WorldWideScience

Sample records for basements

  1. Measure Guideline: Basement Insulation Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, R.; Mantha, P.; Puttagunta, S.

    2012-10-01

    This guideline is intended to describe good practices for insulating basements in new and existing homes, and is intended to be a practical resources for building contractors, designers, and also to homeowners.

  2. Cell invasion through basement membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Morrissey, Meghan A; Hagedorn, Elliott J; Sherwood, David R

    2013-01-01

    Cell invasion through basement membrane is an essential part of normal development and physiology, and occurs during the pathological progression of human inflammatory diseases and cancer. F-actin-rich membrane protrusions, called invadopodia, have been hypothesized to be the “drill bits” of invasive cells, mediating invasion through the dense, highly cross-linked basement membrane matrix. Though studied in vitro for over 30 y, invadopodia function in vivo has remained elusive. We have recent...

  3. Cell invasion through basement membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Meghan A; Hagedorn, Elliott J; Sherwood, David R

    2013-01-01

    Cell invasion through basement membrane is an essential part of normal development and physiology, and occurs during the pathological progression of human inflammatory diseases and cancer. F-actin-rich membrane protrusions, called invadopodia, have been hypothesized to be the “drill bits” of invasive cells, mediating invasion through the dense, highly cross-linked basement membrane matrix. Though studied in vitro for over 30 y, invadopodia function in vivo has remained elusive. We have recently discovered that invadopodia breach basement membrane during anchor cell invasion in C. elegans, a genetically and visually tractable in vivo invasion event. Further, we found that the netrin receptor DCC localizes to the initial site of basement membrane breach and directs invasion through a single gap in the matrix. In this commentary, we examine how the dynamics and structure of AC-invadopodia compare with in vitro invadopodia and how the netrin receptor guides invasion through a single basement membrane breach. We end with a discussion of our surprising result that the anchor cell pushes the basement membrane aside, instead of completely dissolving it through proteolysis, and provide some ideas for how proteases and physical displacement may work together to ensure efficient and robust invasion. PMID:24778942

  4. Viruses in the Oceanic Basement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigro, Olivia D; Jungbluth, Sean P; Lin, Huei-Ting; Hsieh, Chih-Chiang; Miranda, Jaclyn A; Schvarcz, Christopher R; Rappé, Michael S; Steward, Grieg F

    2017-03-07

    Microbial life has been detected well into the igneous crust of the seafloor (i.e., the oceanic basement), but there have been no reports confirming the presence of viruses in this habitat. To detect and characterize an ocean basement virome, geothermally heated fluid samples (ca. 60 to 65°C) were collected from 117 to 292 m deep into the ocean basement using seafloor observatories installed in two boreholes (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program [IODP] U1362A and U1362B) drilled in the eastern sediment-covered flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Concentrations of virus-like particles in the fluid samples were on the order of 0.2 × 10 5 to 2 × 10 5  ml -1 ( n = 8), higher than prokaryote-like cells in the same samples by a factor of 9 on average (range, 1.5 to 27). Electron microscopy revealed diverse viral morphotypes similar to those of viruses known to infect bacteria and thermophilic archaea. An analysis of virus-like sequences in basement microbial metagenomes suggests that those from archaeon-infecting viruses were the most common (63 to 80%). Complete genomes of a putative archaeon-infecting virus and a prophage within an archaeal scaffold were identified among the assembled sequences, and sequence analysis suggests that they represent lineages divergent from known thermophilic viruses. Of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-containing scaffolds in the metagenomes for which a taxonomy could be inferred (163 out of 737), 51 to 55% appeared to be archaeal and 45 to 49% appeared to be bacterial. These results imply that the warmed, highly altered fluids in deeply buried ocean basement harbor a distinct assemblage of novel viruses, including many that infect archaea, and that these viruses are active participants in the ecology of the basement microbiome. IMPORTANCE The hydrothermally active ocean basement is voluminous and likely provided conditions critical to the origins of life, but the microbiology of this vast habitat is not

  5. Viruses in the Oceanic Basement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia D. Nigro

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbial life has been detected well into the igneous crust of the seafloor (i.e., the oceanic basement, but there have been no reports confirming the presence of viruses in this habitat. To detect and characterize an ocean basement virome, geothermally heated fluid samples (ca. 60 to 65°C were collected from 117 to 292 m deep into the ocean basement using seafloor observatories installed in two boreholes (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program [IODP] U1362A and U1362B drilled in the eastern sediment-covered flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Concentrations of virus-like particles in the fluid samples were on the order of 0.2 × 105 to 2 × 105 ml−1 (n = 8, higher than prokaryote-like cells in the same samples by a factor of 9 on average (range, 1.5 to 27. Electron microscopy revealed diverse viral morphotypes similar to those of viruses known to infect bacteria and thermophilic archaea. An analysis of virus-like sequences in basement microbial metagenomes suggests that those from archaeon-infecting viruses were the most common (63 to 80%. Complete genomes of a putative archaeon-infecting virus and a prophage within an archaeal scaffold were identified among the assembled sequences, and sequence analysis suggests that they represent lineages divergent from known thermophilic viruses. Of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR-containing scaffolds in the metagenomes for which a taxonomy could be inferred (163 out of 737, 51 to 55% appeared to be archaeal and 45 to 49% appeared to be bacterial. These results imply that the warmed, highly altered fluids in deeply buried ocean basement harbor a distinct assemblage of novel viruses, including many that infect archaea, and that these viruses are active participants in the ecology of the basement microbiome.

  6. Basement membrane proteoglycans and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; Abrahamson, D R; McCarthy, K J

    1993-01-01

    -CSPG was only strongly expressed in the vasculature invading late comma stage glomeruli, and later in presumptive and mature Bowman's capsule. Over the first six to eight weeks, the capillary basement membranes contained BM-CSPG, but in gradually decreasing amounts until it became completely undetectable...

  7. ROCK1-directed basement membrane positioning coordinates epithelial tissue polarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, William P; Gervais, Elise M; Centanni, Samuel W; Gulfo, Kathryn M; Nelson, Deirdre A; Larsen, Melinda

    2012-01-01

    The basement membrane is crucial for epithelial tissue organization and function. However, the mechanisms by which basement membrane is restricted to the basal periphery of epithelial tissues and the basement membrane-mediated signals that regulate coordinated tissue organization are not well defined. Here, we report that Rho kinase (ROCK) controls coordinated tissue organization by restricting basement membrane to the epithelial basal periphery in developing mouse submandibular salivary glands, and that ROCK inhibition results in accumulation of ectopic basement membrane throughout the epithelial compartment. ROCK-regulated restriction of PAR-1b (MARK2) localization in the outer basal epithelial cell layer is required for basement membrane positioning at the tissue periphery. PAR-1b is specifically required for basement membrane deposition, as inhibition of PAR-1b kinase activity prevents basement membrane deposition and disrupts overall tissue organization, and suppression of PAR-1b together with ROCK inhibition prevents interior accumulations of basement membrane. Conversely, ectopic overexpression of wild-type PAR-1b results in ectopic interior basement membrane deposition. Significantly, culture of salivary epithelial cells on exogenous basement membrane rescues epithelial organization in the presence of ROCK1 or PAR-1b inhibition, and this basement membrane-mediated rescue requires functional integrin β1 to maintain epithelial cell-cell adhesions. Taken together, these studies indicate that ROCK1/PAR-1b-dependent regulation of basement membrane placement is required for the coordination of tissue polarity and the elaboration of tissue structure in the developing submandibular salivary gland.

  8. Basement Construction of Measurement Standardization for Thermal Property and Basement Preparation of Industrial Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Kweon Ho; Song, Kee Chan; Park, Chang Je

    2007-02-15

    There are three main categories in this report : 1)Basement construction of measurement standardization for nuclear material thermal property, 2) Reliability evaluation of measurement instrument, and 3) Standardization and industrial propagation.

  9. Structural and Geophysical Characterization of Oklahoma Basement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, C.; Johnston, C. S.; Carpenter, B. M.; Reches, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Oklahoma has experienced a large increase in seismicity since 2009 that has been attributed to wastewater injection. Most earthquakes, including four M5+ earthquakes, nucleated at depths > 4 km, well within the pre-Cambrian crystalline basement, even though wastewater injection occurred almost exclusively in the sedimentary sequence above. To better understand the structural characteristics of the rhyolite and granite that makeup the midcontinent basement, we analyzed a 150 m long core recovered from a basement borehole (Shads 4) in Rogers County, NE Oklahoma. The analysis of the fracture network in the rhyolite core included measurements of fracture inclination, aperture, and density, the examination fracture surface features and fill minerology, as well as x-ray diffraction analysis of secondary mineralization. We also analyzed the highly fractured and faulted segments of the core with a portable gamma-ray detector, magnetometer, and rebound hammer. The preliminary analysis of the fractures within the rhyolite core showed: (1) Fracture density increasing with depth by a factor of 10, from 4 fractures/10m in the upper core segment to 40 fracture/10m at 150 m deeper. (2) The fractures are primarily sub-vertical, inclined 10-20° from the axis of the vertical core. (3) The secondary mineralization is dominated by calcite and epidote. (4) Fracture aperture ranges from 0.35 to 2.35mm based on the thickness of secondary filling. (5) About 8% of the examined fractures display slickenside striations. (6) Increases of elasticity (by rebound hammer) and gamma-ray emissions are systematically correlated with a decrease in magnetic susceptibility in core segments of high fracture density and/or faulting; this observation suggests diagenetic fracture re-mineralization.

  10. Reliability of residential basements as blast shelters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longinow, A.; Mohammadi, J.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes an analysis method for predicting the probability of failure of a wood-framed basement when subjected to a static, uniformly distributed load. The analysis considers the primary failure modes of each framing member and determines the probability of failure for each mode acting alone. The failure probability of the system as a whole is then bounded. The upper bound is determined on the assumption that the failure modes are independent, while the lower bound is determined on the assumption that the failure modes are perfectly correlated. The analysis is described with reference to an example problem

  11. Magnetotelluric inversion for depth-to-basement estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Hongzhu; Zhdanov, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The magnetotelluric (MT) method can be effectively applied for depth-to-basement estimation, because there exists a strong contrast in resistivity between a conductive sedimentary basin and a resistive crystalline basement. Conventional inversions of MT data are usually aimed at determining...... the volumetric distribution of the conductivity within the inversion domain. By the nature of the MT method, the recovered distribution of the subsurface conductivity is typically diffusive, which makes it difficult to select the sediment-basement interface. This paper develops a novel approach to 3D MT...... inversion for the depth-to-basement estimate. The key to this approach is selection of the model parameterization with the depth to basement being the major unknown parameter. In order to estimate the depth to the basement, the inversion algorithm recovers both the thickness and the conductivities...

  12. Basement membrane proteoglycans are of epithelial origin in rodent skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamane, Y; Yaoita, H; Couchman, J R

    1996-01-01

    . For in vivo experiments, pieces of newborn rat epidermis obtained by dispase treatment were grafted onto athymic nude mice. Three and six weeks after grafting, immunofluorescence analysis of the grafted skin was carried out, using monoclonal antibodies specific for rat basement membrane chondroitin sulfate...... on mice demonstrated the presence of rat basement membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan and rat perlecan on interfollicular and follicular basement membranes including that separating dermal papillae from adjacent hair follicle epithelium. In contrast, the basement membranes of all dermal capillaries......-epidermal junction and hair follicle epithelium are of epidermal (epithelial) origin in vivo. Stratified rat keratinocytes cultured on a collagen matrix at the air-liquid interface showed the synthesis of perlecan, laminin 1, and type IV collagen in basement membranes, but not clearly detectable basement membrane...

  13. Geochemistry of the Puna Austral and Cordillera Oriental basement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becchio, Raul; Lucassen, Friedrich; Franz, Gerhard; Kasemann, Simone

    1998-01-01

    Major and trace elements, rare earths, and 143 Nd/ 147 Nd and, 147 Sm/ 144 Nd isotope ratios have been determined in the Puna Austral and Cordillera Oriental basement. The basement is formed by high temperature amphibolite facies rocks ranulites (750-550 degrees C) and green schists. They are represented by schists, paragneiss, orthogneiss, migmatites, few metabasites, marbles and chalcosilicatic banks. Hypotheses on the formation and evolution of the basement are presented

  14. Basement membrane proteoglycans are of epithelial origin in rodent skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamane, Y; Yaoita, H; Couchman, J R

    1996-01-01

    proteoglycan and rat and mouse perlecan. While the isolated rat epidermis was shown to completely lack rat basement membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan and rat basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycans, including perlecan, immunofluorescence staining of tissue sections from the grafted sites......-epidermal junction and hair follicle epithelium are of epidermal (epithelial) origin in vivo. Stratified rat keratinocytes cultured on a collagen matrix at the air-liquid interface showed the synthesis of perlecan, laminin 1, and type IV collagen in basement membranes, but not clearly detectable basement membrane...

  15. Basement Membrane Defects in Genetic Kidney Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Chew

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The glomerular basement membrane (GBM is a specialized structure with a significant role in maintaining the glomerular filtration barrier. This GBM is formed from the fusion of two basement membranes during development and its function in the filtration barrier is achieved by key extracellular matrix components including type IV collagen, laminins, nidogens, and heparan sulfate proteoglycans. The characteristics of specific matrix isoforms such as laminin-521 (α5β2γ1 and the α3α4α5 chain of type IV collagen are essential for the formation of a mature GBM and the restricted tissue distribution of these isoforms makes the GBM a unique structure. Detailed investigation of the GBM has been driven by the identification of inherited abnormalities in matrix proteins and the need to understand pathogenic mechanisms causing severe glomerular disease. A well-described hereditary GBM disease is Alport syndrome, associated with a progressive glomerular disease, hearing loss, and lens defects due to mutations in the genes COL4A3, COL4A4, or COL4A5. Other proteins associated with inherited diseases of the GBM include laminin β2 in Pierson syndrome and LMX1B in nail patella syndrome. The knowledge of these genetic mutations associated with GBM defects has enhanced our understanding of cell–matrix signaling pathways affected in glomerular disease. This review will address current knowledge of GBM-associated abnormalities and related signaling pathways, as well as discussing the advances toward disease-targeted therapies for patients with glomerular disease.

  16. Depth-To-Basement Mapping Using Fractal Technique: Application ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and can thus be obtained at source level. Application to aeromagnetic data from the Chad basin north eastern Nigeria produced a basement relief which range from depths of 2.47 km to 5.40 km with an average of 3.92 +- 0.66 km. Keywords: Fractal, depth, basement, spectra, aeromagnetic. Nigerian Journal of Physics Vol ...

  17. Investigation of the subsurface features of the basement complex of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    3D seismic reflection survey was recently carried out within the Zaria area of the basement complex of northern Nigeria, in order to investigate the complexity of the subsurface features within the basement. The geology of the survey area was characterized by gneisses and low grade meta-sedimentary rocks that form the ...

  18. Potential Development of Hydrocarbon in Basement Reservoirs In Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sunarjanto

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v8i3.165Basement rocks, in particular igneous and metamorphic rocks are known to have porosity and permeability which should not be ignored. Primary porosity of basement rocks occurs as the result of rock formation. The porosity increases by the presence of cracks occurring as the result of tectonic processes (secondary porosity. Various efforts have been carried out to explore hydrocarbon in basement rocks. Some oil and gas fields proved that the basement rocks are as reservoirs which so far have provided oil and gas in significant amount. A review using previous research data, new data, and observation of igneous rocks in some fields has been done to see the development of exploration and basement reservoirs in Indonesia. A review on terminology of basement rock up till the identification of oil and gas exploration in basement rocks need to be based on the latest technology. An environmental approach is suggested to be applied as an alternative in analyzing the policy on oil and gas exploration development, especially in basement reservoirs.

  19. Basement and alluvial aquifers of Malawi: An overview of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper highlights the quality of groundwater in basement and alluvial aquifers of Malawi through literature assessment. Groundwater in these aquifers serves about 60% of Malawian population. Alluvial aquifers yield high groundwater in excess of 10 L/s and more mineralized than basement aquifers. The values from ...

  20. Estimation of Magnetic Basement Depth of Oyo Area from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The digitized magnetic intensity data of Oyo area, south western Nigeria was analyzed to estimate depths to magnetic sources as well as source locations. The total magnetic intensity values ranges from -143.8 nT to 147.0 nT suggesting contrasting rock types in the basement complex. The magnetic basement depth results ...

  1. Evidence of basement controlled faulting of cretaceous strata in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evidence of basement controlled faulting of cretaceous strata in the Middle Benue Trough, Nigeria from lineament analysis of gravity data. ... anomaly map of part of the Middle Benue Trough, Nigeria, was used to investigate the genetic relationship between the basement and intra-sedimentary structures in the study area.

  2. Possibilities of seismic exploration for crystalline basement study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. Н. Телегин

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Possibilities of seismic methods of reflected and refracted waves have been examined for the purposes of detailed study on crystalline basement structure. Investigation of depth and structure of the basement plays an important role in the exploration of various deposits. Sedimentary cover is usually associated with oil and gas reserves. Ore deposits are formed in the basement rocks, basement splits and structure of its surface have a genetic relation not only to ore minerals, but also to oil resources. Reflection seismology is one of the main seismic methods of investigating structural geometry of the sedimentation mass, forecasting its material composition and possible hydrocarbon reserves. However, its possibilities for investigating crystalline basement are limited. Basing on many years’ experience of reflection seismology and physical modeling it has been identified that actual roughness of basement surface limits the obtainable amount of waves reflected from it. Possibilities of reflection seismology for basement structure study are mostly related to investigation of discontinuous faults as diffraction objects using diffracted waves. Method of refracted waves combined with modern procedures and material processing aimed at getting dynamic seismic sections holds much significance for the basement study, especially in the process of surface mapping and, to a lesser extent, in investigating discontinuous faults. Combining seismic methods of reflected and refracted waves in basement study increases reliability of forecasting its geological structure: in particular, its surface can be well defined by means of refraction seismology, and zones of discontinuous faults are identified from diffraction objects using both reflection and refraction methods. As a result of applying both reflection and refraction seismology, an opportunity arises to carry out detailed analysis of basement structure and to predict its oil and gas content.

  3. The major basement membrane components localize to the chondrocyte pericellular matrix--a cartilage basement membrane equivalent?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Alexander J.; Nyström, Alexander; Hultenby, Kjell

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate that articular cartilage chondrocytes are surrounded by the defining basement membrane proteins laminin, collagen type IV, nidogen and perlecan, and suggest that these form the functional equivalent of a basement membrane. We found by real-time PCR that mouse...... to the progression of degenerative joint disorders....

  4. Glomerular basement membrane lipidosis in Alagille syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jessica; Griffiths, Ryan; Larkin, Kay; Rozansky, David; Troxell, Megan

    2010-06-01

    Alagille syndrome is characterized by a paucity of interlobular bile ducts with chronic cholestasis, cardiac, skeletal, and eye abnormalities and is associated predominantly with JAG1 mutations. Various renal abnormalities have been sporadically described. The classic renal histopathology described in Alagille syndrome is mesangiolipidosis, with lipid deposits predominately confined to the mesangium and minimal deposition within the glomerular basement membrane (GBM). We report a 5-year-old girl with Alagille syndrome who presented with persistent subnephrotic proteinuria and renal tubular acidosis. A renal biopsy showed GBM irregularities (mimicking membranous glomerulonephritis), mesangial sclerosis, and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) on light microscopy. Electron microscopy revealed few lipid inclusions within the mesangium but extensive inclusions along the GBM. These findings are mostly consistent with those reported previously in Alagille syndrome. However, the histologic distribution of lipid vacuoles is seemingly reversed in this patient and is uniquely accompanied by FSGS, emphasizing the spectrum of renal histopathology seen in Alagille syndrome. The proteinuria observed in this patient is likely attributed to significant GBM lipid deposition, which over time may contribute to the development of FSGS.

  5. Sodium fire in the ILONA basement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemm, H.

    1993-05-01

    The report describes the reasons, the course, the fire fighting measures and the consequences of the sodium fire, which damaged severely the 5 MW sodium test facility ILONA in Bergisch-Gladbach, Germany, in 1990. The accident occurred in the process of transferring Na from one tank containing 0.5 m''3 Na into another one with 6 m''3 Na, which were connected via sodium and gas exchange pipes. The 6 m''3 tank was also fitted with a dipping-pipe for the later purpose of filling or evacuation. The pipe was closed by a plug. The two tanks were flooded with argon. The leakage with consequent Na fire started during the preheating process of the 6 m''3 tank, and later investigations showed that Na had leaked from the dipping-pipe after a too high pressure built-up. Whether that happened because of the failure of a pressure compensation valve or because of a blockage of the pipe connecting the two tanks, could not be clarified after the accident because of the damages caused by the fire. The later analysis showed that about 4500 kg out of the originally 5820 kg had leaked from the tank during a time of about 5 hours. A total of 1344 kg Na were deposited as combustion product aerosols (carbonate and bi-carbonate) in the building and about 930 kg Na were released from the building to the atmosphere. On the basis of the temperature difference between 400 deg C in the basement and 20 deg C at the outlet and a height difference of 30 m, the gas stream was estimated to 4 m''3 per sec. The aerosol clouds left the building via the natural draught stack. They were quickly transformed into carbonate and bi-carbonate, which do not represent a risk for the people, the animals or the vegetation in the surroundings

  6. Building America Top Innovations 2012: Basement Insulation Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes research on basement insulation, which identifies the wall installation methods and materials that perform best in terms of insulation and water resistance.

  7. Groundwater Exploration in the Basement Complex Around Chibok ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    ABSTRACT: A geophysical survey employing Schlumberger electrode configuration using vertical electrical sounding (VES) method ... Keywords: Hydrogeology, Basement Complex, Alluvium, Colluviums, Electric resistivity, Chibok. INTRODUCTION .... unconcentrated surface runoff or sheet erosion. It is not concentrated ...

  8. Basement membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans: localization in adult rat tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, K J; Couchman, J R

    1990-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans have been described as the major proteoglycan component of basement membranes. However, previous investigators have also provided evidence for the presence of chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan in these structures. Recently we described the production and characte...

  9. Basement configuration of KG offshore basin from magnetic anomalies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Subrahmanyam, V.; Swamy, K.V.; Raj, N.

    basement is faulted along the NW-SE direction with the upthrown side lying to the north of the anomaly trend of this region. The coincidence of magnetizations observed through the present interpretation with that of charnockites of neighbouring EGMB...

  10. Frictional Behavior of Altered Basement Approaching the Nankai Trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffer, D. M.; Ikari, M.; Rooney, T. O.; Marone, C.

    2017-12-01

    The frictional behavior of basement rocks plays an important role in subduction zone faulting and seismicity. This includes earthquakes seaward of the trench, large megathrust earthquakes where seamounts are subducting, or where the plate interface steps down to basement. In exhumed subduction zone rocks such as the Shimanto complex in Japan, slivers of basalt are entrained in mélange which is evidence of basement involvement in the fault system. Scientific drilling during the Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment (NanTroSEIZE) recovered basement rock from two reference sites (C0011 and C0012) located seaward of the trench offshore the Kii Peninsula during Integrated Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expeditions 322 and 333. The basement rocks are pillow basalts that appear to be heterogeneously altered, resulting in contrasting dense blue material and more vesicular gray material. Major element geochemistry shows differences in silica, calcium oxides and loss-on-ignition between the two types of samples. Minor element geochemistry reveals significant differences in vanadium, chromium, and barium. X-ray diffraction on a bulk sample powder representing an average composition shows a phyllosilicate content of 20%, most of which is expandable clays. We performed laboratory friction experiments in a biaxial testing apparatus as either intact sample blocks, or as gouge powders. We combine these experiments with measurements of Pennsylvania slate for comparison, including a mixed-lithology intact block experiment. Intact Nankai basement blocks exhibit a coefficient of sliding friction of 0.73; for Nankai basement powder, slate powder, slate blocks and slate-on-basement blocks the coefficient of sliding friction ranges from 0.44 to 0.57. At slip rates ranging from 3x10-8 to 3x10-4 m/s we observe predominantly velocity-strengthening frictional behavior, indicating a tendency for stable slip. At rates of < 1x10-6 m/s some velocity-weakening was observed, specifically in

  11. Basement Fault Reactivation by Fluid Injection into Sedimentary Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Eichhubl; Fan, Zhiqiang; Zhu, Cheng

    2017-04-01

    Many suspected injection-induced earthquakes occur in crystalline basement rather than in the overlying sedimentary injection reservoir. To address why earthquakes nucleate in the basement rather than the injection layer we investigate the relationship between pore pressure diffusion, rock matrix deformation, and induced fault reactivation through 3D fully coupled poroelastic finite element models. These models simulate the temporal and spatial perturbation of pore pressure and solid stresses within a basement fault that extends into overlying sedimentary layers and that is conductive for flow along the fault but a barrier for flow across. We compare the effects of direct pore pressure communication and indirect poroelastic stress transfer from the injection reservoir to the fault on increasing the Coulomb failure stress that could reactivate the basement fault for normal, reverse, and strike-slip faulting stress regimes. Our numerical results demonstrate that volumetric expansion of the reservoir causes a bending of the fault near the injector and induces shear tractions along the downdip direction of the fault in the basement. These induced shear tractions act to increase the Coulomb failure stress for a normal faulting stress regime, and decrease the Coulomb failure stress for a reverse faulting regime. For a strike-slip faulting stress regime, the induced shear tractions increase the Coulomb failure stress both in the reservoir and basement. The induced normal traction on the fault reduces the Coulomb failure stress in all three tectonic regimes, but is larger in the reservoir than in the basement due to the more pronounced poroelastic effect in the reservoir. As a result, strike-slip stress regimes favor fault reactivation in the basement. Whereas the magnitude of the direct pore pressure increase exceeds the magnitude of induced poroelastic stress change, the poroelastic stress change increases the Coulomb failure stress in the basement fault for the normal

  12. Discussion on the basement topography and its relation with the uranium mineralization in Xiangshan basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long Qihua; Liu Qingcheng

    2002-01-01

    The depth of the basement and the relation between the basement relief shape and uranium mineralization are discussed by forward and inverse computation for large-scale gravity data in Xiangshan basin. The difference of basement topography result in the inhomogeneous distribution of uranium mineralization. The margin of the basement upheaval section and the variation place of basement topography are the favorable place for uranium mineralization. It's helpful to prospect deep and blind uranium deposit in Xiangshan basin

  13. Basement depressurization using dwelling mechanical exhaust ventilation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collignan, B.; O'Kelly, P.; Pilch, E.

    2004-01-01

    The mechanical ventilation exhaust system is commonly used in France to generate air renewal into building and especially into dwelling. It consists of a permanent mechanical air extraction from technical rooms (kitchen, bathrooms and toilets) using a unique fan connected to exhaust ducts. Natural air inlets in living room and bed rooms ensure an air flow from living spaces towards technical rooms. To fight against radon into building, the most recognised efficient technique is the Soil Depressurization System (S.D.S.) consisting in depressurizing the house basement. The aim of this study is to test the ability of the dwelling mechanical ventilation system to depressurize the basement in conjunction with air renewal of a house. For that purpose, a S.D.S. has been installed in an experimental house at CSTB during its construction. At first, tests undertaken with a variable velocity fan connected to the S.D.S. have characterised the permeability of the basement. It is shown that basement can be depressurized adequately with a relatively low air flow rate. At a second stage, S.D.S. has been connected to the exhaust ventilation fan used for the mechanical ventilation of the house. Results obtained show the ability of such ventilation system to generate sufficient depressurization in the basement and to ensure simultaneously adequate air change rate in the dwelling. (author)

  14. Glomerular basement membrane composition and the filtration barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Jeffrey H

    2011-09-01

    The glomerular basement membrane (GBM) is an especially thick basement membrane that contributes importantly to the kidney's filtration barrier. The GBM derives from the fusion of separate podocyte and endothelial cell basement membranes during glomerulogenesis and consists primarily of laminin-521 (α5β2γ1), collagen α3α4α5(IV), nidogens-1 and -2, and agrin. Of these nine proteins, mutations in the genes encoding four of them (LAMB2, COL4A3, COL4A4, and COL4A5) cause glomerular disease in humans as well as in mice. Furthermore, mutation of a fifth (Lama5) gene in podocytes in mice causes proteinuria, nephrotic syndrome, and progression to renal failure. These results highlight the importance of the GBM for establishing and maintaining a properly functioning glomerular filtration barrier.

  15. Mouse endometrial stromal cells produce basement-membrane components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, U M; Damjanov, A; Weiss, J

    1986-01-01

    . Mouse decidual cells isolated from 6- to 7-day pregnant uteri explanted in vitro continue to synthesize basement-membrane-like extracellular matrix. Using immunohistochemistry and metabolic labeling followed by immunoprecipitation, SDS-PAGE, and fluorography, it was shown that the decidual cells...... to undergo pseudodecidualization. We thus showed that stromal cells from pregnant and nonpregnant mouse uteri synthesize significant amounts of basement-membrane components in vitro, and hence could serve as a good model for the study of normal basement-membrane components.......During mouse pregnancy, uterine stromal cells transform into morphologically distinct decidual cells under the influence of the implanting embryo and a proper hormonal environment. Mechanical stimulation of hormonally primed uterine stromal cells leads to the same morphologic alterations...

  16. Coarctation induces alterations in basement membranes in the cardiovascular system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipke, D W; McCarthy, K J; Elton, T S

    1993-01-01

    A coarctation hypertensive rat model was used to examine the effects of elevated blood pressure on basement membrane component synthesis by cardiac myocytes and aorta using immunohistochemistry and Northern blot analysis. Carotid arterial pressure increased immediately on coarctation, and left...... with regard to protein and tissue type affected as well as intensity of the changes. However, changes in mRNA levels (but not protein deposition) for perlecan and type IV collagen were also observed in aortas from hypertensive rats compared with controls. Increases in steady-state mRNA levels for all basement...

  17. Basement structures over Rio Grande Rise from gravity inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantino, Renata; Hackspacker, Peter Christian; Anderson de Souza, Iata; Sousa Lima Costa, Iago

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we show that from satellite-derived gravity field, bathymetry and sediment thicknesses, it is possible to give a 3-D model of the basement over oceanic areas, and for this purpose, we have chosen the Rio Grande Rise, in South Atlantic Ocean, to build a gravity-equivalent basement topography. The advantages of the method applied in this study are manifold: does not depend directly on reflection seismic data; can be applied quickly and with fewer costs for acquiring and interpreting the data; and as the main result, presents the physical surface below the sedimentary layer, which may be different from the acoustic basement. We evaluated the gravity effect of the sediments using the global sediment thickness model of NOAA, fitting a sediment compaction model to observed density values from Deep Sea Drilling Program (DSDP) reports. The Global Relief Model ETOPO1 and constraining data from seismic interpretation on crustal thickness are integrated in the gravity inversion procedure. The modeled Moho depth values vary between 6 to 27 km over the area, being thicker under the Rio Grande Rise and also in the direction of São Paulo Plateau. The inversion for the gravity-equivalent basement topography is applied for a gravity residual data, which is free from the gravity effect of sediments and from the gravity effect of the estimated Moho interface. A description of the basement depth over Rio Grande Rise area is unprecedented in the literature, however, our results could be compared to in situ data, provided by DSDP, and a small difference of only 9 m between our basement depth and leg 516 F was found. Our model shows a rift crossing the entire Rio Grande Rise deeper than previously presented in literature, with depths up to 5 km in the East Rio Grande Rise (ERGR) and deeper in the West Rio Grande Rise (WRGR), reaching 6.4 km. We find several short-wavelengths structures not present in the bathymetry data. Seamounts, guyots and fracture zones are much more

  18. Petrology and geotechnic setting of the basement comple rocks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The basement complex, located at the south-eastern borders of Ogoja town in the south-eastern part of Nigeria, consists of two varieties of migmatitic gneisses, namely banded and augen gneisses, which, in some cases, are inter-layered with amphibolite. Many concordant to discordant quartzofeldspathic veins in these ...

  19. Groundwater Exploration in the Basement Complex Around Chibok ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A geophysical survey employing Schlumberger electrode configuration using vertical electrical sounding (VES) method was carried out around Chibok area within the Basement Complex of north-eastern Nigeria using an ABEM SAS 300C Terrameter with a view to exploring groundwater within the study area.

  20. Mouse endometrial stromal cells produce basement-membrane components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, U M; Damjanov, A; Weiss, J

    1986-01-01

    . Mouse decidual cells isolated from 6- to 7-day pregnant uteri explanted in vitro continue to synthesize basement-membrane-like extracellular matrix. Using immunohistochemistry and metabolic labeling followed by immunoprecipitation, SDS-PAGE, and fluorography, it was shown that the decidual cells...

  1. Source parameter imaging from areomagnetic data of the basement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Source parameter imaging from areomagnetic data of the basement rocks in part of the middle Benue trough, Nigeria. GC Onyedim, EA Ariyibi, MO Awoyemi, JB Arubayi, OM Afolabi. Abstract. No Abstract. Journal of Mining and Geology Vol. 42 (2) 2006: pp. 165-173. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  2. Aeromagnetic imaging of the basement morphology in part of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aeromagnetic imaging of the basement morphology in part of the middle Benue trough, Nigeria. GC Onyedim, MO Awoyemi, EA Ariyibi, JB Arubayi. Abstract. No Abstract. Journal of Mining and Geology Vol. 42 (2) 2006: pp. 157-163. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ...

  3. Geoelectric characterization of Aquifer types in the basement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geoelectric characterization of Aquifer types in the basement complex terrain of parts of Osun state,Nigeria. S Bayode, JS Ojo, MO Olorunfemi. Abstract. No Abstract. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences Vol. 12(3) 2006: 377-385. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  4. Hydraulic characteristics of a typical basement complex aquifer in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydraulic characteristics of a typical basement complex aquifer in Ajaokuta, southwestern Nigeria. CC Osadebe, JO Fatoba, S Obrike. Abstract. No Abstract. Ife Journal of Science Vol. 7(2) 2005: 297-303. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  5. an investigation of basement fracture pattern in a part of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR ANIFOWOSE

    The basement complex of southwestern Nigeria has undergone severe tectonic deformation over the geologic past, resulting in various degrees of fracturing and folding, even to the extent of complete obliteration of primary structures except for some places. This study focuses on Akoko area which is dominated by hills of ...

