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Sample records for bases legales relacionadas

  1. Intelligent Flowcharting Developmental Approach to Legal Knowledge Based System

    OpenAIRE

    Nitin Balaji Bilgi; Kulkarni, R. V.

    2011-01-01

    The basic aim of this research, described in this paper is to develop a hybrid legal expert system/ knowledge based system, with specific reference to the transfer of property act, within the Indian legal system which is often in demand. In this paper the authors discuss an traditional approach to combining two types of reasoning methodologies, Rule Based Reasoning (RBR) and Case Based Reasoning (CBR). In RBR module we have interpreted and implemented rules that occur in legal statutes of the...

  2. Qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde entre adultos e fatores associados: um estudo de base populacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Durães Noronha

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Objetivou-se investigar fatores associados aos Componentes Físico (CF e Mental (CM da Qualidade de Vida Relacionada à Saúde (QVRS entre adultos. Estudo de base populacional, com amostra domiciliar por conglomerados. As variáveis dependentes foram os escores do CF e CM do instrumento 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12, as independentes foram reunidas em características sociodemográficas, relativas à saúde e comportamentais. Conduziu-se regressão múltipla pelo Modelo Linear Geral com correção pelo desenho amostral. Dos 841 entrevistados, 31% e 37,2% apresentavam comprometimento no CF e CM, respectivamente, e 57% apresentaram comprometimento em pelo menos um domínio. Os escores médios foram 49,9 para CF e 47,1 para CM. Ser do sexo masculino (β = 1,94, possuir automóvel na família (β = 0,89, ter utilizado serviços odontológicos recentemente (β = 1,86, não possuir doença crônica (β = 4,60, não fazer uso de medicamento (β = 2,09, não ser tabagista (β = 2,04 e praticar atividades físicas (β = 1,73 foram associados a maiores escores do CF, enquanto não fazer uso de medicamento (β = 1,91 e não ser tabagista (β = 1,26 a maiores escores do CM. Há necessidade de mais estudos e políticas voltadas à manutenção e/ou recuperação do bem estar físico e mental de adultos sem doenças específicas.

  3. Action-Based Jurisprudence: Praxeological Legal Theory in Relation to Economic Theory, Ethics, and Legal Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Konrad Graf

    2011-01-01

    Action-based legal theory is a discrete branch of praxeology and the basis of an emerging school of jurisprudence related to, but distinct from, natural law. Legal theory and economic theory share content that is part of praxeology itself: the action axiom, the a priori of argumentation, universalizable property theory, and counterfactual-deductive methodology. Praxeological property-norm justification is separate from the strictly ethical “ought” question of selecting ends in an action conte...

  4. LEGAL BASES OF INSTITUTE OF PUBLIC SERVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkhireeva A. S.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article some features of legal regulation of the institute of public service are considered. The analysis of the norms of the service rights establishing the special administrative legal status of public servants is carried out. The author investigated the considerable list of the pre-revolutionary, soviet and modern legal literature devoted to topical issues of institute of public service. The main concept of this article is that the institute of public service is considered by us from a systemic position. For example, the content of the concept of "state position" from the point of view of both standard the contents, and opinions of representatives of the scientific doctrine is revealed. The author's definition of the legal category "state position" is offered. Besides, various concepts of understanding of the concept "public service" are presented in article. Thus the author paid attention to the fact that earlier in the domestic legislation there was no common opinion and standard establishment of the legal category of "public service". The main signs of the state position by the legislation of the Russian Empire are given in article. It is noted that in pre-revolutionary Russia legislators had identified the concepts of "public servant" and "official". This approach, according to the author, wasn't the advantage of the pre-revolutionary legislation, testifying to the low level of legislative equipment

  5. User interaction with legal knowledge-based systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Jacob; Breuker, J.; Leenes, R.; Winkels, R.

    2000-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of my PhD study into the persuasiveness of (legal) knowledge-based systems'. The results of three experiments show the possible problems that may arise when computerised legal decision aids are put into practice. The users in the experiments had great difficulties with j

  6. Action-Based Jurisprudence: Praxeological Legal Theory in Relation to Economic Theory, Ethics, and Legal Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Graf

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Action-based legal theory is a discrete branch of praxeology and the basis of an emerging school of jurisprudence related to, but distinct from, natural law. Legal theory and economic theory share content that is part of praxeology itself: the action axiom, the a priori of argumentation, universalizable property theory, and counterfactual-deductive methodology. Praxeological property-norm justification is separate from the strictly ethical “ought” question of selecting ends in an action context. Examples of action-based jurisprudence are found in existing “Austro-libertarian” literature. Legal theory and legal practice must remain distinct and work closely together if justice is to be found in real cases. Legal theorizing was shaped in religious ethical contexts, which contributed to confused field boundaries between law and ethics. The carrot and stick influence of rulers on theorists has distorted conventional economics and jurisprudence in particular directions over the course of centuries. An action-based approach is relatively immune to such sources of distortion in its methods and conclusions, but has tended historically to be marginalized from conventional institutions for this same reason.

  7. Patent portfolio analysis model based on legal status information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuezhao; WANG; Yajuan; ZHAO; Jing; ZHANG; Ping; ZHAO

    2014-01-01

    Purpose:This research proposes a patent portfolio analysis model based on the legal status information to chart out a competitive landscape in a particular field,enabling organizations to position themselves within the overall technology landscape.Design/methodology/approach:Three indicators were selected for the proposed model:Patent grant rate,valid patents rate and patent maintenance period.The model uses legal status information to perform a qualitative evaluation of relative values of the individual patents,countries or regions’ technological capabilities and competitiveness of patent applicants.The results are visualized by a four-quadrant bubble chart To test the effectiveness of the model,it is used to present a competitive landscape in the lithium ion battery field.Findings:The model can be used to evaluate the values of the individual patents,highlight countries or regions’ positions in the field,and rank the competitiveness of patent applicants in the field.Research limitations:The model currently takes into consideration only three legal status indicators.It is actually feasible to introduce more indicators such as the reason for invalid patents and the distribution of patent maintenance time and associate them with those in the proposed model.Practical implications:Analysis of legal status information in combination of patent application information can help an organization to spot gaps in its patent claim coverage,as well as evaluate patent quality and maintenance situation of its granted patents.The study results can be used to support technology assessment,technology innovation and intellectual property management.Originality/value:Prior studies attempted to assess patent quality or competitiveness by using either single patent legal status indicator or comparative analysis of the impacts of each indicator.However,they are insufficient in presenting the combined effects of the evaluation indicators.Using our model,it appears possible to get a

  8. Legal Issues of A Surrogacy Contract Based on Iranian Acts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Pirouz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Assistive technologies have always opened new horizons in human's life, posed solutions to problemsand brought relief and prosperity for human beings. Iranian judicial authorities have recently recognizedthe importance of medical technologies. Accordingly, Iranian legal system has recognized surrogacy anda surrogacy contract seems unavoidable for surrogacy to be legally valid, socially acceptable andreligiously legitimate. As a legal defense of including a typical surrogacy contract in contract law, thisreview studies the four building blocks of a valid contract: the intention and consent of parties, theirlegal capacity, the subject of the contract and its legitimacy. Discussing related Iranian Acts concerningcontracts and responsibilities of parties, the authors of the present article deal with main commitmentsand responsibilities of the parties to a typical surrogacy contract: infertile couples, surrogate, fertilityclinic or medical institute, and surrogate's husband. The authors conclude that a surrogacy contract isaccepted based on article 10 of Iranian Civil Act 1928, pose some suggestions to be included in such acontract, and emphasize that a specific Act concerning surrogacy should be approved to cover rights andlegal needs of all parties to a surrogacy contract.

  9. Legal Issues of A Surrogacy Contract Based on Iranian Acts

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Pirouz; Nassrin Mehra

    2011-01-01

    Assistive technologies have always opened new horizons in human's life, posed solutions to problemsand brought relief and prosperity for human beings. Iranian judicial authorities have recently recognizedthe importance of medical technologies. Accordingly, Iranian legal system has recognized surrogacy anda surrogacy contract seems unavoidable for surrogacy to be legally valid, socially acceptable andreligiously legitimate. As a legal defense of including a typical surrogacy contract in contra...

  10. Legal bases for the installation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process of installation of nuclear power plants in the context of the Brazilian legal system is analysed. The structure of the political and administrative system related to the matter and the correspondent legislation are discussed. (A.L.)

  11. LEGAL BASES OF THE INSTITUTE OF PUBLIC SERVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkhireeva A. S.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article some features of legal regulation of institute of public service are considered. The analysis of the norms of the office right establishing special administrative legal status of public servants is carried out. The author investigated the considerable list of the pre-revolutionary, soviet and modern legal literature devoted to topical issues of institute of public service. The main concept of this article is that the institute of public service is considered by us from a systemacity position. For example, the content of the concept "state position" from the point of view of both standard the contents, and opinions of representatives of the scientific doctrine is opened. The author's definition of the legal category "state position" is offered. Besides, various concepts of understanding of the concept "public service" are presented in article. Thus the author paid attention that earlier in the domestic legislation there was uniform no opinion and standard establishment of the legal category "public service". The main signs of the state position by the legislation of the Russian Empire are given in article. It is noted that in pre-revolutionary Russia legislators identified the concepts "public servant" and "official". This approach, according to the author, wasn't the advantage of the pre-revolutionary legislation, testifying to the low level of legislative equipment

  12. Legal Office Procedures: Task Analyses. Competency-Based Education. Review Draft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg.

    This task analysis guide is intended to help teachers and administrators develop instructional materials and implement competency-based education in a course on legal office procedures. Section 1 contains a validated task inventory for legal office procedures. For each task, applicable information pertaining to performance and enabling objectives,…

  13. Legal and methodological bases of comprehensive forensic enquiry of pornography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berdnikov D.V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article gives an analysis of the legal definition of pornography. The author identified descriptive and target criteria groups which are required for the analysis and analyses the content of descriptive criteria of pornography and the way how they should be documented. Fixing attention to the anatomical and physiological characteristics of the sexual relations is determine as necessary target criterion. It is noted that the term "pornography" is a legal and cannot be subject of expertise. That is why author underlined some methodological basis of complex psycho-linguistic and psycho-art expertise. The article presents general issue depends on expert conclusion and studies cases where the research is necessary to involve doctors, as well as criteria for expert's opinion. Besides that, author defined subject, object and main tasks of psychological studies of pornographic information.

  14. Legal compliance support with an ontology-based information system

    OpenAIRE

    Mereño-Peñuela, Albert; Casanovas, Pompeu

    2010-01-01

    The Internet and Information Systems evolution have dramatically increased the amount of information hold by governments and companies. This information can be very sensitive, specially regarding personal data, so governments and industries promote acts and guidelines in order to ensure privacy and data security. Thus, companies have to consider legal and Information Technology (IT) compliance. Nevertheless, compliance assessment is still a manual task performed by experts, but steps towards ...

  15. The further development of legal cadastral domain model of China based on ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Du, Qingyun; Zhao, Zhongjun; Guo, Yan; Cheng, Gang

    2008-10-01

    The cadastral plays a very important role in managing spatial and non-spatial legal real property information. And the legal aspect is the important component of the cadastral. And the success of a cadastral system is not dependent on its legal or technical sophistication, but whether it protects land rights adequately and permits those rights to be traded (where appropriate) efficiently, simply, quickly, securely and at low cost. However, the ambiguity of legal cadastral domain has been the major barrier to data integration and interoperability. This paper intends to optimize the concept model of legal cadastral domain based on the model established in my previous paper which can be a first step towards facilitate the effective interchange of cadastral information and the administration of land use. And the way expressing these conceptions and relationships between them was an object-oriented approach in ontology principles. The outcome of this paper is also a basic but better expression legal cadastral domain model of china.

  16. Recognizing Thousands of Legal Entities through Instance-based Visual Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Leveau, Valentin; Joly, Alexis; Buisson, Olivier; Letessier, Pierre; Valduriez, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of recognizing legal en-tities in visual contents in a similar way to named-entity recognizers for text documents. Whereas previous works were restricted to the recognition of a few tens of logotypes, we generalize the problem to the recognition of thousands of legal persons, each being modeled by a rich corporate identity automatically built from web images. We intro-duce a new geometrically-consistent instance-based classifi-cation method that is shown to ou...

  17. Legal Aspects of a Location-Based Mobile Advertising Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleff, Evelyne Beatrix; Gidofalvi, Gyozo

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in communication and information technology, such as the increasing accuracy of GPS technology and the miniaturization of wireless communication devices pave the road for Location-Based Services. Among these services, mobile advertising is predicted to represent a high yield reven...... to introduce a platform which is in compliance with the provisions imposed by EU law with regard to personal data protection....

  18. Legal Consequences of the Determination of Corporate Income Tax Base Referring to IFRS

    OpenAIRE

    Molín, Jan; Jirásková, Simona

    2014-01-01

    This paper is concerned with certain legal consequences of the determination of corporate income tax base. The introductory part analyses the term tax, discusses the constitutional dimensions of taxation, and formulates requirements as to tax legislation. The subsequent part of the contribution discusses the structure of corporate income tax base of those taxpayers, which keep accounting records. Special emphasis is placed on the relationship of accounting revenues and income that is subject ...

  19. Transformation of the fiscal results into corporate tax base in the Czech legal environment

    OpenAIRE

    Krocová, Denisa

    2016-01-01

    This bachelor thesis focuses on the issue of transformation of the fiscal results into corporate tax base in the Czech legal environment. Main goal of this thesis is to accent the major costs and revenues, which are subject to adjustment of the tax base in accordance with the Income tax Act No. 568/1993 coll. and to perform transformation of the tax base on a practical case including tax optimization methods. This bachelor thesis also expands on specific sections of the tax return which expli...

  20. Social networks and health-related quality of life: a population based study among older adults Redes sociales y calidad de vida relacionada a la salud: un estudio de base poblacional en adultos mayores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Gallegos-Carrillo

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between components of social networks and health-related quality of life (HRQL in older adults with and without depressive symptoms. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Comparative cross-sectional study with data from the cohort study "Integral Study of Depression", carried out in Mexico City during 2004. The sample was selected through a multi-stage probability design. HRQL was measured with the SF-36. Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS and the Short Anxiety Screening Test (SAST determined depressive symptoms and anxiety. T-test and multiple linear regressions were conducted. RESULTS: Older adults with depressive symptoms had the lowest scores in all HRQL scales. A larger network of close relatives and friends was associated with better HRQL on several scales. Living alone did not significantly affect HRQL level, in either the study or comparison group. CONCLUSIONS: A positive association between some components of social networks and good HRQL exists even in older adults with depressive symptoms.OBJETIVO: Examinar la relación entre componentes de redes sociales y calidad de vida relacionada con la salud (CVRS de adultos mayores con o sin síntomas depresivos. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal comparativo con datos de la cohorte "Estudio Integral de Depresión", realizado en la Ciudad de México en 2004. La muestra fue seleccionada por diseño probabilístico multietápico. La CVRS se midió con SF-36, mientras que Geriatric Depression Scale y Short Anxiety Screening Test determinaron síntomas de depresión y ansiedad. El análisis consistió de prueba T y regresiones lineales múltiples. RESULTADOS: Ancianos con síntomas de depresión reportaron puntuaciones más bajas en todas las escalas de CVRS; una red más grande de familiares y amigos se asoció con mejor CVRS en varias escalas. Vivir solo no afectó la CVRS en grupos de estudio y comparación. CONCLUSIONES: Existe una asociación positiva de algunos

  1. Legal Hybrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Janne Rothmar

    2009-01-01

    The article discusses the inadequacy of traditional theory on legal personhood in relation to embryos and foetuses. To challenge the somewhat binary view of legal personhood according to which the ‘born alive' criterion is paramount the article demonstrates that the number of legal categories in...

  2. Legal argumentation based on foreign law An example from case law of the South African Constitutional Court

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Lollini

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to make some introductory remarks concerning the phenomenon of the circulation of ‘foreign law’ between constitutional courts. A convenient setting for some considerations regarding this legal phenomenon is the South African constitutional jurisprudence, since Section 39 of the 1996 Constitution enables the Constitutional Court to ‘consider foreign law’ when interpreting the Bill of Rights. This provision has led to the wide use of foreign jurisprudence and legislation, as well as extra-systemic parameters, that have formed the basis for models of legal argumentation. The article explores what appears to be a recurring ‘patterns’ of legal argumentation based on foreign law used by the Court which has been defined ‘probative importation’.

  3. Keeping Kids Safe from a Design Perspective: Ethical and Legal Guidelines for Designing a Video-Based App for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zydney, Janet Mannheimer; Hooper, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Educators can use video to gain invaluable information about their students. A concern is that collecting videos online can create an increased security risk for children. The purpose of this article is to provide ethical and legal guidelines for designing video-based apps for mobile devices and the web. By reviewing the literature, law, and code…

  4. Performance-Based Budgeting in South-Eastern Europe: A Legal and Economic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Maksimovska Veljanovski

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available During the 2008–2013 period, a wave of fresh ideas for introducing performance-based budgeting (PBB occurred in the region of South-Eastern Europe. Based on a theoretical framework and empirical assessment using novel methodology, this study examines the preconditions and assesses the capacities for introducing PBB in South-Eastern European (SEE countries. Generally, SEE countries have demonstrated moderate progress in implementing elements of performance budgeting. All of them follow a similar approach to embarking on these reforms, but with a different policy attention to certain aspects. On the other hand, SEE countries with limited progress demonstrate strong political commitment to kick-start this area by investing in the development of budget administration skills. The study conveys a balanced mix of political, legal, administrative and economic analysis of the core elements of PBB. The novel idea of introducing a simpler model of PBB in SEE is examined. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first systematic attempt to provide a comprehensive analysis of the institutional arrangements and prospects for adopting PBB in the region of South-Eastern Europe.

  5. Interfacing between Lawyers and Computers : An Architecture for Knowledge-based Interfaces to Legal Databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthijssen, L.J.

    1999-01-01

    Luuk Matthijssen, who studied business informatics, worked at the law faculty of Tilburg University and the computer science department of Eindhoven University of Technology. The author considers the problems of legal information retrieval from the perspective of an information analyst.

  6. LEGAL AWARENESS AMONG COLLEGE STUDENTS REGARDING FEMALE FOETICIDE: A JAMMU BASED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi Manhas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted in selected colleges of Jammu. sample of 200 students was selected through random sampling technique. A self devised questionnaire was used for data collection. Finding revealed that majority of students 83% male and 89% female students were aware about legal aspect of female foeticide.Further results indicates that newspaper and television are the main sources to get information regarding legal aspect of female foeticide.

  7. Multisensory legal machines and legal act production

    OpenAIRE

    Čyras, Vytautas; Lachmayer, Friedrich

    2012-01-01

    This paper expands on the concept of legal machine which was presented first at IRIS 2011 in Salzburg. The research subjects are (1) the creation of institutional facts by machines, and (2) multimodal communication of legal content to humans. Simple examples are traffic lights and vending machines. Complicated examples are computer-based information systems in organisations, form proceedings workflows, and machines which replace officials in organisations. The actions performed ...

  8. Legal requirements for human-health based appeals of wind energy projects in ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Albert M

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, the government of the province of Ontario, Canada passed new legislation to promote the development of renewable energy facilities, including wind energy facilities in the province. Throughout the legislative process, concerns were raised with respect to the effect of wind energy facilities on human health. Ultimately, the government established setbacks and sound level limits for wind energy facilities and provided Ontario residents with the right to appeal the approval of a wind energy facility on the ground that engaging in the facility in accordance with its approval will cause serious harm to human health. The first approval of a wind facility under the new legislation was issued in 2010 and since then, Ontario's Environmental Review Tribunal as well as Ontario's courts has been considering evidence proffered by appellants seeking revocation of approvals on the basis of serious harm to human health. To date, the evidence has been insufficient to support the revocation of a wind facility approval. This article reviews the legal basis for the dismissal of human-health based appeals. PMID:25520946

  9. Legal Requirements for Human-Health based appeals of Wind Energy Projects in Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Michael Engel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2009 the government of the province of Ontario, Canada passed new legislation to promote the development of renewable energy facilities, including wind energy facilities in the province. Throughout the legislative process, concerns were raised with respect to the effect of wind energy facilities on human health. Ultimately, the government established setbacks and sound level limits for wind energy facilities and provided Ontario residents with the right to appeal the approval of a wind energy facility on the ground that engaging in the facility in accordance with its approval will cause serious harm to human health. The first approval of a wind facility under the new legislation was issued in 2010 and since then, Ontario’s Environmental Review Tribunal as well as Ontario’s courts have been considering evidence proffered by appellants seeking revocation of approvals on the basis of serious harm to human health. To date, the evidence has been insufficient to support the revocation of a wind facility approval. This article reviews the legal basis for the dismissal of human-health based appeals.

  10. Legal and Professional Standards in Program Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Paul W.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Four legal considerations involved in program evaluation are briefly described: defamation, contract, evaluation malpractice, and confidentiality of sources. Two hypothetical evaluation problems illustrate these legal issues. Suggestions for evaluation practice, based on these legal issues, are presented. (BW)

  11. Biomarcadores en enfermedades relacionadas con el sistema nervioso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elso Manuel Cruz Cruz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de biomarcadores, o marcadores biológicos para el diagnóstico y seguimiento al tratamiento de enfermedades, constituye referente frecuente en la literatura científica biomédica actual. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica empleando los recursos disponibles en la red Infomed, específicamente Ebsco, The Cochrane Librery, PubMed, Hinari y SciELO, a través de los cuales se accedieron a las bases de datos: MEDLINE, Academic Search Premier, MedicLatina y Scopus. Se recopilaron varios artículos científicos, donde se hace referencia al empleo de biomarcadores en el diagnóstico de enfermedades relacionadas con el sistema nervioso. El factor de crecimiento endotelial, la inmunoglobulina G (IgG y el sistema arginina - óxido nítrico - citrulina, se refieren como indicadores prematuros de la hemorragia subaracnoidea. La disminución del amiloide beta y el aumento de las concentraciones de proteína tau en el líquido cefalorraquídeo, se cuentan entre los biomarcadores más prometedores e informativos que indiquen precozmente el Alzheimer y otras enfermedades neurodegenerativas. Estos mismos marcadores se comportan de manera contraria a nivel plasmático. La copeptina es un biomarcador fácilmente medible, que refleja la situación de estrés a la que está sometido el organismo y se propone su uso en el diagnóstico del síndrome de Burnout; además, niveles aumentados de α-amilasa y cromogranina A (CgA salivales pueden también ser utilizadas como indicadores de este síndrome. Se logró recoger en este artículo un compendio de ejemplos de marcadores biológicos, utilizados en el diagnóstico de enfermedades relacionadas de alguna forma con el sistema nervioso

  12. Impacto de treinamento baseado na Iniciativa Hospital Amigo da Criança sobre práticas relacionadas à amamentação no interior do Nordeste The impact of training based on the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative on breastfeeding practices in the Northeast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia B. Coutinho

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o impacto de treinamento baseado na Iniciativa Hospital Amigo da Criança sobre práticas relacionadas à amamentação na maternidade e freqüências de aleitamento materno nos primeiros 6 meses de vida. MÉTODOS: Foram treinadas 90% das auxiliares de enfermagem e parteiras de duas maternidades (A e B de Palmares (PE. Foram entrevistadas 334 mães nas primeiras 48 horas e 10 dias após o parto, para avaliar práticas que estimulam a amamentação nas maternidades e o cumprimento do quarto ao 10º passo da Iniciativa Hospital Amigo da Criança. Uma subamostra de 166 mães recebeu sete visitas domiciliares, para avaliar as freqüências do aleitamento materno nos 6 primeiros meses de vida. Os resultados foram comparados com os de estudo de coorte realizado na área em 1998. RESULTADOS: O desempenho da maternidade B foi melhor que o da maternidade A quanto às práticas que promovem o aleitamento materno relacionadas aos passos avaliados e quanto às freqüências de amamentação exclusiva. Comparação com coorte histórica evidenciou melhora nas práticas relacionadas à amamentação nas maternidades e aumento nas freqüências do aleitamento materno exclusivo (de 21,2 para 70%, nas primeiras 48 horas após o parto e durante os 6 primeiros meses de vida. CONCLUSÕES: O treinamento promoveu mudanças parciais em algumas práticas relacionadas à amamentação, repercutindo de forma positiva sobre as freqüências de aleitamento materno e aleitamento materno exclusivo nas maternidades. Contudo, não houve mudanças expressivas nessas freqüências ao longo dos 6 meses de vida, sugerindo a necessidade de intervenções efetivas no apoio ao aleitamento exclusivo nos serviços de saúde e na comunidade.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of training based on the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative on breastfeeding practices in maternity wards and during the first 6 months of life. METHODS: Ninety percent of nursing auxiliaries and

  13. ORGANIZATIONAL - LEGAL SUPPORT OF ACTIVITIES OF LEGAL CLINICS IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    OpenAIRE

    Limina, N.

    2013-01-01

    The article reveals the organizational legal support of activities of legal clinics in Russia, analysis of the legislative base in this problem at the present time, the expediency of creation of the legal clinic under the University.

  14. THE RELEVANCE OF SOCIO-LEGAL STUDIES IN LEGAL SCIENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Imanuel W. Nalle

    2015-01-01

    Some law schools in Indonesia reject socio-legal studies with epistemological arguments that puts jurisprudence as sui generis. Rejection is based argument that jurisprudence is a normative science. In fact socio-legal studies in the development of jurisprudence outside Indonesia has long existed and contributed to the legal reform. Socio-legal studies also significant for legal reform. It is caused by the existence of non doctrinal aspect in law making and implementation of the law. Therefor...

  15. Legal terminology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Jan

    2013-01-01

    texts disseminating legal concepts in different situations (Wikipedia article for general public, article from ministry aimed at children and adolescents) and especially investigate, to what extent the paraphrase concept is applicable also for describing dissemination strategies in such situations. In...

  16. Legal Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baril, Cecile; Couchman, Ian S. B.

    1976-01-01

    The legal processes following a rape charge mortify, denigrate and transfer guilt to the victim. Rape laws reinforce traditional sex roles and restrict the options available to women in defining their personal and sexual careers. (Author/AM)

  17. Problemática legal generada por la falta de regulación respecto al manejo de bases de datos genéticos de uso forense

    OpenAIRE

    Paz Karaman, Paola Andrea

    2012-01-01

    En Colombia, el INMLCF1administra la base de datos genéticos con fines de investigación criminal, en ella se almacenan perfiles de ADN (datos de carácter personal) de víctimas (de desaparición forzada y familiares de los desaparecidos), de personas relacionadas con la autoría de un delito y de vestigios encontrados en el lugar de los hechos. Sin embargo el marco regulatorio actual no delimita los criterios de uso de la base de datos genéticos con fines de investigación criminal de cara a la p...

  18. Legal Corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufmann, Daniel; Pedro C. Vicente

    2005-01-01

    We challenge the conventional definition of corruption as the abuse of public office for private gain, making a distinction between legal and illegal forms of corruption, and paying more attention to corporate patterns of corruption (which also affect public corruption). We undertake to identify general determinants of the pattern of legal and illegal corruption worldwide, and present a model where both corruption (modeled explicitly in the context of allocations) and the political equilibriu...

  19. Legal Radiopathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author comments about the knowledge evolution about radioactivity and describes the most important chemical elements capable of discharging it and all the types of radioactivity according with Mendelejef's classification. He analyses the celular sensibility related to many variables, listing the biological effects that may happen depending on the quantity of radiation and exposition time to radiation. He also calls attention to procedures of dosimetry and radioprotection that must be done when anatomo-pathological examination of body fluids, discharges and tissues are carried out, stressing that protective clothing must be wear, decontamination or to make useless the material involved are important to get the job done. A description of the appropriated conditions to perform autopsy, to anoint and to cremate contaminated bodies and the procedures used by the Navy Hospital Marcilio Dias service of anatomo-pathology, Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD) and Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN) is given, based on the experience gained in performing necropsy of dead patients and one anatomo-pathological examination of upper limb amputated inside the surgical room. He finishes describing the macroscopic injuries observed and listing the instrumental used, the reports made, giving details about the necropsy carried out and answering medical-legal matters. (author)

  20. Corpus-based critical discourse analysis as a method of exploring underlying ideologies and self-representation strategies in legal texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Potts, Amanda; Kjær, Anne Lise

    Legal language is an integral and foundational party of our social reality, but it is underrepresented in interdisciplinary, critical linguistic analyses. This is perhaps because language is more objective and formulaic than media texts, which can be more subjective and emotive (Kjær and Palsbro......, 2008). In this paper, I demonstrate how a corpus-based critical discourse analysis of legal language can expose hidden traces of the underlying ideologies of text creators, while demonstrating how identity can be performed in legal texts. Research is based on a half-million-word corpus of annual...... that legal language can be subjective and emotive. The semantic field of ‘crime’ is an expected key, but concordance analysis shows ideological skew in discursive construction of crimes/victims. For instance, ‘rape’/‘sexual assault’ co-occurs with female victims, whereas ‘torture’/‘outrages upon personal...

  1. Legal Ice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandsbjerg, Jeppe

    The idealised land|water dichotomy is most obviously challenged by ice when ‘land practice’ takes place on ice or when ‘maritime practice’ is obstructed by ice. Both instances represent disparity between the legal codification of space and its social practice. Logically, then, both instances call...... for alternative legal thought and practice; in the following I will emphasise the former and reflect upon the relationship between ice, law and politics. Prior to this workshop I had worked more on the relationship between cartography, geography and boundaries than specifically on ice. Listening to...

  2. Tackling pollution of the Mediterranean Sea from land-based sources by an integrated ecosystem approach and the use of the combined international and European legal regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Antoinette Hildering; Andrea M. Keessen; Helena F.M.W. van Rijswick

    2009-01-01

    The successful protection of marine and freshwater areas and ecosystems, including specially protected areas, is highly dependent on the effectiveness of an integrated approach to prevent and combat land-based pollution. Several legal regimes have been developed to regulate and solve this kind of pollution on the international level as well as on the European level. Therefore, this integrated approach requires coherence between European and international legal regimes and between the regulati...

  3. Legality of use of drones

    OpenAIRE

    Slabá, Tereza

    2015-01-01

    The thesis analyses the legality of the use of drones in warfare based on the examination of three specific case studies. Firstly the use of armed drones in Afghanistan 2001 and 2002, then Pakistan drone strikes ongoing since 2004 and lastly the Yemen case study. A developed legal framework is used to assess the legality of the use of drones. Furthermore, it briefly touches upon the aspects of morality and ethics of the use of the unmanned aerial vehicles in combat.

  4. La construcción de estereotipos en base a inmigrantes "legales" e "ilegales" en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Sabarots

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available La propuesta del presente trabajo es extraer algunas reflexiones comparativas a partir de investigaciones de tipo antropológico realizadas sucesivamente sobre los inmigrantes japoneses y sus descendientes a la Argentina y posteriormente sobre inmigrantes de otros países latinoamericanos (bolivianos. Estas investigaciones se realizaron en el transcurso de las décadas de los 80's y 90's respectivamente, lo que nos permite explorar la incidencia de los cambios estructurales neoliberales en el imaginario social sobre los inmigrantes. El centro de interés es mostrar la construcción diferencial de estereotipos de acuerdo con la procedencia de los inmigrantes, que tiene sin duda componentes racistas. Tal construcción imaginaria diferencial, a saber inmigrantes "legales", deseados e inmigrantes "ilegales", indeseables, es coherente con la ideología racista y en general con el funcionamiento de los prejuicios que requieren de una mirada jerárquica de la humanidad (en sentido biológico y cultural. Se propone una interpretación que sin perder de vista la especificidad de los procesos de estigmatización, analice el racismo y los prejuicios en general como construcciones dinámicas, que se relacionan tanto con las coyunturas históricas (en nuestro caso crisis de los '80 y neoliberalismo de los '90 como con los mitos de origen de la nación argentina, como país abierto a la inmigración, "crisol de razas"; discurso encubridor de una ideología del progreso que incluye a unos colectivos y excluye a otros.This paper is a comparative study of anthropological research on Japanese immigrants to Argentina and their descendents, and immigrants from other Latin American countries (fundamentally Bolivians. Research took place during the 1980s and 1990s, respectively, which enables the impact of neoliberal structural changes on the social imaginary around immigrants to be explored. The central point is to show the differential construction of stereotypes

  5. Identification of policies for a sustainable legal trade in rhinoceros horn based on population projection and socioeconomic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Minin, Enrico; Laitila, Jussi; Montesino-Pouzols, Federico; Leader-Williams, Nigel; Slotow, Rob; Goodman, Peter S; Conway, Anthony J; Moilanen, Atte

    2015-01-01

    Between 1990 and 2007, 15 southern white (Ceratotherium simum simum) and black (Diceros bicornis) rhinoceroses on average were killed illegally every year in South Africa. Since 2007 illegal killing of southern white rhinoceros for their horn has escalated to >950 individuals/year in 2013. We conducted an ecological–economic analysis to determine whether a legal trade in southern white rhinoceros horn could facilitate rhinoceros protection. Generalized linear models were used to examine the socioeconomic drivers of poaching, based on data collected from 1990 to 2013, and to project the total number of rhinoceroses likely to be illegally killed from 2014 to 2023. Rhinoceros population dynamics were then modeled under 8 different policy scenarios that could be implemented to control poaching. We also estimated the economic costs and benefits of each scenario under enhanced enforcement only and a legal trade in rhinoceros horn and used a decision support framework to rank the scenarios with the objective of maintaining the rhinoceros population above its current size while generating profit for local stakeholders. The southern white rhinoceros population was predicted to go extinct in the wild Datos de Costo Económico con Referencia Espacial y de Beneficio a la Biodiversidad y la Efectividad de una Estrategia de Determinación de Costos Resumen Entre 1990 y 2007, en promedio fueron cazados ilegalmente cada año 15 rinocerontes sureños blancos (Ceratotherium simum simum) y negros (Diceros bicornis) en Sudáfrica. Desde 2007 la caza ilegal de rinocerontes sureños blancos por su cuerno ha escalado a más de 950 individuos al año en 2013. Llevamos a cabo un análisis ecológico-económico para determinar si el comercio legal de cuerno de rinoceronte sureño blanco podría facilitar la protección del rinoceronte. Se usaron modelos lineales generalizados para examinar a los conductores socio-económicos de la caza furtiva, con base en datos colectados desde 1990

  6. The Bald And Golden Eagle Protection Act, Species-Based Legal Protection And The Danger Of Misidentification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann C Knobel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act of 1940 bestows legal protection on two North American eagle species in the United States of America. The Act was originally aimed at the legal protection of only one species: the Bald Eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus, the national symbol of the USA. Later the Act was amended to extend protection also to the Golden Eagle Aquila chrysaetos. The Bald Eagle was an Endangered Species, but the Golden Eagle was not formally listed as Endangered nationwide in the USA. One of the reasons for extending legal protection to the Golden Eagle under the Act was to strengthen the legal protection of the Bald Eagle, because immature Bald Eagles were being misidentified as Golden Eagles and shot. Additional factors relating to Golden Eagle mortality also made legal protection of the Golden Eagle desirable. The danger that a rare and legally protected species can be misidentified and mistaken for a more common and unprotected species can therefore serve as a reason for bestowing legal protection on the more common species as well. Other factors may also indicate that legal protection of the more common species is desirable, making the case more compelling. If this line of reasoning is applied in respect of South African birds of prey, a strong case can be made in favour of extending legal protection under the national biodiversity legislation to more species than the small number of species currently enjoying such protection. Species that are listed as Vulnerable under South African national biodiversity legislation may be misidentified as species that are not subject to such protection. Additional factors are also present that make such an extension of legal protection desirable.

  7. Legal, ethical, and procedural bases for the use of aseptic techniques to implant electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahy, Daniel M.

    2013-01-01

    animals often mask the signs of infection to avoid attracting predators (Wobeser 2006). Guidance specific to sterilization of electronic devices for implantation is limited in the wildlife record (Burger et al. 1994; Mulcahy 2003). Few biologists have been formally trained in aseptic technique, but most biologists know that electronic devices should be treated in some way to reduce the chance for infection of the host animal by bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi. Most biologists (73%) who implant devices into fishes believe aseptic techniques are important (Wagner and Cooke 2005). However, I maintain that many biologists find it difficult to place the concept of asepsis into practice in their work because of confusion about what constitutes aseptic technique, a lack of surgical knowledge and training, the perception of increased costs, or the belief that aseptic surgeries are impractical or unnecessary for their application. Some have even argued that, while compromising surgical techniques in the field might result in complications or mortalities, the money saved would allow for a compensatory increase in sample size (Anderson and Talcott 2006). In this paper I define aseptic surgical techniques, document the legal and professional guidance for performing aseptic surgeries on wild animals, and present options for sterilizing electronic devices and surgical instruments for field use.

  8. The legal aspects of a location-based mobile advertising platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beatrix Cleff, Evelyn; Gidofalvi, Gyozo

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in Information and Communication Technology (ICT), such as the increasing accuracy of Global Positioning Systems (GPSs) technology and the miniaturisation of wireless communication devices, pave the road for Location-Based Services (LBSs). Among these services, m-advertising is pr...... article is to introduce a location-based advertising platform which complies with the provisions imposed by European Union (EU) law with regard to personal data protection....

  9. A Storytelling Learning Model for Legal Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuano, Nicola; De Maio, Carmen; Gaeta, Angelo; Mangione, Giuseppina Rita; Salerno, Saverio; Fratesi, Eleonora

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a learning model based on "Storytelling" and its application in the context of legal education helping build challenging training resources that explain, to common citizens with little or no background about legal topics, concepts related to "Legal Mediation" in general and in specific…

  10. Ethico-legal aspects of hospital-based blood transfusion practice; implications of professional negligence to medical practitioners: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orkuma J.A

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Blood transfusion is predominantly a hospital-based practice in many resourceconstrained economies like Nigeria, wherein the sourcing, storage, processing and clinical use of blood and blood products resides in the often financial and manpower constrained hospitals. Aim: To identify the ethical and legal issues related to hospital-based blood transfusion practice for medical practitioner. Methods: Relevant articles retrieved via PubMed/MEDLINE and Google scholar search engines were used. Results: This review found that, medical practitioners are directly or vicariously liable in professional negligence in hospital-based transfusion injuries. The potential weaknesses in hospital-based blood transfusion practice as ethically identified include; transfusion transmissible infections, blood group incompatibility, haemolytic transfusion reaction, failure to obtain informed consent and challenges of haemovigillance. However from the cases considered, medical practitioners are more professionally liable where they withhold a transfusion or transfuse blood group incompatible transfusion or fail to obtain an informed consent for blood transfusion especially amongst Jehovah’s Witness adherents. Conclusion: Medical practitioners at hospital-based transfusion centres are professionally liable for negligence due to blood transfusion injuries by their clinical, laboratory or general administrative oversight at different levels of hospital management. It is recommended that, they carry out this duty cautiously. While error reporting should be encouraged, litigations against them should be pursued cautiously in order not to encourage defensive blood transfusion practices in fear of claims or litigations to the disadvantage of the patients. Mediation or arbitration systems which are faster, less expensive and often less punitive but help strengthen the blood transfusion services should be encouraged.

  11. SPAM -- Technological and Legal Aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Banday, M Tariq

    2011-01-01

    In this paper an attempt is made to review technological, economical and legal aspects of the spam in detail. The technical details will include different techniques of spam control e.g., filtering techniques, Genetic Algorithm, Memory Based Classifier, Support Vector Machine Method, etc. The economic aspect includes Shaping/Rate Throttling Approach/Economic Filtering and Pricing/Payment based spam control. Finally, the paper discusses the legal provisions for the control of spam. The scope of the legal options is limited to USA, European Union, New Zealand, Canada, Britain and Australia.

  12. Degeneração macular relacionada à idade: novas perspectivas Age-related macular degeneration: new perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Bittar Nehemy

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A degeneração macular relacionada à idade (DMRI é a principal causa de cegueira legal em indivíduos acima de 50 anos de idade. Embora estudos recentes tenham mostrado que o fator genético é significativo, a patogênese da degeneração macular relacionada à idade permanece obscura, e os fatores de risco não estão ainda completamente estabelecidos. Estudos multicêntricos randomizados, publicados nos últimos anos, demonstraram que uma combinação de vitaminas e minerais é eficaz na redução do risco de desenvolvimento de neovascularização e de progressão para os estágios mais avançados da degeneração macular relacionada à idade. De maneira análoga, a terapia fotodinâmica (PDT e a terapia antiangiogênica também tiveram sua eficácia comprovada no tratamento de membrana neovascular coroideana subfoveal associada à degeneração macular relacionada à idade. Ambas reduzem o risco de perda de visão e, eventualmente, permitem melhora temporária da acuidade visual. Outras modalidades de tratamento, tais como fotocoagulação a laser, remoção cirúrgica da membrana e termoterapia transpupilar (TTT, podem beneficiar apenas um pequeno subgrupo de pacientes. Uma melhor compreensão dos mecanismos fisiopatológicos e dos eventos moleculares nas diversas fases da doença deverão propiciar, em futuro próximo, melhores estratégias para o controle e tratamento da degeneração macular relacionada à idade.Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD is a major source of legal blindness in individuals older than 50 years. Even though recent reports suggest that genetics plays an important role, its pathogenesis remains puzzling and the risk factors for its occurrence are not completely established. Vitamin and mineral supplementation reduced the risk of development of choroidal neovascularization (CNV or progression to the most advanced stages of age-related macular degeneration. Photodynamic therapy (PDT and antiangiogenic therapy

  13. Legal Principles, Legal Values and Legal Norms: are they the same or different?

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan Daci

    2010-01-01

    Legal principles, legal values, and legal norms are essentially part of the same notion. Often in legal literature, legal principles are considered to be legal norms, general legal norms, legal values etc. In fact, legal principles are just legal norms that different from the latter are legal norms of general application that ignore specific legal facts. They can be considered as basic norms that represent the general consensus on basic society understandings. As such they are also kinds of d...

  14. On Danish Legal Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaumburg-Müller, Sten

    On the basis on 1) the Danish legal writer A.S.Ørsted (1778-1860) and 2) an enquete among present day Danish legal scholars, the contribution deals with special traits in Danish legal method......On the basis on 1) the Danish legal writer A.S.Ørsted (1778-1860) and 2) an enquete among present day Danish legal scholars, the contribution deals with special traits in Danish legal method...

  15. Legal highs on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillebrand, Jennifer; Olszewski, Deborah; Sedefov, Roumen

    2010-02-01

    This article describes the findings of a descriptive analysis of 27 online drug retailers selling legal alternatives to illegal drugs, commonly referred to as "herbal highs" and "legal highs" in 2008 . The study attempted to quantify the online availability of drug retailers, to describe common products and characteristics in EU-based retail sales. The findings highlight the concern about the lack of objective information about products offered, including potential risks to health. Systems should be developed to assess the contents of products and the accuracy of information provided on the Internet, alongside continued monitoring of this market for "legal high" substances. PMID:20141450

  16. Legal assistance contract as a legal constructure

    OpenAIRE

    Кравченко, Максим Віталійович

    2015-01-01

    The article refers to a contract of legal aid and its place in the contract law. The author insists that this agreement should be considered as a work contract, but has to include elements of a service agreements. The current doctrinal concept of «contract of a legal assistance», as well as recommendations on its use are provided. English abstract M. Kravchenko Legal assistance contract as a legal constructure The article refers to a contract of legal aid and its place in the contract law. Th...

  17. The Methods of Constructing the Legal Support System for the Returning-home Migrant Workers’ Entrepreneurship——Based on the Perspective of Economic Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Based on the overview of concept of returning-home migrant workers’ entrepreneurship,the thesis has introduced the features of migrant workers’ entrepreneurship,as against other types of entrepreneurship,as follows. Starting from a low base and multi-level perspective;conducting entrepreneurship in manifold industries,mainly in those labor-intensive enterprises;conspicuous mutual interaction and reversibility are embodied in the group characteristics;the strong driving force of returning-home migrant workers’ entrepreneurship comes from their affection for hometown. The process of returning-home migrant workers’ entrepreneurship can be divided into three stages,namely returning rush,investing rush,and entrepreneurship rush,on which we give the analysis respectively in terms of the continuous change of social mobility,transformation on the part of the main body of entrepreneurship,and the expansion of industry field concerning entrepreneurship. More over,we have discussed the methods of constructing the legal support system for the returning-home migrant workers’ entrepreneurship. Firstly,it needs institutionalization,which is the basis of constructing the legal support system for the returning-home migrant workers’ entrepreneurship;secondly,it needs definite guiding ideology as the premise of constructing the legal support system for the returning-home migrant workers’ entrepreneurship;thirdly,it needs the precise orientation of target group as the key of constructing the legal support system for the returning-home migrant workers’ entrepreneurship;finally,appropriate support methods are the pivot of constructing the legal support system for the returning-home migrant workers’ entrepreneurship.

  18. Legal reality of Russia: constants and variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Valeryevich Skorobogatov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to develop the sciencebased knowledge about essential and substantial aspects of the current legal reality of Russia in the context of postclassical paradigm. Methods the methodological basis of this research is the synthesis of classical and postclassical paradigms that determine the choice of specific methods of research formallegal comparative legal modeling method hermeneutic discursive methods. Results basing on the postclassical methodology it is proved that the legal reality of Russia consists of three levels legislation law enforcement and legal behavior. The determinant level of legal reality is legal behavior that is aimed at observing the unwritten rules. The legal reality of Russia is characterized by a transgressive state of the modern Russian society expressed in broad application of nonlegislative nonlegal practices low level of legal culture legal nihilism and legal infantilism. Scientific novelty the article for the first time analyzes the ontological and phenomenological essence of the legal reality in Russia and determines its transgressive nature at the present stage of development. Practical value the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific and pedagogical activity when considering questions about the nature and content of legal development. nbsp

  19. Legal Philosophy - Five Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential.......This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential....

