对法治的直观感受,在实践中砥砺法治品格,弘扬法治精神,传递法治正能量。%The rule of law is the basic way of governing ,and comprehensively promoting the rule of law is an important content of modern socialist country with Chinese characteristics .Contemporary college students are the“fresh troops”of the rule of law construction ,their legal literacy status has far‐reaching influences on promoting the rule of law construction in China ,and determines w hether can afford the rule of law mission that history gives .At present ,there are still some blind spots and errors that the college students participate in the construction of the rule of law ,which associates with the rule of law education ,and also closely connects with lack of the participation of the rule of law .Based on this ,we should confirm legal literacy cultivation as the goal ,and educate college students to deeply understand the rule of law concept ;firmly establish the consciousness of rules ,regulate daily behavior consciously , and show students' literacy under the rule of law with well‐trained behavior inertia;expand college students'actual participation in the path of the rule of law practice ,improve their intuitive sense of the rule of law

  17. Modern legal periodicals of China%中国近代的法律期刊

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王健

    2007-01-01

    Driven by the importation of western learning to China by Protestant missionaries in the nineteenth century and compilation and publication of legal and political serial books and magazines by students studying in Japan in the late Tsing Dynasty, modem Chinese legal periodicals appeared officially and developed vigorously. These legal periodicals facilitated the modem transformation of traditional Chinese ideology and academy in terms of the purposes, editing mode, academic specifications, writing techniques and language styles of some typical periodicals. As the periodicals were widely spread and demonstrated throughout universities, legal communities and judicial and legislative authorities, more people acquired common background in such aspects as thoughts and writing techniques. As the adhesive of professional communityof media and an important means of maintaining knowledge production ,periodicals created some new authority of saying, based on which the tradition of modem Chinese legal system has been established.

  18. Harmonization of Islamic Law in National Legal System A Comparative Study between Indonesian Law and Malaysian Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeni Salma Barlinti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article compares Indonesian legal system and Malaysian legal system. The government legalized Islamic law in national legislateions, which are in effect for Muslim people. To facilitate dispute settlement, there is a religious court to solve Islamic dispute based on Islamic Law. The exsistence of Islamic law in Indonesia and Malaysia has similarity and differentiation. The similarities among others are: the Muslim-majority in both countries pushes the government to put Islamic law into force, Islamic law must be written into constitution or legislation. It is needed to have legal basis when performing Islamic law, the existence of religious court is very important in dispute settlement related to Islamic law. The Influence of western legal system is very strong in national legal system. Nevertheless, the western legal system differ substantially from Islamic legal system, and Islamic law was implemented limitedly based upon western legislation. It was limited to family law. While the differentiation are: the way of implementation of western legal system into national legal system and the form of legislation Indonesia has one legislation, which is in effect to all of Indonesian people. On the contrary, Malaysia has many enactments, which are different from one to another in each negeri.

  19. Legal institutions, strategic default, and stock returns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Favara; E. Schroth; P. Valta

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of legal institutions on stock returns. More specifically, we examine how differences in debt enforcement and creditor protection around the world affect stock returns of individual firms. We hypothesize that if legal institutions prevent shareholders from engaging in s

  20. 14 CFR 1203.100 - Legal basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...”), and the standards for such classification, are established by the “the Order” (E.O. 12958, 3 CFR, 1996... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Legal basis. 1203.100 Section 1203.100....100 Legal basis. (a) Executive Order 12958 (hereinafter referred to as “the Order”)....

  1. 31 CFR 3.22 - Legal review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal review. 3.22 Section 3.22 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury CLAIMS REGULATIONS AND INDEMNIFICATION OF DEPARTMENT OF TREASURY EMPLOYEES Claims Under the Small Claims Act § 3.22 Legal review....

  2. 31 CFR 3.3 - Legal review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal review. 3.3 Section 3.3 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury CLAIMS REGULATIONS AND INDEMNIFICATION OF DEPARTMENT OF TREASURY EMPLOYEES Claims Under the Federal Tort Claims Act § 3.3 Legal review....

  3. Embedding Mahr in the European Legal System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A collection of articles investigating the legal and social implications and challenges of the continuing Muslim practice of paying mahr(dower) in connection with marriage.......A collection of articles investigating the legal and social implications and challenges of the continuing Muslim practice of paying mahr(dower) in connection with marriage....

  4. Student Discipline: Legal, Empirical, and Educational Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J. John, III, Ed.; Bennett, Christine, Ed.

    This book presents four perspectives on student discipline: legal and historical, empirical, educational, and futuristic. Part I examines the legal history of student discipline in papers by J. John Harris III, Richard E. Fields, and A. Reynaldo Contreras (Chapter 1); Richard E. Fields (Chapter 2); and David G. Carter, Sr. and Cynthia L. Jackson…

  5. Cannabis use and support for cannabis legalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palali, A. (Ali); van Ours, J.C. (Jan C.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe investigate the determinants of the support for cannabis legalization finding a causal effect of personal experience with cannabis use. Current and past cannabis users are more in favor of legalization. We relate this finding to self-interest and inside information about potential dan

  6. Ethiopia : Legal and Judicial Sector Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    The judicial and legal sector of Ethiopia presents a variety of significant challenges. The legal system as it exists today combines elements of both civil and common law1 with traditional practices, resulting in multiple layers intermingling and superimposing distinct types of modern, traditional, and religious laws and processes. This report provides an overview of Ethiopia's current leg...

  7. Are You a Legally Literate School Counselor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kimberly R.; Rushing, Jeri L.; Beale, Andrew V.

    2010-01-01

    This exercise is designed to assist school counselors in assessing their knowledge of prevalent ethical and legal issues within the school setting. The aim is to highlight emerging legal and ethical dilemmas and motivate counselors to stay abreast of specific school rules and policies, as well as keep a basic understanding of state and federal…

  8. 40 CFR 52.775 - Legal authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal authority. 52.775 Section 52.775 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.775 Legal authority. (a) The requirements of § 51.232(b)...

  9. Legal Regulation Of Oil Production In Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel A. Byshkov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article sources of legal regulation of production and public administration in the sphere of production of mineral energy resources by the legislation of Mexico are considered. Standards of the international legal acts, the Constitution of Mexico and the special industry legislation in the sphere of use of mineral resources are investigated.

  10. Transformations of China's Legal System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    FROM "rule of man" to "building a legal sys- tem," to "rule of law" and finally, to the "rule of the Constitution," the development of China's legal structure epitomizes its learning curve of state governance

  11. Cannabis use and support for cannabis legalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palali, Ali; van Ours, Jan

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the determinants of the support for cannabis legalization finding a causal effect of personal experience with cannabis use. Current and past cannabis users are more in favor of legalization. We relate this finding to self-interest and inside information about potential dangers of cann

  12. Abortion Legalization and Life-Cycle Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananat, Elizabeth Oltmans; Gruber, Jonathan; Levine, Phillip

    2007-01-01

    The early-1970s abortion legalization led to a significant drop in fertility. We investigate whether this decline represented a delay in births or a permanent reduction in fertility. We combine Census and Vital Statistics data to compare the lifetime fertility of women born in early-legalizing states, whose peak childbearing years occurred in the…

  13. The Legalization of the School Psychologists' World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirp, David L.; Kirp, Lauren M.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the increasing tendency of legal rules to shape school psychologist's conduct. The article suggests that "the legalization of the school psychologist's world" may afford an opportunity to reshape, in more "nonformal" and collegial ways, relationships with other school professions, students, and parents. (Author)

  14. The political economy of legal knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bonilla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The production, exchange and use of legal knowledge are subject to a political economy. These processes are governed by a series of rules and principles that determine the conditions allowing the creation, commerce and consumption of legal theories, doctrines and practices. Consequently, this political economy is not neutral; it constructs a specific subject of knowledge that acts within a particular space and time. Thus, this paper has two objectives. Firstly, it seeks to describe and analyze the political economy model that dominates our legal and political imagination. As such, it aims at examining the conceptual structure of what I call the free market of legal ideas model. Secondly, this paper aims at describing and analyzing an alternative model of political economy that would best ex- plain the real dynamics that regulate the generation, exchange, and use of legal knowledge. To achieve this objective, the paper highlights the conceptual structures that form what I call the colonial model of the production of legal knowledge. Therefore, the paper seeks to specify the subject of legal knowledge production established by these two models, as well as their concepts of time and space. Likewise, it seeks to specify the precise rules and principles that determine the ways in which these models imagine the production, exchange, and use of legal knowledge. 

  15. 29 CFR 1912.41 - Legal services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal services. 1912.41 Section 1912.41 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) ADVISORY COMMITTEES ON STANDARDS Miscellaneous § 1912.41 Legal services. The Solicitor of Labor...

  16. Traditional Festivals to Become Legal Holidays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ As nearly everyone knows already,the state is going to rearrange the schedule of legal holidays. The four traditional Chinese festivals, inluding Mid-Autumn Day, Dragon Boat Festival,Tomb-Sweeping Day and Spring Festival Eve, will be made into legal holidays. As for the Golden Week system, should it be continued or canceled?

  17. 45 CFR 1321.71 - Legal assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... assistance in the principal language spoken by clients in areas where a significant number of clients do not speak English as their principal language. (d) A legal assistance provider may not require an older... private practice, reasonably may be expected to result in a fee for legal services from an award to...

  18. 40 CFR 52.2333 - Legal authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal authority. 52.2333 Section 52.2333 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Utah § 52.2333 Legal authority. (a)...

  19. The Theory of the Legal State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. J. Du Plessis

    1981-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, which has not been published before, the late Prof. du Plessis lays bare the philosophical roots of the liberal-democratic state, or the legal state, as he preferred to call it. After a recapitulative version of the theory of the legal state, het indicates the origin of this form in Greek philosophy and in Medieval thought. The stress, however, is on the Modem Era, in which he distinuishes two main periods in the development of the theory of the legal state:the jusnaturalistic period and thepositivistic or formal period.He argues that positivism has destroyed the original ideal o f individual freedom in facts by regarding justice as a purely formal matter susceptible to any content. All guarantees for individual freedom which rested on a universal normative system fe ll away. The state defines its own competence and limits itself to legal forms in all its activities. The legal state thus merely becomes the state, any state as determined by fixed rules o f its own making to which it binds itselfin all its functioning. Law sinks to a mere form in which the juristic personality of the state manifests its supremacy, and from this there is only one step to the concept that the state is identical with law, so that any state necessarily is a legal state, and any state action which is formally correct, is legal. The article concludes with a brief representation o f the author’s own political and legal vision.

  20. The Network of French Legal Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Mazzega, Pierre; Boulet, Romain; 10.1145/1568234.1568271

    2012-01-01

    We propose an analysis of the codified Law of France as a structured system. Fifty two legal codes are selected on the basis of explicit legal criteria and considered as vertices with their mutual quotations forming the edges in a network which properties are analyzed relying on graph theory. We find that a group of 10 codes are simultaneously the most citing and the most cited by other codes, and are also strongly connected together so forming a "rich club" sub-graph. Three other code communities are also found that somewhat partition the legal field is distinct thematic sub-domains. The legal interpretation of this partition is opening new untraditional lines of research. We also conjecture that many legal systems are forming such new kind of networks that share some properties in common with small worlds but are far denser. We propose to call "concentrated world".

  1. Commercial sexual practices before and after legalization in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seib, Charrlotte; Dunne, Michael P; Fischer, Jane; Najman, Jackob M

    2010-08-01

    The nature of sex work changes over time for many reasons. In recent decades around the world, there has been movement toward legalization and control of sex economies. Studies of the possible impact of legalization mainly have focused on sexually transmitted infections and violence, with little attention to change in the diversity of sexual services provided. This study examined the practices of sex workers before and after legalization of prostitution. Cross-sectional surveys of comparable samples of female sex workers were conducted in 1991 (N = 200, aged 16-46 years) and 2003 (N = 247, aged 18-57 years) in Queensland, Australia, spanning a period of major change in regulation of the local industry. In 2003, male clients at brothels and private sole operators (N = 161; aged 19-72 years) were also interviewed. Over time, there was a clear increase in the provision of "exotic" sexual services, including bondage and discipline, submission, fantasy, use of sex toys, golden showers, fisting, and lesbian double acts, while "traditional" services mostly remained at similar levels (with substantial decrease in oral sex without a condom). Based on comparisons of self-reports of clients and workers, the demand for anal intercourse, anal play, and urination during sex apparently exceeded supply, especially in licensed brothels. Within this population, legalization of sex work coincided with a substantial increase in diversity of services, but it appears that in the regulated working environments, clients who prefer high risk practices might not dictate what is available to them.