  6. Magnetic basement in the central Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, K.V.L.N.S.; Ramana, M.V.; Ramprasad, T.; Desa, M.; Subrahmanyam, V.; Krishna, K.S.; Rao, M.M.M.

    . The N10-12 degrees W trending subsurface 85 degrees E Ridge buried under 2 to 3 km thick sediments is a prominent tectonic feature. Offshore basins characterised by deeper magnetic basement (approx. 9 km) and 100-200 km wide are present on either sides...

  7. Coarctation induces alterations in basement membranes in the cardiovascular system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipke, D W; McCarthy, K J; Elton, T S

    1993-01-01

    A coarctation hypertensive rat model was used to examine the effects of elevated blood pressure on basement membrane component synthesis by cardiac myocytes and aorta using immunohistochemistry and Northern blot analysis. Carotid arterial pressure increased immediately on coarctation, and left ve...

  8. Basement configuration of KG offshore basin from magnetic anomalies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Marine magnetic anomalies along three representative profiles falling between shelf break and continent–ocean boundary in the offshore Krishna–Godavari basin were quantitatively interpreted for understandingthe nature and structure of the magnetic basement using inversion technique. The interpretation of ...

  9. Basement membrane proteoglycans in glomerular morphogenesis: chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan is temporally and spatially restricted during development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, K J; Bynum, K; St John, P L

    1993-01-01

    basement membrane (GBM) but present in other basement membranes of the nephron, including collecting ducts, tubules, Bowman's capsule, and the glomerular mesangium. In light of this unique pattern of distribution and of the complex histoarchitectural reorganization occurring during nephrogenesis...

  10. Collective cell behavior on basement membranes floating in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Sarah; Bhattacharjee, Tapomoy; Morley, Cameron; Sawyer, W.; Angelini, Thomas

    The basement membrane is an essential part of the polarity of endothelial and epithelial tissues. In tissue culture and organ-on-chip devices, monolayer polarity can be established by coating flat surfaces with extracellular matrix proteins and tuning the trans-substrate permeability. In epithelial 3D culture, spheroids spontaneously establish inside-out polarity, morphing into hollow shell-like structures called acini, generating their own basement membrane on the inner radius of the shell. However, 3D culture approaches generally lack the high degree of control provided by the 2D culture plate or organ-on-chip devices, making it difficult to create more faithful in vitro tissue models with complex surface curvature and morphology. Here we present a method for 3D printing complex basement membranes covered in cells. We 3D print collagen-I and Matrigel into a 3D growth medium made from jammed microgels. This soft, yielding material allows extracellular matrix to be formed as complex surfaces and shapes, floating in space. We then distribute MCF10A epithelial cells across the polymerized surface. We envision employing this strategy to study 3D collective cell behavior in numerous model tissue layers, beyond this simple epithelial model.

  11. Geoelectrical characterisation of basement aquifers: the case of Iberekodo, southwestern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizebeokhai, Ahzegbobor P.; Oyeyemi, Kehinde D.

    2018-03-01

    Basement aquifers, which occur within the weathered and fractured zones of crystalline bedrocks, are important groundwater resources in tropical and subtropical regions. The development of basement aquifers is complex owing to their high spatial variability. Geophysical techniques are used to obtain information about the hydrologic characteristics of the weathered and fractured zones of the crystalline basement rocks, which relates to the occurrence of groundwater in the zones. The spatial distributions of these hydrologic characteristics are then used to map the spatial variability of the basement aquifers. Thus, knowledge of the spatial variability of basement aquifers is useful in siting wells and boreholes for optimal and perennial yield. Geoelectrical resistivity is one of the most widely used geophysical methods for assessing the spatial variability of the weathered and fractured zones in groundwater exploration efforts in basement complex terrains. The presented study focuses on combining vertical electrical sounding with two-dimensional (2D) geoelectrical resistivity imaging to characterise the weathered and fractured zones in a crystalline basement complex terrain in southwestern Nigeria. The basement aquifer was delineated, and the nature, extent and spatial variability of the delineated basement aquifer were assessed based on the spatial variability of the weathered and fractured zones. The study shows that a multiple-gradient array for 2D resistivity imaging is sensitive to vertical and near-surface stratigraphic features, which have hydrological implications. The integration of resistivity sounding with 2D geoelectrical resistivity imaging is efficient and enhances near-surface characterisation in basement complex terrain.

  12. A fall-out shelter or basement structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blatchford, J.M.A.

    1982-01-01

    A strong structure of precast concrete for use as a fallout shelter, tank, basement structure, blast-proof garage is described. It consists of several upright, concrete wall elements, including L-shaped sections, and at least one concrete roof element. The concrete elements are preferably encased in, and may also be supported on, a concrete surround which is formed in situ and which may be secured to the elements by projecting links. The structure may be assembled as an underground or above-ground building. This invention provides a strong structure of quite large span which is relatively simple in construction and can be rapidly assembled. (U.K.)

  13. Air exchange rates and migration of VOCs in basements and residences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, L; Batterman, S; Godwin, C; Rowe, Z; Chin, J-Y

    2015-12-01

    Basements can influence indoor air quality by affecting air exchange rates (AERs) and by the presence of emission sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and other pollutants. We characterized VOC levels, AERs, and interzonal flows between basements and occupied spaces in 74 residences in Detroit, Michigan. Flows were measured using a steady-state multitracer system, and 7-day VOC measurements were collected using passive samplers in both living areas and basements. A walk-through survey/inspection was conducted in each residence. AERs in residences and basements averaged 0.51 and 1.52/h, respectively, and had strong and opposite seasonal trends, for example, AERs were highest in residences during the summer, and highest in basements during the winter. Airflows from basements to occupied spaces also varied seasonally. VOC concentration distributions were right-skewed, for example, 90th percentile benzene, toluene, naphthalene, and limonene concentrations were 4.0, 19.1, 20.3, and 51.0 μg/m(3), respectively; maximum concentrations were 54, 888, 1117, and 134 μg/m(3). Identified VOC sources in basements included solvents, household cleaners, air fresheners, smoking, and gasoline-powered equipment. The number and type of potential VOC sources found in basements are significant and problematic, and may warrant advisories regarding the storage and use of potentially strong VOCs sources in basements. Few IAQ studies have examined basements. A sizable volume of air can flow between the basement and living area, and AERs in these two zones can differ considerably. In many residences, the basement contains significant emission sources and contributes a large fraction of VOC concentrations found in the living area. Exposures can be lowered by removing VOC sources from the basement; other exposure management options, such as local ventilation or isolation, are unlikely to be practical. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Immunohistochemical localization of basement membrane components during hair follicle morphogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westgate, G E; Shaw, D A; Harrap, G J

    1984-01-01

    Specific antisera were used to investigate the distributions of several basement membrane zone (BMZ) components, namely, bullous pemphigoid antigen (BPA), heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG), laminin, and type IV collagen, during the development of hair follicles in late embryo rats. BPA was not ......Specific antisera were used to investigate the distributions of several basement membrane zone (BMZ) components, namely, bullous pemphigoid antigen (BPA), heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG), laminin, and type IV collagen, during the development of hair follicles in late embryo rats. BPA...... of the elongating follicle. HSPG was associated with the basal cell layer prior to the appearance of hair follicle primordia and became BMZ-associated before birth but after follicle buds were first observed. HSPG was also found to be associated with the basal cell surfaces in the epidermis, but not in the hair...... follicle. Laminin and type IV collagen were continually present in epidermal and follicular BMZ both before and during development of hair follicles and were later present in the dermal papilla matrix. From these observations we conclude that (1) laminin and type IV collagen are functionally important...

  15. Tectonic and neotectonic implications of a new basement map of the Lower Tagus Valley, Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, João P. G.; Rabeh, Taha; Dias, Rui; Dias, Ruben P.; Pinto, Carlos C.; Oliveira, José Tomás; Cunha, Teresa Arriaga; Borges, José Fernando

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present a new basement (defined here as Paleozoic, Precambrian and Mesozoic igneous rocks) map of the Lower Tagus Valley area. This map is a contribution to the understanding of the structural evolution of the top of the basement in the Lower Tagus Valley area during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras. The map was produced using aeromagnetic, well, seismic reflection and geological outcrop data. It shows unprecedented details of the geometry of the basement rock's sur...

  16. Structural analysis of a fractured basement reservoir, central Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeningen, Resi; Rice, Hugh; Schneider, Dave; Grasemann, Bernhard; Decker, Kurt

    2013-04-01

    The Pan-African Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS), within which Yemen lies, formed as a result of Neoproterozoic collisional events between c. 870-550 Ma. Several subsequent phases of extension occurred, from the Mesozoic (due to the breakup of Gondwana) to the Recent (forming the Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea). These resulted in the formation of numerous horst- and-graben structures and the development of fractured basement reservoirs in the southeast part of the ANS. Two drill cores from the Mesozoic Marib-Shabwa Basin, central Yemen, penetrated the upper part of the Pan-African basement. The cores show both a lithological and structural inhomogeneity, with variations in extension-related deformation structures such as dilatational breccias, open fractures and closed veins. At least three deformation events have been recognized: D1) Ductile to brittle NW-SE directed faulting during cooling of a granitic pluton. U-Pb zircon ages revealed an upper age limit for granite emplacement at 627±3.5 Ma. As these structures show evidence for ductile deformation, this event must have occurred during the Ediacaran, shortly after intrusion, since Rb/Sr and (U-Th)/He analyses show that subsequent re-heating of the basement did not take place. D2) The development of shallow dipping, NNE-SSW striking extensional faults that formed during the Upper Jurassic, simultaneously with the formation of the Marib-Shabwa Basin. These fractures are regularly cross-cut by D3. D3) Steeply dipping NNE-SSW to ENE-WSW veins that are consistent with the orientation of the opening of the Gulf of Aden. These faults are the youngest structures recognized. The formation of ductile to brittle faults in the granite (D1) resulted in a hydrothermally altered zone ca. 30 cm wide replacing (mainly) plagioclase with predominantly chlorite, as well as kaolinite and heavy element minerals such as pyrite. The alteration- induced porosity has an average value of 20%, indicating that the altered zone is potentially a

  17. Effects of radiation on the permeability of human basement membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, B.-T.; Achour, S.; Simmonet, F.; Guerin, D.

    1999-02-01

    The influence of radiation on the permeability properties of human basement membrane was investigated by measuring the diffusion rate of several organic compounds (glycine, proline, glucose, urea and insulin) through human anterior lens capsules. The basement membranes borne an γ-irradiation treatment change significantly their permeability vis-a-vis studied organic substances. This modification in physico-chemical properties is probably due to the radiation, which alters or degrades the complex structure (or architecture) of basement membranes. Moreover the change in permeability is dependent upon the diffusing compounds. An increase in diffusion has been observed for glucose, glycine and urea. However for insulin and proline, a decrease in diffusion rate was observed. L'influence de radiation sur la perméabilité de la membrane basale a été étudiée par la mesure de la vitesse de diffusion de plusieurs composés organiques d'intérêt biologique (glycine, proline, glucose, urée et insuline) à travers la lame basale antérieure du cristallin de l'oil humain. Les membranes basales qui sont traitées avec l'irradiation γ changent significativement leur perméabilité vis-à-vis des substances organiques. Ce changement de propriétés physico-chimiques est probablement dû à l'altération ou la dégradation de la structure (ou de l'architecture) de la membrane basale entraînée par l'irradiation. De plus, la modification de la perméabilité de la membrane basale est dépendante des composés diffusants. Une augmentation de la vitesse de diffusion a été observée pour le glucose, le glycine et l'urée. Par contre, dans les cas de l'insuline et de la proline, on a observé une diminution de la vitesse de diffusion.

  18. Formation evaluation of fractured basement, Cambay Basin, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Saurabh Datta; Farooqui, M Y; Chatterjee, Rima

    2012-01-01

    Unconventional reservoirs such as fractured basalts, shale gas and tight sand are currently playing an important role in producing a significant amount of hydrocarbon. The Deccan Trap basaltic rocks form the basement of the Cambay Basin, India, and hold commercially producible hydrocarbon. In this study two wells drilled through fractured basalts are chosen for evaluating the lithology, porosity and oil saturation of the reservoir sections. Well logs, such as gamma ray, high resolution resistivity, litho density, compensated neutron and elemental capture spectroscopy, have been used in cross-plotting techniques for lithology and mineral identification. Formation micro imagery log data have been analysed to quantify the fractures and porosity in the fractured reservoirs for a well in the south Ahmedabad block of the Cambay Basin. The results of the analysis of two wells are presented and discussed and they are found to be in good agreement with geological and production data. (paper)

  19. Basement membrane abnormalities in human eyes with diabetic retinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljubimov, A V; Burgeson, R E; Butkowski, R J

    1996-01-01

    Vascular and parenchymal basement membranes (BMs) are thickened in diabetes, but alterations in individual BM components in diabetic eyes, especially in diabetic retinopathy (DR), are obscure. To identify abnormalities in the distribution of specific constituents, we analyzed cryostat sections...... of human eyes obtained at autopsy (seven normal, five diabetic without DR, and 13 diabetic with DR) by immunofluorescence with antibodies to 30 BM and extracellular matrix components. In non-DR eyes, no qualitative changes of ocular BM components were seen. In some DR corneas, epithelial BM was stained...... discontinuously for laminin-1, entactin/nidogen, and alpha3-alpha4 Type IV collagen, in contrast to non-DR corneas. Major BM alterations were found in DR retinas compared to normals and non-DR diabetics. The inner limiting membrane (retinal BM) of DR eyes had accumulations of fibronectin (including cellular...

  20. ENFORCEMENT OF FINANCIAL BASEMENTS AS A FACTOR OF TERRITORIES DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.N. Sidorova

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Article contains description of structure of regional finance resources, discloses the sources of financing, describes the role of budgeting. Problems and possible ways of solution of inter-budget relationships optimisation are described with the purpose of increasing of financial prosperity of territories. Overall role of optimisation as one of the most important factors of strengthening of financial basement of territories is described along with the necessity of considering the budget process as stimulated factor for regional economic systems development. Suggestions on substitution of cost method of budget resources management by the model of outcomes management and further development of mechanisms of territorial bodies interaction with economic entities on the base of state-private partnership were proposed.

  1. Basement membrane abnormalities in human eyes with diabetic retinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljubimov, A V; Burgeson, R E; Butkowski, R J

    1996-01-01

    discontinuously for laminin-1, entactin/nidogen, and alpha3-alpha4 Type IV collagen, in contrast to non-DR corneas. Major BM alterations were found in DR retinas compared to normals and non-DR diabetics. The inner limiting membrane (retinal BM) of DR eyes had accumulations of fibronectin (including cellular......Vascular and parenchymal basement membranes (BMs) are thickened in diabetes, but alterations in individual BM components in diabetic eyes, especially in diabetic retinopathy (DR), are obscure. To identify abnormalities in the distribution of specific constituents, we analyzed cryostat sections...... of human eyes obtained at autopsy (seven normal, five diabetic without DR, and 13 diabetic with DR) by immunofluorescence with antibodies to 30 BM and extracellular matrix components. In non-DR eyes, no qualitative changes of ocular BM components were seen. In some DR corneas, epithelial BM was stained...

  2. The Acinar Cage: Basement Membranes Determine Molecule Exchange and Mechanical Stability of Human Breast Cell Acini.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aljona Gaiko-Shcherbak

    Full Text Available The biophysical properties of the basement membrane that surrounds human breast glands are poorly understood, but are thought to be decisive for normal organ function and malignancy. Here, we characterize the breast gland basement membrane with a focus on molecule permeation and mechanical stability, both crucial for organ function. We used well-established and nature-mimicking MCF10A acini as 3D cell model for human breast glands, with ether low- or highly-developed basement membrane scaffolds. Semi-quantitative dextran tracer (3 to 40 kDa experiments allowed us to investigate the basement membrane scaffold as a molecule diffusion barrier in human breast acini in vitro. We demonstrated that molecule permeation correlated positively with macromolecule size and intriguingly also with basement membrane development state, revealing a pore size of at least 9 nm. Notably, an intact collagen IV mesh proved to be essential for this permeation function. Furthermore, we performed ultra-sensitive atomic force microscopy to quantify the response of native breast acini and of decellularized basement membrane shells against mechanical indentation. We found a clear correlation between increasing acinar force resistance and basement membrane formation stage. Most important native acini with highly-developed basement membranes as well as cell-free basement membrane shells could both withstand physiologically relevant loads (≤ 20 nN without loss of structural integrity. In contrast, low-developed basement membranes were significantly softer and more fragile. In conclusion, our study emphasizes the key role of the basement membrane as conductor of acinar molecule influx and mechanical stability of human breast glands, which are fundamental for normal organ function.

  3. Age of Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc basement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizuka, Osamu; Hickey-Vargas, Rosemary; Arculus, Richard J.; Yogodzinski, Gene M.; Savov, Ivan P.; Kusano, Yuki; McCarthy, Anders; Brandl, Philipp A.; Sudo, Masafumi

    2018-01-01

    Documenting the early tectonic and magmatic evolution of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) arc system in the Western Pacific is critical for understanding the process and cause of subduction initiation along the current convergent margin between the Pacific and Philippine Sea plates. Forearc igneous sections provide firm evidence for seafloor spreading at the time of subduction initiation (52 Ma) and production of "forearc basalt". Ocean floor drilling (International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 351) recovered basement-forming, low-Ti tholeiitic basalt crust formed shortly after subduction initiation but distal from the convergent margin (nominally reararc) of the future IBM arc (Amami Sankaku Basin: ASB). Radiometric dating of this basement gives an age range (49.3-46.8 Ma with a weighted average of 48.7 Ma) that overlaps that of basalt in the present-day IBM forearc, but up to 3.3 m.y. younger than the onset of forearc basalt activity. Similarity in age range and geochemical character between the reararc and forearc basalts implies that the ocean crust newly formed by seafloor spreading during subduction initiation extends from fore- to reararc of the present-day IBM arc. Given the age difference between the oldest forearc basalt and the ASB crust, asymmetric spreading caused by ridge migration might have taken place. This scenario for the formation of the ASB implies that the Mesozoic remnant arc terrane of the Daito Ridges comprised the overriding plate at subduction initiation. The juxtaposition of a relatively buoyant remnant arc terrane adjacent to an oceanic plate was more favourable for subduction initiation than would have been the case if both downgoing and overriding plates had been oceanic.

  4. Immunological characterization of a basement membrane-specific chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, K J; Accavitti, M A; Couchman, J R

    1989-01-01

    Reichert's membrane, an extraembryonic membrane present in developing rodents, has been proposed as an in vivo model for the study of basement membranes. We have used this membrane as a source for isolation of basement membrane proteoglycans. Reichert's membranes were extracted in a guanidine/3-[...

  5. Geology of the Pan-African basement Complex in Ube-Wulko area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Ube-Wulko area of southeast Akwanga falls within the Pan-African remobilized Basement Complex of northcentral Nigeria. It consists of intensely multi-deformed high grade polymetamorphic basement rocks, predominantly composed of migmatitic gneisses and schists and subordinate quartzites, marbles, and ...

  6. Basement radon entry and stack driven moisture infiltration reduced by active soil depressurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.R. Boardman; Samuel V. Glass

    2015-01-01

    This case study presents measurements of radon and moisture infiltration from soil gases into the basement of an unoccupied research house in Madison, Wisconsin, over two full years. The basement floor and exterior walls were constructed with preservative-treated lumber and plywood. In addition to continuous radon monitoring, measurements included building air...

  7. Basement Surface Faulting and Topography for Savannah River Site and Vicinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cumbest, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    This report integrates the data from more than 60 basement borings and over 100 miles of seismic reflection profiling acquired on the Savannah River Site to map the topography of the basement (unweathered rock) surface and faulting recorded on this surface

  8. Three-Dimensional Inversion of Magnetotelluric Data for the Sediment–Basement Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Hongzhu; Zhdanov, Michael

    2016-01-01

    and a resistive basement. Conventional inversions of MT data are aimed at determining the volumetric distribution of the conductivity within the inversion domain. The recovered distribution of the subsurface conductivity is typically diffusive, which makes it difficult to select the sediment-basement interface....... This letter develops a novel approach to 3-D MT inversion for the depth-to-basement estimate. The key to this approach is selection of the model parameterization, with the depth to basement being the major unknown parameter. In order to estimate the depth to the basement, the inversion algorithm recovers both...... the thickness and the conductivities of the sedimentary basin. The forward modeling is based on the integral equation approach. The inverse problem is solved using a regularized conjugate gradient method. The Fréchet derivative matrix is calculated based on quasi-Born approximation. The developed method...

  9. Basement geology of Taranaki and Wanganui basins, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortimer, N.; Tulloch, A.J.; Ireland, T.R.

    1997-01-01

    We present a revised interpretation of the basement geology beneath Late Cretaceous to Cenozoic Taranaki and Wanganui basins of central New Zealand, based on new petrographic, geochemical, and geochronological data from 30 oil exploration wells. Recently published structural and magnetic interpretations of the area assist in the interpolation and extrapolation of geological boundaries. Torlesse and Waipapa terranes have been identified in Wanganui Basin, and Murihiku Terrane in eastern Taranaki Basin, but Maitai and Brook Street terrane rocks have not been recognised. Separation Point Suite, Karamea Suite, and Median Tectonic Zone igneous rocks are all identified on the basis of characteristic petrography, geochemistry, and/or age. SHRIMP U-Pb zircon measurements on igneous samples from western Taranaki wells do not give precise ages but do provide useful constraints: Motueka-1 granite is latest Devonian - earliest Carboniferous; Tangaroa-1 and Toropuihi-1 are Carboniferous; and Surville-1 is Cretaceous (cf. Separation Point Suite). Our interpretation of sub-basin geology is compatible with previously observed onland relationships in the North and South Islands. (author). 47 refs., 6 figs

  10. The basement membrane and tumor progression in the uterine cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, S A; Nair, M B; Jayaprakash, P G; Rajalekshmy, T N; Nair, M K; Pillai, M R

    1997-06-01

    Immunocytochemical localization of the basement membrane (BM) proteins laminin, type-IV collagen and fibronectin were analyzed in normal cervical epithelium, low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs), high grade SILs and invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the uterine cervix. A regular, thick and continuous BM was present in normal cervical epithelium and low grade SIL. Interruptions and discontinuity of the BM were more evident in high grade SILs. There was a good correlation between increasing severity of the lesion and increasing number of breaks. In SCC, the distribution of laminin, collagen IV and fibronectin was related to the degree of cellular differentiation, with decreased immunoreactivity being evident in moderately and poorly differentiated tumors. As the invasive potential of the tumor increased, the fragmentation and loss of BM was more evident. Fibronectin showed only moderate to mild immunoreactivity in normal cervical epithelium and low grade SILs. However, the intensity of expression increased in high grade SILs especially in the peritumoral stroma. It may therefore be concluded from these results that snythesis and reabsorption of BM proteins may be related to shifts in cellular metabolism during tumorigenesis.

  11. Depth of magnetic basement in Iran based on fractal spectral analysis of aeromagnetic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teknik, Vahid; Ghods, Abdolreza

    2017-06-01

    To estimate the shape of sedimentary basins, a critical parameter in hydrocarbon exploration, we calculated the depth of magnetic basement by applying a fractal spectral method to the aeromagnetic map of Iran. The depth of magnetic basement is a close proxy for the shape of sedimentary basins provided that igneous basement is strongly magnetized relative to the overlying sediments and there is no interbedding magnetic layer in the sediments. The shape of the power spectrum of magnetic anomalies is sensitive to the depth of magnetic basement, the thickness of the magnetic layer, the fractal parameter of magnetization and the size of the window used for the calculation of the power spectrum. Using a suite of synthetic tests, we have shown that the estimation of the depth of magnetic basement of up to 20 km is not very sensitive to the often unknown fractal parameter and thus the spectral method is a reliable tool to calculate the depth of magnetic basement. The depth of magnetic basement is in the range of 7-16 km in the Zagros, east Alborz, Tabas, Jazmurian and Makran regions, showing a close correlation with depths estimated from the maximum thickness of stratigraphic columns. We have also found new sedimentary basins in Bostan Abad, Bijar and south of Orumiyeh Lake. The significant depth of the magnetic basement in the Makran, Jazmurain depression, southeast Caspian Sea, Tabas, Great Kavir, south of Orumiyeh Lake, Bostan Abad and Bijar sedimentary basins makes them future prospects for hydrocarbon explorations. The depth of magnetic basement is strongly reduced over the Neyriz and Kermanshah Ophiolites, but it does not show any meaningful correlation with other outcrops of ophiolitic rocks in Iran.

  12. Expression of basement membrane components through morphological changes in the hair growth cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; Gibson, W T

    1985-01-01

    The amount and distribution of fibronectin associated with hair follicles was found to vary during the hair growth cycle in the rat. Immunocytochemical staining of follicles in mid-late anagen (the growth stage) revealed the presence of fibronectin in the dermal papilla matrix, in the basement...... membrane separating this from the epithelial cells of the hair bulb, and in the basement membrane and connective tissue sheath which underly the cells of the outer root sheath. Early in catagen, the transitional stage, staining of the dermal papilla matrix disappeared. Fibronectin persisted in the basement...

  13. Modeling Spatial and Temporal Fault Zone Evolution in Basement Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunn, R. J.; Moir, H.; Shipton, Z. K.; Willson, J. P.

    2007-05-01

    There is considerable industrial interest in assessing the permeability of faults for the purpose of oil and gas production, deep well injection of waste liquids, underground storage of natural gas and disposal of radioactive waste. Deterministic prior estimation of fault hydraulic properties is highly error prone. Faults zones are formed through a complex interaction of mechanical, hydraulic and chemical processes and their permeability varies considerably over both space and time. Algorithms for predicting fault seal potential using throw and host rock property data exist for clay-rich fault seals but are contentious. In the case of crystalline rocks and sand-sand contacts, no such algorithms exist. In any case, the study of fault growth processes does not suggest that there is a clear or simple relationship between fault throw and the fault zone permeability. To improve estimates of fault zone permeability, it is important to understand the underlying hydro-mechanical processes of fault zone formation. In this research, we explore the spatial and temporal evolution of fault zones through development and application of a 2D hydro-mechanical finite element model. The temporal development of fault zone damage is simulated perpendicular to the main slip surface using Navier's equation for mechanical deformation. The model is applied to study development of fault zones in basement rocks. We simulate the evolution of fault zones from pre-existing joints and explore controls on the growth rate and locations of multiple splay fractures which link-up to form complex damage zones. We explore the temporal evolution of the stress field surrounding the fault tip for both propagation of isolated small faults and for fault linkage Results from these simulations have been validated using outcrop data.

  14. Fault distribution in the Precambrian basement of South Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielsen, Roy H.; Nystuen, Johan Petter; Olesen, Odleiv

    2018-03-01

    Mapping of the structural pattern by remote sensing methods (Landsat, SPOT, aerial photography, potential field data) and field study of selected structural elements shows that the cratonic basement of South Norway is strongly affected by a regular lineament pattern that encompasses fault swarms of different orientation, age, style, attitude and frequency. Albeit counting numerous fault and fracture populations, the faults are not evenly distributed and N-S to NNE-SSW/NNW-SSE and NE-SE/ENE-WSW-systems are spatially dominant. N-S to NNW-SSE structures can be traced underneath the Caledonian nappes to the Western Gneiss Region in western and central South Norway, emphasizing their ancient roots. Dyke swarms of different ages are found within most of these zones. Also, the Østfold, Oslo-Trondheim and the Mandal-Molde lineament zones coincide with trends of Sveconorwegian post-collision granites. We conclude that the N-S-trend includes the most ancient structural elements, and that the trend can be traced back to the Proterozoic (Svecofennian and Sveconorwegian) orogenic events. Some of the faults may have been active in Neoproterozoic times as marginal faults of rift basins at the western margin of Baltica. Remnants of such fault activity have survived in the cores of many of the faults belonging to this system. The ancient systems of lineaments were passively overridden by the Caledonian fold-and-thrust system and remained mostly, but note entirely inactive throughout the Sub-Cambrian peneplanation and the Caledonian orogenic collapse in the Silurian-Devonian. The system was reactivated in extension from Carboniferous times, particularly in the Permian with the formation of the Oslo Rift and parts of it remain active to the Present, albeit by decreasing extension and fault activity.

  15. Characteristics of the crystalline basement beneath the Ordos Basin: Constraint from aeromagnetic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhentao Wang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aeromagnetic anomaly zonation of the Ordos Basin and adjacent areas was obtained by processing high-precision and large-scale aeromagnetic anomalies with an approach of reduction to the pole upward continuation. Comparative study on aeromagnetic and seismic tomography suggests that aeromagnetic anomalies in this area are influenced by both the magnetic property of the rock and the burial depth of the Precambrian crystalline basement. Basement depth might be the fundamental control factor for aeromagnetic anomalies because the positive and negative anomalies on the reduction to the pole-upward-continuation anomaly maps roughly coincide with the uplifts and depressions of the crystalline basement in the basin. The results, together with the latest understanding of basement faults, SHRIMP U-Pb zircon dating of metamorphic rock and granite, drilling data, detrital zircon ages, and gravity data interpretation, suggest that the Ordos block is not an entirety of Archean.

  16. Co-deposition of basement membrane components during the induction of murine splenic AA amyloid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyon, A W; Narindrasorasak, S; Young, I D

    1991-01-01

    Past studies have demonstrated that during murine AA amyloid induction there is co-deposition of the AA amyloid peptide and the basement membrane form of heparan sulfate proteoglycan. The synthesis and accumulation of heparan sulfate proteoglycan does not usually occur in the absence of other...... basement membrane components, such as type IV collagen, laminin, and fibronectin. Using immunohistochemical techniques, the present experiments have demonstrated that in addition to the heparan sulfate proteoglycan, there are other basement membrane components present in splenic AA amyloid deposits...... and these are present as soon as AA amyloid deposits are detectable. The results indicate that within the time constraints imposed by the experiments, the basement membrane components, fibronectin, laminin, type IV collagen, and heparan sulfate proteoglycan are co-deposited 36 to 48 hours after the AgNO3 and amyloid...

  17. Peroxynitrous acid induces structural and functional modifications to basement membranes and its key component, laminin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degendorfer, Georg; Chuang, Christine Y.; Hammer, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    Basement membranes (BM) are specialized extracellular matrices underlying endothelial cells in the artery wall. Laminin, the most abundant BM glycoprotein, is a structural and biologically active component. Peroxynitrous acid (ONOOH), a potent oxidizing and nitrating agent, is formed in vivo...

  18. Contribution To The Geology Of Basement Rocks In The South Western Desert Of Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadek, M.F.; Khyamy, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    Three major Precambrian basement inliers are exposed in the South Western Desert of Egypt between Long. 29 degree E and the River Nile within the Uweinat-Bir Safsaf-Aswan E-W uplift system. These are Bir Safsaf, Gabal EI-Asr and Gabal Umm Shaghir areas. Smaller outcrops include Gabal EI-Gara El-Hamra and Gabal El-Gara EI-Soda, Gabal Siri, GabaI EI-Fantas and Aswan-Kalabsha area as well as the scattered outcrops around Darb El-Arbain road. Band ratios 5/7, 5/1, 4 of Landsat TM images were applied to delineate the borders, the lithologic units and structural features of low relief basement outcrops within the surrounding flat lying sedimentary rocks and sand plains. These basement rocks comprise ortho gneisses (assumed by many authors as related to old continent pre Pan-African rocks), G 1 tonalite-granodiorite, and G2 monzogranite-alkali feldspar granite intruded by variable dykes. The boundaries between the basement exposures and the sedimentary rocks are marked by nonconformity surfaces or sets of faults. Both basement and sedimentary rocks are intruded by Mesozoic syenite-G3 granites, rhyolite, trachytic plugs and Upper Cretaceous to Tertiary basalts. The basement exposures are structurally controlled by major E- W fault systems. Their vertical uplifting is overprinted by folding the overlying sedimentary rocks. This study revealed that, the different basement exposures in the SE of the Western Desert of Egypt are similar in appearance and field relations to the Pan-African basement rocks extending towards the east of the River Nile and exposed everywhere in the Eastern Desert of Egypt

  19. The morphology and nature of the East Arctic ocean acoustic basement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekant, Pavel

    2017-04-01

    As the result of the thorough interpretation and cross-correlation of the large seismic dataset (>150000 km and >600 seismic lines), the depth structure map of the acoustic basement was constrained. Tectonic framework, basement surface morphology and linkage of the deep basin structures with shelves ones, was significantly clarified based on the map. It becomes clear that most morphostructures presently located within deep-water basin are tectonically connected with shelf structures. Acoustic basement contains a number of pre-Cambrian, Caledonian and Mesozoic consolidated blocks. The basement heterogeneity is highlighted by faults framework and basement surface morphology differences, as well thickness and stratigraphy of the sediment cover. The deepest basins of the East Arctic - Hanna Trough, North Chukchi and Podvodnikov Basins form a united mega-depression, wedged between pre-Cambrian continental blocks (Chukchi Borderland - Mendeleev Rise - Toll Saddle) from the north and the Caledonian deformation front from the south. The basement age/origin speculations are consistent with paleontological and U-Pb zircon ages from dredged rock samples. Most of morphological boundaries in the modern Arctic differ considerably from the tectonic framework. Only part of the Arctic morphostructures is constrained by tectonic boundaries. They are: eastern slope of the Lomonosov Ridge, continental slope in the Laptev Sea, upper continental slope in the Podvodnikov Basin, southern slope of the North Chukchi Basin and borders of the Chukchi Borderland. The rest significant part of modern morphological boundaries are caused by sedimentation processes.

  20. Modelling Spatial and Temporal Fault Zone Evolution in Basement Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunn, R. J.; Willson, J. P.; Shipton, Z. K.