  20. The users of legal information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Assis Pinho

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The decision making needs must be based on current and reliable information, especially in legal environments. In Brazil, the changes in legislation are constants because of the enactments of the provisional measures. In this sense, it is necessary to know the sources and changes to satisfy the needs of users of legal area. Therefore, through an exploratory research, it aimed to do a user study, experts on legal aspects in the law library of the Regional Procurator of the Republic of the 5th Region (Brazil, which is a unit belonging to Brazil's Federal Public Ministry, with the use of a questionnaire as data collection tool. The results shows that users of legal information is more demanding and expert in their search and uses various sources, because their information needs has a high degree of difficulty.

  1. Defining Legal Moralism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Jens Damgaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses how legal moralism should be defined. It is argued that legal moralism should be defined as the position that “For any X, it is always a pro tanto reason for justifiably imposing legal regulation on X that X is morally wrong (where “morally wrong” is not conceptually equivalent...... to “harmful”)”. Furthermore, a distinction between six types of legal moralism is made. The six types are grouped according to whether they are concerned with the enforcement of positive or critical morality, and whether they are concerned with criminalising, legally restricting, or refraining from...... legally protecting morally wrong behaviour. This is interesting because not all types of legal moralism are equally vulnerable to the different critiques of legal moralism that have been put forth. Indeed, I show that some interesting types of legal moralism have not been criticised at all....

  2. Calidad de vida relacionada con heridas crónicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Virginia González-Consuegra

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo hace una revisión bibliográfica que se inicia con un recorrido de la evolución del concepto de calidad de vida (CV y su aplicación en salud, el cual debe su importancia a la forma más amplia en que es concebido el estado de salud personal, al contener implícito el bienestar social, lo que ha generado el desarrollo de medidas que permiten captar la salud en sus dimensiones múltiples y también positivas, como las de salud percibida o de calidad de vida relacionada con la salud (CVRS. La medición de la CVRS ha mostrado su utilidad en la investigación, en la práctica clínica, en la evaluación de los servicios sanitarios y en salud pública, lo que permite -en gran medida- contribuir a mejorar la gestión del cuidado. Con el paso del tiempo y la evolución tecnológica, la esperanza de vida ha ido en aumento, con el consiguiente envejecimiento de la población, siendo frecuente la presencia de enfermedades crónicas y metabólicas que, en muchos casos, traen consigo la presencia de heridas crónicas (HC de difícil manejo, que afectan negativa y considerablemente la CVRS de la población mayor de 65 años, especialmente femenina. La literatura reciente, es profusa respecto a los diferentes instrumentos para la medición de CVRS, por lo que se hace necesario conocer de qué disponemos para poder hacer uso de las herramientas adecuadas, según la condición de salud de la persona, a fin de aproximarse a las necesidades reales de las personas a nuestro cuidado. La mayoría de las herramientas de medición de CVRS se han desarrollado en Europa y Estados Unidos, lo que exige que para ser utilizadas en poblaciones distintas a las de su origen se cumpla con la adaptación y validación respectiva, a fin de que sus resultados reflejen la percepción real de la población.

  3. Legal argumentation based on foreign law
    An example from case law of the South African Constitutional Court

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Lollini

    2007-01-01

    This article aims to make some introductory remarks concerning the phenomenon of the circulation of ‘foreign law’ between constitutional courts. A convenient setting for some considerations regarding this legal phenomenon is the South African constitutional jurisprudence, since Section 39 of the 1996 Constitution enables the Constitutional Court to ‘consider foreign law’ when interpreting the Bill of Rights. This provision has led to the wide use of foreign jurisprudence and legislation, as w...

  4. THE MEXICAN PETROLEUM MODELS FOR PRIVATE PARTICIPATION : THE LEGAL POSSIBILITY TO ADOPT A NORWEGIAN PETROLEUM BASED MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    One of the main challenges of Mexico is the development of its Petroleum System. A mixture of a bad administration, corruption and a highly restricted juridical scheme has, technically and financially, collapsed the industry. At the present situation, Mexico not only needs foreign and local investors but also experienced players due to a lack of economic resources and technical expertise, especially on deep waters petroleum exploitation. The main legal problem is the Mexican constitutional fr...

  5. Victims of gender-based violence and their legal protection in Serbia: In relation to men's violence against women

    OpenAIRE

    Vučković Ivana

    2008-01-01

    The main issue in this work is men's violence against women as a hate crime. The author analyzes this through a feminist perspective considering the relevance of basic facts and concepts such as gender, gender roles and socialization, power, patriarchy and women's rights. The author analyzes the position of women victims of men's violence on both the international and national level, and their legal protection, in general and especially in Serbia, using a victimological approach.

  6. Victims of gender-based violence and their legal protection in Serbia: In relation to men's violence against women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučković Ivana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The main issue in this work is men's violence against women as a hate crime. The author analyzes this through a feminist perspective considering the relevance of basic facts and concepts such as gender, gender roles and socialization, power, patriarchy and women's rights. The author analyzes the position of women victims of men's violence on both the international and national level, and their legal protection, in general and especially in Serbia, using a victimological approach.

  7. Modelling Agent Attitudes in Legal Reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    Afzal Ballim; Tomas By; Yorick Wilks; Christian Lieske

    2012-01-01

    Common approaches to using artificial intelligence techniques in legal reasoning have generally been based on the logical reasoning methods developed in AI. In most cases, such systems can be considered to be expert systems applied in the legal domain. Other aspects of AI technology that rely more heavily on human psychology or behavioural patterns have rarely been used. This paper aims to show that some of these techniques have a rightful place in legal reasoning, and in particular that the ...

  8. The Argumentative Status of Foreign Legal Arguments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Bell

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that the citation of foreign legal sources in judicial decisions is not essentially a free-standing justification. Rather it gives additional support to arguments that can be based on existing domestic legal sources by showing that these illustrate a principle or value shared by a number of other legal systems. Legal development does not work simply by reformulating the rules by borrowing words or rules from other jurisdictions. Law develops by re-interpreting existing principles and rules in the current context of the legal system as a whole. The article draws on the work of Markesinis and Waldron and on the European Legal Development project which the author led with Professor David Ibbetson.

  9. 生态文明下的环境法制%Ecological Civilization based Environment legal system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡巧雨; 郭莉; 惠权

    2015-01-01

    Ecological civilization construction process is restricted by many factors such as environmental awareness, environmental legislation, administrative law enforcement and judicial defects, legal policy. Meanwhile the construction of ecological civilization is facing many problems, namely public participation, ecological compensation, environmental responsibility and disputes. We should perfect legislation, law enforcement and judicial construction, improve the mechanism of public participation and ecological compensation, environmental public interest litigation system to solve these problems. This paper analyzed the relationship between ecological civilization and environment legal system, combined with the construction plight of China's ecological legal system, then put forward a series of safeguard measures on environmental rule by law to improve ecological civilization construction, from the perspective of the legislative, executive and judicial. In order to achieve the tasks of scientific development concept, harmonious society construction, and ultimately the coordinated development of environment, society and economy.%生态文明建设的进程受到诸多因素的制约,如生态环境意识、环境立法、行政执法和司法缺陷、法律政策等,同时生态文明建设中面临诸多的难题,如公众参与、生态补偿、环境责任及环境纠纷等,应通过完善立法、执法及司法建设,以及完善公众参与机制、生态补偿机制、环境公益诉讼制度等保障机制来解决这些问题。本文首先通过比较分析生态文明与环境法制的关系,结合我国生态法制建设困境,提出了完善生态文明建设的一系列的环境法治保障措施,即从立法、执法、司法角度,从而实现科学发展观,构建和谐社会,最终实现环境—社会—经济协调发展的任务。

  10. Are chest radiographs justified in pre-employment examinations. Presentation of legal position and medical evidence based on 1760 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The legal and medical basis for chest radiographs as part of pre-employment examinations (PEE) at a University Hospital is evaluated. The radiographs are primarily performed to exclude infectious lung disease. A total of 1760 consecutive chest radiographs performed as a routine part of PEEs were reviewed retrospectively. Pathologic findings were categorized as ''nonrelevant'' or ''relevant.'' No positive finding with respect to tuberculosis or any other infectious disease was found; 94.8% of the chest radiographs were completely normal. Only five findings were regarded as ''relevant'' for the individual. No employment-relevant diagnosis occurred. The performance of chest radiography as part of a PEE is most often not justified. The practice is expensive, can violate national and European law, and lacks medical justification. (orig.)

  11. Legal method in danish law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blume, Peter Erik

    furthermore a brief account of Danish legal history is provided. The following chapters concern: • Legal institutions, • Statute and Statutory Law • Legal Decisions • Legal Literature and Legal Knowledge • Other National Legal Sources • External Influences on Danish Law......This book describes how legal method is used within the Danish legal system. Its target group is foreign lawyers and law students who have an interest in knowing how Danish law commonly is determined and applied. In the first chapters legal method and legal sources in general are defined and...

  12. Morbidade e mortalidade relacionadas a medicamentos no Brasil: revisão sistemática de estudos observacionais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Teles de Souza

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou a morbimortalidade relacionada a medicamentos no Brasil, sua prevalência, grupos farmacológicos e fatores de risco, Foi realizada uma revisão sistemática de estudos observacionais publicados até agosto de 2012, sem restrição de data de início, nas bases de dados Medline, Lilacs, Scielo, Embase, IPA, Science Direct, Scopus e Web of Science, Foram selecionados estudos nacionais avaliando a ocorrência de qualquer tipo de dano ocasionado por medicamento, Foram incluídos 45 estudos, A maior prevalência de evento adverso a medicamento foi observada em hospitais, em adultos e idosos, variando de 15,6% a 34,1%, Nas creches, 19,9% das crianças sofreram alguma reação adversa, Em serviços de emergência, 25% dos adultos ou idosos sofreram dano relacionado à falha terapêutica, Medicamentos atuantes no sistema nervoso central foi o principal grupo farmacológico envolvido, Os principais fatores de risco foram idade, presença de comorbidades e uso de > 5 medicamentos, Os resultados encontrados são alarmantes e demonstram a necessidade da avaliação e estratificação de risco populacional, ações preventivas e de intervenção precoce que possam reduzir o impacto da morbimortalidade relacionada a medicamentos no Brasil.

  13. Should abortion be legalized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodhy, L S

    1968-01-01

    Abortion is an important means of family planning, especially when contraception is unavailable or when it fails. Morbidity associated with legal abortion is low, though illegal abortion is a common cause of maternal mortality. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republic, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Poland, and the German Demogratic Republic all have laws legalizing abortion. Legalized abortion is the surest method of population control and should be promoted if the moral and religious objections can be overcome. PMID:12255647

  14. Introduction: Understanding Legal Evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Heine (Klaus)

    2012-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In recent years, the study of legal evolution has become more systematic, and there have emerged various approaches to the study of legal evolution. However, until now, there has been no consensus as to which of these approaches is the most appropriate for the purposes

  15. Are AustLII and Google Enough for Legal Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Colin

    2006-01-01

    For the past ten years law students, academics and legal practitioners have relied on AustLII and various internet search engines to conduct legal research. The purpose of this article is to examine what these can offer and to note the importance of other websites when conducting legal research. This article is based on an address given to the…

  16. Main Timber Legality Verification Schemes in the World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Based on introduction of the timber legality verification schemes,the article provides a detailed review of existing legality verification schemes covering aspects such as definition of legality,verification process.It aims to help Chinese companies understand the different requirements and evidence of compliance required by legislation,public and private procurement policies.

  17. A more coherent European wide legal language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viola Heutger

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I would like to elaborate on the interaction between law and language. The use of the different (legal languages of the European Union Member States is one of the most practical and most difficult problems in the process of European integration. The linguistic matters are directly contacting all legal issues. In February 2003 the Commission launched an Action Plan on a more coherent European Contract Law. With this Action Plan a sector specific approach of legal and linguistic harmonization will start. On of the official aims will be the preparation of a common frame of reference, providing a pan-European terminology and rules. This contribution will reflect the need of a better and more coherent legal language use on a European Union level and describe a more concept-based approach of linguistic legal integration.

  18. TO THE QUESTION OF THE LEGAL NATURE OF MARRIAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Bondov S. N.

    2014-01-01

    The article is devoted to the analysis of various approaches to the main definitions of a family law, such as marriage, family, and marriage legal relationship. In the article we profoundly considered the legal aspects of a procedure of marriage as the act of registration of marriage is the basis of emergence of marriage legal relationship. The conditions and the bases of marriage are characterized. We made a conclusion that marriage is a legal fact establishing, changing or stopping the corr...

  19. Principle of criminal legality as a fundamental human right

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann Monteiro de Castro, Henrique

    2012-01-01

    This work aims to discuss the principle of legality in criminal law, principle qualified as a fundamental human right. The criminal legality is a natural guarantee of citizens, having basic character in any state that pretends itself democratic, reflecting main feature of the legal systems based on justice and rationality. As it is clear that the principle of legality seems to be a constitutional guarantee of individual, its analysis is essential for understanding a principled view of the cri...

  20. LEGAL GUARANTEES OF FARMERS’ TRADE UNIONS’ FUNCTIONING IN POLAND

    OpenAIRE

    Jakub Gołaś

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of the article is to present legal basis and guarantees of the farmers’ trade unions’ functioning in Poland. The presented research was based on a thorough examination of national legal acts, which constitute both legal background and foundation of farmer’s unions’ activities and internal structure. The author tries to introduce both the individual legal and system guarantees which are dedicated to farmers’ organization and which exact acts shall...

  1. The Development of Legal Policy and Legal Needs of Indonesian Immigration Law: Answered Partially, Forget the Rest

    OpenAIRE

    Bilal Dewansyah

    2015-01-01

    The replacement of the immigration law, from Law No. 9 of 1992 to Law No. 6 of 2011 reflected the development of immigration legal policy. As a branch of administrative law that has dynamic character, the reform immigration laws should address the immigration legal needs in practice. This paper discusses the development of Indonesian immigration legal policy and to what extent these developments address the immigration legal needs. Based on the author analyses, it can be concluded, firstly, t...

  2. Inheritance Legal System in Indonesia: A Legal Justice for People

    OpenAIRE

    Yeni Salma Barlinti

    2013-01-01

    As one of Asian countries, Indonesia has varied of cultures and religions. This variety affects positive laws in Indonesia, one of them is inheritance law. Indonesia has three inheritance legal systems, that is, adat inheritance law, Islamic inheritance law, and western inheritance law. Adat inheritance law is a norm of local adat community about inheritance. Islamic inheritance law is a norm of inheritance based on al Qur’an (Islamic holy book) and hadis (words, acts, and silence of Prophet ...

  3. The Development of Legal Policy and Legal Needs of Indonesian Immigration Law: Answered Partially, Forget the Rest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Dewansyah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The replacement of the immigration law, from Law No. 9 of 1992 to Law No. 6 of 2011 reflected the development of immigration legal policy. As a branch of administrative law that has dynamic character, the reform immigration laws should address the immigration legal needs in practice. This paper discusses the development of Indonesian immigration legal policy and to what extent these developments address the immigration legal needs. Based on the author analyses, it can be concluded, firstly, the development of immigration legal policy, in legal direction context, emphasized to face the impact of globalization both positive and negative effects, and other developments in the future. In legal substances aspect, the current immigration legal policy change various principles immigration laws, such as the principle of selective policies are balanced with the principle of respect for human rights, although in certain settings are not in line with human rights (as in the case of the period of temporary prohibition to leave Indonesia, that can be extended continuously. In legal form and scope context, Indonesian immigration legal policy today, is more concerned with the rules of immigration law in detail than ever before. Secondly, the development of immigration legal policy answered the immigration legal needs particularly, such as in the case of human smuggling, but forget the rest of the immigration legal needs, in terms of the handling of illegal immigrants, asylum seekers and refugees.

  4. Algunas leyes fundamentales de la química y las magnitudes físicas relacionadas con el equivalente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio M. Navarro López

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available En este tema se tratan algunas leyes fundamentales de la química, tales como la Ley de la conservación de la materia, la Ley de las proporciones definidas o ley de los equivalentes, así como las magnitudes físicas relacionadas con el equivalente como son: La cantidad de sustancia en equivalente , masa molar del equivalente tanto de un elemento químico , de los ácidos, de las bases, de las sales ,todo expresado en el sistema Internacional de Unidades . Todo este material es de suma importancia por ser un material básico para poder comprender las reacciones químicas que ocurren en los laboratorios químico , para efectuar los cálculos correctamente, además se realizan algunos cálculos prácticos que le pueden ser de gran utilidad.

  5. Legal Aspects of Grey Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Schöpfel, Joachim; Lipinski, Tomas A

    2012-01-01

    International audience The paper provides insight into legal issues of grey literature. Based on a short overview of recent studies on grey literature and intellectual property, it suggests a typology of copyright protection for grey literature, in particular for PhD and Master's theses, reports, conference papers, working papers, datasets and preprints. New trends in copyright and scientific communication are mentioned in so far as grey literature is concerned: digital rights, creative co...

  6. Legal training of students in medical schools

    OpenAIRE

    Kablukov, А. А.; Strakhova, O. Р.

    2014-01-01

    Legal training of medical workers is an urgent problem that must be solved in order to improve the comprehensive process of teaching students at the Ukrainian medical schools. An example of implementation the initial stage of legal training for medical students based on existing training programs, within existing departments is described in this article. The acquisition of the primary skills for students in fi nding and selecting the legal documents and the ability to navigate skillfully in t...

  7. Legal Protections for Privacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, David W.

    1977-01-01

    Individual interest in privacy is a multiple legal issue, roughly divided into four parts according to different types of law: constitutional, statutory, administrative, and common law. Policy implications of this issue for institutions are discussed. (Editor/LBH)

  8. Old Assyrian Legal Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Thomas Klitgaard

    This work presents a comprehensive analysis of legal practices and dispute processing in Old Assyrian society c. 1950-1800 B.C. in the ancient Near East.......This work presents a comprehensive analysis of legal practices and dispute processing in Old Assyrian society c. 1950-1800 B.C. in the ancient Near East....

  9. Interventions for Learning Disabilities: Does a Journal-Based Change in Focus and Article Type Reflect or Influence Legal Mandates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleary, Daniel F.; Rowlette, Emily Fuller; Pelchar, Taylor K.; Bain, Sherry K.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether there was a noticeable shift in focus from general to specific learning disabilities, and in the types of articles (narrative or empirically based) in the Journal of Learning Disabilities (JLD) between 1995 to 2000. A pilot study had revealed an increase in empirically based articles and a shift toward specifically…

  10. FINANCIAL AND LEGAL RELATIONSHIP AND THE LEGAL REGULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkebuchava Yekaterina Bezhanovna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the problems of financial and legal relationship and legal regulation. The financial activities of the state can not be carried out beyond the legal relations. Financial relations are expressed outwardly in the forms that are identified by the state as it is connected with the fact of its existence. With the help of law the state in the financial sphere determines and sets the types of budget revenues, taxation procedures, methods of currency use, etc. Administrative and legal regulation of financial relations is made up of such components as financial and legal relationships and legal regulation. This is why the concepts of "legal effect" and "legal regulation" come to the fore. According to the author, the term "legal regulation" and "legal effect" are not identical and have different meanings. Therefore it is necessary to distinguish between the "regulation" and "effect". This would eliminate naming the same thing with different words.

  11. Expectancy and Professional Norms in Legal Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Dorrit; Hjort-Pedersen, Mette

    2013-01-01

    . These parameters focus on the degree to which the use of explicitation and implicitation is considered to influence meaning transfer, authentic English legal language and style, and the informative function of the translation in a defined translational situation. Based on Chesterman’s categorization of norms......This article reports on the findings of a qualitative study seeking to generate hypotheses about norms as psycho-social entities amongst professional producers and commissioners of legal translations, and to shed light on the reasons underlying these norms. In particular, we wish to investigate how...... perceived norms influence the use of explicitation and implicitation. The findings are based on experiments involving Danish translators and legal experts who were asked to evaluate three different translations into English of the same Danish legal source text on a set of defined parameters...

  12. Innovative Legal Approaches to Address Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L; Teret, Stephen P; Sugarman, Stephen D; Rutkow, Lainie; Brownell, Kelly D

    2009-01-01

    Context: The law is a powerful public health tool with considerable potential to address the obesity issue. Scientific advances, gaps in the current regulatory environment, and new ways of conceptualizing rights and responsibilities offer a foundation for legal innovation. Methods: This article connects developments in public health and nutrition with legal advances to define promising avenues for preventing obesity through the application of the law. Findings: Two sets of approaches are defined: (1) direct application of the law to factors known to contribute to obesity and (2) original and innovative legal solutions that address the weak regulatory stance of government and the ineffectiveness of existing policies used to control obesity. Specific legal strategies are discussed for limiting children's food marketing, confronting the potential addictive properties of food, compelling industry speech, increasing government speech, regulating conduct, using tort litigation, applying nuisance law as a litigation strategy, and considering performance-based regulation as an alternative to typical regulatory actions. Finally, preemption is an overriding issue and can play both a facilitative and a hindering role in obesity policy. Conclusions: Legal solutions are immediately available to the government to address obesity and should be considered at the federal, state, and local levels. New and innovative legal solutions represent opportunities to take the law in creative directions and to link legal, nutrition, and public health communities in constructive ways. PMID:19298420

  13. Zygostates alleniana (Orchidaceae: Epidendroideae: Cymbidieae: Oncidiinae: estructura floral relacionada con la polinización

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómiz, Natalia E.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The genus Zygostates Lindl. (Orchidaceae comprises about 20 species of small Neotropical epiphytic plants, represented in its southernmost limit by the species Z. alleniana. In this paper, we studied morphological and anatomical floral characteristics of this species related to pollination mechanism. We confirmed the presence of the unicellular trichomes on the base of the lip and side lobes secreting oil, constituting a trichomal elaiophore. The oil is deposited beneath the cuticle at the apex of the trichomes forming small blisters. The oil could represent a reward for the species Lophopedia nigrispinis, which would be a potential pollinator of Z. alleniana in a natural area within the geographic range of this plant species. Moreover, we prove that the reconfiguration of the pollinaruim is due to the dehydration of the walls cell. This reconfiguration could favor cross-pollination mechanism already described for other species of the family Orchidaceae. Finally, we discuss the floral characters present in Z. alleniana with closely related species.El género Zygostates Lindl. (Orchidaceae comprende aproximadamente 20 especies de pequeñas plantas epífitas con distribución neotropical, representado en su límite más austral por la especie Z. alleniana. En el presente trabajo se estudian morfológica y anatómicamente las características florales de esta especie relacionadas con el mecanismo de polinización. Se confirma la presencia de tricomas unicelulares en la base del labelo y lóbulos laterales que actúan secretando aceite, constituyendo un elaióforo tricomatoso. El aceite se deposita por debajo de la cutícula en el ápice de los tricomas formando pequeñas ampollas. El aceite podría representar una recompensa para la especie Lophopedia nigrispinis, la cual sería un posible polinizador de Z. alleniana en un área natural dentro del rango de distribución geográfica de esta especie vegetal. Por otro lado, se comprueba que la

  14. UN legal advisers meet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legal Advisers from twelve international organizations belonging to the United Nations Organization's family met at the Agency's Headquarters in Vienna on 19 and 20 May to discuss legal problems of common administrative interest. The meeting was held on the initiative of the Agency while the UN Conference on the Law of Treaties was taking place in Vienna during April and May. With Mr. Constantin A. Stavropoulos, Under-Secretary, Legal Counsel of the United Nations, as chairman, this was the second meeting of Legal Advisers since 1954. The following organizations were represented: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, International Atomic Energy Agency, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, International Civil Aviation Organization, International Labour Organisation, Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization, International Monetary Fund, International Telecommunication Union, United Nations, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, United Nations Industrial Development Organization, World Health Organization. Topics discussed included the recruitment of legal staff and possible exchange of staff between organizations; competence and procedure of internal appeals committees, experience with cases before the Administrative Tribunals and evaluation of their judgments; experience with Staff Credit Unions; privileges and immunities of international organizations; headquarters and host government agreements; and patent policies of international organizations. Consultations will continue through correspondence and further meetings. (author)

  15. Qualidade de vida relacionada com a visão em pacientes com degeneração macular relacionada à idade neovascular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Picoto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar o impacto da degeneração macular relacionada à idade (DMRI na qualidade de vida relacionada com a visão (QVRV numa amostra de pacientes portugueses. Métodos: Estudo observacional em corte transversal, não comparativo no qual foram incluídos 68 pacientes seguidos no departamento de Retina Médica do Serviço de Oftalmologia do Centro Hospitalar de Lisboa Ocidental, entre janeiro e abril de 2011. A QVRV foi avaliada por meio do questionário National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ-25, traduzido para o português. Os scores obtidos foram analisados e correlacionados com os seguintes parâmetros idade, sexo, lateralidade da doença, tempo de follow-up, acuidade visual (AV e EFC iniciais e finais do melhor (MO e pior olho (PO. Resultados: A AV do PO apresentou valor preditivo nos scores global, atividade para longe, visão cromática, visão periférica, desempenho, função social e saúde mental (p<0,05. Num modelo de multivariáveis com inclusão de todos os parâmetros clínicos analisados, as variáveis estudadas explicaram 60% da variância do score global (SG com um valor preditivo de 0,08 (R2 0,57, p=0,088. Conclusões: A DMRI NV está associada a uma diminuição da QVRV. A AV do PO tem valor preditivo nos scores do NEI-VFQ-25.

  16. Constitutional Legal Regulation And The Reasons For The Legal Nihilism Existence In Modern Russian Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy E. Nekrasov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present article questions of constitutional and legal regulation and reason for the legal nihilism existence, methods and forms of fight against legal nihilism are considered. Reasons of low legal culture in modern Russian society and ways of the population's legal literacy increase in general are allocated. These problems are extremely topical today as at the 1990th when there was a reorientation of values, ideals and the principles and legislative base was significantly changed, people were simply lost, and it was extremely difficult for them to realize and accept new, absolutely other reality. Today peculiar spiritual and valuable "reconstruct" did not pass completely and the state is obliged to help citizens to carry out it most without serious consequences and successfully. In the conclusion authors draw a conclusion that: first, the problem of legal nihilism more than ever now is particularly acute for modern Russian society. The policy of the state has to be directed by the consciousness of citizens, who understand that law is the integral and obligatory part of the order in the country and that it is one of the basic for any person. Secondly, one of the ways to overcome the legal nihilism consists in the increase of the legal culture level along with the development of effective legal policy. Thirdly, legal idealism, reevaluation of opportunities in law gains especially wide circulation in the years of changes in response to social expectations an insufficiently skilled legislator forms a belief that it is enough to adopt good laws, and all problems would be solved.

  17. Five Models of Legal Science

    OpenAIRE

    Núñez Vaquero, Álvaro

    2013-01-01

    This paper pursues three goals. First, some traditional concepts of ‘legal science’ will be analysed, and a definition of ‘legal science ampio sensu’, ‘legal science stricto sensu’ and ‘legal dogmatics’ will be proposed. Second, a reconstruction of five models of ‘legal science ampio sensu’ will be presented to show the different methodological alternatives available to legal scholars. Third, I claim that it is necessary (for conceptual reasons) to argue for moral reasons when choosing a lega...

  18. The role of legal translation in legal harmonization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.J.W. Baaij

    2012-01-01

    Papers gepresenteerd op de conferentie, 'The Role of Legal Translation in Legal Harmonization', georganiseerd in Amsterdam op 21 januari 2011, door The Amsterdam Circle for Law & Language (ACLL) en the Centre for the Study of European Contract Law (CSECL).

  19. Legal contract drafting support

    OpenAIRE

    Pace, Gordon; Duca, Edward

    2012-01-01

    The notary drafts the contract on her computer – fixing a highlighted typo, ignoring the complex grammar warning. More worrying is the clause highlighted with an explanation of how it conflicts with another contract her client has signed. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/legal-contract-drafting-support/

  20. Transsexualism: a legal perspective.

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    This paper begins with a discussion of the current legal definition of sex laid down in Corbett v Corbett. The implications of this test for three areas of the law, marriage, birth certificates and employment are then examined. Solutions from the United States of America and West Germany are studied and the suitability of similar solutions being transplanted into British law discussed.

  1. Commission on Legal Matters

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    What is a commission within the Staff Association (SA)? A commission is a working group of the CERN Staff Council, led by a staff representative. The commission is composed mainly of staff representatives, but interested members of the SA can apply to participate in the work of a commission. What is the commission on legal matters? The commission on legal matters works on texts governing the employment conditions of staff (Employed Members of Personnel and Associated Members of Personnel). This covers legal documents such as the Staff Rules and Regulations, administrative and operational circulars, as well as any other document relating to employment conditions. How is the work organised in this commission? The revision process of the text is generally done along following lines: The HR department, and its legal experts, proposes new texts or modifications to existing texts. A schedule for the study of these texts is established each year and this calendar by the commission to plan its work. The new or modi...

  2. The legal framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legal provisions relating to the construction of nuclear generating stations are examined. the forthcoming public inquiry concerning Sizewell 'B' is, of course, of immediate topical interest, but in whatever form that inquiry eventually unfolds, it is important to judge the appropriateness of present procedures against the likelihood of a continuing programme of new nuclear generating stations over the next decade or so. (author)

  3. Euthanasia: Some Legal Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koza, Pamela

    1976-01-01

    Several sections of the Criminal Code of Canada which are relevant to the issue of euthanasia are discussed. In addition, the value placed on the sanctity of life by the law, the failure to recognize motive in cases of euthanasia, and disparate legal and medical definitions of death are also considered. (Author)

  4. Defeasibility in Legal Reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    Sartor, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    I shall first introduce the idea of reasoning, and of defeasible reasoning in particular. I shall then argue that cognitive agents need to engage in defeasible reasoning for coping with a complex and changing environment. Consequently, defeasibility is needed in practical reasoning, and in particular in legal reasoning

  5. Legal crowdsourcing and relational law: what the semantic web can do por legal education

    OpenAIRE

    Casanovas, Pompeu

    2012-01-01

    Crowdsourcing and Relational Law are interrelated concepts that can be successfully applied to the legal domain and, more specifically, to the field of legal education. ‘Crowdsourcing’ means ‘participation of people (crowds)’ and refers theoretically to the aggregated production of a common knowledge in a global data space. ‘Relational law’ refers to the regulatory link between Web 2.0 and 3.0, based on trust and dialogue, which emerges from the intertwining of top-down existing legal syst...

  6. Transnational Legal Responsibility: Some Preliminaries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlakos, George

    London: Routledge, 2015 - (Vandenhole, W.), s. 136-157 ISBN 978-1-138-79945-5 Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : human rights * legal responsibility * state sovereignty Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences

  7. Prácticas indígenas relacionadas con la enfermedad

    OpenAIRE

    María Clara Quintero Laverde

    2001-01-01

    Las prácticas de cuidado de la salud, relacionadas con la enfermedad, han estado presentes a través de la historia de la humanidad. El presente artículo relaciona dichas prácticas en algunas de las principales tribus indígenas que poblaban el territorio colombiano a la llegada de los españoles. Estas tribus, representadas por las culturas chibcha y caribe, contaban con conocimientos médicos avanzados, y en sus comunidades la figura de los chamanes, los brujos, los a...

  8. Utilidad de un conector desinfectable en la profilaxis de la bacteriemia relacionada con cateter

    OpenAIRE

    Yébenes Reyes, Juan Carlos

    2005-01-01

    Consultable des del TDX Títol obtingut de la portada digitalitzada La utilización de los catéteres venosos centrales es esencial en las unidades de cuidados. Su uso, sin embargo, no está exento de riesgos, como la bacteriemia relacionada con catéter, con una morbimortalidad asociada significativa. Conociendo la importancia de la via endoluminal en la patogénesis de la bacteriemia por catéter, el objetivo de está tesis es observar la utilidad de un nuevo conector desinfectable que no req...

  9. Depresión en pacientes con degeneración macular relacionada con la edad

    OpenAIRE

    Yamile Reveiz Narváez; Carlos Gómez-Restrepo

    2012-01-01

    Introducción: La degeneración macular relacionada con la edad es causa de discapacidad en los adultos mayores, ya que afecta de manera sustancial su calidad de vida e incrementa el riesgo de depresión. Métodos: Revisión narrativa acerca del tema. Resultados: Se discute el efecto de la depresión en pacientes mayores con discapacidad visual y se resumen las intervenciones existentes para detectar y disminuir en ellos la tasa de depresión.

  10. Funcionalidade e qualidade de vida relacionada com a saúde em doentes com edema venoso

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Sara; Crisóstomo, Rute

    2015-01-01

    Objetivo: Avaliar a funcionalidade e a qualidade de vida relacionada com a saúde em indivíduos com edema venoso por insuficiência venosa crónica nos membros inferiores. Relevância: Pretende-se perceber quais as consequências da insuficiência venosa crónica, de forma a melhorar a intervenção da Fisioterapia. Amostra: Participaram 50 indivíduos, 24 no Grupo Edema e 26 no Grupo Controlo. Materiais e métodos: Foi realizado um estudo transversal, comparativo e correlacional, utilizando-...

  11. Dislipidemia relacionada à fibrose cística Cystic fibrosis-related dyslipidemia

    OpenAIRE

    Crésio de Aragão Dantas Alves; Daniela Seabra Lima

    2008-01-01

    Esse artigo tem por objetivo rever o conhecimento atual sobre a fisiopatologia, o diagnóstico e a abordagem da dislipidemia relacionada à fibrose cística (DFC). A pesquisa bibliográfica utilizou os bancos de dados Medline e Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (1987-2007), selecionando os artigos mais relevantes sobre o tema. A DFC é caracterizada por hipertrigliceridemia e/ou hipocolesterolemia e deficiência de ácidos graxos essenciais. Seus principais fatores de risc...

  12. Caracterización de propiedades relacionadas con la textura de suspensiones de fibras alimentarias

    OpenAIRE

    CÓRDOBA SEQUEIRA, ARTURO

    2008-01-01

    La fibra dietética es un componente que, además de ser beneficioso para la salud, puede resultar adecuado para aumentar la viscosidad y otras propiedades relacionadas de determinados productos. No obstante, la procedencia de la misma, así como su concentración y el modo en que se adicione puede afectar a su funcionalidad. En este trabajo se ha realizado un estudio de las propiedades físico-químicas y estructurales de fibras dietéticas procedentes de diferentes frutas (limón, naranja y manzana...

  13. Prácticas indígenas relacionadas con la enfermedad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Clara Quintero Laverde

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Las prácticas de cuidado de la salud, relacionadas con la enfermedad, han estado presentes a través de la historia de la humanidad. El presente artículo relaciona dichas prácticas en algunas de las principales tribus indígenas que poblaban el territorio colombiano a la llegada de los españoles. Estas tribus, representadas por las culturas chibcha y caribe, contaban con conocimientos médicos avanzados, y en sus comunidades la figura de los chamanes, los brujos, los adivinos y hechiceros eran relevantes.

  14. Complicações infecciosas relacionadas ao uso do cateter de Hickman

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Andréa Monastier

    2012-01-01

    Resumo: o cateter de Hickman é um dispositivo frequentemente utilizado nos cuidados aos pacientes hospitalizados, particularmente os mais graves. No entanto, seu uso predispõe ao desenvolvimento de infecções locais ou sistêmicas, as quais implicam em riscos significativos ao indivíduo, aumentando os índices de morbidade, mortalidade, bem como nos custos hospitalares e no tempo de internação. Objetivos: analisar as complicações infecciosas relacionadas ao uso do cateter de Hickman, relacionar ...

  15. BASE DE DADOS TERRITORIAIS NECESSÁRIAS À ANÁLISE DE UM SISTEMA DE RESERVA LEGAL EXTRA-PROPRIEDADE NO ESTADO DE GOIÁS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Eduardo Ferreira

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo geral a compilação ecaracterização das bases de dados utilizadas no âmbitodo projeto “Cenários Econômicos para a Troca de ReservaLegal Extra-Propriedade no Estado de Goiás”. Maisespecificamente, realizou-se uma análise de índicessócio-econômicos e de cobertura vegetal remanescentepara uma malha hexagonal adotada pelo projeto, perfazendotodo o Estado. Dentre os resultados principais,destaca-se atual aspecto negativo da paisagem de Cerradoem Goiás, tanto em termos de Estado (45% da áreaoriginal convertida em pastagens e 18% em agricultura,municípios (85% com passivos ambientais e de mesoregião(Centro e Sul Goiano com menos de 20% de coberturavegetal nativa. Quanto aos índices sociais (IDH,GINI, Pobreza e Densidade Populacional, fica demonstradoque o desenvolvimento em Goiás, ainda longe deser sustentável em termos ambientais, é maior em áreascom atividades agrícolas intensas, como nas meso-regiõesSul e Centro Goiano, e menor ao Norte e Nordeste doestado, onde estão concentradas as maiores proporçõesde pobres, concentração de renda e, curiosamente, remanescentesde Cerrado. Este estudo indica a adoção depráticas econômicas para a manutenção/regeneração dabiodiversidade do bioma Cerrado, complementar ao respeitodas Áreas de Preservação Permanente, sobretudoàquelas com função ripária aos cursos hidrográficos.

  16. Legal Language in Intercultural Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Violeta Janulevičienė; Sigita Rackevičienė

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the considerable role of legal translation in intercultural communication. Effective intercultural communication requires sufficient language skills and also extensive knowledge of the cultures involved, which encompass official social behaviour norms, enshrined in the corresponding legal systems. The basic legal terms often pose substantial difficulties even for experienced translators and, hence, to communication, because these terms nominate concepts that are inherentl...

  17. Did Legalized Abortion Lower Crime?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Ted

    2004-01-01

    Changes in homicide and arrest rates were compared among cohorts born before and after legalization of abortion and those who were unexposed to legalized abortion. It was found that legalized abortion improved the lives of many women as they could avoid unwanted births.

  18. Immigrant health: legal tools/legal barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moua, Mee; Guerra, Fernando A; Moore, Jill D; Valdiserri, Ronald O

    2002-01-01

    The United States is a country of immigrants, our government having been formed by recent arrivals. This trend has continued throughout our history; according to the Center for Immigration Studies, more than 26 million immigrants have settled in the United States since 1970, and approximately one million new immigrants come to the United States each year. The immigrant population faces highly diverse health issues that states, cities, and counties must address, many of which pose significant legal and policy issues. Social, cultural, and linguistic factors complicate those challenges, as does the overlay of federal immigration and health policy. Two federal laws, the Welfare Reform Act of 1996 and Title VI of the federal Civil Rights Act of 1964, have affected immigrants in two very different ways. The former made it difficult for immigrants to qualify for publicly funded benefits. In contrast, Title VI made it easier for immigrants to obtain benefits by requiring federally funded service providers to offer translating services to persons with limited English language skills. Tuberculosis treatment is perhaps the most pressing health need among recent arrivals to the United States. Methods to slow down and hopefully eliminate this disease are underway, but a more comprehensive approach to not only tuberculosis but to immigrant health in general is needed. Indeed, it will benefit those directly affected by tuberculosis and will have serious implications for the entire population for generations to come. PMID:12508525

  19. Photovoltaic facilities, legal guidebook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Important debates about the photovoltaic industry took place in 2009 and 2010 which have led to some evolutions of the French law having an economical impact on the arrangement of photovoltaic projects. The aim of this supplement to 'Droit de l'Environnement' journal is to answer some important questions at a time when the electricity market is not fully structured: the setting up of solar cell panels, town planing and property constraints; connection to the grid; project financing: power generation tariffs, partnership contract; the new legal framework set up in 2011: moratorium and new legal scheme; is 'green fiscality' still green and attractive? Settlement of disputes with the French government; actors reactions: authorities and professionals, opinion of an expert. (J.S.)

  20. Sanction in the Russian legal reality; level research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Valeryevich Krasnov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to form scientifically grounded knowledge on the role and place of legal sanctions in the Russian legal reality at all levels. Methods general philosophic methods dialectic synergetic phenomenological general scientific methods systemicstructural logical specificscientific methods formaljuridical comparativelegal. Results basing on the systemicstructural and comparative research of the levels of legal reality as well as the functions and roles performed by each sanction it is shown how the conceptions of the sanctions and objectives of their implementation depend on subjective and objective factors how the official confirmation of the functions of legal sanctions in Russia differs from their actual implementation in the legal reality. In the Russian legal reality we propose to extinguish several levels law awareness and legal mentality law proper and law enforcement practice and legal behavior the subjectrsquos view on justice and its correlation with the existing law. At each level the legal sanctions perform a certain role and are represented in a certain form. The necessity is actualized to use abroad range of methods for legal sanctions research sociological psychological statistical in order to more specifically confirm their content in legislation and predict their efficient implementation. Scientific novelty for the first time the attempt is made to study the role and function of legal sanctions at different levels of legal reality. Practical value the main provisions and conclusions can be used in both scientificeducational activity and in elaborating drafts of legislative acts to confirm legal sanctions. The authorrsquos comments and proposals can be used for estimating the probable informational and motivational impact of sanction on the human conscience and behavior and when evaluating the interestsrsquo conflict in forming the sanctions content. nbsp

  1. Competitive Legal Professionals’ use of Technology in Legal Practice and Legal Research

    OpenAIRE

    T du Plessis

    2008-01-01

    Advances in the information and communication technologies have led to the availability of a range of primary and secondary legal research publications online via the Internet, rather than on other storing devices such as compact discs or publications in the print media. Not only has information and communication technology (ICT) impacted on the availability of legal information resources, but its effects are also noticed in various law-related areas such as legal practice management, legal e...

  2. Cultural Dimensions Of Legal Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sierocka Halina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the intention for precision and accuracy, legal discourse is oftentimes complex, archaic and ambiguous - which gives rise to contentious interpretation. Moreover, little or no attention is paid to the cultural dimension of legal discourse, which plays a critical role in the translation and interpretation of legal texts, as well as in the application of law. This paper endeavours to illustrate the impact the culture, or, more precisely, legal culture has on the way legal texts are construed or translated and to present problems which arise in the interpretation, translation and application of law as a result of cultural diversities

  3. Dislipidemia relacionada à fibrose cística Cystic fibrosis-related dyslipidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crésio de Aragão Dantas Alves

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Esse artigo tem por objetivo rever o conhecimento atual sobre a fisiopatologia, o diagnóstico e a abordagem da dislipidemia relacionada à fibrose cística (DFC. A pesquisa bibliográfica utilizou os bancos de dados Medline e Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (1987-2007, selecionando os artigos mais relevantes sobre o tema. A DFC é caracterizada por hipertrigliceridemia e/ou hipocolesterolemia e deficiência de ácidos graxos essenciais. Seus principais fatores de risco são: insuficiência pancreática, dieta rica em carboidratos, hepatopatias, estado inflamatório e corticoterapia. Não existem recomendações específicas sobre a triagem, que habitualmente é realizada a partir do diagnóstico e, em intervalos regulares, com maior freqüência, nos indivíduos pertencentes aos grupos de risco. O tratamento inclui: dieta balanceada, reposição de micronutrientes, vitaminas e fibras, além de exercício físico regular de acordo com a tolerância individual. Na grande maioria dos casos, a hipertrigliceridemia da DFC não atinge valores que indiquem o uso de hipolipemiantes. Conclui-se que existem poucos trabalhos na literatura sobre a freqüência, etiologia e manejo da DFC. A recomendações preventivas e terapêuticas para a hipertrigliceridemia são extrapoladas de diretrizes para indivíduos sem fibrose cística. Mais pesquisas são necessárias para investigar a associação da deficiência de ácidos graxos essenciais com a fisiopatologia da fibrose cística. Como a hipertrigliceridemia é um importante fator de risco para doença arterial coronariana, estudos prospectivos irão contribuir para o melhor entendimento da história natural dessa complicação bem como definir maneiras de preveni-la e tratá-la.This article aims to review the physiopathology, diagnosis and treatment of cystic fibrosis-related dyslipidemia (CFD. Bibliographic searches of the Medline and Latin American and Caribbean Health

  4. Licensing of large industrial plants. Legal regulations and recent judicature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author arrives at a conclusion by examining prerequisites for licensing, their legal implementation, based on lawful standardization, and the dimensions of constitutional rights, including questions of third-party protection. In section ''licensing procedures'', he discusses the right for planning, true and false categorization of partial licensing, the participation of the public, exclusion of objections, protection of constitutional rights through procedures, and the legal consequences of judicial procedural errors. Within the frame of administrative controls, authority for court actions, control density, and effective, temporary legal protection are discussed. The author is of the opinion that the legal uncertainty, so often deplored is slowly disappearing. (HSCH)

  5. Legal Elements For Nuclear Security: Egyptian Nuclear Law As A Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with the legal bases for nuclear security. First, It analysis the international legal framework for nuclear security. Second, it analysis the legal bases for the import-export control. The legal aspects related with illicit trafficking (IT) were also reviewed. Third, It deals with the Egyptian nuclear law no. 7 and its executive regulation. The Egyptian legal regime for nuclear security and the role of State System for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (SSAC) in realizing the nuclear security were also discussed. The purpose of the paper is to evaluate the Egyptian legal framework for nuclear security.