  2. The legalization of small scale mining in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Urán

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The following article presents conceptual and analytical elements that allow us to broaden the debate about the legalization of the mining in Colombia. Looking for items to be able to propose alternatives in order to consolidate a new mining process socially and environmentally sustainable, claiming the value of the ancestral practices and forms of the redistributive production. To this end, it is necessary to start with the discussion of the concepts of formalization and legality, so that we can generate a theoretical framework that will allow us to explore such delicate matter, we will continue to make the framework socio-political, in which it is based that strategy. Then there is a brief context of thereformulation of legal mining, focusing our attention particularly standards which involves or has effects on artisanal mining and/or small-scale mining. There we will find ourselves with a debate on the typology of the mining and the current difficulties to define schemasof legalization or formalization of small-scale mining in Colombia. To conclude with a proposal to formalize as a mechanism of transition to an administrative system - legislativethat will connect more effectively with the realities and skills of the ethnic communities that practice small-scale mining.

  3. Commercial sexual practices before and after legalization in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seib, Charrlotte; Dunne, Michael P; Fischer, Jane; Najman, Jackob M

    2010-08-01

    The nature of sex work changes over time for many reasons. In recent decades around the world, there has been movement toward legalization and control of sex economies. Studies of the possible impact of legalization mainly have focused on sexually transmitted infections and violence, with little attention to change in the diversity of sexual services provided. This study examined the practices of sex workers before and after legalization of prostitution. Cross-sectional surveys of comparable samples of female sex workers were conducted in 1991 (N = 200, aged 16-46 years) and 2003 (N = 247, aged 18-57 years) in Queensland, Australia, spanning a period of major change in regulation of the local industry. In 2003, male clients at brothels and private sole operators (N = 161; aged 19-72 years) were also interviewed. Over time, there was a clear increase in the provision of "exotic" sexual services, including bondage and discipline, submission, fantasy, use of sex toys, golden showers, fisting, and lesbian double acts, while "traditional" services mostly remained at similar levels (with substantial decrease in oral sex without a condom). Based on comparisons of self-reports of clients and workers, the demand for anal intercourse, anal play, and urination during sex apparently exceeded supply, especially in licensed brothels. Within this population, legalization of sex work coincided with a substantial increase in diversity of services, but it appears that in the regulated working environments, clients who prefer high risk practices might not dictate what is available to them. PMID:19115101

  4. Associação entre resiliência e qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde bucal em idosos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Fernando Nunes Teixeira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a associação entre resiliência e qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde bucal, por meio de uma abordagem hierárquica baseada em um modelo teórico conceitual em uma coorte de idosos do Rio Grande do Sul. MÉTODOS: Foi conduzido um estudo transversal aninhado a um estudo de coorte, em 2008. Foram avaliados 498 idosos de Carlos Barbosa, Rio Grande do Sul. As medidas avaliadas foram sociodemográficas, comportamentos de saúde, qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde bucal, medida pelo Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14, Escala de Resiliência e CPOD. A associação entre o potencial de resiliência e os impactos na percepção de saúde bucal relacionados à qualidade de vida foi verificada por meio de regressão binomial negativa. Razões das médias (RM são apresentadas com seus intervalos de confiança de 95% (IC95%. RESULTADOS: Maiores médias do OHIP foram encontradas entre mulheres (6,7 ± 6,3; p = 0,011, moradores da zona rural (7,3 ± 6,7; p = 0,004 e solteiros (8,0 ± 6,3; p = 0,032. O modelo final da análise multivariada mostrou que ser morador da zona rural (RM = 1,32; IC95% 1,06 - 1,65 e casado (RM = 1,36; IC95% 1,07 - 1,72 foram variáveis independentemente associadas à qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde bucal. Não houve associação entre resiliência e qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde bucal. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados sugerem que variáveis sociodemográficas estão associados à qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde bucal. A hipótese de que a resiliência pudesse exercer um papel importante no desfecho não foi confirmada.

  5. Legal and legal-ethical aspects of risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article examines why human beings accept risks. An assessment of risk is always carried out in connection with the benefits to be had from an action which is a potential risk. Decisions on the acceptability of risks are the consequence of political assessments. An assessment of risk on a legal basis is only possible to a limited degree. What is important are the criteria according to which the acceptability of risks is determined. In this context, the concept of damage proves itself to be of central importance; this concept includes the question as to the degree to which such damage can be tolerated socially and politically, the question of future damage as well as the degree to which such damage is reversible. It would be ideal if those persons who are affected by potential damage were to be the ones to make such decisions, but this is extremely difficult to put into practice. Special care must be taken in regard to decisions which have repercussions for future generations or for the state of nature. In this case, the decision which those persons who are potentially affected would most probably make must be anticipated and taken into account as if they were here to participate in the decision-making process. (orig./HSCH)

  6. Harmonization of Islamic Law in National Legal System A Comparative Study between Indonesian Law and Malaysian Law

    OpenAIRE

    Yeni Salma Barlinti

    2011-01-01

    This article compares Indonesian legal system and Malaysian legal system. The government legalized Islamic law in national legislateions, which are in effect for Muslim people. To facilitate dispute settlement, there is a religious court to solve Islamic dispute based on Islamic Law. The exsistence of Islamic law in Indonesia and Malaysia has similarity and differentiation. The similarities among others are: the Muslim-majority in both countries pushes the government to put Islamic law into f...

  7. Legal and ethical considerations in processing patient‐identifiable data without patient consent: lessons learnt from developing a disease register

    OpenAIRE

    Haynes, Charlotte L; Cook, Gary A; Jones, Michael A.

    2007-01-01

    The legal requirements and justifications for collecting patient‐identifiable data without patient consent were examined. The impetus for this arose from legal and ethical issues raised during the development of a population‐based disease register. Numerous commentaries and case studies have been discussing the impact of the Data Protection Act 1998 (DPA1998) and Caldicott principles of good practice on the uses of personal data. But uncertainty still remains about the legal requirements for ...

  8. 76 FR 81408 - Contractor Legal Management Requirements; Acquisition Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... Part 719 48 CFR Parts 931, 952 and 970 RIN 1990-AA37 Contractor Legal Management Requirements... proposing to revise existing regulations covering contractor legal management requirements. Conforming... must identify this NOPR on Contractor Legal Management Requirements, and provide regulatory...

  9. Calidad de vida relacionada con la salud en trabajadores sanitarios Health related quality of life in health workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Burgos Díez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available El estado de bienestar en que vivimos en los países desarrollados hace que surja la necesidad de buscar herramientas que sean una imagen fiel del estado de salud de la población como es la medición de la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud. El objetivo de nuestro estudio es conocer la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud (CVRS de los trabajadores sanitarios como medida de su estado de salud. Para ello hemos realizado un estudio transversal, prospectivo y descriptivo de una muestra de 542 trabajadores seleccionada por muestreo sistemático. Como variable dependiente se evaluó la CVRS a través del cuestionario SF-36. Este cuestionario evalúa el estado de salud a través de 7 escalas (Función física, rol físico, salud general, vitalidad, función social, rol emocional y salud mental valoradas de 0 a 100 (siendo 100 el mejor valor y de dos dominios globales estandarizados para población general siendo su valor 50, (índice general de salud física e índice general de salud mental. Se tiene en cuenta la edad y el sexo para el análisis de los resultados. Los resultados más relevantes obtenidos son: Edad media 46 años (DE 10,4, 82% mujeres. Función física: 88.7 (Población general-PG-: 84.7; Rol físico: 86.5 (PG: 83.2; Dolor: 71.9 (PG: 79; Salud general: 70 (PG: 68.3; Vitalidad: 66.1 (PG: 66.9; Función social: 86.4 (PG: 90.1; Rol emocional: 87.8 (PG: 88.6; Salud mental: 72.6 (PG: 73. Índice global de salud física: 51.9; Índice global de salud mental: 49.8. Los valores encontrados tanto para las escalas de salud física como mental son ligeramente mejores que los establecidos para la población general para el mismo rango de edad y sexo, salvo en la escala de dolor.The welfare state in whom we live in the developed countries does that there arises the need to look for tools that are a faithful image of the health of the population such as it is the measurement of the quality of life related to the health. The aim of our

  10. Fadiga relacionada ao câncer: uma revisão Cancer-related fatigue: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira Paschoin de Oliveira Campos

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A fadiga relacionada ao câncer (FRC é um dos sintomas mais prevalentes em pacientes com câncer, sendo reportada por 50% a 90% dos pacientes durante o curso da doença ou do seu tratamento, impactando na qualidade de vida de forma severa além de diminuir a capacidade funcional diária dos pacientes. Uma abordagem ampla deve ser realizada com orientações gerais sobre fadiga, além da determinação de um plano individualizado de abordagem terapêutica. Pacientes com fadiga moderada ou severa devem se beneficiar de ambas as medidas farmacológicas e não farmacológicas a serem adotadas, enquanto pacientes que apresentem fadiga leve que não interfira na qualidade de vida podem ser tratados com medidas não farmacológicas como única medida terapêutica. O tratamento não farmacológico se mostra promissor com o uso de terapias cognitivas-comportamentais (conservação de energia e organização de atividades diárias realizadas, ECAM, exercícios físicos e talvez terapias do sono. O tratamento farmacológico tem mostrado resultados promissores que incluem o uso de psicoestimulantes tais como metilfenidato e dexmetilfenidato, modanafil (em pacientes com fadiga severa e agentes estimuladores de eritropoietina em pacientes com anemia associada à quimioterapia e hemoglobina menor que 10 mg/dL. Além dessas drogas, o uso de Guaraná (Paullinia cupana tem-se mostrado uma opção promissora, com efeitos benéficos no tratamento da fadiga física e mental relacionada ao câncer. Por ser uma opção sem efeitos colaterais significantes e uma planta nacional, torna-se atrativo considerando o fácil acesso a esta medicação por seu baixo custo e fácil adesão ao tratamento. O tratamento pode ser oferecido através de uma abordagem multimodal e multidisciplinar que individualize as opções terapêuticas dentro de um contexto que promova o diagnóstico acurado da FRC, além de um tratamento específico e adequado para cada paciente que apresente

  11. The Adequacy of Doctor Patient the Relationship to the Requirements of Validity of the legal Transaction: the Doctor Patient Relationship as legal Phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Romero Beltrão

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This work is interdisciplinary and aims to examine the adequacy of the patient-physician relationship to the requirements of validity of legal business. The doctor-patient relationship needs a complete overview on the elements and requirements that constitute its validity in law. As a starting point analyzes the doctor-patient relationship as a legal fact, to then verify the validity requirements of the patient medical legal business, capable agent, object and lawful manner prescribed by law. Investigating the manifestation of the will as the main element of the legal transaction to define the end of the study the importance of the doctor-patient relationship by law, based on the General Theory of Civil Law.

  12. THE LEGALITY OF DIVORCE IN THE PERSPECTIVE OF HADITH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwan Hasbi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cerai talak (formula for divorce and Cerai gugat (sue for divorce are two terms of termination of marriage bond in Indonesia. The formula of divorce is a term that coincides with a divorce coming from the will of a husband and sue for divorce is the desire of a wife to separate from her husband. Islamic Law legalizes the right of wives in cases of divorce redeem (khulu‘ and fasakh because of syiqaq. On the other side, there are signs setting the rights up, so that the given reasons to use the rights must be legal in syar‘i. The reasons for the legality of divorce is a common-cause factor, so that the banning with threatening hadiths as well as those of the hadiths that say wives must obey their husbands, the wives should not hurt their husband and the wives are prisoners of husbands are all categorized into general. At another angle, there also the hadiths concerning with the status a couple husband and wife is heaven and hell for them in a household. Contextualization of hadiths that ban a wife asking for divorce without any legal cause from Syar‘i, and also those of the hadiths legalize khulu‘ are the realization of the conjugal lives with regards to the mandate of Allah and religious values. The facts of a wife sue for divorce to her husband are the conditions related to a confusion occurred in a household which are influenced by a variety of factors, i.g. economy, adultery, polygamy, social strata and others. A sue for divorce which is Syar’i based condition is a disagreement prolonged strife after peace held between the two sides and act endangers a wife

  13. Michel Troper and french legal realism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Glučina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The name of Michel Troper has become an inevitable reference in constitutional law and legal theory textbooks. This author kick-started his academic career with a thesis on a subject of separation of powers, thus prolonging the tradition of numerous French legal scholars, namely, that of providing contemporary discernment of French classical constitutional doctrines. Charles Eisenmann innovative views on the necessity of displacing attention from the theories and to the process of emergence, forms and functioning of those theories have had a decisive influence on Troper's scientific development. His Nanterre period is when general legal theory becomes of his primary interest. In the same manner as his mentor before him, Troper perceives Kelsen's theoretical paradigm as a starting point and engages in a polemical dialogue with the ideas of the Viennese jurist, deciding to push his somewhat rudimentary theory of interpretation of law to its extreme consequences. Affiliating his theoretical enterprise to movements and schools of thought such as American, Scandinavian and, primarily, Italian legal realism, Troper elaborates his own theory of interpretation of law ( TRI which will promptly become notorious for its alleged radicality. In the subsequent period of his career, Troper introduces the theory of legal constraints ( TCJ, destined to enable him to preserve his loyalty to positivist epistemology while striving to amend the radicality of the TRI by mobilising the concept of a specific causality supposedly inherent both to the legal system and the legal agents' mindset.