    2006-12-01

    There is considerable industrial interest in assessing the permeability of faults for the purpose of oil and gas production, deep well injection of waste liquids, underground storage of natural gas and disposal of radioactive waste. Prior estimation of fault hydraulic properties is highly error prone. Faults zones are formed through a complex interaction of mechanical, hydraulic and chemical processes and their permeability varies considerably over both space and time. Algorithms for predicting fault seal potential using throw and host rock property data exist for clay-rich fault seals but are contentious. In the case of crystalline rocks and sand-sand contacts, no such algorithms exist. In any case, the study of fault growth processes does not suggest that there is a clear or simple relationship between fault throw and the fault zone permeability. To improve estimates of fault zone permeability, it is important to understand the underlying hydro-mechanical processes of fault zone formation. In this research, we explore the spatial and temporal evolution of fault zones through development and application of a 2D hydro-mechanical finite element model. The development of fault zone damage is simulated perpendicular to the main slip surface using a fully coupled solution of Navier's equation for mechanical deformation and Darcy's Law/conservation of fluid mass for subsurface fluid flow. The model is applied to study development of fault zones in basement rocks, based on the conceptual model of S. J. Martell, J. Struct. Geol. 12(7):869-882, 1990. We simulate the evolution of fault zones from pre-existing joints and explore controls on the growth rate and locations of multiple splay fractures which link-up to form complex damage zones. We are the first researchers to successfully simulate the temporal and spatial evolution of multiple wing cracks, tertiary fracturing, antithetic fractures propagating into the compressive region, infill fracturing between faults and

  1. Fault assessment for basement reservoir compartmentalization: Case study at Northeast Betara gas field, South Sumatra Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risyad, M.; Suta, I. N.; Haris, A.

    2017-07-01

    Northeast Betara field is situated on the northern part of prolific South Sumatra Basin. It has produced gas from Lower Talang Akar Formation sandstone and over 90 wells have been drilled. A 3D seismic data was acquired in 2000 and reprocessed in 2012 to enhance the subsurface image. In 2013 an exploratory well NEB Base-1 was drilled and made gas and condensate discovery from the subsequent pre-tertiary basement which is confirmed as granite. The well proved fractured basement reservoir play on paleo high of the structure. The absence of full-diameter conventional core prompts well logs and seismic data analysis by using a workstation. Main methods for fracture prediction have been seismic attributes extraction and structural geology studies of basement provided by image logs on a few exploration wells. Ant tracking attribute is widely employed to image seismic event discontinuities due to extensive faults which generated the natural fractures. Delineations well NEB Base-2 was drilled on second paleo high and unfortunately, it did not find any gas indication from pre-tertiary basement target. Seismic structural interpretation and seismic attributes are conducted to image distribution of event discontinuities related to faults or fracture. We found that compartmentalization on basement involved old faults and both paleo high have undergone different structural history and stress character which resulted in separated fractures distribution.

  2. BASECALC - software for residential basement and slab-on-grade heat-loss analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beausoleil-Morrison, I. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Office of Energy Efficiency

    1999-11-01

    BASECALC models heat losses from residential building basements and slabs-on-grade by calculating heat loss based on thermal and physical properties of individual construction, insulation type and location, ground properties and weather. BASECALC provides bilingual software and numerical, graphical and parametric output. It can model above-grade and below-grade heat losses and include the effects of thermal bridging between the basement and the main-floor envelope. This is then validated against the National Research Council of Canada`s Mitalas method. The software can calculate insulation configurations with code implications and carry out batch processing for multiple runs. It includes libraries of common insulation and construction materials. BASECALC has the potential in other applications to develop more accurate basement algorithms for building simulation programs, establish building and energy code requirements for basement and slab-on-grade insulation, assess and demonstrate the performance of new products and novel insulation placements, and validate and calibrate basement heat-loss predictions from building simulation programs.

  3. The metamorphic basement of the Cordillera Frontal of Mendoza: New geochronologic and isotopic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basei, Miguel; Ramos, Victor A.; Vujovich, Graciela I.; Poma, Stella

    1998-01-01

    The metamorphic rocks of the Cordillera Frontal exposed in the Cordon del Portillo, Mendoza were examined by Rb/Sr geochronology and Nd/Sm isotopic analysis. The Rb/Sr data defined a Devonian age for the last metamorphic episode, similar to the previous K/Ar and Ar/Ar ages obtained in this region and western Precordillera. The isotopic analysis identified three sets of model ages: 1.- The oldest corresponds to a set of meta sedimentary rocks with a model age of 1,400 to 1,700 Ma; 2.- A monzogranodiorite with a model age of 1,000 Ma; and 3.- Metabasites with model ages between 577 and 330 Ma. These rocks are interpreted as 1.- A typical Grenvillian derived basement; 2.- Late Paleozoic granitoids derived from a different Proterozoic basement; and 3.- Some Eopaleozoic metabasites tectonically inter fingered with the Grenvillian basement. These new data are coherent with the existence of a Laurentia derived terrane, Chilenia, that was separated by oceanic rocks from the basement of Pre cordillera during Eopaleozoic times. This last basement known as the Cuyania terrane, was also derived from Laurentia. (author)

  4. Accelerating repaired basement membrane after bevacizumab treatment on alkali-burned mouse cornea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Koon-Ja; Lee, Ji-Young; Lee, Sung Ho; Choi, Tae Hoon

    2013-01-01

    To understand the corneal regeneration induced by bevacizumab, we investigated the structure changes of stroma and basement membrane regeneration. A Stick soaked in 0.5 N NaOH onto the mouse cornea and 2.5 mg/ml of bevacizumab was delivered into an alkali-burned cornea (2 μl) by subconjunctival injections at 1 hour and 4 days after injury. At 7 days after injury, basement membrane regeneration was observed by transmission electron microscope. Uneven and thin epithelial basement membrane, light density of hemidesmosomes, and edematous collagen fibril bundles are shown in the alkali-burned cornea. Injured epithelial basement membrane and hemidesmosomes and edematous collagen fibril bundles resulting from alkali-burned mouse cornea was repaired by bevacizumab treatment. This study demonstrates that bevacizumab can play an important role in wound healing in the cornea by accelerating the reestablishment of basement membrane integrity that leads to barriers for scar formation. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(4): 195-200] PMID:23615260

  5. Characteristic aerial and ground radioactives of basement and sedimentary rocks in (Egypt): relations and natural cycles across geologic time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammar, A.A.

    1998-01-01

    Each geologic unit, exposure, formation or rock group of the exposed precambrian I (igneous and metamorphic) basement complex (Upper proterozoic) and phanerozoic cover sediments in an area covering about 4500 km2 located in the central eastern desert of egypt, has been found to possess certain radioactivity characteristics and levels. Minimum values of radiation are generally associated with the first basement volcanics, maximum values are correlated are correlated with the third basement plutonites and phosphate formation (upper cretaceous), while intermedialte values are connected with the first basement sediments and upper eocene-quaternary fifth detrital-calcareous-evaporite sediments. Therefore, the radioactivities of various rock groups of the precambrian I basement complex - except the first basement sediments sediments- correlate progressively well with their chronology. Generally, the increase of radioactivity within this complex is connected with the transition into final stages of the magmatic evolution

  6. Dissolution of biogenic ooze over basement edifices in the equatorial Pacific with implications for hydrothermal ventilation of the oceanic crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekins, B.A.; Spivack, A.J.; Davis, E.E.; Mayer, L.A.

    2007-01-01

    Recent observations indicate that curious closed depressions in carbonate sediments overlying basement edifices are widespread in the equatorial Pacific. A possible mechanism for their creation is dissolution by fluids exiting basement vents from off-axis hydrothermal flow. Quantitative analysis based on the retrograde solubility of calcium carbonate and cooling of basement fluids during ascent provides an estimate for the dissolution capacity of the venting fluids. Comparison of the dissolution capacity and fluid flux with typical equatorial Pacific carbonate mass accumulation rates shows that this mechanism is feasible. By maintaining sediment-free basement outcrops, the process may promote widespread circulation of relatively unaltered seawater in the basement in an area where average sediment thicknesses are 300-500 m. The enhanced ventilation can explain several previously puzzling observations in this region, including anomalously low heat flux, relatively unaltered seawater in the basement, and aerobic and nitrate-reducing microbial activity at the base of the sediments. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America.

  7. Inversion of gravity data in the Big Bear Lake Area to recover depth to basement using Cauchy-type integrals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Hongzhu; Zhdanov, Michael

    2014-01-01

    One of the important applications of the gravity method is evaluation of the depth to the basement, which is characterized by a significant density contrast with the sedimental layeres. We have introduced recently a new method of modeling and inversion of potential field data generated by a density...... response caused by sediment-basement interface with variable density in depth. We have also developed the inversion of gravity data to recover the depth to basement given the density profile with depth....

  8. Expression of basement membrane components through morphological changes in the hair growth cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; Gibson, W T

    1985-01-01

    The amount and distribution of fibronectin associated with hair follicles was found to vary during the hair growth cycle in the rat. Immunocytochemical staining of follicles in mid-late anagen (the growth stage) revealed the presence of fibronectin in the dermal papilla matrix, in the basement...... membrane separating this from the epithelial cells of the hair bulb, and in the basement membrane and connective tissue sheath which underly the cells of the outer root sheath. Early in catagen, the transitional stage, staining of the dermal papilla matrix disappeared. Fibronectin persisted in the basement...... of anagen, involving cell division and follicle elongation, was associated with a great increase in the amount of fibronectin in this zone and in and around the dermal papilla. Analysis of entry into anagen by [3H]thymidine incorporation and autoradiography revealed that growth could be detected before...

  9. Fracture Analysis of basement rock: A case example of the Eastern Part of the Peninsular Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamsuddin, A; Ghosh, D

    2015-01-01

    In general, reservoir rocks can be defined into carbonates, tight elastics and basement rocks. Basement rocks came to be highlighted as their characteristics are quite complicated and remained as a significant challenge in exploration and production area. Motivation of this research is to solve the problem in some area in the Malay Basin which consist fractured basement reservoirs. Thus, in order to increase understanding about their characteristic, a study was conducted in the Eastern part of the Peninsular Malaysia. The study includes the main rock types that resemble the offshore rocks and analysis on the factors that give some effect on fracture characteristic that influence fracture systems and fracture networks. This study will allow better fracture prediction which will be beneficial for future hydrocarbon prediction in this region

  10. Modeling radon entry into houses with basements: Model description and verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revzan, K.L.; Fisk, W.J.; Gadgil, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    We model radon entry into basements using a previously developed three-dimensional steady-state finite difference model that has been modified in the following ways: first, cylindrical coordinates are used to take advantage of the symmetry of the problem in the horizontal plant; second, the configuration of the basement has been made more realistic by incorporating the concrete footer; third, a quadratic relationship between the pressure and flow in the L-shaped gap between slab, footer, and wall has been employed; fourth, the natural convection of the soil gas which follows from the heating of the basement in winter has been taken into account. The temperature field in the soil is determined from the equation of energy conservation, using the basement, surface, and deep-soil temperatures as boundary conditions. The pressure field is determined from Darcy's law and the equation of mass conservation (continuity), assuming that there is no flow across any boundary except the soil surface (atmospheric pressure) and the opening in the basement shell (fixed pressure). After the pressure and temperatures field have been obtained the velocity field is found from Darcy's law. Finally, the radon concentration field is found from the equation of mass-transport. The convective radon entry rate through the opening or openings is then calculated. In this paper we describe the modified model, compare the predicted radon entry rates with and without the consideration of thermal convection, and compare the predicted rates with determined from data from 7 houses in the Spokane River valley of Washington and Idaho. Although the predicted rate is much lower than the mean of the rates determined from measurements, errors in the measurement of soil permeability and variations in the permeability of the area immediately under the basement slab, which has a significant influence on the pressure field, can account for the range of entry rates inferred from the data. 25 refs., 8 figs

  11. Hydrogeologic controls on induced seismicity in crystalline basement rocks due to fluid injection into basal reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yipeng; Person, Mark; Rupp, John; Ellett, Kevin; Celia, Michael A; Gable, Carl W; Bowen, Brenda; Evans, James; Bandilla, Karl; Mozley, Peter; Dewers, Thomas; Elliot, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    A series of Mb 3.8-5.5 induced seismic events in the midcontinent region, United States, resulted from injection of fluid either into a basal sedimentary reservoir with no underlying confining unit or directly into the underlying crystalline basement complex. The earthquakes probably occurred along faults that were likely critically stressed within the crystalline basement. These faults were located at a considerable distance (up to 10 km) from the injection wells and head increases at the hypocenters were likely relatively small (∼70-150 m). We present a suite of simulations that use a simple hydrogeologic-geomechanical model to assess what hydrogeologic conditions promote or deter induced seismic events within the crystalline basement across the midcontinent. The presence of a confining unit beneath the injection reservoir horizon had the single largest effect in preventing induced seismicity within the underlying crystalline basement. For a crystalline basement having a permeability of 2 × 10(-17)  m(2) and specific storage coefficient of 10(-7) /m, injection at a rate of 5455 m(3) /d into the basal aquifer with no underlying basal seal over 10 years resulted in probable brittle failure to depths of about 0.6 km below the injection reservoir. Including a permeable (kz  = 10(-13)  m(2) ) Precambrian normal fault, located 20 m from the injection well, increased the depth of the failure region below the reservoir to 3 km. For a large permeability contrast between a Precambrian thrust fault (10(-12)  m(2) ) and the surrounding crystalline basement (10(-18)  m(2) ), the failure region can extend laterally 10 km away from the injection well. © 2013, National Ground Water Association.

  12. Rat hair follicle dermal papillae have an extracellular matrix containing basement membrane components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R

    1986-01-01

    Dermal papillae are small mesenchymally derived zones at the bases of hair follicles which have an important role in hair morphogenesis in the embryo and control of the hair growth cycle in postnatal mammals. The cells of the papilla are enmeshed in a dense extracellular matrix which undergoes...... extensive changes in concert with the hair cycle. Here it is shown that this matrix in anagen pelage follicles of postnatal rats contains an abundance of basement membrane components rather than dermal components such as interstitial collagens. In particular, type IV collagen, laminin, and basement membrane...

  13. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans made by different basement-membrane-producing tumors have immunological and structural similarities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, U M; Albrechtsen, R; Hassell, J R

    1985-01-01

    Using immunological assays, we determined the relationship between the heparan sulfate proteoglycans produced by two different murine basement-membrane-producing tumors, i.e., the mouse Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm (EHS) tumor and the L2 rat yolk-sac tumor. Antibodies prepared against the heparan sulfate...... mainly heparan sulfate (75%) along with smaller amounts of chondroitin sulfate (19%), whereas the L2 rat yolk-sac tumor produced mainly chondroitin sulfate (76%) with smaller amounts of heparan sulfate (21%). We conclude that these two murine basement-membrane-producing tumors elaborate...

  14. Application of high resolution aeromagnetic data for basement topography mapping of Siluko and environs, southwestern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osinowo, Olawale O.; Akanji, Adesoji O.; Olayinka, Abel I.

    2014-11-01

    The discovery of hydrocarbon in commercial quantity in the Niger Delta, southern Nigeria, has since the early fifties shifted the attention of exploration/active geological studies from the Dahomey basin and the adjacent basement terrain in south-western Nigeria towards the south and this has left some gaps in information required for the discovery and exploitation of the economic potential of the region. This study mapped the Siluko transition zone in south-western Nigeria in terms of structures, geometry and basement topography with the object of providing requisite geological information that will engender interest in the exploration and exploitation of the numerous economic potentials of south-western part of Nigeria. Acquired high resolution aeromagnetic data were filtered, processed and enhanced, the resultant data were subjected to qualitative and quantitative magnetic interpretation, depth weighting analyses and modelling to generate the subsurface basement topography across the study area. The obtained results indicate regions of high and low magnetic anomalies with residual magnetic intensity values ranging from -100.8 nT to 100.9 nT. Euler Deconvolution indicates generally undulating basement topography with depth range of 125-1812 m. The basement relief is generally gentle and flat lying within the basement terrain with depth ranging from 125 to 500 m. However the sedimentary terrain is undulating and generally steeps south, down the basin with depth range of 300-1812 m. A basement topography model of the magnetic data constrained by Euler solutions correlate positively with the geology of the study area and indicates a generally increasing sedimentary deposits' thickness southward toward the western part of Dahomey basin. The revealed basement topography and structures as well as the delineated direction of continuous increase in thickness of sedimentary deposit provide insight to the controlling factor responsible for tar sand deposit and bitumen

  15. Antibody response against the glomerular basement membrane protein agrin in patients with transplant glomerulopathy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, S.A.; Sijpkens, Y.W.; Ham, V. van; Trouw, L.A.; Vlag, J. van der; Heuvel, L.P.W.J. van den; Kooten, C. van; Paul, L.C.

    2005-01-01

    Chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN) of renal allografts is still the most important cause of graft loss. A subset of these patients have transplant glomerulopathy (TGP), characterized by glomerular basement membrane (GBM) duplications, but of unknown etiology. Recently, a role for the immune system

  16. Forms of iron in soils on basement complex rocks of Kaduna state in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The forms of iron extracted by different methods were studied in soils developed on four basement complex rocks within Northern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria namely: migmatite gneisses, older granite, quartzites and mica schists. The study shows that forms of iron generally decreased in the order of total elemental iron ...

  17. Improved Access To Aging Ocean Basement Biosphere For Microbial Geochemical Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowen, J. P.; Glazer, B.; Rappe, M.; Kenig, F.; Fisher, A.; Copson, D.; Harris, D.; Jolly, J.; Nuzzio, D.

    2005-12-01

    CORK observatories affixed to Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) boreholes offer an unprecedented opportunity to study biogeochemical properties and microbial diversity in circulating fluids from sediment-buried ocean basement. Preliminary 16S rRNA gene sequence data from 65 degrees C fluids escaping from the top of the over-pressured ODP borehole 1026B, on the flanks of the Juan de Fuca Ridge indicated the presence of diverse Bacteria and Archaea, including gene clones with varying degrees of relatedness to known dissimilatory nitrate reducers (with ammonia production), thermophilic sulfate reducers, and thermophilic fermentative heterotrophs, consistent with fluid chemistry measurements. However, questions remain regarding microbial community structure, key metabolic pathways and rates, and redox chemistry of the basement fluids, along with concerns for contamination issues. We describe ongoing developments intended to address key in situ analytical and sampling challenges including: 1) The new generation CORKs' dedicated microbiological/geochemical fluid delivery system specifically designed to minimize chemical contamination and surface biofouling; and 2) Development of a seafloor instrument sled for coupling to the CORK's bio-fluid delivery system for acquisition of real-time, in situ electrochemical (voltammetry) redox chemistry data on basement fluids, in addition to in situ particle filtration of basement fluids for molecular genetics, culturing and biogeochemical studies. Results of the first deployment of this instrument sled to new CORK observatory 1301A in Cascadia Basin, on the flanks of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, will be described.

  18. Basement membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan alterations in a rat model of polycystic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehara, T; Carone, F A; McCarthy, K J

    1994-01-01

    Alterations in basement membrane components, notably proteoglycans, in a rat model of polycystic kidney disease have been investigated. Rats were fed phenol II (2-amino-4-hydroxyphenyl-5-phenyl thiazole) for 4 days and then changed to normal diet for a 7-day recovery period. Marked dilation of di...

  19. Basement to surface expressions and critical factors in the genesis of unconformity-related deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Two subprojects: 1) Basement to surface expressions of deep mineralization and refinement of critical factors leading to the genesis of unconformity-related uranium deposits; and 2) Recognition of uranium ore system alteration signatures in complex terranes: IOCG vs albite-hosted uranium vs volcanic-hosted uranium.

  20. Macrophage Chemotaxis in Anti-tubular Basement Membrane-Induced Interstitial Nephritis in Guinea Pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kennedy, Thomas L.; Merrow, Martha; Phillips, S. Michael; Norman, Michael; Neilson, Eric G.

    1985-01-01

    Interstitial renal lesions containing T cells and macrophages develop after 14 days in guinea pigs immunized to produce anti-tubular basement membrane-induced interstitial nephritis. We serially examined the renal venous and systemic arterial sera from such animals to determine if chemotactic

  1. Spumiform capillary basement membrane swelling : A new type of microvascular degeneration in senescent hamster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, P.O.; Kortekaas, R.; de Weerd, H.; Veenstra-Algra, A.; Luiten, P.G.M.; van der Want, J.J.L.; Veening, Jan

    Brain microvasculature plays a critical role in the regulation of homeostasis of neural tissues. The present study focuses on characteristic microvascular basement membrane (bm) aberrations in the midbrain periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) and their relation to aging. The PAG can be considered a

  2. Spumiform capillary basement membrane swelling: a new type of microvascular degeneration in senescent hamster.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, P.O.; Kortekaas, R.; Weerd, H. de; Veenstra-Algra, A.; Luiten, P.G.M.; Want, J.J. van der; Veening, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    Brain microvasculature plays a critical role in the regulation of homeostasis of neural tissues. The present study focuses on characteristic microvascular basement membrane (bm) aberrations in the midbrain periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) and their relation to aging. The PAG can be considered a

  3. KUALITAS UDARA DALAM RUANG DI DAERAH PARKIR BASEMENT DAN PARKIR UPPERGROUND (STUDI KASUS DI SUPERMARKET SEMARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryono S Huboyo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ever increasing building growth in urban areas is limited by land availability. Lack of space in this area lead to build high rise building rather landed building. In this type of building, parking area is built in the basement and or upperground inside the building. Within this enclosed space, indoor air quality might a problem. This study focus to compare emerged pollutants between basement parking area and upperground parking area in supermarket building. The dust sampler, the impinger and the CO monitor were used to measure TSP, NO2 and CO concentrations respectively in these areas during supermarket operations. In the basement area, in particular, the TSP concentrations tend to exceeds 300 µg/m3 mainly at weekend period. While for NO2 and CO concentrations still meet the air quality standard. Based on these findings it seems the main source of pollutants was derived from dust resuspension. Thus, the mitigation measures to reduce this dust resuspension should be emphasized in order to prevent air quality deterioration in the basement parking area.

  4. Location of fishpond sites in the crystalline basement area of Edo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Location of fishpond sites in the crystalline basement area of Edo State Nigeria using geoelectric method. O Egwebe, RE Iserhien-Emekeme. Abstract. No Abstract. Nigerian Journal of Fisheries Vol. 4 (2) 2007: pp. 160-171. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  5. Deposition of nucleosomal antigens (histones and DNA) in the epidermal basement membrane in human lupus nephritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootscholten, C.; Bruggen, M.C.J. van; Pijl, J.W. van der; Jong, E.M.G.J. de; Ligtenberg, G.; Derksen, R.H.W.M.; Berden, J.H.M.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Antinuclear autoantibodies complexed to nucleosomes can bind to heparan sulfate (HS) in the glomerular basement membrane. This binding is due to the binding of the positively charged histones to the strongly anionic HS. Nucleosomes and histones have been identified in glomerular deposits

  6. Possible options for reducing occupational dose from the TMI-2 basement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munson, L.F.; Harty, R.

    1985-11-01

    The major sources of exposure in the basement include the enclosed stairwell/elevator shaft structure, water and sludge in the elevator shaft, cast concrete walls, concrete floor slab, water and sludge on the floor, and activity in the paint and loose surface contamination. The sources were identified using data obtained by the utility from water processing, water and solid samples, remote video inspections and radiation monitoring with a robot, and strings of thermoluminescent dosimeters lowered from upper elevations. The area dose rates in the basement range from approximately 4 R/hr (in the NE quadrant) to over 1100 R/hr (near the enclosed stairwell/elevator shaft structure). It is estimated that the basement contains between 11,000 and 21,000 curies of 137 Cs. Specific decontamination and cleanup techniques are discussed. These techniques include flushing with water, high-pressure water blasting, leaching, scabbling and chemical cleaning. The applicability of these techniques to the major sources of radiation are discussed, and possible approaches and work sequences for basement cleanup are given

  7. Involvement of MIF in basement membrane damage in chronically UVB-exposed skin in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Yoshihisa

    Full Text Available Solar ultraviolet (UV B radiation is known to induce matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs that degrade collagen in the basement membrane. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF is a pluripotent cytokine that plays an essential role in the pathophysiology of skin inflammation induced by UV irradiation. This study examined the effects of MIF on basement membrane damage following chronic UVB irradiation in mice. The back skin of MIF transgenic (Tg and wild-type (WT mice was exposed to UVB three times a week for 10 weeks. There was a decrease in intact protein levels of type IV collagen and increased basement membrane damage in the exposed skin of the MIF Tg mice compared to that observed in the WT mice. Moreover, the skin of the MIF Tg mice exhibited higher MIF, MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression and protein levels than those observed in the WT mice. We also found that chronic UVB exposure in MIF Tg mice resulted in higher levels of neutrophil infiltration in the dermis compared with that observed in the WT mice. In vitro experiments revealed that MIF induced increases in the MMPs expression, including that of MMP-9 in keratinocytes and MMP-2 in fibroblasts. Cultured neutrophils also secreted MMP-9 stimulated by MIF. Therefore, MIF-mediated basement membrane damage occurs primarily through MMPs activation and neutrophil influx in murine skin following chronic UVB irradiation.

  8. Impact of climate changes during the last 5 million years on groundwater in basement aquifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilina, Luc; Vergnaud-Ayraud, Virginie; Les Landes, Antoine Armandine; Pauwels, Hélène; Davy, Philippe; Pételet-Giraud, Emmanuelle; Labasque, Thierry; Roques, Clément; Chatton, Eliot; Bour, Olivier; Ben Maamar, Sarah; Dufresne, Alexis; Khaska, Mahmoud; Le Gal La Salle, Corinne; Barbecot, Florent

    2015-09-22

    Climate change is thought to have major effects on groundwater resources. There is however a limited knowledge of the impacts of past climate changes such as warm or glacial periods on groundwater although marine or glacial fluids may have circulated in basements during these periods. Geochemical investigations of groundwater at shallow depth (80-400 m) in the Armorican basement (western France) revealed three major phases of evolution: (1) Mio-Pliocene transgressions led to marine water introduction in the whole rock porosity through density and then diffusion processes, (2) intensive and rapid recharge after the glacial maximum down to several hundred meters depths, (3) a present-day regime of groundwater circulation limited to shallow depth. This work identifies important constraints regarding the mechanisms responsible for both marine and glacial fluid migrations and their preservation within a basement. It defines the first clear time scales of these processes and thus provides a unique case for understanding the effects of climate changes on hydrogeology in basements. It reveals that glacial water is supplied in significant amounts to deep aquifers even in permafrosted zones. It also emphasizes the vulnerability of modern groundwater hydrosystems to climate change as groundwater active aquifers is restricted to shallow depths.

  9. Co-deposition of basement membrane components during the induction of murine splenic AA amyloid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyon, A W; Narindrasorasak, S; Young, I D

    1991-01-01

    Past studies have demonstrated that during murine AA amyloid induction there is co-deposition of the AA amyloid peptide and the basement membrane form of heparan sulfate proteoglycan. The synthesis and accumulation of heparan sulfate proteoglycan does not usually occur in the absence of other bas...

  10. Evidence for the existence of multiple heparan sulfate proteoglycans in the human glomerular basement membrane and mesangial matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groffen, Alexander J A; Hop, Frank W H; Tryggvason, Karl; Dijkman, Henri; Assmann, Karel J M; Veerkamp, Jacques H.; Monnens, Leo A H; Van Den Heuvel, Lambert P W J

    1997-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are essential components of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) carrying a strong anionic charge. A well- characterized extracellular HSPG is perlecan, ubiquitously expressed in basement membranes. A cDNA construct encoding domains I and II of human perlecan

  11. Uranium deposits in the metamorphic basement of the Rouergue massif. Genesis and extension of related albitization processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, J.M.

    1982-02-01

    Albitization processes in the Rouergue metamorphic basement, probably Permian aged is evidenced. Late development of uranium orebodies occured within albitized zones. The detection of the latter serves as a highly valuable indirect guide for prospecting this type of deposits in a metamorphic basement [fr

  12. Cracked and full of sand: microstructural insights into how oil gets into a crystalline basement reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdsworth, Bob; McCaffrey, Ken; Dempsey, Eddie

    2017-04-01

    The fractured Neoarchaean orthogneisses forming the 200km long, NE-SW trending Rona Ridge lie offshore along the southeast margin of the Faroe-Shetland Basin (FSB). The basement ridge was uplifted during Cretaceous-age normal faulting and is flanked and immediately overlain by Devonian to Cretaceous cover sequences. Basement-hosted oil is known to occur in significant volumes in at least two fields (Clair, Lancaster). Re-Os dating of bitumen samples from the Clair Field suggests that oil was generated in the period 64-72Ma. A new microstructural study of basement cores was carried out to assess the mechanisms and timing of oil charge and other fracture-hosted mineralization. Oil charge is everywhere associated with quartz-adularia-calcite-pyrite mineralization and is hosted in a complex mesh of interconnected shear and tensile fractures that formed during a single protracted episode of brittle deformation. This association is recognized in all basement cores containing oil and also in locally overlying well-cemented Devonian (Lower Clair Group) and Jurassic (Rona Sandstone) sequences. Mineralization and oil charge is everywhere associated with clastic sedimentary infillings which occur either as vein-hosted injected slurries, or as little deformed laminated infills in mm to dm-scale open fractures. The latter preserve delicate way-up criteria and geopetal structures. The largest accumulations of oil are found either in these poorly-cemented sedimentary infills, or in fracture-hosted vuggy cavities up to several cm across. All these features, together with the widespread development of zoned mineral cements and cockade textures suggest a low-temperature hydrothermal system that likely formed in a near surface (Jurassic source rocks located to the west in the FSB, through the basement ridge and up into the overlying Clair Group and other cover sequences during the 64-72Ma time period. Our findings have major implications for the development of fractured basement

  13. Basement characterization and crustal structure beneath the Arabia-Eurasia collision (Iran): A combined gravity and magnetic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Naeim; Ebbing, Jörg

    2018-04-01

    We present a study on the depth to basement and magnetic crustal domains beneath the Iranian Plateau by modeling aeromagnetic and gravity data. First, field processing of the aeromagnetic data was undertaken to estimate the general characteristics of the magnetic basement. Afterwards, inverse modeling of aeromagnetic data was carried out to estimate the depth to basement. The obtained model of basement was refined using combined gravity and magnetic forward modeling. Hereby, we were able to distinguish different magnetic domains in the uppermost crust (10-20 km depths) influencing the medium to long wavelength trends of the magnetic anomalies. Magnetic basement mapping shows that prominent shallow magnetic features are furthermore located in the volcanic areas, e.g. the Urumieh Dokhtar Magmatic Assemblage. The presence of ophiolite outcrops in SE Iran implies that shallow oceanic crust (with high magnetization) is the main source of one of the biggest magnetic anomalies in entire Iran area located north of the Makran.

  14. An Interactive GIS Procedure for Building and Basement Corrections in Urban Microgravity Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasseriau, P.; Olivier, R.

    2007-12-01

    Construction of a new underground railway in Lausanne, a highly-urbanized city in Switzerland, was an opportunity to test the feasibility and reliability of microgravity surveys in urban environments. The goal of our microgravity survey was to determine the depth-to-bedrock along the project corridor. Available drilling information allowed us verify the density model obtained. The geophysical results also provided spatially exhaustive subsurface information that could not be obtained with drilling methods alone. Gravimetry is one of the rare geophysical methods that can be used in noisy urban environments. An inevitable constraint of this method is terrain correction. It is not easy to obtain a simple and accurate digital elevation model (DEM) of an urban environment considering that buildings and basements are not included. However, these structures significantly influence gravity measurements. We calculate, with software that we have developed, the influence of buildings and basements in order to correct our gravity data. Our procedure permits the integration of gravity measurements, cadastral information (building typology and geometry) and basement geometry in an Access database that allows interactive determination of the Bouguer anomaly. A geographic information system (GIS) is used to extract building geometries based on cadastral information and to correct the influence of each building using a simplified architectural style. Basement voids are then introduced in the final DEM using building outlines given by cadastral maps. The depths and altitudes of the basements are measured by visiting them, and then linking the results to a regional topographic map. All of these corrections can be calculated before the gravity acquisition has begun in order to optimize the design of the survey. The surveys are executed late at night so as to minimize the effects of traffic noise. 160 gravity measurements were carried out before and after digging of the underground

  15. Alterations of epithelial adhesion molecules and basement membrane components in lattice corneal dystrophy (LCD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Miklós D; Schlötzer-Schrehardt, Ursula; Hofmann-Rummelt, Carmen; Kruse, Friedrich E; Seitz, Berthold

    2009-08-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the histopathological and ultrastructural correlate of delayed epithelial healing in eyes with lattice corneal dystrophy (LCD). Corneal buttons from 4 patients with LCD (two with subepithelial, two with stromal amyloid deposits) and 2 control corneas were examined. Cell-matrix adhesion molecules and basement membrane components of the corneal epithelium were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and hemidesmosomes between epithelium and stroma were quantified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). By TEM well-developed hemidesmosomes anchored the basal epithelial cells to the underlying basement membrane in all normal and LCD corneas. Hemidesmosome density was not significantly different in subepithelial (224.7 +/- 34.1/100 microm) and stromal (234.3 +/- 36.3/100 microm) LCD compared to controls (241.3 +/- 26.8/100 microm). The basement membrane was interrupted in subepithelial, but continuous in stromal LCD. Integrin alpha6 and beta4 staining formed a continuous line along the basal surface of the corneal epithelium in control corneas, whereas it appeared discontinuous and patchy both in subepithelial and stromal forms of LCD. Staining for alphaV integrin showed irregular staining patterns, i.e. enhanced labelling intensity in subepithelial and interrupted pattern in stromal LCD, respectively. Integrins alpha3, beta1, beta2, and beta5, dystroglycan, and plectin were not markedly different in dystrophic corneas. Type VII collagen showed a discontinuous staining in subepithelial forms of LCD. In stromal forms of LCD, type VII collagen staining occurred in additional patches underneath the epithelial basement membrane zone. Type XVII collagen staining was reduced in subepithelial LCD. Laminin-1, laminin-5 and laminin gamma2 showed variable irregular staining patterns in dystrophic corneas with focal interruptions, focal thickenings, and reduplications of basement membrane. Some irregularities in corneas with subepithelial

  16. A Nonlinear Inversion Approach to Map the Magnetic Basement: A Case Study from Central India Using Aeromagnetic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R.; Bansal, A. R.; Anand, S. P.; Rao, V. K.; Singh, U. K.