  6. FINANCIAL AND LEGAL RELATIONSHIP AND THE LEGAL REGULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Екатерина Бежановна Ткебучава

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the problems of financial and legal relationship and legal regulation. The financial activities of the state can not be carried out beyond the legal relations. Financial relations are expressed outwardly in the forms that are identified by the state as it is connected with the fact of its existence. With the help of law the state in the financial sphere determines and sets the types of budget revenues, taxation procedures, methods of currency use, etc. Administrative and legal regulation of financial relations is made up of such components as financial and legal relationships and legal regulation. This is why the concepts of "legal effect" and  "legal regulation" come to the fore. According to the author, the term "legal regulation" and "legal effect" are not identical and have different meanings. Therefore it is necessary to distinguish between the "regulation" and "effect". This would eliminate naming the same thing with different words. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-4-16

  7. Language and Culture in International Legal Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Kocbek

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary business world, partners belonging to different nations, and hence different cultures, conduct business operations in either the language of one of the parties involved or in a third, neutral language, serving as lingua franca. Thus, language skills, as an essential component of the communicative competence, imply a certain extent of implicit or explicit translating and interpreting. The functionalist approaches in translation science, and most of all the Skopos theory by J. H. Vermeer, view translation as an intercultural transfer, which inevitably entails taking into account intercultural differences. As intercultural business communication is directly affected by the legal systems of the cultures involved, the communicating parties need to be acquainted with both the source and target legal systems. This is especially the case with English, as the Anglo-American legal system, based essentially on common law, differs substantially from continental law, to which most of the European countries belong. English as the world’s most commonly used lingua franca will have to be adapted to its new function by adopting terms and concepts from other cultures and, within the EU, take into consideration the existing discrepancies between the continental and the Anglo-American legal systems. In this paper, cases of non-equivalence regarding legal terms are illustrated with examples from company law. In conclusion, some linguistic and cultural implications of the use of English as lingua franca, as well as their impact on teaching and learning practices are presented.

  8. BITCOIN - BETWEEN LEGAL AND INFORMAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana MAFTEI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The proliferation of technology emphasized new forms of payment. During the last years, current literature highlighted the role of virtual currency, the channels of payment through digital coins and the importance of assimilation of such platforms. Bitcoin or BTC is known as a digital coin, issued for the first time in 2009 and based on a peer to peer system. The difference from other forms of payment is that BTC is not controlled by any institution or central authority. BTC transactions have grown rapidly, ”asking" for regulation measures or legal approval of governments. Although BTC has become very popular, the market is poor and unfortunately of no confidence. There is a lack of regulation which can determine a number of risks associated with criminal financing activities. However, the legal status of Bitcoin is present in many European countries like Belgium, Bulgaria, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Lithuania, Norway, Poland, Slovenia, Switzerland or Turkey. Also, this type of currency has experienced a rapid evolution among coffee shops and restaurants.

  9. Competitive Legal Professionals’ use of Technology in Legal Practice and Legal Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T du Plessis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Advances in the information and communication technologies have led to the availability of a range of primary and secondary legal research publications online via the Internet, rather than on other storing devices such as compact discs or publications in the print media. Not only has information and communication technology (ICT impacted on the availability of legal information resources, but its effects are also noticed in various law-related areas such as legal practice management, legal education, corporate governance and the law per se. The question addressed by this article is whether the application of ICTs has an effect on the practice of law, and specifically whether information and knowledge management affects the processes of legal research in modern legal practice. Various issues are considered in this regard, including what the concept of knowledge management (KM entails in a law firm and what the current KM trends in South African law firms are. The article investigates global trends in the application of ICTs for legal research purposes, what the specific applications of KM in support of legal research may be, how information technology applications and KM systems and strategies can support the legal research process, and what the benefits of KM are to legal research. It finally discusses the impact technology has had on the skills required of competitive legal professionals.

  10. Why do women not prefer much older men? a hypothesis based on alterations in male reproductive physiology related to increased age Por que mulheres não preferem homens muito mais velhos que elas? uma hipótese baseada em alterações da fisiologia reprodutiva masculina relacionadas ao aumento da idade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luísa Helena Pinheiro Spinelli

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary Psychology studies suggest that women prefer slightly older or similarly aged partners, although to date few hypotheses have been put forth to explain this pattern of choice. Several recent studies have shown changes in male reproductive parameters as a result of increased age. In the current review of medical literature, we found evidence that much older men are more likely to be infertile, women with much older partners are more likely to experience problems during pregnancy, and children of much older men are more likely to have genetic abnormalities. Based on these findings, we suggest that reproducing with much older men does not represent the best reproductive option for women, which would explain the female preference for only slightly older or similarly-aged mates.Estudos de Psicologia Evolucionista sugerem que as mulheres preferem parceiros um pouco mais velhos ou de idade semelhante, embora apresentem, até agora, poucas hipóteses para explicar esse padrão de preferência. Recentemente, vários estudos têm demonstrado alterações nos parâmetros reprodutivos masculinos como resultado do aumento da idade. Em revisão da literatura médica atual, encontramos evidências de que homens muito mais velhos são mais susceptíveis de serem inférteis, mulheres com parceiros muito mais velhos são mais propensas a sofrer com problemas durante a gravidez e filhos de homens muito mais velhos são mais propensos a ter anomalias genéticas. Com base nestes resultados, sugerimos que reproduzir com homens muito mais velhos não representa a melhor opção reprodutiva para as mulheres, o que explicaria a preferência feminina por parceiros apenas um pouco mais velhos ou de mesma faixa etária.

  11. Survival After the Boom: Legal Education for Solvency and Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Bruce I.

    1984-01-01

    To stay healthy, legal education must enhance greatly its information, planning capacities, resources for management of financial risk, and development of investment capital. Planned diversification of risk could make survival of broad-based quality legal education possible; otherwise schools will be forced to accept any cash-bearing applicant.…

  12. Citing Legal Material in APA Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Allan G., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Guidelines are offered to authors on the correct citation format for legal references, including statutes and regulations, court decisions, and law review articles. Standards are based on those published by the Harvard Law Review Association and the American Psychological Association. (DB)

  13. Achievements in Building The Legal System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In the past three decades,people have gained an increasingly deeper under-standing of the law,and theories on democracy and justice have been en-riched.A socialist legal framework has been developing and the rule of law has becomea basic governing principle.China has made unprecedented achievements in promoting law-based governance.

  14. ECONOMIC - LEGAL ASPECTS OF OLYMPIC MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voevodina S. S.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The economic and legal aspects of Olympic marketing have been analyzed in the article. The development of the Olympic marketing tools is also being discussed. Along with this, the necessity of the formulation of the marketing activity law is based in the article

  15. The new legal basis of the EU's energy policy; La nouvelle base juridique de la politique energetique de l'UE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farantouris, N.E. [Universite du Piree, Dept. d' Etudes Internationales et Europeennes (Greece)

    2011-01-15

    According to article 194 of the EU Lisbon Treaty, energy now falls within the province of European policy and is a sector for shared responsibility with member countries, in the same way as for the environment, transportation, the interior market and trans-European networks (article 4 of the Lisbon Treaty). The introduction in the Treaty of a chapter devoted to energy clearly has a political emphasis, as its shows the EU's attachment to the implementation of a coherent policy. However, its enactment carries with it not insignificant legal changes, because a specific and autonomous legal basis is established for the first time, thus allowing the Union to take decisions and actions in the area of energy. (author)

  16. Geneletter: An Internet-based newsletter on the ethical, legal, and social implications of genetics. Final report to the Department of Energy [Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reilly, Philip; Wertz, Dorothy C.

    2001-05-01

    The GeneLetter (http://www.geneletter.org) is an Internet newsletter on ethical, legal, and social issues in genetics, designed for a wide and varied audience, some of whom may not be familiar with genetic science. It appears every two months, with a variety of long and short feature articles on ethics and on genetic disorders, a section on new federal and state legislation, an international section, a student corner, book and video reviews, a summary of genetics in the news, and a list of upcoming conferences. Feature articles have ventured into an area of wide general concern, behavioral genetics. The newsletter also has an interactive chatbox and the opportunity of more private communications with the editors via email. The purpose of the GeneLetter is to help fill a communication and knowledge gap on ethical, legal and social issues surrounding genetics.

  17. Legal aspects of teleradiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is hoped that the implementation of teleradiology will improve the quality and economic effectiveness of health care in the future. The German federal government has submitted a bill for a legal statute, thereby creating the necessary framework to guarantee the essential 'document security'. The responsibility of those involved with orderly data transmission as well as the limited responsibility for physicians' findings are both government by general liability. General principles apply also with regard to professional discretion. Authorized utilization of external networks depends upon the quality of data security. Networks with unlimited public access may not be used without explicit concent from those concerned. (orig.)

  18. LEGAL GUARANTEES OF FARMERS’ TRADE UNIONS’ FUNCTIONING IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Gołaś

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the article is to present legal basis and guarantees of the farmers’ trade unions’ functioning in Poland. The presented research was based on a thorough examination of national legal acts, which constitute both legal background and foundation of farmer’s unions’ activities and internal structure. The author tries to introduce both the individual legal and system guarantees which are dedicated to farmers’ organization and which exact acts shall be considered as the direct legal basis of the guarantees. Having regard to the fact that even the Polish Constitution introduces transparent and direct legal frameworks for functioning of farmers’ trade unions, the author intends to prove that individual farmers’ unions’ operations should be considered as a fundamental and basic feature of the national agricultural system. The presented work should be also considered as thorough examination of legal provisions presented in the Act on individual farmers’ trade unions of 7th April 1989 (Ustawa…, 2015b, which is direct legal basis for functioning guarantees of the agricultural unions. The author shows how the Act is governing such fundamental issues as creation, registration, liquidation or legal operational guarantees of each individual farmers’ trade unions operating under the Act.

  19. The contribution of ontologies to the creation of knowledge bases for the management of legal compliance in occupational health and safety

    OpenAIRE

    Vigneron, Jonathan; Guarnieri, Franck; Rallo, Jean-Marc

    2013-01-01

    Occupational health and safety (OHS) is at the heart of corporate policies and the increasing trend towards litigation has contributed to the inflated number of regulatory texts published each year. OHS professionals are therefore faced with the need to process a growing amount of data in order to remain in compliance. They train themselves in law, draw upon internal expertise (the company's legal department) or external consultants (advisory and enforcement agencies) and equip themselves wit...

  20. Assessoria jurídica universitária popular: bases comuns para rumos diferentes / Universitarian legal aid: common basis for different strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assis da Costa Oliveira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo No presente trabalho são traçados apontamentos teórico-conceituais sobre Assessoria Jurídica Universitária Popular, para definir os contornos de sua emergência e definição tipológica. Posteriormente, apresentamos 11 itens-condições que servem de substrato elementar para sua formação e condução. Palavras-chave: assessoria jurídica universitária popular; rede nacional das assessorias jurídicas universitárias; extensão universitária; universidade; interdisciplinaridade. Abstract In this article are made theoretical and conceptual notes about Popular University Legal Assessorship, to define the contours of its occurrence and typological definition. Subsequently, we present 11 conditions that serve as the basic substrate for its formation and conduction. Keywords: popular university legal assessorship; national network of university legal advice; university extension; university; interdisciplinary.

  1. Pautas, creencias y prácticas de crianza relacionadas con el castigo y su transmisión generacional

    OpenAIRE

    Marlyn Peña; Juliana Castro-Osorio; Sandra Pulido; Diana Paola Ariza-Ramírez

    2013-01-01

    La presente investigación tuvo como objetivo describir las pautas, creencias y prácticas de crianza relacionadas con el castigo y su transmisión generacional en cuatro familias de nivel socioeconómico bajo de la ciudad de Bogotá. Utilizamos entrevistas semiestructuradas, historias de vida, observaciones de campo, y el Software Atlas.ti para analizar los resultados. Encontramos que las pautas de crianza relacionadas con el castigo están enmarcadas en el rol del abuelo o de la abuela como cuida...

  2. [Legal medicine and dentistry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Attilio, M; Centobeni, R; D'Arcangelo, C

    1996-04-01

    With reference to cases of American dentists sued for "malpractice" during the 80s, the authors summarise the causes why, initially, the American lawyers found it difficult to plead on behalf of their clients. Therefore, the authors suggest a number of measures in order to reduce the probability of being sued by patients. In particular, they focus attention on:--the duty to treat patients, with reference to experimentation on humans within the context of scientific research and citing the Declaration of Helsinki;--informed consent, with particular emphasis on the need to inform the patient regarding all aspects of treatment, including any risks or presumed complications that might arise during and after treatment;--professional liability, drawing a distinction between moral responsibility (regulated by the Code of Professional Practice) and legal liability (involving the legal field). Lastly, the authors underline the need to perfect and increase the awareness of the "management" risk of a dental practice, drawing special attention to the need to keep precise records on patients receiving treatment: radiographical and photographical examination, remote and recent medical history, the current state of teeth and gums, the presence of clicks and/or crepitus on ATM, cephalea, spontaneous and/or provoked pain involving masticatory and cervical muscles, obtaining the informed consent of the patient. PMID:8926985

  3. Argumentation in Legal Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bench-Capon, Trevor; Prakken, Henry; Sartor, Giovanni

    A popular view of what Artificial Intelligence can do for lawyers is that it can do no more than deduce the consequences from a precisely stated set of facts and legal rules. This immediately makes many lawyers sceptical about the usefulness of such systems: this mechanical approach seems to leave out most of what is important in legal reasoning. A case does not appear as a set of facts, but rather as a story told by a client. For example, a man may come to his lawyer saying that he had developed an innovative product while working for Company A. Now Company B has made him an offer of a job, to develop a similar product for them. Can he do this? The lawyer firstly must interpret this story, in the context, so that it can be made to fit the framework of applicable law. Several interpretations may be possible. In our example it could be seen as being governed by his contract of employment, or as an issue in Trade Secrets law.

  4. Security: a supranational legal asset

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Monteiro Guedes Valente

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of security as a manysided, multifunctional and multilevel regulation topology which requires its several actors to view legal assets from a polygonal perspective worthy of legal protection from local to global and from global to local space. The concept of security as a supranational legal asset requires criminal legislation which defines the principles of criminal policy and the intervention of criminal Law, barriers to security trends and to the attempt to ...

  5. Did Legalized Abortion Lower Crime?

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between the legalization of abortion and subsequent decreases in crime. In a current study, researchers estimate that the legalization of abortion explains over half of the recent decline in national crime rates. The association is identified by correlating changes in crime with changes in the abortion ratio weighted by the proportion of the criminal population exposed to legalized abortion. In this paper, I use an alternative identification strategy. I an...

  6. Legal uncertainty and contractual innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Yaron Leitner

    2005-01-01

    Although innovative contracts are important for economic growth, when firms face uncertainty as to whether contracts will be enforced, they may choose not to innovate. Legal uncertainty can arise if a judge interprets the terms of a contract in a way that is antithetical to the intentions of the parties to the contract. Or sometimes a judge may understand the contract but overrule it for other reasons. How does legal uncertainty affect firms’ decisions to innovate? In “Legal Uncertainty and C...

  7. Breast cancer. Selected legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynstra, N A

    1994-07-01

    Several legal and ethical issues may arise during the course of screening for and diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. Among the most active legal areas are reimbursement for therapies deemed experimental by certain insurance companies, such as high dose chemotherapy/autologous bone marrow transplantation (HDCT/ABMT) and off-label drug use; these reimbursement issues are discussed. Legal issues in mammography screening and insurance coverage and legal issues relative to informed consent in breast cancer treatment also are discussed. PMID:8004625

  8. [Legal basics in palliative care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putz, Wolfgang

    2016-03-01

    The German legal framework concerning end of life decisions is based on two pillars: the medical standards and the patient's autonomy. Every medical treatment, including life-saving and palliative measures, requires medical indication and, crucially, the patient's consent. Without the patient's consent even medically indicated treatment is prohibited.In other cases, complying with the patient's wishes, doctors have to treat symptoms the best they can. This includes palliative sedation accepting that the indicated medication may shorten life.It is prohibited to actively kill a patient to shorten his suffering. Assisting a suicide is only permitted if the suicide decision is made freely and on the patient's own responsibility. Businesslike suicide assistance is prohibited. PMID:26983108

  9. The Influence of Lawyers, Legal Language and Legal Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharf, James C.

    1976-01-01

    Attempts to summarize the impact that lawyers, legal language and legal thinking have had on the contemporary practice of industrial psychology; clarifies what for an increasing number of psychologists has become the very trying experience of a Title VII court procedding. (Author/RK)

  10. Legalized abortion in Czechoslovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidovsky, J; Zwinger, A

    1972-01-01

    A law legalizing abortion was passed nearly 20 years ago in Czechosl ovakia. The law aimed to give women the freedom to decide for themselves whether they want to be pregnant and to decrease the dangers of illegal abortion. The law resulted in a decreased number of abortions and of complications and deaths associated with abortion. Fertility in the country also declined. In 1968 there were more abortions than live births in the country. Since 1957, the law has been modified. The law still aims to prevent the birth of defective children and to protect the life and health of mothers. Each application for abortion is now examined on its own merits. Favorable economic circumstances, prolife social policies adopted by the government, and the new stricter interpretation of the abortion law have resulted in a r ising birthrate since 1969. Contraception is still stressed as preferab le to abortion. PMID:12256872

  11. The legal dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karsten

    Plain language changes in the municipality of Stevns In 2014 the municipality of Stevns in Denmark carried out a pilot project to initiate a plain language initiative covering the entire municipality. The pilot project involved a small section of Social Services and dealt with the reformulation...... of a series of letters. The group consisted of the project leader, the section’s head, and five staff members. The staff members went through the letters that they send out to citizens in order to edit them to plain language principles. I followed the process from beginning to end by observing meetings...... language changes aimed at. What to learn from the presentation: •How to design a plain language project •How to include legal advice in a plain language project •How to design a study of plain language changes...

  12. Regulatory and legal issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter focuses on the legal issues relating to the derivatives market in the USA, and analyses the Commodity Futures Trading Commission's (CFTCs) information on swaps and hybrid instruments. The law and regulation in the USA is examined and the jurisdictional reach of the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), CFTC, and the Commodity Exchange Act (CEA) is described. The forward contract exclusion and the case of Transnor (Bermuda) Ltd. versus BP North America Petroleum, state laws, swap policy statement issues by the CFTC, the Futures Trading Practices Act of 1992, swaps exemptions, the exemption of hybrid instruments from the CEA, and energy contract exemption are discussed. Enforceability, derivatives, and issues before regulators are considered

  13. Legal and actual central bank independence

    OpenAIRE

    Artha, I.K.D.S.; J. de Haan

    2010-01-01

    Indicators of central bank independence (CBI) based on the interpretation central bank laws in place may not capture the actual independence of the central bank. This paper develops an indicator of actual independence of the Bank Indonesia (BI), the central bank of Indonesia, for the period 1953-2008 and compares it with a new legal CBI indicator based on Cukierman (1992). The indicator of actual independence captures institutional and economic factors that affect CBI. We find that before 199...

  14. 75 FR 3893 - Legal Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Legal Processes ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The... United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO). The rules for these legal processes may be found under 37 CFR Part 104, which outlines procedures for service of process, demands for employee testimony...

  15. 78 FR 14079 - Legal Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office Legal Processes ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request... Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO). The rules for these legal processes may be found under 37 CFR Part 104, which outlines procedures for service of process, demands for employee testimony and...

  16. Studying Legal Cultures and Encounters?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Hanne

    This article discusses the cultural and other turns in relation to legal culture and situates Western legal culture in context. It deals with concepts and their relations to trends and fashions and introduces methodological reflections such as use of interdisciplinary methods, personal experience...... and looks at the overlapping roles of authors as activists, teachers, communicators etc....

  17. Legal Aspects of the Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrull, Alexandre Lopez; Oppenheim, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to legal aspects of the Web: copyright; domain names and trademarks; linking, framing, caching, and spamdexing; patents; pornography and censorship on the Internet; defamation; liability; conflict of laws and jurisdiction; legal deposit; and spam, i.e., unsolicited mails.…

  18. Legal Language, on the Fly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Peter

    2006-01-01

    US federal, state, and municipal courts are facing a severe shortage of qualified interpreters as the non-English-speaking population in the country soars. Virginia Benmaman, a professor of Hispanic studies and legal interpretation advocate, runs a bilingual legal interpretation program at the College of Charleston that helps students tackle the…

  19. Legal risk management in shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siig, Kristina

    The book discusses the most typical legal challenges met in the chartering, broker, agent or port management part of the shipping industry. It discusses these issues in both English and Scandinavian law and gives indications on how to best ensure your legal risk management in these parts of the...

  20. Legal Quality, Inequality, and Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    Previous findings suggest that income inequality leads to lower legal quality. This paper argues that voters' tolerance of inequality exerts an additional influence. Empirical findings suggest that inequality leads to lower legal quality due to its effect on trust while the tolerance of inequality...

  1. Legal Quality, Inequality, and Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2004-01-01

    Previous findings suggest that income inequality leads to lower legal quality. This paper argues that voters' tolerance of inequality exerts an additional influence. Empirical findings suggest that inequality leads to lower legal quality due to its effect on trust while the tolerance of inequality...

  2. Tuberculosis: medico-legal aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetrugno, G; De-Giorgio, F; D'Alessandro, F; Scafetta, I; Berloco, F; Buonsenso, D; Abbate, F; Scalise, G; Pascali, V L; Valentini, P

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a diffusive infectious disease whose typical behaviour differentiates it from other infectious diseases spread by human-to-human transmission (flu, chicken pox, cholera, etc.) that follow a classic epidemic pattern. Indeed, in the presence of a known source of Koch bacilli that is capable of spreading the bacteria by air, not all exposed individuals inhale the bacteria, not all those who inhale them absorb them, not all those who absorb the bacteria are unable to eliminate them, not all who are able to eliminate them do so using delayed hypersensitivity, not all those who react with delayed hypersensitivity suffer lasting tissue damage (among other things, minor), not all who suffer tissue damage have anatomical sequelae, and not all those who have anatomical sequelae, however minimal, become carriers of bacilli in the latent period. The vast majority (90-95%) of the latter - which are in any case a portion, not the totality of those exposed - remain asymptomatic throughout their lives and never develop active tuberculosis. Based on these biological characteristics and the legal concepts of "epidemic" and "disease," it becomes highly problematic, if not impossible, to assert both that tuberculosis can cause events of sufficient magnitude to be associated with the crime of "epidemic," and that the mere diagnosis of a latent tuberculosis infection is sufficient to assume the presence of an illness legally prosecutable in criminal proceedings or a disability prosecutable in civil proceedings. Furthermore, clinically apparent tuberculosis is a temporarily-and in some cases permanently-disabling condition, and in certain work environments, even with the difficulties caused by the lack of available effective diagnostic tools and the insidious behaviour of the disease in the early stages, targeted monitoring to identify other persons who may become ill is appropriate. PMID:24804006

  3. TUBERCULOSIS: MEDICO-LEGAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Vetrugno

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is a diffusive infectious disease whose typical behavior differentiates it from other infectious diseases spread by human-to-human transmission (flu, chicken pox, cholera, etc. which follow a classically epidemic pattern. Indeed, in the presence of a known source of Koch bacilli capable of spreading them by air, not all exposed individuals inhale the bacteria, not all those who inhale them absorb them, not all those who absorb them are unable to eliminate them, not all who are able to eliminate them do so using delayed hypersensitivity, not all those who react with delayed hypersensitivity suffer lasting tissue damage (among other things, minor, not all who suffer tissue damage have anatomical sequelae, not all those who have anatomical sequelae, however minimal, become carriers of bacilli in the latent period. The vast majority (90-95% of the latter – which are in any case a portion, not the totality of those exposed – remain asymptomatic throughout their lives and never develop active tuberculosis. Based on these biological characteristics and the legal concepts of “epidemic” and “disease,” it becomes highly problematic, if not impossible, to assert both that tuberculosis can cause events of sufficient magnitude to be associated with the crime of “epidemic,” and that the mere diagnosis of a latent tuberculosis infection is sufficient to assume the presence of an illness legally prosecutable in criminal proceedings or a disability prosecutable in civil proceedings. Further, clinically apparent tuberculosis is a temporarily—in some cases permanently—disabling condition, and in certain work environments, even with the difficulties caused by the lack of available effective diagnostic tools and the insidious behavior of the disease in the early stages, it appears appropriate to engage in targeted monitoring, also for the early identification of persons who may become ill.

  4. AGILE: a methodology for Advanced Governance of Information services through Legal Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Boer; G. Sileno

    2013-01-01

    To address agility in public administration, the Agile project developed a reference knowledge acquisition infrastructure for legal knowledge, based on a dynamic and design-oriented conceptualization of the legal system. The main objective of the project was to reframe legal knowledge as a knowledge

  5. 20 CFR 261.3 - Change of legal interpretation or administrative ruling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT ADMINISTRATIVE FINALITY § 261.3 Change of legal interpretation or administrative ruling. A change of legal interpretation or administrative ruling upon which a decision is based does not... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Change of legal interpretation...

  6. 20 CFR 349.3 - Change of legal interpretation or administrative ruling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Change of legal interpretation or... BENEFITS § 349.3 Change of legal interpretation or administrative ruling. A change of legal interpretation or administrative ruling upon which a decision is based does not render a decision erroneous and...

  7. "Legal highs" - new players in the old drama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawilska, Jolanta B

    2011-06-01

    Recently, a new class of "designer drugs" has emerged on the drug use market, known as "legal highs" or "herbal highs". They include a wide range of products, from natural plant-originated substances to synthetic compounds, that can be purchased both online and from high street retailers. "Legal highs" mimic psychoactive effects of illicit drugs of abuse. However, they are claimed to consist of compounds that are legal to sell, possess and use. Based on the spectrum of their actions on the cognitive processes, mood, and behavior "legal highs" can be classified into three basic categories: amphetamine- and ecstasy-like psychostimulants, hallucinogens, and synthetic cannabinoids ("spice"). This review surveys the current state of knowledge regarding the pharmacological properties of "legal highs". It also addresses the negative consequences of using these products. PMID:21711229

  8. Designing a controlled natural language for the representation of legal norms

    OpenAIRE

    Höfler, Stefan; Bünzli, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    Controlled Legal German (CLG) is a controlled natural language being developed for the representation of legal norms contained in Swiss statutes and regulations. This paper discusses the main design requirements CLG faces and the strategies it applies to meet them. CLG aims at providing representations for legal norms that are both formal and can be easily understood and veried by legal experts. It must combine an unambiguous semantics based on FOL and deontic concepts with close syntactic pr...

  9. Confidence in social world as a factor of legal consciousness in teenagers

    OpenAIRE

    Dostovalov S.G.

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with processes of legal awareness formation in teens. A developed personal sense of legal awareness is defined as a necessary condition for the formation of civil society. We demonstrate the relationship between personal legal awareness and the phenomenon of trust, and show the significance of studying trust in adolescents. Based on the study results, we determine the role of trust in social world as one of the major factors influencing the formation of the legal awareness i...

  10. End of FY10 report - used fuel disposition technical bases and lessons learned : legal and regulatory framework for high-level waste disposition in the United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiner, Ruth F.; Blink, James A. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA); Rechard, Robert Paul; Perry, Frank (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Jenkins-Smith, Hank C. (University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK); Carter, Joe (Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, Aiken, SC); Nutt, Mark (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Cotton, Tom (Complex Systems Group, Washington DC)

    2010-09-01

    This report examines the current policy, legal, and regulatory framework pertaining to used nuclear fuel and high level waste management in the United States. The goal is to identify potential changes that if made could add flexibility and possibly improve the chances of successfully implementing technical aspects of a nuclear waste policy. Experience suggests that the regulatory framework should be established prior to initiating future repository development. Concerning specifics of the regulatory framework, reasonable expectation as the standard of proof was successfully implemented and could be retained in the future; yet, the current classification system for radioactive waste, including hazardous constituents, warrants reexamination. Whether or not consideration of multiple sites are considered simultaneously in the future, inclusion of mechanisms such as deliberate use of performance assessment to manage site characterization would be wise. Because of experience gained here and abroad, diversity of geologic media is not particularly necessary as a criterion in site selection guidelines for multiple sites. Stepwise development of the repository program that includes flexibility also warrants serious consideration. Furthermore, integration of the waste management system from storage, transportation, and disposition, should be examined and would be facilitated by integration of the legal and regulatory framework. Finally, in order to enhance acceptability of future repository development, the national policy should be cognizant of those policy and technical attributes that enhance initial acceptance, and those policy and technical attributes that maintain and broaden credibility.

  11. Avaliação cognitiva: leitura, escrita e habilidades relacionadas Evaluación cognitiva: lectura, escritura y capacidades relacionadas Cognitive evaluation: reading, writing and related abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monilly Ramos Araujo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa teve como objetivo a análise dos múltiplos domínios envolvidos na leitura e escrita de crianças e adolescentes. Foram investigados 162 sujeitos, de ambos os sexos, com idades variando entre 08 e 16 anos, cursando a 2ª, 3ª e 4ª séries do Ensino Fundamental da rede pública de uma cidade do interior do Nordeste. O desempenho cognitivo das crianças foi analisado através de atividades que envolviam leitura e ditado de palavras e de pseudopalavras, consciência fonológica, processamento auditivo e visual e velocidade de processamento. Os resultados revelaram atraso no desenvolvimento das habilidades avaliadas, com imprecisão e distorções no uso das rotas fonológica e lexical. Conclui-se que é preciso delinear projetos de intervenção visando desenvolver as habilidades de consciência fonológica, processamento auditivo e velocidade de processamento em crianças nas fases iniciais da aquisição da leitura e escrita.La investigación tuvo como objetivo el análisis de los múltiples dominios envueltos en la lectura y escritura de niños y adolescentes. Se analizaron 162 sujetos, de ambos sexos, con edad entre 08 y 16 años, estudiando en 2ª, 3ª y 4ª series de la escuela primaria de la red pública de una ciudad en el interior del noreste. El rendimiento cognitivo de los niños se examinó a través de actividades relacionadas con lectura y dictado de palabras y pseudopalabras, conciencia fonológica, visual y auditiva y velocidad de procesamiento. Los resultados revelaron retraso en el desarrollo de las competencias evaluadas, con inexactitud y distorsiones en el uso de las rutas fonológica y lexical. Se deduce que es necesario esbozar proyectos de mediación para el desarrollo de las capacidades de conciencia fonológica, procesamiento auditivo y velocidad de procesamiento en niños en las primeras etapas de la adquisición de la lectura y escritura.Multiple domains involved in children and young people's reading and

  12. Concept Of The Legal System Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr E. Zhigockiy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present article an attempt to provide a theoretical analysis of the legal system, and to consider the law as one of the most complicated social phenomena was made. Author notes, that the contradictions prevailing in public practice are unpredictable. Doctrines of law are varied in their approaches, scores and results, but based on a common foundation: the law for people always acted as a certain order in a society, where the differences begin. Author draws attention to the fact, that the state and the law ensure the order in society by removing contradictions and achieving social compromises. The legal reality is divided into certain groups of legal systems, there is a classification. If we are relying on the identification of groups of the same order, there is the theoretical generality as the level of the theory of law on the legal systems basis. Analysis of the political and legal systems will draw attention to the democratic and totalitarian regimes. Totalitarian regimes are characterized by law as means of violence, the means of coercion and suppression. The majority of democratic regimes are characterized by the use of law as a means of social harmony and social compromise. In conclusion, author underlines, that the theory of law can be made not only at the level of each country. This level is a necessary basis for the theory, but not its completion. Based on the individual characteristics of each country's law, that is descended from the general and particular to an individual, the theory can and should continue to make the way back from the individual to the particular and the general.

  13. Legal Language in Intercultural Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Janulevičienė

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the considerable role of legal translation in intercultural communication. Effective intercultural communication requires sufficient language skills and also extensive knowledge of the cultures involved, which encompass official social behaviour norms, enshrined in the corresponding legal systems. The basic legal terms often pose substantial difficulties even for experienced translators and, hence, to communication, because these terms nominate concepts that are inherently linked with culture, moral values and legal tradition of a given country. In intercultural communication the most widely used legal English is permeated by Anglo-Saxon legal system and concepts which have little or no equivalents in Romano-Germanic or other continental law countries. The authors present a comparative analysis of the translation strategies employed by the compilers of two main English-Lithuanian law dictionaries (V. Bitinaitė „Mokomasis anglų-lietuvių kalbų teisės terminų žodynas“ and O. Armalytė, L. Pažūsis. „Anglų-lietuvių kalbų teisės žodynas“ in translation of the English-Welsh law terms defining abstract common law terms, some specific English-Welsh legal professions and the English-Welsh court names. The findings of the analysis reveal the difficulties which the dictionary compilers have to cope with when translating culture-bound terms and the strategies chosen by them for problematic translations. The research also highlights the role of the legal language translator as the key figure in facilitating different cultural background comprehension of the legal terms and, what is even more important, specific aspects of legal systems; the latter being necessary for efficacious intercultural cooperation.

  14. Legality of Tawarruq in Islamic Finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Yuhanis Bt Ismon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective – Islamic finance has been established as an alternative to the conventional banking system which is made up component not permitted under Shariah. Tawarruq is one of the Islamic finance products which commonly used in Islamic banks. This research assesses two important areas which include the principle of Tawarruq in Fiqh perspective and the practical aspect of such principle in Islamic banks in Malaysia.Method – The method used for this research is comparative analysis.Result – This research begins to explore the different views of the proponent and opponents toward the legality of Tawarruq in Fiqh . Instead of considering the basic condition of the valid sale, the other aspect has to be pondered by the contemporary scholars to render Tawarruq is valid sale according to Shariah. The legality of Tawarruq has been debate by some scholars. Due to that, there are different resolution and rulings from Islamic countries on legality of of Tawarruq . In the practical aspect, Tawarruq has been used in Malaysia by Bursa Malaysia Suq Al Sila' as a trading platform and it uses Crude Palm Oil (CPO as the commodity in Tawarruq transaction. While, in the Middle East, it uses London Metal Exchange (LME in dealing with commodity transaction through Tawarruq principle.Conclusion – Based on the legal argument on the permissibility of Tawarruq , it can be summarized that Tawarruq is permissible but subject to certain condition. Provided that genuine Tawarruq is permissible than organized Tawarruq in Tawarruq transaction.Keywords: Tawarruq, Murabahah

  15. Adaptaciones musculares relacionadas a áreas corporales que participan activamente en el vuelo de Anhima cornuta (Aves: Anseriformes, Anhimidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antonio Manzanares

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available La forma y correspondencia entre la anatomía muscular y ósea revela en gran medida el hábito locomotor de cualquier ave. Las especies pertenecientes a la Familia Anhimidae son relevantes dentro de las Aves, debido a las adaptaciones óseas (y por lo tanto, musculares que presentan, como la pérdida de procesos uncinados, el desarrollo de espolones metarcapales, la extrema neumatización y el notable desarrollo de forámenes. Se analizaron anatómicamente y numéricamente (superficie de origen e inserción, longitud en reposo y masa los componentes musculares relacionados a las zonas de la columna vertebral, tronco, miembros y cinturas de tres ejemplares de Anhima cornutade distintos sexos y se compararon con lo estudiado en 4 ejemplares de especies relacionadas (Dendrocygna bicolory Dendrocygna viduata, Anatidae. El estudio reveló que en Anhima existe un gran desarrollo de los músculos intercostales e intervertebrales (torácicos y lumbares, evidenciando una adaptación a la ausencia de procesos uncinados. En Anhimaexisten fascículos proporcionalmente menos pesados y de menor tamaño que en Dendrocygna, indicando morfológicamente la ocurrencia de un vuelo menos desarrollado en el primero. Algunos tendones y fibras musculares metacarpales cuya inserción ocurre en el primer dígito en Dendrocygna, en Anhimase insertan en la base de los espolones proximal y distal, demostrando el poco control del vuelo en Anhima. La musculatura de los miembros posteriores en Anhimaes mucho más desarrollada, tanto en tamaño, como en masa proporcional, evidenciando una gran actividad en esta zona en la propulsión del vuelo y en hábitos terrestres

  16. Legal Aspects of Radioactive Waste Management: Relevant International Legal Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The responsible use of nuclear technology requires the safe and environmentally sound management of radioactive waste, for which countries need to have stringent technical, administrative and legal measures in place. The legal aspects of radioactive waste management can be found in a wide variety of legally binding and non-binding international instruments. This overview focuses on the most relevant ones, in particular those on nuclear safety, security, safeguards and civil liability for nuclear damage. It also identifies relevant regional instruments concerning environmental matters, in particular, with regard to strategic environmental assessments (SEAs), environmental impact assessments (EIAs), public access to information and participation in decision-making, as well as access to justice

  17. CREENCIAS EN SALUD EN MUJERES UNIVERSITARIAS RELACIONADAS CON LA TOMA DE CITOLOGÍA VAGINAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Restrepo Forero

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación se orientó al estudio de la relación existente entre las variables psicosociales propuestas por el Modelo de Creencias en Salud y la realización de la citología vaginal por parte de una muestra de mujeres universitarias entre los 18 y 27 años. En la primera fase del estudio se construyó una batería de instrumentos con el fin de evaluar las diferentes variables de interés: sociodemográficas, psicosociales, de riesgo, y relacionadas con la conducta saludable; en la segunda fase se realizó un estudio descriptivo correlacional exploratorio con una muestra de 110 mujeres universitarias. Se observaron diferentes asociaciones entre las variables evaluadas y la realización de la citología vaginal, en donde las variables barreras percibidas, motivación para la salud y señales para la acción, mostraron asociaciones importantes con la realización y mantenimiento de dicha conducta saludable.

  18. The Relationship between the Law, Legal Norm, Legal Order and Normativity in Postmodern Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona DUMINICĂ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that the existence of people in society cannot happen at random, but be organized. In one way or another, all human activities are generally subject to the law, meaning that they cannot unfold in an unorganized manner or outside of a certain social order without being subject to rules and principles promoted either by the group or by society. Based on these considerations, this article aims to discuss the particularities of the relationship between law, legal norms, order legal and normativity in postmodern society.

  19. Documents and legal texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section treats of the following Documents and legal texts: 1 - Canada: Nuclear Liability and Compensation Act (An Act respecting civil liability and compensation for damage in case of a nuclear incident, repealing the Nuclear Liability Act and making consequential amendments to other acts); 2 - Japan: Act on Compensation for Nuclear Damage (The purpose of this act is to protect persons suffering from nuclear damage and to contribute to the sound development of the nuclear industry by establishing a basic system regarding compensation in case of nuclear damage caused by reactor operation etc.); Act on Indemnity Agreements for Compensation of Nuclear Damage; 3 - Slovak Republic: Act on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage and on its Financial Coverage and on Changes and Amendments to Certain Laws (This Act regulates: a) The civil liability for nuclear damage incurred in the causation of a nuclear incident, b) The scope of powers of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (hereinafter only as the 'Authority') in relation to the application of this Act, c) The competence of the National Bank of Slovakia in relation to the supervised financial market entities in the financial coverage of liability for nuclear damage; and d) The penalties for violation of this Act)

  20. Legalized Abortion in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Thomas M.

    1967-01-01

    The enactment of the Eugenic Protection Act in Japan was followed by many changes. The population explosion was stemmed, the birth rate was halved, and while the marriage rate remained steady the divorce rate declined. The annual total of abortions increased until 1955 and then slowly declined. The highest incidence of abortions in families is in the 30 to 34 age group when there are four children in the family. As elsewhere abortion in advanced stages of pregnancy is associated with high morbidity and mortality. There is little consensus as to the number of criminal abortions. Reasons for criminal abortions can be found in the legal restrictions concerning abortion: Licensing of the abortionist, certification of hospitals, taxation of operations and the requirement that abortion be reported. Other factors are price competition and the patient's desire for secrecy. Contraception is relatively ineffective as a birth control method in Japan. Oral contraceptives are not yet government approved. In 1958 alone 1.1 per cent of married women were sterilized and the incidence of sterilization was increasing. PMID:6062283

  1. The legal dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karsten

    Plain language changes in the municipality of Stevns In 2014 the municipality of Stevns in Denmark carried out a pilot project to initiate a plain language initiative covering the entire municipality. The pilot project involved a small section of Social Services and dealt with the reformulation o...... language changes aimed at. What to learn from the presentation: •How to design a plain language project •How to include legal advice in a plain language project •How to design a study of plain language changes......Plain language changes in the municipality of Stevns In 2014 the municipality of Stevns in Denmark carried out a pilot project to initiate a plain language initiative covering the entire municipality. The pilot project involved a small section of Social Services and dealt with the reformulation...... of a series of letters. The group consisted of the project leader, the section’s head, and five staff members. The staff members went through the letters that they send out to citizens in order to edit them to plain language principles. I followed the process from beginning to end by observing meetings...

  2. Legalized abortion in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, T M

    1967-10-01

    The enactment of the Eugenic Protection Act in Japan was followed by many changes. The population explosion was stemmed, the birth rate was halved, and while the marriage rate remained steady the divorce rate declined. The annual total of abortions increased until 1955 and then slowly declined. The highest incidence of abortions in families is in the 30 to 34 age group when there are four children in the family. As elsewhere abortion in advanced stages of pregnancy is associated with high morbidity and mortality. There is little consensus as to the number of criminal abortions. Reasons for criminal abortions can be found in the legal restrictions concerning abortion: Licensing of the abortionist, certification of hospitals, taxation of operations and the requirement that abortion be reported. Other factors are price competition and the patient's desire for secrecy. Contraception is relatively ineffective as a birth control method in Japan. Oral contraceptives are not yet government approved. In 1958 alone 1.1 per cent of married women were sterilized and the incidence of sterilization was increasing. PMID:6062283

  3. Access to legal abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    Countries are grouped by the nature and extent of access to legal abortion. The categories include abortion on demand, for social reasons, for health reasons, for rape or incest or to save a mother's life, and only to save a mother's life. Abortion on demand is available for about 40% of the world's population and may have restrictions, such as parental consent or approval of state committees or physicians. There are 22 countries in Europe, 12 in the former Soviet Union, four in Asia, four in the Americas, one in the Middle East (Turkey), and one in Africa (Tunisia) which provide access to early abortion on demand. Abortion for social and economic reasons is available to 21% of the world's population in five countries in Asia, three in Europe (Great Britain, Finland, and Hungary), and one in Africa (Zambia). Abortion for health reasons is available to 16% of the world's population located in 21 countries in Africa, eight in the Americas, seven in Asia, five in Europe, and four in the Middle East. Laws governing about 5% of the world's population permit abortion only in the case of rape, incest, or when a mother's life is in danger (Brazil, Mexico, and Sudan). 18% of the world's population is covered by laws which permit an abortion only when a mother's life is in danger; this includes 19 countries in Africa, 11 in the Americas, nine in Asia, seven in the Middle East, and one in Europe (Ireland). PMID:12287145

  4. What are the boundaries of legal guardianship in Alzheimer’s disease? An evidence-based update in the context of the Brazilian Civil Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe K. Sudo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Civil Code, which came into force in 2002, established a functional criterion for guardianship proceedings and introduced the concept of “limited guardianship,” applied to cases in which incapacity to exercise civil rights is partial. With population aging and the growth in the number of older people with cognitive impairments, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD, the need to invoke legal remedies against elder abuse increased; however, difficulties in assessing capacity still lead to a majority of decisions in favor of plenary guardianship. The present article compiled data on capacity in AD subjects. The varying degrees of decision-making impairment at different stages of AD might be compatible with limited guardianship in milder cases of the disease.

  5. What are the boundaries of legal guardianship in Alzheimer's disease? An evidence-based update in the context of the Brazilian Civil Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudo, Felipe K; Salles, Ana C; de Santiago, Clarisse R

    2016-03-01

    The Brazilian Civil Code, which came into force in 2002, established a functional criterion for guardianship proceedings and introduced the concept of "limited guardianship," applied to cases in which incapacity to exercise civil rights is partial. With population aging and the growth in the number of older people with cognitive impairments, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), the need to invoke legal remedies against elder abuse increased; however, difficulties in assessing capacity still lead to a majority of decisions in favor of plenary guardianship. The present article compiled data on capacity in AD subjects. The varying degrees of decision-making impairment at different stages of AD might be compatible with limited guardianship in milder cases of the disease. PMID:27111701

  6. A Software Tool for Legal Drafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Gorín

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Although many attempts at automated aids for legal drafting have been made, they were based on the construction of a new tool, completely from scratch. This is at least curious, considering that a strong parallelism can be established between a normative document and a software specification: both describe what an entity should or should not do, can or cannot do. In this article we compare normative documents and software specifications to find out their similarities and differences. The comparison shows that there are distinctive particularities, but they are restricted to a very specific subclass of normative propositions. The rest, we postulate, can be dealt with software tools. For such an enterprise the FormaLex tool set was devised: an LTL-based language and companion tools that utilize model checking to find out normative incoherences in regulations, contracts and other legal documents. A feature-rich case study is analyzed with the presented tools.