  14. The risk assessment of legalization of criminal proceeds by entities of initial financial monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Smaglo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article has explored the features of the risk assessment of legalization of criminal proceeds by entities of initial financial monitoring. The author has grounded the necessity and importance of the risk assessing of legalization of criminal proceeds by entities of initial financial monitoring as they can both directly carry out financial transactions for legalization of illegal proceeds, and also facilitate their implementation. The paper has proposed the method of the risk assessing of legalization of criminal proceeds by a commercial bank. The method is based on the point scale and is characterized by the following advantages in comparison with the existing ones: it gives enough accurate assessment, it combines the evaluation of quantitative and qualitative indicators, it is simple and convenient in use. The developed method of the risk assessing of legalization of criminal proceed based on the point scale, can be used by a commercial bank to determine the effectiveness of the system of risk management legalization of proceeds or for the purpose of determining the comprehensive risk of legalization of criminal proceeds of a particular financial transaction, and by the National Bank of Ukraine to determine the frequency of inspections of commercial banks on the issues of financial monitoring.

  15. Law and Islamic finance: How legal origins affect Islamic finance development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rihab Grassa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers have shown that differences in legal origin explain differences in financial development. Using historical comparisons and cross-country regressions for 30 countries observed for the period from 2005 to 2010, this study tried to assess if different legal origins impacted on the development of Islamic finance. More particularly, this paper tried to assess empirically why and how Shari'a Law's legal origins adopted wholly or partially (combined with Common or Civil Law could explain the level of development of Islamic finance in different jurisdictions. Firstly, we found that countries adopting a Shari'a legal system had a very well developed Islamic financial system. Secondly, we found that countries, adopting a mixed legal system based on Common Law and Shari'a Law, were characterized by the flexibility of their legal systems to make changes to their laws in response to the changing socioeconomic conditions and that these helped the development of the Islamic financial industry. However, we found that countries, adopting a mixed legal system based on both Civil Law and Shari'a Law, were less flexible in making changes to their old laws and this thwarted the development of the Islamic financial industry in these countries. Thirdly, we found that the concentration of Muslim population (the percentage of Muslim population had a positive effect on the development of the Islamic banking system. Also, the level of income had a positive and significant effect on the development of Islamic banking.

  16. DRONE OPERATORS – LEGAL RESPONSIBILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei-Alexandru STOICA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Drones or unmanned or remote vehicles represent a new generation of devices that were designed to help mankind achieve better results in areas that were proven to hazardous. By developing drones, new areas of economic activities have been unlocked for better exploitation, but at the same time, the lack of a proper legal system to back-up the new technology allowed a new wave of gray-lined uses of drones that must be tackled. As the Director of the 21st Century Defense Initiative at the Brookings Institute1 explains in an interview in 2012 that “a revolutionary technology is a game-changing technology on a historic level. It is technology like gunpowder, or the steam engine, or the atomic bomb”. With this in mind, drones mark the revolution to carry out strikes from thousands of kilometers away, while also ensuring a permanent eye in the sky for both military and also law enforcement operations. The aforementioned facts are just small percentages of what a drone is truly capable of and its full potential will only be unlocked once artificial intelligence will become an integral part of robotics.

  17. Public Claims: A Legal Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer Budak

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In order for a claim to exist, the host there has to be two parties. In case of public claims one of the parties is the state, special provincial administration and municipalities; while the debtor consists of the natural and legal persons. The definition of public claims is provided by The Procedure Law of Collection of Public Claims. One claims, the quality of the public claims not cause any, may be excluded from the scope of Law No. 6183. All the claims of public administration are not public claims. However, any private claim can have the security of a public claim. For this reason the criteria used to define a public claim differ. Arrangements, which can render a public claim a privileged claim, exist in the relevant Code. The aim of this study is to define the concept of public claim expressed in the relevant code and to determine the conditions under which a claim not stated in the Code can be considered a public claim in the light of court decisions.

  18. 论农村社会保障法律制度构建中的政府责任——基于社会法视阈%On the Government's Responsibility in the Reshaping of Rural Social Security Legal System --Based on the Perspective of Social Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    项贤国; 王军

    2012-01-01

    Legal relationship of rural social security complex,Government,society and rural residents in the rural social security enjoy corresponding rights and obligations.Administrative method,and economic law and social method their has unique of legal value and adjustment object,text in the respectively based on this three a method domain research rural social security legal system remodel- ing in the of government responsibility owned bit, investigation rural social security method construction in the Government responsi- bility of over bit and lost bit,reflection Government in construction rural social security legal system in the by played of led and Foundation role,made in social method depending on threshold Xia Government should positioning in bear method construction,and financial support and supervision management of responsibility.%农村社会保障法律关系错综复杂,政府、社会及农民在农村社会保障中既有相应的权力(利),也要履行一定的义务。行政法、经济法和社会法各自具有独特的法律价值和调整对象,本文分别基于这三个法域检视农村社会保障法律制度构建中的政府责任,考察农村社会保障法律制度构建中政府责任的越位和缺位,反思政府在构建农村社会保障法律制度中所发挥的主导和基础作用,提出在社会法视阈下政府应定位在承担法律制度构建、财政支撑和监督管理之责任。

  19. Review of: Legal practice and cultural diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinding, Niels Valdemar

    2010-01-01

    that arose after the speech by the Archbishop: whether or to what extent cultural difference should be recognized by legal systems. Legal practice and cultural diversity, edited by Ralph Grillo, Roger Ballard, Alessandro Ferrari, Andre´ J. Hoekema, Marcel Maussen, and Prakash Shah, Farnham, UK, Ashgate, 2009......This anthology comprises contributions from a conference on legal practice and cultural diversity held in London in July 2007, but the editors take their cue from the speech made in February 2008 by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Dr Rowan Williams. The questions central to the book are the same...

  20. Legal aspects of intergenerational equity issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the extent to which American law and legal institutions have addressed problems of intergenerational equities. Beginning with a definition of the issue, the paper goes on to address conservation law, public debt ceilings, property law, and eugenic laws. The research supports the conclusion that neither statutory law, the formal expression of public policy articulated by the legislature, nor common law, the case-by-case definition of private legal rights by the courts has developed a coherent set of legal principles for dealing with the difficult problems of intergenerational equity. 15 references

  1. Reserva legal nacional: concepto y elementos

    OpenAIRE

    Loiralith Margarita Chirinos Portillo; Fabiola del Valle Tavares Duarte; María Eugenia Soto Hernández

    2013-01-01

    Este artículo de investigación tiene como objetivo general determinar la reserva legal nacional en la Constitución de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela de 1999. Se utiliza la estrategia de investigación documental y el método analítico. Las fuentes para la recolección de información corresponden a cinco ámbitos: constitucional, legal, sublegal, doctrinal y jurisprudencial. La reserva legal nacional se conceptúa como materias específicas de com- petencia nacional que por disposición consti...

  2. Rape: Past and present legal regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Đapović Lasta S.

    2002-01-01

    Rape was identified as a criminal act in the earliest known legal writings, Hamurabi's legal code (cir. 2000 BC). In the Balkans, in the Middle Ages, rape was always punished in one way or another, in the statutes of the Adriatic maritime towns, which were under the rule of the Nemanjić state or the West. All categories of women, even prostitutes and slaves, were protected by law from sexual violence in many statutes. Also in Dušan's legal code the regulation is found, severely punishing rapi...

  3. 略论中国古代的法律伦理——以《唐律疏议》为中心%Legal Ethics in Ancient China:A Study Based on Commentaries on the Codes of Tang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立民

    2012-01-01

    中国古代也存在法律伦理。《唐律疏议》是中华法系的代表作,以它为中心来审视古代的法律伦理,具有一定的代表性。中国古代的法律伦理存在于法律的原则、制度和具体内容之中,《唐律疏议》中法律伦理的形成有一定的条件支撑。与中国古代的法律伦理相关,法律伦理的作用、阐发和影响等问题值得关注。%There was legal ethics in ancient China.As the representative work of China legal system,Commentaries on the Codes of Tang could be studied for legal ethics in ancient China.Such ethics existed in principles,institutions and specific rules,and are supported by several conditions in Commentaries on the Codes of Tang.Related to this,the function,exposition and influence worth noticing.

  4. Sleep Forensics: a critical review of the literature and brief comments on the Brazilian legal situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Nonato Delgado-Rodrigues

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Sleep medicine is a relatively new field among Medical Sciences. Its legal aspects are still obscure, either for lack of knowledge of the biological mechanisms underlying violent behaviour during sleep or the virtual absence of clear legal and uniformly accepted guidelines as to whether to punish or treat those disorders. An updated review of the pertinent literature was performed to determine the most prevalent pathological conditions involving violence and sleep and to identify their most common precipitating factors, attempting to provide some technical support to aid Brazilian medical-experts or assistants in preparing substantial and scientific-based reports in a legal environment.

  5. Calidad de vida relacionada con heridas crónicas Quality of life related with chronic wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Virginia González-Consuegra

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo hace una revisión bibliográfica que se inicia con un recorrido de la evolución del concepto de calidad de vida (CV y su aplicación en salud, el cual debe su importancia a la forma más amplia en que es concebido el estado de salud personal, al contener implícito el bienestar social, lo que ha generado el desarrollo de medidas que permiten captar la salud en sus dimensiones múltiples y también positivas, como las de salud percibida o de calidad de vida relacionada con la salud (CVRS. La medición de la CVRS ha mostrado su utilidad en la investigación, en la práctica clínica, en la evaluación de los servicios sanitarios y en salud pública, lo que permite -en gran medida- contribuir a mejorar la gestión del cuidado. Con el paso del tiempo y la evolución tecnológica, la esperanza de vida ha ido en aumento, con el consiguiente envejecimiento de la población, siendo frecuente la presencia de enfermedades crónicas y metabólicas que, en muchos casos, traen consigo la presencia de heridas crónicas (HC de difícil manejo, que afectan negativa y considerablemente la CVRS de la población mayor de 65 años, especialmente femenina. La literatura reciente, es profusa respecto a los diferentes instrumentos para la medición de CVRS, por lo que se hace necesario conocer de qué disponemos para poder hacer uso de las herramientas adecuadas, según la condición de salud de la persona, a fin de aproximarse a las necesidades reales de las personas a nuestro cuidado. La mayoría de las herramientas de medición de CVRS se han desarrollado en Europa y Estados Unidos, lo que exige que para ser utilizadas en poblaciones distintas a las de su origen se cumpla con la adaptación y validación respectiva, a fin de que sus resultados reflejen la percepción real de la población.This review begins with a background on the evolution of quality of life (QOL concept and its application in health care, which owes its importance, as

  6. European New Legal Realism and International Law:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Jakob v. H.; Madsen, Mikael Rask

    2015-01-01

    International law remains in many ways a challenge to legal science. As in domestic law, the available options appear to be exhausted by either internal doctrinal approaches, or external approaches applying more general empirical methods from the social sciences. This article claims that, while...... these major positions obviously provide interesting insights, none of them manage to make international law intelligible in a broader sense. Instead, it argues for a European New Legal Realist approach to international law accommodating the so-called external and internal dimensions of law in a single more...... complex analysis which takes legal validity seriously but as a genuinely empirical object of study. This article constructs this position by identifying a distinctively European realist path which takes as its primary inspirations Weberian sociology of law and Alf Ross’ Scandinavian Legal Realism...