    2016-12-01

    The central India region is having complex geology covering various geological units e.g., Precambrian Bastar Craton (including Proterozoic Chhattisgarh Basin, granitic intrusions etc.) and Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt, Gondwana Godavari and Mahanadi Grabens, Late Cretaceous Deccan Traps etc. The central India is well covered by reconnaissance scale aeromagnetic data. We analyzed this data for mapping the basement by dividing into143 overlapping blocks of 100×100km using least square nonlinear inversion method for fractal distribution of sources. The scaling exponents and depth values are optimized using grid search method. We interpreted estimated depths of anomalous sources as magnetic basement and shallow anomalous magnetic sources. The shallow magnetic anomalies are found to vary from 1 to 3km whereas magnetic basement depths are found to vary from 2km to 7km. The shallowest basement depth of 2km found corresponding to Kanker granites a part of Bastar Craton whereas deepest basement depth of 7km is associated with Godavari Graben and south eastern part of Eastern Ghat Mobile Belts near the Parvatipuram Bobbili fault. The variation of magnetic basement, shallow depths and scaling exponent in the region indicate complex tectonic, heterogeneity and intrusive bodies at different depths which is due to different tectonic processes in the region. The detailed basement depth of central India is presented in this study.

  17. Isotropic Versus Bipolar Functionalized Biomimetic Artificial Basement Membranes and Their Evaluation in Long-Term Human Cell Co-Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Angela; Wistlich, Laura; Heffels, Karl-Heinz; Walles, Heike; Groll, Jürgen

    2016-08-01

    In addition to dividing tissues into compartments, basement membranes are crucial as cell substrates and to regulate cellular behavior. The development of artificial basement membranes is indispensable for the ultimate formation of functional engineered tissues; however, pose a challenge due to their complex structure. Herein, biodegradable electrospun polyester meshes are presented, exhibiting isotropic or bipolar bioactivation as a biomimetic and biofunctional model of the natural basement membrane. In a one-step preparation process, reactive star-shaped prepolymer additives, which generate a hydrophilic fiber surface, are electrospun with cell-adhesion-mediating peptides, derived from major components of the basement membrane. Human skin cells adhere to the functionalized meshes, and long-term co-culture experiments confirm that the artificial basement membranes recapitulate and preserve tissue specific functions. Several layers of immortalized human keratinocytes grow on the membranes, differentiating toward the surface and expressing typical epithelial markers. Fibroblasts migrate into the reticular lamina mimicking part of the mesh. Both cells types begin to produce extracellular matrix proteins and to remodel the initial membrane. It is shown at the example of skin that the artificial basement membrane design provokes biomimetic responses of different cell types and can thus be used as basis for the future development of basement membrane containing tissues. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Geology and petrography of basement in south extreme in Sierra Grande de San Luis, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morosini, A.; Ortiz Suarez, A.

    2007-01-01

    In the south of the Sierra de San Luis is recognized a basement composed by La Escalerilla and Los Puquios granites, accompanied by schist, mylonite s and mafic-ultramafic rocks. The schists, La Escalerilla granite and the mafic -ultramafic rocks are affected by a regional metamorphism in anphibolites facies, the two first present a N-S foliation di ping to east. The mylonite s correspond to a second event of deformation, distributed in thin belts of NNE-SSO direction and inclination to east, developed in green schist to anphibolites facies. Los Puquios granite represents the more young of the basement rocks and the intrusion was associated with a shear zone. Los Puquios granite forms dikes and small plutons cutting La Escalerilla granite and micas chits in high cortical levels

  19. Soil inertia and shallow basement envelope impact on cellar internal temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naima Sakami

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with a three dimensional numerical study of heat transfer by conduction between the soil and the shallow basement in the city of Marrakech (Morocco. The heat transfer equation is solved by the finite difference method using the implicit alternative direction (ADI. The internal temperature of the cellar is computed by using energy balance equation in the cellar. The objective of this work is to evaluate the effects of the nature of the soil, the nature of the walls, the thickness of the walls of the cellar and the distance L far from the cellar on the internal temperature and the heat exchanged between the soil and the shallow basement

  20. Fractured but not fractal: Fragmentation of the gulf of suez basement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korvin, Gabor

    1989-03-01

    Recent geophysical studies revealed that the Palaeozoic basement of the Gulf of Suez consists of an enormous number of fault blocks whose network qualitavely resembles the contraction-crack polygons which can be found in nature in a wide variety of materials and on all scales (mud cracks, hardening concrete, age cracking in paintings, etc.). The fault network of the Gulf of Suez basement forms a rather uniformly spaced polygonal pattern, most of the blocks are four-sided, the lengths of block sides parallel with the Gulf of Suez axis are exponentially distributed. The power-law size distribution associated with the fractal (scale-free) fragmentation can be possibly ruled out. The paper calls attention to the necessity of calssifying the physical processes leading to fragmentations with exponential-, lognormal-, and power-law size distributions, respectively.

  1. Immunochemical and autoantigenic properties of the globular domain of basement membrane collagen (type IV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Mark, H; Oberbäumer, I; Timpl, R; Kemler, R; Wick, G

    1985-02-01

    Polyclonal rabbit antibodies raised against the globular domain NC1 of collagen IV from human placenta and a mouse tumor react with conformational antigenic determinants present on the NC1 hexamers and also with the three major subunits obtained after dissociation. The antibodies recognized unique structures within basement membranes and showed a broad tissue reactivity but only limited species cross-reactivity. Using these antibodies, it was possible to detect small amounts of collagen IV antigens from cell cultures and in serum. Monoclonal rat antibodies against mouse NC1 revealed a similar reaction potential. Autoantibodies could be produced in mice against mouse NC1 which react with kidney and lung basement membranes in a pathological manner, mimicking Goodpasture syndrome.

  2. Utility of magnetic susceptibility values for the petrographic analysis of weathering crust basement samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Hernández-Ramsay

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article exposes the resolving power of the magnetic susceptibility measurements in basement minerals samples of the lateritic weathering profile as an element of complementary analysis in the petrographic characterization of the rocks, and useful in the mapping of the magnetic heterogeneities of the basement. The comparison of the magnetic susceptibility data with the petrographic data of different samples revealed that even in samples that correspond to homogeneous lithotypes, great heterogeneities and differences can be manifested from the physical-mineralogical point of view. In general, a high concordance was observed between the intensity of the weathering processes in the rock samples, and the values of the magnetic susceptibility of such samples. The results support the possibility of extrapolating the composition information to samples with magnetic susceptibility measurements and without petrographic studies.

  3. Accelerating repaired basement membrane after bevacizumab treatment on alkali-burned mouse cornea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koon-Ja Lee

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available To understand the corneal regeneration induced by bevacizumab,we investigated the structure changes of stroma andbasement membrane regeneration. A Stick soaked in 0.5 NNaOH onto the mouse cornea and 2.5 mg/ml of bevacizumabwas delivered into an alkali-burned cornea (2 μl by subconjunctivalinjections at 1 hour and 4 days after injury. At 7 daysafter injury, basement membrane regeneration was observedby transmission electron microscope. Uneven and thin epithelialbasement membrane, light density of hemidesmosomes,and edematous collagen fibril bundles are shown in thealkali-burned cornea. Injured epithelial basement membraneand hemidesmosomes and edematous collagen fibril bundlesresulting from alkali-burned mouse cornea was repaired bybevacizumab treatment. This study demonstrates that bevacizumabcan play an important role in wound healing in thecornea by accelerating the reestablishment of basementmembrane integrity that leads to barriers for scar formation.[BMB Reports 2013; 46(4: 195-200

  4. The basement membrane constituents in the mouse embryo's tooth. An autoradiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, M.

    1987-01-01

    Enamel organs isolated from the lower first teeth of 18-days old white mouse embryo by trypsin treatment were used in this study. The organs were cultured during periods of increasing time on a semi-solid medium containing cock serum. In another chase experiments, the organs were cultured on a liquid medium containing proline- 3 H, leucine- 3 H, and glucosamine- 3 H, were studied by autoradiography using both light and electron microscopes. It has been shown that the nature of the culture medium does not apparently interfere with the ability of the enamel to reconstitute the basement membrane. On the other hand, it have been found obvious differences concerning the kinetic of the used isotopes. The results indicate that the turn-over of the basement membrane constituents represents a continuous and homogenous process which continues to take place during, before and after reconstitution. 42 refs. (author)

  5. Supportive properties of basement membrane layer of human amniotic membrane enable development of tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iranpour, Sonia; Mahdavi-Shahri, Nasser; Miri, Raheleh; Hasanzadeh, Halimeh; Bidkhori, Hamid Reza; Naderi-Meshkin, Hojjat; Zahabi, Ehsan; Matin, Maryam M

    2018-01-08

    Human amniotic membrane (HAM) has been widely used as a natural scaffold in tissue engineering due to many of its unique biological properties such as providing growth factors, cytokines and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases. This study aimed at finding the most suitable and supportive layer of HAM as a delivery system for autologous or allogeneic cell transplantation. Three different layers of HAM were examined including basement membrane, epithelial and stromal layers. In order to prepare the basement membrane, de-epithelialization was performed using 0.5 M NaOH and its efficiency was investigated by histological stainings, DNA quantification, biomechanical testing and electron microscopy. Adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) and a human immortalized keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT) were seeded on the three different layers of HAM and cultured for 3 weeks. The potential of the three different layers of HAM to support the attachment and viability of cells were then monitored by histology, electron microscopy and (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Moreover, mechanical strengths of the basement membrane were assessed before and after cell culture. The results indicated that the integrity of extra cellular matrix (ECM) components was preserved after de-epithelialization and resulted in producing an intact basement amniotic membrane (BAM). Moreover, all three layers of HAM could support the attachment and proliferation of cells with no visible cytotoxic effects. However, the growth and viability of both cell types on the BAM were significantly higher than the other two layers. We conclude that growth stimulating effectors of BAM and its increased mechanical strength after culturing of ASCs, besides lack of immunogenicity make it an ideal model for delivering allogeneic cells and tissue engineering applications.

  6. Geological Structure of the Basement of Western and Eastern Parts of the West-Siberian Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Kirill S.; Erokhin, Yuriy V.; Ponomarev, Vladimir S.; Pogromskaya, Olga E.; Berzin, Stepan V.

    2016-01-01

    The U-Pb dating (SHRIMP-II on zircon) was obtained for the first time from the basement of the West Siberian Plain in the Western half of the region. It is established that a large part of the protolith of the metamorphic depth in the Shaim-Kuznetsov meganticlinorium contained sedimentary late- and middle-Devonian rocks (395-358 million years).…

  7. [Effect of collagenase on the permeability of the glomerular basement membrane in the rat kidney].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laloi, C; Geloso-Meyer, A; Cheignon, M; Schaeverbeke, J

    1981-03-16

    Recently, several authors have emphasized the role of negative sites located in th laminae rarae of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM), in restricting glomerular permeability to anionic macromolecules. In this work, we point out that ultrafiltration properties involve integrity of the GBM. Indeed after intravenous perfusion of bacterian collagenase, anionic ferritin permeates the GBM though negative site distribution (as shown by fixation of colloidal iron) is unaffected.

  8. Equatorial Pacific gravity lineaments: interpretations with basement topography along seismic reflection lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Neil C.; Davies, Huw

    2018-03-01

    The central equatorial Pacific is interesting for studying clues to upper mantle processes, as the region lacks complicating effects of continental remnants or major volcanic plateaus. In particular, the most recently produced maps of the free-air gravity field from satellite altimetry show in greater detail the previously reported lineaments west of the East Pacific Rise (EPR) that are aligned with plate motion over the mantle and originally suggested to have formed from mantle convection rolls. In contrast, the gravity field 600 km or farther west of the EPR reveals lineaments with varied orientations. Some are also parallel with plate motion over the mantle but others are sub-parallel with fracture zones or have other orientations. This region is covered by pelagic sediments reaching 500-600 m thickness so bathymetry is not so useful for seeking evidence for plate deformation across the lineaments. We instead use depth to basement from three seismic reflection cruises. In some segments of these seismic data crossing the lineaments, we find that the co-variation between gravity and basement depth is roughly compatible with typical densities of basement rocks (basalt, gabbro or mantle), as expected for some explanations for the lineaments (e.g., mantle convection rolls, viscous asthenospheric inter-fingering or extensional deformation). However, some other lineaments are associated with major changes in basement depth with only subtle changes in the gravity field, suggesting topography that is locally supported by varied crustal thickness. Overall, the multiple gravity lineament orientations suggest that they have multiple origins. In particular, we propose that a further asthenospheric inter-fingering instability mechanism could occur from pressure variations in the asthenosphere arising from regional topography and such a mechanism may explain some obliquely oriented gravity lineaments that have no other obvious origin.

  9. The timeline of lamellar basement membrane changes during equine laminitis development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, M B; Pollitt, C C

    2011-07-01

    The timing of lamellar basement membrane (BM) changes occurring during laminitis development is incompletely understood. To determine the temporal progression of lamellar BM changes and whether laminin-332 (Ln-332) γ2 cleavage products are generated during laminitis development. Eight clinically normal Standardbred horses were allocated into treatment (n = 5) or sham (n = 3) groups. The treatment group received, via nasogastric intubation, an oligofructose (OF) bolus (10 g/kg bwt) while the sham group was given water. Laminitis induction proceeded for 48 h followed by euthanasia. Lamellar biopsies were obtained prior to dosing and at intervals during the treatment period for analysis (at 12, 18, 24, 30 and 36 h and at 48 h following euthanasia). Changes in lamellar collagen type IV and Ln-332 were first observed at 12 h post dosing. A unique pattern of reactivity for the Ln-332 γ2 antibody D4B5 occurred, in which reactivity was observed only in lamellar tissue affected by laminitis. No bioactive Ln-332 γ2 proteolytic fragments were detected in lamellar samples. Basement membrane changes occurred early during the laminitis process. Direct Ln-332 γ2 cleavage to release biologically active products did not appear to occur. Thus loss of stability or protein interaction of the BM is probably responsible for the γ2 specific reactivity observed. Basement membrane changes may a first step in lamellar failure occurring prior to detection with conventional methods. Thus, more sensitive detection methods of BM changes are required to study laminitis development. © 2011 EVJ Ltd.

  10. Gravitational sliding of the Mt. Etna massif along a sloping basement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, John B.; van Wyk de Vries, Benjamin; Pitty, Andy; Sargent, Phil; Wooller, Luke

    2018-04-01

    Geological field evidence and laboratory modelling indicate that volcanoes constructed on slopes slide downhill. If this happens on an active volcano, then the movement will distort deformation data and thus potentially compromise interpretation. Our recent GPS measurements demonstrate that the entire edifice of Mt. Etna is sliding to the ESE, the overall direction of slope of its complex, rough sedimentary basement. We report methods of discriminating the sliding vector from other deformation processes and of measuring its velocity, which averaged 14 mm year-1 during four intervals between 2001 and 2012. Though sliding of one sector of a volcano due to flank instability is widespread and well-known, this is the first time basement sliding of an entire active volcano has been directly observed. This is important because the geological record shows that such sliding volcanoes are prone to devastating sector collapse on the downslope side, and whole volcano migration should be taken into account when assessing future collapse hazard. It is also important in eruption forecasting, as the sliding vector needs to be allowed for when interpreting deformation events that take place above the sliding basement within the superstructure of the active volcano, as might occur with dyke intrusion or inflation/deflation episodes.

  11. High-resolution temporal analysis of deep subseafloor microbial communities inhabiting basement fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungbluth, S.; Lin, H. T.; Hsieh, C. C.; Rappe, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    The temporal variation in microbial communities inhabiting the anoxic, sediment-covered basaltic ocean basement is largely uncharacterized due to the inaccessible nature of the environment and difficulties associated with collection of samples from low-biomass microbial habitats. Here, a deep sea instrumented platform was employed on the Juan de Fuca Ridge in the summer of 2013 to collect 46 samples of basement fluids from the most recent generation of borehole observatories (U1362A and B), which feature multiple sampling horizons at a single location and fluid delivery lines manufactured using stainless steel or inert polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) parts. Included were three time-series deployments of the GEOmicrobe sled meant to resolve the fine-scale (i.e. hourly) temporal variation within in situ crustal microbial communities. Illumina technology was used to sequence small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene fragments from sediment, seawater, and subseafloor fluids. Similar to has been reported previously, basic differences in the three environments was observed. Fluid samples from depth horizons extending 30, 70, and ~200 meters sub-basement revealed differences in the observed microbial communities, indicating potential depth-specific zonation of microorganisms in the basaltic basement fluids. Extensive overlap between microorganisms collected from a single depth horizon but using two fluid delivery lines manufactured with different materials was observed, though some differences were also noted. Several archaeal (e.g. THSCG, MCG, MBGE, Archaeoglobus) and bacterial (e.g. Nitrospiraceae, OP8, KB1) lineages detected in previous years of basement fluid sampling nearby were found here, which further supports the notion that these microorganisms are stable residents of anoxic basaltic subseafloor fluids. Direct cell enumeration of samples collected from U1362A and U1362B revealed an elevated biomass compared to samples at these locations from previous years

  12. Microbial diversity within Juan de Fuca ridge basement fluids sampled from oceanic borehole observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungbluth, S.; Bowers, R.; Lin, H.; Hsieh, C.; Cowen, J. P.; Rappé, M.

    2012-12-01

    Three generations of sampling and instrumentation platforms known as Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kit (CORK) observatories affixed to Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) and Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) boreholes are providing unrivaled access to fluids originating from 1.2-3.5 million-years (Myr) old basaltic crust of the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca ridge. Borehole fluid samples obtained via a custom seafloor fluid pumping and sampling system coupled to CORK continuous fluid delivery lines are yielding critical insights into the biogeochemistry and nature of microbial life inhabiting the sediment-covered basement environment. Direct microscopic enumeration revealed microbial cell abundances that are 2-41% of overlying bottom seawater. Snapshots of basement fluid microbial diversity and community structure have been obtained through small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene cloning and sequencing from five boreholes that access a range of basement ages and temperatures at the sediment-basement interface. SSU rRNA gene clones were derived from four different CORK installations (1026B, 1301A, 1362A, and 1362B) accessing relatively warmer (65°C) and older (3.5 Myr) ridge flank, and one location (1025C) accessing relatively cooler (39°C) and younger (1.2 Myr) ridge flank, revealing that warmer basement fluids had higher microbial diversity. A sampling time-series collected from borehole 1301A has revealed a microbial community that is temporally variable, with the dominant lineages changing between years. Each of the five boreholes sampled contained a unique microbial assemblage, however, common members are found from both cultivated and uncultivated lineages within the archaeal and bacterial domains, including meso- and thermophilic microbial lineages involved with sulfur cycling (e.g Thiomicrospira, Sulfurimonas, Desulfocapsa, Desulfobulbus). In addition, borehole fluid environmental gene clones were also closely related to uncultivated lineages

  13. Geochemical variability of the Yucatan basement: Constraints from crystalline clasts in Chicxulub impactites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettrup, B.; Deutsch, A.

    2003-07-01

    The 65 Ma old Chicxulub impact structure with a diameter of about 180 km is again in the focus of the geosciences because of the recently commenced drilling of the scientific well Yaxcopoil- 1. Chicxulub is buried beneath thick post-impact sediments, yet samples of basement lithologies in the drill cores provide a unique insight into age and composition of the crust beneath Yucatan. This study presents major element, Sr, and Nd isotope data for Chicxulub impact melt lithologies and clasts of basement lithologies in impact breccias from the PEMEX drill cores C-1 and Y-6, as well as data for ejecta material from the K/T boundaries at La Lajilla, Mexico, and Furlo, Italy. The impact melt lithologies have an andesitic composition with significantly varying contents of Al, Ca, and alkali elements. Their present day 87Sr/86Sr ratios cluster at about 0.7085, and 143Nd/144Nd ratios range from 0.5123 to 0.5125. Compared to the melt lithologies that stayed inside the crater, data for ejecta material show larger variations. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios range from 0.7081 for chloritized spherules from La Lajilla to 0.7151 for sanidine spherules from Furlo. The 143Nd/144Nd ratio is 0.5126 for La Lajilla and 0.5120 for the Furlo spherules. In an tCHUR(Nd)-tUR(Sr) diagram, the melt lithologies plot in a field delimited by Cretaceous platform sediments, various felsic lithic clasts and a newly found mafic fragment from a suevite. Granite, gneiss, and amphibolite have been identified among the fragments from crystalline basement gneiss. Their 87Sr/86Sr ratios range from 0.7084 to 0.7141, and their 143Nd/144Nd ratios range from 0.5121 to 0.5126. The TNdDM model ages vary from 0.7 to 1.4 Ga, pointing to different source terranes for these rocks. This leads us to believe that the geological evolution and the lithological composition of the Yucatàn basement is probably more complex than generally assumed, and Gondwanan as well as Laurentian crust may be present in the Yucatàn basement.

  14. Basement control in the development of the early cretaceous West and Central African rift system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurin, Jean-Christophe; Guiraud, René

    1993-12-01

    The structural framework of the Precambrian basement of the West and Central African Rift System (WCARS) is described in order to examine the role of ancient structures in the development of this Early Cretaceous rift system. Basement structures are represented in the region by large Pan-African mobile belts (built at ca. 600 Ma) surrounding the > 2 Ga West African, Congo and Sao Francisco cratons. Except for the small Gao trough (eastern Mali) located near the contact nappe of the Pan-African Iforas suture zone along the edge of the West African craton, the entire WCARS is located within the internal domains of the Pan-African mobile belts. Within these domains, two main structural features occur as the main basement control of the WCARS: (1) an extensive network of near vertical shear zones which trend north-south through the Congo, Brazil, Nigeria, Niger and Algeria, and roughly east-west through northeastern Brazil and Central Africa. The shear zones correspond to intra-continental strike-slip faults which accompanied the oblique collision between the West African, Congo, and Sao Francisco cratons during the Late Proterozoic; (2) a steep metamorphic NW-SE-trending belt which corresponds to a pre-Pan-African (ca. 730 Ma) ophiolitic suture zone along the eastern edge of the Trans-Saharian mobile belt. The post-Pan-African magmatic and tectonic evolution of the basement is also described in order to examine the state of the lithosphere prior to the break-up which occurred in the earliest Cretaceous. After the Pan-African thermo-tectonic event, the basement of the WCARS experienced a long period of intra-plate magmatic activity. This widespread magmatism in part relates to the activity of intra-plate hotspots which have controlled relative uplift, subsidence and occasionally block faulting. During the Paleozoic and the early Mesozoic, this tectonic activity was restricted to west of the Hoggar, west of Aïr and northern Cameroon. During the Late Jurassic

  15. Regeneration of the epidermis and basement membrane of the planarian Dugesia japonica after total-body x irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, I.

    1979-01-01

    Fresh-water planarians were studied to examine effects of x rays on regeneration of the epidermis and basement membrane. During early stages of regeneration, free rhabdite-forming cells were associated with the wound epidermis and recruited it. In later stages, however, a gradual degeneration occurred in the epidermis and cells undergoing epithelization decreased in number. Eventually epidermal cells on the wound surface appeared necrotic as evidenced by pyknotic nuclei and vacuolized dense cytoplasm. The entire basement membrane could not be reconstituted in any stage after wounding though its precursor-like material was secreted in the interspace between epidermis and parenchyma. Morphological changes in extracellular products and in the cells surrounding the products suggest that epidermal cells which have covered the wound surface synthesize precursors of the basement membrane. Possible factors of a characteristic perturbation in epithelization and basement membrane formation after total-body irradiation are discussed

  16. Regeneration of the epidermis and basement membrane of the planarian Dugesia japonica after total-body x irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hori, I.

    1979-03-01

    Fresh-water planarians were studied to examine effects of x rays on regeneration of the epidermis and basement membrane. During early stages of regeneration, free rhabdite-forming cells were associated with the wound epidermis and recruited it. In later stages, however, a gradual degeneration occurred in the epidermis and cells undergoing epithelization decreased in number. Eventually epidermal cells on the wound surface appeared necrotic as evidenced by pyknotic nuclei and vacuolized dense cytoplasm. The entire basement membrane could not be reconstituted in any stage after wounding though its precursor-like material was secreted in the interspace between epidermis and parenchyma. Morphological changes in extracellular products and in the cells surrounding the products suggest that epidermal cells which have covered the wound surface synthesize precursors of the basement membrane. Possible factors of a characteristic perturbation in epithelization and basement membrane formation after total-body irradiation are discussed.

  17. Anti-glomerular basement membrane disease superimposed on membranous nephropathy: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivera Noel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Anti-glomerular basement membrane disease is a rare autoimmune disorder characterized by pulmonary hemorrhage, crescentic glomerulonephritis and the presence of circulating anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies. The simultaneous occurrence of both anti-glomerular basement membrane disease and membranous nephropathy is rare. Case presentation A 59-year-old Hispanic man presented with acute onset of nausea and vomiting and was found to have renal insufficiency. Work-up included a kidney biopsy, which revealed anti-glomerular basement membrane disease with underlying membranous nephropathy. He was treated with emergent hemodialysis, intravenous corticosteroids, plasmapheresis, and cyclophosphamide without improvement in his renal function. Conclusion Simultaneous anti-glomerular basement membrane disease and membranous nephropathy is very rare. There have been 16 previous case reports in the English language literature that have been associated with a high mortality and morbidity, and a very high rate of renal failure resulting in hemodialysis. Co-existence of membranous nephropathy and anti-glomerular basement membrane disease may be immune-mediated, although the exact mechanism is not clear.

  18. Thermochronology and geochemistry of the Pan-African basement below the Sab'atayn Basin, Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeningen, Resi; Rice, A. Hugh N.; Schneider, David A.; Grasemann, Bernhard

    2015-02-01

    Three important lithologies occur in two drill wells from the Pan-African basement underlying the Mesozoic Sab'atayn Basin, in a previously undocumented area of the Pan-African, 83 and 90 km NE of known exposures in Yemen. Cores from well 1 include amphibolite, with basaltic to andesitic compositions, affected by crustal contamination during emplacement into a thickened crust. Deeper in the well, an unfoliated dark red monzogranite has a U-Pb zircon age of 628.8 ± 3.1 Ma and a Rb-Sr biotite cooling age of 591.6 ± 5.8 Ma (∼300 °C). Regional constraints suggest emplacement in a transitional tectonic setting with compressional terrane amalgamation followed by extensional collapse. Sm-Nd isotope analysis yields a TDM model age of 1.24 Ga with negative εNd values, suggesting the monzogranite is part of the Al Bayda island arc terrane. Cores from well 2 contains a weakly deformed, massive (unbedded) medium grey meta-arkose exhibiting essentially no geochemical signature of weathering and with an almost pure dacitic composition. This rock may have been directly derived from an (extrusive) granitoid that was emplaced prior to, or during terrane amalgamation. A (U-Th-Sm)/He zircon age of 156 ± 14 Ma constrains the time of basement cooling to ∼180 °C, synchronous with basin formation. These lithologies provide new insights in the development of the Pan-African basement of Yemen, extending our knowledge of the nearby surface geology to the subsurface.

  19. Uplift, Emergence, and Subsidence of the Gorda Escarpment Basement Ridge Offshore Cape Mendocino, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Susan M.; Tréhu, Anne M.

    2017-12-01

    The Gorda Escarpment is a topographic step that characterizes the south side of the Mendocino Transform Fault east of 126oW and forms the northern edge of the Vizcaino Block. Seismic reflection data suggest that the basement beneath the northern edge of the Vizcaino is composed of east-west trending slivers of oceanic crust that form a 15 km wide band of buried ridges we call the Gorda Escarpment Basement Ridge (GEBR) to distinguish it from the northwest-trending basement structure that characterizes most of the Vizcaino Block. The history of uplift and subsidence of the GEBR is reconstructed by combining the seismic reflection profiles with age and lithological constraints from ODP Site 1022, gravity cores, and grab samples from the northern face of the Escarpment recovered using a remotely operated vehicle. Uplift of the GEBR began prior to 6 Ma, and it was above sea level 3.7-2.5 Ma. GEBR uplift and emergence coincided with sediment deposition on the southern flank of the GEBR that we interpret as indicative of strong upwelling and turbulence in the lee of a shallow ridge and island chain. A bright reflection, interpreted to be a sill, is observed south of the shallowest part of the GEBR. We speculate that this sill may reflect a larger, hidden intrusion at depth and that thermal expansion of the crust combined with tectonic forces to drive enhanced uplift of this segment of the plate boundary. The GEBR has been subsiding since 2.7 Ma, and its shallowest point is now 1,400 m below sea level.

  20. The nature of the acoustic basement on Mendeleev and northwestern Alpha ridges, Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruvoll, Vibeke; Kristoffersen, Yngve; Coakley, Bernard J.; Hopper, John R.; Planke, Sverre; Kandilarov, Aleksandre

    2012-01-01

    The Alpha-Mendeleev ridge complex, over 1500 km long and 250-400 km wide, is the largest submarine structure in the Arctic Ocean basin. Its origin is unknown, but often inferred to represent a large igneous province where domains of continental crust may also be a possibility. We investigate the basement geology of part of this large scale feature using 1100 km of multichannel seismic reflection data, sonobuoy recordings and marine gravity data acquired in 2005 from USCG icebreaker Healy. The sonobuoy results show top and intra-acoustic basement velocities in the range of 2.3-4.0 km/s and the seismic reflection attributes define three main acoustic facies: 1) continuous high amplitude reflections often with abrupt breaks, 3) weak wedge geometry and 3) segmented, disrupted to chaotic reflections. The acoustic characteristics and seismic velocities compare more closely with basement on Ontong Java Plateau than normal ocean crust or wedges of seaward dipping reflections at volcanic margins. The acoustic facies are interpreted to represent basalt flows and sills capping voluminous tuff deposits and possible sediments. At least two volcanic centres are identified. The upper volcanic carapace on the surveyed part of Mendeleev and northwestern Alpha ridges was emplaced during a brief igneous episode no later than Campanian (80 Ma) and most likely part of wider Late Cretaceous circum Arctic volcanism. The horst and graben morphology on Mendeleev Ridge is largely a result of post-emplacement faulting where a number of the major extensional faults remained active until a late Miocene intrusive event.

  1. Dwellings with cellars and basements. A BRE guide to radon remedial measures in existing dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scivyer, C.R.; Jaggs, M.P.R.

    1998-01-01

    This guide is one of a series giving practical advice on methods of reducing radon levels in existing dwellings. It is intended to help surveyors, builders and householders who are trying to reduce indoor radon levels in houses with cellars or basements. The guide is based on a large body of remedial work carried out to advice given by BRE, and on discussions with others working in the field. The measures it describes are applicable, in principle, to all dwellings and other buildings of a similar scale and construction which have cellars or basements. Contact details of other organisations referred to are listed at the back of this guide. Basements and cellars are relatively uncommon in the United Kingdom, but where they do occur they are likely to be major contributors to the radon problem within a building. Experience shows that most houses with high indoor radon levels can be remedied through the use of straightforward building works. These can be carried out by a builder or householder competent in DIY. The cost should not be excessive. Before reading this guide, for background information on radon, consult Radon: a householder's guide and Radon: a guide to reducing levels M your home, obtainable from local Environmental Health Officers or from the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions. The Government recommends that, if the average radon concentration in a dwelling exceeds 200 Bq/m 3 (the 'action' level), measures should be taken to reduce it. This guide assumes that radon measurements have been made in the building and that the annual average indoor radon level was shown to exceed the action level

  2. Detailed petrographic-structural study of an outcrop of Crystalline Basement of Montevideo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascale, A.; Oyhantçabal, P.

    2010-01-01

    Preliminary data analysis of detailed outcrop Punta Virgilo, located on the S E coast of the department of Montevideo are presented. The investigated outcrop includes gneisses, amphibolite s and several generations of pegmatite and aplite dikes of Paleoproterozoic metamorphic basement, plus a set of dikes emplaced lamprófido exhumed once the area. Petrographic and microstructural studies of metamorphic units allowed to determine the conditions of metamorphism and deformation temperature between 520-720 ° C and pressure between 2 and 6 kbar (depth of 10 to 23 km)

  3. Lead isotopic study of aplites from the Precambrian basement rocks near Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oversby, V.M.

    1975-01-01

    Pb isotopic compositions for three total-rock samples of aplite and their constituent K-feldspars from the Nigerian basement assemblage near Ibadan show lead homogenization during the Pan-African thermo-tectonic event. A secondary isochron formed by the K-feldspars data points is used to calculate a primary age of about 2750 m.y. for the aplites. The aplites do not register any Pb isotopic effect from the intrusion of granite gneiss in the area at 2330m.y. (Auth.)

  4. The First Evidence of the Precambrian Basement in the Fore Range Zone of the Great Caucasus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latyshev, A.; Kamzolkin, V.; Vidjapin, Y.; Somin, M.; Ivanov, S.

    2017-12-01

    Within the Great Caucasus fold-thrust belt, the Fore Range zone has the most complicated structure, and the highest degree of metamorphism was found there. This zone consists of several salients with the different composition and the structural and metamorphic evolution. The largest Blyb salient includes the metamorphic basement covered by the pack of thrusts. According to the recent isotopic data the upper levels of the Blyb metamorphic complex (BMC) are supposed to be Middle-Paleozoic (Somin, 2011). We studied zircons from the granitic intrusions located in the metamorphic rocks of the BMC. The U-Pb dating (SHRIMP II, VSEGEI, Russia) of zircons from the large Balkan metadiorite massif yielded the ages of 549±7,4, 574,1±6,7, and 567,9±6,9 Ma. All studied zircons show the high Th/U ratios and likely have the magmatic origin. This data is the first confirmation of the presence of the Precambrian basement and Vendian magmatic activity in the Fore Range zone. Zircons from the Unnamed granodiorite massif from the south of the Blyb salient yielded the age of 319±3.8 Ma (the Early Carboniferous). This fact taken together with the low grade of metamorphism in this intrusion reveals the Late Paleozoic magmatic event in the Fore Range zone. We also suggest that the Precambrian basement of the BMC, including the Balkan intrusion, is covered by so-called Armovsky nappe. This is confirmed by the field data, Middle-Paleozoic U-Pb ages and the higher degree of metamorphism of the Armovsky gneisses and schists. Thus, the BMC is not uniform but includes the blocks of the different age and metamorphic grades. Finally, we measured the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) of the Balkan metadiorites. The axes of AMS ellipsoid fix the conditions of the north-east compression, as well as the strain field reconstructed from the macrostructures orientation, which corresponds to the thrusts propagation. Therefore, the emplacement of the Balkan massif happened before the thrust

  5. Anti-glomerular basement membrane: A rare cause of renal failure in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indira Agarwal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM disease is a rare cause of acute renal failure and known to have bad prognosis regarding renal functions recovery and patient survival specially when diagnosed late and presents with severe renal failure that requires dialysis. We report a case of 11-year-old child with acute renal failure secondary to anti-GBM disease and associated with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-positive vasculitis. He was treated with plasmapheresis, steroids, and cyclophosphamide with recovery of his kidney functions.