  7. A Software Tool for Legal Drafting

    CERN Document Server

    Gorín, Daniel; Schapachnik, Fernando; 10.4204/EPTCS.68.7

    2011-01-01

    Although many attempts at automated aids for legal drafting have been made, they were based on the construction of a new tool, completely from scratch. This is at least curious, considering that a strong parallelism can be established between a normative document and a software specification: both describe what an entity should or should not do, can or cannot do. In this article we compare normative documents and software specifications to find out their similarities and differences. The comparison shows that there are distinctive particularities, but they are restricted to a very specific subclass of normative propositions. The rest, we postulate, can be dealt with software tools. For such an enterprise the \\FormaLex tool set was devised: an LTL-based language and companion tools that utilize model checking to find out normative incoherences in regulations, contracts and other legal documents. A feature-rich case study is analyzed with the presented tools.

  8. Attitudes to legalizing cannabis use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jenny; van Ours, Jan C; Grossman, Michael

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate the relationship between cannabis use and attitudes to legalizing the use of cannabis. Predictions from theory provide a means of learning about the roles of information, self interest and regret in explaining differences in attitudes to legalization between those who currently use, those who have used in the past and those who have never used. Our empirical investigation suggests that users have a greater awareness of cannabis not being as harmful as abstainers think it is. This may explain why individuals are more inclined to be in favor of legalizing cannabis once they have used it themselves. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27037958

  9. A Software Tool for Legal Drafting

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Gorín; Sergio Mera; Fernando Schapachnik

    2011-01-01

    Although many attempts at automated aids for legal drafting have been made, they were based on the construction of a new tool, completely from scratch. This is at least curious, considering that a strong parallelism can be established between a normative document and a software specification: both describe what an entity should or should not do, can or cannot do. In this article we compare normative documents and software specifications to find out their similarities and differences. The comp...

  10. Language skills and earnings among legalized aliens

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Paul W.; Chiswick, Barry R.

    1999-01-01

    This paper uses the data on males and females from the 1989 Legalized Population Survey (LPS), a sample of aliens granted amnesty under 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act, to analyse English language proficiency and earnings. We use a model of English language proficiency that is based on economic incentives, exposure and efficiency variables that measure the costs and benefits of aquiring English language skills. Consistent with the model, in this sample of former illegal aliens, Englis...

  11. HIV, drugs and the legal environment

    OpenAIRE

    Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Beletsky, Leo; Kerr, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    A large body of scientific evidence indicates that policies based solely on law enforcement without taking into account public health and human rights considerations increase the health risks of people who inject drugs (PWIDs) and their communities. Although formal laws are an important component of the legal environment supporting harm reduction, it is the enforcement of the law that affects PWIDs' behavior and attitudes most acutely. This commentary focuses primarily on drug policies and po...

  12. Legal Dilemmas in Fighting Asymmetrical Conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pnina Sharvit Baruch

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available What legal rules apply to armed confrontations against non-state elements in areas populated by civilians? What rules apply when the enemy does not honor the basic laws of warfare - does not distinguish itself from the local population, and even uses it for shelter and as a base of operations? This essay, which presents my position on the issue, refers to such confrontations as "asymmetrical conflicts."

  13. Complicações locais na pele, relacionadas à aplicação de insulina Complicaciones locales en la piel relacionadas a la aplicación de insulina Skin site complications related to insulin application

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Gasparelli Camata

    2003-01-01

    A administração de insulina constitui um dos aspectos importantes na educação em diabetes. Este estudo enfoca as complicações locais na pele, relacionadas à aplicação de insulina. Foram entrevistados 51 portadores de diabetes mellitus, em uma instituição particular, no interior do Estado de São Paulo. Os resultados apontam que o hematoma foi a complicação mais freqüente e está relacionada, principalmente, à técnica incorreta de aplicação. Conclui-se que os profissionais de saúde precisam traç...

  14. Is linguistic information relevant for the classification of legal texts?

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Teresa; Quaresma, Paulo

    2005-01-01

    Text classification is an important task in the legal domain. In fact, most of the legal information is stored as text in a quite unstructured format and it is important to be able to automatically classify these texts into a predefined set of concepts. Support Vector Machines (SVM), a machine learning al- gorithm, has shown to be a good classifier for text bases [Joachims, 2002]. In this paper, SVMs are applied to the classification of European Portuguese legal texts – the Por- tuguese At...

  15. Legal abortion and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietze, C

    1984-01-01

    Over 15 million abortions have been performed in the US since the process of abortion legalization began in 1967. Consequences of legalization have included a marked reduction of pregnancy-related mortality and the prevention in many cases of the birth of infants with major physical or mental defects. Prenatal diagnosis, backed up by selective abortion, has made procreation a possibility for many couples who might otherwise avoid childbearing. However, the number of abortions performed on the basis of prenatal diagnosis remains small, comprising only about .01% of all legal abortions. In recent months, the pro-choice movement in the US has been handed 2 important victories: the US Supreme Court reaffirmed the 1973 decision legalizing abortion and the US Senate defeated a constitutional amendment intended to reverse this decision. As a result of these victories, contributions to pro-choice groups have declined. Continued vigilance is needed to protect these victories. PMID:12267089

  16. Security: a supranational legal asset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Monteiro Guedes Valente

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the concept of security as a manysided, multifunctional and multilevel regulation topology which requires its several actors to view legal assets from a polygonal perspective worthy of legal protection from local to global and from global to local space. The concept of security as a supranational legal asset requires criminal legislation which defines the principles of criminal policy and the intervention of criminal Law, barriers to security trends and to the attempt to enhance the principle of presumed hazard as a basis for criminal intervention. We contend that the obstacle to "human self-objectification" in the global polygon is a (new world legal order as humanity's future balance.

  17. Legal Translation Dictionaries for Learners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    Legal translation dictionaries for learners are reference tools that can help users with domain-specific discourse in a foreign language. The most common type is the bilingual law dictionary covering several or all the sub-fields within the general field of law. However, such law dictionaries tend...... strategies. When learners translate legal texts into a foreign language, it is important that their dictionaries can help them produce texts that conform to the expected style. This style requirement may be met by producing translations that use natural and idiomatic language, and really crafted dictionaries...... may provide the help needed. Beginners and intermediate learners are unlikely to be familiar with the syntactic structures used in legal language and which distinguish it from LGP and other LSPs, especially those structures that are unusual and complex. The optimal legal translation dictionary...

  18. Federal Aviation Administration Legal Interpretations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Legal Interpretations and the Chief Counsel's opinions are now available at this site. Your may choose to search by year or by text search. Please note that not all...

  19. On the perfection of the legal supervision system of equity-based crowdfunding in China%论我国股权众筹法律监管制度的完善

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾要波

    2016-01-01

    The equity-based crowdfunding is a relatively innovative technology combining financing and the In-ternet technology , whose purpose is to facilitate the fund raising of those emergent , fledgling and innovative en-terprises .The relevant issues such as legal supervision , risk control have prompted leading countries in equity -based crowdfunding to introduce regulations and laws .However , there has been no regulations as to the legality of equity-based crowdfunding and its risk control .Based on the actual circumstances in our country and compa-ring the development and supervision of equity -based crowdfunding abroad and at home , this paper proposes that the supervision on the platforms of transaction and investors should be gradually strengthened .%股权众筹是金融与互联网融合的创新技术,其宗旨是帮助那些成长型、初创型、创新型企业尽快完成低成本的融资。股权众筹涉及的法律监管、风险控制问题使世界各个股权众筹较发达的国家纷纷出台相关的管理法案或者法规。对于股权众筹是否合乎法律以及如何对其进行风险控制,我国目前尚无具体的规定。从我国股权众筹的实际发展情况入手,对比国外股权众筹发展及监管情况总结出中国应该根据国内股权众筹的实际情况逐步加强对交易平台、投资者等的相关监管。

  20. Legal Electronic Dictionary for Czech

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cvrček, František; Pala, K.; Rychlý, P.

    Istambul : European Language Resources Association (ELRA), 2012 - (Calzolari, N.; Choukri, K.; Declerck, T.), s. 283-287 ISBN 978-2-9517408-7-7. [The eight international conference on Language Resources and Evaluation. Istanbul (TR), 21.05.2012-27.05.2012] Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : legal dictionary * electronic database * Web interface Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences http://hdl.handle.net/11104/0217335

  1. Postponing the legal retirement age

    OpenAIRE

    Lacomba, Juan Antonio; Lagos, Francisco Miguel

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the reform of the pensionable age as an answer to the future financing problems of public pension systems. We use a two-staged model where, first, the government decides the redistribution level of the pension system and, secondly, individuals face a voting process on the legal retirement age. The results suggest that governments attempting to postpone the legal retirement age should increase the degree of intra-generational redistribution of the pension system in order to...

  2. THE POLITICS OF LEGAL REFORM

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    As a result of the emerging market crises of the last decade and a large body of academic research on the influence of investor protection in the development of capital markets and economic growth, there is a growing consensus that reforming the legal infrastructure supporting business should be an important component of reforms in many developing countries. But the consensus is unwieldy, as there are still many forces against reform and little agreement about what constitutes feasible legal ...

  3. Legal aspects of medical errors

    OpenAIRE

    Vučetić Čedomir S.; Vukašinović Zoran S.; Tulić Goran Dž.; Dulić Borivoje V.; Dimitrijević K.; Kalezić Nevena K.

    2011-01-01

    Healing people and medical care are together highly organized technological system with significant expert, ethical and legal regulative. Taking medical care is very sensitive area and it interfears deep into one’s integrity, so the law is necessary in this area as a regulator. The aim of work is to show medical errors from legal aspects and clinical practice. Errors, negligent conduct during the medical treatment and bad results of medical treatment are categories that can easily be sw...

  4. Critical Thinking and Legal Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Guido Pincione

    2009-01-01

    We often lack clear procedures for assessing statements and arguments advanced in everyday conversations, political campaigns, advertisements, and the other multifarious uses to which ordinary language can be put. Critical thinking is a method for evaluating arguments couched in ordinary, non-formal language. Legal education should foster this argumentative skill as an ability to assess the open-end variety of arguments that may arise in legal disputes. I will argue that the ability of critic...

  5. Legal aspects of purchasing contract

    OpenAIRE

    Roth, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    This bachelor’s thesis on the legal aspects of purchase contracts discusses theories of purchase contracts, and compares differences in purchase contract legal regulations from the perspective of the Civil Code and Commercial Code. Particular types of agreement are also described here, such as Contract for the Sale of an Enterprise, Hire Purchase Contract, and Barter Contract. The practical section also includes a questionnaire, whose respondents are both potential purchasers and those who ha...

  6. Legal geography: becoming spatial detectives

    OpenAIRE

    Layard, Antonia; Bennett, Luke

    2015-01-01

    Legal geography investigates the co-constitutive relationship of people, place and law. This essay provides an overview of how the law and geography cross disciplinary project emerged from a context of mutual curiosity, and explores how legal practice, in all its discretionary and rule-bound variety, co-produces places through an attentiveness to, and sometimes an apparent dismissal of, spatiality. The essay notes the formative importance of studies on power and inequality within urban govern...

  7. Calidad de vida relacionada con la salud en la enfermedad de Parkinson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Cano-de la Cuerda

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La enfermedad de Parkinson (EP es un trastorno neurológico, discapacitante y progresivo caracterizado por múltiples síntomas motores y no motores que contribuyen al deterioro en la calidad de vida del paciente. La diversidad de síntomas asociados a la enfermedad y su manejo afectan a la funcionalidad y las expectativas del individuo sobre su bienestar físico, social y mental, que son los componentes fundamentales de la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud (CVRS. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue identificar las principales dimensiones de la CVRS afectadas en una población con EP con un grado de afectación leve-moderado. Treinta y seis pacientes con EP completaron este estudio transversal. Se emplearon el estadio de Hoehn y Yarh, el Unified Parkinson's Disease Rate Scale, la escala de actividades de la vida diaria de Schwab y England y el Test Get Up & Go. La calidad de vida fue valorada con el EuroQoL-5D y con el cuestionario Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire-39 items. Las dimensiones del PDQ-39, excepto el dominio PDQ-39 Dolor, así como el cuestionario EuroQoL-5D se correlacionaron de manera significativa con la gravedad de la enfermedad. La CVRS se correlacionó con el estado funcional de los pacientes. Únicamente el dominio PDQ-39 Dolor se correlacionó con el riesgo de caídas. Nuestros resultados sugieren que la CVRS de los pacientes con EP, en un estado leve-moderado de afectación, está muy influenciada por la gravedad de la enfermedad y el estado funcional.

  8. Atividade fisica de idosos relacionada ao transporte e lazer, Maceio, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Raquel de Carvalho Mourao

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO : Analisar o nível de atividade física de idosos nos domínios do transporte e lazer e fatores associados. MÉTODOS : Estudo transversal com amostra populacional de 319 idosos em Maceió, AL, em 2009. O nível de atividade física relacionada ao transporte e ao lazer foi mensurado com aplicação do Questionário Internacional de Atividade Física, versão longa. As variáveis analisadas foram: idade, escolaridade, sexo, renda per capita e saúde percebida. Foram utilizadas análise descritiva e de regressão múltipla da razão de prevalência e teste de Fisher. RESULTADOS : Foram classificados insuficientemente ativos no transporte 87,5%, significativamente maior entre idosos com idades mais avançadas, com maior escolaridade e que se consideram insatisfeitos com a saúde física comparada. A prevalência dos idosos insuficientemente ativos no lazer foi de 76,2%, mais frequente nas mulheres, nos homens com idade avançada, nos idosos com menor renda per capita, nos que relataram estarem insatisfeitos com a saúde física comparada e a autopercepção da saúde mental. CONCLUSÕES : A prevalência de insuficientemente ativos foi elevada nos domínios transporte e lazer. Os fatores idade, sexo e renda devem ser considerados particularmente no lazer, a fim de garantir equidade no desenvolvimento de políticas de promoção da saúde e atividade física nessa população.

  9. Essence and classification of legal guarantees of creditors’ rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra M. Sil’chenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to conduct a comprehensive study of the concept of legal guarantees of creditorsrsquo rights and to identify some features of guarantees on the basis of the presented classification. Methods general scientific deduction comparative and system analysis formal logical method and special comparative legal and structuralfunctional methods. Results basing on the evaluation of different scientistsrsquo opinions the definition of the notion laquolegal guarantees of creditorsrsquo rightsraquo is given. Four classifications of legal guarantees of creditorsrsquo rights are proposed. Scientific novelty author39s definition of the notion laquolegal guarantees of creditorsrsquo rightsraquo is given. The essence of legal guarantees in general and legal rights of creditors in particular is defined. Classifications of legal guarantees of creditorsrsquo rights are given by the content and methods of implementation of creditorsrsquo rights guarantees by forms of providing guarantees to creditors general and special guarantees by the form of termination of legal personrsquos activity. The classifications are described in detail through examples. Practical value the results of this research can be used in scientificresearch activity. Theoretical conclusions formulated in the work can be used in the process of improving of the existing legislation and practice of its application.

  10. Lesão de nervo cutâneo antebraquial lateral relacionada à venipuntura: o que saber?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. Ramos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Justificativa e objetivos: a venipuntura é um dos procedimentos mais comuns na prática anestésica cotidiana. Embora geralmente inócuas, lesões de nervos periféricos com sequelas graves foram descritas após venipuntura. Apresentamos um caso de lesão de nervo cutâneo antebraquial lateral relacionada à venipuntura, juntamente com as informações de diagnóstico e prognóstico essenciais para a prática cotidiana. Relato de caso: paciente do sexo masculino, 27 anos, submetido à venipuntura de fossa antecubital direita, com uma agulha de calibre 20, para avaliação metabólica de rotina. O paciente sofreu uma dor aguda, tipo choque elétrico, que percorreu a face lateral do antebraço desde a fossa antecubital proximal até o pulso lateral direito e a base do polegar direito. Após 24 horas, o paciente ainda sentia a dor semelhante a choque elétrico que foi classificada como 8/10 no braço distal lateral direito, no pulso lateral direito e na base do polegar, acompanhada de parestesia. Fizemos uma revisão da literatura e o paciente recebeu orientação sobre os resultados publicados a respeito desse tipo de lesão. Durante o acompanhamento, o paciente relatou que a disestesia diminuiu cerca de 3-4 semanas após a lesão inicial e que não restou déficit neurológico. Conclusões: lesões de nervos periféricos foram descritas pós-venipuntura, mas a literatura é limitada. Os nervos da fossa antecubital estão classicamente localizados em um plano logo abaixo - e muito próximos - das veias, o que os torna susceptíveis a lesões durante a flebotomia; além disso, sabe-se que existe uma extensa variação anatômica, o que sugere que mesmo uma venipuntura satisfatória não traumática pode danificar diretamente esses nervos. O anestesiologista deve estar ciente dessa possível complicação e também do diagnóstico e prognóstico para orientar os pacientes de forma adequada, caso essa complicação ocorra.

  11. Safety culture in Bayesian and legal contexts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While contemplating the similarities between the law of torts and concepts of safety, the author realized that there was a close correspondence between the law of negligence and the way safety ought to be generally defined. This definition of safety is provided herein. A safety culture must have an adequate definition of safety in order to function most effectively. This paper provides a practical definition of safety that answers the question 'How safe is safe enough? The development rests on two bases: the subjectivistic-Bayesian definition of probability and certain legal definitions primarily from the tort law of negligence. The development also leads to the conclusion that one cannot generally expect greater specificity in determining how safe is safe enough than one finds in the legal definition of liability under the tort of negligence. It then follows that some of the public's aversion to complex technical undertakings is rooted in its typically intuitive and vague notions concerning safety

  12. Abortion in Iranian legal system: a review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Abbasi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Abortion traditionally means, "to miscarry" and is still known as a problem which societies has been trying to reduce its rate by using legal means. Despite the pregnant women and fetuses have being historically supported; abortion was firstly criminalized in 1926 in Iran, 20 years after establishment of modern legal system. During next 53 years this situation changed dramatically, so in 1979, the time of Islamic Revolution, aborting fetuses before 12 weeks and therapeutic abortion (TA during all the pregnancy length was legitimate, based on regulations that used medical justification. After 1979 the situation changed into a totally conservative and restrictive approach and new Islamic concepts as "Blood Money" and "Ensoulment" entered the legal debates around abortion. During the next 33 years, again a trend of decriminalization for the act of abortion has been continuing. Reduction of punishments and omitting retaliation for criminal abortions, recognizing fetal and maternal medical indications including some immunologic problems as legitimate reasons for aborting fetuses before 4 months and omitting the fathers' consent as a necessary condition for TA are among these changes. The start point for this decriminalization process was public and professional need, which was responded by religious government, firstly by issuing juristic rulings (Fatwas as a non-official way, followed by ratification of "Therapeutic Abortion Act" (TAA and other regulations as an official pathway. Here, we have reviewed this trend of decriminalization, the role of public and professional request in initiating such process and the rule-based language of TAA.

  13. Special and inclusive education on brazilian legal system

    OpenAIRE

    Erenice Natália Soares de Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    In Brazil, the legal system where special and inclusive education is based upon is broad and has conquered some enhancements. However, we can observe contradictions and normative conflicts that affect its application into the teaching system’s organization and the inclusive education implementation. This reflection was conducted through this study, which has as an main objective, to identify divergences among various legal dispositions in force and the necessity to overcome them, taking into ...

  14. Transsexualism in Spain: a Cultural and Legal Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia Soley-Beltran

    2007-01-01

    In this paper I will present an overview of the current legal, social and political situation of transsexual and transgendered people in Spain. The study is based on qualitative data gathered from in-depth interviews with transsexual people, transgendered activists and legal experts in Spain, including some aspects of a cross-cultural comparison between Spain and the UK. The empirical study accounts for the development of social policies related to sex-reassignment and their evolution in the ...

  15. Enterprise reform in China : the evolving legal framework

    OpenAIRE

    Lichtenstein, Natalie G.; DEC

    1993-01-01

    Enterprise reform in China since 1979 has been supported by accelerated reform of China's legal framework. In the transition to a"socialist market economy", state enterprises will operate independently of the government, may no longer be fully owned or controlled by the state, and will deal with the state and other legal entities through market based transactions. The number of collective (township and village) enterprises has grown rapidly, and in recent years so has the number of private en...

  16. LEGAL AND ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVES ON THE LEGAL PENALTY INTEREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Diana APAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The legal evaluation of the penalty interest, meaning the ex lege determination of its level is applicable only in the case of non-fulfillment of a monetary payment obligation. The applicability of the system of legal evaluation of the interest is generally determined by the absence of a document that ascertains the agreement of the parties, such as a contract, through which the parties, following this agreement, evaluate the prejudice caused by the non-fulfillment of a monetary payment obligation, before the prejudice has occurred. The legal evaluation of the penalty interest, as a component of the regulation in the field of legal interest has the purpose to ensure creditor’s protection. Regardless of the prejudice caused to the creditor, the legal penalty interest shall be determined by relating it to a variable benchmark that is the level of the reference interest rate of the National Bank of Romania, which is the monetary policy interest rate of the National Bank of Romania.

  17. Sources of Hong Kong Civil Legal Proceedings Legal Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena P. Ermakova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present article author gives characteristic of the civil legal proceedings sources of legal regulation in Hong Kong: statute law, delegated legislation, general law, the Chinese common law. System of the Hong Kong law sources completely corresponds to the system of England civil procedural law sources. Till June 30, 1997 Hong Kong was a colony of the Great Britain. Since 1997 Hong Kong became a special administrative region of the People's Republic of China (PRC. Laws of Hong Kong on courts, on proofs, on the legal aid, on administration of justice contain references to the corresponding English legal acts. The feature of the Hong Kong legal system is due to the fact that Hong Kong Basic Law of 1990 sets on the territory of the country a simultaneous action of two systems of the legislation until 2047: legislation of Hong Kong created before 1997 under the influence Great Britain and legislation of People's Republic of China which regulates questions of foreign policy and country’s defense. The list of sources of the civil procedural law of Hong Kong includes: 1 statute law; 2 delegated legislation (rule of courts; 3 general law (precedents. Author gives opinions of jurists and practicians both from China, and from other countries, present own definitions and justifications.

  18. Legal capacity of the elderly in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannouli, Vaitsa; Tsolaki, Magda

    2014-01-01

    Legal capacity of the elderly people in Greece is of great legal, medical and social importance, but has received little attention till now from medical literature. This paper aims to study whether elderly people with dementia are able to participate in legal contracts like sales, purchases, loans, leases, donations and testaments. We tried to introduce a new test for the above legal-financial contracts and show some preliminary findings. The test consists of six examined relevant domains concerning basic monetary skills, cash transactions, bank statement management, financial conceptual knowledge, knowledge of potential heirs (beneficiaries) and assets/estate and finally the decision making process for different dilemmas on sales, purchases, loans, leases, donations and testaments. We studied 203 people. Eighty three people were healthy, 64 with Alzheimer's disease (AD) (10 with severe AD, 22 with moderate, and 32 with mild AD), 10 with Parkinson's disease (PD), and 46 with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI). Individuals were included in the study only if they were aged 60 and over and only if they had a partner or a guardian who could give information on the individual's daily living. The exclusion criteria were predefined as follows: history of any other mental health disease and/or any other serious somatic health disease except for their official diagnosis of dementia. Results showed statistically significant differences with all three groups of patients characterized as incapable for legal-financial actions. Patients with severe AD (P<0.001), patients with moderate AD (P<0.001), patients with mild AD (P<0.001), patients with PD (P<0.001) and aMCI patients (P<0.001) differed significantly from healthy controls. Further research should include more extensive sampling of elderly patients with varying demographic characteristics in Greece, to confirm and expand our initial findings. In conclusion, our new test which is based on Marson's theoretical model

  19. A Goddess for semiotics of law and legal discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan M. Broekman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The work of the great American philosopher Charles Sanders Peirce (1839-1914 becomes more and more appreciated beyond the boundaries of his pragmatism, a philosophical mainstream he founded in the early 20th century. This essay is inspired by five points of interest, all of which focus on law and legal discourse. Firstly, one should acknowledge that his proposal pertaining to a general theory of signs, which he called ‘semeiotics’ around 1860, leads to an untraditional and in-depth understanding of legal discourse: in essence, of law as a system of specific meanings and signs. Semiotics in general became a substantial part of his ‘evolutionary cosmology,’ an all-embracing approach to tackle classical and modern philosophical issues. Secondly, his anthropological intuition based on semiotics, (concentrated in the formula ‘man is a sign’ became important for our understanding of a human subject’s position in law, as author of a legal discourse as well as an individual subjected to law. Thirdly, the tensions between chance and continuity in legal discourse are of focal interest for the creation of legal meaning in law’s practices. Novelty, Peirce suggested in this context, occurs by the grace of chance rather than of continuity and fixed traditions. Fourthly, Roberta Kevelson (1931-1998 explored and expanded the field of legal semiotics on the basis of the works of Peirce. In doing so, she established an American tradition of legal semiotics distinct from a European tradition, which related more to linguists, psychologists and philosophers embracing structuralism. Fifthly, Tyche, the Ancient Goddess of fate and fortune, is because of Peirce’s references more at home in the US legal semiotic tradition. Her fame and influence reaches beyond law and became supported by recent archaeological discoveries, publications and exhibitions, which not only provide information about her background, but also underline her possible influence on

  20. Professionalism under the Legal Services Act 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Boon, A.

    2010-01-01

    The Legal Services Act 2007 represents an ambitious attempt to reconcile consumerism and professionalism. The Act created a Legal Services Board to oversee the regulation of the legal services market in England and Wales. The Board was also placed under a duty to promote consumer interests and to encourage an independent, strong, diverse and effective legal profession and to promote professional principles. The article examines the actual and prospective impacts of the Act on the legal profes...

  1. LEGAL CULTURES AND MEDIATION. INTERACTIONS AND EVOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Ramon D. BUTCULESCU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mediation, as an alternative dispute resolution method, is closely connected with the system of legal cultures. Mediation is an important link between legal culture and the judicial system. Mediation also acts as an interface between internal legal culture and external legal culture. This paper addresses the issues regarding the links and interactions between mediation and legal cultures, as well as the effects that arise from these interactions.

  2. Introduction: Legal Transplantation in Contemporary China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JiangShigong

    2004-01-01

    Putting a socialist legal system in place in China since the 1980s has been a process of "legal transplantation," one which was in fact rooted in the legal reforms of the late Qing Dynasty (1644-1911). While widely subscribed to in legal scholarship, the farreaching impact of this transplantation has lacked careful theoretical reflection. This special issue presents some recent efforts of academics to re-examine legal transplantation, paying attention to its social, cultural and political aspects.

  3. LEGAL ENTITIES IN ROMANIAN PRIVATE INTERNATIONAL LAW

    OpenAIRE

    Berlingher Remus Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Legal entities play an increasing role in international economic relations, as well as in political, cultural, social or human relations. Any legal entity is subject to the law of a certain country, as it can only exist or function on the basis of legal provisions. In this sense, the paper analyses the law applicable to the organic statute of a legal entity, the importance and criteria underlying the establishment of a legal entity’s nationality, the recognition of foreign lega...

  4. 基于生命质量视角的安乐死问题探讨%Discussion of the Euthanasia Legalization Based on the Quality of Life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧运森; 田侃; 喻小勇; 贺云龙

    2015-01-01

    伴随中国经济的迅猛发展,人们对生存质量的要求也随之提高,生命临终质量也被广泛的重视。安乐死涉及到人的生命权利保障和社会的安全稳定,在医疗保障体系尚不完善的条件下对安乐死的实施必须慎重对待。本文通过探讨安乐死对人的生存质量和生命临终质量影响的基础上,提出实施安乐死应对实施对象、实施主体、实施条件和实施程序等方面进行限定,为提升人的生命质量提供一定的参考。%Along with the rapid development of Chinese economy, peoples demand for quality of life also increases.The quality of terminal life is well concerned.Euthanasia involves the safety of human life and social stability and the discussion on the implementation of euthanasia must be treated carefully under the imperfect medical insurance system.This paper aims at analyzing the legalization of euthanasia implications for the quality of life from the implementation object, subject, conditions and procedures, which puts forward reference for the pursuit of a higher quality of life for the community.

  5. Discussion of the Euthanasia Legalization Based on the Quality of Life%基于生命质量视角的安乐死问题探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧运森; 田侃; 喻小勇; 贺云龙

    2015-01-01

    Along with the rapid development of Chinese economy, peoples demand for quality of life also increases.The quality of terminal life is well concerned.Euthanasia involves the safety of human life and social stability and the discussion on the implementation of euthanasia must be treated carefully under the imperfect medical insurance system.This paper aims at analyzing the legalization of euthanasia implications for the quality of life from the implementation object, subject, conditions and procedures, which puts forward reference for the pursuit of a higher quality of life for the community.%伴随中国经济的迅猛发展,人们对生存质量的要求也随之提高,生命临终质量也被广泛的重视。安乐死涉及到人的生命权利保障和社会的安全稳定,在医疗保障体系尚不完善的条件下对安乐死的实施必须慎重对待。本文通过探讨安乐死对人的生存质量和生命临终质量影响的基础上,提出实施安乐死应对实施对象、实施主体、实施条件和实施程序等方面进行限定,为提升人的生命质量提供一定的参考。

  6. Compliance work for food contact materials: feasibility of the legally required safety assessment of an epoxy/amine-based coating for domestic water pipe restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillner, Jocelyn; Grob, Koni

    2014-01-01

    Options were explored for fulfilling the legally required safety assessment for a widely applied epoxy/amine coating used for restoring corroded domestic drinking water supply systems. The coating was made up of two components mixed shortly before application, the first mainly consisting of bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE), the second of various amines. The analytically identified starting substances were all authorised, but only constituted a small proportion of the low molecular mass material left after curing and potentially migrating into water. Reaction products synthesised from constituents of the starting components (expected oligomers) could not be eluted from GC even after derivatisation, indicating that standard GC-MS screening would miss most potential migrants. They were detectable by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) after acetylation. HPLC with MS or fluorescence detection was possible for constituents including a BADGE moiety, but phenalkamines could not be detected with adequate sensitivity. Possibilities for determining long-term migration relevant for chronic toxicity are discussed. Analysis in water shortly after application of the coating overestimates migration if migration decreases over time and requires detection limits far out of reach. Analysis of a solvent extract of the coating is easier and provides an upper estimate of what could migrate into the drinking water over the years. However, to satisfy the regulatory requirements, components of the complex mixture need to be identified at lower proportions than those accessible. In vitro testing of the whole mixture for genotoxicity is expected to fail because of the required sensitivity and the glycidyl functions probably wrongly resulting in positive tests. The difficulties in dealing with this situation are discussed. PMID:24761990

  7. DROGAS RELACIONADAS A CASOS DE INTOXICAÇÕES EM CÃES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Almeida ABREU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: As intoxicações provocadas por drogas ocorrem com frequência em animais de companhia e, muitas das vezes estão relacionadas a medicamentos de uso humano. Metodologia e objetivo: trata-se de um estudo retrospectivo referente aos casos de intoxicações provocadas por drogas em cães atendidos em duas Clinicas Veterinárias no município de Itaperuna /RJ com o objetivo de avaliar a incidência de intoxicação em animais bem como o perfil dos animais acometidos quanto ao sexo e idade e as drogas mais frequentemente envolvidas. Resultados: no período avaliado (2010 a 2012 foram atendidos no total 1.963 cães, dentre os quais 270 receberam o diagnóstico de intoxicação provocada por fármacos (13,75% dos animais atendidos e 1.693 receberam outros diagnósticos (86,25% dos cães atendidos. Dentre os animais intoxicados, 51,85% eram fêmeas e 48,15% machos. A média de idade no ano de 2010, somando-se machos e fêmeas, foi de 2,6 anos enquanto que no ano de 2011 foi 2,1 anos e em 2012 foi de 3,2 anos. Os fármacos relacionados aos casos de intoxicação foram os Organofosforados (32,96%, seguidos pelo grupo químico das Amidinas (27,41%, pelos Carbamatos (22,59%, pelos Piretróides (15,19%, pelas Avermectinas (1,48% e pelas Tetraciclinas (0,37%. Conclusões: os quadros de intoxicação em cães são mais frequentes em fêmeas, em animais com idade entre dois e três anos, sendo os agrotóxicos os fármacos mais envolvidos, em especial os organofosforados. Os resultados implicam na necessidade de orientação adequada aos proprietários quanto ao uso de produtos ectoparasiticidas.

  8. Defeasible reasoning with legal conditionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzo Castañeda, Lupita Estefania; Knauff, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Valid conclusions can be defeated if people can think of conditions that prevent the consequent to occur although the antecedent is given. The goal of the present research was to investigate how people consider these conditions when reasoning with legal conditionals such as "If a person kills another human, then this person should be punished for manslaughter." In Experiments 1 and 2 legal conditionals were presented to participants together with exculpatory circumstances, i.e., counterexamples. The participants' task was to decide whether they would adhere to the legal conditional rule and punish the offender. Participants were either lawyers (i.e., advanced law students and graduate lawyers) or legal laypeople. We found that laypeople often ignore exculpatory circumstances and adhere to the conditional rule when offences evoked high levels of moral outrage. Lawyers did not show this effect. In Experiment 3 laypeople showed difficulties even when asked to simply imagine exculpatory circumstances for highly morally outrageous offences. Results provide new evidence for the role of emotions - like moral outrage - in the consideration of counterexamples to legal conditionals. PMID:26689704

  9. Advanced radiographic practice - the legal aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allied health and nursing professionals are continuing to expand their responsibilities into clinical areas outside their traditional spheres of interest; typically, many of these new responsibilities are found within the medical (doctor) domain. Such responsibilities are often at an advanced clinical level and consequently higher demands are placed upon the professionals, not least in terms of clinical updating, competence to practice and also legal liability. This article explores the legal implications of practising at an advanced clinical level with particular reference to legal claims. The first part of the article commences with an outline of pertinent law in England and Wales. The latter part of the article explores actual cases from which allied health professionals (eg radiographers) can gain valuable information. Throughout the article suggestions for good practice are indicated. Examples of good practice include: the need to base your practice on evidence and peer practice; the need to keep detailed records (protocols) of such practice; the need to know when you are at the limit of your ability; and as such when to ask for advice from a medical practitioner/radiologist

  10. Should it be legal to assist suicide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesser, Harry

    2010-04-01

    This paper argues that because it is a matter of dispute whether to assist suicide is ever morally right, the question whether assisted suicide should be legal should be decided independently of the moral issue and with reference to whether to assist suicide is genuinely to carry out the wishes of the person requesting it. It is then argued that it is possible to devise a set of criteria, based on those used in the Netherlands with regard to euthanasia, which would allow assisted suicide when the request is reasonable and genuine, but keep it illegal under other circumstances. It is further argued that there is no evidence that legalizing assisted suicide will lead us down the slippery slope to involuntary euthanasia. Finally, the question is raised to whether these assisted suicides should be legalized or, as at the moment in the UK, simply not prosecuted, but, as is about to happen, with the criteria for non-prosecution made explicit. It is suggested that, although it is in some ways both irrational and unjust, non-prosecution is politically easier to achieve and also more cautious as a first move. PMID:20367858

  11. Voluntary steriolization: legal and ethical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, D I

    1979-01-01

    In Canada there are no statutes specifically concerned with the legality or illegality of voluntary sterilization. Reviewed are a few Canadian and British cases which have discussed sterilization, but only as a factor in the obtaining of a divorce on grounds of cruelty, or in an action for assault based on lack of consent. There seems to be no legal decision in Canada or Britain on the particular issue of whether or not voluntary sterilization is lawful. Because of this uncertainty in the law, both physicians and patients are uncertain regarding their rights and obligations in the area of voluntary sterilization. Attention is directed to societal considerations (public policy and social morality), the rights and interests of the patient (basic human freedoms, the patient as consumer, rights of action by the patient's spouse, action for loss of consortium), rights and obligations of the doctor, breach of contract, and spousal consent. When law is made certain, through legislation, problems can arise at several stages of its progress. In its effort to urge to classify and make certain a difficult area of law, the legislature may overlegislate. Problems can arise in administration of a new law, as hospitals, physicians, the public, and lawyers must adjust to a different classification of an act. At this time it appears that no action lies against a physician who performs a voluntary sterilization, unless he/she performs the operation negligently. Dissemination of information to the public, legal profession, and to the medical profession is an alternative to legislative reform which would alleviate some legal and ethical problems. PMID:10245001

  12. Legal aspects of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The legal basis for the use of nuclear energy is generally given by an Atomic Energy Act. Additionally, however, a system of regulations and standards has to be set up to lay down more detailed requirements. The fundamental philosophy and strategy has to be specified by governmental organizations. For the specification and implementation of the requirements some minimum organizational arrangements are necessary, which are not only restricted to governmental organizations. Furthermore procedural regulations have to be laid down before the implementation phase. This includes aspects like public participation in the licensing procedure. In practice, however, the implementation of the legal requirements always shows some weakness of the basic legal requirements. To learn from this experience some examples are presented, which gave rise to difficulties in the implementation procedure. (orig./RW)

  13. Legal issues concerning heat pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gersemann, D.

    Heat pumps are considered suitable to contribute to an improvement of the total energy balance. As a rule, they are divided into the following categories of utilizable auxiliary energies: ground water, surface waters, soil, absorbers, air. They are also distinguished according to driving systems: electric, gas, or Diesel heat pumps. Considering forecasts concerning the utilization potential of heat pumps it seems easy to see that the legal assessment of heat pumps shall obtain considerable practical importance for the authorities as well as for private managers. The article gives a survey of the most important legal issues concerning heat pumps.

  14. Learned Treatise and Legal Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster-Swendsen, Mia

    2010-01-01

    royal court from the time of the reign of Cnut the Great to the author's present. In Danish as well as international scholarship this deceptively simple text has frequently been treated either as a ‘law code' or ‘law book' in itself or as a reflection of actual legal practice. Yet here I will contend...... that the Lex castrensis is in fact a political-legal treatise masked as pseudo-history with an explicit didactic purpose as a ‘schoolbook' for future administrators. As a learned ideological construct with a remarkable afterlife, Sven's work may be regarded as part of the intellectual preparation for...

  15. Knowledge discovery from legal databases

    CERN Document Server

    Stranieri, Andrew; Schauer, Frederick

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge Discovery from Legal Databases is the first text to describe data mining techniques as they apply to law. Law students, legal academics and applied information technology specialists are guided thorough all phases of the knowledge discovery from databases process with clear explanations of numerous data mining algorithms including rule induction, neural networks and association rules. Throughout the text, assumptions that make data mining in law quite different to mining other data are made explicit.  Issues such as the selection of commonplace cases, the use of discretion as a form

  16. Training of Para-Legal Staff: The Aboriginal Legal Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Kim

    1978-01-01

    Describes the in-service training project for Australian aboriginal paralegal field officers of the Aboriginal Legal Service, organized by the Law School and Extension Service of the University of Western Australia. The project team acted as facilitators for the field officers, a participative training program design being found to be important.…

  17. Free Legal Services - Attracting Legal Talent for Public Involvement Groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the public service responsibilities of lawyers, and how they can fulfill the annual goal of performing pro bono services by serving certain public involvement groups, including organization involved in Constitutional issues and environmental protection matters. Public involvement groups should consider their needs for legal services and consider soliciting lawyers to serve on their boards or to volunteer legal services which will assist those lawyers in fulfilling their professional obligations under Rules of Professional Conduct. The group should identify specific activities and tasks that require the skills and training of a lawyer, including corporate governance issues; conflict-of-interest questions; the statutory construction of laws, regulations and ordinances; or analysis of potential liability. The addition of a lawyer to advisory boards for governmental agencies and for non-profit boards of charitable, religious, civic, community, environmental and educational organizations may provide those boards with knowledge, analytical approaches and insights that complement the abilities of other board members. Rules of Professional Conduct applicable to lawyers include admonitions for lawyers to provide 'Public Service'. Representative of many rules, the American Bar Association Model Rule 6.1, entitled 'Voluntary Pro Bono Publico Service' addresses every lawyer's professional responsibility to provide legal services to those 'unable to pay'. This Model Rule exhorts each lawyer to provide fifty (50) hours of legal services without fee or expectation of fee to persons of limited means or charitable, religious or civic, community, governmental and educational organizations or to individuals, groups or organizations seeking 'to secure or protect civil rights, civil liberties, or public rights, or charitable, religious, civic, community, governmental and educational organizations in matters in furtherance of their purposes, where the payment of

  18. Legal Research in a Changing Information Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T du Plessis

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the advent of the latest constitutional dispensation in South Africa, legal researchers have been presented with new opportunities for research into constitutional issues, development and the relationship between constitutional law and other fields. This article investigates how information technology applications can support the legal research process and what the benefits of technology are likely to be to legal research. Furthermore, it investigates the changes and the impact that electronic resources and the digital information environment might have on legal research. This entails a study of the unique characteristics of digital legal research and of the challenges that legal researchers face in a changing information environment.

  19. Research and experience report 2009. Developments in the technical and legal basis of nuclear oversight; Erfahrungs- und Forschungsbericht 2009. Entwicklungen im Bereich der Grundlagen der nuklearen Aufsicht/Rapport sur la recherche et les experiences en 2009. Developpements dans les bases techniques et legales pour la surveillance nucleaire/Research and experience report 2009. Developments in the technical and legal basis of nuclear oversight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-04-15

    additional intake points in the cooling water outlet. There have been defects and incidents in the construction of the new plants at Olkiluoto (Finland) and Flamanville (France) relating to concreting work and inadequate welding specifications. ENSI will develop a new surveillance concept for the construction of NPPs, so that Switzerland is prepared in time for any new builds. ENSI maintains active links with international organisations, particularly with IAEA, OECD/NEA and WENRA and also has a series of bilateral agreements with France, Germany, Austria and the USA. The ENSI contribution to current negotiations on greater global harmonisation is based on the stringent nuclear safety standards in Switzerland. At the 3{sup rd} Review Conference of the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management, Switzerland received a rating of good for its Country Report: other countries welcomed the transparency of the master plan procedure and the participation of the public and neighbouring countries. The research programme at the rock laboratories of Mont Terri and Grimsel also received a positive reception. According to the main requirements of IAEA and the Swiss Nuclear Energy Act, since 1 January 2009 ENSI has been an independent nuclear regulatory body reporting directly to the Federal Council (Swiss national government). The existing ordinances and guidelines are continuously amended to accord with the recent legislation on nuclear energy and also are harmonised with international standards. A new ordinance based on the Nuclear Energy Act took effect in 2009. In addition ENSI completed 8 guidelines, either new or revisions

  20. Aspectos sociodemograficos e clinicos da qualidade de vida relacionada a saude bucal em adolescentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Glazer Peres

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência e identificar fatores sociodemográficos e parâmetros bucais associados ao impacto negativo da condição bucal na qualidade de vida de adolescentes. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados dados de 5.445 adolescentes entre 15 e 19 anos que participaram do inquérito nacional de saúde bucal (SBBrasil 2010, considerando a complexidade do desenho amostral. O desfecho foi a qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde bucal, avaliada por meio do questionário Oral Impacts on Daily Performance e analisada de forma discreta. As variáveis de exposição foram sexo, cor da pele, escolaridade, renda familiar, idade, cárie não tratada, perda dentária, dor de dente, oclusopatias, sangramento gengival, cálculo dentário e bolsa periodontal. Foram conduzidas análises de regressão de Poisson e apresentadas as razões de médias (RM, com respectivos intervalos de 95% de confiança (IC95%. RESULTADOS: Dos pesquisados, 39,4% relataram pelo menos um impacto negativo na qualidade de vida. Após o ajuste, a média do impacto negativo foi de 1,52 (IC95%1,16;2,00 vez maior no sexo feminino e 1,42 (IC95% 1,01;1,99, 2,66 (IC95% 1,40;5,07 e 3,32 (IC95% 1,68;6,56 vezes maior nos pardos, amarelos e indígenas, respectivamente, em relação aos brancos. Quanto menor a escolaridade, maior a média de impacto negativo (RM 2,11, IC95% 1,30;3,41, assim como em indivíduos com renda familiar até R$ 500,00 (RM 1,84, IC95% 1,06;3,17 comparados aos de maior renda. Encontrou-se maior impacto na qualidade de vida entre adolescentes com quatro ou mais lesões de cáries não tratadas (RM 1,53, IC95% 1,12;2,10, uma ou mais perdas dentárias (RM 1,44, IC95%1,16;1,80, com dor de dente (RM 3,62, IC95% 2,93;4,46 e com oclusopatia grave (RM 1,52, IC95% 1,04;2,23 e muito grave (RM 1,32, IC95% 1,01;1,72. CONCLUSÕES: Os adolescentes brasileiros relataram alto impacto negativo da saúde bucal na sua qualidade de vida. A iniquidade em sua distribuição deve ser

  1. The International Legal Framework for Nuclear Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The term 'nuclear security' is generally accepted to mean 'the prevention and detection of, and response to, theft, sabotage, unauthorized access, illegal transfer or other malicious acts involving nuclear material, other radioactive substances or their associated facilities.' While the ultimate responsibility for nuclear security within a State rests entirely with that State, the need for regional and international cooperation has become increasingly evident with the growing recognition that the ability to prevent, detect and respond to the threats to nuclear security within one State is affected by the adequacy and effectiveness of nuclear security measures taken by other States, particularly when nuclear material is transported across national frontiers. Since the early 1970s, the IAEA has been called upon to play an ever increasing role in assisting States, upon request, to strengthen their national legal infrastructures and physical protection systems, as well as to facilitate regional and international efforts to enhance nuclear security, including measures to protect against nuclear terrorism. This publication brings together the legally binding primary international instruments and the internationally accepted non-binding instruments that constitute the international legal framework for nuclear security. It does not discuss the safety and safeguards related instruments, which also form a part of the broader legal framework for nuclear security. By setting out the legislative bases for the mandate of the IAEA in the area of nuclear security, it is hoped that this publication will increase awareness of the IAEA's role in facilitating national, regional and international efforts to enhance nuclear security , including measures to protect against nuclear terrorism. It is also intended to serve as a guide in carrying out the IAEA's nuclear security mandate and functions assigned to it under these instruments, including in the elaboration of nuclear security

  2. 75 FR 20807 - Newspapers To Be Used for Publication of Legal Notice of Appealable Decisions and Publication of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... based on the date of publication of the legal notice of the decision in the newspaper of record for 36... Forest Service Newspapers To Be Used for Publication of Legal Notice of Appealable Decisions and... in the legal notice section of the newspapers listed in the Supplementary Information section of...