  7. 28 CFR 68.34 - Legal assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE HEARINGS BEFORE ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES IN CASES INVOLVING ALLEGATIONS OF UNLAWFUL EMPLOYMENT OF ALIENS, UNFAIR IMMIGRATION-RELATED EMPLOYMENT PRACTICES, AND DOCUMENT FRAUD § 68.34 Legal assistance....

  8. International Legal Norms in Macedonia's Domestic Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blerton SINANI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the Republic of Macedonia, international treaties ratified in accordance with the Constitution are considered part of the internal legal order and cannot be changed by an act of Parliament. This solution confirms the principle that international treaties have more legal authority than all the other legal acts, with the exception of the Constitution. This article aims to give an insight on the constitutional provisions that regulate the position of international treaties in the Macedonian legal order. It identifies its advantages and shortcomings and offers some solutions that might be taken into account by the lawgiver in the future. The article also analyses the profound impact that the European Convention on Human Rights has exerted on the substantial nature of the catalogue of fundamental rights and freedoms prescribed in the Constitution of the Republic of Macedonia.

  9. The Uneven Legal Push for Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wind, Marlene; Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg; Rotger, Gabriel Pons

    2009-01-01

    National courts have been key players in the legal push for Europe, though notably to varying degrees. This paper examines the persisting variations in the referral rates of national courts and the underlying causal factors, aiming to better understand why some member states' courts have been more...... reluctant to join in the legal push for Europe. By using econometric methods, it challenges the modified neofunctionalist argument that the extent of intra-EC trade explains the referral practice of the individual member states. Majoritarian democracy is hypothesized as a causal factor in the low referral...... of majoritarian democracy on the number of referrals. The paper concludes that, owing to the uneven legal push for Europe, some member states and their citizens remain at arms' length from the legal integration process - and, in consequence, from the full impact of European integration....

  10. Rearrangement of Legal Holidays Opens Hot Debate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ On November 9, the National Development and Reform Commission conducted a poll regarding the rearrangement of national legal holidays on its official website.After a year of research and study, a framework for the changes has been completed.

  11. The legal status of Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamura, M.; Ferraris, L.; Miozzo, D.; Musso, L.; Siccardi, F.

    2011-03-01

    An exponential improvement of numerical weather prediction (NWP) models was observed during the last decade (Lynch, 2008). Civil Protection (CP) systems exploited Meteo services in order to redeploy their actions towards the prediction and prevention of events rather than towards an exclusively response-oriented mechanism1. Nevertheless, experience tells us that NWP models, even if assisted by real time observations, are far from being deterministic. Complications frequently emerge in medium to long range forecasting, which are subject to sudden modifications. On the other hand, short term forecasts, if seen through the lens of criminal trials2, are to the same extent, scarcely reliable (Molini et al., 2009). One particular episode related with wrong forecasts, in the Italian panorama, has deeply frightened CP operators as the NWP model in force missed a meteorological adversity which, in fact, caused death and dealt severe damage in the province of Vibo Valentia (2006). This event turned into a very discussed trial, lasting over three years, and intended against whom assumed the legal position of guardianship within the CP. A first set of data is now available showing that in concomitance with the trial of Vibo Valentia the number of alerts issued raised almost three folds. We sustain the hypothesis that the beginning of the process of overcriminalization (Husak, 2008) of CPs is currently increasing the number of false alerts with the consequent effect of weakening alert perception and response by the citizenship (Brezntiz, 1984). The common misunderstanding of such an issue, i.e. the inherent uncertainty in weather predictions, mainly by prosecutors and judges, and generally by whom deals with law and justice, is creating the basis for a defensive behaviour3 within CPs. This paper intends, thus, to analyse the social and legal relevance of uncertainty in the process of issuing meteo-hydrological alerts by CPs. Footnotes: 1 The Italian Civil Protection is working

  12. The legal status of Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Altamura

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available An exponential improvement of numerical weather prediction (NWP models was observed during the last decade (Lynch, 2008. Civil Protection (CP systems exploited Meteo services in order to redeploy their actions towards the prediction and prevention of events rather than towards an exclusively response-oriented mechanism1.

    Nevertheless, experience tells us that NWP models, even if assisted by real time observations, are far from being deterministic. Complications frequently emerge in medium to long range forecasting, which are subject to sudden modifications. On the other hand, short term forecasts, if seen through the lens of criminal trials2, are to the same extent, scarcely reliable (Molini et al., 2009.

    One particular episode related with wrong forecasts, in the Italian panorama, has deeply frightened CP operators as the NWP model in force missed a meteorological adversity which, in fact, caused death and dealt severe damage in the province of Vibo Valentia (2006. This event turned into a very discussed trial, lasting over three years, and intended against whom assumed the legal position of guardianship within the CP. A first set of data is now available showing that in concomitance with the trial of Vibo Valentia the number of alerts issued raised almost three folds. We sustain the hypothesis that the beginning of the process of overcriminalization (Husak, 2008 of CPs is currently increasing the number of false alerts with the consequent effect of weakening alert perception and response by the citizenship (Brezntiz, 1984.

    The common misunderstanding of such an issue, i.e. the inherent uncertainty in weather predictions, mainly by prosecutors and judges, and generally by whom deals with law and justice, is creating the basis for a defensive behaviour3 within CPs. This paper intends, thus, to analyse the social and legal relevance of uncertainty in the process of issuing

  13. Stacking the Jury: Legal Professionals' Peremptory Challenges Reflect Jurors' Levels of Implicit Race Bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Mike; DeVaul-Fetters, Amanda; Gawronski, Bertram

    2016-08-01

    Most legal systems are based on the premise that defendants are treated as innocent until proven guilty and that decisions will be unbiased and solely based on the facts of the case. The validity of this assumption has been questioned for cases involving racial minority members, in that racial bias among jury members may influence jury decisions. The current research shows that legal professionals are adept at identifying jurors with levels of implicit race bias that are consistent with their legal interests. Using a simulated voir dire, professionals assigned to the role of defense lawyer for a Black defendant were more likely to exclude jurors with high levels of implicit race bias, whereas prosecutors of a Black defendant did the opposite. There was no relation between professionals' peremptory challenges and jurors' levels of explicit race bias. Implications for the role of racial bias in legal decision making are discussed.

  14. Stacking the Jury: Legal Professionals' Peremptory Challenges Reflect Jurors' Levels of Implicit Race Bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Mike; DeVaul-Fetters, Amanda; Gawronski, Bertram

    2016-08-01

    Most legal systems are based on the premise that defendants are treated as innocent until proven guilty and that decisions will be unbiased and solely based on the facts of the case. The validity of this assumption has been questioned for cases involving racial minority members, in that racial bias among jury members may influence jury decisions. The current research shows that legal professionals are adept at identifying jurors with levels of implicit race bias that are consistent with their legal interests. Using a simulated voir dire, professionals assigned to the role of defense lawyer for a Black defendant were more likely to exclude jurors with high levels of implicit race bias, whereas prosecutors of a Black defendant did the opposite. There was no relation between professionals' peremptory challenges and jurors' levels of explicit race bias. Implications for the role of racial bias in legal decision making are discussed. PMID:27354112

  15. THE MELTING POT OF LEGAL SYSTEMS IN INDONESIA (READING THE LEGAL POLITICS OF INDONESIAN ISLAMIC LAW)

    OpenAIRE

    Andi Nuzul

    2014-01-01

    Islamic law is integrated into but stands independently from Indonesia’s national law. It is integrated in the sense that its substance has been absorbed into the legal systems through laws and other legal rulings and binds all Indonesian citizens. It is independent however, in the sense that its substance governs the internal conduct of Muslims. Islamic law has strengthened the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia, especially after the amendments of the 1945 Constitution, whose legal s...

  16. Political and Legal Doctrine of Simon Bolivar

    OpenAIRE

    Mixail V. Fedorov

    2014-01-01

    Present article is devoted to the legal, political and constitutional ideas of the outstanding leader of war of independence in Latin America Simon Bolivar that was called by his countrymen and contemporaries to be a LIBERATOR. In the present article author discusses complex genesis and evolution of the political and legal doctrine of Simon Bolivar. Review is conducted by author in the context of developing theory and practice of Latin American constitutionalism in the XIX century. Author con...

  17. Relationship Marketing in Legal Services Marketing Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Audronė Androšiūnaitė; Borisas Melnikas

    2013-01-01

    The article defines the concept of professional services and evaluates the extent, to which legal services could be understood as professional services. In addition, literature analysis in the relationship marketing is presented as well as conclusions on the method for the use of relationship marketing in the development of legal services marketing strategy. Strategies of professional services marketing are completely different from other services marketing because of relations with current c...

  18. Digital Identity: an emergent legal concept

    OpenAIRE

    Sullivan, Clare

    2011-01-01

    This is the first full-length study of digital identity in a transactional context, from a legal perspective. Clare Sullivan's analysis reveals the emergence of a distinct, new legal concept of identity. This concept is particularly clear under a national identity scheme such as the United Kingdom and Indian schemes. However, its emergence is evident even in jurisdictions, like Australia, which do not have a formal national identity scheme. Much of the analysis can also be extrapolated ...

  19. PROSTITUTION PHENOMENON - LEGAL AND SOCIAL ASPECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Ilinca Alexandra TÃLNAR; Camelia Augusta HIMCINSCHI

    2012-01-01

    The prostitution phenomenon is a global, complex, controversial, and problematic phenomenon which remains one of the current subjects debated at national and international level. From a judicial point of view, despite of the numerous legal measures and sporadic actions realized by the police, prostitution continues to be present in Romania, partially due to the low efficiency of legal controls and laws’ implementation. In this respect, we have focused on the distinction between offence and co...

  20. Legal Considerations of Psychiatric Nursing Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barloon, Linda Funk; Hilliard, Wanda

    2016-06-01

    There are major legal issues that affect psychiatric nursing and guidelines for practicing in a legal and responsible manner. Advances in understanding of psychiatric conditions and developments in how nurses care for psychiatric patients result in changes in regulations, case law, and policies that govern nursing practice. Professional development, keeping abreast of current research and literature regarding clinical practice and trends, and involvement in professional organizations are some of the ways that psychiatric nurses can meet the challenges of their profession. PMID:27229273

  1. European Equivalencies in Legal Interpreting and Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corsellis, Ann; Hertog, Erik; Martinsen, Bodil;

    2002-01-01

    Within Europe there is increasing freedom of movement between countries and increasing inward migration. As a result, equivalent standards of legl interpreting and translation are required to allow reliable communication for judicial cooperation between member states, for criminal and civil matters...... in terms of - standards of selection, training and asessments of legal interpreters & translators - standards of ethics, code of conduct and good practice - interdisciplinary working arrangements with the legal services. With this paper, the authors aim to share the outcomes of their work....

  2. Legal aspects of clinical ethics committees

    OpenAIRE

    Hendrick, J.

    2001-01-01

    In an increasingly litigious society where ritual demands for accountability and "taking responsibility" are now commonplace, it is not surprising that members of clinical ethics committees (CECs) are becoming more aware of their potential legal liability. Yet the vulnerability of committee members to legal action is difficult to assess with any certainty. This is because the CECs which have been set up in the UK are—if the American experience is followed—likely to vary significantly in terms...

  3. Perfil do paciente ostomizado e complicações relacionadas ao estoma Profile of the pacient with stoma and complications related to stoma

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Henrique Marques dos Santos; Marcelo Matos Bezerra; Fernando Márcio Matos Bezerra; Bianca Rahal Paraguassú

    2007-01-01

    OBJETIVO: elaborar o perfil dos pacientes ostomizados e as complicações relacionadas ao estoma. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: estudo retrospectivo em que foram analisados prontuários dos pacientes cadastrados no Programa de Ostomizados do Centro de Especialidades Médicas da Prefeitura Municipal de Campo Grande-MS. RESULTADOS: foram avaliados 178 prontuários (56.7% homens e 43.3% mulheres). A média de idade entre os pacientes foi de 46.8 anos para o sexo masculino e de 54.6 anos para os do sexo feminino....