  6. Normal mammary epithelial cells promote carcinoma basement membrane invasion by inducing microtubule-rich protrusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Meng-Horng; Wu, Pei-Hsun; Gilkes, Daniele; Aifuwa, Ivie; Wirtz, Denis

    2015-10-20

    Recent work suggests that the dissemination of tumor cells may occur in parallel with, and even preceed, tumor growth. The mechanism for this early invasion is largely unknown. Here, we find that mammary epithelial cells (MECs) induce neighboring breast carcinoma cells (BCCs) to cross the basement membrane by secreting soluble laminin. Laminin continuously produced by MECs induce long membrane cellular protrusions in BCCs that promote their contractility and invasion into the surrounding matrix. These protrusions depend on microtubule bundles assembled de novo through laminin-integrin β1 signaling. These results describe how non-cancerous MECs can actively participate in the invasive process of BCCs.

  7. Basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan from the L2 rat yolk sac carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, M; Wewer, U; Albrechtsen, R

    1984-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycan from the L2 rat yolk sac carcinoma has been purified and partially characterized. The proteoglycan has an apparent Mr of 750 000, 35% of which represents the core protein. The core protein seems to be homogeneous, whereas the heparan sulfate chains are heterogeneous...... with an Mr of about 50 000-70 000, with 30% of the glucosamine being N-sulfated. Antibodies raised against the core protein of the heparan sulfate proteoglycan reacted with basement membranes of various rat and human tissue....

  8. Shock pressure estimation in basement rocks of the Chicxulub impact crater using cathodoluminescence spectroscopy of quartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomioka, N.; Tani, R.; Kayama, M.; Chang, Y.; Nishido, H.; Kaushik, D.; Rae, A.; Ferrière, L.; Gulick, S. P. S.; Morgan, J. V.

    2017-12-01

    The Chicxulub impact structure, located in the northern Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, was drilled by the joint IODP-ICDP Expedition 364 in April-May 2016. This expedition is the first attempt to obtain materials from the topographic peak ring within the crater previously identified by seismic imaging. A continuous core was successfully recovered from the peak ring at depths between 505.7 and 1334.7 mbsf. Uplifted, fractured, and shocked granitic basement rocks forming the peak ring were found below, in the impact breccia and impact melt rock unit (747.0-1334.7 mbsf; Morgan et al. 2016). In order to constrain impact crater formation, we investigated shock pressure distribution in the peak-ring basement rocks. Thin sections of the granitic rocks were prepared at intervals of 60 m. All the samples contains shocked minerals, with quartz grains frequently showing planar deformation features (PDFs). We determined shock pressures based on the cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy of quartz. The strong advantage of the CL method is its applicability to shock pressure estimation for individual grains for both quartz and diaplectic SiO2 glass with high-spatial resolution ( 1 μm) (Chang et al. 2016). CL spectra of quartz shows a blue emission band caused by shock-induced defect centers, where its intensity increases with shock pressure. A total of 108 quartz grains in ten thin sections were analyzed using a scanning electron microscope with a CL spectrometer attached (an acceleration voltage of 15 kV and a beam current of 2 nA were used). Natural quartz single crystals, which were experimentally shocked at 0-30 GPa, were used for pressure calibration. CL spectra of all the quartz grains in the basement rocks showed broad blue emission band at the wavelength range of 300-500 nm and estimated shock pressures were in the range of 15-20 GPa. The result is consistent with values obtained from PDFs analysis in quartz using the universal stage (Ferrière et al. 2017; Rae et al. 2017

  9. Basement inheritance and salt tectonics in the SE Barents Sea: Insights from new potential field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernigon, L.; Broenner, M.; Dumais, M. A.; Gradmann, S.; Grønlie, A.; Nasuti, A.; Roberts, D.

    2017-12-01

    The tectonic evolution of the former `grey zone' between Russia and Norway has so far remained poorly constrained due to a lack of geophysical data. In 2014, we carried out a new aeromagnetic survey (BASAR-14) in the southern part of the new Norwegian offshore territory. Caledonian and Timanian structures, highlighted by the new potential field data, dominate the basement patterns and have exerted a strong influence on the structure and development of the overlying basins and basement highs. Clearly associated with NW-SE-oriented Timanian trends, the Tiddlybanken Basin represents an atypical sag basin that developed at the southern edge of the Fedynsky High. Regional extension and rapid sedimentation initiated the salt tectonics in the Barents Sea in the Early Triassic. Some of the pillows became diapiric during the Early Triassic and rejuvenated during subsequent Jurassic-Tertiary episodes of regional extension and/or compression. At present, quite a few large diapiric salt domes along the Nordkapp and Tiddlybanken basins are relatively shallow, locally reaching the seabed and thus show a clear bathymetric and magnetic signature. Quantitative modelling along 2D seismic transects was also carried out to constrain the structural and basement composition of the study area. The predominant NE-SW Mesozoic trend of the Nordkapp Basin represents a major crustal hinge zone between the Finnmark Platform, poorly affected by major crustal deformation, and the Bjarmeland Platform where Late Palaeozoic rifting controlled the widespread accumulation of salt deposits in Late Carboniferous-Early Permian time. The entire structure and segmentation of the Nordkapp Basin have been influenced by the inherited basement configuration highlighted by the new aeromagnetic data. Both the Nordkapp and the Tiddlybanken basins appear to lie at the edge of a peculiar thick and rigid crustal feature that coincides with a highly magnetic region. The abrupt termination of the eastern Nordkapp

  10. Immunochemical and ultrastructural assessment of the nature of the pericellular basement membrane of human decidual cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, U M; Faber, M; Liotta, L A

    1985-01-01

    Human decidual cells of early and late pregnancy were studied immunochemically and ultrastructurally with respect to the presence and nature of pericellular basement membrane material. The most prominent cell type in decidual tissue of both early and late pregnancy were large, mature epithelioid...... of stromal cells into decidual cells of the pregnant endometrium. Predecidualization of the human endometrium, which is seen in the late secretory phase of the normal menstrual cycle and in some states of hyperplasia, was also shown to be accompanied by the presence of deposits of laminin-positive material...

  11. In vivo turnover of the basement membrane and other heparan sulfate proteoglycans of rat glomerulus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beavan, L A; Davies, M; Couchman, J R

    1989-01-01

    The metabolic turnover of rat glomerular proteoglycans in vivo was investigated. Newly synthesized proteoglycans were labeled during a 7-h period after injecting sodium [35S]sulfate intraperitoneally. At the end of the labeling period a chase dose of sodium sulfate was given. Subsequently......-propanesulfonate-4 M guanidine hydrochloride, a procedure which solubilized greater than 95% of the 35S-labeled macromolecules. Of these 11-13% was immunoprecipitated by an antiserum against heparan sulfate proteoglycan which, in immunolocalization experiments, showed specificity for staining the basement membrane...

  12. Increasingly transformed MCF-10A cells have a progressively tumor-like phenotype in three-dimensional basement membrane culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbalzano, Karen M; Tatarkova, Iva; Imbalzano, Anthony N; Nickerson, Jeffrey A

    2009-03-16

    MCF-10A cells are near diploid and normal human mammary epithelial cells. In three-dimensional reconstituted basement membrane culture, they undergo a well-defined program of proliferation, differentiation, and growth arrest, forming acinar structures that recapitulate many aspects of mammary architecture in vivo. The pre-malignant MCF-10AT cells and malignant MCF-10CA1a lines were sequentially derived from the MCF-10A parental cell line first by expression of a constitutively active T24 H-Ras generating the MCF-10AT cell line. This was followed by repeated selection for increasingly aggressive tumor formation from cells recovered from xenograft tumors in immuno-compromised mice, generating the MCF-10CA1a cell line. When inoculated subcutaneously into the flanks of immuno-compromised mice, MCF-10AT cells occasionally form tumors, whereas MCF-10CA1a cells invariably form tumors with a shorter latency than MCF-10AT derived tumors. MCF-10AT cells grown in three-dimensional basement membrane culture form complex multi-acinar structures that produce a basement membrane but undergo delayed cell cycle arrest and have incomplete luminal development. MCF-10CA1a cells grown in three-dimensional basement membrane culture form large, hyper-proliferative masses, that retain few characteristics of MCF10A acini and more closely resemble tumors. Here we report on the growth and differentiation properties of these three matched cell lines in three-dimensional basement membrane culture. Features of tissue morphogenesis were assessed, including proliferation, basement membrane formation, polarization of alpha-6 beta-4 integrin to the basement membrane, formation of cell:cell junctions, and apoptosis for luminal clearance. The matched series of normal MCF-10A, pre-malignant MCF-10AT, and malignant MCF-10CA1a cells offers a unique opportunity to study the mechanisms of malignant progression both in a three-dimensional microenvironment and in the same cell background.

  13. Basement structure of the United Arab Emirates derived from an analysis of regional gravity and aeromagnetic database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M. Y.; Fairhead, J. D.; Green, C. M.; Noufal, A.

    2017-08-01

    Gravity and aeromagnetic data covering the whole territory of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) have been used to evaluate both shallow and deep geological structures, in particular the depth to basement since it is not imaged by seismic data anywhere within the UAE. Thus, the aim has been to map the basement so that its structure can help to assess its control on the distribution of hydrocarbons within the UAE. Power spectrum analysis reveals gravity and magnetic signatures to have some similarities, in having two main density/susceptibility interfaces widely separated in depth such that regional-residual anomaly separation could effectively be undertaken. The upper density/susceptibility interface occurs at a depth of about 1.0 km while the deeper interface varies in depth throughout the UAE. For gravity, this deeper interface is assumed to be due to the combined effect of lateral changes in density structures within the sediments and in depth of basement while for magnetics it is assumed the sediments have negligible susceptibility and the anomalies unrelated to the volcanic/magmatic bodies result from only changes in depth to basement. The power spectrum analysis over the suspect volcanic/magmatic bodies indicates they occur at 5 km depth. The finite tilt-depth and finite local wavenumber methods were used to estimate depth to source and only depths that agree to within 10% of each other were used to generate the depth to basement map. This depth to basement map, to the west of the UAE-Oman Mountains, varies in depth from 5 km to in excess of 15 km depth and is able to structurally account for the location of the shear structures, seen in the residual magnetic data, and the location of the volcanic/magmatic centres relative to a set of elongate N-S to NE-SW trending basement highs. The majority of oilfields in the UAE are located within these basement highs. Therefore, the hydrocarbon distribution in the UAE basin appears to be controlled by the location of the

  14. Organogenesis of the kidney glomerulus: focus on the glomerular basement membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Jeffrey H

    2011-01-01

    The glomerular basement membrane (GBM) is a crucial component of the kidney's filtration barrier that separates the vasculature from the urinary space. During glomerulogenesis, the GBM is formed from fusion of two distinct basement membranes, one synthesized by the glomerular epithelial cell (podocyte) and the other by the glomerular endothelial cell. The main components of the GBM are laminin-521 (α5β2γ1), collagen α3α4α5(IV), nidogen and the heparan sulfate proteoglycan, agrin. By studying mice lacking specific GBM components, we have shown that during glomerulogenesis, laminin is the only one that is required for GBM integrity and in turn, the GBM is required for completion of glomerulogenesis and glomerular vascularization. In addition, our results from laminin β2-null mice suggest that laminin-521, and thus the GBM, contribute to the establishment and maintenance of the glomerular filtration barrier to plasma albumin. In contrast, mutations that affect GBM collagen IV or agrin do not impair glomerular development or cause immediate leakage of plasma proteins. However, collagen IV mutation, which causes Alport syndrome and ESRD in humans, leads to gradual damage to the GBM that eventually leads to albuminuria and renal failure. These results highlight the importance of the GBM for establishing and maintaining a perfectly functioning, highly selective glomerular filter.

  15. Morphological diagnosis of Alport syndrome and thin basement membrane nephropathy by low vacuum scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Shinichi; Inaga, Sumire; Kitamoto, Koichi; Kawaba, Yasuo; Nakane, Hironobu; Naguro, Tomonori; Kaidoh, Toshiyuki; Kanzaki, Susumu

    2014-01-01

    Alport syndrome (AS) and thin basement membrane nephropathy (TBMN) are genetic disorders caused by mutations of the type IV collagen genes COL4A3, COL4A4, and/or COL4A5. We here aimed to investigate the three-dimensional ultrastructure of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) in order to introduce a novel method of diagnosing AS and TBMN. The subjects were 4 patients with AS and 6 patients with TBMN. Conventional renal biopsy paraffin sections from AS and TBMN patients were stained with periodic acid methenamine silver (PAM) and observed directly under low vacuum scanning electron microscopy (LVSEM). The PAM-positive GBMs were clearly visible under LVSEM through the overlying cellular components. The GBMs showed characteristic coarse meshwork appearances in AS, and thin and sheet-like appearances in TBMN. At the cut side view of the capillary wall, the GBMs in AS appeared as fibrous inclusions between a podocyte and an endothelial cell, while the GBMs in TBMN showed thin linear appearances. These different findings of GBMs between AS and TBMN were easily observed under LVSEM. Thus, we conclude that three-dimensional morphological evaluation by LVSEM using conventional renal biopsy paraffin sections will likely be useful for the diagnosis of AS and TBMN, including for retrospective investigations.

  16. Nanggulan Formation and Its Problem As a Basement in Kulonprogo Basin, Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hill Gendoet Hartono

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.4.2.71-80Nanggulan Formation consists of the oldest clastic rock sequence exposed in Kulonprogo area, Yogyakarta. This paper discusses the position of Nanggulan Formation as a basement. The method used in this research is surface and subsurface investigations based on gravity surveys. The rock assemblage is exposed and distributed partly in the east flank of Kulonprogo Mountains with weak undulated morphology. The rock sequence is composed of sand to clay grain sizes such as sandstone, quartz sandstone, calcareous sandstone, claystone, fossiliferous claystone, calcareous claystone, siltstone, and coal seam intercalations. The total thickness of the sequence is less than 200 m. Based on the fossil and palynology investigations, previous investigators concluded the age of the rock was Eocene to Middle Miocene. The geological structures developed in the rocks are the lithological stratification, fractures, folding, and faulting. The subsurface interpretation based on gravity data revealed the rock was located under the andesite breccias with 2.44 g/cc density. The density of the rock sequence was 2.63 g/cc. The gravity interpretation shows a strong indication that Nanggulan Formation underlies the andesitic breccias presumably associated with Old Andesite Formation exposed in Kulonprogo Mountains. The limited distribution, the thickness, and the closed environmental deposition of Nanggulan Formation found in the present investigation raised problems on the position of the formation as the basement of Old Andesite Formation occurring in the Kulonprogo Mountain.

  17. The chest X-ray in antiglomerular basement membrane antibody disease (Goodpasture's syndrome)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowley, N.B.; Steiner, R.E.; Chin, W.S.

    1979-01-01

    The chest radiographs of 25 patients with proven antiglomerular basement membrane antibody disease (Goodpasture's syndrome) were analysed. All except two of the patients had pulmonary haemorrhage at some stage of their disease. Altogether there were 39 episodes of pulmonary haemorrhage, 25 being relapses. During seven episodes the chest radiograph was normal. Relapses of pulmonary haemorrhage never occurred in isolation but were usually associated with infection (not necessarily a chest infection) or occasionally fluid overload. Conversely fluid overload or infection were always associated with pulmonary haemorrhage provided there were high or rising titres of circulating antibodies at the time. Therefore in a patient with antiglomerular basement membrane antibody disease, the presence of shadowing in the lung fields on the chest radiograph almost invariably means the patient has pulmonary haemorrhage whether or not pulmonary oedema or a chest infection are present. Limitation of shadowing by a fissure, loss of major portions of the diaphragmatic or cardiac silhouette, involvement of the lung apex or costophrenic angles suggest an underlying chest infection. Septal lines suggest fluid overload. Pleural effusions are seen with chest infections and fluid overload. The carbon monoxide uptake (KCO) was invariably high in the presence of pulmonary haemorrhage even if the chest radiograph was normal. A combined use of KCO and chest radiographs is the best method of monitoring lung disease in these patients. (author)

  18. Geophysical evaluation of groundwater potential in part of southwestern Basement Complex terrain of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayewu, Olateju O.; Oloruntola, Moroof O.; Mosuro, Ganiyu O.; Laniyan, Temitope A.; Ariyo, Stephen O.; Fatoba, Julius O.

    2017-12-01

    The geophysical assessment of groundwater in Awa-Ilaporu, near Ago Iwoye southwestern Nigeria was carried out with the aim of delineating probable areas of high groundwater potential. The area falls within the Crystalline Basement Complex of southwestern Nigeria which is predominantly underlain by banded gneiss, granite gneiss and pegmatite. The geophysical investigation involves the very low frequency electromagnetic (VLF-EM) and Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) methods. The VLF-EM survey was at 10 m interval along eight traverses ranging between 290 and 700 m in length using ABEM WADI VLF-EM unit. The VLF-EM survey was used to delineate areas with conductive/fractured zones. Twenty-three VES surveys were carried out with the use of Campus Ohmega resistivity meter at different location and at locations areas delineated as high conductive areas by VLF-EM survey. The result of VLF-EM survey along its traverse was used in delineating high conductive/fractured zones, it is, however, in agreement with the delineation of the VES survey. The VES results showed 3-4 geoelectric layers inferred as sandy topsoil, sandy clay, clayey and fractured/fresh basement. The combination of these two methods, therefore, helped in resolving the prospecting location for the groundwater yield in the study area.

  19. Effect of diabetes on in vivo metabolism of [35S]-labeled glomerular basement membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, M.P.; Surma, M.L.

    1984-01-01

    Glomerular basement membrane (GBM) was labeled in vivo by the injection of tracer amounts of [ 35 S]-sulfate into normal and streptozotocin-diabetic rats. The biosynthesis and turnover of sulfated glycosaminoglycans in the GBM was determined from the specific activity of [ 35 S] after pronase digestion of basement membranes purified from glomeruli isolated 1-7 days after injection. Peak radiolabeling of both normal and diabetic GBM occurred 24 h after injection and, when corrected for differences in serum sulfate specific activities, was less in diabetic than in normal samples. The specific activity of GBM sulfate, expressed as cpm/microgram uronic acid, progressively diminished over the ensuing period of study in both normal and diabetic samples. The rate of decrease in specific activity of [ 35 S]-labeled GBM was not significantly different in diabetic preparations compared with that in normal controls. The findings are compatible with diminished sulfation and/or production but normal turnover of glycosaminoglycans in the renal GBM in experimental diabetes

  20. 3D modeling of the Strasbourg’s Cathedral basements for interdisciplinary research and virtual visits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Landes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available On the occasion of the millennium celebration of Strasbourg Cathedral, a transdisciplinary research group composed of archaeologists, surveyors, architects, art historians and a stonemason revised the 1966-1972 excavations under the St. Lawrence’s Chapel of the Cathedral having remains of Roman and medieval masonry. The 3D modeling of the Chapel has been realized based on the combination of conventional surveying techniques for the network creation, laser scanning for the model creation and photogrammetric techniques for the texturing of a few parts. According to the requirements and the end-user of the model, the level of detail and level of accuracy have been adapted and assessed for every floor. The basement has been acquired and modeled with more details and a higher accuracy than the other parts. Thanks to this modeling work, archaeologists can confront their assumptions to those of other disciplines by simulating constructions of other worship edifices on the massive stones composing the basement. The virtual reconstructions provided evidence in support of these assumptions and served for communication via virtual visits.

  1. 3D modeling of the Strasbourg's Cathedral basements for interdisciplinary research and virtual visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landes, T.; Kuhnle, G.; Bruna, R.

    2015-08-01

    On the occasion of the millennium celebration of Strasbourg Cathedral, a transdisciplinary research group composed of archaeologists, surveyors, architects, art historians and a stonemason revised the 1966-1972 excavations under the St. Lawrence's Chapel of the Cathedral having remains of Roman and medieval masonry. The 3D modeling of the Chapel has been realized based on the combination of conventional surveying techniques for the network creation, laser scanning for the model creation and photogrammetric techniques for the texturing of a few parts. According to the requirements and the end-user of the model, the level of detail and level of accuracy have been adapted and assessed for every floor. The basement has been acquired and modeled with more details and a higher accuracy than the other parts. Thanks to this modeling work, archaeologists can confront their assumptions to those of other disciplines by simulating constructions of other worship edifices on the massive stones composing the basement. The virtual reconstructions provided evidence in support of these assumptions and served for communication via virtual visits.

  2. First indication of mesoproterozoic age from the western basement of Sierra de San Luis, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, A.M.; Gonzalez, P.D; Sato, K

    2001-01-01

    Mafic to ultramafic metamagmatic rocks are widespread within the western basement of Sierra de San Luis (Eastern Sierras Pampeanas), through a belt of almost 45 km long, from Villa de la Quebrada in the south up to San Francisco del Monte de Oro in the north. The northern area have been studied by Merodio et al. (1978), Kilmurray and Villar (1981), Carugno Duran (1998) and Ortiz Suarez (1999). In the southern area, the detailed structural and metamorphic study revealed the presence of komatiites preserved within amphibolites. These rocks are in association with a supracrustal sequence composed of banded iron formations (BIF), metaquartzites, micaschists and other gneissic rocks (Gonzalez, 2000). Although this basement complex shows a penetrative Famatinian (Early Paleozoic) NNE-SSW trending foliation, remnants of an older NW-SE trending structures are also found (Gonzalez and Llambias, 1998; von Gosen and Prozzi, 1998). As a result of Sm-Nd whole rock analyses of the komatiites and amphibolites from the southern area, we obtained an isochron date of 1502 Ma. This is the first mention of an Early Mesoproterozoic date from the Sierra de San Luis, and hence, in this contribution we discuss its validity, taking into consideration the geological and regional context (au)

  3. Specific fixation of bovine brain and retinal acidic and basic fibroblast growth factors to mouse embryonic eye basement membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeanny, J.C.; Fayein, N.; Courtois, Y.; Moenner, M.; Chevallier, B.; Barritault, D.

    1987-01-01

    The labeling pattern of mouse embryonic eye frozen sections incubated with radioiodinated brain acidic and basic fibroblasts growth factors (aFGF and bFGF) was investigated by autoradiography. Both growth factors bind to basement membranes in a dose-dependent way, with a higher affinity for bFGF. Similar data were obtained with eye-derived growth factors (EDGF), the retinal forms of FGF. There was a heterogeneity in the affinity of the various basement membranes toward these growth factors. The specificity of the growth factor-basement membrane interaction was demonstrated by the following experiments: (i) an excess of unlabeled growth factor displaced the labeling; (ii) unrelated proteins with different isoelectric points did not modify the labeling; and (iii) iodinated EGF or PDGF did not label basement membrane. In order to get a better understanding of the nature of this binding, the authors performed the incubation of the frozen sections with iodinated FGFs preincubated with various compounds. These results demonstrate that FGFs bind specifically to basement membranes, probably on the polysaccharidic part of the proteoheparan sulfate, and suggest that this type of interaction may be a general feature of the mechanism of action of these growth factors

  4. Nephritogenic antigen determinants in epidermal and renal basement membranes of kindreds with Alport-type familial nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashtan, C; Fish, A J; Kleppel, M; Yoshioka, K; Michael, A F

    1986-10-01

    We probed epidermal basement membranes (EBM) of acid-urea denatured skin from members of kindreds with Alport-type familial nephritis (FN) for the presence of antigens reactive with Goodpasture sera (GPS) and serum (FNS) from an Alport patient who developed anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) nephritis in a renal allograft. By immunoblotting, GPS reacted primarily with the 28,000 molecular weight (mol wt) monomer but also the 24,000 mol wt and 26,000 mol wt monomers of the noncollagenous globular domain (NC1) of type IV collagen from normal human GBM, while FNS identified only the 26,000-mol wt monomer. FNS reacted with EBM of 12 controls and nine unaffected male kindred members but not EBM of eight affected males. Five affected females exhibited interrupted reactivity of FNS with EBM. GPS showed variable reactivity with EBM and was not discriminating with respect to Alport-type FN. FNS did not stain renal basement members of five affected males. However, the EBM, tubular basement membrane, and Bowman's capsules of affected males contained antigens reactive with GPS. These immunochemical studies suggest that the FNS antigen is distinct from Goodpasture antigen(s). The expression of FNS antigen located on the NC1 domain of type IV collagen is altered in basement membranes of patients with Alport-type FN, and the distribution of this antigenic anomaly within kindreds suggests X-linked dominant transmission of a defective gene.

  5. Tectonic inheritage from adjacent basement, north of the Campos Basin; Heranca tectonica no embasamento adjacente no norte da Bacia de Campos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferroni, Felipe R. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil); Castro, Joel C. de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas. Dept. de Geologia Aplicada; Souza, Iata A. de; Castro, Joel C. de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas

    2008-07-01

    The evolution of the Atlantic Brazilian basins is a target of researches since the firth discovery of oil deposits. With the advance of the geophysical methods the understanding of the structures in depth became possible. The objective of this paper is to determine if the adjacent basement in the north of Campos Basin has significant influence in the identification of areas that can contain hydrocarbons. Therefore, lineaments had been extracted with SRTM images of continental basement and the main alignment was correlated with gravimetric anomalies map and seismic data. Eight levels on seismic data had been interpreted (basement, top rift, shallow water Albian, Albian, mid-Oligocene and mid-Miocene). In all levels were identified a fault normal system, which cut sediments since basement until the Recent. The main direction of the basement is NE-SW, and the alignments formed for basin basement faults coincide with this direction, what indicates that the system is active and also genetically related. (author)

  6. Dynamics of uranium ore formation in the basement and frame of the Streltsovskaya Caldera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, V.; Schukin, S.

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of geological-geophysical, paleo-geodynamics, mineralogical, geochemical, isotope, geochronological, and thermo-baro-geochemical data allow us to offer a model of uranium ore formation dynamics in the basement and frame of the Streltsovskaya Caldera connected to activity of the fluid-conducting fault zones network with the aim to identify prospective areas The most ancient fluid-conducting structures are inter-block NE-SW, NNE-submeridional, NW-SE and, probably, WNW-sub-latitudinal faults. The oldest NE-SW faults and schistosity zones were formed during Proterozoic tectonic cycle (TC) with reactivation in T3-J2 time due to global reorganization of stress field and reactivation of tectonic movements. The NNE-submeridional and NW-SE faults were extended with increased fluid permeability during Caledonian and Variscan TCs. They also were reactivated in the process of Late Mesozoic tectonic and magmatic activation (TMA). Thus already at early stages of geotectonic evolution within the intersection of NE-SW (N-Urulyunguyevskiy fault) and NNE-submeridional (Chindachinskaya zone) faults the areas of increased fluid and magmatic activity were formed. The dynamics of fault formation in the basement and frame of the Streltsovskaya caldera and its volcano-sedimentary cover differs. In the basement and granite framework NE-SW, NNEsubmeridional and NW-SE faults are interblock structures of the I rank. Their intersection formed areas of long-term circulation of hydrothermal solutions and telescopic appearance of multi-age metasomatites that created conditions for localizing of vein-stockwork mineralization. In volcanosedimentary cover the NE-SW and NNE-submeridional faults should be considered as interblock structures of the I rank where intersections provided inflow of ore-bearing solutions and their redistribution within the cover. Here the main ore distributing role belongs to NW-SE shears. They are intrablock II rank structures which were formed due to dextral

  7. Human skin basement membrane-associated heparan sulphate proteoglycan: distinctive differences in ultrastructural localization as a function of developmental age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horiguchi, Y; Fine, J D; Couchman, J R

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that skin basement membrane components are expressed within the dermo-epidermal junction in an orderly sequence during human foetal development. We have investigated the ultrastructural localization of basement membrane-related antigens in human foetal skin...... at different developmental ages using two monoclonal antibodies to a well-characterized basement membrane-associated heparan sulphate proteoglycan. A series of foetal skin specimens (range, 54-142 gestational days) were examined using an immunoperoxidase immunoelectron microscopic technique. In specimens...... representing very early developmental ages, very diffuse immunoreaction products were detected. However, by approximately 76 gestational days, some accentuation of heparan sulphate proteoglycan was noted along the lamina densa, and by 142 gestational days, the distribution of heparan sulphate proteoglycan...

  8. Structural Evolution of the Eastern Sierra Madre Oriental: The Role of Basement Structures in Fold-Thrust Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamade, A.; Murphy, M. A.; Hall, S.

    2006-12-01

    Investigations worldwide show that basement plays an important role in the evolution of fold-thrust belts and recognizing their structural development leads to better understanding of zones of intercontinental deformation. Two explanations have been proposed to explain uplift of basement rocks in the Sierra Madre Oriental (SMO) fold-thrust belt, 1) basement rocks are uplifted along high-angle reverse faults (Laramide-style) which postdate a thin-skinned phase of deformation; and 2) basement rocks are carried in deeper-rooted thrust sheets during the thin-skinned phase of deformation. A structural study in the SMO fold-thrust belt that integrates field mapping, structural analysis, and gravity modeling was conducted to distinguish between the two explanations. The study area lies in the southern section of the state of Nuevo Leon near the town of Aramberri. In this area the fold-thrust belt involves upper Cretaceous shale, Mesozoic carbonate rocks and crystalline basement. Thrusting is directed approximately due east. The structural style is characterized by fault bend folds. Mapping shows that evaporite rocks, at least locally, are not exploited as a regional slip surface and the thrust fault roots into the basement. Cross-sections across the study area indicate approximately 6.5 km east-west shortening (19%). Three forward 2-D structural models aid in constraining the fault geometry at depth and show the reactivation of half graben faults as a means for the main thrust to step up to shallower levels. These data are consistent with a single phase of deformation which involves movement along a thrust system that creates the structure in the study area implying magnitude of depth to detachment to be greater for this area of the SMO.

  9. Nature of the Yucatan Block Basement as Derived From Study of Granitic Clasts in the Impact Breccias of Chicxulub Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Sanchez, P.; Rebolledo-Vieyra, M.; Perez-Cruz, L.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.

    2008-05-01

    The tectonic and petrologic nature of the basement of the Yucatan Block is studied from analyses of basement clasts present in the impact suevitic breccias of Chicxulub crater. The impact breccias have been sampled as part of the drilling projects conducted in the Yucatan peninsula by Petroleos Mexicanos, the National University of Mexico and the Chicxulub Scientific Drilling Project. Samples analyzed come mainly from the Yaxcopoil-1, Tekax, and Santa Elena boreholes, and partly from Pemex boreholes. In this study we concentrate on clasts of the granites, granodiorites and quartzmonzonites in the impact breccias. We report major and trace element geochemical and petrological data, which are compared with data from the granitic and volcanic rocks from the Maya Mountains in Belize and from the Swannee terrane in Florida. Basement granitic clasts analyzed present intermediate to acidic sub-alkaline compositions. Plots of major oxides (e.g., Al2O3, Fe2O3, TiO2 and CaO) and trace elements (e.g., Th, Y, Hf, Nb and Zr) versus silica allow separation of samples into two major groups, which can be compared to units in the Maya Mountains and in Florida basement. The impact suevitic breccia samples have been affected by alteration likely related to the hydrothermal processes associated with the crater melt sheet. Cloritization, seritization and fenitization alterations are recognized, due to the long term hydrothermalism. Krogh et al. (1993) reported U-Pb dates on zircons from the suevitic breccias, which gave dates of 545 +/- 5 Ma and 418 +/- 6 Ma, which were interpreted in terms of the deep granitic metamorphic Yucatan basement. The younger date correlates with the age for the Osceola Granite and the St. Lucie metamorphic complex of the Swannee terrane in the Florida peninsula. The intrusive rocks in the Yucatan basement may be related to approx. 418 Ma ago collisional event in the Late Silurian.

  10. The offshore basement of Perú: Evidence for different igneous and metamorphic domains in the forearc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Darwin; Valencia, Kiko; Alarcón, Pedro; Peña, Daniel; Ramos, Victor A.

    2013-03-01

    As a result of new studies carried out in the offshore of Perú during the exploration and hydrocarbon evaluation of the forearc basins, new U-Pb SHRIMP and TIMS in zircons and some Ar-Ar data were obtained in the metamorphic and igneous basement. The understanding of this basement was critical to evaluate different hypotheses that have been proposed for the tectonic evolution of pre-Andean crust of Perú. Recent research performed in the basement rocks of the Marañón Massif in northern Perú, claimed that west of this area was a basement-free region in the Paleozoic, where the arc and forearc were developed in a mafic quasi-oceanic crust. However, petrographic studies and new preliminary ages indicate, for the first time, the nature and age of this sialic basement. Reconnaissance studies were performed in several offshore islands, as the Las Hormigas de Afuera Island west of Lima, and Macabí and Lobera islands along the edge of the continental platform. These data were complemented with the studies of some cutting samples obtained in recent exploration wells in northern Perú. The results of the present work show two large crustal domains in the Peruvian offshore forearc. A northern domain contains late Paleozoic igneous rocks that appear to be the southern offshore continuation of the Amotape-Tahuin block, which is interpreted as the southernmost remnant of the Laurentia Alleghenian orogen. The central offshore domain, known as the Paracas High, corresponds to the outer shelf high of previous studies. It contains orthogneisses of Grenville-age, probably recrystallized during an Ordovician magmatic episode. The new results show that the central offshore of Perú is an extension of the Grenville-age basement affected by Famatinian, early Paleozoic magmatism, well exposed in the southern domain in the Arequipa Massif along the coast of southern Perú.