  3. 75 FR 66721 - Newspapers To Be Used for Publication of Legal Notice of Appealable Decisions and Publication of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... based on the date of publication of the legal notice of the decision in the newspaper of record for 36... Forest Service Newspapers To Be Used for Publication of Legal Notice of Appealable Decisions and... in the legal notice section of the newspapers listed in the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section of...

  4. 75 FR 32737 - Annual List of Newspapers To Be Used by the Alaska Region for Publication of Legal Notices of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-09

    ... under 36 CFR part 215 shall be based on the date of publication of the legal notice of the decision in... Forest Service Annual List of Newspapers To Be Used by the Alaska Region for Publication of Legal Notices of Proposed Actions and Legal Notices of Decisions Subject to Administrative Appeal Under 36 CFR...

  5. Pre-paid Legal Services

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Siyuan

    2008-01-01

    pre-paid legal services is the new system to defend the high trial fees. It's very popular in the USA. There are some benefits to their customs, and it is still a young system so it also has some weakness. I think it also can be introduces into China.

  6. Legal Issues in Nursing Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapp, Marshall B.

    This paper examines the variety of legal rules and processes which have been established to assess and ensure that the quality of care provided in nursing homes satisfies an acceptable level. It begins with a general overview of nursing home law. Areas discussed in this section include: (1) sources of nursing home law; (2) theories of liability;…

  7. Legal Education in China Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, R. St. J.

    1980-01-01

    Education in law, which was suspended during the 1976 Chinese Cultural Revolution, is now being steadily developed. Since 1978 the concept of law nihilism has been repudiated, juridical debate has expanded, publications and translated articles are appearing, and legal advisory offices have reappeared. (MSE)

  8. Student Centred Legal Language Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Christine

    1998-01-01

    Describes a self-study legal-language program for university students studying German that included computer-assisted language learning and satellite television. The program was tested for two years at a European university. This paper examines the program's rationale, pedagogical objectives, and theoretical considerations within the context of…

  9. Surrogate mothers: the legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mady, T M

    1981-01-01

    Increasing numbers of couples have benefitted from, or may be considering use of, the surrogate mother procedure. In this procedure, a couple, usually a husband and wife, enters into a contract with a surrogate mother. Under the terms of the contract, the surrogate mother is artificially inseminated, bears a child, and relinquishes all rights regarding that child to the semen donor and his wife. In exchange for bearing a child, the surrogate mother often receives a fee. In light of such increased use of the procedure, the issue of whether or not the arrangement is legal has particular importance. Questions of legality involve possible violations of criminal baby-selling statutes. Issues of whether adoption is necessary and whether the child is legitimate also are inherent in the surrogate mother arrangement. This Note argues that these questions should be resolved in favor of finding no impediment to the use of the surrogate mother procedure, at least within certain guidelines. However, even in the absence of legal impediment, detailed contracts and thorough medical screening for genetic, physical and psychological problems would further eliminate ambiguities regarding liability. In addition, the Note concludes that legislation should be enacted to deal with the legal ambiguities of the surrogate mother arrangement. This legislation should regulate the parties that enter into such an arrangement and the rights and responsibilities of these parties. PMID:7332012

  10. Getting Help with Legal Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of attorney (POA) gives someone the right to act for another person. This could include making financial or legal decisions. ... proxy. HIPAA HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act) provides privacy for a person’s medical records. Your loved one should sign a ...

  11. Colour revolutions: criminal-legal aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Alekseyevich Gordeychik

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective basing on the analysis of colour revolution technologies in different countries to formulate propositions for improving criminal legislation aimed at counteraction against this phenomenon. Methods general scientific induction deduction analysis synthesis and specific scientific formaljuridical and comparativelegal. Results using the results of colour revolutionsrsquo research carried out by political scientists the author evaluates the character and level of public danger of colour revolutions. The author states that the colour revolutions threaten the normal existence of the country or several countries. The conclusion is made that the colour revolutions must be counteracted by criminallegal means. The article states the absence of norms in the existing criminal legislation which would impose criminal liability on organizers incendiaries and participants of colour revolutions. It is proposed to supplement the existing criminal law with the norm stipulating the liability for such deeds and to insert this norm into Art. 34 ldquoCrimes against peace and security of humanityrdquo thus equating organization preparation and implementing colour revolutions with planning preparation launching and conducting an aggressive war Art. 353 of the Russian Criminal Code. Scientific novelty basing on the existing legal norms modern politological and juridical scientific literature a conclusion is made that the colour revolutions are based on the abuse of law. This allows the organizers of colour revolutions to legally prepare and implement the subversion of undesirable political regimes. The author formulates proposals for supplementing the criminal legislation. Practical value the materials and conclusions of the article can be used in lawmaking activity when elaborating the drafts of legal acts for changing and supplementing the Russian Criminal Code for research activity when preparing monographs and dissertations tutorials and articles when

  12. Método bundle na redução de infecção de corrente sanguínea relacionada a cateteres centrais: revisão integrativa Método bundle en la redución de infecciones relacionadas a catéteres centrales: una revisión integrativa Care bundle to reduce central venous catheter-related bloodstream infection: an integrative review

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Dane Pereira Brachine; Maria Angélica Sorgini Peterlini; Mavilde da Luz Gonçalves Pedreira

    2012-01-01

    Trata-se de uma revisão integrativa da literatura, que objetivou identificar intervenções baseadas em evidência que compõem o método bundle, designados à redução de infecção de corrente sanguínea relacionada ou associada a cateter intravenoso central. Para a coleta de dados online, em bases nacionais e internacionais, foram utilizados a palavra-chave bundle e os descritores catheter-related infection, infection control e central venous catheterization, resultando, após aplicação dos critérios...

  13. Fadiga relacionada ao câncer: uma revisão Cancer-related fatigue: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Maira Paschoin de Oliveira Campos; Benjamin Joseph Hassan; Rachel Riechelmann; Auro del Giglio

    2011-01-01

    A fadiga relacionada ao câncer (FRC) é um dos sintomas mais prevalentes em pacientes com câncer, sendo reportada por 50% a 90% dos pacientes durante o curso da doença ou do seu tratamento, impactando na qualidade de vida de forma severa além de diminuir a capacidade funcional diária dos pacientes. Uma abordagem ampla deve ser realizada com orientações gerais sobre fadiga, além da determinação de um plano individualizado de abordagem terapêutica. Pacientes com fadiga moderada ou severa devem s...

  14. Utilidad de un conector desinfectable en la profilaxis de la bacteriemia relacionada con cateter en pacientes criticos

    OpenAIRE

    Yebenes Reyes, Juan Carlos

    2003-01-01

    La utilización de los catéteres venosos centrales es esencial en las unidades de cuidados. Su uso, sin embargo, no está exento de riesgos, como la bacteriemia relacionada con catéter, con una morbimortalidad asociada significativa. Conociendo la importancia de la via endoluminal en la patogénesis de la bacteriemia por catéter, el objetivo de está tesis es observar la utilidad de un nuevo conector desinfectable que no requiere la utilización de agujas (Smartsite", Alaris Medicals Systems, San ...

  15. Calidad de vida relacionada con la salud y obesidad en un centro de atención primaria

    OpenAIRE

    Barajas Gutiérrez Miguel Angel; Robledo Martín Elisa; Tomás García Nuria; Sanz Cuesta Teresa; García Martín Pilar; Cerrada Somolinos Inmaculada

    1998-01-01

    FUNDAMENTO. Evaluar la asociación entre la obesidad y dos aspectos de la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud: autopercepción de salud y bienestar psicológico en pacientes adscritos a un centro de salud. MÉTODOS. Estudio transversal descriptivo sobre 167 pacientes entre 20 y 70 años, con índice de masa corporal ³ 30. Se realizó entrevista clínica para la obtención de las variables sociodemográficas y clínicas de cada paciente y la administración de 2 cuestionarios: 1) Perfil de Salud de N...

  16. Calidad de vida relacionada con la salud del niño y del adolescente con obesidad

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime Gabriel Hurtado-Valenzuela; Gerardo Álvarez-Hernández

    2014-01-01

    stimar la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud (CVRS) en un gru- po de niños y adolescentes con obesidad de la ciudad de Hermosillo, Sonora, México. Se realizó un estudio transversal utilizando el cuestionario PedsQL® para comparar la CVRS de 200 niños y adolescentes con obesidad al igual que a sus padres, con dos grupos de control, uno de la comuni- dad (n=400) y otro grupo de usuarios (n=200) del Hospital Infantil del Estado de Sonora. Las diferencias en la CVRS fueron evaluadas media...

  17. Evaluación de la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud en pacientes infectados por el VIH

    OpenAIRE

    Inmaculada Teva; María Paz Bermúdez; José Hernández Quero; Gualberto Buela Casal

    2004-01-01

    La infección por el VIH es considerada una enfermedad crónica. Los objetivos de este estudio de tipo ex post facto prospectivo factorial son comprobar si existen diferencias entre una muestra de pacientes con VIH/SIDA evaluada en calidad de vida relacionada con la salud en función del sexo, de la vía a través de la cual se infectaron y de algunos parámetros clínicos relacionados con la infección. Otro objetivo es comprobar si existen diferencias entre la muestra de pacientes con V...

  18. Calidad de vida relacionada con la salud, emociones negativas y apoyo social en pacientes con psoriasis vulgar

    OpenAIRE

    Vinaccia, Stefano; Universidad de San Buenaventura; Quiceno, Japcy Margarita; Universidad de San Buenaventura; Martínez, Ángela María; Universidad de San Buenaventura; Arbeláez, Claudia Patricia; Universidad de San Buenaventura

    2013-01-01

    El propósito de la siguiente investigación fue evaluar la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud y su relación con la ansiedad-depresión y el apoyo social en 55 pacientes con diagnóstico de psoriasis vulgar leve. Para evaluar la calidad de vida se utilizó el Índice de Calidad de Vida en Dermatología; la ansiedad-depresión fue evaluada mediante el cuestionario HAD, y el cuestionario AS se usó para medir apoyo social. En conclusión, se hallaron niveles clínicamente significativos de ansiedad-...

  19. Causas múltiplas de morte relacionadas à tuberculose no Estado de São Paulo, 1998

    OpenAIRE

    Augusto Hasiak Santo; Celso Escobar Pinheiro; Margarete Silva Jordani

    2003-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Estudar a mortalidade relacionada à tuberculose no Estado de São Paulo segundo causas múltiplas de morte, e suas inter-relações com outras causas básicas. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados os óbitos ocorridos e no Estado de São Paulo, em 1998, tendo como causa a tuberculose. Os dados foram obtidos na Fundação Sistema Estadual de Análise de Dados (SEADE). As causas de morte pelas formas clínicas da tuberculose foram codificadas no agrupamento A15-A19 e suas seqüelas na categoria B90, segundo ...

  20. The curious case of legal translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Cornelius

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the nature and scope of legal translation which is an under-researched area in South Africa. In this article the author predicts that the demand for competent legal translators will increase in the future, evidenced by a recent call by the Department of Justice and Constitutional Development(DoJ&CD, inviting applications for ten positions for “legislative language practitioners”. However, legal translation differs substantially from general translation in the sense that legal translation is subject to heavy restrictions at all levels and legal considerations are of paramount importance in a country such as South Africa, which provides for eleven official languages. Legal translation involves different legal languages, different legal systems and different cultural systems that require specialised knowledge and skills of the translator. The aim of this article is to investigate the core competencies and skills the legal translator must have; to consider the balance between legal competence and translation or linguistic competence; and to propose a discourse-analytical method of source text analysis, developed by Bhatia as a simplification strategy, as this may be a powerful tool in the training of legal translators in South Africa. Recent developments in South Africa relating to the Department of Arts and Culture’s obligation to translate legislation into all official languages, have important consequences for legal translation in general and the training of legal translators in particular.

  1. DNA profiling: Social, legal, or biological parentage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA profiling in forensic casework is based on comparison of the results of biological evidence with direct reference samples of the individual concerned or with indirect references of his close blood relatives. The selection of reference samples for analysis is crucial to the success of a case; it not only depends on the authenticity of the reference samples, but also on the authenticity of the biological relation of the donors with the person in question. There are situations when the social or legal relationship is not the biological one and there is a need to educate investigating officers, forensic analysts, and the judiciary about the associated problems.

  2. Analysis of Fuzzy Words in Legal English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    With the development of legal English,fuzzy words are poured into legislative language and judicial practice constantly.Hence,this paper aims at exploring the application and funtion of different kinds of fuzzy words in legal English.

  3. Legal Duties and Legal Liabilities of Coaches toward Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirsafian Hamidreza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is undeniable that coaches play a major role in the development of athletes. Coaches and athletes have a close relationship and share various experiences that lead to a strong bond between them, and this is of great responsibility for the coach. Therefore, the coach should maintain this bond with mutual respect and trust. Various responsibilities are progressively placed on coaches by law to prevent or minimize injuries to athletes. In other words, since a coach is placed in a position of power and trust, the duty of care will always be placed on him. If certain requirements are not met, the coach may be held financially, or even criminally, liable. In this study, the author explains and discusses coaches’ legal duties, legal liabilities, and the elements required for liability of coaches toward athletes.

  4. Neurological legal disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhakrishna H

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurological disorders with a prolonged course, either remediable or otherwise are being seen increasingly in clinical practice and many such patients are young and are part of some organization or other wherein their services are needed if they were healthy and fit. The neurologists who are on the panel of these organizations are asked to certify whether these subjects are fit to work or how long they should be given leave. These certificates may be produced in the court of law and may be subjected to verification by another neurologist or a medical board. At present there are no standard guidelines in our country to effect such certification unlike in orthopedic specialty or in ophthalmology. The following is a beginning, based on which the neurologist can certify the neurological disability of such subjects and convey the same meaning to all neurologists across the country.

  5. Designing Legal Frameworks for Public Debt Management

    OpenAIRE

    Elsie Addo Awadzi

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable public debt has gained renewed attention as countries implement fiscal consolidation measures in the aftermath of the global financial crisis. Sound public debt policies and debt management practices require robust legal underpinnings. Complex legal issues however arise in the design of the legal framework, and tradeoffs are required in many instances. This paper analyzes key features of modern public debt management legal frameworks, drawing from examples in advanced, emerging, a...

  6. Teaching legal english as a second language

    OpenAIRE

    BADEA ELENA CODRUTA

    2012-01-01

    In the last two decades, legal English has attracted increasing interest and awareness, especially because English is predominantly the language of international legal practice. Legal English must be seen in the overall context of English for Specific Purposes , as it shares the important elements of need analysis, syllabus design, course design, and materials selection and development which are common to all fields of work in ESP. As with other varieties of ESP, Legal English implies the def...

  7. Marketing legal services on the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Alicja Mikołajczyk

    2014-01-01

    This article describes accessible means of marketing legal services under restrictive regulations in the Polish market. As attorneys-at-law and legal advisers face significant legal and ethical limitations in their market communication, they are forced to seek alternative tools of promoting their services and reaching potential clients. Electronic media turned out to be an effective and convenient channel in marketing legal services, often prevailing offline marketing communication. The artic...

  8. The Impact of Legalized Abortion on Crime

    OpenAIRE

    Donohue, John J.; Levitt, Steven D.

    2000-01-01

    We offer evidence that legalized abortion has contributed significantly to recent crime reductions. Crime began to fall roughly 18 years after abortion legalization. The 5 states that allowed abortion in 1970 experienced declines earlier than the rest of the nation, which legalized in 1973 with Roe v. Wade. States with high abortion rates in the 1970s and 1980s experienced greater crime reductions in the 1990s. In high abortion states, only arrests of those born after abortion legalization fa...

  9. What is the role of legal systems in financial intermediation? Theory and evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Bottazzi, L.; Da Rin, M.; Hellmann, T.

    2009-01-01

    We develop a theory and empirical test of how the legal system affects the relationship between a venture investor and an entrepreneur. The theory uses a double moral hazard framework to show how optimal contracts and investor actions depend on the quality of the legal system. The empirical evidence is based on a sample of European venture capital deals. The main results are that with better legal protection, investors give more non-contractible support and demand more downside protection, an...

  10. The Blind Spot of Corporate Social Responsibility: Changing the legal framework of the firm

    OpenAIRE

    Levillain, Kevin; Segrestin, Blanche

    2014-01-01

    CSR research is generally based on the assumption that responsible behaviour is compatible with the legal framework of the firm and its standard strategic approaches. Could this hypothesis be misleading? This paper exhibits some recent practical innovations in the USA that have had to move away from the CSR research framework to provide a more constructive approach to social and environmental impacts. The new legal provisions in question revise the legal framework of firms and their corporate...

  11. A study on the improvement of the legal system concerning Korean Atomic Energy Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Il Un; Jung, Jong Hak; Kim, Jae Ho; Moon, Jong Wook; Kim, In Sub [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-03-15

    Cause-effect analysis, adjustment, and generalization of the current atomic energy act are contents of this research. These are to be based on the legal theory. Analysis of the current atomic energy act from the viewpoint of constitutional law and administrative law. Review of the other domestic legal systems which have similar problems as the atomic energy act has. Inquiry about the operation of nuclear legal systems of foreign nations.

  12. A study on the improvement of the legal system concerning Korean Atomic Energy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cause-effect analysis, adjustment, and generalization of the current atomic energy act are contents of this research. These are to be based on the legal theory. Analysis of the current atomic energy act from the viewpoint of constitutional law and administrative law. Review of the other domestic legal systems which have similar problems as the atomic energy act has. Inquiry about the operation of nuclear legal systems of foreign nations

  13. LASIK em programa de treinamento médico: complicações relacionadas a microcerátomos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonçalves Eliana Domingues

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as complicações da ceratomileuse assistida por excimer laser in situ - LASIK - relacionadas ao microcerátomo em um centro de treinamento médico. MÉTODOS: O total de 1611 olhos submetidos a ceratomileuse assistida por excimer laser in situ foram estudados retrospectivamente no período de janeiro de 1998 a junho de 2000 no setor de cirurgia refrativa do Departamento de Oftalmologia da UNIFESP-EPM. RESULTADOS: As complicações relacionadas com o microcerátomo na ceratomileuse assistida por excimer laser in situ foram 26 (1,61%, das quais 9 (34,61% foram de lamelas incompletas, 9 (34,61% finas, 2 (7,69% lamelas sem pedículo, 5 (19,23% irregulares e 1 (3,84% perfurada. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência de complicações com microcerátomo em centro de treinamento médico foi baixa e o treinamento de residentes e estagiários mostrou ser uma prática viável.

  14. Same-Sex Couples: Legal Complexities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Ramona Faith; Kuvalanka, Katherine A.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a typology for organizing our current knowledge regarding same-sex couples in the United States who have and have not established legal ties between partners. This framework is complemented by a discussion of key rulings that define what is legally possible as well as the introduction of "legal consciousness,"…

  15. Rules of Ethics for Legal Advisers

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Falkowska

    2010-01-01

    The profession of a legal adviser is a profession of public confidence, which imposes on its representatives distinctive legal and ethical requirements. The article presents the basic regulations of the new Legal Adviser Code of Ethics, which came into force in 2008.

  16. 2 CFR 180.965 - Legal proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Legal proceedings. 180.965 Section 180.965 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS... § 180.965 Legal proceedings. Legal proceedings means any criminal proceeding or any civil...

  17. 5 CFR 919.965 - Legal proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Legal proceedings. 919.965 Section 919.965 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 919.965 Legal proceedings. Legal proceedings means any...

  18. 7 CFR 3017.965 - Legal proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Legal proceedings. 3017.965 Section 3017.965 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER... Legal proceedings. Legal proceedings means any criminal proceeding or any civil judicial...

  19. 21 CFR 1404.965 - Legal proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Legal proceedings. 1404.965 Section 1404.965 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1404.965 Legal proceedings. Legal proceedings means any criminal proceeding or...

  20. 29 CFR 98.965 - Legal proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Legal proceedings. 98.965 Section 98.965 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 98.965 Legal proceedings. Legal proceedings means any criminal proceeding or any civil judicial proceeding, including...

  1. 31 CFR 19.965 - Legal proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal proceedings. 19.965 Section 19.965 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 19.965 Legal proceedings. Legal proceedings means any...

  2. "Legal Language": Varieties, Genres, Registers, Discourses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzon, Dennis

    1997-01-01

    Analyzes classification of "legal language," clarifying terms such as "variety,""genre,""register," and "discourse," and related issues in languages for special purposes, particularly as they apply to professions. Argues that "genre," not "register," is the most appropriate term for legal language, and that study of legal discourse should focus on…

  3. 45 CFR 1321.71 - Legal assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... speak English as their principal language. (d) A legal assistance provider may not require an older... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Legal assistance. 1321.71 Section 1321.71 Public... AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING Service Requirements § 1321.71 Legal assistance. (a) The...

  4. A Layperson's Guide to Legal Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Judy; Hickey, LadyJane; Stillman, Garry; Wise, Steven

    This document provides a layperson's introductory guide to researching primary legal materials, as well as using secondary research tools, in the Sarita Kenedy East Law Library at St. Mary's University (Texas). The guide includes the following sections: (1) Guide to Legal Abbreviations; (2) How To Find a Law Journal Article; (3) Legal Dictionaries…

  5. Morocco : Legal and Judicial Sector Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    The overall legal framework in Morocco is not a priority area for reform. The law-making process, however, is weak, resulting in poorly drafted laws, and legal dissemination is inadequate. Legal education relies upon outdated curricula and is offered in competing languages, French and Arabic, the selection of which largely determines students' choices for future employment. The training of...

  6. Linguistic Form of the Legal Norm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia IGNATESCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The legal norm is a legal normative judgment in a normative proposition logical form, expressed in a grammatical sentence. It is not the grammatical sentences, neither the propositional forms which are legal, but the normative judgment that gives particular significance to the general form and cognitive value to the information embedded in the grammatical propositional construct.

  7. Is perception of the mainstream legal system homogeneous across ethnic groups?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Rachitskiy

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a great social debate regarding possible legal privileges favouring some ethnic groups over othersin a particular society. This fact may negatively influence citizens’ perceptions about fairness and legitimacyof the mainstream legal system and, thus, compliance with established social norms. The main purpose ofthe present study was to analyse the perception of the mainstream legal system in citizens belonging todifferent ethnic groups. In particular, this work had two objectives. First, the purpose was to explore interethnicperceptions of legal authorities and the justice system by examining the following variables:procedural justice, distributive justice, legitimacy of the legal system, contact with police, and reasons forobeying the law. A second objective was to test the predictive power of perceived procedural justice,distributive justice, and contact with police in the subsequent perception of legitimacy across the differentethnic groups. The sample was composed of 351 participants, who were split into two groups: White-Europeans (76.4% and ethnic minorities (23.6%. Results revealed ethnic group differences in all studyvariables, showing ethnic minorities a more general negative attitude towards the legal system in terms ofprocedural justice, distributive justice and legitimacy conceded to the legal system, in comparison with themajority group. Moreover, legitimacy conceded to legal authorities was predicted by procedural justice, butnot by distributive justice neither contact with police, in both groups. Practical and policy implications arediscussed based on the importance of citizens’ perceptions about the legal authorities in order to legitimatethe mainstream legal system.

  8. Business structures and sustainable regional legal practice: the use of incorporated legal practices by regional, rural and remote legal practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Lydia Hart

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 2007 the Legal Profession Act 2007 (Qld has offered legal practitioners a wider choice of business structure other than sole practitioner or partnership, to include incorporated legal practice ('ILP' or multidisciplinary partnership. In particular the use of ILPs offers legal practitioners a range of benefits in terms of operating a law firm consistent with business management practices. The status of ILP however comes at a cost of putting in place 'appropriate management systems'. This paper refers to the legislation and the literature on the range of business structures, before giving an insight into the actual choice of business structures used by Queensland regional, rural and remote legal practitioners. What is the awareness of the new business structures? And are there factors inhibiting RRR legal practitioners from their use? This paper draws on over 30 interviews with sole practitioners, partners and legal practitioner directors about their choice of business structure.

  9. Development and maintenance of the Ethiopian legal information website

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Alemu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Information and Communication Technology in general and the internet in particular have been creating unprecedented opportunities in facilitating and streamlining access to information. Websites have become a common way of publishing legal information for the public in many countries. In Ethiopia, however, the availability of legal websites has been very limited or non-existent. Except for the constitution, no other basic Ethiopian law has ever been published online. To benefit from the tremendous potentials of the internet, a project was initiated to develop an Ethiopian Legal Information Web Site. Based on users' requirements obtained from questionnaire analysis, and current paradigms and implications, the Ethiopian Legal Information Website was designed, developed, implemented and maintained. The website is an online database of Ethiopian basic laws developed by Mekelle University, Ethiopia, in cooperation with the Non-Western Law Department of Ghent University, Belgium. Basic laws included on the site at present are the Ethiopian Constitution, Civil Code, Criminal Code, Civil Procedure Code, Criminal Procedure Code, Commercial Code and Family Code. The laws can be viewed and used in full text html, whereas some of the laws including the 2004 Criminal Code, Family Code, FDRE Constitution and the Tigray Regional State Constitution are available in pdf. Laws can be searched by keywords using the site search engine. Comments and suggestions from experts and Ethiopian laws users have been collected, hence modifications, improvements and additions have been made to the website. The Ethiopian Legal Information Website was first hosted on the University of Ghent internet server and currently in the Mekelle University server at http://mail.mu.edu.et/~ethiopialaws/.1 The Ethiopian Legal Information Website has been found to be a useful web portal to access and use the basic Ethiopian laws. The University of Ghent, ILO, the Library of Congress, AUSTLII

  10. Legal framework for food fortification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dijkhuizen, Marjoleine Amma; Wieringa, Frank Tammo; Soekarjo, Damayanti D;

    2013-01-01

    Food fortification is a cost-effective, powerful, and sustainable strategy to combat micronutrient deficiency, with the potential to reach large sections of the population with minimal cost and effort. However, the implementation of food fortification on a systematic and large scale, for instance...... in national programs, has often been challenging. This paper takes a closer look at food fortification efforts and legislation mechanisms in Vietnam and Indonesia in order to determine specific factors and components in the legal framework that are crucial to the success of fortification programs....... Fortification efforts in Indonesia and Vietnam are evaluated using published data as well as unpublished data from detailed evaluation reports, and compared with respect to the specific circumstances, constraints, objectives and results in each country. The legal framework is a crucial factor for the success of...

  11. Mediation in Legal English Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chovancová Barbora

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mediation is a language activity that has been unjustly neglected when preparing law students for their future professional careers. When trained in a professional context, students need to develop and improve complex communicative skills. These include not only the traditional language skills such as reading, writing, listening and speaking, but also more advanced skills such as summarizing, providing definitions, changing registers etc. All these are involved in the students’ acquisition of ‘soft skills’ that are particularly important for students of law since much of their future work involves interpersonal lawyer-client interaction. This article argues that mediation is a crucial (though previously underestimated skill and that law-oriented ESP instruction should provide training aimed at developing this skill. Showing a practical application of this approach, the paper demonstrates that mediation can be successfully integrated in the legal English syllabus and make the learning of legal English more effective.

  12. Legal issues in radon affairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massuelle, M.H. [Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay aux Roses (France)

    1999-12-01

    In France, it was only recently that cases related to high radon concentrations in dwellings received substantial publicity. This irruption of radon as a public health issue came with the general progress of scientific knowledge and the availability of a research capacity in France able to develop expertise. We are interested here in the legal implications of issues that arise from the lag between the activity of expertsand the regulatory activity in the domain of radon. We use the term expertise very broadly, to cover the practical application of research findings, the relation of the researchers with the community, and finally the acts by which experts provide their knowledge to the community. We first examine the course by which science developed the radon issue and the way they organized to move from research to expertise; here we try to characterize the various needs for radon expertise. We then discuss the legal difficulties associated with radon expertise.

  13. Legal issues in radon affairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In France, it was only recently that cases related to high radon concentrations in dwellings received substantial publicity. This irruption of radon as a public health issue came with the general progress of scientific knowledge and the availability of a research capacity in France able to develop expertise. We are interested here in the legal implications of issues that arise from the lag between the activity of experts and the regulatory activity in the domain of radon. We use the term expertise very broadly, to cover the practical application of research findings, the relation of the researchers with the community, and finally the acts by which experts provide their knowledge to the community. We first examine the course by which science developed the radon issue and the way they organized to move from research to expertise; here we try to characterize the various needs for radon expertise. We then discuss the legal difficulties associated with radon expertise

  14. The legal situation of the radiation protection agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation protection agent is an entirely office-internal institution and no public-legal control instance. Its task solely consists of supporting the person responsible for radiation protection in fulfilling his/her duties concerning radiation protection thus enabling him/her to do his/her public-legal duties. Adherence to these duties is controlled by the authority without regard to the person responsible for radiation protection (paragraph 32). The radiation protection agent only acts on private level in reaction to the person responsible for radiation protection. Interpretation of the concrete legal relationships depends on the point if the radiation protection agent acts as internal or external expert. In the first case, the relationship is based on a work contract, i.e. any legal arguing must be carried out at employment courts. There is no special protection for the radiation protection agent concerning his time of notice. In the case of an external radiation protection agent, the mutual duties are legally based on the work or employment contract which was signed on the basis of civil law. Arguments are subject to orderly courts. (orig./HP)

  15. Legal protection to foreign investors

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Hatchondo; Leonardo Martinez

    2011-01-01

    Foreign investment is typically considered an important source of growth for developing countries. This article describes the legal protection granted to foreign investors and its enforcement mechanisms. Governments have signed international investment agreements intended to protect foreign investors from the risk of expropriation and have increasingly chosen to issue sovereign debt in international financial centers, which expose defaulting governments to litigations in foreign national cour...

  16. Prospects of ASEAN Legal Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Agus Riyanto

    2016-01-01

    Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is a regional organization in the countries of Southeast Asia established in Bangkok, Thailand, on August 8, 1967 (the Bangkok Declaration) by Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. One form of cooperation that could further encourage the establishment of ASEAN's goal was legal cooperation. This was because, this cooperation could further strengthen cooperation in politics, economy, social and culture in Southeast Asia. ...

  17. Surrogacy: Ethical and Legal Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Pikee Saxena; Archana Mishra; Sonia Malik

    2012-01-01

    Surrogacy refers to a contract in which a woman carries a pregnancy “for” another couple. Number of infertile couples from all over the World approach India where commercial surrogacy is legal. Although this arrangement appears to be beneficial for all parties concerned,there are certain delicate issues which need to be addressed through carefully framed laws in order to protect the rights of the surrogate mother and the intended parents.

  18. Surrogacy: Ethical and Legal Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Pikee; Mishra, Archana; Malik, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    Surrogacy refers to a contract in which a woman carries a pregnancy “for” another couple. Number of infertile couples from all over the World approach India where commercial surrogacy is legal. Although this arrangement appears to be beneficial for all parties concerned,there are certain delicate issues which need to be addressed through carefully framed laws in order to protect the rights of the surrogate mother and the intended parents. PMID:23293432

  19. Legal Rights for Criminal Minors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    IN a theft case cracked in Guiyang City, Guizhou Province, the seven juvenile delinquents involved were mainly junior middle school students around 13 to 14 years old. What are the legal rights they can enjoy when brought to trial? It is clearly defined in the Law of the People's Republic of China for the Protection of Minors enforced on September 4, 1991. Minors refers to citizens below the age of 18.

  20. Surrogacy: ethical and legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Pikee; Mishra, Archana; Malik, Sonia

    2012-10-01

    Surrogacy refers to a contract in which a woman carries a pregnancy "for" another couple. Number of infertile couples from all over the World approach India where commercial surrogacy is legal. Although this arrangement appears to be beneficial for all parties concerned,there are certain delicate issues which need to be addressed through carefully framed laws in order to protect the rights of the surrogate mother and the intended parents. PMID:23293432

  1. Surrogacy: Ethical and Legal Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pikee Saxena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Surrogacy refers to a contract in which a woman carries a pregnancy "for"another couple. Number of infertile couples from all over the World approach India where commercial surrogacy is legal. Although this arrangement appears to be beneficial for all parties concerned,there are certain delicate issues which need to be addressed through carefully framed laws in order to protect the rights of the surrogate mother and the intended parents.

  2. Medicina legal, peritos y peritaciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Kvitko

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se expone la evolución histórica del concepto de Medicina Legal y cómo ha sido aplicado en diversos contextos. Se resalta la labor del perito como un experto, separándolo de lo que habitualmente es considerado cuando declara en un juicio: un simple testigo. Precisamente existen marcadas diferencias entre éste y un perito, el cual debe poseer una gran cantidad de valores éticos, morales y sociales para no deformar la verdad de los hechos. Asimismo, se sugiere cuáles deben ser las partes que debe poseer una peritación médico legal para que tenga un adecuado valor como instrumento probatorio durante un proceso judicial. Todo lo anterior siempre con el fin de mejorar la Administración de JusticiaThe present work describes the historical evolution of the concept of Legal Medicine and as has been applied in various contexts. It highlights the work of the proficient such as an expert, away from what is usually considered when declared in a trial: a simple witness. Precisely there are marked differences between this witness and an expert, which must have a great amount of ethical, moral and social values not to deform the truth of the facts. It also suggests what should be the actions that you must possess as a legal medicine proficient, to have an adequate evidentiary value as a tool during a judicial process; and improving the administration of justice

  3. Complicações locais na pele, relacionadas à aplicação de insulina Complicaciones locales en la piel relacionadas a la aplicación de insulina Skin site complications related to insulin application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Gasparelli Camata

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available A administração de insulina constitui um dos aspectos importantes na educação em diabetes. Este estudo enfoca as complicações locais na pele, relacionadas à aplicação de insulina. Foram entrevistados 51 portadores de diabetes mellitus, em uma instituição particular, no interior do Estado de São Paulo. Os resultados apontam que o hematoma foi a complicação mais freqüente e está relacionada, principalmente, à técnica incorreta de aplicação. Conclui-se que os profissionais de saúde precisam traçar estratégias efetivas que propiciem segurança aos sujeitos, a fim de prevenir as complicações na pele.La administración de insulina constituye uno de los aspectos importantes en la educación en diabetes. Este estudio enfoca las complicaciones locales en la piel relacionadas a la aplicación de insulina. Fueron entrevistados 51 portadores de diabetes mellitus en una institución particular en el interior del Estado de São Paulo. Los resultados muestran que el hematoma fue la complicación más frecuente y está relacionado principalmente con la técnica incorrecta de aplicación. Se concluye que los profesionales de salud necesitan establecer estrategias efectivas que propicien seguridad a los sujetos, con el fin de prevenir las complicaciones en la piel.Insulin administration is one of the important aspects in diabetes education. This study focuses on skin site complications related to insulin application. Fifty-one people with diabetes mellitus were interviewed at a private institution in São Paulo State. Results showed that hematomas were the most frequent complication and that they mainly resulted from the use of incorrect application techniques. It was concluded that health professionals must design effective strategies in order to provide safety to subjects and prevent skin complications.

  4. Are xenotransplantation safeguards legally viable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florencio, P S; Ramanathan, E D

    2001-01-01

    Scientists agree on the need for robust public health safeguards to accompany the imminent introduction of xenotransplantation--clinical transplantation of animal tissue into humans. To protect society in the event of emerging infectious diseases, governments must devise a legally effective means of ensuring compliance with such safeguards. Neither consent law, the law of contracts, nor existing public health legislation can adequately enforce such compliance. Consent law serves as a mechanism of communicating the momentary waiver of legal rights, not as a durable enforcement doctrine. Because it would be essential for recipients personally to comply with public safety measures, the law of contracts would also be unable to compel compliance. Existing public health legislation would also likely be ineffective because it would need to be substantially amended to incorporate the heightened powers necessary for the periodic examination of asymptomatic xenotransplant recipients. Xenotransplantation-specific legislation would be a legally effective means of enforcing public health safeguards since it could require conforming behaviors and could impose monetary fines on those recipients who, having benefited from life-saving intervention, fail to comply. This Article argues that legislation implementing a post-xenotransplantation surveillance system should withstand constitutional scrutiny because it would not be discriminatory and because, although it would violate fundamental rights of recipients, such violations would be justified under existing constitutional doctrines. PMID:15212014

  5. Law and Policy on Intellectual Property, Traditional Knowledge and Development: Legally Protecting Creativity and Collective Rights in Traditional Knowledge Based Agricultural Products through Geographical Indications

    OpenAIRE

    Dagne, Teshager

    2010-01-01

    Geographical indications emerged on the international scene at the centre of three highly debated subjects: intellectual property, international trade and agricultural policy. This article discusses the use of geographical indications in the protection of traditional knowledge–based agricultural products in the international intellectual property framework, and assesses the challenges and opportunities geographical indications present with respect to efforts to cater to the needs of indigen...

  6. Paralegal Services and the Fight Against Gender-Based Violence and Other Gendered Injustices in Tanzania, The Case of Women's Legal Aid Centre (WLAC)

    OpenAIRE

    Kigodi, Henry Michael

    2013-01-01

    Gender-based violence (GBV) is a key dimension which has brought attention across gender stakeholders in Tanzania regarding its prevalence. It is a phenomenon which we face every day from household levels to national levels. It is a topic on which there is a great misunderstanding and belief that, women and men are not equal because of patriarchy practices and societal structures. Such gender roles and patterns have placed women and girls vulnerable to the situation and practices in several c...

  7. THE LIMITS OF DNA TESTING USED AS EVIDENCE IN COURT. A REPORT BASED ON THE PRACTICE OF THE INSTITUTE OF LEGAL MEDICINE CLUJ-NAPOCA

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Perju-Dumbrava; Ioana Mic; Ovidiu Sorin Chiroban

    2013-01-01

    The evaluation of the evidentiary value of scientific evidence is the assessment of thestrength of the link between a finding and a person. It is usually a statisticalassessment but its presentation is full of pitfalls. The evaluation of scientific evidencemust be based on an established methodology to both evaluate, expose and interpretthe evidence. The formidable expansion in the use of DNA has not only increased theextent of interaction between forensic scientists and lawyers but more impo...

  8. SOCIAL LEGAL TRANSFORMATION OF PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohaib Mukhtar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan came into being in 1947. It struggled a lot during its initial days. It did not come to consensus to make a constitution until 1956 but later on military regime intervened. It is a drawback of Pakistan that laws and the constitution are not made indeed for its people rather they are made for the selfish elite who come into the power time to time without the support of the people. An unelected person cannot make a law for the betterment of the people he always do things for his own interest. Purpose - To point out weaknesses and hindrances in the social legal transformation of Pakistan and to recommend changes and best possible ways to build a highly social legal transformed society. Design/methodology/approach - The treatise is made taking into account the qualitative approach by looking into the historical prospect of social legal issues of Pakistan and to come to a conclusion to draw a better picture if followed the suggested steps. Findings - The paper includes the review of the history and weaknesses in legal transformation and comprehensive suggested steps to be followed to overcome the weaknesses and deficiencies. Research limitations/implications - The paper is limited to the social and legal aspects of the transformation in Pakistan and does not go into the deep details of politics and culture. Practical implications - Suggested steps can be followed by the legislature to make amendments in laws and to make more suitable laws which is a necessity for the better social transformation of Pakistan. Originality/Value - The research is a good piece and has an importance in its field and may help a lot in the development of the country and the region specially and the world at large generally. Keywords: Islamic rulers of the sub-continent; British India and its laws; Constitution of Pakistan 1956,1962 and 1973. Research type: The said research is a critical analysis on the development and transformation of Pakistan with respect to law

  9. Legal terminology at arm's length - the multiple dimensions of legal terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Kocbek

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is aimed at shedding new light on the multiple dimensions of legal terms which can be unearthed in the process of terminology mining as a crucial stage in translation. It proposes to view legal terminology from a sociocognitive perspective, according to which terms are perceived as expressing units of understanding based oncognitive frames rather than rendering concepts in their traditional definition. Upon closer scrutiny most of these units reveal significant information regarding their verbal and extra-verbal dimensions. We therefore suggest analysing units of understanding expressed by simple terms, multiple elements terms and phraseology as depositories of knowledge providing information on the text type in which they occur, as well as on there levant area of law, the legal system and the wider culture underlying the text. In this context, terminology mining is not intended merely as extraction of terms, but rather as their analysis, comparison and structuring which reveals aspects such as their multiple embeddedness, as well as their historical, ideological, metaphorical, status-conferringand common Latin dimension.

  10. 互联网众筹融资的《证券法》适用问题研究%The Legal Research on Internet-based Crowdfunding and The Security Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁文卓

    2015-01-01

    Crowdfunding ,the use of Internet to raise money through small contributions from a large number of investors ,could cause a revolution in small‐business financing .However ,crowdfunding also poses some problems under The Interpretation of the Supreme People's Court of Several Issues on the SpecificApplicationofLawintheHandlingofCriminalCasesaboutIllegalFund‐raising.Inthisarti‐cle ,the author proposed that crowdfunding sometimes involves the sale of securities ,triggering the regis‐tration requirements of T he Security L aw .As a result ,the definition of security should be enlarged under The Security Law .We need to learn overseas experience represented by the JOBS Act ,and accurately de‐fine the legal status and characteristics of crowdfunding .We also need to make the appropriate response to the legal structure and regulatory system of crowdfunding based on the proper coordination between the capital formation and investor protection .%众筹融资作为一种处于萌芽期的互联网金融模式,由于面临数量众多的投资者且融资金额较大,极易触碰非法集资的红线。通过分析,众筹融资本质是一种证券发行行为,筹资者、众筹平台、投资人这三方参与主体分别对应着发行人、证券交易所和投资者这三种《证券法》下的特定主体。但由于我国《证券法》的适用范围过窄,导致众筹融资无法适用《证券法》而被冠以“非法集资”的罪名。因此,扩大“证券”的范围是为众筹融资“正名”的直接途径,同时借鉴美国2012年JOBS法案中对众筹融资注册豁免的经验,在妥善协调资本形成与投资者保护关系的基础上,针对众筹融资的法律构造和监管制度作出相应的回应。

  11. LA PREVENCIÓN DEL CONSUMO DE DROGAS LEGALES EN EL DOCENTE EN FORMACIÓN INICIAL DESDE LA TEORÍA HISTÓRICO-CULTURAL

    OpenAIRE

    Alexey Silva Trujillo; Juana López Toranzo

    2015-01-01

    El presente artículo aborda una problemática de vital importancia para la pedagogía cubana, en el proceso de educación para la salud del docente en formación inicial, relacionada con la prevención del consumo de drogas legales. Se fundamenta en una tendencia de orientación marxista que permite el desarrollo de una concepción científica del mundo, y la formación y crecimiento de la personalidad, con sustento teórico en el enfoque histórico-cultural. Contiene los fundamentos filosóficos, sociol...

  12. Skeptical Legal Education: How to Develop a Critical Attitude?

    OpenAIRE

    van Klink, B.M.J.; de Vries, U.R.M.T.

    2013-01-01

    Law teachers at the university want students to develop a critical attitude. But what exactly does it mean to be critical and why is it important to be critical? How can a critical attitude be promoted? In this article we intend to elucidate the role that critical thinking may play in legal education. We will introduce the idea of skeptical legal education, which is to a large extent based on Michael Oakeshott’s understanding of liberal learning but which relativizes its insistence on the non...

  13. Legal questions concerning the termination of spent fuel element reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thesis on legal aspects of the terminated spent fuel reprocessing in Germany is based on the legislation, jurisdiction and literature until January 2004. The five chapters cover the following topics: description of the problem; reprocessing of spent fuel elements in foreign countries - practical and legal aspects; operators' responsibilities according to the atomic law with respect to the reprocessing of Geman spent fuel elements in foreign countries; compatibility of the prohibition of Geman spent fuel element reprocessing in foreign countries with international law, European law and German constitutional law; results of the evaluation

  14. Ensayos con animales: aspectos éticos y legales

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio Álvarez, Lucía

    2015-01-01

    El Objetivo principal del trabajo Ensayos con animales: Aspectos éticos y legales es proponer medidas que permitan disminuir el uso de animales de experimentación. Para ello se han desarrollado otros objetivos secundarios encaminados a facilitar la tarea de los investigadores: Recopilar la normativa ética y legal, facilitar el acceso a la terminología, esquematizar el protocolo de investigación establecido en la normativa, verificar la existencia de bases de datos de las investigaciones, estu...