  4. CALIDAD DE VIDA RELACIONADA CON LA SALUD INFANTIL Y EL TRASPLANTE DE ÓRGANOS: UNA REVISIÓN DE LITERATURA

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa Kern de Castro; Bernardo Moreno-Jiménez

    2005-01-01

    En el presente artículo los autores revisan algunas cuestiones teóricas y estudios empíricos sobre la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud infantil, en especial en niños con enfermedades crónicas que necesitan trasplantes de órganos. Pocas investigaciones han sido realizadas sobre el tema hasta el momento. Sus resultados han mostrado que el trasplante mejora el bienestar físico pero no hay conclusiones definitivas sobre su relación con el bienestar psicológico. Se discute la necesidad de ...

  5. Análisis de las variables psicológicas relacionadas con el rendimiento deportivo en jugadores de un equipo de fútbol semiprofesional

    OpenAIRE

    González Campos, Gloria

    2012-01-01

    La presente investigación trata de conocer la información que se puede obtener sobre las variables psicológicas, desde un punto de vista individual y colectivo, de los jugadores de fútbol de un equipo semiprofesional de 3ª división de la Liga española mediante tres instrumentos de evaluación psicológica: el Cuestionario de Características Psicológicas relacionadas con el Rendimiento Deportivo (CPRD), el Competitive State Anxiety Inventory (CSAI-2), y el Inventario Psicológico Deportivo LOEHR....

  6. Variables psicológicas como predictores de conductas de prevención relacionadas con la infección por vih

    OpenAIRE

    Julio Alfonso Piña; Andrés Ernesto Corrales; Blanca Margarita Rivera

    2008-01-01

    Objetivo: Estudio transversal que tuvo como su objetivo identificar si variables que incluían a los conocimientos, creencias y motivos se constituían en predictores de dos conductas de prevención relacionadas con la infección por VIH: «Evitar una relación sexual con penetración» e «Intención de uso de preservativo en el futuro». Métodos: De una muestra original de 648 estudiantes pertenecientes a dos instituciones educativas que se localizan en Hermosillo, México, se trabajó con una submuestr...

  7. Variables psicológicas como predictores de conductas de prevención relacionadas con la infección por VIH

    OpenAIRE

    Julio Alfonso Piña; Andrés Ernesto Corrales; Blanca Margarita Rivera

    2008-01-01

    Objetivo: Estudio transversal que tuvo como su objetivo identificar si variables que incluían a los conocimientos, creencias y motivos se constituían en predictores de dos conductas de prevención relacionadas con la infección por VIH: «Evitar una relación sexual con penetración» e «Intención de uso de preservativo en el futuro». Métodos: De una muestra original de 648 estudiantes pertenecientes a dos instituciones educativas que se localizan en Hermosillo, México, se trabajó con una submuestr...

  8. Fatores modificáveis da degeneração macular relacionada à idade Modifiable risk factors for age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogil José de Almeida Torres

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam os principais fatores modificáveis considerados de risco para o desencadeamento e/ou agravamento da degeneração macular relacionada com a idade. São abordados os mecanismos de ação destes fatores, assim como medidas preventivas e eficácia de eventuais intervenções.The authors present the main modifiable risk factors that may trigger and/or worsen age-related macular degeneration. Mechanisms of action related to these factors as well as preventive measures and intervention effectiveness are discussed.

  9. Las imágenes relacionadas con la salud y la actividad física en los libros de educación física

    OpenAIRE

    Moya-Mata, Irene; Ros, Concepción; Menescardi, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo de esta investigación es analizar las imágenes en las que aparece la actividad física relacionada con la salud y el cuerpo de los personajes, en los libros de texto de Educación Física (EF) en la etapa de Educación Primaria (EP), valorando la presencia o ausencia de estereotipos corporales y deportivos, que se transmiten en la sociedad actual y su relación con los bloques de contenido en dicho currículo. Se realiza un análisis descriptivo de 196 imágenes, pertenecientes a nueve li...

  10. La convicción en las actitudes relacionadas con el dopaje : un estudio experimental con entrenadores de fútbol

    OpenAIRE

    Vega Marcos, Ricardo de la; Horcajo, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Este experimento analizó el efecto que el pensamiento deliberativo involucrado en el procesamiento de información relevante produjo sobre la convicción de los participantes en sus actitudes relacionadas con el dopaje. Los participantes fueron entrenadores de fútbol que recibieron por escrito una propuesta (i.e., un mensaje persuasivo) en contra (o a favor) de la legalización de algunas sustancias y conductas consideradas como dopaje en la actualidad. A su vez, la cantidad de pensamiento delib...

  11. Evaluación de la peligrosidad sísmica en España para aplicaciones relacionadas con la seguridad nuclear. Resultados preliminares.

    OpenAIRE

    Benito Oterino, Belen; Gaspar Escribano, Jorge M.; Rivas Medina, Alicia; Martínez Díaz, José Jesús; Rodriguez, O.; M.S. Ramírez

    2011-01-01

    En este trabajo se presentan los avances realizados en el marco del proyecto “Evaluación de la Peligrosidad Sísmica en España para aplicaciones relacionadas con la seguridad nuclear” financiado por el Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear. La finalidad última del proyecto es ahondar en el conocimiento de la peligrosidad sísmica y de su incertidumbre en los emplazamientos de instalaciones críticas como instalaciones nucleares y almacenamientos de residuos radiactivos en nuestro país. Con ese prop...

  12. Descripción de diferencias relacionadas con el razonamiento indutivo identificadas en la resolución de dos problemas

    OpenAIRE

    María C. Cañadas; Castro, Encarnación; Castro, Enrique

    2009-01-01

    Presentamos algunos resultados de una investigación más amplia cuyo objetivo general es describir y caracterizar el razonamiento inductivo que utilizan estudiantes de 3¼ y 4¼ de ESO al resolver tareas relacionadas con sucesiones lineales y cuadráticas (Cañadas, 2007). Identificamos diferencias en el empleo de algunos de los pasos considerados para la descripción del razonamiento inductivo en la resolución de dos de los seis problemas planteados a los estudiantes. Describimos estas diferencias...

  13. Calidad de vida relacionada con la salud en pacientes, con úlcera activa, atendidos por la Unidad de Pie Diabético del Hospital de Cruces

    OpenAIRE

    Larizgoitia Elejalde, Zohartze

    2013-01-01

    La Diabetes Mellitus (DM) constituye uno de los problemas sanitarios de mayor trascendencia, tanto por su extraordinaria frecuencia como por su enorme repercusión social y económica. Teniendo en cuenta que una de sus complicaciones más frecuentes es el Pie Diabético (PD), nos encontramos ante un importante problema de salud que va a afectar a un gran número de personas así como a su calidad de vida. Para poder conocer la Calidad de Vida Relacionada con la Salud (CVRS) de estas personas, debem...

  14. El Cuestionario de Experiencias Relacionadas con los Videojuegos (CERV) : un instrumento para detectar el uso problemático de videojuegos en adolescentes españoles

    OpenAIRE

    Chamarro Lusar, Andrés; Sánchez Carbonell, Xavier; Manresa, Josep Maria; Muñoz Miralles, Raquel; Ortega González, Raquel; López Morrón, M. Rosa; Batalla Martínez, Carme; Torán Montserrat, Pere

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo del presente estudio es validar el Cuestionario de Experiencias Relacionadas con los Videojuegos (CERV). El cuestionario consta de 17 ítems, desarrollados a partir del CERI de Beranuy y cols., y valora el uso problemático de los videojuegos no masivos. Se ha validado para adolescentes que cursan estudios de secundaria obligatoria. Para la validación se ha realizado un análisis factorial confirmatorio (AFC) y un análisis de consistencia interna. La estructura factorial muestra dos ...

  15. Cirugía de Rastelli: impacto adverso de la comunicación interventricular no relacionada con los grandes vasos en los resultados quirúrgicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Capelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroducciónLa evolución de los pacientes operados con técnica de Rastelli revela que se trata de unprocedimiento quirúrgico complejo no exento de morbilidad y mortalidad a mediano y alargo plazos. Las complicaciones serían, aparentemente, más frecuentes cuando la comunicacióninterventricular (CIV es anatómicamente remota o no relacionada con la aorta.ObjetivoEvaluar el impacto de la localización anatómica de la CIV en la cirugía de Rastelli.Material y métodosSe incluyeron 47 pacientes con una media (X de seguimiento posquirúrgico de 6 años (15meses-14 años. Los pacientes se subdividieron en: grupo I, CIV relacionada con la aorta (n= 29 y grupo II, CIV remota o no relacionada (n = 18.ResultadosEn el posquirúrgico inmediato, las reoperaciones (p = 0,05 fueron más frecuentes en el grupoII, en el cual se observó también una tendencia a mayor frecuencia de arritmias (p = 0,06.Luego de una X = 3 años (1 día-13 años posquirúrgicos se realizaron 27 reoperaciones en22 pacientes.Se cerró CIV residual en 11 pacientes a una X = 1 mes. En 8 de ellos, la CIV era remota (p =0,007.Desarrollaron estenosis subaórtica que requirieron cirugía 6 pacientes a una X = 5 años.Se reemplazó el conducto ventrículo derecho-arteria pulmonar en 12 pacientes a una X = 5años.La mortalidad en el período posquirúrgico inmediato fue del 6% (3 pacientes.La mortalidad global fue del 17,2% (n = 8; 7 pacientes tenían CIV no relacionada (p = 0,003.ConclusionesLa CIV remota en la cirugía de Rastelli se asocia con: 1 mayor mortalidad, 2 mayor frecuenciade reoperaciones en el posquirúrgico inmediato y 3 tendencia a mayor frecuenciade arritmias en el posquirúrgico inmediato.

  16. [Incapacitated persons - participation rights and the legal concept of the capacity to consent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damm, Reinhard

    2016-09-01

    Legal problems related to the capacity to consent and decision-making have recently become increasingly important. This concerns the prerequisites and limitations of legal participation as a basis of social participation. Among the relevant social spheres and fields of action, this particulary concerns medicine and health care as well as disability and care. At the normative level, with a view to those concerned, this leads to fundamental questions resulting from the tension between self-determination and care as basic legal and ethical standards. At the empirical level, there are debates between the law and the sciences with regard to the relevant knowledge base for the assessment of (in)capacity to consent. The traditional controversies about the relevant legal criteria determining the existence or absence of capacity to consent are intensified by some recent legal developments, two of which must be highlighted. One of these is the postulate, increasingly emphasized by courts and legislator, of an at least communicative involvement of persons incapable to give consent in the decision-making process. The other is the fundamental discussion of medical ethics on concepts of assisted self-determination and supported decision-making, the consequences of which will also be of relevance at the legal level. Insofar, the development of guardianship law and the legal requirements of the UN Disability Rights Convention are of particular importance. PMID:27503499

  17. Role Of The Law And Legal Knowledge In The History Of The Domestic State Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla V. Kareva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present article features of formation and development of the Old Russian, Russian law and jurisprudence and their role in the history of the domestic state are revealed. Author research traditions and bases of the Russian law and sense of justice, which are important for modern Russia, its legal system and statehood: domination of ethical beginnings over legal and collective law over the right of personality. Author carries out analysis of the domestic law formation stages, connected with emergence of outstanding legal monuments ("the Russkaya Pravda", Cathedral code of 1649. Special attention is paid to Peter I's transformations, first of all, in the sphere of law-making and legislation, and also in improvement of legal education in the Russian Empire. The role of Moscow and St. Petersburg Universities within which the main source of legal knowledge were lectures given by the designated professors. Author explains value of the famous reformer M.M. Speransky's versatile activity for the development of Russian legal system, law and legal education, because "the Speransky law school" was directed on preparing teachers of jurisprudence, systematization of Russian legislation, increase of the role of law and legislation in the formation of constitutional state.

  18. [Incapacitated persons - participation rights and the legal concept of the capacity to consent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damm, Reinhard

    2016-09-01

    Legal problems related to the capacity to consent and decision-making have recently become increasingly important. This concerns the prerequisites and limitations of legal participation as a basis of social participation. Among the relevant social spheres and fields of action, this particulary concerns medicine and health care as well as disability and care. At the normative level, with a view to those concerned, this leads to fundamental questions resulting from the tension between self-determination and care as basic legal and ethical standards. At the empirical level, there are debates between the law and the sciences with regard to the relevant knowledge base for the assessment of (in)capacity to consent. The traditional controversies about the relevant legal criteria determining the existence or absence of capacity to consent are intensified by some recent legal developments, two of which must be highlighted. One of these is the postulate, increasingly emphasized by courts and legislator, of an at least communicative involvement of persons incapable to give consent in the decision-making process. The other is the fundamental discussion of medical ethics on concepts of assisted self-determination and supported decision-making, the consequences of which will also be of relevance at the legal level. Insofar, the development of guardianship law and the legal requirements of the UN Disability Rights Convention are of particular importance.