  11. An analysis of radon levels in the basements of UK workplaces and review of when employers should test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, Tracy Dawn

    2018-01-12

    Radon is a recognised lung carcinogen. The main source of radon in UK buildings is the ground. As basements have more ground contact than other parts of a building, and often limited ventilation, there is an increased potential for high radon levels to occur. Regulations are in place in the UK to control radon exposures at work, which prompt employers to undertake risk assessments, test where necessary and take action if levels exceed certain thresholds. Both Public Health England (PHE) and the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) currently advise employers to test routinely occupied basements for radon, irrespective of geographical location; the minimum annual occupancy threshold has been established as one hour per week (approximately 50 hours per year). PHE operates a routine measurement service for employers and holds the measurement data for radon levels in the basements of more than 3500 workplaces. Typically, radon concentrations follow a lognormal distribution over a wide range, when corrections are made for seasonal variations and the contribution of outside air. Statistical tests on these data show good correspondence in most cases for workplace basements of seven different occupational sectors. Radon should be included in the risk assessments of basements of all workplace types irrespective of the radon Affected Area status (i.e. whether they are located in a geographical unit where higher proportions of houses or workplaces are likely to exceed their reference levels). As a consequence of this analysis, however, evidence is presented that supports a change in the existing protocols on when to test the radon levels in basements if a more sophisticated approach were to be adopted that takes into account the Affected Area status. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  12. K-Ar age constrains on chemically weathered granitic basement rocks (saprolites) in Scandinavia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margreth, Annina; Fredin, Ola; Viola, Giulio; Knies, Jochen; Sørlie, Ronald; Lie, Jan-Erik; Margrethe Grandal, Else; Zwingmann, Horst; Vogt, Christoph

    2017-04-01

    Remnants of in-situ weathered bedrock, saprolite, are found in several locations in Scandinavia. Saprolites contain important information about past climate conditions and landscape evolution, although their age and genesis are commonly difficult to constrain. It is generally thought that clay-poor, coarse-grained (arêne) saprolites, mostly occurring as thin regolith blankets or in larger outcrops, formed in temperate climate during the Cenozoic, whereas clay-rich (argillic) saprolites, commonly restricted to small, fracture-bounded outcrops, formed in (sub-)tropical climate during the Mesozoic. Recent methodological and conceptual advances in K-Ar dating of illite-bearing fault rocks have been applied to date clay-rich saprolites. To test the K-Ar dating technique for saprolites, we first selected an offshore site in the Viking Graben of the North Sea, where weathered and fractured granitic basement highs have been drilled during petroleum exploration, and an abandoned kaolin mine in Southern Sweden. Both targets provide independent age control through the presence of overlying Mesozoic sedimentary rocks. Clay-rich saprolites occurring in fractured basement rocks were additionally sampled in a joint valley landscape on the southwestern coast of Norway, which can be regarded as the possible onland correlative to the offshore basement high. In order to offer a sound interpretation of the obtained K-Ar ages, the mineralogical and chemical composition of the saprolites requires a thorough characterization. Scanning electron microscopy of thin sections, integrated by XRD and XRF analysis, reveals the progressive transformation of primary granitic rock minerals into secondary clay minerals. The authigenesis of illite is particularly important to understand, since it is the only K-bearing clay mineral that can be dated by the K-Ar method. K-feldspars and mica are the common primary K-bearing minerals, from which illite can be formed. While progressive leaching of

  13. Nature of the basement of the East Anatolian plateau: Implications for the lithospheric foundering processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topuz, G.; Candan, O.; Zack, T.; Yılmaz, A.

    2017-12-01

    The East Anatolian Plateau (Turkey) is characterized by (1) an extensive volcanic-sedimentary cover of Neogene to Quaternary age, (2) crustal thicknesses of 42-50 km, and (3) an extremely thinned lithospheric mantle. Its basement beneath the young cover is thought to consist of oceanic accretionary complexes of Late Cretaceous to Oligocene age. The attenuated state of the lithospheric mantle and the causes of the young volcanism are accounted for by slab steepening and subsequent break-off. We present field geological, petrological and geochronological data on three basement inliers (Taşlıçay, Akdağ and Ilıca) in the region. These areas are made up of amphibolite- to granulite-facies rocks, comprising marble, amphibolite, metapelite, quartzite and metagranite. The granulite-facies domain is equilibrated at 0.7 GPa and 800 ˚C at 83 ± 2 Ma (2σ). The metamorphic rocks are intruded by subduction-related coeval gabbroic, quartz monzonitic to tonalitic rocks. Both the metamorphic rocks and the intrusions are tectonically overlain by ophiolitic rocks. All these crystalline rocks are unconformably overlain by lower Maastrichtien clastic rocks and reefal limestone, suggesting that the exhumation at the earth's surface and juxtaposition with ophiolitic rocks occurred by early Maastrichtien. U-Pb dating on igneous zircon from metagranite yielded a protolith age of 445 ± 10 Ma (2σ). The detrital zircons from a metaquartzite point to Neoproterozoic to Early Paleozoic provenance. All these data favor a more or less continuous continental substrate to the allochthonous ophiolitic rocks beneath the young volcanic-sedimentary cover. The metamorphism and coeval magmatism can be regarded as the middle- to lower-crustal root of the Late Cretaceous magmatic arc that developed due to northward subduction along the Bitlis-Zagros suture. The presence of a continental basement beneath the young cover requires that the loss of the lithospheric mantle from beneath the East

  14. Ultrastructure of Reichert's membrane, a multilayered basement membrane in the parietal wall of the rat yolk sac

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    The ultrastructure of Reichert's membrane, a thick basement membrane in the parietal wall of the yolk sac, has been examined in 13-14-d pregnant rats. This membrane is composed of more or less distinct parallel layers, each one of which resembles a common basement membrane. After routine fixation in glutaraldehyde followed by osmium tetroxide, the layers appear to be mainly composed of 3-8-nm thick cords arranged in a three-dimensional network. Loosely scattered among the cords are unbranched...

  15. Nephritogenic antigen determinants in epidermal and renal basement membranes of kindreds with Alport-type familial nephritis.

    OpenAIRE

    Kashtan, C; Fish, A J; Kleppel, M; Yoshioka, K; Michael, A F

    1986-01-01

    We probed epidermal basement membranes (EBM) of acid-urea denatured skin from members of kindreds with Alport-type familial nephritis (FN) for the presence of antigens reactive with Goodpasture sera (GPS) and serum (FNS) from an Alport patient who developed anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) nephritis in a renal allograft. By immunoblotting, GPS reacted primarily with the 28,000 molecular weight (mol wt) monomer but also the 24,000 mol wt and 26,000 mol wt monomers of the noncollagenous ...

  16. [Relationship between the changes in ischemia/reperfusion cerebro-microvessel basement membrane injury and gelatinase system in senile rat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-sheng; Liu, Ke; Liu, Jing-xia; Wang, Ming-hang; Zhao, Yue-wu; Liu, Zheng-guo

    2008-11-01

    To study the relationship of cerebro-microvessel basement membrane injury and gelatinase system after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in aged rats. Cerebral I/R injury model was reproduced by intraluminal silk ligature thrombosis of the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Rats were divided randomly into sham control and I/R groups in young rats [ischemia 3 hours (I 3 h) and reperfusion 6 hours (I/R 6 h), 12 hours (I/R 12 h), 24 hours (I/R 24 h), 3 days (I/R 3 d), 6 days (I/R 6 d)], and sham control group and I/R group in aged rats (I 3 h and I/R 6 h, I/R 12 h, I/R 24 h , I/R 3 d, I/R 6 d). The change in cerebro-cortex microvessel basement membrane structure, basement membrane type IV collagen (Col IV) and laminin (LN) contents, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) expression in every group were determined with immunohistochemical method and zymogram analysis. With the increase in age, Col IV and LN contents of the microvessel basement membrane were increased, and MMP-2 and MMP-9 expressions were stronger. With prolongation of I/R, the degradation of microvessel basement membrane components (Col IV and LN) was positively correlated with the duration of cerebral I/R. MMP-2 expression was increased gradually, and MMP-9 and TIMP-1 expression increased at the beginning and decreased subsequently. Col IV(I 3 h, I/R 6 h , I/R 12 h), LN (I 3 h, I/R 6-24 h), MMP-2 (I 3 h, I/R 6 h-6 d) and MMP-9 (I 3 h, I/R 6-24 h) expression level in aged rats with I/R injury were higher, and TIMP-1 (I/R 24 h) expression was lower than those in young rats (Pcerebro-microvessel basement membrane in rats is related with MMPs and TIMP. Cerebro-microvessel basement membrane injury is more serious in aged rats than that of young rats. Changes in cerebro-microvessel basement membrane injury in aged rats is related with gelatinase system change.

  17. Recent understanding of the Svalbard basement in the light of new radiometric age determinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Y.

    1992-01-01

    Several tectonothermal events in the pre-Carboniferous basement of Svalbard during Caledonian and Proterozoic times have been dated recently by radiometric age determinations. Three or four stages have been recognized in the Caledonian period; a post-orogentic graben formation during the Devonian, a late Caledonian event in the Middle Silurian, an earely Caledonian event in the Middle Ordovician and possibly an earliest event in the Middle to Late Cambrian. The Grenvillian event, 950-1270 Ma, has been well established by both radiometric ages and unconformities in Nordaustlandet and southwestern Spitsbergen. Sveco-Karelian ages, 1670-1750 Ma, also have been obtained from Ny Friesland, northerneastern Spitsbergen. Two even older ages (zircon U-Pb) upper intercept ages), 2.1 and 3.2 Ga, may suggest the presence of still older crust in Svalbard and adjacent areas. 40 refs., 2 figs

  18. Cell Receptor-Basement Membrane Interactions in Health and Disease: a Kidney-Centric View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borza, Corina M.; Chen, Xiwu; Zent, Roy; Pozzi, Ambra

    2016-01-01

    Cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions are essential for tissue development, homeostasis, and response to injury. Basement membranes (BMs) are specialized ECMs that separate epithelial or endothelial cells from stromal components and interact with cells via cellular receptors, including integrins and discoidin domain receptors. Disruption of cell-BM interactions due to either injury or genetic defects in either the ECM components or cellular receptors often lead to irreversible tissue injury and loss of organ function. Animal models that lack specific BM components or receptors either globally or in selective tissues have been used to help with our understanding of the molecular mechanisms whereby cell-BM interactions regulate organ function in physiological and pathological conditions. We review recently published work on animal models that explore how cell-BM interactions regulate kidney homeostasis in both health and disease. PMID:26610916

  19. Heterogeneous distribution of a basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan in rat tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R

    1987-01-01

    A heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) synthesized by murine parietal yolk sac (PYS-2) cells has been characterized and purified from culture supernatants. A monospecific polyclonal antiserum was raised against it which showed activity against the HSPG core protein and basement membrane specificity...... for multiple HSPGs was derived from the finding that skeletal neuromuscular junction and liver epithelia also did not contain this type of HSPG, though previous reports have indicated the presence of HSPGs at these sites. The PYS-2 HSPG was shown to be antigenically related to the large, low buoyant density...... HSPG from the murine Engelbreth-Holm swarm tumor. It was, however, confirmed that only a single population of antibodies was present in the serum. Despite the presence of similar epitopes on these two proteoglycans of different hydrodynamic properties, it was apparent that the PYS-2 HSPG represents...

  20. Effects of Water and Low-Medium Temperature on Limestone from Mt Etna basement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagna, Angela; Ougier-Simonin, Audrey; Benson, Philip; Browning, John; Fazio, Marco; Walker, Richard; Vinciguerra, Sergio

    2017-04-01

    Mount Etna volcano, Sicily, sits atop a structurally complex sedimentary basement continuously subjected to tectonic deformation. The flyschoid formations belonging to the Appenninic-Maghrebian Chain (AMC) and making up the accretionary wedge of a regional fold-and-thrust belt lie above carbonate Hyblean Plateau (HP) sequences, belonging to the African plate. Carbonate rocks represent a major component of the sedimentary basement: they are spread throughout the AMC as continuous strata and discontinuous lenses, and are the main constituent (e.g., Comiso Limestone) of the HP foreland. Etna is an active volcanic environment, characterized by complex stress field distributions, magmatic and non-magmatic fluid circulation, and elevated temperature gradients; the edifice has been constructed at various rates and with variable distribution of effusive products. These intrinsic and extrinsic parameters are known to impact the rheological behaviour of rocks. Previous triaxial deformation studies on carbonates (Tavel Limestone, Solnhofen Limestone and Comiso Limestone) have shown the importance of temperature, and the presence of water as pore fluid, on the mechanical strength and failure mode of the rocks. However, to our knowledge, no previous studies have considered the distal heating effect of intrusions on the carbonate mechanical strength from the basement. Here we investigate the behaviour under varying P-T conditions at constant strain rate (10-5 s-1) on both dry and water saturated samples of Comiso Limestone, a low-porosity (10.2% average) carbonate rock belonging to the HP. We ran separate conventional triaxial experiments at various confining effective pressure from 0 up to 50 MPa at room temperature (20°C), in both dry and drained water-saturated conditions, using natural samples, and thermally-treated samples (150°C, 300°C, and 450°C). Acoustic Emissions and P-wave velocities were recorded during the experiments. Sample failure covers the brittle and

  1. Dynamics of Uranium Ore Formation in the Basement and Frame of the Streltsovskaya Caldera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, V.A.; Poluektov, V.V.; Schukin, S.I.; Tolstobrov, V.A.

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions and challenges: 1. Caldera Granitic Frame: Urtuy and Bambakay Massifs: • AR-PR 800 Ma (relics?) granite-gneiss and PZ1 520 Ma (Caledonian) granites • NE-SW main fluid conducting faults; • Uraninite formation 770±35 Ma and transformation 195±79 Ma (U-Pb). 2. Caldera Basement U Deposits: • AR-PR 800 Ma (relics) granite-gneiss (Argun deposit); • PZ2 240 Ma (Variscian) granites (Antey deposit); • NNE-submeridional main fluid conducting faults; • Hydromicatization 131-139 Ma; • U (economic) ores formation 133-135 Ma 3. Long-term fluid circulation in the ore-forming fluid-magmatic system: • Chronology; • Depth (source and PT conditions); • Pathways; • Transport mechanisms; • Stress-strain-temperature field evolution

  2. Thermal history of the Pan-African basement under the Jurassic Marib-Shabwa Basin, Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, A. Hugh N.; Schneider, David; Veeningen, Resi; Grasemann, Bernhard; Decker, Kurt

    2013-04-01

    Pan-African tectonism within the Arabian Nubian Shield in Yemen is very poorly known. New drill-cores from the Marib-Shabwa Basin (Habban oil field) from central Yemen penetrated 600 m into the pre-Jurassic crystalline basement, providing a unique opportunity to extend our understanding of Pan-African events in Yemen. The cores were obtained some 80 km NE of the exposure limit of the Al Bayda Terrane, which lies SE of Sana'a. This terrane, which has no direct correlative in the ANS further north in Saudi Arabia, comprises deformed greenschist facies acid to basic volcanic rocks later witnessing acid to basic magmatism and has been previously interpreted as a Pan-African island arc complex with a basement component. Ophiolite fragments are common, both within the terrane and at its margins (sutures). To the north lies the Abas Gneiss Terrane and to the south the Al Mahfid Gneiss Terrane; both consist of older pre-Pan-African crystalline basement rocks. Geochemistry of a red, undeformed granite from the drill core indicates an A-type composition. LA-ICPMS U-Pb analysis of granite zircons gave two concordant age populations: 628.3 ± 3.1 Ma (large & small zircons) and 604.9 ± 2.0 Ma (intermediate sized zircons). The former age is interpreted as the time of crystallization, within the range of other A-type Younger Granites in the ANS, and the latter age as constraining lower temperature dissolution-reprecipitation of zircon, due to hydrothermal fluids or melt remobilization. Nd Tdm model ages for two granite samples from the drill core both gave ages of 1.24 Ga, within the range of the Al Bayda Terrane (1.2-2.5 Ga) and outside the range of the adjacent Palaeoproterozoic gneissic terranes (1.7-2.3 Ga, Abas Gneiss Terrane; 1.8-3.0 Ga, Al Mahfid Gneiss Terrane). Thus it seems certain that the Al Bayda Terrane extends at least 80 km to the NE of its present surface exposure. Rb-Sr biotite ages from the granite indicate closure through ~300°C at 593 Ma, indicating fast

  3. Laminin, a noncollagenous component of epithelial basement membranes synthesized by a rat yolk sac tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, U; Albrechtsen, R; Ruoslahti, E

    1981-01-01

    Laminin, a glycoprotein antigenically similar or identical to a component of epithelial basement membranes, was identified as a major component of the abundant extracellular matrix synthesized by an experimentally induced rat yolk sac tumor. Immunocytochemical staining revealed laminin in cultured...... polypeptides with molecular weights of approximately 200,000 and 400,000. These comigrated with the polypeptides of mouse laminin isolated previously. The yolk sac tumor tissue grown in vivo contained laminin in the tumor cells and in the extracellular material as evidenced by immunofluorescence...... membranes in rat tissues in a manner indistinguishable from antilaminin. The presence of laminin in rat yolk sac cells, the presumed origin of our yolk sac tumor, was studied in some detail. Laminin was found to be present in normal cells of the visceral as well as the parietal yolk sac layer...

  4. Investigation of basement membrane proteins in a case of granular cell ameloblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapthanasupkul, Puangwan; Poomsawat, Sopee; Chindasombatjaroen, Jira

    2012-01-01

    Granular cell ameloblastoma is a rare, benign neoplasm of the odontogenic epithelium. A case of massive granular cell ameloblastoma in a 44-year-old Thai female is reported. Histopathological features displayed a follicular type of ameloblastoma with an accumulation of granular cells residing within the tumor follicles. After treatment by partial mandibulectomy, the patient showed a good prognosis without recurrence in a 2-year follow-up. To characterize the granular cells in ameloblastoma, we examined the expression of basement membrane (BM) proteins, including collagen type IV, laminins 1 and 5 and fibronectin using immunohistochemistry. Except for the granular cells, the tumor cells demonstrated a similar expression of BM proteins compared to follicular and plexiform ameloblastomas in our previous study, whereas the granular cells showed strong positivity to laminins 1 and 5 and fibronectin. The increased fibronectin expression in granular cells suggests a possibility of age-related transformation of granular cells in ameloblastoma. PMID:22361945

  5. Antiglomerular basement membrane antibody-mediated glomerulonephritis after intranasal cocaine use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peces, R; Navascués, R A; Baltar, J; Seco, M; Alvarez, J

    1999-01-01

    We report a case of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis due to antiglomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) antibodies that progressed to end-stage renal disease in a 35-year-old man who used intranasal cocaine on an occasional basis. In contrast to many prior reports of acute renal failure occurring with cocaine-associated rhabdomyolysis, this patient did not have any evidence of acute muscle damage and myoglobin release. Circulating anti-GBM antibodies and renal biopsy with linear IgG and C3 deposits confirmed the diagnosis of anti-GBM disease. The possibility of anti-GBM must be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute renal failure in cocaine addicts. This unusual combination raises complex questions regarding the pathogenesis of this type of renal injury.

  6. Chronological study of the pre-jurassic basement rocks of southern Patagonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pankhurst, R.J; Rapela, C.W; Loske, W.P; Fanning, C.M

    2001-01-01

    Southern Patagonia east of the Andes was the site of extensive rhyolite volcanism during the Jurassic rifting of Gondwana and subsequent shallow marine basin formation during the Cretaceous. Thus exposures of pre-Jurassic basement are extremely sparse. Nevertheless, extraction of the maximum amount of information from these scattered outcrops of granite and metamorphic rocks is crucial to assessment of the Palaeozoic and earliest Mesozoic history and crustal structure of the Pacific margin of the supercontinent. In particular, the identification and possible correlation of early terrane accretion on this margin depends on comparison of pre-Jurassic igneous and metamorphic events with adjacent areas. This is a preliminary report on work now in progress to this end (au)

  7. Origin of natural gases in the Paleozoic-Mesozoic basement of the Polish Carpathian Foredeep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotarba, Maciej

    2012-08-01

    Hydrocarbon gases from Upper Devonian and Lower Carboniferous reservoirs in the Paleozoic basement of the Polish Carpathian Foredeep were generated mainly during low-temperature thermogenic processes ("oil window"). They contain only insignificant amounts of microbial methane and ethane. These gaseous hydrocarbons were generated from Lower Carboniferous and/or Middle Jurassic mixed Type III/II kerogen and from Ordovician-Silurian Type II kerogen, respectively. Methane, ethane and carbon dioxide of natural gas from the Middle Devonian reservoir contain a significant microbial component whereas their small thermogenic component is most probably genetically related to Ordovician-Silurian Type II kerogen. The gaseous hydrocarbons from the Upper Jurassic and the Upper Cretaceous reservoirs of the Mesozoic basement were generated both by microbial carbon dioxide reduction and thermogenic processes. The presence of microbial methane generated by carbon dioxide reduction suggests that in some deposits the traps had already been formed and sealed during the migration of microbial methane, presumably in the immature source rock environment. The traps were successively supplied with thermogenic methane and higher hydrocarbons generated at successively higher maturation stages of kerogen. The higher hydrocarbons of the majority of deposits were generated from mixed Type III/II kerogen deposited in the Middle Jurassic, Lower Carboniferous and/or Devonian strata. Type II or mixed Type II/III kerogen could be the source for hydrocarbons in both the Tarnów and Brzezówka deposits. In the Cenomanian sandstone reservoir of the Brzezowiec deposit and one Upper Jurassic carbonate block of the Lubaczów deposit microbial methane prevails. It migrated from the autochthonous Miocene strata.

  8. Clinical outcome of patients with coexistent antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies and antibodies against glomerular basement membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindic, Jelka; Vizjak, Alenka; Ferluga, Dusan; Kovac, Damjan; Ales, Andreja; Kveder, Radoslav; Ponikvar, Rafael; Bren, Andrej

    2009-08-01

    Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) and antibodies against glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) rarely coexist. Both antibodies may be associated with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis and pulmonary hemorrhage. We describe the clinical, serological and histological features of our patients with dual antibodies. From 1977 to 2008, 48 patients with anti-GBM antibody-associated renal disease were observed. Eight out of the 30 tested patients (26.7%), all females, had positive myeloperoxidase (MPO)-ANCA coexistent with anti-GBM antibodies. The patients' mean age was 63.4 +/- 7.8 years. Five presented with pulmonary-renal syndrome, all but one were dialysis-dependent on admission. They had constitutional symptoms and different organ involvement. The kidney biopsies revealed intense linear staining for immunoglobulin G and C3 along the glomerular and distal tubular basement membrane associated with irregular diffuse or focal extracapillary crescentic glomerulonephritis with necrosis of varying extent. Lesions of varying ages were characteristically expressed. Seven patients were treated with methylprednisolone and plasma exchange, four with cyclophosphamide, and one with intravenous immunoglobulin. After 28-74 months, there were three dialysis-dependent survivors and one patient with stable chronic renal disease. Two clinical relapses with pulmonary involvement and MPO-ANCA positivity without anti-GBM antibodies occurred in two dialysis-dependent patients. In summary, screening for ANCA and anti-GBM antibodies should be undertaken in patients with clinical signs of systemic vasculitis. In dialysis-dependent patients, the goal of treatment is to limit the damage of other involved organs and not to preserve renal function. Careful follow-up is necessary due to the relapsing nature of the ANCA component of the disease.

  9. Applications of aeromagnetic data to detect the Basement Tectonics of Eastern Yemen region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S. Abu El-Ata

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to throw light on the tectonic implications concerned with the distribution of the sedimentary sequence belts and the related basement complex zones, as well as to differentiate between the causative sources (contacts, dykes and faults of Eastern Yemen region. The total intensity aeromagnetic map of the study area was first corrected by the application of the Reduction To the magnetic pole (for low latitude areas. The visual inspection of the RTP magnetic map defines a rapid change in the subsurface geologic conditions in the form of lithologic characters and tectonic inferences. On the other hand, this map showed different anomalies of varying frequencies and amplitudes that revealed various causative sources, as well as varying compositions and depths. At the interpretation stage, various techniques and software tools are available for extracting the geologic information from the data concerned. The magnetic fields of shallow sources can be separated from those of deeper causatives, using two processes known as power spectrum transformation and matched band pass filtering. Three methods for locating magnetic sources (Magnitude of Horizontal Gradients (HGM, the analytical signals (AS and the local wavenumbers (LW in three dimensions and identifying the properties of their sources indicated that, the area was affected by some intrusions at various depths in sill or dyke forms, almost oriented in the NW–SE, NE–SW, E–W and N–S trends. Tectonically, the area is highly affected by the tectonics related to the Arabian Sea, Gulf of Aden and Red Sea. It is affecting both the basement and sedimentary rocks, dividing the study area into several faulted blocks.

  10. Prospects for Assessing Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS Basement Rock Flow Stimulation by Wellbore Temperature Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Leary

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We use Matlab 3D finite element fluid flow/transport modelling to simulate localized wellbore temperature events of order 0.05–0.1 °C logged in Fennoscandia basement rock at ~1.5 km depths. The temperature events are approximated as steady-state heat transport due to fluid draining from the crust into the wellbore via naturally occurring fracture-connectivity structures. Flow simulation is based on the empirics of spatially-correlated fracture-connectivity fluid flow widely attested by well-log, well-core, and well-production data. Matching model wellbore-centric radial temperature profiles to a 2D analytic expression for steady-state radial heat transport with Peclet number Pe ≡ r0φv0/D (r0 = wellbore radius, v0 = Darcy velocity at r0, φ = ambient porosity, D = rock-water thermal diffusivity, gives Pe ~ 10–15 for fracture-connectivity flow intersecting the well, and Pe ~ 0 for ambient crust. Darcy flow for model Pe ~ 10 at radius ~10 m from the wellbore gives permeability estimate κ ~ 0.02 Darcy for flow driven by differential fluid pressure between least principal crustal stress pore pressure and hydrostatic wellbore pressure. Model temperature event flow permeability κm ~ 0.02 Darcy is related to well-core ambient permeability κ ~ 1 µDarcy by empirical poroperm relation κm ~ κ exp(αmφ for φ ~ 0.01 and αm ~ 1000. Our modelling of OTN1 wellbore temperature events helps assess the prospect of reactivating fossilized fracture-connectivity flow for EGS permeability stimulation of basement rock.

  11. Therapeutic Mechanism of Glucocorticoids on Cellular Crescent Formation in Patients With Antiglomerular Basement Membrane Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaomei; Zhang, Mingchao; Huang, Xiao; Zhang, Lihua; Zeng, Caihong; Zhang, Jiong; Liu, Zhihong; Tang, Zheng

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to explore the therapeutic mechanism of glucocorticoids (GCs) in antiglomerular basement membrane disease. Thirty-four patients with biopsy-proven antiglomerular basement membrane nephritis were divided into the following 2 groups: group 1 (patients treated with GCs, n = 22) and group 2 (patients who were not treated with GCs, n = 12). The expression of parietal epithelial cells (PECs), activated PECs and glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) was examined quantitatively and compared between the 2 groups. Correlations between GR expression in glomeruli and patients' clinicopathological indices were also analyzed. Compared with patients in group 2, patients in group 1 showed lower levels of serum creatinine (SCr) (P = 0.03), average cellular crescent percentage (P = 0.005) and macrophages infiltrating in renal interstitium (P = 0.03). PECs (P = 0.007) and activated PECs (P = 0.03) were strongly detected in the cellular components of classic crescents, and both were significantly reduced in group 1 compared to group 2. GR expression either in glomeruli (P = 0.01) or interstitium (P = 0.009) was lower in group 1 after GCs treatment than in group 2. Additionally, GR expression in glomeruli was strongly correlated with renal function (SCr: r = 0.45, P = 0.009; eGFR: r = -0.35, P = 0.046), the proportion of cellular crescents (r = 0.67, P < 0.001), PECs (r = 0.64, P < 0.001) and activated PECs (r = 0.72, P < 0.001), and the degree of interstitial (r = 0.50, P = 0.004) and glomerular (r = 0.49, P = 0.007) macrophage infiltration. GCs might exert their therapeutic effects via inhibiting the activation and proliferation of PECs, as well as macrophage infiltration, which could contribute to crescent formation and determine renal survival. GRs are involved in this process as well. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cloning and chromosomal mapping of mouse ladinin, a novel basement membrane zone component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motoki, K.; Megahed, M.; LaForgia, S.; Uitto, J. [Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Linear IgA disease is characterized by circulating IgA autoantibodies recognizing basement membrane zone components, including an anchoring filament protein, ladinin. In this study, we have cloned the mouse ladinin cDNA, elucidated the intron-exon organization of the corresponding gene (Lad1), and determined its chromosomal assignment. We have also characterized the promoter region of Lad1 and examined its tissue-specific expression. The mouse Lad1 gene consists of 10 exons spanning {approximately}13.4 kb of the mouse genome on chromosome 1, and Southern analysis suggested that Lad1 is a single-copy gene. The coding region comprises 1584 nucleotides and encodes a 528-amino-acid polypeptide with a calculated molecular mass of 59 kDa. The deduced polypeptide contained two putative N-glycosylation and two O-glycosylation sites, and sequence analysis predicted a 15-amino-acid signal peptide. The 5{prime} upstream region demonstrated the presence of consensus cis-elements for AP2 and SP1 and was GC rich, consistent with eukaryotic promoter. Northern analysis revealed expression in cultured keratinocytes, but not in fibroblasts, with the mRNA transcript being {approximately}2.5 kb in size. A significant level of expression was also noted in the kidney and lung, and to a lesser degree in the liver, spleen, and brain. Ladinin is a novel component of the basement membranes and may function in contributing to the stability of the association of the epithelial layers with the underlying mesenchyme. 39 refs., 4 figs.

  13. [3H]glucosamine and [3H]proline radioautography of embryonic mouse dental basement membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, M.; Ruch, J.V.

    1981-01-01

    [ 3 H]proline and [ 3 H]glucosamine radioautography was performed to analyze the labeling pattern of mouse embryonic dental basement membrane before and during odontoblast terminal differentiation. Sixteen- and eighteen-day-old first lower molars and trypsin-isolated enamel organs, as well as EDTA-isolated dental papillae, were used. Continuous labeling for 12 to 24 hr was required with [ 3 H]proline to obtain a clear labeling of epithelial-mesenchymal junction in intact tooth germs or accumulation of surface label in trypsin-isolated enamel organs. With [ 3 H]glucosamine, after 6-hr labeling, the epithelial-mesenchymal junction was heavily labeled and the trypsin-isolated enamel organs accumulated substantial amounts of surface label, corresponding to the redeposited basement membrane. At Day 16 stage, these labels always had a uniform distribution and decreased during chase without any redistribution. At Day 18 stage, when the terminal differentiation of odontoblasts occurred the label accumulated in a unique pattern: much more label was at the epithelial surface corresponding to the top of the cusps than in the apical parts. During chase and only in intact tooth germs epithelial surfaces which had labeled poorly during pulse became labeled, but those labeling heavily during pulse lost label. This pattern existed only in the presence of mesenchyme. EDTA treatment of [ 3 H]glucosamine-labeled teeth enabled us to obtain isolated dental papillae with surface label. Distribution of this label was exactly the same as that for the epithelial-mesenchymal junction of intact teeth. During chase, these dental papillae completely lost the surface label. The mesenchyme seen to control the synthesis and/or the degradation of epithelially derived [ 3 H]glucosamine-labeled material

  14. Fluid Flow and Fault Zone Damage in Crystalline Basement Rocks (Ore Mountains Saxony)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achtziger-Zupančič, P.; Loew, S.; Hiller, A.; Mariethoz, G.

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater flow in fractured basement rocks on aquifer scale and processes involved in the creation of fracture network permeability are poorly understood even though they have been studied for decades. A unique hydrogeological dataset consisting of 1030 discrete inflows (corresponding to preferential groundwater pathways) to the Poehla Ore Mine (Ore Mountains) of the SDAG Wismut has been compiled and quantitatively interpreted. Transmissivities and permeabilities were calculated from discrete and cumulative inflows using analytical equations and numerical groundwater flow models. The Variscan basement at Poehla Mine was modelled in 3-D, covering a volume of 14x4x1 km3 with 14 metamorphosed litho-stratigraphic units and 131 faults separated in 6 main strike directions. Mesoscale fractures mapped at inflows points, i.e. locally conductive fractures, show a weak correlation with fault orientation, and a large orientation scattering, which could be related to small scale stress heterogeneities. Inflow points were spatially correlated with major faults considering two distance criteria. This correlation suggests that mainly NW-SE and NE-SW striking faults are transmissive, which should be critically stressed considering all available data about the regional stress field. The trace length (extent) and width of the core and damage zones of the modelled faults were compiled in order to investigate the flow distribution and permeability profiles in directions perpendicular to fault strike. It can be shown that 90% of all inflows are located in damage zones. The inflows are usually situated within multiple fault zones which overlap each other. Cumulative flow distribution functions within damage zones are non-linear and vary between faults with different orientation. 75-95% of the flow occurs in the inner 50% of the damage zone. Significantly lower flow rates were recognized within most fault cores.