  15. [Assessment of the legal awareness regarding drug consumption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawska, Jowanka; Satora, Leszek

    2004-01-01

    The latest legislation against drug addiction has changed the approach of Pursuing Organs in Poland to the problem of taking and distribution of drugs. Many tests have been carried out in order to evaluate the extent of legal regulations as the appropriate instrument in the struggle against drug addiction. The survey and interview were introduced during the research. The results make it possible to form the following conclusions. Law, only as a supplementary means supporting other methods may help prevent and counteract the addictions. Legal regulation on drug addiction which are based on compulsion and punishment should be widely taken into account. PMID:15521595

  16. Legal Frameworks for Emissions Trading in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Project is based on a comparative and pragmatic review of the legal frameworks for implementing the EU Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) in four EU jurisdictions (Finland, Sweden, United Kingdom and Germany). The project does not seek to examine the rationale of utilizing tradable mechanisms nor assess the costs and benefits of doing so. Its primary focus is to undertake a detailed study of the legal realities involved in implementing the EU ETS, particularly those issues of commercial importance such as taxation and accounting rules. (orig.)

  17. THE LOCATION OF MOBILE COMMUNICATIONS EQUIPMENT TECHNICAL AND LEGAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim DOBRINOIU

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of the Information Technology and the large scale use of the modern cutof-the-edge means of electronic communications constitute an undisputable progress of the Knowledge Society and the creation of the new social relations based on these platforms necessitated in time also a change in the Law philosophy. If the communication by electronic means still poses nowadays an attraction for the legal experts and professionals, chiefly for the law enforcement agencies or the intelligence services, another product of science, the location, starts highlighting its benefits but also the legal challenges. The paper aims at presenting the localization of mobile communications devices, both from technical and legal perspectives, with the view to be seen and understood as an Information Society service for the citizens.

  18. Plataforma para Avaliação da Qualidade de Vida Relacionada com a Saúde em Oncologia

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Joaquim José de Almeida Soares

    2012-01-01

    A percepção que um indivíduo tem sobre o seu lugar na vida, dependente da sua cultura e dos seus valores, define a Qualidade de Vida (QdV) individual. Aplicada num contexto de Saúde define-se como: Qualidade de Vida Relacionada com a Saúde (QdVRS). A avaliação da QdVRS é um objectivo em Medicina, usada em investigação clínica, na prática médica, em estudos económicos de saúde e no planeamento de medidas e estratégias de gestão de saúde. A obtenção de auto-resposta do doente ...

  19. Complicaciones relacionadas con catéteres venosos centrales en niños críticamente enfermos

    OpenAIRE

    Miguelena, Dayra; PARDO, ROSALBA; Moron Duarte, Lina Sofía

    2014-01-01

    Objetivo La colocación de catéteres centrales (CVC) es una práctica común para el manejo de pacientes críticos. El propósito de este estudio fue identificar las principales complicaciones y conocer la incidencia de las complicaciones mecánicas e infecciosas relacionadas con la colocación de catéteres venosos centrales en niños críticamente enfermos.Materiales y Métodos Estudio descriptivo realizado entre octubre 2011 a marzo 2012 en todos los niños críticamente enfermos a quienes se les coloc...

  20. Specification of the Legal Knowledge Interchange Format: Deliverable 1.1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Boer; M. Di Bello; K. van den Berg; T. Gordon; A. Förhécz; R. Vas

    2007-01-01

    The main technical objectives of work package 1 are to develop a first version of a Legal Knowledge Interchange Format (LKIF), building upon emerging XML-based standards of the Semantic Web, including RDF and OWL, and Application Program Interfaces (APIs) for interacting with legal knowledge systems

  1. The Effect of Nunan's Six Elements of Task to Improve Students Competencies in Legal English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Wang

    2016-01-01

    This paper is to study the effect of the six elements of task put forward by Nunan on the improvement of students' competencies in legal English, hoping to provide an important glimpse of how current legal English teaching in Chinese universities meets the requirements of the curriculum and the needs of the learners. Based on a case study of…

  2. California Western Law School's First-Year Course in Legal Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Peter W.

    1980-01-01

    Design and content of a legal writing program are outlined: premises on which the curriculum is based, program overview, first semester skill elements, law office memorandum preparation, appellate advocacy, grading, legal skills notebook, student instructors. Available from Union University, 80 Scotland Ave., Albany, NY 12208; $2.50, entire issue.…

  3. On legal English teaching from the lack of equivalent legal words%从中英法律词汇缺项谈法律英语教学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖珺

    2014-01-01

    Legal words are the most basic elements of law. Because of the heterogeneity of legal languages, the objective of legal vocabulary, and the differences between our country and western countries such as Britain and the United States on the legal cultures, the lack of equivalent legal words is inevitable during legal translation. Based on the discussion of this phenomenon, the teaching method of legal English translation is put forward.%法律词汇是构建法律的最基本要素,法律语言的异质性(heterogeneity)、法律词汇的对象性和我国与英美等西方国家在法律文化上的差异性,使得中英法律的翻译不可避免出现了法律词汇缺项(lack of equivalent legal words)。本文在探讨这一现象的同时,对法律英语翻译教学提出相应的对策。

  4. Embed with the Faculty: Legal Information Skills Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nicki McLaurin; Presser, Prue

    2005-01-01

    This article evaluates the Legal Information Skills Tutorial (LIST), a successful multi-media online learning project at the University of Melbourne Law School based on the Council of Australian University Librarians (CAUL) Information Literacy Standards. (Council of Australian University Librarians, Information Literacy Standards (2001)…

  5. HISTORICAL AND LEGAL ANALYSIS OF THE FORMATION OF INFORMATION LAW

    OpenAIRE

    Indrisova Z. N.

    2014-01-01

    The article is devoted to carrying out the historical and legal analysis of the formation of information law. Based on this study, it is proposed to have classification stages of the formation of information law, which includes a pre-scientific, elementary, secondary stage, the stage of uncertainly and the modern stage

  6. The Legal Content of School Psychology Journals: A Systematic Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaheer, Imad; Zirkel, Perry A.

    2014-01-01

    The many challenges that school psychologists face inevitably include legal issues. In light of the agreement between the two primary professional organizations for school psychologists that understanding of law is a critical competency, this study analyzed the extent of law-based articles in leading school psychology journal articles published…

  7. Anti-corruption policy in the system of legal measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Viktorovna Filonenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to determine the scientificmethodological foundations of anticorruption policy. Methods dialectical approach to cognition of social phenomena allows to explore the combination of objective and subjective factors influencing the formation and implementation of anticorruption policy. The author39s model of anticorruption policy is based on the wide range of logical methods of information processing modeling abstraction analysis analogy. Scientific hypothesis and formal legal analysis were also used. Results basing on comparison of the recent theoreticallegal criminallegal and criminological research in the field of legal and anticorruption policy the scientificmethodological foundations of anticorruption policy are disclosed. The authors attempt to systematize the scientific interpretation of anticorruption policy. The concept of legal policy its forms tools subjects and typesare discussed. As a result it becomes possible to describe the current anticorruption policy using terminology from the theory of legal policy. This approach can increase the effectiveness of modern anticorruption policy as it allows to clearly see the gaps and shortcomings in lawmaking and law enforcement during the anticorruption policy implementation. Scientific novelty the article makes an attempt to describe the current anticorruption policy with the use of terminology and models developed in the theoretical and legal research for the characterization of legal policy and its particular directions. Practical significance the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific and pedagogical work when considering questions about the nature and trends of the modern anticorruption policy development. The applied approach allows to bring together criminal law criminology and theoreticallegal research of anticorruption policy. nbsp

  8. Legal aspects of radiactive installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this paper is to discuss the main legal aspects related to the application of ionizing radiation in the industry, medicine, agriculture, scientific activities to envisage from the in force legislation the competence and responsibility for the control of radiation facilities comprising regulation, licensing and inspection. Legislation does not embrace all the aspects related to radiation facilities regarding to the specific provisions on civil liability concerning damages caused by non nuclear radiological accidents. The law nr.6.453 is applied only to nuclear accident, as defined in its rules. (author)

  9. Abortion Legalization and Lifecycle Fertility

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Oltmans Ananat; Jonathan Gruber; Phillip B. Levine

    2004-01-01

    Previous research has convincingly shown that abortion legalization in the early 1970s led to a significant drop in fertility at that time. But this decline may have either represented a delay in births from a point where they were have represented a permanent reduction in fertility. We combine data from the 1970 U.S. Census and microdata from 1968 to 1999 Vital Statistics records to calculate lifetime fertility of women in the 1930s through 1960s birth cohorts. We examine whether those women...

  10. [Legal aspects of sports injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, R H B

    2005-05-01

    Victims of sports injuries have to be advised about aspects of legal liablity, especially in case of luxation or avulsion of teeth, since there still may be dental consequences years later. The transference of information by the first-aid-dentist to the sportsman's own dentist should take place with care. If the patient has no family dentist, the first-aid-dentist should at least keep the sportsman free of pain, for example by starting endodontic treatment. Because sports injuries mostly occur beyond normal practice-hours, there may be reasons to deviate from the clinical guideline. PMID:15932047

  11. THE LEGAL CAPACITY TO TRADE

    OpenAIRE

    ADELIN UNGUREANU

    2014-01-01

    Trading is a part of our society. The man has been trading from ancient times so the amount of trades and transactions around the world is huge. In order for us to initiate, organize and deploy such trades we have to have certain rules which can help regulate the social and professional or legal aspect of trades. Therefore the sole trader capacity must be obtained and used in order for the contracts to be valid. The right and obligations that come with this capacity constitute activities t...

  12. THE LEGAL CAPACITY TO TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADELIN UNGUREANU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Trading is a part of our society. The man has been trading from ancient times so the amount of trades and transactions around the world is huge. In order for us to initiate, organize and deploy such trades we have to have certain rules which can help regulate the social and professional or legal aspect of trades. Therefore the sole trader capacity must be obtained and used in order for the contracts to be valid. The right and obligations that come with this capacity constitute activities that can be reflected and analysed by obtaining and maintain the sole trader status.

  13. DRONE OPERATORS – LEGAL RESPONSIBILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Andrei-Alexandru STOICA

    2016-01-01

    Drones or unmanned or remote vehicles represent a new generation of devices that were designed to help mankind achieve better results in areas that were proven to hazardous. By developing drones, new areas of economic activities have been unlocked for better exploitation, but at the same time, the lack of a proper legal system to back-up the new technology allowed a new wave of gray-lined uses of drones that must be tackled. As the Director of the 21st Century Defense Initiative at the Brooki...

  14. Cannabis Use When it's Legal

    OpenAIRE

    van Ours, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper uses information about prime age individuals living in Amsterdam, to study whether the use of alcohol, or tobacco stimulates the use cannabis, i.e. whether alcohol or cannabis are stepping stones for cannabis.The special element of the study is that it concerns the use in an environment where not only alcohol and tobacco but also cannabis is a legal drug.It turns out that alcohol and cannabis are intertemporal substitutes while tobacco and cannabis are intertemporal complements.Onl...

  15. Legal protection. No, thank you

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the author's opinion this decision can claim to be the most extensive rejection from the highest court in respect to all attempts to stop the development of atomic energy by means of judicial help. Its consequences for the right of action in Atomic Energy Law signal the end of a functionary legal protection, or at least it could be considered as trend-setter. If the economic and political pioneers of the atomic state can rely so much on their jurisdiction, other forms of resistance must be found. (orig./HSCH)

  16. Legal screw turns on Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legal action against British Nuclear Fuel Limited is summarised. The cases result from the effects of BNFL's activities at its Sellafield site. The three types of cases currently being pursued are outlined. The first concerns lowered value for property because high levels of radioactivity were found in the houses. The second concern cases of high rates of leukemia found near Sellafield. Over 30 families with affected children are suing BNFL. The third set relates to local farmers who have difficulty in selling their farms because of high levels of radioactivity found in the area and who are claiming for economic loss. (author)

  17. Legal Care as Part of Health Care: The Benefits of Medical-Legal Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Johnna S; Lawton, Ellen M; Sandel, Megan

    2015-10-01

    Many of the social determinants of health are rooted in legal problems. Medical-legal partnerships (MLPs) have the potential to positively change clinical systems. This change can be accomplished by integrating legal staff into health care clinics to educate staff and residents on social determinants of health and their legal origins. When the MLP team works directly with patients to identify and address legal needs that improve health outcomes, and incorporate legal insights and solutions into health care practice where the patient population is overwhelmingly impacted by social conditions, outcomes are beneficial to children and families. PMID:26318951

  18. Método bundle na redução de infecção de corrente sanguínea relacionada a cateteres centrais: revisão integrativa Método bundle en la redución de infecciones relacionadas a catéteres centrales: una revisión integrativa Care bundle to reduce central venous catheter-related bloodstream infection: an integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Dane Pereira Brachine

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de uma revisão integrativa da literatura, que objetivou identificar intervenções baseadas em evidência que compõem o método bundle, designados à redução de infecção de corrente sanguínea relacionada ou associada a cateter intravenoso central. Para a coleta de dados online, em bases nacionais e internacionais, foram utilizados a palavra-chave bundle e os descritores catheter-related infection, infection control e central venous catheterization, resultando, após aplicação dos critérios de inclusão, amostra de quinze artigos. Este trabalho evidenciou cinco intervenções como as mais frequentemente empregadas na construção dos bundles: higienização das mãos, gluconato de clorexidina como antisséptico para pele, uso de barreira máxima de precaução durante a inserção cateter, evitar acessar veia femoral e verificar necessidade diária de permanência do cateter, com sua remoção imediata quando não mais indicado. A maioria dos estudos demonstrou resultados estatisticamente significantes na redução de infecção de corrente sanguínea relacionada ou associada a cateter intravenoso central.Esta es una revisión integradora tuvo como objetivo identificar intervenciones basadas en evidencias que componen método bundle de reducción de infección sanguínea relacionadas o asociadas con catéter intravenoso central. Para recopilar los datos en las bases brasileñas e internacionales, utilizando la palabra clave bundle y los descriptores infecciones relacionadas con catéteres, control de infecciones y cateterización venosa central, identificando, con los criterios de inclusión, muestra de quince artículo. Este estudio muestra cinco intervenciones como comúnmente empleadas en los métodos bundles: higiene de las manos, clorhexidina como antiséptico para la piel, uso de precaución de barrera máxima durante la inserción del catéter, evitar el acceso de la vena femoral y comprobar la necesidad diaria del cat

  19. Disclosure de estratégia em relatórios anuais: uma análise de dimensões culturais, de sistema legal e de governança corporativa em empresas de quatro países.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Sanches Pagliarussi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo oferecer explicações para as diferenças observadas no nível de disclosure de aspectos relativos à estratégia verificado nos relatórios anuais de uma amostra de firmas dos Estados Unidos, do Reino Unido, da França e do Brasil. Três elementos teóricos centrais foram articulados para explicar as variações no nível de disclosure de estratégia na amostra: dimensões culturais, sistema legal e governança corporativa. Uma matriz de previsão foi construída com base na teoria, e abordou-se o disclosure da estratégia em cada relatório por meio da técnica de análise de conteúdo temático. A amostra foi formada por 73 relatórios anuais de empresas de quatro países no ano de 2006. As hipóteses foram testadas por análise de regressão linear e testes não paramétricos de igualdades de média. Os resultados suportam parcialmente a hipótese desenvolvida, de que existe influência significativa das variáveis culturais, do sistema legal e de governança corporativa de cada país nos níveis de disclosure de estratégia observados nos relatórios anuais. As diferenças mais significativas estão relacionadas com o sistema legal de cada país. As empresas da amostra pertencentes aos Estados Unidos e ao Reino Unido, caracterizados pelo uso do direito consuetudinário (Common Law, apresentaram maiores níveis de disclosure de estratégia que as empresas pertencentes à França e ao Brasil, países que adotam o direito romano (Civil Law. Este estudo contribui para a pesquisa na área de disclosure de estratégia ao oferecer evidências empíricas de que o sistema legal tem poder de influir na quantidade de informações estratégicas reveladas pelas empresas de capital aberto. No entanto, o processo de análise de conteúdo manual é um limitador do tamanho da amostra utilizada.

  20. Interaction of the legal disciplines studies with the level of legal awareness (on example of students of legal disciplines)

    OpenAIRE

    Budykin S.V.; Zhigachev A.S.

    2014-01-01

    The legal awareness as a set of social attitudes to crime and criminals, punish and mainly to the law, law enforcement, judicial and penal systems today is the most relevant topic. Despite the decline in crime in recent years, the level of crime is still at a high level. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the legal disciplines on maturity of legal awareness. We tested the hypotheses that the level of legal development in law-oriented students is higher than that of o...

  1. Aspects of legal communitarianism in Greece: between Millet and citizenship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Tsitselikis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Legal and political percepts pertaining to ethnic belonging in Greece are closely linked to the ideological understanding of Greekness, a legacy of the Ottoman Greek-Orthodox millet system. Complementary to this image of the national self, minority protection law on Muslims and Jews was and still is partially formed through millet-like paradigms. Greece’s territorial expansion made all inhabitants of the annexed provinces Greek citizens en masse: in addition to those that were deemed eligible to belong to the Greek nation, Jewish and Muslim communities also acquired Greek citizenship. For these communities the self-autonomy of the Ottoman millet structure in education and religious matters was transformed into minority protection, through special rights (community schools, Moufti’s jurisdiction, Muslim foundations, military conscription attributable through religion to citizens of the state. En Grecia, la interpretación ideológica del carácter griego está estrechamente relacionada con los preceptos legales y políticos relativos a la pertenencia étnica, legado del sistema millet otomano griego-ortodoxo. Como complemento a esta percepción de la identidad nacional, la ley de protección de las minorías musulmanas y judías estuvo, y todavía está parcialmente formada por paradigmas milletianos. La expansión territorial de Grecia convirtió de forma masiva a los habitantes de las provincias anexadas en ciudadanos griegos: entre los que se consideró que reunían los requisitos necesarios para pertenecer a la nación griega, se encontraban las comunidades judías y musulmanas. En ambos casos, la autonomía en temas de educación y religión que disfrutaban dentro de la estructura milletiana de los otomanos, se transformó en protección minoritaria, a través de derechos especiales (escuelas de la comunidad, jurisdicción Moufti, fundaciones musulmanas, el reclutamiento militar atribuibles a los ciudadanos del estado a través de la

  2. TEACHING LEGAL ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BADEA ELENA CODRUTA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, legal English has attracted increasing interest and awareness, especially because English is predominantly the language of international legal practice. Legal English must be seen in the overall context of English for Specific Purposes , as it shares the important elements of need analysis, syllabus design, course design, and materials selection and development which are common to all fields of work in ESP. As with other varieties of ESP, Legal English implies the definition of a specific language corpus, usages of various teaching strategies and emphasis on particular kinds of communication in a specific context.The article aims to highlight some aspects of teaching legal English by a non-native teacher who is not an expert in law. It particularly focuses attention on the development of basic communication skills and the use of lexical approaches in successful language acquisition in legal English.

  3. Minors and Sexting: Legal Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorang, Melissa R; McNiel, Dale E; Binder, Renée L

    2016-03-01

    Sexting is the sending or forwarding of sexually explicit photographs or videos of the sender or someone known to the sender via cell phone. It has become common practice among young people, as cell phones are being given to adolescents at ever younger ages. Youths often send messages without giving appropriate thought to the content of the images. In studies on the subject, rates of minors who have sent sexual images range from 4 to 25 percent, depending on the age of the youths surveyed, the content of the messages and other factors. Because transferring and viewing sexually explicit material when the subject is a minor can be considered child pornography, there can be serious legal consequences. Several states have enacted legislation to help differentiate between child pornography and sexting by minors. The trend reflected in statutes has been that minors involved in sexting without other exacerbating circumstances should be charged with a less serious offense. There is no clear national consensus on how sexting by minors is adjudicated, and therefore we compared several statutes. Case examples are used to illustrate the range of legal outcomes, from felony charges to no charges. Two sexting episodes that were followed by suicide are described. We also address the role of the forensic mental health professional. PMID:26944746

  4. Juristopia : Semantic Wiki for Legal Information

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    This thesis presents the role of Semantic Web technology and in particular Topic Maps in the legal domain. It also presents a prototype and concerns for a system utilising these technologies and use of this particular Information Technology in the legal domain. The thesis also discusses the theoretical background for such systems, and the research explores technology legal professionals can benefit combining social text writing and Semantic Web technology. The thesis is supported by a Sem...

  5. Monitoring of land in Ukraine: legal aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Оверковська, Тетяна Костянтинівна

    2015-01-01

    The article analyzes the legal aspects of the land monitoring implementation in Ukraine, the tasks and the prospects of the land monitoring improvement are determined, attention is drawn to the monitoring of agricultural land. English abstract Overkovska T.K. Monitoring of land in Ukraine: legal aspects The article analyzes the legal aspects of the land monitoring implementation in Ukraine, the tasks and the prospects of the land monitoring improvement are determined, attention is drawn to...

  6. The Impact of Legalized Abortion on Crime

    OpenAIRE

    Donohue, John J, III; Steven D. Levitt

    2000-01-01

    We offer evidence that legalized abortion has contributed significantly to recent crime reductions. Crime began to fall roughly 18 years after abortion legalization. The 5 states that allowed abortion in 1970 experienced declines earlier than the rest of the nation, which legalized in 1973 with Roe v. Wade. States with high abortion rates in the 1970s and 1980s experienced greater crime reductions in the 1990s. In high abortion states, only arrests of those born after abortion legaliz...

  7. The curious case of legal translation

    OpenAIRE

    E. Cornelius

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the nature and scope of legal translation which is an under-researched area in South Africa. In this article the author predicts that the demand for competent legal translators will increase in the future, evidenced by a recent call by the Department of Justice and Constitutional Development(DoJ&CD), inviting applications for ten positions for “legislative language practitioners”. However, legal translation differs substantially from general translation in the sense ...

  8. Ethics and science in brazilian legal discourse

    OpenAIRE

    Cota Marçal, Antônio; Nasser Cury, Paula Maria

    2012-01-01

    The Brazilian Constitution of 1988 declares Brazil as a Democratic State of Law. This formally democratic legal status has been facing difficulties when it comes to its material implementation. Brazilian legal procedures are still greatly influenced by the catholic heritage from Portugal in the times of colonization, translated in the present times into a strong moral set of dogmas that still reflects upon the legal production and interpretation in the country. Recently in Brazil, a debate br...

  9. Population aging and legal retirement age

    OpenAIRE

    Lacomba, Juan Antonio; Lagos, Francisco Miguel

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of population aging on the preferred legal retirement age. What is revealed is the crucial role that the indirect ???macro??? effects resulting from a change in the legal retirement age play in the optimal decision. Two Social Security systems are studied. Under a defined contribution scheme aging lowers the preferred legal retirement age. However, under a defined pension scheme the retirement age is delayed. This result shows the relevance of correctly c...

  10. The activity model of legal psychologist

    OpenAIRE

    N.V. Bogdanovich,; V.A. Chernushevich

    2014-01-01

    We propose an activity model of legal psychologist work. As a basis for the construction of the system of legal psychologist activity, we use trajectory of teenager living in the legal field. As the main activities within their respective specializations, we highlighted prevention, maintenance and rehabilitation. We define the main activities necessary for the development within the FGOSIII specialization 050407 “Pedagogy and Psychology of deviant behavior”: general and pathopsychologic diagn...

  11. The Legal Origins of Corporate Social Responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Becchetti, Leonardo; Ciciretti, Rocco; Conzo, Pierluigi

    2013-01-01

    The legal origin literature documents that civil and common law traditions have different impact on rules and economic outcomes. We contribute to this literature by investigating the relationship between corporate social responsibility and legal origins. Consistently with the main differences in historical and legal backgrounds and net of industry specific effects, the common law origin has a significant and positive impact on the Corporate Governance and Community Involvement domains, while ...

  12. Does legalized prostitution increase human trafficking?

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Seo-Young; Dreher, Axel; Neumayer, Eric

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of legalized prostitution on human trafficking inflows. According to economic theory, there are two opposing effects of unknown magnitude. The scale effect of legalized prostitution leads to an expansion of the prostitution market, increasing human trafficking, while the substitution effect reduces demand for trafficked women as legal prostitutes are favored over trafficked ones. Our empirical analysis for a cross-section of up to 150 countries shows that th...

  13. Artificial intelligence approach to legal reasoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For artificial intelligence, understanding the forms of human reasoning is a central goal. Legal reasoning is a form that makes a new set of demands on artificial intelligence methods. Most importantly, a computer program that reasons about legal problems must be able to distinguish between questions it is competent to answer and questions that human lawyers could seriously argue either way. In addition, a program for analyzing legal problems should be able to use both general legal rules and decisions in past cases; and it should be able to work with technical concepts that are only partly defined and subject to shifts of meaning. Each of these requirements has wider applications in artificial intelligence, beyond the legal domain. This dissertation presents a computational framework for legal reasoning, within which such requirements can be accommodated. The development of the framework draws significantly on the philosophy of law, in which the elucidation of legal reasoning is an important topic. A key element of the framework is the legal distinction between hard cases and clear cases. In legal writing, this distinction has been taken for granted more often than it has been explored. Here, some initial heuristics are proposed by which a program might make the distinction

  14. METALINGUISTIC ESSENCE OF THE LEGAL DISCURSIVE SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Yurievna Panteleeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the formation process of the discursive space of the legal field. It is shown that the metalanguage is a key communication tool in the discursive space of the legal field and becomes a means of expressing the attitude to the realities of the legal sphere, the environment of operating their relationships. It is noted that the subject and subjectless discourses in the professional legal sphere reflect semantic relationships between the written and the said. It is stated that description of the meta-linguistic nature of legal discourse can complement the knowledge in the discursive space of the legal field.An equally important source for the formation of discursive space of the legal field are legal texts (legislative that are created by professional lawyers taking into consideration the peculiarities of the professional sphere.Thus, metalinguistic innovations of subjective and subjectless discourses in the language in general and in the language of law enforcement in particular, enhance the law enforcement activity promoting universal human values in the discursive space of the legal field.

  15. Medico-legal autopsies in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sara Tangmose; Lynnerup, Niels

    2011-01-01

    At 2.7% in 1970, the Danish medico-legal autopsy frequency was lower than recent frequencies observed in the Nordic countries (4-24%). The aim of this study was to analyse trends in the number and frequency of Danish medico-legal autopsies.......At 2.7% in 1970, the Danish medico-legal autopsy frequency was lower than recent frequencies observed in the Nordic countries (4-24%). The aim of this study was to analyse trends in the number and frequency of Danish medico-legal autopsies....

  16. The moral legalization analysis in our country

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解小平

    2013-01-01

    the moral legalization is a controversial topic, but the proper moral legalization has become a consensus. China Is in the period of social transition , the moral anomie problem has become the wounds of the state and society, through analyzing the problems existing in the moral legalization at the present stage,.proposed to fol ow the tradition and reality, try to find the ethics which is suitable for our country, The cycle of the legislation, law enforcement and judicial wil help the moral legalization, so as to create a more harmonious society.

  17. Investigating correlation between legal and physical property: possibilities and constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimopoulou, E.; Kitsakis, D.; Tsiliakou, E.

    2015-06-01

    Contemporary urban environment is characterized by complexity and mixed use of space, in which overlapping land parcels and different RRRs (Rights, Restrictions and Responsibilities) are frequent phenomena. Internationally, real property legislation either focuses on surface property or has introduced individual 3D real property units. The former approach merely accommodates issues related to subdivision, expropriation and transactions on part of the real property above or below surface, while the latter provides for defining and registering 3D real property units. National laws require two-dimensional real property descriptions and only a limited number of jurisdictions provide for threedimensional data presentation and recording. International awareness on 3D Cadastre may be apparent through the proposals for transition of existing cadastral systems to 3D along with legal amendments improving national 3D Cadastre legislation. Concurrently the use of appropriate data sources and the correct depiction of 3D property units' boundaries and spatial relationships need to be addressed. Spatial relations and constraints amongst real world objects could be modeled geometrically and topologically utilizing numerous modeling tools, e.g. CityGML, BIM and further sophisticated 3D software or by adapting international standards, e.g. LADM. A direct correlation between legal and physical property should be based on consistent geometry between physical and legal space, improving the accuracy that legal spaces' volumes or locations are defined. To address these issues, this paper investigates correlation possibilities and constraints between legal and physical space of typical 3D property cases. These cases comprise buildings or their interior spaces with mixed use, as well as complex structures described by explicit facade patterns, generated by procedural or by BIM ready 3D models. The 3D models presented are evaluated, regarding compliancy to physical or legal reality.

  18. Psychological mechanisms and periodization of legal socialization process

    OpenAIRE

    Andrianov M.S.

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with the problems of social and legal identity formation, the development of its legal awareness and legal self-determination, which is the essence of the process, denoted in legal psychology as legal socialization of an individual, which is related to traditional life cycles of age and personality changes. The content and features of the key periods of legal norms learning and of entering into legal culture are described. We identify the main social-psychological acquisitio...

  19. Post legal positivism: new paradigm of legal science (jurisprudence) and practice in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Robl Filho, Ilton Norberto; Malheiros da Cunha Frota, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    The relation between law, moral, society and science is shifting in Brazil as it is changing in democratic contemporary societies. This paper proposes to reflect about this change in the Brazilian legal and social context. Jurisprudence and legal practice have been transformed intensively after the Brazilian redemocratization that began in 1985 and Federal Constitution of 1988. In the field of Jurisprudence (Legal Theory), a new legal theory called post-positivism progressively has been overc...

  20. Belief and legal philosophy: a conceptual framework for Christian scholarship in undergraduate legal education

    OpenAIRE

    Freitas, S.

    2009-01-01

    Legal education in South Africa has arrived at a discursive juncture that demands clarity on what the “purpose” of legal education should be. Debate on the purpose of legal education, more specifically for the Christian law student, becomes especially important in a society dominated by positivism, mate-rialism and pragmatism. With specific reference to the under-graduate Christian law student, this article firstly explains that the purpose of legal education should include the nurturing of t...

  1. Depresión y calidad de vida relacionada con la salud en pacientes con artrosis : diferencias de género

    OpenAIRE

    Martín, Ana; Vicente, Purificación; Vicente, Enrique; SÁNCHEZ, MERCEDES; Galindo, Purificación; Martín, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    La artrosis es una enfermedad reumática frecuente que se asocia a un deterioro importante de la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud (CVRS). Sin embargo, el impacto de la artrosis no es igual en ambos sexos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue examinar

  2. 28 CFR 543.11 - Legal research and preparation of legal documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... program or work assignment), to do legal research and to prepare legal documents. Where practical, the... correspondence (see 28 CFR part 540, subparts B and F) or through an authorized attorney visit from a retained... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal research and preparation of...

  3. Environmental, legal and managerial aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This U.S. contribution to the syllabus for Subgroup 5C treats with environmental and ecological aspects specific to fast breeder reactors, physical protection and safeguarding of the FBR cycle, fuel cycle centers (site selection problems for different degrees of collocation) and administrative and legal problems. Decommissioning of an FBR power plant, syllabus item C.1.7, is treated in separate contribution, more information on advanced safeguards for the fast breeder fyel cycle is contained in the contribution, USA WG 5C-tbd. A key conclusion of this is that with safeguards planning initiated early in the development of the FBR fuel cycle, time is available to develop, evaluate, and implement improved safeguards techniques and incorporate them into the design phase of all FBR cycle facilities

  4. The legal standards and provisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of the facts of Section 7, Subsection 3 of the German Atomic Energy Act, stock is taken of the legal position. Points of special importance in this regard are the precise distinction between an operating permit and a decommissioning permit, and the question of the ranking order of decommissioning variants. Ultimately, decommissioning legally must be interpreted as a phase between the final discontinuation of operations and the safe enclosure and dismantling, respectively, of a plant. Another open point is the ranking order of the variances of fact included in Section 7, Subsection 3 of the German Atomic Energy Act, on which it can be said that there is the possibility of arranging these variances in time after decommissioning as well as the possibility to choose freely among the variants available. Also a partial permit relationship linking the individual variants of Section 7, Subsection 3 of the Atomic Energy Act cannot be accepted. The substantive criteria to be met in a permit under Section 7, Subsection 3 of the German Atomic Energy Act raise major practical difficulties due to the reference contained in Section 7, Subsection 3, second sentence of the German Atomic Energy Act. These problems become manifest especially in the open question applying the body of nuclear technical codes, most in which were set up with the construction and operating of a nuclear facility in mind. In the matter of discretionary refusal, important reasons would favor a reduction to zero of this discretionary power. After all, also the question of waste management has not yet been clarified in general terms with respect to the waste arising from activities under Section 7, Subsection 3, German Atomic Energy Act. For this point to be sattled, permissible limits, measurement techniques, and demonstration of use must be defined in the light of each individual case. (orig.HP)

  5. Complicaciones relacionadas con catéteres venosos centrales en niños críticamente enfermos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayra Miguelena

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo La colocación de catéteres centrales (CVC es una práctica común para el manejo de pacientes críticos. El propósito de este estudio fue identificar las principales complicaciones y conocer la incidencia de las complicaciones mecánicas e infecciosas relacionadas con la colocación de catéteres venosos centrales en niños críticamente enfermos. Materiales y Métodos Estudio descriptivo realizado entre octubre 2011 a marzo 2012 en todos los niños críticamente enfermos a quienes se les colocó catéteres venosos centrales. Las definiciones para complicaciones infecciosas asociadas a catéteres se realizaron según los criterios del Centro de Prevención y Control de Enfermedades. Resultados Se colocaron 200 catéteres venosos centrales. El 51 % de los pacientes fueron del sexo masculino, la mayoría lactantes. El 71 % y el 56,5 % presentó necesidad de ventilación mecánica y soporte hemodinámico, respectivamente. El principal motivo de ingreso correspondió a problemas respiratorios (33 %. El 8,5 % presentó algún tipo de complicación, de las cuales el 52 % fueron mecánicas y 48 % infecciosas. La incidencia de complicaciones mecánicas fue de 4,5 %. La incidencia general de infecciones fue de 4 %, correspondiendo a una tasa de 5 por 1 000 días catéter. Conclusiones A pesar de las complicaciones presentadas con la colocación de CVC, éste sigue siendo un procedimiento seguro. Es importante conocer la incidencia de complicaciones relacionadas con la colocación de CVC en niños. Esto permitirá establecer acciones correctivas y/o preventivas para reducir aquellas lo que redundará en beneficio del niño críticamente enfermo.

  6. Bacteriemia relacionada a catéter por Ochrobactrum anthropi Catheter-associated bacteremia caused by Ochrobactrum anthropi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Soloaga

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Ochrobactrum anthtropi es un bacilo gram negativo aeróbico, no fermentador de la glucosa, anteriormente conocido como Achromobacter sp o CDC grupo Vd. Ha sido aislado del medio ambiente y de infecciones en seres humanos que generalmente presentaban algún tipo de inmunocompromiso. Las infecciones por este microorganismo fueron bacteriemias relacionadas a catéteres y en ocasiones endoftalmitis, infecciones urinarias, meningitis, endocarditis, absceso hepático, osteocondritis, absceso pelviano y absceso pancreático. Se presenta el caso de un paciente de sexo masculino, de 69 años de edad, que consultó a la guardia por hipotensión sostenida y síndrome febril de cuatro días de evolución, escalofrío, sudoración profusa y deterioro del sensorio. El paciente tenía diabetes de tipo 2 y antecedente de accidente cerebrovascular. Debido a insuficiencia renal crónica presentaba un catéter de doble lumen para la diálisis. Se documentó una bacteriemia relacionada a catéter por cultivo de sangre a través de catéter y de vena periférica, utilizando el sistema automatizado de hemocultivos Bact-Alert y la metodología de tiempo diferencial (>120min. La confirmación se realizó, una vez removido el catéter, por la técnica semicuantitativa de Maki (> 15 UFC. El microorganismo fue identificado por API 20NE y Vitek 1 como Ochrobactrum anthropi.Ochrobactrum anthropi is a non-glucose fermentative, aerobic gram-negative bacillus, formerly known as Achromobacter sp or CDC group Vd. It has been isolated from the environment and from infections in usually immunocompromised human beings. The documented infections frequently involved catheter related bacteremia whereas endophthalmitis, urinary infections, meningitis, endocarditis, hepatic abscess, osteochondritis, pelvic abscess and pancreatic abscess were rarely involved. Here it is presented the case of a male patient aged 69 years with sustained hypotension, four day febrile syndrome, chill, lavish

  7. 31 CFR 3.3 - Legal review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal review. 3.3 Section 3.3 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury CLAIMS REGULATIONS AND INDEMNIFICATION OF DEPARTMENT OF TREASURY EMPLOYEES Claims Under the Federal Tort Claims Act § 3.3 Legal review....

  8. 31 CFR 3.22 - Legal review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal review. 3.22 Section 3.22 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury CLAIMS REGULATIONS AND INDEMNIFICATION OF DEPARTMENT OF TREASURY EMPLOYEES Claims Under the Small Claims Act § 3.22 Legal review....

  9. Conceptual Analysis of Causation in Legal Discourse

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doležal, Adam; Doležal, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 7 (2014), s. 53-70. ISSN 1857-7881 Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : causation * tort law * legal liability Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences http://www.eujournal.org/index.php/esj/article/view/2968

  10. Traditional Festivals to Become Legal Holidays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ As nearly everyone knows already,the state is going to rearrange the schedule of legal holidays. The four traditional Chinese festivals, inluding Mid-Autumn Day, Dragon Boat Festival,Tomb-Sweeping Day and Spring Festival Eve, will be made into legal holidays. As for the Golden Week system, should it be continued or canceled?

  11. Ethiopia : Legal and Judicial Sector Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    The judicial and legal sector of Ethiopia presents a variety of significant challenges. The legal system as it exists today combines elements of both civil and common law1 with traditional practices, resulting in multiple layers intermingling and superimposing distinct types of modern, traditional, and religious laws and processes. This report provides an overview of Ethiopia's current leg...

  12. 29 CFR 1912.41 - Legal services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal services. 1912.41 Section 1912.41 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) ADVISORY COMMITTEES ON STANDARDS Miscellaneous § 1912.41 Legal services. The Solicitor of Labor...

  13. 28 CFR 0.13 - Legal proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal proceedings. 0.13 Section 0.13 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of the Attorney General § 0.13 Legal proceedings. (a) Each Assistant Attorney General and Deputy...

  14. 29 CFR 18.35 - Legal assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Legal assistance. 18.35 Section 18.35 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE FOR ADMINISTRATIVE HEARINGS BEFORE THE OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES General § 18.35 Legal assistance. The Office of Administrative Law Judges does not...

  15. 32 CFR 637.12 - Legal considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Legal considerations. 637.12 Section 637.12... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.12 Legal considerations. (a... judge advocate or civilian attorney employed in the Office of the Staff Judge Advocate for the...

  16. The right to legal capacity in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Mbuen, Eyong; Maglajlic, Reima; Lewis, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    The report highlights the voices of people with mental disabilities themselves for the first time, outlining the need for substantial legal and social reform, and provides comprehensive recommendations to bring Kenya in line with international law, and specifically right to legal capacity guaranteed by Article 12 of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD).

  17. European Equivalencies in Legal Interpreting and Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corsellis, Ann; Hertog, Erik; Martinsen, Bodil;

    2002-01-01

    in terms of - standards of selection, training and asessments of legal interpreters & translators - standards of ethics, code of conduct and good practice - interdisciplinary working arrangements with the legal services. With this paper, the authors aim to share the outcomes of their work....

  18. 14 CFR 1203.100 - Legal basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...”), and the standards for such classification, are established by the “the Order” (E.O. 12958, 3 CFR, 1996... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Legal basis. 1203.100 Section 1203.100....100 Legal basis. (a) Executive Order 12958 (hereinafter referred to as “the Order”)....

  19. Abortion Legalization and Life-Cycle Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananat, Elizabeth Oltmans; Gruber, Jonathan; Levine, Phillip

    2007-01-01

    The early-1970s abortion legalization led to a significant drop in fertility. We investigate whether this decline represented a delay in births or a permanent reduction in fertility. We combine Census and Vital Statistics data to compare the lifetime fertility of women born in early-legalizing states, whose peak childbearing years occurred in the…

  20. Legal institutions, strategic default, and stock returns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Favara; E. Schroth; P. Valta

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of legal institutions on stock returns. More specifically, we examine how differences in debt enforcement and creditor protection around the world affect stock returns of individual firms. We hypothesize that if legal institutions prevent shareholders from engaging in s

  1. 40 CFR 52.775 - Legal authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal authority. 52.775 Section 52.775 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.775 Legal authority. (a) The requirements of § 51.232(b)...

  2. 40 CFR 52.2333 - Legal authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal authority. 52.2333 Section 52.2333 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Utah § 52.2333 Legal authority. (a)...

  3. Whistle-blowing: a legal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunn, J E

    Whistle-blowing needs to be explored from a legal perspective. Nurses who become aware of confidential information which they feel is a matter of public concern are faced with a legal as well as a moral dilemma as to when and how they may 'blow the whistle'. PMID:7580088

  4. The Theory of the Legal State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. J. Du Plessis

    1981-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, which has not been published before, the late Prof. du Plessis lays bare the philosophical roots of the liberal-democratic state, or the legal state, as he preferred to call it. After a recapitulative version of the theory of the legal state, het indicates the origin of this form in Greek philosophy and in Medieval thought. The stress, however, is on the Modem Era, in which he distinuishes two main periods in the development of the theory of the legal state:the jusnaturalistic period and thepositivistic or formal period.He argues that positivism has destroyed the original ideal o f individual freedom in facts by regarding justice as a purely formal matter susceptible to any content. All guarantees for individual freedom which rested on a universal normative system fe ll away. The state defines its own competence and limits itself to legal forms in all its activities. The legal state thus merely becomes the state, any state as determined by fixed rules o f its own making to which it binds itselfin all its functioning. Law sinks to a mere form in which the juristic personality of the state manifests its supremacy, and from this there is only one step to the concept that the state is identical with law, so that any state necessarily is a legal state, and any state action which is formally correct, is legal. The article concludes with a brief representation o f the author’s own political and legal vision.

  5. Advice for the New Legal Studies Professor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    The transition into academia from law school or legal practice is a significant and exciting shift in one's legal career. This transition, however, can also be one that presents numerous challenges. Preparing a syllabus and drafting lecture material can seem like a daunting task. Writing an academic article for the first time involves learning a…

  6. Modern legal periodicals of China%中国近代的法律期刊

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王健

    2007-01-01

    Driven by the importation of western learning to China by Protestant missionaries in the nineteenth century and compilation and publication of legal and political serial books and magazines by students studying in Japan in the late Tsing Dynasty, modem Chinese legal periodicals appeared officially and developed vigorously. These legal periodicals facilitated the modem transformation of traditional Chinese ideology and academy in terms of the purposes, editing mode, academic specifications, writing techniques and language styles of some typical periodicals. As the periodicals were widely spread and demonstrated throughout universities, legal communities and judicial and legislative authorities, more people acquired common background in such aspects as thoughts and writing techniques. As the adhesive of professional communityof media and an important means of maintaining knowledge production ,periodicals created some new authority of saying, based on which the tradition of modem Chinese legal system has been established.

  7. A Proposed Model for Data Privacy providing Legal Protection by E-Court

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manasdeep,

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests a legalized P3P based approach for data privacy protection for the Information owner. The model creates a trust engine between the operating service and user’s data repository. The trust engine now parses the data read/write queries with the privacy policy of the user and releases data or rejects requests as perits decision. Prior to that, there has to be a agreement between the Information Owner and Service provider called “Legal Handshake” upon only which e- contract is generated which is legally binding to both the parties. Any breach to the contract will attract the legal penalties as per laws defined in the chosen legislative drafted in Data Legal Dictionary.

  8. Harmonization of Islamic Law in National Legal System A Comparative Study between Indonesian Law and Malaysian Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeni Salma Barlinti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article compares Indonesian legal system and Malaysian legal system. The government legalized Islamic law in national legislateions, which are in effect for Muslim people. To facilitate dispute settlement, there is a religious court to solve Islamic dispute based on Islamic Law. The exsistence of Islamic law in Indonesia and Malaysia has similarity and differentiation. The similarities among others are: the Muslim-majority in both countries pushes the government to put Islamic law into force, Islamic law must be written into constitution or legislation. It is needed to have legal basis when performing Islamic law, the existence of religious court is very important in dispute settlement related to Islamic law. The Influence of western legal system is very strong in national legal system. Nevertheless, the western legal system differ substantially from Islamic legal system, and Islamic law was implemented limitedly based upon western legislation. It was limited to family law. While the differentiation are: the way of implementation of western legal system into national legal system and the form of legislation Indonesia has one legislation, which is in effect to all of Indonesian people. On the contrary, Malaysia has many enactments, which are different from one to another in each negeri.

  9. The Network of French Legal Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Mazzega, Pierre; Boulet, Romain; 10.1145/1568234.1568271

    2012-01-01

    We propose an analysis of the codified Law of France as a structured system. Fifty two legal codes are selected on the basis of explicit legal criteria and considered as vertices with their mutual quotations forming the edges in a network which properties are analyzed relying on graph theory. We find that a group of 10 codes are simultaneously the most citing and the most cited by other codes, and are also strongly connected together so forming a "rich club" sub-graph. Three other code communities are also found that somewhat partition the legal field is distinct thematic sub-domains. The legal interpretation of this partition is opening new untraditional lines of research. We also conjecture that many legal systems are forming such new kind of networks that share some properties in common with small worlds but are far denser. We propose to call "concentrated world".