  19. Understanding How Grammatical Aspect Influences Legal Judgment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M Sherrill

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that grammatical aspect can bias how individuals perceive criminal intentionality during discourse comprehension. Given that criminal intentionality is a common criterion for legal definitions (e.g., first-degree murder, the present study explored whether grammatical aspect may also impact legal judgments. In a series of four experiments participants were provided with a legal definition and a description of a crime in which the grammatical aspect of provocation and murder events were manipulated. Participants were asked to make a decision (first- vs. second-degree murder and then indicate factors that impacted their decision. Findings suggest that legal judgments can be affected by grammatical aspect but the most robust effects were limited to temporal dynamics (i.e., imperfective aspect results in more murder actions than perfective aspect, which may in turn influence other representational systems (i.e., number of murder actions positively predicts perceived intentionality. In addition, findings demonstrate that the influence of grammatical aspect on situation model construction and evaluation is dependent upon the larger linguistic and semantic context. Together, the results suggest grammatical aspect has indirect influences on legal judgments to the extent that variability in aspect changes the features of the situation model that align with criteria for making legal judgments.

  20. Understanding How Grammatical Aspect Influences Legal Judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrill, Andrew M; Eerland, Anita; Zwaan, Rolf A; Magliano, Joseph P

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that grammatical aspect can bias how individuals perceive criminal intentionality during discourse comprehension. Given that criminal intentionality is a common criterion for legal definitions (e.g., first-degree murder), the present study explored whether grammatical aspect may also impact legal judgments. In a series of four experiments participants were provided with a legal definition and a description of a crime in which the grammatical aspect of provocation and murder events were manipulated. Participants were asked to make a decision (first- vs. second-degree murder) and then indicate factors that impacted their decision. Findings suggest that legal judgments can be affected by grammatical aspect but the most robust effects were limited to temporal dynamics (i.e., imperfective aspect results in more murder actions than perfective aspect), which may in turn influence other representational systems (i.e., number of murder actions positively predicts perceived intentionality). In addition, findings demonstrate that the influence of grammatical aspect on situation model construction and evaluation is dependent upon the larger linguistic and semantic context. Together, the results suggest grammatical aspect has indirect influences on legal judgments to the extent that variability in aspect changes the features of the situation model that align with criteria for making legal judgments.

  1. Building a Legal Expert System for Legal Reasoning in Specific Domain-A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkateswarlu Naik.M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need to develop a legal expert system for the people to solve their legal troubles in orderreduce problems to the people for frequently arising legal solutions or legal queries, there is a need of legallawyer is mandatory, so there is an urgent need for the use of practical AI solutions in many of areas forproblems which people encounter in their daily lives. In this context building a legal expert system for thepeople is most adequate to make legal decisions in a particular domain through which people can getbasic service or suggestions or counseling or Fact finding and diagnosing few things associated to theirdomain. Such kind of emerging domain is called Immovable Property Acquisition (IMP like Tangibleproperties Land, House etc.., In order to build such kind of systems certain prior domain knowledge mustbe acquired. The main fundamental goal of this paper is to survey distinguish prerequisites informationabout to make legal expert system. Here primarily focusing regarding Traditional model of legalreasoning, proposed approach by Expert System, Various Logical components, Types of Legal InferenceTechniques to automate the legal tasks.

  2. 我国临终关怀事业的困境及其对策--基于法律规制的视角%The Plight and Countermeasures of Terminal Care Cause from the Perspective of Legal Regulation ---The perspective Based on legal Regulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王星明

    2014-01-01

    The terminal care has developed in our country for more than 20 years, due to various reasons, this cause met with some difficulties. The fundamental reason lies in the lack of system construction. From the perspec-tive of legal regulation, this paper proposed to strengthen the relevant laws and regulations, to definite the responsi-bility of different level government and relevant departments and to revise or improve the relevant laws and regula-tions, which will ensure the hospice service operate in a standardized and orderly manner and promote its profes-sional education.%临终关怀在我国发展的20多年里,由于种种原因,遇到了若干困境。其根本原因在于制度建设的缺失。基于法律规制的视角,提出了加强相关法律法规的制定,明确各级政府及相关部门对发展临终关怀所应该履行的职责;修订或完善相关的法律法规,保障临终关怀服务规范、有序地运行以及推进临终关怀的专业化教育等对策。

  3. Evaluating the application of eu environmental standards in european public banks’ investment projects in third countries : Towards legal environmental indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.N. Ratsiborinskaya (Daria)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe topic lies primarily in the field of European environmental law. It focuses on the ‘export’ of European environmental legal standards to the third countries by the Europe-based investment banks (such as EBRD, EIB, NIB). In 2006 these banks voluntarily agreed to apply the EU legal env

  4. British and Irish Association of Law Librarians (BIALL) Legal Information Literacy Statement

    OpenAIRE

    Choolhun, N; R. Bird(School of Physics, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland)

    2012-01-01

    The Association hosts an annual conference which features a members’ ‘Have your say’ session. At the 2011 session, a BIALL member based in the commercial sector voiced their concern at the legal research competency of recent joiners to their firm, stating that senior partners were asking in-house law librarians to verify the research presented by new trainees. This member also queried the role of academic law librarians, questioning how legal research skills are being taught at academic and v...

  5. The University Library: a driving force for reform in legal education?

    OpenAIRE

    Beljaars, Ben; Winter, René

    2012-01-01

    textabstractInformation skills training offers opportunities for gradually embedding changes in legal education programs and to bring about the integration of legal knowledge, skills and experience. If shared goals are formulated in a spirit of close collaboration, curricular changes and revisions will potentially have a greater effect and be more likely to enhance long-term programs. The university library can serve as an ideal base for the use of information technology such as web portals a...

  6. Specification of the Legal Knowledge Interchange Format: Deliverable 1.1

    OpenAIRE

    Boer, A. de; Di Bello, M.; Berg, van den, W.; Gordon, T; Förhécz, A.; Vas, R.

    2007-01-01

    The main technical objectives of work package 1 are to develop a first version of a Legal Knowledge Interchange Format (LKIF), building upon emerging XML-based standards of the Semantic Web, including RDF and OWL, and Application Program Interfaces (APIs) for interacting with legal knowledge systems. The LKIF will apply the state of the art in the field of Artificial Intelligence and Law, taking into account business and application requirements. This deliverable reports on the specification ...

  7. Testing Legal Boundaries within Arab Media Hubs: Reporting, Law and Politics in Three Media Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Krzysiek, Pawel

    2009-01-01

    A dynamic transformation of the Arab world raises important questions about the character of structural alterations within Arab regimes. This transition has effected several changes in the legal sphere of Arab media. Rejecting the paradigm of the Arab world’s democratization, this article argues for the Arab regimes’ ability to adjust to globalization trends without a substantial loss of power. Based on empirical evidence, the legal aspects that govern media organizations within free media zo...

  8. Legal issues of the electronic dental record: security and confidentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekely, D G; Milam, S; Khademi, J A

    1996-01-01

    Computer-based, electronic dental record keeping involves complex issues of patient privacy and the dental practitioner's ethical duty of confidentiality. Federal and state law is responding to the new legal issues presented by computer technology. Authenticating the electronic record in terms of ensuring its reliability and accuracy is essential in order to protect its admissibility as evidence in legal actions. Security systems must be carefully planned to limit access and provide for back-up and storage of dental records. Carefully planned security systems protect the patient from disclosure without the patient's consent and also protect the practitioner from the liability that would arise from such disclosure. Human errors account for the majority of data security problems. Personnel security is assured through pre-employment screening, employment contracts, policies, and staff education. Contracts for health information systems should include provisions for indemnification and ensure the confidentiality of the system by the vendor. PMID:8594098

  9. LEGAL CHALLENGES POSED BY WI FI NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim DOBRINOIU

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the electronic communications market is in a high development, and this trend will not be diminished even by the newly world economic crisis. Studies show a significant growth in people’s interest for Information Society (IS services, with emphasize on the mobility of the resources. On the other hand, Internet has become more than a “network of networks”, but a way of life, and user’s addict to computer systems and IS services often reveal interesting aspects and controversial in the same time. Modern forms of electronic communications rely more and more on the wireless Internet connections (Wi Fi, and this conclusion could be eventually based on the following realities: 1 Users continue to migrate to wireless technology; 2 Users prefer wireless connectivity; 3 Users are attracted by costless Internet connections; 4 Users are fascinated by the possibility of hiding their online activity and behaviour. Although certain security measures can be easily applied in order to prevent the spread of cyber related crimes, the wireless (Wi Fi connection to Internet also rise up a lot of controversial aspects, most of them about the legality of the connection itself, topic that the authors try to approach in this study.

  10. Ethical and legal challenges in bioenergy governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg, Christian; Anker, Helle Tegner; Sandøe, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The article focuses on the interplay between two factors giving rise to friction in bioenergy governance: profound value disagreements (e.g. the prioritizing of carbon concerns like worries over GHG emissions savings over non-carbon related concerns) and regulatory complexity (in terms of regulat......The article focuses on the interplay between two factors giving rise to friction in bioenergy governance: profound value disagreements (e.g. the prioritizing of carbon concerns like worries over GHG emissions savings over non-carbon related concerns) and regulatory complexity (in terms...... of regulatory measures and options). We present ethical and legal analyses of the current stalemate on bioenergy governance in the EU using two illustrative cases: liquid biofuels for transport and solid biomass-based bioenergy. The two cases disclose some similarities between these two factors......, but the remaining differences may partly explain, or justify, contrasting forms of governance. While there seems to be no easy way in which the EU and national governments can deal with the multiple sustainability issues raised by bioenergy, it is argued that failure to deal explicitly with the underlying value...

  11. Legal aid for victims in criminal proceedings in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Costa Ramos, Vânia

    2014-01-01

    The following article gives an overview of legal aid for victims in criminal cases in Portugal. It addresses the issues of a victim’s access to a lawyer, when and how the right is granted (right to legal assistance), and under what circumstances the victim has a right to financial legal aid (right to financial legal aid).

  12. 45 CFR 505.2 - Persons under legal disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Persons under legal disability. 505.2 Section 505... under legal disability. (a) Claims may be submitted on behalf of persons who, being otherwise eligible... legal disability, by the natural or legal guardian, committee, conservator, curator, or any other...

  13. Existence of vagueness and vague expression in legal English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石继鹏

    2008-01-01

    The language of legal English is a kind of customary language, which includes some words, phrases and mode of expression with its unique style. One of the most important characteristics of legal English is exact in its usage. But in some situations, vague expressions are found in legal English. This is written to probe into some linguistic aspects of legal documents: vagueness and ambiguity.