  15. In vivo turnover of the basement membrane and other heparan sulfate proteoglycans of rat glomerulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beavan, L.A.; Davies, M.; Couchman, J.R.; Williams, M.A.; Mason, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    The metabolic turnover of rat glomerular proteoglycans in vivo was investigated. Newly synthesized proteoglycans were labeled during a 7-h period after injecting sodium [35S]sulfate intraperitoneally. At the end of the labeling period a chase dose of sodium sulfate was given. Subsequently at defined times (0-163 h) the kidneys were perfused in situ with 0.01% cetylpyridinium chloride in phosphate-buffered saline to maximize the recovery of 35S-proteoglycans. Glomeruli were isolated from the renal cortex and analyzed for 35S-proteoglycans by autoradiographic, biochemical, and immunochemical methods. Grain counting of autoradiographs revealed a complex turnover pattern of 35S-labeled macromolecules, commencing with a rapid phase followed by a slower phase. Biochemical analysis confirmed the biphasic pattern and showed that the total population of [35S]heparan sulfate proteoglycans had a metabolic half-life (t1/2) of 20 and 60 h in the early and late phases, respectively. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans accounted for 80% of total 35S-proteoglycans, the remainder being chondroitin/dermatan sulfate proteoglycans. Whole glomeruli were extracted with 4% 3-[(cholamidopropyl)dimethy-lammonio]-1-propanesulfonate-4 M guanidine hydrochloride, a procedure which solubilized greater than 95% of the 35S-labeled macromolecules. Of these 11-13% was immunoprecipitated by an antiserum against heparan sulfate proteoglycan which, in immunolocalization experiments, showed specificity for staining the basement membrane of rat glomeruli. Autoradiographic analysis showed that 18% of total radioactivity present at the end of the labeling period was associated with the glomerular basement membrane

  16. Structural Controls on Groundwater Flow in Basement Terrains: Geophysical, Remote Sensing, and Field Investigations in Sinai

    KAUST Repository

    Mohamed, Lamees

    2015-07-09

    An integrated [very low frequency (VLF) electromagnetic, magnetic, remote sensing, field, and geographic information system (GIS)] study was conducted over the basement complex in southern Sinai (Feiran watershed) for a better understanding of the structural controls on the groundwater flow. The increase in satellite-based radar backscattering values following a large precipitation event (34 mm on 17–18 January 2010) was used to identify water-bearing features, here interpreted as preferred pathways for surface water infiltration. Findings include: (1) spatial analysis in a GIS environment revealed that the distribution of the water-bearing features (conductive features) corresponds to that of fractures, faults, shear zones, dike swarms, and wadi networks; (2) using VLF (43 profiles), magnetic (7 profiles) techniques, and field observations, the majority (85 %) of the investigated conductive features were determined to be preferred pathways for groundwater flow; (3) northwest–southeast- to north–south-trending conductive features that intersect the groundwater flow (southeast to northwest) at low angles capture groundwater flow, whereas northeast–southwest to east–west features that intersect the flow at high angles impound groundwater upstream and could provide potential productive well locations; and (4) similar findings are observed in central Sinai: east–west-trending dextral shear zones (Themed and Sinai Hinge Belt) impede south to north groundwater flow as evidenced by the significant drop in hydraulic head (from 467 to 248 m above mean sea level) across shear zones and by reorientation of regional flow (south–north to southwest–northeast). The adopted integrated methodologies could be readily applied to similar highly fractured basement arid terrains elsewhere. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht

  17. Image-based modelling of lateral magma flow: the Basement Sill, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirhadizadeh, Seyed

    2017-01-01

    The McMurdo Dry Valleys magmatic system, Antarctica, provides a world-class example of pervasive lateral magma flow on a continental scale. The lowermost intrusion (Basement Sill) offers detailed sections through the now frozen particle microstructure of a congested magma slurry. We simulated the flow regime in two and three dimensions using numerical models built on a finite-element mesh derived from field data. The model captures the flow behaviour of the Basement Sill magma over a viscosity range of 1–104 Pa s where the higher end (greater than or equal to 102 Pa s) corresponds to a magmatic slurry with crystal fractions varying between 30 and 70%. A novel feature of the model is the discovery of transient, low viscosity (less than or equal to 50 Pa s) high Reynolds number eddies formed along undulating contacts at the floor and roof of the intrusion. Numerical tracing of particle orbits implies crystals trapped in eddies segregate according to their mass density. Recovered shear strain rates (10−3–10−5 s−1) at viscosities equating to high particle concentrations (around more than 40%) in the Sill interior point to shear-thinning as an explanation for some types of magmatic layering there. Model transport rates for the Sill magmas imply a maximum emplacement time of ca 105 years, consistent with geochemical evidence for long-range lateral flow. It is a theoretically possibility that fast-flowing magma on a continental scale will be susceptible to planetary-scale rotational forces. PMID:28573002

  18. The Peri-islet Basement Membrane, a Barrier to Infiltrating Leukocytes in Type 1 Diabetes in Mouse and Human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korpos, Eva; Kadri, Nadir; Kappelhoff, Reinhild

    2013-01-01

    We provide the first comprehensive analysis of the extracellular matrix (ECM) composition of peri-islet capsules, composed of the peri-islet basement membrane (BM) and subjacent interstitial matrix (IM), in development of type 1 diabetes in NOD mice and in human type 1 diabetes. Our data demonstr...

  19. Basement evolution in the Northern Hesperian Massif. A preliminary survey of results obtained by the Leiden research group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tex, den E.

    1981-01-01

    Historical notes on Galician geology, and on the work of the Leiden University petrology team in particular, are first provided. This is followed by an introduction to the geology of Galicia with emphasis on its crystalline basement and upper mantle inliers. Six lithotectonic units are

  20. Assessing the geo-electric characteristics of Basement Complex rocks and its implication for groundwater prospecting in Ilorin Metropolis, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Ifabiyi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In Basement Complex rocks where rainfall is seasonal, water provision in dry season depends on regolith aquifer. For effective exploitation of groundwater resources, it is reasonable that geophysical investigation be conducted before development of well. In many instances, geophysical surveys may be expensive or nonexistent. Hence, there is a need for spatial analysis which might advise water engineers within such environments. Vertical Electrical Soundings (VES data of 53 locations conducted with ABEM SAS-1000 terrameter using Schlumberger electrode configuration were obtained from the hydrogeology Department of Kwara state Ministry of Water Resources and Lower Niger River Basin and Rural Development Authority, Ilorin. VES locational coordinates were recorded using handheld GPS device. Sound curves were evaluated by partial curve matching approach and computer iteration using WinResist. The results depict six geo-electric regional successions, namely: top soil, lateritic clay, weathered basement, fairly-hard basement, thin fractured and hard basement. The geo-electric succession identified was plotted in Surfer 12 environment, using kriging interpolation method to show spatial distribution pattern of this zone. The spatial pattern is expected to give an insight to the nature of spatial variability of geo-electric layers and assist drillers as well as water resources policy makers in their operations.

  1. Ultrastructural localization of the core protein of a basement membrane-specific chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan in adult rat skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, K J; Horiguchi, Y; Couchman, J R

    1990-01-01

    Basement membranes are complex extracellular matrices present at epithelial/mesenchymal interfaces of tissues. The dermal-epidermal junction has been shown to contain numerous components, some of the most well known being laminin, types IV and VII collagens, heparan sulfate proteoglycan, fibronec...

  2. Distribution of two basement membrane proteoglycans through hair follicle development and the hair growth cycle in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; King, J L; McCarthy, K J

    1990-01-01

    The distribution of two distinct populations of basement membrane proteoglycans has been monitored through hair growth development in the rat embryo and subsequent hair growth cycle. An antiserum against a small heparan sulfate proteoglycan uniformly stained the dermal-epidermal junction of embry...

  3. Direct Observation of Early-Stage High-Dose Radiotherapy-Induced Vascular Injury via Basement Membrane-Targeting Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Kin Man; Hyder, Sayed Nabeel; Wagner, Kyle; Shi, Caihong; Kim, Young Seok; Caster, Joseph M; Tian, Xi; Min, Yuanzeng; Wang, Andrew Z

    2015-12-22

    Collagen IV-targeting peptide-conjugated basement membrane-targeting nanoparticles are successfully engineered to identify early-stage blood vessel injury induced by high-dose radiotherapy. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Basement of Structure, Main Power and Design Parameters of Mechanism of Removing Sections of Mechanized Sets of Knife Plane Installation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sysoev, N. I.; Turuk, Yu V.; Kolesnichenko, I. Y.; Lugantsev, B. B.

    2017-10-01

    The reasons for the failure of the pitch stability of the knife-plane installation due to the action of extreme effort in the plane of the seam from the conveyor side on the mechanism of removing sections of mechanized sets are shown. The technique for determining this effort is presented. The constructions of the adaptive mechanisms of the removing sections of mechanized sets with the basements of catamaran type, in the constrictions of which elastic elements (rods) are used, are considered. The constructions of the mechanism of removing a section of the mechanized set with the basement of catamaran type in which the stock of the hydraulic jack is connected with the band loop through the movable rods intermediate basement with a link are worked out. The intermediate basement unloads the stock of the hydraulic jack of the moving installation from the side curving efforts, caused by the action of lateral forces in the plane of the seam on the conveyor side. It increases the reliability and efficiency of work of the knife plane mechanized complex.

  5. Electron microscopic study of the myelinated nerve fibres and the perineurial cell basement membrane in the diabetic human peripheral nerves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBarrany, Wagih G.; Hamdy, Raid M.; AlHayani, Abdulmonem A.; Jalalah, Sawsan M.

    2009-01-01

    To study the quantitative and ultrastructural changes in myelinated nerve fibers and the basement membranes of the perineurial cells in diabetic nerves. The study was performed at the Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdul-Aziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia from 2003 to 2005. Human sural nerves were obtained from 15 lower limbs and 5 diabetic nerve biopsies. The total mean and density of myelinated nerve fibers per fascicle were calculated, with density of microtubules and mitochondria in the axoplasm. The number of the perineurial cell basement membrane layers was counted, and thickness of the basement membrane was measured. Among the 15 diabetic and 5 normal human sural nerves, the average diameters, number and surface area of myelinated nerve fibers and axonal microtubules density were found to be less in diabetic nerves. Mitochondrial density was higher in diabetic axons. Thickness of the perineurial cell basement membrane had a greater mean, but the number of perineurial cell layers was less than that of the diabetic group. The inner cellular layer of the perineurium of the diabetic nerves contained large vacuoles containing electron-dense degenerated myelin. A few specimens showed degenerated myelinated nerve fibers, while others showed recovering ones. Retracted axoplasms were encountered with albumin extravasation. Diabetes caused an increase in perineurial permeability. The diabetic sural nerve showed marked decrease in the myelinated nerve fibres, increase degenerated mitochondria, and decreased microtubules. (author)

  6. Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic seafloor and oceanic basement roughness: Spreading rate, crustal age and sediment thickness correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Robert T.; Pockalny, Robert A.

    1994-05-01

    Single-channel seismic data from the South Australian Basin and Argentine Basin, and bathymetry data from the flanks of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, East Pacific Rise and Southwest Indian Ridge are analysed to determine the root-mean-square (RMS) roughness of the seafloor and oceanic basement created at seafloor spreading rates ranging from 3 to 80 km/Ma (half-rate). For these data, crustal ages range from near zero to 85 Ma and sediment thicknesses range from near zero to over 2 km. Our results are consistent with a negative correlation of basement roughness and spreading rate where roughness decreases dramatically through the slow-spreading regime (oceanic basement roughness and spreading rate appears to have existed since the late Cretaceous for slow and intermediate spreading rates, suggesting that the fundamental processes creating abyssal hill topography may have remained the same for this time period. Basement roughness does not appear to decrease (smooth) with increasing crustal age, and therefore off-ridge degradation of abyssal hill topography by mass wasting is not detected by our data. Seismic data reveal that sediment thickness increases with increasing crustal age in the South Australian Basin and Argentine Basin, but not monotonically and with significant regional variation. We show that minor accumulations of sediment can affect roughness significantly. Average sediment accumulations of less that 50 m (for our 100 km long sample seismic profiles and half-spreading rates ocean ridges.

  7. Role of 17 beta-estradiol on type IV collagen fibers volumetric density in the basement membrane of bladder wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fraga, Rogerio; Dambros, Miriam; Miyaoka, Ricardo; Riccetto, Cássio Luís Zanettini; Palma, Paulo César Rodrigues

    2007-10-01

    The authors quantified the type IV collagen fibers volumetric density in the basement membrane of bladder wall of ovariectomized rats with and without estradiol replacement. This study was conducted on 40 Wistar rats (3 months old) randomly divided in 4 groups: group 1, remained intact (control); group 2, submitted to bilateral oophorectomy and daily replacement 4 weeks later of 17 beta-estradiol for 12 weeks; group 3, sham operated and daily replacement 4 weeks later of sesame oil for 12 weeks; and group 4, submitted to bilateral oophorectomy and killed after 12 weeks. It was used in immunohistochemistry evaluation using type IV collagen polyclonal antibody to stain the fibers on paraffin rat bladder sections. The M-42 stereological grid system was used to analyze the fibers. Ovariectomy had an increase effect on the volumetric density of the type IV collagen fibers in the basement membrane of rat bladder wall. Estradiol replacement in castrated animals demonstrated a significative difference in the stereological parameters when compared to the castrated group without hormonal replacement. Surgical castration performed on rats induced an increasing volumetric density of type IV collagen fibers in the basement membrane of rats bladder wall and the estradiol treatment had a significant effect in keeping a low volumetric density of type IV collagen fibers in the basement membrane of rats bladder wall.

  8. Spumiform basement membrane aberrations in the microvasculature of the midbrain periaqueductal gray region in hamster : Rostro-caudal pathogenesis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, P.O.; Kortekaas, R.; de Weerd, Heleen; Luiten, P.G.M.; van der Want, J.J.L.; Veening, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Spumiform basement membrane degeneration (sbmd) is a specific kind of aberration present in the capillaries of the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) region of the senescent hamster. These capillaries, separated by the ependymal cell layer, are bordering the Sylvian cerebral aqueduct. The aqueduct,

  9. Spumiform basement membrane aberrations in the microvasculature of the midbrain periaqueductal gray region in hamster: rostro-caudal pathogenesis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, P.O.; Kortekaas, R.; Weerd, H. de; Luiten, P.G.M.; Want, J.J. van der; Veening, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    Spumiform basement membrane degeneration (sbmd) is a specific kind of aberration present in the capillaries of the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) region of the senescent hamster. These capillaries, separated by the ependymal cell layer, are bordering the Sylvian cerebral aqueduct. The aqueduct,

  10. Ultrastructural localization of the core protein of a basement membrane-specific chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan in adult rat skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, K J; Horiguchi, Y; Couchman, J R

    1990-01-01

    , fibronectin, and entactin/nidogen. IN this paper we show, using core protein-specific antibodies, the presence of a newly described basement membrane-specific chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan at the epithelial/mesenchymal interface of adult rat skin. Ultrastructurally, this antigen was proven to reside...

  11. Increasingly transformed MCF-10A cells have a progressively tumor-like phenotype in three-dimensional basement membrane culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imbalzano Anthony N

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MCF-10A cells are near diploid and normal human mammary epithelial cells. In three-dimensional reconstituted basement membrane culture, they undergo a well-defined program of proliferation, differentiation, and growth arrest, forming acinar structures that recapitulate many aspects of mammary architecture in vivo. The pre-malignant MCF-10AT cells and malignant MCF-10CA1a lines were sequentially derived from the MCF-10A parental cell line first by expression of a constitutively active T24 H-Ras generating the MCF-10AT cell line. This was followed by repeated selection for increasingly aggressive tumor formation from cells recovered from xenograft tumors in immuno-compromised mice, generating the MCF-10CA1a cell line. When inoculated subcutaneously into the flanks of immuno-compromised mice, MCF-10AT cells occasionally form tumors, whereas MCF-10CA1a cells invariably form tumors with a shorter latency than MCF-10AT derived tumors. Results MCF-10AT cells grown in three-dimensional basement membrane culture form complex multi-acinar structures that produce a basement membrane but undergo delayed cell cycle arrest and have incomplete luminal development. MCF-10CA1a cells grown in three-dimensional basement membrane culture form large, hyper-proliferative masses, that retain few characteristics of MCF10A acini and more closely resemble tumors. Conclusion Here we report on the growth and differentiation properties of these three matched cell lines in three-dimensional basement membrane culture. Features of tissue morphogenesis were assessed, including proliferation, basement membrane formation, polarization of alpha-6 beta-4 integrin to the basement membrane, formation of cell:cell junctions, and apoptosis for luminal clearance. The matched series of normal MCF-10A, pre-malignant MCF-10AT, and malignant MCF-10CA1a cells offers a unique opportunity to study the mechanisms of malignant progression both in a three

  12. Quantitative image analysis of laminin immunoreactivity in skin basement membrane irradiated with 1 GeV/nucleon iron particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costes, S; Streuli, C H; Barcellos-Hoff, M H

    2000-10-01

    We previously reported that laminin immunoreactivity in mouse mammary epithelium is altered shortly after whole-body irradiation with 0.8 Gy from 600 MeV/nucleon iron ions but is unaffected after exposure to sparsely ionizing radiation. This observation led us to propose that the effect could be due to protein damage from the high ionization density of the ion tracks. If so, we predicted that it would be evident soon after radiation exposure in basement membranes of other tissues and would depend on ion fluence. To test this hypothesis, we used immunofluorescence, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and image segmentation techniques to quantify changes in the basement membrane of mouse skin epidermis. At 1 h after exposure to 1 GeV/nucleon iron ions with doses from 0.03 to 1.6 Gy, neither the visual appearance nor the mean pixel intensity of laminin in the basement membrane of mouse dorsal skin epidermis was altered compared to sham-irradiated tissue. This result does not support the hypothesis that particle traversal directly affects laminin protein integrity. However, the mean pixel intensity of laminin immunoreactivity was significantly decreased in epidermal basement membrane at 48 and 96 h after exposure to 0.8 Gy 1 GeV/nucleon iron ions. We confirmed this effect with two additional antibodies raised against affinity-purified laminin 1 and the E3 fragment of the long-arm of laminin 1. In contrast, collagen type IV, another component of the basement membrane, was unaffected. Our studies demonstrate quantitatively that densely ionizing radiation elicits changes in skin microenvironments distinct from those induced by sparsely ionizing radiation. Such effects may might contribute to the carcinogenic potential of densely ionizing radiation by altering cellular signaling cascades mediated by cell-extracellular matrix interactions.

  13. Heterogeneity of groundwater storage properties in the critical zone of Irish metamorphic basement from geophysical surveys and petrographic analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comte, Jean-Christophe; Cassidy, Rachel; Caulfield, John; Nitsche, Janka; Ofterdinger, Ulrich; Wilson, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    Weathered/fractured bedrock aquifers contain groundwater resources that are crucial in hard rock basement regions for rural water supply and maintaining river flow and ecosystem resilience. Groundwater storage in metamorphic rocks is subject to high spatial variations due to the large degree of heterogeneity in fracture occurrence and weathering patterns. Point measurements such as borehole testing are, in most cases, insufficient to characterise and quantify those storage variations because borehole sampling density is usually much lower than the scale of heterogeneities. A suite of geophysical and petrographic investigations was implemented in the weathered/fractured micaschist basement of Donegal, NW Ireland. Electrical Resistivity Tomography provided a high resolution 2D distribution of subsurface resistivities. Resistivity variations were transferred into storage properties (i.e. porosities) in the saturated critical zone of the aquifer through application of a petrophysical model derived from Archie's Law. The petrophysical model was calibrated using complementary borehole gamma logging and clay petrographic analysis at multi-depth well clusters distributed along a hillslope transect at the site. The resulting distribution of porosities shows large spatial variations along the studied transect. With depth, porosities rapidly decrease from about a few % in the uppermost, highly weathered basement to less than 0.5% in the deep unweathered basement, which is encountered at depths of between 10 and 50m below the ground surface. Along the hillslope, porosities decrease with distance from the river in the valley floor, ranging between 5% at the river to less than 1% at the top of the hill. Local traces of regional fault zones that intersect the transect are responsible for local increases in porosity in relation to deeper fracturing and weathering. Such degrees of spatial variation in porosity are expected to have a major impact on the modality of the response of

  14. Functional differentiation and alveolar morphogenesis of primary mammary cultures on reconstituted basement membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BARCELLOS-HOFF, M. H; AGGELER, J.; RAM, T. G; BISSELL, M. J

    1989-02-01

    An essential feature of mammary gland differentiation during pregnancy is the formation of alveoli composed of polarized epithelial cells, which, under the influence of lactogenic hormones, secrete vectorially and sequester milk proteins. Previous culture studies have described either organization of cells polarized towards lumina containing little or no demonstrable tissue-specific protein, or establishment of functional secretory cells exhibiting little or no glandular architecture. In this paper, we report that tissue-specific vectorial secretion coincides with the formation of functional alveoli-like structures by primary mammary epithelial cells cultured on a reconstituted basement membrane matrix (derived from Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm murine tumour). Morphogenesis of these unique three-dimensional structures was initiated by cell-directed remodelling of the exogenous matrix leading to reorganization of cells into matrixensheathed aggregates by 24 h after plating. The aggregates subsequently cavitated, so that by day 6 the cells were organized into hollow spheres in which apical cell surfaces faced lumina sealed by tight junctions and basal surfaces were surrounded by a distinct basal lamina. The profiles of proteins secreted into the apical (luminal) and basal (medium) compartments indicated that these alveoli-like structures were capable of an appreciable amount of vectorial secretion. Immunoprecipitation with a broad spectrum milk antiserum showed that more than 80% of caseins were secreted into the lumina, whereas iron-binding proteins (both lactoferrin and transferrin) were present in comparable amounts in each compartment. Thus, these mammary cells established protein targeting pathways directing milk-specific proteins to the luminal compartment. A time course monitoring secretory activity demonstrated that establishment of tissue-specific vectorial secretion and increased total and milk protein secretion coincided with functional alveolar

  15. Geochemical interpretation of the Precambrian basement and overlying Cambrian sandstone on Bornholm, Denmark: Implications for the weathering history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lingli; Friis, Henrik; Yang, Tian; Nielsen, Arne Thorshøj

    2017-08-01

    A geochemical study of the Precambrian basement granites from the Borggård borehole on Bornholm, Denmark, suggests that the granites were moderately weathered (Chemical Index of Alteration-CIA = 66-71) during subaerial exposure in a humid climate. The microcline is well preserved, whereas plagioclase was thoroughly altered to clay minerals (Plagioclase Index of Alteration-PIA = 93-99) which is likely due to its original Ca-rich composition. The primary Fe-Ti accessory minerals were oxidized to hematite and anatase. Evidence from REE distribution patterns and immobile element ratios, e.g. Zr/Hf and Nb/Ta, between the weathered basement granite from the Borggård borehole and regional granitoids on Bornholm, constrains the Svaneke Granite as the original basement lithology. A tau (τ) mass transport model (assuming immobile Ti) was applied to quantify the mass transfer during weathering of the basement granite. The results show a depletion of major elements in the following order: Na > Ca > Mg > Si; Al and Ti are immobile and stay constant; K shows sample dependent enrichment or depletion; Fe is slightly enriched. The Cambrian sandstone overlying the basement in the Borggård borehole, assigned to the Gadeby Member of the Nexø Formation, is feldspathic litharenite-litharenite in composition. Provenance indicators including (Gd/Yb)N, Zr/Hf and Nb/Ta ratios and petrological features indicate that source material was derived from both weathered and fresh basement granite of intermediate composition. The Gadeby Member equivalents in Germany, the basal lower Cambrian Adlergrund Konglomerat Member (AKM) in the offshore G-14 well north of Rügen, and the approximately coeval Lubmin Sandstein Formation (LSF) from the Loissin-1 borehole, mainland Germany, must have been sourced from a basement with compositions comparable to the intermediate group of the regional granitoids on Bornholm. The source materials for the AKM (CIA = 71-72, PIA = 94-96), the Gadeby Member in the

  16. MT1-MMP-mediated basement membrane remodeling modulates renal development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riggins, Karen S.; Mernaugh, Glenda [Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Su, Yan; Quaranta, Vito [Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Koshikawa, Naohiko; Seiki, Motoharu [Division of Cancer Cell Research, Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Pozzi, Ambra [Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Research Medicine, Veterans Affairs Hospital, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Zent, Roy, E-mail: roy.zent@vanderbilt.edu [Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Research Medicine, Veterans Affairs Hospital, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling regulates multiple cellular functions required for normal development and tissue repair. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are key mediators of this process and membrane targeted MMPs (MT-MMPs) in particular have been shown to be important in normal development of specific organs. In this study we investigated the role of MT1-MMP in kidney development. We demonstrate that loss of MT1-MMP leads to a renal phenotype characterized by a moderate decrease in ureteric bud branching morphogenesis and a severe proliferation defect. The kidneys of MT1-MMP-null mice have increased deposition of collagen IV, laminins, perlecan, and nidogen and the phenotype is independent of the MT-1MMP target, MMP-2. Utilizing in vitro systems we demonstrated that MTI-MMP proteolytic activity is required for renal tubule cells to proliferate in three dimensional matrices and to migrate on collagen IV and laminins. Together these data suggest an important role for MT1-MMP in kidney development, which is mediated by its ability to regulate cell proliferation and migration by proteolytically cleaving kidney basement membrane components.

  17. Heat flow in Indian Gondwana basins and heat production of their basement rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, G.V.; Rao, R.U.M.

    1983-01-01

    Temperatures have been measured in eight boreholes (ranging from 260 to 800 m in depth) in five Gondwana basins of the Damodar and Son valleys. With the aid of about 250 thermal conductivity determinations on core samples from these holes, heat flow has been evaluated. Measurements of radioactive heat generation have been made on samples of Precambrian gneisses constituting the basement for the Sonhat (Son valley) and Chintalapudi (Godavari valley) basins. Heat-flow values from all of the Damodar valley basins are within the narrow range of 69-79 mW/m exp(2). The value from the Sonhat basin (107 mW/m exp(2)) is significantly higher. The generally high heat flows observed in Gondwana basins of India cannot be attributed to the known tectonism or igneous activity associated with these basins. The plots of heat flow vs. heat generation for three Gondwana basins (Jharia, Sonhat and Chintalapudi) are on the same line as those of three regions in the exposed Precambrian crystalline terrains in the northern part of the Indian shield. This indicates that the crust under exposed regions of the Precambrian crystalline rocks as well as the Gondwana basins, form an integral unit as far as the present-day geothermal character is concerned. (5 figs., 14 refs., 4 tables).

  18. Heat flow in Indian Gondwana basins and heat production of their basement rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, G. V.; Rao, R. U. M.

    1983-01-01

    Temperatures have been measured in eight boreholes (ranging from 260 to 800 m in depth) in five Gondwana basins of the Damodar and Son valleys. With the aid of about 250 thermal conductivity determinations on core samples from these holes, heat flow has been evaluated. Measurements of radioactive heat generation have been made on samples of Precambrian gneisses constituting the basement for the Sonhat (Son valley) and Chintalapudi (Godavari valley) basins. Heat-flow values from all of the Damodar valley basins are within the narrow range of 69-79 mW/m 2. The value from the Sonhat basin (107 mW/m 2) is significantly higher. The generally high heat flows observed in Gondwana basins of India cannot be attributed to the known tectonism or igneous activity associated with these basins. The plots of heat flow vs. heat generation for three Gondwana basins (Jharia, Sonhat and Chintalapudi) are on the same line as those of three regions in the exposed Precambrian crystalline terrains in the northern part of the Indian shield. This indicates that the crust under exposed regions of the Precambrian crystalline rocks as well as the Gondwana basins, form an integral unit as far as the present-day geothermal character is concerned.

  19. Crosslinked basement membrane-based coatings enhance glucose sensor function and continuous glucose monitoring in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klueh, Ulrike; Ludzinska, Izabela; Czajkowski, Caroline; Qiao, Yi; Kreutzer, Donald L

    2018-01-01

    Overcoming sensor-induced tissue reactions is an essential element of achieving successful continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in the management of diabetes, particularly when used in closed loop technology. Recently, we demonstrated that basement membrane (BM)-based glucose sensor coatings significantly reduced tissue reactions at sites of device implantation. However, the biocompatible BM-based biohydrogel sensor coating rapidly degraded over a less than a 3-week period, which effectively eliminated the protective sensor coating. In an effort to increase the stability and effectiveness of the BM coating, we evaluated the impact of crosslinking BM utilizing glutaraldehyde as a crosslinking agent, designated as X-Cultrex. Sensor performance (nonrecalibrated) was evaluated for the impact of these X-Cultrex coatings in vitro and in vivo. Sensor performance was assessed over a 28-day time period in a murine CGM model and expressed as mean absolute relative difference (MARD) values. Tissue reactivity of Cultrex-coated, X-Cultrex-coated, and uncoated glucose sensors was evaluated over a 28-day time period in vivo using standard histological techniques. These studies demonstrated that X-Cultrex-based sensor coatings had no effect on glucose sensor function in vitro. In vivo, glucose sensor performance was significantly enhanced following X-Cultrex coating throughout the 28-day study. Histological evaluations of X-Cultrex-treated sensors demonstrated significantly less tissue reactivity when compared to uncoated sensors. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 106A: 7-16, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Immunohistochemical expression of basement membrane proteins of verrucous carcinoma of the oral mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arduino, Paolo G; Carrozzo, Marco; Pagano, Marco; Broccoletti, Roberto; Scully, Crispian; Gandolfo, Sergio

    2010-06-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral cavity is an extremely invasive tumour of stratified squamous epithelium that spreads throughout degradation of the basement membrane (BM) and extra-cellular matrix. Oral verrucous carcinoma (VC) is a rare low-grade variant of oral SCC that penetrates into the subepithelial connective tissue. It also has a different clinical behaviour from classical oral SCC. We investigated the immunohistochemical expression of laminin, laminin-5, collagen IV and fibronectin in VC, severe epithelial dysplasia (SED) and SCC in order to analyse if the pattern of these molecules expression contributes to the differences in the biological behaviour of these diseases. The staining pattern of laminin was less intensive in SCC compared with SED and VC, and collagen IV expression was increased in VC compared with SED. Discontinuities of laminin, collagen IV and fibronectin were more evident in SED than in VC. This study indicates that VC has a biological behaviour different from SED or SCC, observable by immunohistochemistry in the BM zone.

  1. Trace elements geochemistry of fractured basement aquifer in southern Malawi: A case of Blantyre rural

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapoma, Harold Wilson Tumwitike; Xie, Xianjun; Nyirenda, Mathews Tananga; Zhang, Liping; Kaonga, Chikumbusko Chiziwa; Mbewe, Rex

    2017-07-01

    In this study, twenty one (21) trace elements in the basement complex groundwater of Blantyre district, Malawi were analyzed. The majority of the analyzed trace elements in the water were within the standards set by World Health Organization (WHO) and Malawi Standards Board (MSB). But, iron (Fe) (BH16 and 21), manganese (Mn) (BH01) and selenium (Se) (BH02, 13, 18, 19 and 20) were higher than the WHO and MSB standards. Factor analysis (FA) revealed up to five significant factors which accounted for 87.4% of the variance. Factor 1, 2 and 3 suggest evaporite dissolution and silicate weathering processes while the fourth factor may explain carbonate dissolution and pH influence on trace element geochemistry of the studied groundwater samples. According to PHREEQC computed saturation indices, dissolution, precipitation and rock-water-interaction control the levels of trace elements in this aquifer. Elevated concentrations of Fe, Mn and Se in certain boreholes are due to the geology of the aquifer and probable redox status of groundwater. From PHREEQC speciation results, variations in trace element species were observed. Based on this study, boreholes need constant monitoring and assessment for human consumption to avoid health related issues.

  2. Retinoid inhibition of in vitro invasion of human amnion basement membrane by human tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazely, F.

    1988-01-01

    The effects measured were the inhibition of tumor cell migration through the basement membrane (BM) and tumor cell degradative enzyme activity on 3 H-proline labeled collagenous and non collagenous components of the BM. The human lung carcinoma A549 or the human Ewing's sarcoma TC-106 cell lines treated with retinoids for two days were incubated on the BM in the absence of retinoids. A dose-dependent inhibition of cell invasion was produced by retinoids. Among the retinoids tested the most powerful was retinol acetate which inhibited invasion by 50% of A549 cells at a concentration of 0.09 μg/ml, and TC-106 cells at 0.08 μg/ml. Retinol acetate inhibited A549 and TC-106 cell growth by approximately 50% at levels almost 100-fold higher than those needed for antiinvasive activity. Retinol acetate was about 20 times more potent than retinoic acid and 30 times more than retinol palmitate. Furthermore, A549 cells treated with retinol acetate, under conditions whereby an anti-invasive state was induced,showed an increase in the number of cellular retinoic acid binding proteins (CRABP), a decrease in the activity of type IV collagenase and ectosialyltransferase, and no change in the activity of transglutaminase

  3. AMACO is a novel component of the basement membrane associated Fraser complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Rebecca J.; Gebauer, Jan M.; Zhang, Jin-Li; Kobbe, Birgit; Keene, Douglas R.; Karlsen, Kristina Røkenes; Richetti, Stefânia; Wohl, Alexander P.; Sengle, Gerhard; Neiss, Wolfram F.; Paulsson, Mats; Hammerschmidt, Matthias; Wagener, Raimund

    2015-01-01

    Fraser syndrome (FS) is a phenotypically variable, autosomal recessive disorder characterized by cryptophthalmus, cutaneous syndactyly and other malformations resulting from mutations in FRAS1, FREM2 and GRIP1. Transient embryonic epidermal blistering causes the characteristic defects of the disorder. Fras1, Frem1 and Frem2 form the extracellular Fraser complex, which is believed to stabilize the basement membrane (BM). However, several cases of FS could not be attributed to mutations in FRAS1, FREM2 or GRIP1, while Fraser syndrome displays high clinical variability, suggesting there is an additional genetic, possibly modifying contribution to this disorder. AMACO, encoded by the VWA2 gene, has a very similar tissue distribution to the Fraser complex proteins in both mouse and zebrafish. Here, we show that AMACO deposition is lost in Fras1 deficient zebrafish and mice and that Fras1 and AMACO interact directly via their CSPG and P2 domains. Knockdown of vwa2, which alone causes no phenotype, enhances the phenotype of hypomorphic Fras1 mutant zebrafish. Together, our data suggest that AMACO represents a novel member of the Fraser complex. PMID:24232570

  4. AMACO is a component of the basement membrane-associated Fraser complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Rebecca J; Gebauer, Jan M; Zhang, Jin-Li; Kobbe, Birgit; Keene, Douglas R; Karlsen, Kristina Røkenes; Richetti, Stefânia; Wohl, Alexander P; Sengle, Gerhard; Neiss, Wolfram F; Paulsson, Mats; Hammerschmidt, Matthias; Wagener, Raimund

    2014-05-01

    Fraser syndrome (FS) is a phenotypically variable, autosomal recessive disorder characterized by cryptophthalmus, cutaneous syndactyly, and other malformations resulting from mutations in FRAS1, FREM2, and GRIP1. Transient embryonic epidermal blistering causes the characteristic defects of the disorder. Fras1, Frem1, and Frem2 form the extracellular Fraser complex, which is believed to stabilize the basement membrane. However, several cases of FS could not be attributed to mutations in FRAS1, FREM2, or GRIP1, and FS displays high clinical variability, suggesting that there is an additional genetic, possibly modifying contribution to this disorder. An extracellular matrix protein containing VWA-like domains related to those in matrilins and collagens (AMACO), encoded by the VWA2 gene, has a very similar tissue distribution to the Fraser complex proteins in both mouse and zebrafish. Here, we show that AMACO deposition is lost in Fras1-deficient zebrafish and mice and that Fras1 and AMACO interact directly via their chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) and P2 domains. Knockdown of vwa2, which alone causes no phenotype, enhances the phenotype of hypomorphic Fras1 mutant zebrafish. Together, our data suggest that AMACO represents a member of the Fraser complex.