  10. LA REFORESTACION CON QUEBRACHO COLORADO Y ALGUNAS NORMAS SILVICOLAS RELACIONADAS CON SU APROVECHAMIENTO RACIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Valentini

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available

    El presente trabajo se relaciona con la reforestación artificial
    del quebracho colorado chaqueño, en la zona húmeda del parque chaqueño y las posibilidades de regeneración natural de sus masas, estableciéndose la etapa de la hidrosere más conveniente para su instalación.
    Se determinan, en base a experiencias recientes, realizadas en establecimientos dependientes de la Administración Nacional de Bosques, los métodos silvícolas más convenientes para su conducción, cortas a clareos sucesivos y tala rasa en fajas alternas, siendo necesaria en la mayoría de los casos, la repoblación por siembra directa o plantación, por falta de portagranos.
    Los factores limitantes del desarrollo de los quebrachales más
    importantes son: las quemas de los campos, el ramoneo y pisoteo de los animales y las heladas y los golpes de sol

  11. Mortalidade neonatal precoce relacionada a intervenções clínicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Marchese Bittencourt

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudo descritivo, transversal, que objetivou identificar a influência das intervenções clínicas realizadas na sala de parto e UTI Neonatal no óbito neonatal precoce em Cuiabá-MT, no ano de 2010. A coleta de dados foi feita em janeiro-fevereiro/2011, com base nos dados contidos nas declarações de nascidos vivos, declarações de óbito e prontuário hospitalares, sendo arquivados e tratados no programa SPSS versão 15.0. Dos 77 óbitos analisados, 94,7% dos bebês nasceram no hospital e mais de 70% morreram precocemente. As intervenções em sala de parto que se associaram ao risco de óbito precoce foram a reanimação cardiopulmonar e intubação; durante a internação, o cateter central de inserção periférica e a hemotransfusão associaram-se como fator de proteção para o óbito precoce. O conhecimento de práticas clínicas benéficas ou maléficas para a saúde do neonato é imprescindível para alcançar a qualidade do cuidado e, consequentemente, reduzir os óbitos neonatais, especialmente os precoces.

  12. "Legal Highs"--An Emerging Epidemic of Novel Psychoactive Substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawilska, Jolanta B

    2015-01-01

    During the last decade, there has been an increase in the availability and use of novel psychoactive substances (NPS), also known as "legal highs," across the world. They include a wide range of products, from natural plant-originated substances to synthetic compounds, that can be purchased both online and from high street retailers. "Legal highs" mimic psychoactive effects of illicit drugs of abuse. However, they are claimed to consist of compounds that are legal to sell, possess, and use, often labeled as "not for human consumption" to circumvent drug abuse legislation. Based on the spectrum of their actions on cognitive processes, mood, and behavior, "legal highs" can be classified into four basis categories: amphetamine- and ecstasy-like stimulants, synthetic cannabinoids (SCs), hallucinogenic/dissociative, and opioid-like compounds. NPS may, however, exhibit a combination of these actions due to their designed chemical structure. Although the prevalence and pattern of NPS use differ between various countries, the most popular groups are SCs and psychostimulants, described in this chapter. Currently, there is limited information available on the potential acute toxicity (harms) associated with the use of these substances. However, the number of intoxicated people presenting with emergencies is constantly increasing, providing evidence that negative health and social consequences may indeed seriously affect recreational and chronic users. PMID:26070762

  13. The legalization of small scale mining in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Urán

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The following article presents conceptual and analytical elements that allow us to broaden the debate about the legalization of the mining in Colombia. Looking for items to be able to propose alternatives in order to consolidate a new mining process socially and environmentally sustainable, claiming the value of the ancestral practices and forms of the redistributive production. To this end, it is necessary to start with the discussion of the concepts of formalization and legality, so that we can generate a theoretical framework that will allow us to explore such delicate matter, we will continue to make the framework socio-political, in which it is based that strategy. Then there is a brief context of thereformulation of legal mining, focusing our attention particularly standards which involves or has effects on artisanal mining and/or small-scale mining. There we will find ourselves with a debate on the typology of the mining and the current difficulties to define schemasof legalization or formalization of small-scale mining in Colombia. To conclude with a proposal to formalize as a mechanism of transition to an administrative system - legislativethat will connect more effectively with the realities and skills of the ethnic communities that practice small-scale mining.

  14. Adesão e dificuldades relacionadas ao tratamento medicamentoso em pacientes com depressão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazielle Ibanez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa verificou a adesão e conhecimento de pessoas com depressão quanto à farmacoterapia prescrita, a satisfação com a equipe de saúde e as dificuldades relacionadas ao tratamento medicamentoso. Trata-se de estudo transversal, descritivo, com abordagem quali-quantitativa. Participaram do estudo 27 pessoas atendidas em um serviço ambulatorial do interior de São Paulo - Brasil. Os dados foram coletados por entrevistas semiestruturadas e revisão de prontuários e analisados por estatística descritiva e análise de conteúdo. Constatou-se que 29,6% dos pacientes não aderiam aos medicamentos e que 51,9% desconheciam a dose dos medicamentos prescritos. Como dificuldades para o seguimento da terapêutica medicamentosa, foram apontados o impacto dos sintomas depressivos sobre o autocuidado, a insatisfação com efeitos dos psicofármacos, a carência de apoio, a polifarmacoterapia e a falta de conhecimento sobre o transtorno e tratamento. Este estudo aponta fatores críticos para a promoção da segurança do paciente no seguimento da terapêutica medicamentosa.

  15. Conciencia ambiental y conducta sustentable relacionada con el uso de energía para iluminación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Lucía Tonello

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available La conciencia ambiental es definida como un concepto multidimensional que constituye la dimensión actitudinal del comportamiento pro ambiental. En un contexto global y local de crisis energética, el presente trabajo tuvo como objetivos investigar las interrelaciones entre las diferentes dimensiones de la conciencia ambiental y la posible sustentabilidad detrás de conductas relacionadas con el uso de la iluminación, en una muestra de estudiantes universitarios. La metodología incluyó el desarrollo y administración de una encuesta con diferentes secciones para estimar la conciencia ambiental mediante escalas clasificatorias y preguntas sobre percepción de problemas ambientales, la atribución de responsabilidades, escalas estandarizadas de preocupación ambiental, conocimientos ambientales y la propensión al futuro como un rasgo de la personalidad sustentable. Los resultados en general muestran que la temática energética, al menos la referida a la iluminación tomada en este estudio, no es percibida como problemática ambiental sino como una problemática que afecta a nivel individual, y la perspectiva temporal de futuro evidenciada por la muestra está referida al tiempo futuro en sí mismo, más que como rasgo de personalidad sustentable.

  16. DESCRIPCIÓN DE UN FRAMEWORK METODOLOGICO PARA EL DESARROLLO DE APLICACIONES RELACIONADAS CON EL PATRIMONIO CULTURAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Mauricio Hincapié-Montoya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Preservar los espacios y difundirlos es una función social que debe mantener unidos a los pueblos y que no puede dejarse a un lado por el clamor y la voz del desarrollo. Para ello la tecnología juega un papel de facilitador mediático a través de la cual se puede llegar a diferentes espacios y lugares históricamente importantes pero físicamente inaccesibles por su desaparición. En los últimos años se han desarrollado aplicaciones que buscan reactivar el patrimonio cultural y hacen uso de tecnologías como realidad virtual, realidad aumentada o juegos serios. Sin embargo, la mayoría son casos de estudio en un tema particular y el área carece de un framework metodológico, que guie y facilite el desarrollo de este tipo de aplicaciones. En este articulo proponemos un framework metodológico conceptual, el cual busca guiar el desarrollo de aplicaciones relacionadas con la reactivación del patrimonio cultural al tiempo que maximiza el aprendizaje de los usuarios en este tema.

  17. Legal and legal-ethical aspects of risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article examines why human beings accept risks. An assessment of risk is always carried out in connection with the benefits to be had from an action which is a potential risk. Decisions on the acceptability of risks are the consequence of political assessments. An assessment of risk on a legal basis is only possible to a limited degree. What is important are the criteria according to which the acceptability of risks is determined. In this context, the concept of damage proves itself to be of central importance; this concept includes the question as to the degree to which such damage can be tolerated socially and politically, the question of future damage as well as the degree to which such damage is reversible. It would be ideal if those persons who are affected by potential damage were to be the ones to make such decisions, but this is extremely difficult to put into practice. Special care must be taken in regard to decisions which have repercussions for future generations or for the state of nature. In this case, the decision which those persons who are potentially affected would most probably make must be anticipated and taken into account as if they were here to participate in the decision-making process. (orig./HSCH)

  18. Os custos de doenças tabaco-relacionadas para o Sistema Único de Saúde The cost of tobacco-related diseases for Brazil's Unified National Health System

    OpenAIRE

    Márcia Pinto; Maria Alicia Domínguez Ugá

    2010-01-01

    Este estudo teve como objetivo calcular os custos diretos de internações por doenças tabaco-relacionadas em 2005, sob a perspectiva do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) para três grupos de doenças: câncer, aparelhos circulatório e respiratório. Para o câncer, os custos com quimioterapia também foram considerados. Foram utilizados dados das bases administrativas dos sistemas de informação do SUS e indicadores epidemiológicos, como prevalência e riscos relativos de cada doença analisada. Os custos a...

  19. Calidad de vida relacionada con la salud en función de la categoría ponderal en la infancia Health-related quality of life across weight categories in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Piqueras

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Analizar las diferencias en calidad de vida relacionada con la salud en función de la categoría ponderal basada en el índice de masa corporal en niños y niñas de 8 a 12 años de edad. Métodos: Estudio transversal descriptivo con 678 escolares de 8 a 12 años de la provincia de Alicante (España. Se compararon las puntaciones en las dimensiones de calidad de vida relacionada con la salud, evaluada mediante la versión española del Child Health and Illness Profile-Child Edition, en función de las categorías ponderales (siguiendo los World Health Organization Child Growth Standards y del sexo. Resultados: El 28,2% y el 15,3% presentaron sobrepeso y obesidad, respectivamente. No se hallaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p > 0,05 entre las categorías ponderales en las dimensiones de calidad de vida relacionada con la salud. Conclusiones: La falta de conciencia en los niños pequeños sobre el impacto de la obesidad en la calidad de vida plantea la necesidad de intervenciones centradas en dicha salud percibida desajustada.Objective: To analyze differences in health-related quality of life across weight categories based on body mass index in boys and girls aged 8 to 12 years old. Methods: A cross-sectional study with 678 schoolchildren aged between 8 and 12 years from the province of Alicante (Spain was conducted. The scores on the dimensions of health-related quality of life, assessed by the Spanish version of the Child Health and Illness Profile-Child Edition, across the weight categories (according to the World Health Organization Child Growth Standards and sex, were compared. Results: Overweight or obesity was found in 28.2% and 15.3% of the sample, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences (p > 0.05 across the weight categories on the distinct dimensions of health-related quality of life. Conclusions: Children are unaware of the impact of obesity on quality of life. Interventions to

  20. Mortalidade por leucemias relacionada à industrialização Mortality by industrialization-related leukemias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Helena Seoane Leal

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a distribuição espacial da mortalidade por leucemia na população, buscando identificar agregados e estabelecer sua relação com os níveis de industrialização. MÉTODOS: O estudo foi realizado nas 43 regiões de governo do Estado de São Paulo, no qüinqüênio 1991-1995. Foi construído um "índice de industrialização relativo à leucemia" (IIRL baseado no número de indústrias e empregos industriais por 100.000 habitantes, valor adicionado fiscal, variedade de ramos industriais e indústrias com potenciais exposições de risco para a leucemia. O IIRL foi distribuído em cinco categorias. Verificaram-se os coeficientes padronizados de mortalidade por leucemia em cada uma das regiões, também distribuídos em cinco categorias e comparados ao mapa IIRL. RESULTADOS: As regiões mais industrializadas em ordem decrescente foram Campinas, Piracicaba, Jundiaí, Sorocaba e São Paulo. Não foi encontrada associação entre mortalidade, por nenhum tipo de leucemia, e industrialização. A região de Jales foi a que apresentou o mais alto coeficiente padronizado de mortalidade por leucemia. CONCLUSÕES: A distribuição da mortalidade por leucemia ocorreu de forma homogênea no Estado de São Paulo, não apresentando correlação com o nível de industrialização. Entretanto, aspectos relacionados ao método epidemiológico adotado -- estudo ecológico -- e ao uso do parâmetro "mortalidade por leucemia", doença cujo prognóstico tem mudado muito nas últimas décadas, limitaram a interpretação dos resultados.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the spatial distribution of mortality by leukemia in the population, looking for clusters, and to establish an association with the level of industrialization. METHOD: The study was carried out in 43 state regions of the state of São Paulo, Brazil, in the period between 1991 and 1995. It was created an Index of Industrialization-Related Leukemia (IIRL based on number of manufactures and

  1. CREATIVITY OF ADVERTISING ACTIVITIES INSOCIETY OF RUSSIA: THE SPECIFICS OFLEGAL REGULATION

    OpenAIRE

    Angelika Vladimirovna KARYAGINA

    2015-01-01

    The article highlights the analysis of peculiarities of legal regulation of creativity in advertising activities. Creative technologies used in advertising activities, actually operate in a legal vacuum, and many provisions of the legislation are used just by analogy, what leads to the emergence of risks in the process of creating, placing and disseminating advertisements and, consequently, to the need of their legal regulation based on relevant norms and principles.

  2. CREATIVITY OF ADVERTISING ACTIVITIES INSOCIETY OF RUSSIA: THE SPECIFICS OFLEGAL REGULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Vladimirovna KARYAGINA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the analysis of peculiarities of legal regulation of creativity in advertising activities. Creative technologies used in advertising activities, actually operate in a legal vacuum, and many provisions of the legislation are used just by analogy, what leads to the emergence of risks in the process of creating, placing and disseminating advertisements and, consequently, to the need of their legal regulation based on relevant norms and principles.

  3. Harmonization of Islamic Law in National Legal System A Comparative Study between Indonesian Law and Malaysian Law

    OpenAIRE

    Yeni Salma Barlinti

    2011-01-01

    This article compares Indonesian legal system and Malaysian legal system. The government legalized Islamic law in national legislateions, which are in effect for Muslim people. To facilitate dispute settlement, there is a religious court to solve Islamic dispute based on Islamic Law. The exsistence of Islamic law in Indonesia and Malaysia has similarity and differentiation. The similarities among others are: the Muslim-majority in both countries pushes the government to put Islamic law into f...

  4. Legal and ethical considerations in processing patient‐identifiable data without patient consent: lessons learnt from developing a disease register

    OpenAIRE

    Haynes, Charlotte L; Cook, Gary A; Jones, Michael A.

    2007-01-01

    The legal requirements and justifications for collecting patient‐identifiable data without patient consent were examined. The impetus for this arose from legal and ethical issues raised during the development of a population‐based disease register. Numerous commentaries and case studies have been discussing the impact of the Data Protection Act 1998 (DPA1998) and Caldicott principles of good practice on the uses of personal data. But uncertainty still remains about the legal requirements for ...

  5. Evaluation of legal aspects of activities involving radiations: proposal for a new legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present brazilian legislation status concerning activities in which occurs or may occur any exposure to ionizing radiations, involves several incoherencies and privileges, as a consequence of legal rights generated from labor principles which have no social or scientific base. In this study, several legal labor topics are analysed and a new doctrine context is proposed, based mainly on a equal treatment for all insalubrious and dangerous activities done by workers of both private and public sectors (author). 8 refs

  6. New generation of ''legal'' dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the early 1980s research at the National Radiological Protection Board in the UK proved the feasibility of using solid state electronics in an entirely new dosimetry technology - capable of reaching right down into the low energy photon ranges, and able to detect beta radiation. In 1988 the NRPB undertook a joint venture with Siemens Plessey Controls to develop a marketable personal dosemeter meeting full Health and Safety Executive approval as a ''legal'' instrument. The Electronic Personal Dosemeter (EPD) was thus conceived, and will reach the pre-production stage early this year. The EPD makes use of state-of-the-art silicon integrated circuit technology, with a custom amplifier and microprocessor system. The liquid crystal display continuously shows the accumulated short-term penetrating dose in terms of the Hp (10) unit, and can also show superficial dose and dose rates. Because the EPD must be continuously powered, the custom lithium battery was commissioned to ensure a minimum service interval of 12 months. The EPD is the size and weight of a small pocket pager. Although dose data can be read directly from the EPD, a comprehensive data management system is needed to effect real-life use in industry. The EPD thus communicates by infra-red link to a reader unit which interfaces an IBM-compatible PC, allowing authorized personnel to read the dose memories and perform dose alarm threshold settings. (author)

  7. Legal liability and workplace violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakel, S J

    1998-01-01

    Workplace violence is a growing social problem. Some of this growth may be perceptual, reflecting our new awareness of what constitutes violence in the workplace. Furthermore, much of what falls under its current rubric does not correspond to the classic image of worker-on-worker or worker-on-employer mayhem. Nevertheless, the total number of incidents is alarmingly large; the problem is real. It is natural to consider law (i.e., legal liability) as a potential solution. Aiming the liability threat at the employer may be the most effective and efficient strategy. There are ample theories to choose from: negligence (tort) law, agency law, contract, civil rights, and regulatory law. Judges and juries appear eager to hold employers accountable for violent incidents in the workplace, sometimes in the face of other, more logical constructions of the facts or theory. One's best hope is that the fear this strikes in the hearts of employers will make for maximum preventive results. PMID:9894212

  8. DRONE OPERATORS – LEGAL RESPONSIBILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei-Alexandru STOICA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Drones or unmanned or remote vehicles represent a new generation of devices that were designed to help mankind achieve better results in areas that were proven to hazardous. By developing drones, new areas of economic activities have been unlocked for better exploitation, but at the same time, the lack of a proper legal system to back-up the new technology allowed a new wave of gray-lined uses of drones that must be tackled. As the Director of the 21st Century Defense Initiative at the Brookings Institute1 explains in an interview in 2012 that “a revolutionary technology is a game-changing technology on a historic level. It is technology like gunpowder, or the steam engine, or the atomic bomb”. With this in mind, drones mark the revolution to carry out strikes from thousands of kilometers away, while also ensuring a permanent eye in the sky for both military and also law enforcement operations. The aforementioned facts are just small percentages of what a drone is truly capable of and its full potential will only be unlocked once artificial intelligence will become an integral part of robotics.

  9. The Adequacy of Doctor Patient the Relationship to the Requirements of Validity of the legal Transaction: the Doctor Patient Relationship as legal Phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Romero Beltrão

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This work is interdisciplinary and aims to examine the adequacy of the patient-physician relationship to the requirements of validity of legal business. The doctor-patient relationship needs a complete overview on the elements and requirements that constitute its validity in law. As a starting point analyzes the doctor-patient relationship as a legal fact, to then verify the validity requirements of the patient medical legal business, capable agent, object and lawful manner prescribed by law. Investigating the manifestation of the will as the main element of the legal transaction to define the end of the study the importance of the doctor-patient relationship by law, based on the General Theory of Civil Law.

  10. 略论中国古代的法律伦理——以《唐律疏议》为中心%Legal Ethics in Ancient China:A Study Based on Commentaries on the Codes of Tang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立民

    2012-01-01

    中国古代也存在法律伦理。《唐律疏议》是中华法系的代表作,以它为中心来审视古代的法律伦理,具有一定的代表性。中国古代的法律伦理存在于法律的原则、制度和具体内容之中,《唐律疏议》中法律伦理的形成有一定的条件支撑。与中国古代的法律伦理相关,法律伦理的作用、阐发和影响等问题值得关注。%There was legal ethics in ancient China.As the representative work of China legal system,Commentaries on the Codes of Tang could be studied for legal ethics in ancient China.Such ethics existed in principles,institutions and specific rules,and are supported by several conditions in Commentaries on the Codes of Tang.Related to this,the function,exposition and influence worth noticing.

  11. Reserva legal nacional: concepto y elementos

    OpenAIRE

    Loiralith Margarita Chirinos Portillo; Fabiola del Valle Tavares Duarte; María Eugenia Soto Hernández

    2013-01-01

    Este artículo de investigación tiene como objetivo general determinar la reserva legal nacional en la Constitución de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela de 1999. Se utiliza la estrategia de investigación documental y el método analítico. Las fuentes para la recolección de información corresponden a cinco ámbitos: constitucional, legal, sublegal, doctrinal y jurisprudencial. La reserva legal nacional se conceptúa como materias específicas de com- petencia nacional que por disposición consti...

  12. Review of: Legal practice and cultural diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinding, Niels Valdemar

    2010-01-01

    This anthology comprises contributions from a conference on legal practice and cultural diversity held in London in July 2007, but the editors take their cue from the speech made in February 2008 by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Dr Rowan Williams. The questions central to the book are the same that...... arose after the speech by the Archbishop: whether or to what extent cultural difference should be recognized by legal systems. Legal practice and cultural diversity, edited by Ralph Grillo, Roger Ballard, Alessandro Ferrari, Andre´ J. Hoekema, Marcel Maussen, and Prakash Shah, Farnham, UK, Ashgate, 2009...

  13. Rape: Past and present legal regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Đapović Lasta S.

    2002-01-01

    Rape was identified as a criminal act in the earliest known legal writings, Hamurabi's legal code (cir. 2000 BC). In the Balkans, in the Middle Ages, rape was always punished in one way or another, in the statutes of the Adriatic maritime towns, which were under the rule of the Nemanjić state or the West. All categories of women, even prostitutes and slaves, were protected by law from sexual violence in many statutes. Also in Dušan's legal code the regulation is found, severely punishing rapi...

  14. The Common History of European Legal Scholarship

    OpenAIRE

    Wallinga, Tammo

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis paper traces the common history of European legal scholarship from its beginning in the late 12th century to the development of national codifications which started some six centuries later. During this period, Roman law was of great importance in the universities, and Justinian’s Corpus Iuris Civilis was the central text for legal studies. We will look at the different approaches to this body of text that legal scholarship has taken over the years. Still, Roman law did not h...

  15. Introducing legal method when teaching stakeholder theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Governments are particularly salient stakeholders for business ethics. They act on societal needs and social expectations, and have the political and legal powers to restrict or expand the economic freedoms of business as well as the legitimacy and often urgency to do so. We draw on two examples......: the Business & Human Rights regime from a UN Global Compact perspective; and mandatory CSR reporting. Supplying integrated teaching notes and generalising on the examples, we explain how legal method may help students of business ethics, organisation and management – future managers – in their...... contribute to the business ethics literature by explaining how legal method complements stakeholder theory for organisational practice....

  16. Legal aspects of intergenerational equity issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the extent to which American law and legal institutions have addressed problems of intergenerational equities. Beginning with a definition of the issue, the paper goes on to address conservation law, public debt ceilings, property law, and eugenic laws. The research supports the conclusion that neither statutory law, the formal expression of public policy articulated by the legislature, nor common law, the case-by-case definition of private legal rights by the courts has developed a coherent set of legal principles for dealing with the difficult problems of intergenerational equity. 15 references

  17. 论农村社会保障法律制度构建中的政府责任——基于社会法视阈%On the Government's Responsibility in the Reshaping of Rural Social Security Legal System --Based on the Perspective of Social Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    项贤国; 王军

    2012-01-01

    Legal relationship of rural social security complex,Government,society and rural residents in the rural social security enjoy corresponding rights and obligations.Administrative method,and economic law and social method their has unique of legal value and adjustment object,text in the respectively based on this three a method domain research rural social security legal system remodel- ing in the of government responsibility owned bit, investigation rural social security method construction in the Government responsi- bility of over bit and lost bit,reflection Government in construction rural social security legal system in the by played of led and Foundation role,made in social method depending on threshold Xia Government should positioning in bear method construction,and financial support and supervision management of responsibility.%农村社会保障法律关系错综复杂,政府、社会及农民在农村社会保障中既有相应的权力(利),也要履行一定的义务。行政法、经济法和社会法各自具有独特的法律价值和调整对象,本文分别基于这三个法域检视农村社会保障法律制度构建中的政府责任,考察农村社会保障法律制度构建中政府责任的越位和缺位,反思政府在构建农村社会保障法律制度中所发挥的主导和基础作用,提出在社会法视阈下政府应定位在承担法律制度构建、财政支撑和监督管理之责任。

  18. Law and Islamic finance: How legal origins affect Islamic finance development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rihab Grassa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers have shown that differences in legal origin explain differences in financial development. Using historical comparisons and cross-country regressions for 30 countries observed for the period from 2005 to 2010, this study tried to assess if different legal origins impacted on the development of Islamic finance. More particularly, this paper tried to assess empirically why and how Shari'a Law's legal origins adopted wholly or partially (combined with Common or Civil Law could explain the level of development of Islamic finance in different jurisdictions. Firstly, we found that countries adopting a Shari'a legal system had a very well developed Islamic financial system. Secondly, we found that countries, adopting a mixed legal system based on Common Law and Shari'a Law, were characterized by the flexibility of their legal systems to make changes to their laws in response to the changing socioeconomic conditions and that these helped the development of the Islamic financial industry. However, we found that countries, adopting a mixed legal system based on both Civil Law and Shari'a Law, were less flexible in making changes to their old laws and this thwarted the development of the Islamic financial industry in these countries. Thirdly, we found that the concentration of Muslim population (the percentage of Muslim population had a positive effect on the development of the Islamic banking system. Also, the level of income had a positive and significant effect on the development of Islamic banking.

  19. The risk assessment of legalization of criminal proceeds by entities of initial financial monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Smaglo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article has explored the features of the risk assessment of legalization of criminal proceeds by entities of initial financial monitoring. The author has grounded the necessity and importance of the risk assessing of legalization of criminal proceeds by entities of initial financial monitoring as they can both directly carry out financial transactions for legalization of illegal proceeds, and also facilitate their implementation. The paper has proposed the method of the risk assessing of legalization of criminal proceeds by a commercial bank. The method is based on the point scale and is characterized by the following advantages in comparison with the existing ones: it gives enough accurate assessment, it combines the evaluation of quantitative and qualitative indicators, it is simple and convenient in use. The developed method of the risk assessing of legalization of criminal proceed based on the point scale, can be used by a commercial bank to determine the effectiveness of the system of risk management legalization of proceeds or for the purpose of determining the comprehensive risk of legalization of criminal proceeds of a particular financial transaction, and by the National Bank of Ukraine to determine the frequency of inspections of commercial banks on the issues of financial monitoring.

  20. Medical and legal implications of a large release of radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data from NCRP Report No. 55 by the National Council on radiation Protection and Measurements are used in a hypothetical release situation to delineate the potential medical and legal problems that may arise from such a release. An analysis of these problems indicates that the effects of radioiodine release are the most important and that guidelines for countermeasures and follow-up action must be developed and promulgated. Model guidelines based on the hypothetical release are presented and discussed

  1. Identificación molecular de mutaciones puntuales relacionadas con resistencia a drogas en VIH-1 de pacientes peruanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Yabar V

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Identificar mutaciones puntuales relacionadas con resistencia a drogas en VIH-1 de pacientes peruanos. Materiales y metodos: Se seleccionaron 11 muestras de VIH provenientes de sangre total de sujetos con tratamiento antirretroviral (ARV. Posteriormente se realizo la optimizacion de la amplificacion de 337 pb del gen de la transcriptasa reversa (tr y 377 pb de todo el gen de la proteasa (prt. Los productos de PCR fueron secuenciados directamente para el analisis de mutaciones de resistencia. Las secuencias finales fueron analizadas en programas de analisis de mutaciones de la HIV Drug Resistance Database de la Universidad de Stanford. mutaciones de la HIV Drug Resistance Database de la Universidad de Stanford. Resultados: La optimizacion de la concentracion de ADN (2,5 ng / µL asi como la concentracion de magnesio (4 mM fueron factores criticos para la amplificacion de la tr y la prt respectivamente. De otro lado, el analisis de secuencia revelo la presencia de las mutaciones T215Y y la M184V en tr, implicadas en conferir resistencia a zidovudina (AZT y estavudina (D4T asi como a lamivudina (3TC y emtricitabina (FTC respectivamente. En prt se observaron las mutaciones D30N y N88D implicadas en conferir resistencia a nelfinavir (NFV. Es importante senalar que solo tres muestras de VIH-1 presentaron mutaciones de resistencia, las demas mostraron mutaciones compensatorias. Conclusiones: Se demuestra la existencia de mutaciones de resistencia a ARV a nivel de tr y prt de VIH-1 en sujetos peruanos que reciben terapia TARGA. Se requieren de mayores estudios para establecer un perfil de resistencia a ARV en la poblacion peruana.

  2. Patologías Relacionadas con el Tracto Reproductivo en Herbívoros, Carnívoros y Primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J B Mesa-Cruz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Una gran proporción del conocimiento en patologías relacionadas al tracto reproductivo en herbívoros, carnívoros y primates ha sido producto de la investigación realizada en animales de compañía o con importancia económica y de salud humana. Esta revisión bibliográfica tiene como objetivo abordar y describir brevemente  enfermedades del tracto reproductivo de origen infeccioso, no infeccioso y finalmente considerar algunos aspectos importantes en condiciones de cautiverio  que afectan la habilidad reproductiva en herbívoros, carnívoros y primates. Las especies silvestres son afectadas por enfermedades infecciosas de gran importancia zoonótica como brucelosis y leptospirosis. Por otro lado, enfermedades virales como diarrea viral bovina, herpesvirus y papilomatosis pueden afectar rumiantes, equinos y primates, respectivamente.  Adicionalmente, problemas neoplásicos como leiomiomas y de las células de Sertoli afectan hembras y machos. Los primates han sido usados como biomodelos para estudiar las enfermedades reproductivas en humanos; razón por la cual se conocen ampliamente enfermedades uterinas y de la preñez en simios y otros primates.  Patologías uterinas y ováricas pueden emerger a causa de actividades iatrogénicas como es el control poblacional por medio de acetato de melengestrol en félidos y otros carnívoros. Finalmente, la actividad reproductiva en especies silvestres en cautiverio puede ser interrumpida por una gran variedad de causas ambientales, de bienestar, de alojamiento, sociales y de salud.

  3. Palabras cotidianas equivalentes a operadores aritméticos relacionadas con la solución de problemas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Ávalos Latorre

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Los estudios sobre la solución de problemas aritméticos se han realizado predominantemen - te desde la teoría cognoscitiva, aunque la teoría conductista también se ha interesado, sigue sien - do insuficiente el conocimiento que se tiene al respecto. Para el desarrollo del presente estudio empírico experimental se aplicaron distintos en - trenamientos en la identificación de palabras de uso equivalente a sumar y restar en el lenguaje ordinario, palabras cotidianas relacionadas con operadores aritméticos y con la solución de pro - blemas. Participaron 16 estudiantes de segundo grado de primaria distribuidos en cuatro grupos: el primero, se entrenó mediante procedimiento de igualación de la muestra de primer orden, el segundo usando oraciones declarativas, el tercero recibió ambos entrenamientos y el grupo control solo respondió las pruebas. No existieron dife - rencias considerables en la identificación de las palabras de uso equivalente a la suma y la resta. El grupo expuesto al entrenamiento de palabras identificó más palabras en la postprueba que los otros grupos. El porcentaje de aciertos fue mayor en la solución de operaciones que en el recono - cimiento de palabras. Se considera irrelevante la identificación de la palabra para lograr la solución correcta del problema. Se sugiere que el aborda - je del desempeño en problemas aritméticos debe contemplar participantes con alta y con deficiente precisión de operaciones aritméticas ya que los bajos porcentajes de problemas solucionados co - rrectamente se deben más al deficiente dominio del procedimiento de sumar y restar, que al no re - conocimiento de las palabras

  4. Qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde de filhos de profissionais da área de saúde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Maria Moussi Gamallo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo mensuramos a qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde (QVRS e a fadiga de filhos de profissionais da área da saúde, com idades entre 2 e 11 anos, e avaliamos os hábitos diários e o sono dessas crianças e dos respectivos pais. Foram incluídas no estudo crianças de uma escola pública. Dados demográficos e dados de hábitos diários foram colhidos. A QVRS, o sono e a fadiga foram mensurados por questionários. Participaram 249 pais - 63,5% referiram sono adequado e 47,4% acordavam cansados. A média da idade das crianças foi 5,6 anos - 62,2% assistiam televisão no quarto, 50% usavam computador (> 4 horas/dia e 27,8% faziam atividades físicas extracurriculares. O escore do sono foi de 45,8 ± 12,2. Os escores de QVRS foram mais elevados no aspecto físico e mais baixos no emocional. Detectamos que o sono de pior qualidade dos filhos e dos pais pode estar relacionado à pior QVRS dos filhos. Concluímos que os hábitos inadequados dos pais, bem como das crianças, estão relacionados a uma diminuição da QVRS dos filhos, especialmente no aspecto emocional.

  5. Calidad de vida relacionada con la salud y obesidad en un centro de atención primaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barajas Gutiérrez Miguel Angel

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO. Evaluar la asociación entre la obesidad y dos aspectos de la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud: autopercepción de salud y bienestar psicológico en pacientes adscritos a un centro de salud. MÉTODOS. Estudio transversal descriptivo sobre 167 pacientes entre 20 y 70 años, con índice de masa corporal ³ 30. Se realizó entrevista clínica para la obtención de las variables sociodemográficas y clínicas de cada paciente y la administración de 2 cuestionarios: 1 Perfil de Salud de Nottingham (PSN y 2 Psychological General Well-Being (PGWB índex. RESULTADOS. Las puntuaciones medias del PSN indicaron un deterioro global moderado de la salud percibida en las pacientes obesas siendo las áreas afectadas "dolor", "movilidad física" y "reacciones emocionales". Las variables asociadas a una peor puntuación fueron el sexo femenino, la edad superior a 50 años, el bajo nivel de estudios y la presencia de patología psiquiátrica o artrosis. La puntuación total media del PGWB indica un deterioro pequeño del bienestar psicológico. El sexo femenino, la ansiedad y el bajo nivel de estudios se asociaron, asimismo, a peores puntuaciones. CONCLUSIONES. En nuestra población, se identifica un perfil de pacientes obesos con mala calidad de vida (mujeres de edad superior a 50 años con bajo nivel de estudios y presencia de patología psiquiátrica o artrosis sobre los que se plantea la conveniencia de realizar una actuación prioritaria.

  6. State-legal protection of children in the Republic of Kazakhstan

    OpenAIRE

    Nurbayev Adilet Nurbayuly; Ospanova Jamilya Azizkhanovna

    2015-01-01

    In work state and legal bases of protection of the rights of the child in the Republic of Kazakhstan are investigated. Are considered history of development of the concept of human rights and rights of the child in the legal concept of human rights, concept of the mechanism of protection of the rights of the child, the structure and the characteristic of the mechanism of legal protection of the rights of the child both with theoretical, and from a practical side are given. The provisions lit ...

  7. The legal status of Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Altamura

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available An exponential improvement of numerical weather prediction (NWP models was observed during the last decade (Lynch, 2008. Civil Protection (CP systems exploited Meteo services in order to redeploy their actions towards the prediction and prevention of events rather than towards an exclusively response-oriented mechanism1.

    Nevertheless, experience tells us that NWP models, even if assisted by real time observations, are far from being deterministic. Complications frequently emerge in medium to long range forecasting, which are subject to sudden modifications. On the other hand, short term forecasts, if seen through the lens of criminal trials2, are to the same extent, scarcely reliable (Molini et al., 2009.

    One particular episode related with wrong forecasts, in the Italian panorama, has deeply frightened CP operators as the NWP model in force missed a meteorological adversity which, in fact, caused death and dealt severe damage in the province of Vibo Valentia (2006. This event turned into a very discussed trial, lasting over three years, and intended against whom assumed the legal position of guardianship within the CP. A first set of data is now available showing that in concomitance with the trial of Vibo Valentia the number of alerts issued raised almost three folds. We sustain the hypothesis that the beginning of the process of overcriminalization (Husak, 2008 of CPs is currently increasing the number of false alerts with the consequent effect of weakening alert perception and response by the citizenship (Brezntiz, 1984.

    The common misunderstanding of such an issue, i.e. the inherent uncertainty in weather predictions, mainly by prosecutors and judges, and generally by whom deals with law and justice, is creating the basis for a defensive behaviour3 within CPs. This paper intends, thus, to analyse the social and legal relevance of uncertainty in the process of issuing

  8. Rearrangement of Legal Holidays Opens Hot Debate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ On November 9, the National Development and Reform Commission conducted a poll regarding the rearrangement of national legal holidays on its official website.After a year of research and study, a framework for the changes has been completed.

  9. Theorizing Mediation: Lessons Learned from Legal Anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Simon Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s, there has been an increasing interest in mediation in the Netherlands, as part of a set of ‘alternative dispute resolution’ methods. Politicians, lawyers and practitioners have embraced mediation as a legitimate method for settling disputes, alongside the adjudication of conflicts in courts of law. However, there is a striking lack of literature aimed at theorizing mediation from a legal perspective. This article argues that the legal anthropology literature on disputes and dispute settlement offers useful insights for understanding mediation from a ‘legal research’ point of view. This is because a lot of current common knowledge on mediation has its roots in a legal anthropological understanding. The argument that is set forth in this article is that the most important lesson that can be learned is that mediation should not be seen in isolation, but as part of a social process.

  10. Surveying Our Legal Environment--Part One.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Rochelle K.

    1989-01-01

    Reviews current Equal Employment Opportunity Laws and their effect on college placement and recruitment. Legal theories of discrimination are discussed, along with their effects on recruiting, the role and responsibilities of the placement office, and affirmative action. (TE)

  11. Organ Transplantation: Ethical, Legal and Psychological Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Weimar, W.

    2007-01-01

    Initiating a European Platform Organ Transplantation: Ethical, Legal and Psychological Aspectsowards a Common European Policy April 1 – 4, 2007 World Trade Center Rotterdam, The Netherlands Programme and Abstracts

  12. Legal Aspects of Brain-Computer Interfaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krausová, Alžběta

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 2 (2014). ISSN 1802-5951 Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : brain-computer interface * human rights * right to privacy, Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences http://mujlt.law.muni.cz/index.php

  13. 21 CFR 120.9 - Legal basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION HAZARD ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) SYSTEMS General Provisions § 120.9 Legal basis. Failure of a processor to have and to implement a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP... implementation of its HACCP system....

  14. Legal aspects of nuclear merchant ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Review of Chapter VIII of SOLAS Convention, Brussels' Convention on Liability of Operators of Nuclear Ships and its impact on national laws and bilateral treaties. Problems encountered with informal agreements on port visits. Prospects and problems of future legal development

  15. Political and Legal Doctrine of Simon Bolivar

    OpenAIRE

    Mixail V. Fedorov

    2014-01-01

    Present article is devoted to the legal, political and constitutional ideas of the outstanding leader of war of independence in Latin America Simon Bolivar that was called by his countrymen and contemporaries to be a LIBERATOR. In the present article author discusses complex genesis and evolution of the political and legal doctrine of Simon Bolivar. Review is conducted by author in the context of developing theory and practice of Latin American constitutionalism in the XIX century. Author con...

  16. Relationship Marketing in Legal Services Marketing Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Audronė Androšiūnaitė; Borisas Melnikas

    2013-01-01

    The article defines the concept of professional services and evaluates the extent, to which legal services could be understood as professional services. In addition, literature analysis in the relationship marketing is presented as well as conclusions on the method for the use of relationship marketing in the development of legal services marketing strategy. Strategies of professional services marketing are completely different from other services marketing because of relations with current c...

  17. PROSTITUTION PHENOMENON - LEGAL AND SOCIAL ASPECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Ilinca Alexandra TÃLNAR; Camelia Augusta HIMCINSCHI

    2012-01-01

    The prostitution phenomenon is a global, complex, controversial, and problematic phenomenon which remains one of the current subjects debated at national and international level. From a judicial point of view, despite of the numerous legal measures and sporadic actions realized by the police, prostitution continues to be present in Romania, partially due to the low efficiency of legal controls and laws’ implementation. In this respect, we have focused on the distinction between offence and co...

  18. Legal Considerations of Psychiatric Nursing Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barloon, Linda Funk; Hilliard, Wanda

    2016-06-01

    There are major legal issues that affect psychiatric nursing and guidelines for practicing in a legal and responsible manner. Advances in understanding of psychiatric conditions and developments in how nurses care for psychiatric patients result in changes in regulations, case law, and policies that govern nursing practice. Professional development, keeping abreast of current research and literature regarding clinical practice and trends, and involvement in professional organizations are some of the ways that psychiatric nurses can meet the challenges of their profession. PMID:27229273

  19. Legal aspects of clinical ethics committees

    OpenAIRE

    Hendrick, J.

    2001-01-01

    In an increasingly litigious society where ritual demands for accountability and "taking responsibility" are now commonplace, it is not surprising that members of clinical ethics committees (CECs) are becoming more aware of their potential legal liability. Yet the vulnerability of committee members to legal action is difficult to assess with any certainty. This is because the CECs which have been set up in the UK are—if the American experience is followed—likely to vary significantly in terms...

  20. Cannabis Use and Support for Cannabis Legalization

    OpenAIRE

    Palali, A.; van Ours, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the determinants of the support for cannabis legalization finding a causal effect of personal experience with cannabis use. Current and past cannabis users are more in favor of legalization. We relate this to self-interest and inside information about potential dangers of cannabis use. While the effects of self-interest are not very surprising, the effect of inside information suggests that cannabis use may not be as harmful as cannabis users originally thought it was and not a...

  1. Digital Identity: an emergent legal concept

    OpenAIRE

    Sullivan, Clare

    2011-01-01

    This is the first full-length study of digital identity in a transactional context, from a legal perspective. Clare Sullivan's analysis reveals the emergence of a distinct, new legal concept of identity. This concept is particularly clear under a national identity scheme such as the United Kingdom and Indian schemes. However, its emergence is evident even in jurisdictions, like Australia, which do not have a formal national identity scheme. Much of the analysis can also be extrapolated ...

  2. Abortion in Iranian legal system: a review.

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud Abbasi; Ehsan Shamsi Gooshki; Neda Allahbedashti

    2014-01-01

    Abortion traditionally means, "to miscarry" and is still known as a problem which societies has been trying to reduce its rate by using legal means. Despite the pregnant women and fetuses have being historically supported; abortion was firstly criminalized in 1926 in Iran, 20 years after establishment of modern legal system. During next 53 years this situation changed dramatically, so in 1979, the time of Islamic Revolution, aborting fetuses before 12 weeks and therapeutic abortion (TA) durin...

  3. THE MELTING POT OF LEGAL SYSTEMS IN INDONESIA (READING THE LEGAL POLITICS OF INDONESIAN ISLAMIC LAW)

    OpenAIRE

    Andi Nuzul

    2014-01-01

    Islamic law is integrated into but stands independently from Indonesia’s national law. It is integrated in the sense that its substance has been absorbed into the legal systems through laws and other legal rulings and binds all Indonesian citizens. It is independent however, in the sense that its substance governs the internal conduct of Muslims. Islamic law has strengthened the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia, especially after the amendments of the 1945 Constitution, whose legal s...

  4. Between natural law and legal positivism : Dworkin and Hegel on legal theory.

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, Thom

    2007-01-01

    In this article, I argue that - despite the absence of any clear influence of one theory on the other - the legal theories of Dworkin and Hegel share several similar and, at times, unique positions that join them together within a distinctive school of legal theory, sharing a middle position between natural law and legal positivism. In addition, each theory can help the other in addressing certain internal difficulties. By recognizing both Hegel and Dworkin as proponents of a position lying i...

  5. LEGAL ANALYSIS OF THE LEGAL LIABILITY OF THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH IN RUSSIA AND USA

    OpenAIRE

    Chepus, Alexey

    2014-01-01

    This paper contains the analysis of the notion of the legal liability of the executive branch in two legal frameworks of Russia and USA. The constitutional foundations of the architecture and operation of the USA executive branch are researched in details, with the focus on the practice of functioning of the US Cabinet and President and the liability of the high-rank executives in the USA. The paper also considers the essence, legal elements and implementation instruments of the governmental ...