  14. Tissue banking in Hungary: legal, ethical and technical frame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hungary is a small country in the middle of Europe with a population of 10 million. Many religions are represented in the country but the majority of the population is Christian. The Hungarian medical education and practice based on the 'German School' and the modem medicine has been started more than 200 years ago. At the same time some of the medical school have been established first in Nagyszombat and the school for surgery in Kolozsyar, later in Debrecen 80 years ago. Recently we have four medical faculties. From the beginning of implementation of modern medicine many efforts were taken to establish the relevant legal frame and ethical rules to help and make understandable and acceptable for the society of various medical interventions. The previous mentioned structure was before and presently conformed with the political and social structure of the country. The initial of tissue for transplantation in medicine was widely accepted by medical fraternity since the middle of the century. Recently tissue grafts are performed daily is in burn, reconstructive surgery, in bone and nerve surgery, unfortunately we use commercial products in heart surgery. At the initial phase of our tissue banking activity, we first followed the American Association Tissue Banking procedures based on our personal contact with leading US Tissue Bank and the American Association of Tissue Banks. Later after joining the Europe Association of Tissue Bank we played an active role in the establishing of the Europe recommendations related to legal, ethical and technical rules of tissue banking. In this presentation the legal frame and the recent ethical concept for tissue donation as well as the technical possibilities and the donor recreation programme of tissue banks will be introduced to the audience. Also the problems of legal harmonization will be mentioned to which we are facing as an associated country to the European Union

  15. 法律义务观念的来源--从《法律的概念》出发%The Source of Legal Obligation-Based on the“the Concept of Law”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王储

    2013-01-01

      It is undoubtedly that moral rules require people to fulfill their obligations. Therefore, whether the duty under the law comes from moral rules or not becomes critical. If we deny that legal obligation comes from moral, then legal obligation must have its own source. Then the theory of legal positivism order and prediction theory which is closely related to the theory of order have been appeared. Therefore, if the book“the concept of law”tries to find“the real point of the science of law”, it must deal with the relationship among obligation concept under law, the theory of order and the prediction theory, with the aim of getting correct conclusion.%  道德规则科予义务是毫无疑问的。那么在法律下的义务性是否会是来自于道德规则就变得很关键。而如果否认法律义务是来自于道德,那么它必须有着自身的义务来源,于是产生了法律实证主义的命令说理论,并且产生了与命令说有密切联系的预测论理论。所以《法律的概念》要发现“法律科学的真正关键”就必须处理法律下的义务观念与道德、命令说以及预测论之间的关系,从而得到正确的结论。

  16. Legal protection against nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA Director General appointed an international Panel of Experts to go into the question of Civil Liability and State Responsibility for Nuclear Hazards. The Panel had before it certain basic postulates formulated after a preliminary and tentative consideration of the subject. From the viewpoint of the public, the first postulate is, of course, that the use of nuclear energy be regulated by adequate licensing and control mechanisms so as to prevent any accidents. To the extent, however, that nuclear damage cannot be prevented, there must be liability on the part of the enterprise which caused the damage and, where damage exceeds its liability or its financial resources there should be some assurance of compensation by the State. This should be so not only within the borders of one State, but especially also on an international basis. Security should be required for the possible liability of the enterprises connected with a nuclear incident. Litigation with respect to liability should be concentrated in the most convenient tribunal and be governed by a single clearly defined law. The methods of distribution should meet general standards of equity and be as expeditious as possible. Emergency measures, especially evacuation, first aid and decontamination, should be organized and financed without delay. At the same time, the liability of an enterprise should not exceed its reasonable financial capabilities. This means that a ceiling should be imposed upon the amount of third party liability to which an enterprise could be held. And the liability should generally be such as can be covered by adequate financial security. Uniformity in the treatment of victims of nuclear incidents in all these fields is a desirable goal. Yet, if a rule adopted on an international level or suggested by uniform legislation were to be viable, it should adapt itself to the social, economic and legal order already existing in individual States. This may mean that in certain fields it

  17. On Historical Contextualisation: Some Critical Socio-Legal Reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorie Charlesworth

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the relationship of historico-legal studies to the wider context of socio-legal studies. It issues a challenge to rethink the nature and role of legal history in the light of socio-legal theory and the extent to which it out to be used by legal scholars. The discussion explores the benefits to socio-legal studies of interdisciplinarity. It suggests that historical reconstructions that contextualise the law should be properly acknowledged as a subgenre at least of the socio-legal movement, not simply perceived as an add-on methodology.

  18. Qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde de pacientes com câncer em tratamento radioterápico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Maria de Paula

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available estudio prospectivo, con objetivo de evaluar la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud de pacientes con cáncer de cabeza y cuello durante el tratamiento de radioterapia. Método: se realizó con 41 pacientes entre 2009-2011 en dos centros de radioterapia. Se utilizó el instrumento Functional Assessment Cancer Therapy Head and Neck. El predominio de los casos fue del sexo masculino, con edad media de 62 años. Resultados: de los 5 dominios evaluados, lo más afectado fue “bienestar físico”, directamente relacionado con los efectos secundarios del tratamiento. Conclusión: los síntomas ocasionados por el tratamiento interfieren negativamente en la Calidad de Vida relacionada con la salud, por lo tanto, es importante que el equipo de atención de la salud evalúe e identifique las necesidades del paciente, lo que permite tener seguimiento que responda a sus necesidades y reduzca al mínimo los síntomas.

  19. PRIVATE REGULATORY LEGAL ACTS IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    OpenAIRE

    Magomedov, Ruslan

    2014-01-01

    Regulatory legal acts possess certain characteristics, the presence of which determines their qualities. Historically the development of forms of law in the world followed various tracks, which led to appearance of several legal systems. That is why the notion and the meaning of regulatory legal acts in them does not always coincide. This article presents a notion of private regulatory legal acts and an issue of their presence in the Russian legal system. In that context a notion of regulator...

  20. LEGAL TRANSPLANTS IN ROMANIAN CORPORATE LAW SEEKING FOR SUCCESS

    OpenAIRE

    RADU N. CATANA

    2009-01-01

    The last period has seen an enormous investment in legal reform efforts in many transition and developing economies, much of it involving the importation of legal models from mature market economies. As a growing body of economic and legal literature shows, legal reforms in transition economies were largely grounded on transplants. The challenges raised in the legal transplants process can be revealed by reuniting two major approaches. The substantial approach is meant to present the results ...

  1. Avoiding the Legal “Blemish”: Medicolegal Pitfalls in Dermatology

    OpenAIRE

    Michaels, Brent D.; Del Rosso, James Q.; Momin, Saira B.

    2009-01-01

    In today’s legal environment, it is unlikely that a physician will complete a medical career without being introduced to the legal system in some way. Despite this, medical education often does not incorporate a basic teaching of general legal principles, and many physicians are left unaware of some of the important legal aspects of practicing medicine. The purpose of this article is to provide a background of the essential legal principles of a malpractice action as well as review the fundam...

  2. David Ingersoll, behavioralism and the modern revival of legal realism.

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, Thom

    2015-01-01

    David Ingersoll’s essay “Karl Llewellyn, American Legal Realism and Contemporary Legal Behavioralism” is a significant, but neglected contribution to our understanding of legal realism in the United States. This article argues that it first anticipates the shape of legal realism’s revival today and shows that Ingersoll was ahead of his time. The once dominant school of legal realism had become a much maligned theory of law when this essay was first published. Ingersoll identifies ...

  3. Transnational Legal Education : A Comparative Study of Japan and Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Nichol, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Legal education is transnationalizing. The legal classroom is globalizing, in that a university's classroom is not defined by walls but is now mobile through technology and international university affiliations. The legal classroom itself is globalized, composed of local and international students. To meet the demands of a global economy and the subsequent globalization of the legal profession, law faculties have been required to transnationalize their legal education, teaching a mix of domes...

  4. Nuevos indicadores clínicos: La calidad de vida relacionada con la salud New clinical indicators: Health-related quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Consiglio

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available En las últimas décadas se ha incrementado el interés por la obtención de nuevos indicadores clínicos a partir de la necesidad de evaluar mejor los desenlaces en salud. En este contexto ha surgido el estudio de la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud (CVRS, que evalúa un modelo multidimensional en el que el paciente constituye la fuente primaria de información. El objetivo último consiste en la evaluación global de las consecuencias que ocasionan las enfermedades y sus tratamientos en la vida cotidiana de los pacientes. Para ello se han desarrollado instrumentos de medición (cuestionarios, en general autoadministrados, genéricos o específicos. Estos cuestionarios deben cumplir con propiedades, denominadas psicométricas, entre las que se incluyen la fiabilidad, la validez y la sensibilidad al cambio; algunos autores incluyen también a la factibilidad. La CVRS favorece un mejor conocimiento de la historia natural de las enfermedades y del impacto global de las mismas en los enfermos, complementando a los indicadores clásicos de mortalidad y morbilidad; además facilita la comparación de estrategias de intervención terapéutica en el contexto de ensayos clínicos o de estudios epidemiológicos. Aún existen aspectos técnicos no resueltos, tales como la correlación entre las puntuaciones en términos absolutos y la clínica del paciente, su valor predictivo, y los cambios del contenido de sus instrumentos de medida de acuerdo con los cambios en la historia natural de las enfermedades en evaluación.In the last decades the need of better measurements of health outcomes has increased the interest for new clinical indicators. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL has emerged in this context as a multidimensional model approach where the patient is the exclusive source of information. The main objective of HRQoL measurement is to provide a global evaluation of the impact of diseases and the consequences of treatments over the daily

  5. Perfil do paciente ostomizado e complicações relacionadas ao estoma Profile of the pacient with stoma and complications related to stoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Marques dos Santos

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: elaborar o perfil dos pacientes ostomizados e as complicações relacionadas ao estoma. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: estudo retrospectivo em que foram analisados prontuários dos pacientes cadastrados no Programa de Ostomizados do Centro de Especialidades Médicas da Prefeitura Municipal de Campo Grande-MS. RESULTADOS: foram avaliados 178 prontuários (56.7% homens e 43.3% mulheres. A média de idade entre os pacientes foi de 46.8 anos para o sexo masculino e de 54.6 anos para os do sexo feminino. Dentre as ostomias, foram encontradas 152 colostomias (85.4%, 21 ileostomias (11.8% e 5 urostomias (2.8%. O principal motivo para confecção dos estomas foi a neoplasia maligna (46.6%, seguido do trauma abdominal (7.3%, e do desvio de trânsito intestinal devido a úlceras de pressão (6.7%. Adaptação inadequada da placa ao estoma foi encontrada em 90 pacientes (50.6%. Complicações do estoma foram encontradas em 103 pacientes (57.9%, dentre elas, dermatite peri-estomal (28.7%, estoma plano (18.6%, hérnia para-colostômica (10.7% e retração do estoma (10.1%. CONCLUSÕES: No grupo estudado, o principal motivo para a confecção de ostomia foi a neoplasia de retossigmóide e canal anal. A complicação mais comum foi a dermatite peri-estomal.OBJECTIVE: To elaborate the profile of the patients with permanent ostomies and the complications related to the stoma. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a retrospective study based on the database of the patients with permanent ostomies, registered in the 'Programa de Ostomizados do Centro de Especialidades Médicas' of the City Hall of Campo Grande, MS. RESULTS: It was evaluated 178 handbooks of these patients (56,7% men and 43,3% women. The average age was 46,8 years for the male group and 54.6 years for the female group. It was found 152 colostomies (85,4%, 21 ileostomies (11,8% and 5 urostomies (2,8%. The main indication for the stomas was the cancer (46,6%. The second indication was abdominal trauma (7

  6. Studies on the Administrative legal thoughts of Deng Xiaoping -- Based on the Background of Accession to GATY/WTO%邓小平与中国复关人世——兼论邓小平的行政法律思想

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹培忠; 周艳波; 刘桂艳

    2011-01-01

    在中国复关入世的历史进程中,邓小平从中国社会发展和国际形势的战略出发,坚持维护国家主权,为复关入世奠定基本灵活务实的原则;科学处理了台湾问题,充分体现了邓小平的维护主权原则和建立、健全科学的行政法律体系等行政法律思想,为后WTO时代履行中国入世的政府承诺,严格依法行政,实现经济全球化条件下的政府职能最优化模式的改革,实践科学发展观奠定了坚实的基础。%During the proceeding of the accession to GATT/WTO, Dong Xiaoping, from the tactic aspect of the China's social development and the international practice ,insists on the doctrine of the sovereignty for the accession to GATT/WTO to base the practical doctrine, deals with scientifically the matter of Taiwan, expresses the Dong Xiaoping's administrative legal thoughts of the maintenance sovereignty and establishment of the legal system of law and enhance the legal intendance for the base after WTO to carry out the China's commitment and to administer by law and to reform of the government optimization under the condition of the globalization and to practice the scientific development.

  7. Law in Context: Teaching Legal Studies through the Lens of Extra-Legal Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sandra K.; DiMatteo, Larry A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to persuade legal studies teachers of the benefits of using works from other disciplines to illustrate the rationales for law, the greater context in which the legal order operates, and the relationship between law and society. The tangential benefits of using works from other disciplines are the enhancement of the…

  8. Diversification of farm enterprises in the USA: legal incentives and legal obstacles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grossman, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on legal incentives and legal obstacles to diversification in the US. It first outlines some farm characteristics that may influence diversification. It then turns to the possible impact of the agricultural tenancy relationship on diversification and the relevance of land-use re

  9. Deviating measurements in radiation protection. Legal assessment of deviations in radiation protection measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigates how, from a legal point of view, deviations in radiation protection measurements should be treated in comparisons between measured results and limits stipulated by nuclear legislation or goods transport regulations. A case-by-case distinction is proposed which is based on the legal concequences of the respective measurement. Commentaries on nuclear law contain no references to the legal assessment of deviating measurements in radiation protection. The examples quoted in legal commentaries on civil and criminal proceedings of the way in which errors made in measurements for speed control and determinations of the alcohol content in the blood are to be taken into account, and a commentary on ozone legislation, are examined for analogies with radiation protection measurements. Leading cases in the nuclear field are evaluated in the light of the requirements applying in case of deviations in measurements. The final section summarizes the most important findings and conclusions. (orig.)