  6. Ethical issues in medico-legal exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Medical Exposure Directive (MED) 97/43/Euratom defines medico-legal procedures as 'procedures performed for insurance or legal purposes without a medical indication'. The term 'medico-legal exposures' covers a wide range of possible types of exposures, very different in nature, for which the only feature in common is the fact that the main reason for performing them does not relate directly to the health of the individual being exposed to ionising radiation. The key issue in medico-legal exposures is justification. Balancing the advantages and disadvantages of such exposures is complex because not only can these be difficult to quantify and hence compare, but often the advantage may be to society whereas the disadvantage is usually to an individual. This adds an additional layer of ethical complexity to the problem and one, which requires input from a number of sources beyond the established radiation protection community. Because medico-legal exposures are considered to be medical exposures, they are not subject to dose limits. In medico-legal exposures where the benefit is not necessarily to the individual undergoing the exposure, the question must be asked as to whether or not this is an appropriate framework within which to conduct such exposures. This paper looks at the current situation in Europe, highlighting some of the particular problems that have arisen, and tries to identify the areas, which require further clarification and guidance. (authors)

  7. 我国临终关怀事业的困境及其对策--基于法律规制的视角%The Plight and Countermeasures of Terminal Care Cause from the Perspective of Legal Regulation ---The perspective Based on legal Regulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王星明

    2014-01-01

    The terminal care has developed in our country for more than 20 years, due to various reasons, this cause met with some difficulties. The fundamental reason lies in the lack of system construction. From the perspec-tive of legal regulation, this paper proposed to strengthen the relevant laws and regulations, to definite the responsi-bility of different level government and relevant departments and to revise or improve the relevant laws and regula-tions, which will ensure the hospice service operate in a standardized and orderly manner and promote its profes-sional education.%临终关怀在我国发展的20多年里,由于种种原因,遇到了若干困境。其根本原因在于制度建设的缺失。基于法律规制的视角,提出了加强相关法律法规的制定,明确各级政府及相关部门对发展临终关怀所应该履行的职责;修订或完善相关的法律法规,保障临终关怀服务规范、有序地运行以及推进临终关怀的专业化教育等对策。

  8. Building a Legal Expert System for Legal Reasoning in Specific Domain-A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkateswarlu Naik.M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need to develop a legal expert system for the people to solve their legal troubles in orderreduce problems to the people for frequently arising legal solutions or legal queries, there is a need of legallawyer is mandatory, so there is an urgent need for the use of practical AI solutions in many of areas forproblems which people encounter in their daily lives. In this context building a legal expert system for thepeople is most adequate to make legal decisions in a particular domain through which people can getbasic service or suggestions or counseling or Fact finding and diagnosing few things associated to theirdomain. Such kind of emerging domain is called Immovable Property Acquisition (IMP like Tangibleproperties Land, House etc.., In order to build such kind of systems certain prior domain knowledge mustbe acquired. The main fundamental goal of this paper is to survey distinguish prerequisites informationabout to make legal expert system. Here primarily focusing regarding Traditional model of legalreasoning, proposed approach by Expert System, Various Logical components, Types of Legal InferenceTechniques to automate the legal tasks.

  9. A LEGAL PERSPECTIVE OF THE SINGLE RESOLUTION MECHANISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Ambrasas

    2014-08-01

    their initial views on the proposal and a few legal issues as legal base, litigation risk, centralization and decision making powers risks, etc. could be identified nowadays. These sensitive issues need to be identified in the scientific level in order to crystallize single resolution mechanism efficiency and credibility. As there is no theoretical framework on the subject yet the author makes the legal assessment of the SRM with the assistance of the relevant legislation, reports and jurisprudence. Keywords: bank, bank insolvency, bank resolution, single resolution mechanism. Research type: research paper.

  10. Stacking the Jury: Legal Professionals' Peremptory Challenges Reflect Jurors' Levels of Implicit Race Bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Mike; DeVaul-Fetters, Amanda; Gawronski, Bertram

    2016-08-01

    Most legal systems are based on the premise that defendants are treated as innocent until proven guilty and that decisions will be unbiased and solely based on the facts of the case. The validity of this assumption has been questioned for cases involving racial minority members, in that racial bias among jury members may influence jury decisions. The current research shows that legal professionals are adept at identifying jurors with levels of implicit race bias that are consistent with their legal interests. Using a simulated voir dire, professionals assigned to the role of defense lawyer for a Black defendant were more likely to exclude jurors with high levels of implicit race bias, whereas prosecutors of a Black defendant did the opposite. There was no relation between professionals' peremptory challenges and jurors' levels of explicit race bias. Implications for the role of racial bias in legal decision making are discussed. PMID:27354112

  11. [Incapacitated persons - participation rights and the legal concept of the capacity to consent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damm, Reinhard

    2016-09-01

    Legal problems related to the capacity to consent and decision-making have recently become increasingly important. This concerns the prerequisites and limitations of legal participation as a basis of social participation. Among the relevant social spheres and fields of action, this particulary concerns medicine and health care as well as disability and care. At the normative level, with a view to those concerned, this leads to fundamental questions resulting from the tension between self-determination and care as basic legal and ethical standards. At the empirical level, there are debates between the law and the sciences with regard to the relevant knowledge base for the assessment of (in)capacity to consent. The traditional controversies about the relevant legal criteria determining the existence or absence of capacity to consent are intensified by some recent legal developments, two of which must be highlighted. One of these is the postulate, increasingly emphasized by courts and legislator, of an at least communicative involvement of persons incapable to give consent in the decision-making process. The other is the fundamental discussion of medical ethics on concepts of assisted self-determination and supported decision-making, the consequences of which will also be of relevance at the legal level. Insofar, the development of guardianship law and the legal requirements of the UN Disability Rights Convention are of particular importance. PMID:27503499

  12. Identificación y clasificación de las lesiones relacionadas con la dependencia: de la teoría a la práctica clínica

    OpenAIRE

    Alba Roca-Biosca; Francisco Pedro García-Fernández; Sagrario Chacón-Garcés; Lourdes Rubio-Rico; María Inmaculada de Molina-Fernández; Laura Anguera-Saperas; Natalia García-Grau; Gemma Tuset-Garijo; María del Carmen Velasco Guillén; Encarna Colodrero-Díaz

    2015-01-01

    Objetivo: clasificar y categorizar las lesiones relacionadas con la dependencia según la teoría de García-Fernández y cols. Metodología: estudio descriptivo y longitudinal realizado en una unidad de cuidados intensivos en el que se incluyó a todos los pacientes ingresados sin lesiones previas. Cada paciente fue evaluado diariamente hasta desarrollar una lesión relacionada con la dependencia o salida de estudio. Resultados: El 27,9% de los pacientes (n = 136) desarrollaron lesiones relacionada...

  13. Legal aspects of termination of employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, R B

    1984-10-01

    Legal issues involved in termination of employment are identified, and practical implications of these issues for employers and employees are discussed. There is no general protection against arbitrary dismissal from employment in the United States. Federal statutes restricting termination at will are listed; each state also may have laws protecting employees from arbitrary dismissal. Cases in which state courts have established exceptions to the termination-at-will general rule are described; these suits have been based upon breach of contract, tort, or "public policy" exceptions such as refusing to commit an unlawful act, performing a public obligation or upholding the law, and whistle-blowing. Considering the evolving limits on the termination-at-will general rule, practical advice for employers and employees regarding documentation of interviews, content of appointment letters, and recognition of employee rights is presented. While the termination-at-will general rule appears to be eroding, there does not seem to be a clear trend against which to draw any general conclusions. The cases indicate that courts will find some theory to redress outrageous conduct or clear violations of an employer's policies. PMID:6496500

  14. LEGAL CHALLENGES POSED BY WI FI NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim DOBRINOIU

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the electronic communications market is in a high development, and this trend will not be diminished even by the newly world economic crisis. Studies show a significant growth in people’s interest for Information Society (IS services, with emphasize on the mobility of the resources. On the other hand, Internet has become more than a “network of networks”, but a way of life, and user’s addict to computer systems and IS services often reveal interesting aspects and controversial in the same time. Modern forms of electronic communications rely more and more on the wireless Internet connections (Wi Fi, and this conclusion could be eventually based on the following realities: 1 Users continue to migrate to wireless technology; 2 Users prefer wireless connectivity; 3 Users are attracted by costless Internet connections; 4 Users are fascinated by the possibility of hiding their online activity and behaviour. Although certain security measures can be easily applied in order to prevent the spread of cyber related crimes, the wireless (Wi Fi connection to Internet also rise up a lot of controversial aspects, most of them about the legality of the connection itself, topic that the authors try to approach in this study.

  15. Legal issues of the electronic dental record: security and confidentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekely, D G; Milam, S; Khademi, J A

    1996-01-01

    Computer-based, electronic dental record keeping involves complex issues of patient privacy and the dental practitioner's ethical duty of confidentiality. Federal and state law is responding to the new legal issues presented by computer technology. Authenticating the electronic record in terms of ensuring its reliability and accuracy is essential in order to protect its admissibility as evidence in legal actions. Security systems must be carefully planned to limit access and provide for back-up and storage of dental records. Carefully planned security systems protect the patient from disclosure without the patient's consent and also protect the practitioner from the liability that would arise from such disclosure. Human errors account for the majority of data security problems. Personnel security is assured through pre-employment screening, employment contracts, policies, and staff education. Contracts for health information systems should include provisions for indemnification and ensure the confidentiality of the system by the vendor. PMID:8594098

  16. Legal aspects and regulation in RK. Status and projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The legal base for a safe use of atomic energy in the Republic of Kazakhstan comprises two basic laws - 'About a use of atomic energy' and 'About radiation protection of population'. The main mechanism of state regulation of atomic energy using is to license the activity related to a use of atomic energy, which is executed according to the licensing law and provisions pertaining to atomic energy using. The Government assigned a plenipotentiary body - the Atomic Energy Committee. It supervises a safe use of atomic energy and supports fulfillment of measures on maintenance of nuclear weapon non-proliferation regime throughout in the Republic of Kazakhstan.In the whole, the legal base for regulating the nuclear activity, which is in compliance with recommendations of international organizations, has been established in the Republic. The functional state body is organized and practical experience in the regulation is gained. However, there are a number of problems to be solved. The issues on risk assurance, when using atomic energy, on financial guarantee of elimination of possible damage and consequences due to nuclear activity, are left unexamined. To establish a state system on prevention of illegal turnover of nuclear and radioactive materials, it is necessary to provide an effective coordination of efforts of many state bodies and develop the adequate legal standard documents

  17. 法律义务观念的来源--从《法律的概念》出发%The Source of Legal Obligation-Based on the“the Concept of Law”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王储

    2013-01-01

      It is undoubtedly that moral rules require people to fulfill their obligations. Therefore, whether the duty under the law comes from moral rules or not becomes critical. If we deny that legal obligation comes from moral, then legal obligation must have its own source. Then the theory of legal positivism order and prediction theory which is closely related to the theory of order have been appeared. Therefore, if the book“the concept of law”tries to find“the real point of the science of law”, it must deal with the relationship among obligation concept under law, the theory of order and the prediction theory, with the aim of getting correct conclusion.%  道德规则科予义务是毫无疑问的。那么在法律下的义务性是否会是来自于道德规则就变得很关键。而如果否认法律义务是来自于道德,那么它必须有着自身的义务来源,于是产生了法律实证主义的命令说理论,并且产生了与命令说有密切联系的预测论理论。所以《法律的概念》要发现“法律科学的真正关键”就必须处理法律下的义务观念与道德、命令说以及预测论之间的关系,从而得到正确的结论。

  18. Legal protection against nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA Director General appointed an international Panel of Experts to go into the question of Civil Liability and State Responsibility for Nuclear Hazards. The Panel had before it certain basic postulates formulated after a preliminary and tentative consideration of the subject. From the viewpoint of the public, the first postulate is, of course, that the use of nuclear energy be regulated by adequate licensing and control mechanisms so as to prevent any accidents. To the extent, however, that nuclear damage cannot be prevented, there must be liability on the part of the enterprise which caused the damage and, where damage exceeds its liability or its financial resources there should be some assurance of compensation by the State. This should be so not only within the borders of one State, but especially also on an international basis. Security should be required for the possible liability of the enterprises connected with a nuclear incident. Litigation with respect to liability should be concentrated in the most convenient tribunal and be governed by a single clearly defined law. The methods of distribution should meet general standards of equity and be as expeditious as possible. Emergency measures, especially evacuation, first aid and decontamination, should be organized and financed without delay. At the same time, the liability of an enterprise should not exceed its reasonable financial capabilities. This means that a ceiling should be imposed upon the amount of third party liability to which an enterprise could be held. And the liability should generally be such as can be covered by adequate financial security. Uniformity in the treatment of victims of nuclear incidents in all these fields is a desirable goal. Yet, if a rule adopted on an international level or suggested by uniform legislation were to be viable, it should adapt itself to the social, economic and legal order already existing in individual States. This may mean that in certain fields it

  19. AN IDIOSYNCRATIC TOOL FOR CLUSTERING LEGAL DOCUMENTS USING PRINCIPAL DIRECTION DIVISIVE PARTITIONING ALGORITHM (PDDP) FROM WEBMINING

    OpenAIRE

    V.Annapoorani; A.Vijaya

    2012-01-01

    This paper depicts an idiosyncratic tool for clustering legal documents for assisting lawyers and legal groups during document review from web mining. This tool clusters the data collection and generates a set of distinctive word labels for each cluster of documents, all entirely autonomous. This tool is based on the use of PDDP and K-Means, applied to both the document and the words, using a bag of words model. All this processing by the tool occurs without input from a human ...

  20. Accounting for Non-interest-Bearing Currency: A Critique of the Legal Restrictions Theory of Money.

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence H. White

    1987-01-01

    The legal restrictions theory of money, developed by Neil Wallace and others, implies that all noncommodity currency would be interest bear ing under laissez faire (if the interest rate on bonds is positive). This note cites historical evidence to the contrary. It then analyzes the source of the legal restrictions theory's inapplicability, and o ffers an alternative computation-cost-based explanation for nonintere st-bearing currency. Copyright 1987 by Ohio State University Press.

  1. Testing Legal Boundaries within Arab Media Hubs: Reporting, Law and Politics in Three Media Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Krzysiek, Pawel

    2009-01-01

    A dynamic transformation of the Arab world raises important questions about the character of structural alterations within Arab regimes. This transition has effected several changes in the legal sphere of Arab media. Rejecting the paradigm of the Arab world’s democratization, this article argues for the Arab regimes’ ability to adjust to globalization trends without a substantial loss of power. Based on empirical evidence, the legal aspects that govern media organizations within free media zo...

  2. Specification of the Legal Knowledge Interchange Format: Deliverable 1.1

    OpenAIRE

    Boer, A. de; Di Bello, M.; Berg, van den, W.; Gordon, T; Förhécz, A.; Vas, R.

    2007-01-01

    The main technical objectives of work package 1 are to develop a first version of a Legal Knowledge Interchange Format (LKIF), building upon emerging XML-based standards of the Semantic Web, including RDF and OWL, and Application Program Interfaces (APIs) for interacting with legal knowledge systems. The LKIF will apply the state of the art in the field of Artificial Intelligence and Law, taking into account business and application requirements. This deliverable reports on the specification ...

  3. British and Irish Association of Law Librarians (BIALL) Legal Information Literacy Statement

    OpenAIRE

    Choolhun, N; R. Bird(School of Physics, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland)

    2012-01-01

    The Association hosts an annual conference which features a members’ ‘Have your say’ session. At the 2011 session, a BIALL member based in the commercial sector voiced their concern at the legal research competency of recent joiners to their firm, stating that senior partners were asking in-house law librarians to verify the research presented by new trainees. This member also queried the role of academic law librarians, questioning how legal research skills are being taught at academic and v...

  4. The University Library: a driving force for reform in legal education?

    OpenAIRE

    Beljaars, Ben; Winter, René

    2012-01-01

    textabstractInformation skills training offers opportunities for gradually embedding changes in legal education programs and to bring about the integration of legal knowledge, skills and experience. If shared goals are formulated in a spirit of close collaboration, curricular changes and revisions will potentially have a greater effect and be more likely to enhance long-term programs. The university library can serve as an ideal base for the use of information technology such as web portals a...

  5. Associação entre resiliência e qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde bucal em idosos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Fernando Nunes Teixeira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a associação entre resiliência e qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde bucal, por meio de uma abordagem hierárquica baseada em um modelo teórico conceitual em uma coorte de idosos do Rio Grande do Sul. MÉTODOS: Foi conduzido um estudo transversal aninhado a um estudo de coorte, em 2008. Foram avaliados 498 idosos de Carlos Barbosa, Rio Grande do Sul. As medidas avaliadas foram sociodemográficas, comportamentos de saúde, qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde bucal, medida pelo Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14, Escala de Resiliência e CPOD. A associação entre o potencial de resiliência e os impactos na percepção de saúde bucal relacionados à qualidade de vida foi verificada por meio de regressão binomial negativa. Razões das médias (RM são apresentadas com seus intervalos de confiança de 95% (IC95%. RESULTADOS: Maiores médias do OHIP foram encontradas entre mulheres (6,7 ± 6,3; p = 0,011, moradores da zona rural (7,3 ± 6,7; p = 0,004 e solteiros (8,0 ± 6,3; p = 0,032. O modelo final da análise multivariada mostrou que ser morador da zona rural (RM = 1,32; IC95% 1,06 - 1,65 e casado (RM = 1,36; IC95% 1,07 - 1,72 foram variáveis independentemente associadas à qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde bucal. Não houve associação entre resiliência e qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde bucal. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados sugerem que variáveis sociodemográficas estão associados à qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde bucal. A hipótese de que a resiliência pudesse exercer um papel importante no desfecho não foi confirmada.

  6. 32 CFR 776.67 - Judicial and legal officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... appointment to judicial or legal office. (b) ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Judicial and legal officers. 776.67 Section 776... Rules of Professional Conduct § 776.67 Judicial and legal officers. (a) Judicial and legal officers....

  7. 45 CFR 505.2 - Persons under legal disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Persons under legal disability. 505.2 Section 505... under legal disability. (a) Claims may be submitted on behalf of persons who, being otherwise eligible... legal disability, by the natural or legal guardian, committee, conservator, curator, or any other...

  8. Existence of vagueness and vague expression in legal English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石继鹏

    2008-01-01

    The language of legal English is a kind of customary language, which includes some words, phrases and mode of expression with its unique style. One of the most important characteristics of legal English is exact in its usage. But in some situations, vague expressions are found in legal English. This is written to probe into some linguistic aspects of legal documents: vagueness and ambiguity.

  9. Legal aid for victims in criminal proceedings in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Costa Ramos, Vânia

    2014-01-01

    The following article gives an overview of legal aid for victims in criminal cases in Portugal. It addresses the issues of a victim’s access to a lawyer, when and how the right is granted (right to legal assistance), and under what circumstances the victim has a right to financial legal aid (right to financial legal aid).

  10. Tissue banking in Hungary: legal, ethical and technical frame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hungary is a small country in the middle of Europe with a population of 10 million. Many religions are represented in the country but the majority of the population is Christian. The Hungarian medical education and practice based on the 'German School' and the modem medicine has been started more than 200 years ago. At the same time some of the medical school have been established first in Nagyszombat and the school for surgery in Kolozsyar, later in Debrecen 80 years ago. Recently we have four medical faculties. From the beginning of implementation of modern medicine many efforts were taken to establish the relevant legal frame and ethical rules to help and make understandable and acceptable for the society of various medical interventions. The previous mentioned structure was before and presently conformed with the political and social structure of the country. The initial of tissue for transplantation in medicine was widely accepted by medical fraternity since the middle of the century. Recently tissue grafts are performed daily is in burn, reconstructive surgery, in bone and nerve surgery, unfortunately we use commercial products in heart surgery. At the initial phase of our tissue banking activity, we first followed the American Association Tissue Banking procedures based on our personal contact with leading US Tissue Bank and the American Association of Tissue Banks. Later after joining the Europe Association of Tissue Bank we played an active role in the establishing of the Europe recommendations related to legal, ethical and technical rules of tissue banking. In this presentation the legal frame and the recent ethical concept for tissue donation as well as the technical possibilities and the donor recreation programme of tissue banks will be introduced to the audience. Also the problems of legal harmonization will be mentioned to which we are facing as an associated country to the European Union

  11. On Historical Contextualisation: Some Critical Socio-Legal Reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorie Charlesworth

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the relationship of historico-legal studies to the wider context of socio-legal studies. It issues a challenge to rethink the nature and role of legal history in the light of socio-legal theory and the extent to which it out to be used by legal scholars. The discussion explores the benefits to socio-legal studies of interdisciplinarity. It suggests that historical reconstructions that contextualise the law should be properly acknowledged as a subgenre at least of the socio-legal movement, not simply perceived as an add-on methodology.

  12. Legal Translation in Context: Professional Issues and Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Prieto Ramos, Fernando; Borja Albi, Anabel

    2013-01-01

    This volume offers a systematic overview of the diverse professional profiles within legal translation and the wide range of communicative situations in which legal translators play their roles as mediators. Contexts of professional practice have been classified into three main categories, which give shape to the three parts of the book: (1) legal translation in the private sector; (2) legal translation for national public institutions; and (3) legal translation at international organizations...

  13. LEGAL TRANSPLANTS IN ROMANIAN CORPORATE LAW SEEKING FOR SUCCESS

    OpenAIRE

    RADU N. CATANA

    2009-01-01

    The last period has seen an enormous investment in legal reform efforts in many transition and developing economies, much of it involving the importation of legal models from mature market economies. As a growing body of economic and legal literature shows, legal reforms in transition economies were largely grounded on transplants. The challenges raised in the legal transplants process can be revealed by reuniting two major approaches. The substantial approach is meant to present the results ...

  14. Avoiding the Legal “Blemish”: Medicolegal Pitfalls in Dermatology

    OpenAIRE

    Michaels, Brent D.; Del Rosso, James Q.; Momin, Saira B.

    2009-01-01

    In today’s legal environment, it is unlikely that a physician will complete a medical career without being introduced to the legal system in some way. Despite this, medical education often does not incorporate a basic teaching of general legal principles, and many physicians are left unaware of some of the important legal aspects of practicing medicine. The purpose of this article is to provide a background of the essential legal principles of a malpractice action as well as review the fundam...

  15. David Ingersoll, behavioralism and the modern revival of legal realism.

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, Thom

    2015-01-01

    David Ingersoll’s essay “Karl Llewellyn, American Legal Realism and Contemporary Legal Behavioralism” is a significant, but neglected contribution to our understanding of legal realism in the United States. This article argues that it first anticipates the shape of legal realism’s revival today and shows that Ingersoll was ahead of his time. The once dominant school of legal realism had become a much maligned theory of law when this essay was first published. Ingersoll identifies ...

  16. Transnational Legal Education : A Comparative Study of Japan and Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Nichol, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Legal education is transnationalizing. The legal classroom is globalizing, in that a university's classroom is not defined by walls but is now mobile through technology and international university affiliations. The legal classroom itself is globalized, composed of local and international students. To meet the demands of a global economy and the subsequent globalization of the legal profession, law faculties have been required to transnationalize their legal education, teaching a mix of domes...

  17. Calidad de vida relacionada con la salud en trabajadores sanitarios Health related quality of life in health workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Burgos Díez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available El estado de bienestar en que vivimos en los países desarrollados hace que surja la necesidad de buscar herramientas que sean una imagen fiel del estado de salud de la población como es la medición de la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud. El objetivo de nuestro estudio es conocer la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud (CVRS de los trabajadores sanitarios como medida de su estado de salud. Para ello hemos realizado un estudio transversal, prospectivo y descriptivo de una muestra de 542 trabajadores seleccionada por muestreo sistemático. Como variable dependiente se evaluó la CVRS a través del cuestionario SF-36. Este cuestionario evalúa el estado de salud a través de 7 escalas (Función física, rol físico, salud general, vitalidad, función social, rol emocional y salud mental valoradas de 0 a 100 (siendo 100 el mejor valor y de dos dominios globales estandarizados para población general siendo su valor 50, (índice general de salud física e índice general de salud mental. Se tiene en cuenta la edad y el sexo para el análisis de los resultados. Los resultados más relevantes obtenidos son: Edad media 46 años (DE 10,4, 82% mujeres. Función física: 88.7 (Población general-PG-: 84.7; Rol físico: 86.5 (PG: 83.2; Dolor: 71.9 (PG: 79; Salud general: 70 (PG: 68.3; Vitalidad: 66.1 (PG: 66.9; Función social: 86.4 (PG: 90.1; Rol emocional: 87.8 (PG: 88.6; Salud mental: 72.6 (PG: 73. Índice global de salud física: 51.9; Índice global de salud mental: 49.8. Los valores encontrados tanto para las escalas de salud física como mental son ligeramente mejores que los establecidos para la población general para el mismo rango de edad y sexo, salvo en la escala de dolor.The welfare state in whom we live in the developed countries does that there arises the need to look for tools that are a faithful image of the health of the population such as it is the measurement of the quality of life related to the health. The aim of our

  18. Fadiga relacionada ao câncer: uma revisão Cancer-related fatigue: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira Paschoin de Oliveira Campos

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A fadiga relacionada ao câncer (FRC é um dos sintomas mais prevalentes em pacientes com câncer, sendo reportada por 50% a 90% dos pacientes durante o curso da doença ou do seu tratamento, impactando na qualidade de vida de forma severa além de diminuir a capacidade funcional diária dos pacientes. Uma abordagem ampla deve ser realizada com orientações gerais sobre fadiga, além da determinação de um plano individualizado de abordagem terapêutica. Pacientes com fadiga moderada ou severa devem se beneficiar de ambas as medidas farmacológicas e não farmacológicas a serem adotadas, enquanto pacientes que apresentem fadiga leve que não interfira na qualidade de vida podem ser tratados com medidas não farmacológicas como única medida terapêutica. O tratamento não farmacológico se mostra promissor com o uso de terapias cognitivas-comportamentais (conservação de energia e organização de atividades diárias realizadas, ECAM, exercícios físicos e talvez terapias do sono. O tratamento farmacológico tem mostrado resultados promissores que incluem o uso de psicoestimulantes tais como metilfenidato e dexmetilfenidato, modanafil (em pacientes com fadiga severa e agentes estimuladores de eritropoietina em pacientes com anemia associada à quimioterapia e hemoglobina menor que 10 mg/dL. Além dessas drogas, o uso de Guaraná (Paullinia cupana tem-se mostrado uma opção promissora, com efeitos benéficos no tratamento da fadiga física e mental relacionada ao câncer. Por ser uma opção sem efeitos colaterais significantes e uma planta nacional, torna-se atrativo considerando o fácil acesso a esta medicação por seu baixo custo e fácil adesão ao tratamento. O tratamento pode ser oferecido através de uma abordagem multimodal e multidisciplinar que individualize as opções terapêuticas dentro de um contexto que promova o diagnóstico acurado da FRC, além de um tratamento específico e adequado para cada paciente que apresente

  19. ERRORS AND DIFFICULTIES IN TRANSLATING LEGAL TEXTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia, CHIRILA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the accurate translation of legal texts has become highly important as the mistranslation of a passage in a contract, for example, could lead to lawsuits and loss of money. Consequently, the translation of legal texts to other languages faces many difficulties and only professional translators specialised in legal translation should deal with the translation of legal documents and scholarly writings. The purpose of this paper is to analyze translation from three perspectives: translation quality, errors and difficulties encountered in translating legal texts and consequences of such errors in professional translation. First of all, the paper points out the importance of performing a good and correct translation, which is one of the most important elements to be considered when discussing translation. Furthermore, the paper presents an overview of the errors and difficulties in translating texts and of the consequences of errors in professional translation, with applications to the field of law. The paper is also an approach to the differences between languages (English and Romanian that can hinder comprehension for those who have embarked upon the difficult task of translation. The research method that I have used to achieve the objectives of the paper was the content analysis of various Romanian and foreign authors' works.

  20. Modern Questions Of The Legal Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennadiy A. Torgashev

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present article author considers fundamental problems of law connected with equality, justice and freedom. Author proves that philosophy and law as forms of public consciousness carry out the important closely interconnected among themselves functions of the social life judgment. In the article author noted that among other forms of public consciousness law is one of difficult objects of knowledge, because law is connected with such forms of consciousness as philosophy, morals, religion, policy. The legal philosophy is the philosophical discipline having the subject the general regularities of law functioning, taken in their historical and sociocultural development, definition and the sense of legal judgment and its fundamental concepts. Law represents a set of obligatory rules of conduct (norms established by the authorized or the state. Diverse spiritual life of the society assumes a variety in the nature of law. The typology of philosophical concepts of the law and how the legal philosophy interprets legal reality is researched, various philosophical and legal concepts which are caused by two main types of rights – natural and positive are allocated. Author gives opinions of scientists, and explains own views of the author.

  1. Cross-categorization of legal concepts across boundaries of legal systems: in consideration of inferential links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Fumiko Kano; Herlau, Tue; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard;

    2014-01-01

    -IRM (n-IRM) proposed by Herlau et al. (IEEE International Workshop on Machine Learning for Signal Processing, 2012). We apply our cross-categorization approach to datasets where legal concepts related to educational systems are respectively defined by the Japanese- and the Danish authorities according......This work contrasts Giovanni Sartor’s view of inferential semantics of legal concepts (Sartor in Artif Intell Law 17:217–251, 2009) with a probabilistic model of theory formation (Kemp et al. in Cognition 114:165–196, 2010). The work further explores possibilities of implementing Kemp......’s probabilistic model of theory formation in the context of mapping legal concepts between two individual legal systems. For implementing the legal concept mapping, we propose a cross-categorization approach that combines three mathematical models: the Bayesian Model of Generalization (BMG; Tenenbaum...

  2. The changing purpose of mental health law: From medicalism to legalism to new legalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The role of law in regulating mental health detention has come to engender great contention in the legal and sociological disciplines alike. This conflict is multifaceted but is centred upon the extent to which law should control the psychiatric power of detention. In this manner the evolution of law regulating mental health detention has been seen in terms of a pendulous movement between two extremes of medicalism and legalism. Drawing on socio-legal literature, legislation, international treaties and case law this article examines the changing purpose of mental health law from an English and Council of Europe perspective by utilizing the concepts of medicalism, legalism and new legalism as descriptive devices before arguing that the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities goes further than all of these concepts and has the potential to influence mental health laws internationally. PMID:27059132

  3. Belief and legal philosophy: a conceptual framework for Christian scholarship in undergraduate legal education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. de Freitas

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Legal education in South Africa has arrived at a discursive juncture that demands clarity on what the “purpose” of legal education should be. Debate on the purpose of legal education, more specifically for the Christian law student, becomes especially important in a society dominated by positivism, mate-rialism and pragmatism. With specific reference to the under-graduate Christian law student, this article firstly explains that the purpose of legal education should include the nurturing of the student’s belief – a belief encompassing his/her foun-dational perspective(s on reality. Secondly, in order to achieve the proper nurturing and development of the Christian law student’s belief, the importance of the teaching of legal philo-sophy is explained. In this regard, proposals are postulated pertaining to specific means by which such nurturing and development of the undergraduate Christian law student’s foundational belief can be attained.

  4. Deviating measurements in radiation protection. Legal assessment of deviations in radiation protection measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigates how, from a legal point of view, deviations in radiation protection measurements should be treated in comparisons between measured results and limits stipulated by nuclear legislation or goods transport regulations. A case-by-case distinction is proposed which is based on the legal concequences of the respective measurement. Commentaries on nuclear law contain no references to the legal assessment of deviating measurements in radiation protection. The examples quoted in legal commentaries on civil and criminal proceedings of the way in which errors made in measurements for speed control and determinations of the alcohol content in the blood are to be taken into account, and a commentary on ozone legislation, are examined for analogies with radiation protection measurements. Leading cases in the nuclear field are evaluated in the light of the requirements applying in case of deviations in measurements. The final section summarizes the most important findings and conclusions. (orig.)

  5. Legal responsibility and the labor law application of managers in the Municipality of Gjilani businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zymer Tafaj

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the behavior of managers who lead businesses in the Gjilani municipality and their legal responsibility during their activities based on law. It consists of two phases. In the first phase we analyze the international literature that deals with this topic in a systematic interpretation. While in the second phase we analyze data’s collected from the field. In the second phase we have interviewed 15 managers, that have implied their perceptions about legal responsibility and on the other hand we have also interviewed 15 employees analyzing their legal responsibility. Among the most interesting findings in this paper, is that the managers of Gjilani municipality are aware about the legal responsibility theoretically, while most of them do not fulfill the obligations, by placing their interests in first place, with the aim of achieving more revenues by breaking the law.

  6. The legal duty of local government to facilitate development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theo Scheepers

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Local government in South Africa is not only facing challenges normally associated with a process of development or transformation, but needs to adjust its focus according to the new development paradigm unfolding in South Africa. Developmental local government has to accomplish this task according to the mandate issued in the Constitution and within a specific legal-institutional and value framework The legal-institutional framework is based on a set of development law principles contained in new generation legislation. The value framework consists of community values as well as constitutional values reflecting individual and community values, norms and principles. This framework imposes a legal and moral duty as well as corresponding obligations on municipalities to plan and implement future socio-economic development of the areas for which they are responsible according to a new set of development principles and values. These principles make it incumbent upon municipalities to manage development through a people-centred and community-driven process. This article briefly deals with the nature and content of the duties and responsibilities of municipalities emanating from a new development paradigm when facilitating the development process within their areas of jurisdiction.

  7. Hereditary breast and gynecological tumors: Italian legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DI Vella, Giancarlo

    2016-10-01

    The availability of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures that lower the risk for developing hereditary family-related tumors is weighed against Italian ethical and legal provisions. The healthcare environment in which a professional works should require that he possess specific technical, relational and medical competencies based upon legal orientation in addition to scientific evidence. Particular emphasis is attributed to the doctor-patient relationship, with explicit reference to the following: 1) all of the information at hand that is required to achieve a "therapeutic alliance" that combines the best interests of the patient with treatment options; 2) the completeness and intelligibility of health records, as they are likely to explain the background logic and the following of scientific clinical procedure; 3) the observance of guidelines and protocols, and their relevance to the legal responsibility of the individual and health care companies; 4) the need of a multidisciplinary approach in the treatment of these patients and the obligation of the team to have malpractice insurance. Advances on "provisions concerning liability of health personnel", which is currently awaiting approval, allows the professional to protect the patient's health without the fear of being unnecessarily censured, and unjustified from a penal or civil point of view which can deteriorate the relationship of trust and cooperation established. PMID:26924172

  8. Legal frameworks for emissions trading in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Project is based on a comparative and pragmatic review of the legal frameworks for implementing the EU Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) in four EU jurisdictions (Finland, Sweden, United Kingdom and Germany). The Project does not seek to examine the rationale of utilizing tradable mechanisms nor assess the costs and benefits of doing so. Its primary focus is to undertake a detailed study of the legal realities involved in implementing the EU ETS, particularly those issues of commercial importance such as taxation and accounting rules. The methodology adopted has been to formulate a comprehensive questionnaire (of approximately 70 questions) to be used as the basis of national reports together with a stand alone analysis by VATT, and in turn use the national reports and VATT study as the building blocks of a comparative overview report. The questionnaire seeks to highlight those significant legal and regulatory issues that impact on the establishment of emission allowance trading arrangements within the respective jurisdictions. The comparative analysis of these issues will focus on 'golden threads' of similarity and difference that impact on the establishment of an internal market within the European Union for the trading of emissions allowances. (orig.)

  9. Legal requirements for tele-assistance and tele-medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaërt, F A; Dusserre, L

    1995-01-01

    In dealing with tele-medicine including tele-diagnosis and tele-assistance, the legal and ethical components of medical liability must be satisfied. With medical tele-diagnosis, the spreading of medical liability is the main risk. How can we ensure a clear identification of the medical liabilities involved in cases where damage occurs? From a legal point of view, the spreading of the liability is not allowed and the use of tele-diagnosis must ensure a total transparence. As we cannot presently estimate the cost of a medical act based on the cost of the image records and the cost of image interpretation, it is necessary to establish a contract. Today the most convenient contract is similar to the contract between laboratories which implies that the liability is on the practitioner who has received the sample. In the future, other legal obligations may appear as tele-diagnosis develops. Indeed, with the increase in reliability in tele-diagnosis it could become a part of the medical obligation to use the latest technology. However, the excessive use of tele-assistance, when there is neither emergency nor medical isolation, is dangerous because it may affect the integrity and the quality of the traditional medical act. In general, medical practice without any clinical examination of the patient is contrary to medical ethics. PMID:8591509

  10. LEGAL ISSUES AND REGULATION OF POLITICAL PARTIES IN LITHUANIA DURING THE INTER-WAR YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Ivanauskaitė

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The research discusses the compounds of social – political parties, their development and legal regulation. Design/methodology/approach – The research is based on qualitative research, which helps to identify and define the problems of legal regulation of political parties. Method of data and documents analysis, content analysis, and historical method are used. Findings – The research tries to avoid considerations of political issues, but legal and historical issues are discussed. It concentrates on the general legal principles of the formation of political parties and associations and their changes. It considers the development of party system regulation and studies the practical problems of legal and factual reality mismatches. In order to carry out a comprehensive scientific study the existing de jure legal framework and the consequent de facto reality is reviewed. The research proves not only that there were some differences between existed legal framework and de facto reality. Also, it defines the requirements to the general principles of regulation of political parties and determines correspondence of existing legal regulation to basic democratic standards. Research limitations/implications – Documents are the most important form of available data. Documents can contain data recorded in monographs, journals, magazines, articles, acts, judgments, official documents etc. Documents can also make up part of records maintained by various individuals and institutions such as libraries, archives, the police etc. The existing judgments, reports and circular notes of Seimas of the Republic of Lithuania, the Ministry of Interiors Affairs, chiefs of staff of districts and police are scientifically significant. However, it should be noted that not all documents have been maintained. Practical implications – The research pays attention to the changes of legal regulation of political parties and its dependence on regime. Moreover

  11. A critique of cannabis legalization proposals in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalant, Harold

    2016-08-01

    An editorial in this issue describes a cannabis policy framework document issued by a major Canadian research centre, calling for legalization of non-medical use under strict controls to prevent increase in use, especially by adolescents and young adults who are most vulnerable to adverse effects of cannabis. It claims that such a system would eliminate the severe personal, social and monetary costs of prohibition, diminish the illicit market, and provide more humane management of cannabis use disorders. It claims that experience with regulation of alcohol and tobacco will enable a system based on public health principles to control access of youth to cannabis without the harm caused by prohibition. The present critique argues that the claims made against decriminalization and for legalization are unsupported, or even contradicted, by solid evidence. Early experience in other jurisdictions suggests that legalization increases use by adolescents and its attendant harms. Regulation of alcohol use does not provide a good model for cannabis controls because there is widespread alcohol use and harm among adolescents and young adults. Government monopolies of alcohol sale have been used primarily as sources of revenue rather than for guarding public health, and no reason has been offered to believe they would act differently with respect to cannabis. Good policy decisions require extensive unbiased information about the individual and social benefits and costs of both drug use and proposed control measures, and value judgments about the benefit/harm balance of each option. Important parts of the necessary knowledge about cannabis are not yet available, so that the value judgments are not yet possible. Therefore, a better case can be made for eliminating some of the harms of prohibition by decriminalization of cannabis possession and deferring decision about legalization until the necessary knowledge has been acquired. PMID:27292414

  12. Legal requirements concerning the technical safety of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short survey on nuclear risks and the nuclear safety conception is followed by the attempted clear definition of the semantic import of section 7, sub-section (2), No. 3 of the Atomic Energy Act. There are first beginnings of a concretization of the state-of-the-art in science and technology, i.e. all kinds of sub-legislative regulations such as the regulations of the Radiation Protection Ordinance which show scientific substance, guidelines issued by the Ministers, as well as codes for practice set up by various technical bodies and standardization associations, all of which are designed to compensate for this loop hole in the legislation. This study goes to examine to what extent administration and jurisdiction may take into account such codes of practice for the concretization of the legal requirements, and whether they are even binding on those executing the law. Only the respective regulations of the Radiation Protection Ordinance have a binding effect. All other guidelines and codes of practice are not legally binding per se, nor are they capable of being legally permitted by being referred to in terms of legal norms or by the self-commitment of those executing the law. Any attempt of using them, as the basis of a prime facie evidence or as an anticipating expertise, at least evidentarily for the concretization will have to fail owing to their evaluating character and to the fact that they may interfere in sociological conflict. An exception may be a case where a clear distinction can be made as to what extent the contents of such codes of practice is related to scientific and technological findings or to decisions based on evaluations. In such a case, a prima facil evicdence for the conformity of the regulation in question with the state-of-the-art in science and technology may be considered, which would easy the concretization of Art. 7 II Section 3 of the Atomic Law. (orig./HSCH)

  13. Constitutional Values, Therapeutic Jurisprudence and Legal Education in South Africa: Shaping our Legal Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmarie Fourie

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Law schools have a responsibility to remind law students that by studying law they have the power to transform thoughts, policies and lives, and that practising law is not just about financial rewards, but that its greatest reward is contributing to the betterment of society and ultimately to social change. The values and philosophies that law lecturers instil in law students can contribute to the legal order of the future; a legal order that supports a transformative South Africa. A need exists to bring legal education closer to the values enshrined in our Constitution. In addition to an extensive knowledge of legal principles, critical thinking and research skills, law students should critically engage with our constitutional values. The question remains: How do we transform legal education in South Africa? How do we change the way we teach law students? The introduction of concepts such as therapeutic jurisprudence enhanced by our constitutional values will ensure that we deliver graduates that display a commitment to our constitutional vales and an ability to engage critically with these values. It is important to establish a professional legal identity amongst students from their first year as this will assist in the development of a well-rounded graduate that can contribute to the legal order of the future. Letter writing and drafting skills, the value of plain language, moot court activities, alternative dispute resolution and clinical legal education provide opportunities to integrate valuable therapeutic jurisprudence principles into the curriculum and can allow students to critically engage with our constitutional values. By embodying these values they can improve the legal system, shape our legal order and promote progress toward an equal and free democratic society as envisaged by the Constitution.

  14. Legal considerations in utility stranded cost securitizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, D.B.; Jameson, J.M.; Yoong, D.K.L.

    1997-10-01

    The effects that state and federal law provisions, and accounting, tax and bankruptcy considerations have on securitization of utility stranded costs are complex and demand careful attention from government, utilities and their advisors. Although the legal structuring of a utility securitization is more involved than that of most other securitizations, its documentation is not particularly more complicated. To facilitate the movement towards a competitive electricity generation marketplace, many investor-owned utilities, regulators and state lawmakers are considering securitizations as a means of recovering stranded costs. Securitizations generally, and securitizations of stranded costs in particular, are subject to many legal requirements, all of which need to be satisfied in order to structure and consummate a successful transaction. Utility executives, regulators and lawmakers need to be cognizant of the legal requirements that will strongly influence the structure and success of any stranded cost legislation or securitization they propose. As of this writing, no U.S. stranded cost securitizations have been completed.

  15. Epilepsy: legal discrimination from negative to positive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, K S

    1997-01-01

    Indian law equates epilepsy with temporary insanity and also prohibits a legally valid marriage for a person with epilepsy with inherent risk of divorce. This absurd law, unique to India and possibly Brazil, must be excised in toto. Repeated petitions, by the Indian Epilepsy Association, to the Federal Government, have resulted in only vague assurances and alternate methods are under consideration. There are no legal impediments to education or work. Strict regulations against driving have yielded place to lax rules wherein a person can drive a vehicle, even after a recent fit, provided he gets a certificate from any registered medical practitioner. The nascent medical insurance specifically excludes epilepsy from its ambit. The cost of anti-epileptic drugs includes a 40% tax akin to Value Added Tax in the West. We must consider the impact of these legal impediments on the social fabric of the individual in his/her milieu and vis-a-vis priorities in national development. PMID:9212628

  16. Whither the legal control of nuclear energy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Peter [Leicester School of Law (United Kingdom). Environmental Law Unit

    1995-12-31

    International nuclear trade is governed by the regime of legal control of nuclear energy, nuclear materials, knowledge of nuclear processes and weapons. Nuclear trade is under pinned by international agreements concerning physical protection and safeguards, the control of nuclear weapons, the protection of nuclear materials from terrorist action and third part liability. The political and geographical boundary changes of the past two years have significantly altered the background against which this regime has developed. Such changes have affected nuclear trade. The paper summarised the legal control of nuclear energy between States, identifies the areas of change which may affect this regime and the consequences for international trade. Conclusions are drawn as to the development of the international legal control of nuclear energy. (author). 21 refs.

  17. Whither the legal control of nuclear energy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International nuclear trade is governed by the regime of legal control of nuclear energy, nuclear materials, knowledge of nuclear processes and weapons. Nuclear trade is under pinned by international agreements concerning physical protection and safeguards, the control of nuclear weapons, the protection of nuclear materials from terrorist action and third part liability. The political and geographical boundary changes of the past two years have significantly altered the background against which this regime has developed. Such changes have affected nuclear trade. The paper summarised the legal control of nuclear energy between States, identifies the areas of change which may affect this regime and the consequences for international trade. Conclusions are drawn as to the development of the international legal control of nuclear energy. (author). 21 refs

  18. Means to improve access to justice and legally empower victims of domestic violence: An empirical legal study on legislation and legal offices in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marotta, J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand how recent legal reforms and the creation of legal offices in Argentina may improve access to justice and legally empower victims of domestic violence. The paper looks into the way the judicial system developed to provide suitable options for victims of dom

  19. Alpine Windharvest: development of information base regarding potentials and the necessary technical, legal and socio-economic conditions for expanding wind energy in the Alpine Space - Alpine Space wind map - Modeling approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaffner, B.; Remund, J. [Meteotest, Berne (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    This report presents describes the development work carried out by the Swiss meteorology specialists of the company METEOTEST as part of a project carried out together with the Swiss wind-energy organisation 'Suisse Eole'. The framework for the project is the EU Interreg IIIB Alpine Space Programme, a European Community Initiative Programme funded by the European Regional Development Fund. The project investigated the use of digital relief-analysis. The series of reports describes the development and use of a basic information system to aid the investigation of the technical, legal and socio-economical conditions for the use of wind energy in the alpine area. This report discusses two modelling approaches investigated for use in the definition of a wind map for the alpine area. The method chosen and its application are discussed. The various sources of information for input to the model are listed and discussed.

  20. Relationship Marketing in Legal Services Marketing Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audronė Androšiūnaitė

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article defines the concept of professional services and evaluates the extent, to which legal services could be understood as professional services. In addition, literature analysis in the relationship marketing is presented as well as conclusions on the method for the use of relationship marketing in the development of legal services marketing strategy. Strategies of professional services marketing are completely different from other services marketing because of relations with current clients and competitors, also – singularity of the professional services.Article in Lithuanian