  10. LEGAL ISSUES AND REGULATION OF POLITICAL PARTIES IN LITHUANIA DURING THE INTER-WAR YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Ivanauskaitė

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The research discusses the compounds of social – political parties, their development and legal regulation. Design/methodology/approach – The research is based on qualitative research, which helps to identify and define the problems of legal regulation of political parties. Method of data and documents analysis, content analysis, and historical method are used. Findings – The research tries to avoid considerations of political issues, but legal and historical issues are discussed. It concentrates on the general legal principles of the formation of political parties and associations and their changes. It considers the development of party system regulation and studies the practical problems of legal and factual reality mismatches. In order to carry out a comprehensive scientific study the existing de jure legal framework and the consequent de facto reality is reviewed. The research proves not only that there were some differences between existed legal framework and de facto reality. Also, it defines the requirements to the general principles of regulation of political parties and determines correspondence of existing legal regulation to basic democratic standards. Research limitations/implications – Documents are the most important form of available data. Documents can contain data recorded in monographs, journals, magazines, articles, acts, judgments, official documents etc. Documents can also make up part of records maintained by various individuals and institutions such as libraries, archives, the police etc. The existing judgments, reports and circular notes of Seimas of the Republic of Lithuania, the Ministry of Interiors Affairs, chiefs of staff of districts and police are scientifically significant. However, it should be noted that not all documents have been maintained. Practical implications – The research pays attention to the changes of legal regulation of political parties and its dependence on regime. Moreover

  11. Cuestiones jurídicas relacionadas con el estatuto jurídico del astronauta en el marco de las Naciones Unidas y de la Estación espacial internacional.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Orozco Sáenz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of United Nations legal instruments, as far as astronauts are concerned as well as other legal instruments concerning the International Space Station. Legal comparison with other juridical figures such as crew members or space tourists taking into the account the later do not have the necessary requirement for being considered from a legal point of view astronauts.

  12. Prevenção da infecção da corrente sanguínea relacionada ao cateter venoso central: Uma revisão integrativa | Prevention of bloodstream infection related to central venous catheter: An integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alanna Gomes da Silva

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Analisar as produções científicas nacionais e internacionais sobre a adoção aos bundles para prevenção de infecção da corrente sanguínea relacionada ao cateter venoso central em unidade de terapia intensiva adulto. Métodos: Foi realizada uma revisão integrativa da literatura nas bases de dados Pubmed, Cinahl e Science Direct, publicados de 2011 a 2014. Resultados: Foram encontrados 11 artigos e em 100% deles as principais medidas adotadas foram antes da inserção do cateter, sendo: antissepsia da pele, uso de barreira máxima de precaução, preferência pela veia subclávia, higienização prévia das mãos e educação e treinamento dos profissionais de saúde. Conclusões: Os bundles estão sendo utilizados na prática clínica como estratégias para redução das infecções, contudo, as infecções da corrente sanguínea relacionadas a cateter continuam a ocorrer de forma alarmante e com grande impacto no cuidado a saúde. Desse modo, estratégias que apontem subsídios para melhoria da prática clínica e segurança do paciente devem ser incentivadas, sobretudo aquelas voltadas para o período crítico da inserção e manutenção do cateter. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Objective: To analyze the national and international scientific production on the adoption of bundles to prevent bloodstream infection related to central venous catheters in adult intensive care unit. Methods: An integrative literature review of studies published from 2011 to 2014 was conducted in the databases Pubmed, CINAHL and Science Direct. Results: 11 articles were found. In all of them the principal measures adopted before catheter insertion were: skin antisepsis, use of maximum barrier precaution, preference by the subclavian vein, previous hand hygiene, and education and training of health professionals. Conclusions: The bundles are being used in clinical practice as

  13. Hereditary breast and gynecological tumors: Italian legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DI Vella, Giancarlo

    2016-10-01

    The availability of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures that lower the risk for developing hereditary family-related tumors is weighed against Italian ethical and legal provisions. The healthcare environment in which a professional works should require that he possess specific technical, relational and medical competencies based upon legal orientation in addition to scientific evidence. Particular emphasis is attributed to the doctor-patient relationship, with explicit reference to the following: 1) all of the information at hand that is required to achieve a "therapeutic alliance" that combines the best interests of the patient with treatment options; 2) the completeness and intelligibility of health records, as they are likely to explain the background logic and the following of scientific clinical procedure; 3) the observance of guidelines and protocols, and their relevance to the legal responsibility of the individual and health care companies; 4) the need of a multidisciplinary approach in the treatment of these patients and the obligation of the team to have malpractice insurance. Advances on "provisions concerning liability of health personnel", which is currently awaiting approval, allows the professional to protect the patient's health without the fear of being unnecessarily censured, and unjustified from a penal or civil point of view which can deteriorate the relationship of trust and cooperation established. PMID:26924172

  14. Sexsomnia: sleep sex research and its legal implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organ, Alexandria; Fedoroff, J Paul

    2015-05-01

    "Sleep sex," also known as sexsomnia, is a sleep disorder characterized by sexual behaviors committed while asleep. There has recently been increased interest in sexsomnia due to controversies arising in legal trials that have been widely publicized in the social and public media. This article attempts to marshal the current information about sexsomnia from the forensic literature and provides an overview of sexsomnia including common features, precipitating factors, prevalence rates, diagnostic procedures, and treatment. As sexsomnia represents a condition in which sexual acts are committed without awareness or intention, this paper also reviews the development of sexsomnia as a legal defense and summarizes Canadian case law on the topic. It provides an overview of the hurdles presented to defense attorneys attempting to utilize the defense and examines popular public notions surrounding the legitimacy of sexsomnia and the possibility of malingering. We conclude that sexsomnia is a legitimate sleep disorder for which case law now exists to support its use in legal defenses based on automatism. The question of whether it is an example of "sane" or "insane" automatism remains to be determined by the courts. Regardless of whether or not sexsomnia is determined to be a mental disorder by the courts, it is now a recognized and well-described sleep disorder that can be safely treated and managed by knowledgeable clinicians. PMID:25795266

  15. Hereditary breast and gynecological tumors: Italian legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DI Vella, Giancarlo

    2016-10-01

    The availability of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures that lower the risk for developing hereditary family-related tumors is weighed against Italian ethical and legal provisions. The healthcare environment in which a professional works should require that he possess specific technical, relational and medical competencies based upon legal orientation in addition to scientific evidence. Particular emphasis is attributed to the doctor-patient relationship, with explicit reference to the following: 1) all of the information at hand that is required to achieve a "therapeutic alliance" that combines the best interests of the patient with treatment options; 2) the completeness and intelligibility of health records, as they are likely to explain the background logic and the following of scientific clinical procedure; 3) the observance of guidelines and protocols, and their relevance to the legal responsibility of the individual and health care companies; 4) the need of a multidisciplinary approach in the treatment of these patients and the obligation of the team to have malpractice insurance. Advances on "provisions concerning liability of health personnel", which is currently awaiting approval, allows the professional to protect the patient's health without the fear of being unnecessarily censured, and unjustified from a penal or civil point of view which can deteriorate the relationship of trust and cooperation established.

  16. The legal duty of local government to facilitate development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theo Scheepers

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Local government in South Africa is not only facing challenges normally associated with a process of development or transformation, but needs to adjust its focus according to the new development paradigm unfolding in South Africa. Developmental local government has to accomplish this task according to the mandate issued in the Constitution and within a specific legal-institutional and value framework The legal-institutional framework is based on a set of development law principles contained in new generation legislation. The value framework consists of community values as well as constitutional values reflecting individual and community values, norms and principles. This framework imposes a legal and moral duty as well as corresponding obligations on municipalities to plan and implement future socio-economic development of the areas for which they are responsible according to a new set of development principles and values. These principles make it incumbent upon municipalities to manage development through a people-centred and community-driven process. This article briefly deals with the nature and content of the duties and responsibilities of municipalities emanating from a new development paradigm when facilitating the development process within their areas of jurisdiction.

  17. The changing purpose of mental health law: From medicalism to legalism to new legalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The role of law in regulating mental health detention has come to engender great contention in the legal and sociological disciplines alike. This conflict is multifaceted but is centred upon the extent to which law should control the psychiatric power of detention. In this manner the evolution of law regulating mental health detention has been seen in terms of a pendulous movement between two extremes of medicalism and legalism. Drawing on socio-legal literature, legislation, international treaties and case law this article examines the changing purpose of mental health law from an English and Council of Europe perspective by utilizing the concepts of medicalism, legalism and new legalism as descriptive devices before arguing that the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities goes further than all of these concepts and has the potential to influence mental health laws internationally.

  18. The changing purpose of mental health law: From medicalism to legalism to new legalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The role of law in regulating mental health detention has come to engender great contention in the legal and sociological disciplines alike. This conflict is multifaceted but is centred upon the extent to which law should control the psychiatric power of detention. In this manner the evolution of law regulating mental health detention has been seen in terms of a pendulous movement between two extremes of medicalism and legalism. Drawing on socio-legal literature, legislation, international treaties and case law this article examines the changing purpose of mental health law from an English and Council of Europe perspective by utilizing the concepts of medicalism, legalism and new legalism as descriptive devices before arguing that the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities goes further than all of these concepts and has the potential to influence mental health laws internationally. PMID:27059132

  19. A critique of cannabis legalization proposals in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalant, Harold

    2016-08-01

    An editorial in this issue describes a cannabis policy framework document issued by a major Canadian research centre, calling for legalization of non-medical use under strict controls to prevent increase in use, especially by adolescents and young adults who are most vulnerable to adverse effects of cannabis. It claims that such a system would eliminate the severe personal, social and monetary costs of prohibition, diminish the illicit market, and provide more humane management of cannabis use disorders. It claims that experience with regulation of alcohol and tobacco will enable a system based on public health principles to control access of youth to cannabis without the harm caused by prohibition. The present critique argues that the claims made against decriminalization and for legalization are unsupported, or even contradicted, by solid evidence. Early experience in other jurisdictions suggests that legalization increases use by adolescents and its attendant harms. Regulation of alcohol use does not provide a good model for cannabis controls because there is widespread alcohol use and harm among adolescents and young adults. Government monopolies of alcohol sale have been used primarily as sources of revenue rather than for guarding public health, and no reason has been offered to believe they would act differently with respect to cannabis. Good policy decisions require extensive unbiased information about the individual and social benefits and costs of both drug use and proposed control measures, and value judgments about the benefit/harm balance of each option. Important parts of the necessary knowledge about cannabis are not yet available, so that the value judgments are not yet possible. Therefore, a better case can be made for eliminating some of the harms of prohibition by decriminalization of cannabis possession and deferring decision about legalization until the necessary knowledge has been acquired.

  20. A critique of cannabis legalization proposals in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalant, Harold

    2016-08-01

    An editorial in this issue describes a cannabis policy framework document issued by a major Canadian research centre, calling for legalization of non-medical use under strict controls to prevent increase in use, especially by adolescents and young adults who are most vulnerable to adverse effects of cannabis. It claims that such a system would eliminate the severe personal, social and monetary costs of prohibition, diminish the illicit market, and provide more humane management of cannabis use disorders. It claims that experience with regulation of alcohol and tobacco will enable a system based on public health principles to control access of youth to cannabis without the harm caused by prohibition. The present critique argues that the claims made against decriminalization and for legalization are unsupported, or even contradicted, by solid evidence. Early experience in other jurisdictions suggests that legalization increases use by adolescents and its attendant harms. Regulation of alcohol use does not provide a good model for cannabis controls because there is widespread alcohol use and harm among adolescents and young adults. Government monopolies of alcohol sale have been used primarily as sources of revenue rather than for guarding public health, and no reason has been offered to believe they would act differently with respect to cannabis. Good policy decisions require extensive unbiased information about the individual and social benefits and costs of both drug use and proposed control measures, and value judgments about the benefit/harm balance of each option. Important parts of the necessary knowledge about cannabis are not yet available, so that the value judgments are not yet possible. Therefore, a better case can be made for eliminating some of the harms of prohibition by decriminalization of cannabis possession and deferring decision about legalization until the necessary knowledge has been acquired. PMID:27292414