  5. MT1-MMP-mediated basement membrane remodeling modulates renal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riggins, Karen S.; Mernaugh, Glenda; Su, Yan; Quaranta, Vito; Koshikawa, Naohiko; Seiki, Motoharu; Pozzi, Ambra; Zent, Roy

    2010-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling regulates multiple cellular functions required for normal development and tissue repair. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are key mediators of this process and membrane targeted MMPs (MT-MMPs) in particular have been shown to be important in normal development of specific organs. In this study we investigated the role of MT1-MMP in kidney development. We demonstrate that loss of MT1-MMP leads to a renal phenotype characterized by a moderate decrease in ureteric bud branching morphogenesis and a severe proliferation defect. The kidneys of MT1-MMP-null mice have increased deposition of collagen IV, laminins, perlecan, and nidogen and the phenotype is independent of the MT-1MMP target, MMP-2. Utilizing in vitro systems we demonstrated that MTI-MMP proteolytic activity is required for renal tubule cells to proliferate in three dimensional matrices and to migrate on collagen IV and laminins. Together these data suggest an important role for MT1-MMP in kidney development, which is mediated by its ability to regulate cell proliferation and migration by proteolytically cleaving kidney basement membrane components.

  6. Collagen IV and basement membrane at the evolutionary dawn of metazoan tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, Aaron L; Darris, Carl E; Chetyrkin, Sergei V; Pedchenko, Vadim K; Boudko, Sergei P; Brown, Kyle L; Gray Jerome, W; Hudson, Julie K; Rokas, Antonis; Hudson, Billy G

    2017-04-18

    The role of the cellular microenvironment in enabling metazoan tissue genesis remains obscure. Ctenophora has recently emerged as one of the earliest-branching extant animal phyla, providing a unique opportunity to explore the evolutionary role of the cellular microenvironment in tissue genesis. Here, we characterized the extracellular matrix (ECM), with a focus on collagen IV and its variant, spongin short-chain collagens, of non-bilaterian animal phyla. We identified basement membrane (BM) and collagen IV in Ctenophora, and show that the structural and genomic features of collagen IV are homologous to those of non-bilaterian animal phyla and Bilateria. Yet, ctenophore features are more diverse and distinct, expressing up to twenty genes compared to six in vertebrates. Moreover, collagen IV is absent in unicellular sister-groups. Collectively, we conclude that collagen IV and its variant, spongin, are primordial components of the extracellular microenvironment, and as a component of BM, collagen IV enabled the assembly of a fundamental architectural unit for multicellular tissue genesis.

  7. Basement Imaging Using Sp Converted Phases in Chia-Nan, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, J.; Wu, Y.; Chuang, M.; Chang, C.

    2010-12-01

    The Chia-Nan Plain is a long and narrow alluvial plain, located in the west of Central Mountain Range and the east of Taiwan Strait. We used accelerograms recorded from 1992 to 2010 March by the Taiwan Strong Motion Instrumentation Program (TSMIP) stations to study the thickness variations of the Quaternary alluviums beneath the Chia-Nan Plain, the biggest alluvial plain in Taiwan, by examining a Sp converted phase. The thicknesses are estimated by the travel-time difference of S and Sp waves. This technique of using P-S converted phases had a quite success in the previous study of Lan-Yang Plain. By the high seismic activity and dense of TSMIP stations in this study area, we used this technique to depict the variations of Quaternary sediments thicknesses in Chia-Nan Plain. In general, the thicknesses become thicker toward west. Finally, this approach helps us to discuss the shape of Peikang Basement High in the north of Chia-Nan Plain, which plays an important role in the tectonic changing of Taiwan western foothills.

  8. Chitosan facilitates structure formation of the salivary gland by regulating the basement membrane components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tsung-Lin; Hsiao, Ya-Chuan

    2015-10-01

    Tissue structure is important for inherent physiological function and should be recapitulated during tissue engineering for regenerative purposes. The salivary gland is a branched organ that is responsible for saliva secretion and regulation. The salivary glands develop from epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, and depend on the support of the basement membrane (BM). Chitosan-based biomaterials have been demonstrated to be competent in facilitating the formation of salivary gland tissue structure. However, the underlying mechanisms have remained elusive. In the developing submandibular gland (SMG), the chitosan effect was found to diminish when collagen and laminin were removed from cultured SMG explants. Chitosan increased the expression of BM components including collagen, laminin, and heparan sulfate proteoglycan, and also facilitated BM components and the corresponding receptors to be expressed in tissue-specific patterns beneficial for SMG branching. The chitosan effect decreased when either laminin components or receptors were inhibited, as well when the downstream signaling was blocked. Our results revealed that chitosan promotes salivary glands branching through the BM. By regulating BM components and receptors, chitosan efficiently stimulated downstream signaling to facilitate salivary gland branching. The present study revealed the underlying mechanism of the chitosan effect in engineering SMG structure formation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Contribution to the geochronology of the basement of the Central African Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavreau, J.; Poidevin, J. L.; Ledent, D.; Liegeois, J. P.; Weis, D.

    The age and isotope geology of the most striking geological elements of the basement in the south-central CAR have been investigated. The granite-greenstone belts of Bandas and Dekoa, as well as the amphibolitic complexes and associated gneisses of the Ouham and the Mbomou rivers, belong to the Archaean period. Granitic bodies intruding the post-Archaean Quartzito-schistose or "intermediate" series are of Lower Proterozoic Eburnean age. All former units have suffered on a limited scale from the Panafrican reactivation, as they belong to autochtonous areas constituting either a foreland or lateral ramps relatively to thrust belts developing during the latter period. The granulitic areas of central CAR are of Panafrican age. They have, together with the associated gneisses, been tectonized during the same period of orogeny. The granulites result from the remobilization of a crustal segment of Lower Proterozoic or older age. As a result of this tectonic complexity, it is no longer licit to put all the granulitic and gneissic series of the CAR in a single stratigraphic unit.

  10. Quantitative Proteome Analysis Reveals Increased Content of Basement Membrane Proteins in Arteries from Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and Lower Levels among Metformin Users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørdam Preil, Simone; Kristensen, Lars P; Beck, Hans C

    2015-01-01

    analysis was done by iTRAQ-labelling and LC-MS/MS analysis on individual arterial samples. The amounts of the basement membrane (BM) components, alpha-1- and alpha-2- type IV collagen, gamma-1- and beta-2-laminin were significantly increased in patients with diabetes. Moreover, the expressions of basement...... of collagen-stainable material in tunica intima and media among patients with diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: -The distinct accumulation of arterial basement membrane proteins in type 2 diabetes discloses a similarity between the diabetic macro- and micro-angiopathy and suggests a molecular explanation behind...

  11. Modeling and Inversion of Magnetic Anomalies Caused by Sediment–Basement Interface Using Three-Dimensional Cauchy-Type Integrals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Hongzhu; Zhdanov, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This letter introduces a new method for the modeling and inversion of magnetic anomalies caused by crystalline basements. The method is based on the 3-D Cauchy-type integral representation of the magnetic field. Traditional methods use volume integrals over the domains occupied by anomalous...... is particularly significant in solving problems of the modeling and inversion of magnetic data for the depth to the basement. In this letter, a novel method is proposed, which only requires discretizing the magnetic contrast surface for modeling and inversion. We demonstrate the method using several synthetic...... susceptibility and on the prismatic representation of the volumes with an anomalous susceptibility distribution. Such discretization is computationally expensive, particularly in 3-D cases. The technique of Cauchy-type integrals makes it possible to represent the magnetic field as surface integrals, which...

  12. Distribution of two basement membrane proteoglycans through hair follicle development and the hair growth cycle in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; King, J L; McCarthy, K J

    1990-01-01

    The distribution of two distinct populations of basement membrane proteoglycans has been monitored through hair growth development in the rat embryo and subsequent hair growth cycle. An antiserum against a small heparan sulfate proteoglycan uniformly stained the dermal-epidermal junction...... as they developed. Through the hair growth cycle, it was found that the heparan sulfate proteoglycan persisted around the follicles, while the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan decreased in amount through catagen until it was undetectable at the base and dermal papilla of the telogen follicle. As anagen commenced...... of embryonic rats throughout the period of hair follicle formation. On the other hand, monoclonal antibodies recognizing a basement membrane-specific chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan only weakly stained 16-d embryo dermal-epidermal junction, but strong staining was associated with hair follicle buds...

  13. Human skin basement membrane-associated heparan sulphate proteoglycan: distinctive differences in ultrastructural localization as a function of developmental age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horiguchi, Y; Fine, J D; Couchman, J R

    1991-01-01

    at different developmental ages using two monoclonal antibodies to a well-characterized basement membrane-associated heparan sulphate proteoglycan. A series of foetal skin specimens (range, 54-142 gestational days) were examined using an immunoperoxidase immunoelectron microscopic technique. In specimens...... representing very early developmental ages, very diffuse immunoreaction products were detected. However, by approximately 76 gestational days, some accentuation of heparan sulphate proteoglycan was noted along the lamina densa, and by 142 gestational days, the distribution of heparan sulphate proteoglycan...... was identical to that observed in neonatal and adult human skin. These findings demonstrate that active remodelling of the dermo-epidermal junction occurs during at least the first two trimesters, and affects not only basement membrane-associated structures but also specific antigens....

  14. Aluminum-containing dense deposits of the glomerular basement membrane: identification by energy dispersive X-ray analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.M. Jr.; Pitcock, J.A.; Murphy, W.M.

    1982-01-01

    Heavy metals, including gold, mercury, lead, bismuth, and cadmium, have the potential to cause renal disease. With the development of X-ray microanalysis, these heavy metals can now be identified in tissue deposits. This report describes a case of renal failure, probably related to dysproteinemia, in which granular, electron-opaque dense deposits were present in the glomerular basement membranes. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis demonstrated that these dense deposits contained aluminum. An analysis of this patient's history in relation to the current knowledge of aluminum metabolism suggests that the aluminum deposition occurred secondary to previous glomerular injury. This case emphasizes the need to utilize heavy metal identification technology whenever granular, electron-opaque dense deposits are identified and represents, to our knowledge, the first study to document aluminum deposits within the glomerular basement membrane of humans

  15. Distribution of individual components of basement membrane in human colon polyps and adenocarcinomas as revealed by monoclonal antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljubimov, A V; Bartek, J; Couchman, J R

    1992-01-01

    -membrane components (laminin, entactin/nidogen, collagen type IV and large heparan sulfate proteoglycan), as well as to keratin 8. In all adenocarcinomas, including mucinous, basement membranes were altered more at the invasive front than in the parenchyma. The degree of this alteration was inversely correlated......-membrane components and to a specific keratin may constitute an adequate immunohistochemical test for the presence of invasion, and may be useful in the histologic analysis of polyps, especially in dubious cases....

  16. CCN2/connective tissue growth factor is essential for pericyte adhesion and endothelial basement membrane formation during angiogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faith Hall-Glenn

    Full Text Available CCN2/Connective Tissue Growth Factor (CTGF is a matricellular protein that regulates cell adhesion, migration, and survival. CCN2 is best known for its ability to promote fibrosis by mediating the ability of transforming growth factor β (TGFβ to induce excess extracellular matrix production. In addition to its role in pathological processes, CCN2 is required for chondrogenesis. CCN2 is also highly expressed during development in endothelial cells, suggesting a role in angiogenesis. The potential role of CCN2 in angiogenesis is unclear, however, as both pro- and anti-angiogenic effects have been reported. Here, through analysis of Ccn2-deficient mice, we show that CCN2 is required for stable association and retention of pericytes by endothelial cells. PDGF signaling and the establishment of the endothelial basement membrane are required for pericytes recruitment and retention. CCN2 induced PDGF-B expression in endothelial cells, and potentiated PDGF-B-mediated Akt signaling in mural (vascular smooth muscle/pericyte cells. In addition, CCN2 induced the production of endothelial basement membrane components in vitro, and was required for their expression in vivo. Overall, these results highlight CCN2 as an essential mediator of vascular remodeling by regulating endothelial-pericyte interactions. Although most studies of CCN2 function have focused on effects of CCN2 overexpression on the interstitial extracellular matrix, the results presented here show that CCN2 is required for the normal production of vascular basement membranes.

  17. Rift architecture and evolution: The Sirt Basin, Libya: The influence of basement fabrics and oblique tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdunaser, K. M.; McCaffrey, K. J. W.

    2014-12-01

    The Cretaceous-Tertiary northwest-trending Sirt Basin system, Libya, is a rift/sag basin formed on Pan-African to Paleozoic-aged basement of North Africa. In this study, we investigate the rift-basin architecture and tectonic framework of the western Sirt Basin. Using remote sensed data, supported by borehole data from about 300 deep wells and surface geologic maps, we constructed geological cross sections and surface geology maps. Indication of the relative timing of structures and movement along faults has been determined where possible. Direction statistics for all the interpreted linear features acquired in the study area were calculated and given as a total distribution and then the totals are broken down by the major basin elements of the area. Hundreds of lineaments were recognized. Their lengths, range between a hundred meters up to hundreds of kilometers and the longest of the dominant trends are between N35W-N55W and between N55E-N65E which coincides with Sirt Basin structures. The produced rose diagrams reveal that the majority of the surface linear features in the region have four preferred orientations: N40-50W in the Zallah Trough, N45-55W in the Dur al Abd Trough, N35-55W in the Az Zahrah-Al Hufrah Platform, and in contrast in the Waddan Uplift a N55-65E trend. We recognize six lithostratigraphic sequences (phases) in the area's stratigraphic framework. A Pre-graben (Pre-rift) initiation stage involved the Pre-Cretaceous sediments formed before the main Sirt Basin subsidence. Then followed a Cretaceous to Eocene graben-fill stage that can divided into four structurally-active and structurally-inactive periods, and finally a terminal continental siliciclastics-rich package representing the post-rift stage of the development in post-Eocene time. In general five major fault systems dissect and divide the study area into geomorphological elevated blocks and depressions. Most of the oil fields present in the study area are associated with structural hinge

  18. Basement membrane heterogeneity during chick development as shown by tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) lectin binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, J L; Icardo, J M

    2006-03-01

    Basement membranes (BMs) constitute a distinct compartment of the extracellular matrix (ECM). All BMs show a similar structural appearance but differ in molecular composition. These variations have critical functional implications. The aim of this study is to establish the pattern of the tomato lectin (Lycopersicon esculentum agglutinin--LEA) binding sites in the BMs of the developing chick embryo (stages 4-21, Hamburger and Hamilton, 1951) in order to achieve a better understanding of the molecular heterogeneity of BMs. The study was performed with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) histochemistry, and confocal laser microscopy. TEM showed that LEA bound to the lamina densa and to the lamina fibroreticularis of the BMs. Through the period studied, most of the LEA binding appeared in the ectodermal BM and its derivatives. In the limb bud, LEA binding to the ectoderm BM was more intense in the ventral half than in the dorsal half. Furthermore, LEA allowed the early (HH16) detection of the transverse fibrillar tracts. In the lens and in the inner ear primordium, the BMs were LEA positive through the placode and cup stages. The binding was progressively reduced through the vesicle stage. The BMs of the olfactory primordium, and of the Rathke's pouch were positive. In contrast, the BMs of the developing central nervous system were negative. The BMs of both the paraxial and the lateral plates of the mesoderm were negative, whereas the notochord and the BM of the Wolffian duct were positive. The endodermal BM and its derivatives were negative. The ECM located between the fusing endocardial tubes, and the BM of the fusion zone of the paired aortae, were positive. This suggested an active role of the LEA-positive glycoproteins in the fusion of endothelia. Our results show the heterogeneity of the chick embryo BMs during development. In addition, LEA constitutes an excellent marker for the primordial germ cells.

  19. Fracture Characteristics of Mélange Complex Basement in Bantimala Area, South Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benyamin Sapiie

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.4.3.121-141A detailed geological mapping and fracture characterization had been performed in Bantimala area, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. The geology of the studied area is composed of pre-Tertiary metamorphic, sedimentary, and igneous rocks which tectonically mixed forming a mélange complex. Located on the southeastern margin of Sundaland, the tectonic strongly influences the fracture occurrences in the studied area. A total of 3,841 fractures comprising shear fractures, extension fractures, veins, and joints have been measured and analyzed. The common fracture orientations are NW - SE, W - E, NNE - SSW, and ENE - WSW trends. Fractures developing in Bantimala have clearly been controlled by lithology and structure position (i.e. fault zones and fold hinge. The orientation of fractures in Bantimala area is different on each lithology, showing that the fracture system was complex. Fracture intensity in schist is higher compared to the other lithologies. The 3D fracture modeling through 3D geocellular modeling was generated using the result from field data measurements and analyses. Discrete Fracture Network (DFN was built by fifty-one fracture sets that were analyzed from field measurement data. However, the estimation of average fracture porosity from modeling varies significantly depending on lithology. The value of fracture porosity is relatively small, varied from 0.0004 to 0.0029 %. A high fracture porosity number is observed in an area with a significant fracture intensity and most crosscutting of fracture which in turn is controlled by faults and lithology. A mélange complex can have high potential as a basement fractured reservoir target, where fracture distributions and their attributes will vary depending on the lithology as well as local deformation.

  20. The basement of the Eastern Cordillera, Colombia: An allochthonous terrane in northwestern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forero Suarez, A.

    The fault system of the Borde Llanero of Colombia represents the limit between two early Paleozoic geologic provinces: the Guiana Shield (Gondwana) to the east, and an allochthonous terrane — formerly a piece of the North American continent — to the west. The Baudó Range, the Western Cordillera, and the western flank of the Central Cordillera are the result of post-Jurassic accretion. In contrast the pre-Emsian metamorphic rocks of the eastern flank of the Central Cordillera, of the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia, and of the Mérida Andes correspond to an allochthonous terrane that was accreted to the north-western continental border of South America during the collision between North America and Gondwana in Silurian-Early Devonian times. Geochronologic and petrographic data indicate the presence of the Grenvillian granulite belt, represented by the Garzón-Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta belt. This belt is separated from the Guiana Shield by a magmatic tract which is parallel to the Borde Llanero of Venezuela and Colombia. The late Paleozoic regional metamorphism in the Northern Andes of Colombia occurred during Late Silurian-Early Devonian times. Since the late Emsian, a sedimentary cycle was initiated on this allochthonous basement. The faunal records of northwestern South America and the North American continent are indistinguishable for that time. This similarity clearly shows that both northwestern South America and the North American regions of the Appalachians and New Mexico belong to the same paleobiogeographic province. The faunal communication in this case supports the idea of the immediate neighborhood of the two continents.

  1. A “Mini-Epidemic” of anti-glomerular basement membrane disease: Clinical and epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh Lingaraj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute glomerulonephritis due to anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM antibody disease is rare, estimated to occur in fewer than one case per million population and accounts for less than 20% of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. The prevalence among patients evaluated for potential glomerular disease is lower. It accounts for fewer than 3% of all kidney biopsies done with crescentic glomerulonephritis. Cases of anti-GBM disease occurring in a cluster have rarely been reported. All biopsy proven anti-GBM disease cases were collected from January 2015 to March 2015 at our Institute. All cases were analyzed for demographic and clinical profile, pathological findings, treatment received and for any common environmental antigenic source. A total of 11 new biopsy proven anti-GBM cases were seen within a span of three months. Age group varied from 17–80 years. Seven were males and four were females. All were dialysis dependent at presentation. Seven had active cellular crescents, and four had fibrocellular. Only one patient was a smoker and none had a history of exposure to any forms of hydrocarbons. The peak seen from January 2015 to March 2015 does not correlate with any of seasonal occurrence of infections in southern India. Although there was clustering of cases to southern territories of Karnataka state, no common etiological agents could be identified. No patient had any previous urological surgeries. All patients received methylprednisolone with plasmapheresis 5–7 sessions and cyclophosphamide. All 11 patients were dialysis dependent at the end of three months. We conclude anti-GBM disease cannot be regarded as a rare cause of renal failure and lung hemorrhage. The occurrence of such epidemic within a short period suggests a possible unidentified environmental factor like infection or occupational agents as inciting agents. Identification of such inciting agents could help us in instituting appropriate preventing measures.

  2. Hydro-geochemical appraisal of groundwater quality from weathered basement aquifers in Northern Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanda, Elijah; Monjerezi, Maurice; Mwatseteza, Jonas F.; Kazembe, Lawrence N.

    The obligation to ensure adequate potable water supply to everyone, has necessitated the development of groundwater resources for reliable rural water supply in most developing countries. An understanding of spatial variation and processes affecting water quality is essential in sustaining usable water supplies under changing climate and local environmental pressures. In this study, an assessment of quality and dominant hydro-geochemical processes affecting the quality of groundwater from weathered basement aquifers in Mzimba district, Northern Malawi, has been conducted. Groundwater samples were collected from 172 hand-pumped boreholes, drilled for domestic rural water supply and analysed for major and minor ions, pH and total dissolved solids (TDS). In general, groundwater is of low mineralisation (TDS range: 29-1896 mg L -1 for the dry season), with hydro-geochemical facies dominated by Ca-HCO 3, which evolves to Ca-Cl water type. Multivariate statistical analysis (HCA and PCA) and geochemical interpretation showed that the Ca-HCO 3 groundwater type result from hydrolysis of silicate minerals, which causes the solution to reach equilibrium with kaolinite. The processes of cation exchange of Na + and K + in the groundwater for Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ on clay minerals, carbonate precipitation and evaporation, are shown to modify the chemical composition from Ca-HCO 3 types to Ca-Cl types. Groundwater is generally of good quality in both rainy and dry seasons, with little seasonal changes. The United States Salinity Laboratory Staff and Wilcox diagrams showed that most samples were also suitable for irrigation except for 4% (eight samples) of the groundwater samples (with EC > 2000 μS cm -1). These are located in alluviums and colluviums localised near river banks and in inter hill valleys.

  3. Post-orogenic exhumation history of a Variscan mid-crustal basement in Galicia (NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobe, Rene; Alvarez-Marrón, Joaquina; Glasmacher, Ulrich A.; Stuart, Finlay; Castañeda-Zarauz, A.

    2010-05-01

    The present study aims to quantify the complex post-orogenic history of cooling, denudation, and long-term landscape evolution of a mid-crustal section of Variscan basement in Galicia (NW Spain). We use apatite fission-track and apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronological techniques combined with time-temperature (t-T) path modelling using the software code HeFTy©. The topography is characterized by an extensive, low relief area at ~500 m elevation in central Galicia, and a WNW-ESE ridge that reaches up to 1000 m to the North. The area experienced two major tectonic events since the end of the Variscan orogeny in the Late Palaeozoic: 1) continental break-up and Mesozoic rifting leading to the opening of the Atlantic Ocean and the Bay of Biscay, and 2) limited convergence between Iberia and Eurasia since Middle Eocene times. Apatite fission-track ages range from 68.1 ± 5.0 Ma to 174.5 ± 7.7 Ma and apatite (U-Th)/He ages range from 73.6 ± 5.4 to 147.1 ± 16.6 Ma. Age-elevation plots and t-T path modelling suggest a tectonothermal evolution with faster exhumation associated to faulting during Mesozoic rifting. In particular, two major fault systems trending WNW-ESE and NNE-SSW, the As Pontes and the Lugo faults respectively separate areas with the fastest exhumation around 115 Ma from areas with overall slow exhumation since 200-150 Ma. A landscape of subdued topography in central Galicia was acquired prior to Eocene convergence. The higher elevation areas along the northern ridge formed since Middle Eocene times due to fault reactivation and minor exhumation occurred along the fault escarpment.

  4. Anti-glomerular basement membrane disease: Case series from a tertiary center in North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Prabhakar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-glomerular basement (anti-GBM disease is an uncommon disorder with a bimodal age of presentation. Patients presenting with dialysis-dependent renal failure have poor renal outcomes. There is limited data regarding the clinical presentation and outcomes of anti-GBM disease from India. We conducted this prospective study to analyze the clinical presentation and outcomes of anti-GBM disease at a large tertiary care hospital in North India over 1½ years. Subjects with a biopsy proven anti-GBM disease (light microscopic examination showing crescents and immunofluorescence examination showing linear deposition of IgG with or without positive anti-GBM antibodies in serum were included in the study and followed-up for at least 12 months. All the patients were treated with steroids, cyclophosphamide, and plasma exchange. A total of 17 patients (nine males were included. The mean age at presentation was 39.11 ± 16.58 (range 11–72 years. Twelve patients (70% presented with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN, 4 (23.5% presented with Goodpasture syndrome, while 1 (5.8% had nephritic syndrome, 7 (41% were hypertensive, and 14 (82.3% required dialysis at the time of presentation. Four patients (23.5% had associated anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody positivity (anti-myeloperoxidase antibodies in all. Fourteen (87.5% patients had crescentic glomerulonephritis, while 5 (31.25% showed necrotizing (n = 4 or granulomatous (n = 1 in the vasculitis. Of 16 patients who received treatment, four (23.25% achieved complete remission. In this single-center study, the majority of anti-GBM disease patients presented with RPGN and had crescentic glomerulonephritis on biopsy with poor treatment outcome.

  5. Redox control on trace element geochemistry and provenance of groundwater in fractured basement of Blantyre, Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapoma, Harold Wilson Tumwitike; Xie, Xianjun; Zhang, Liping

    2014-12-01

    Assessment of redox state, pH, environmental isotope ratios (δ18O, δ2H) coupled with PHREEQC speciation modeling investigations were conducted to understand trace element geochemical controls in basement complex aquifer in Blantyre, Malawi. Groundwater in the area is typical Ca-Mg-Na-HCO3 type suggesting more of carbonate weathering and significance of carbon dioxide with dissolution of evaporites, silicate weathering and cation exchange being part of the processes contributing to groundwater mineralization. The significance of pH and redox status of groundwater was observed. The groundwater redox state was mostly O2-controlled with few exceptions where mixed (oxic-anoxic) O2-Mn(IV) and O2-Fe(III)/SO4 controlled redox states were modeled. More so, some of the main trace element species modeled with PHREEQC varied with respect to pH. For instance vanadium(III) and vanadium(IV) decreased with increase in field pH contrasting the trend observed for vanadium(V). The isotopic composition of the sampled groundwater varied between -5.89‰ and -3.32‰ for δ18O and -36.98‰ and -20.42‰ for δ2H. The δ2H/δ18O and δ18O/Cl- ratios revealed that groundwater is of meteoric origin through vertical recharge and mixing processes. The d-excess value approximated the y-intercept of GMWL of 10 (d-excess = 9.269, SD = 1.240) implying that influence of secondary evaporative processes on isotopic signature of the study area is minimal. Thus, there is evidence to suggest that groundwater chemistry in the studied aquifer is influenced by inherent processes with contribution from human activities and furthermore, the water originates from rainwater recharge. With such results, more studies are recommended to further constrain the processes involved in mineralization through isotopic fractionation investigations.

  6. Ultrastructural and Temporal Changes of the Microvascular Basement Membrane and Astrocyte Interface Following Focal Cerebral Ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Il; Kim, Eun Hee; del Zoppo, Gregory J.; Heo, Ji Hoe

    2009-01-01

    Microvascular integrity is lost during cerebral ischemia. Detachment of the microvascular basement membrane (BM) from the astrocyte, as well as degradation of the BM, is responsible for the loss of microvascular integrity. However, their ultrastructural and temporal changes during cerebral ischemia are not well known. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 1, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 48 hr. By using transmission electron microscopy, the proportion of intact BM–astrocyte contacts and electron densities of the BM were measured from five randomly selected microvessels in the ischemic basal ganglia. Their temporal changes and associations with activities of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were investigated. The intact portion of the BM–astrocyte contacts was decreased significantly within 4 hr and was rarely observed at 48 hr after MCAO. Decreases in the electron density and degradation of the BM were significant 12 hr after MCAO. The intact BM–astrocyte contacts and the mean BM density showed a significant positive correlation (r = 0.784, P < 0.001). MMP-9 activity was correlated negatively with the intact BM–astrocyte contacts (r = −0.711, P < 0.001) and with the BM density (r = −0.538, P 5 0.0016). The increase in MMP-9 coincided temporally with the loss of the BM–astrocyte contacts and a decrease in the BM density. Ultrastructural alterations occurring in the microvascular BM and its contacts with astrocyte endfeet were temporally associated in cerebral ischemia. Time courses of their alterations should be considered in the treatment targeted to the microvascular BM and its contact with astrocytes. PMID:18831008

  7. Evidence of volcanism in the Paleozoic metamorphic basement of the Sierra Madre Oriental, NE-Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres Sanchez, S. A.; Ramirez Fernandez, J. A.; Jenchen, U.; Barboza Gudino, J. R.; Augustsson, C.

    2012-04-01

    The Paleozoic metamorphic basement of the Sierra Madre Oriental comprises a wide variety of protoliths including psammites, pelites, tuffs, lava flows, pillow lavas as well as ultramafic rocks, metamorphosed under subgreenschist to greenschist facies. All these units are grouped under the Granjeno Schist Formation (GSF). They are limited by faults in the core of the Huizachal-Peregrina Anticlinorium (HPA), and in the uplifts of Miquihuana (M), Bustamante (B) and Aramberri (A) in NE Mexico. The aim of this work is to compare the metavolcanic units in the different localities, looking for a genetic relationship between them. These units include four different lithologies: a) pale green fine grained interstratified horizons of basic to intermediate metatuffs, b) massive, green and coarse greenstones, representing massive metalavas, c) well preserved dark green pillow lavas, and d) pale to dark massive talc schists. They are mainly massive, interbedded with the metasediments and do not display the typical pervasive schistosity of GSF. Preliminary analysis of the metavolcanic units indicate that they are alkaline (AB/OIB). Their origin is still under debate, they could be originated during continental intraplate volcanism or from an ancient oceanic island (?). It has to be noted that the Silurian to Permian HPÁs sedimentary sequence, encloses only a rhyolitic body (Aserradero Fm.) that cannot be directly correlated with the metavolcanics. The metamorphism age (≈ 330±30 Ma) and protoliths of all localities are similar, but there are enough petrographic differences to interpret that the metamorphic conditions are not similar at all. It is proposed that the vulcanosedimentary sequence were deposited in a forearc basin along the Pangea western margin, and later metamorphosed during the subduction process through Carboniferous times.

  8. Basement Structure and Styles of Active Tectonic Deformation in Central Interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, N.; Hanks, C.

    2017-12-01

    Central Interior Alaska is one of the most seismically active regions in North America, exhibiting a high concentration of intraplate earthquakes approximately 700 km away from the southern Alaska subduction zone. Based on increasing seismological evidence, intraplate seismicity in the region does not appear to be uniformly distributed, but concentrated in several discrete seismic zones, including the Nenana basin and the adjacent Tanana basin. Recent seismological and neotectonics data further suggests that these seismic zones operate within a field of predominantly pure shear driven primarily by north-south crustal shortening. Although the location and magnitude of the seismic activity in both basins are well defined by a network of seismic stations in the region, the tectonic controls on intraplate earthquakes and the heterogeneous nature of Alaska's continental interior remain poorly understood. We investigated the current crustal architecture and styles of tectonic deformation of the Nenana and Tanana basins using existing geological, geophysical and geochronological datasets. The results of our study demonstrate that the basements of the basins show strong crustal heterogeneity. The Tanana basin is a relatively shallow (up to 2 km) asymmetrical foreland basin with its southern, deeper side controlled by the northern foothills of the central Alaska Range. Northeast-trending strike-slip faults within the Tanana basin are interpreted as a zone of clockwise crustal block rotation. The Nenana basin has a fundamentally different geometry; it is a deep (up to 8 km), narrow transtensional pull-apart basin that is deforming along the left-lateral Minto Fault. This study identifies two distinct modes of tectonic deformation in central Interior Alaska at present, and provides a basis for modeling the interplay between intraplate stress fields and major structural features that potentially influence the generation of intraplate earthquakes in the region.

  9. Long-term outcome of anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody disease treated with immunoadsorption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Biesenbach

    Full Text Available Anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM antibody disease may lead to acute crescentic glomerulonephritis with poor renal prognosis. Current therapy favours plasma exchange (PE for removal of pathogenic antibodies. Immunoadsorption (IAS is superior to PE regarding efficiency of antibody-removal and safety. Apart from anecdotal data, there is no systemic analysis of the long-term effects of IAS on anti-GBM-disease and antibody kinetics.To examine the long-term effect of high-frequency IAS combined with standard immunosuppression on patient and renal survival in patients with anti-GBM-disease and to quantify antibody removal and kinetics through IAS.Retrospective review of patients treated with IAS for anti-GBM-antibody disease confirmed by biopsy and/or anti-GBM-antibodies.University Hospital of Vienna, Austria.10 patients with anti-GBM-disease treated with IAS.Patient and renal survival, renal histology, anti-GBM-antibodies.Anti-GBM-antibodies were reduced by the first 9 IAS treatments (mean number of 23 to negative levels in all patients. Renal survival was 40% at diagnosis, 70% after the end of IAS, 63% after one year and 50% at the end of observation (mean 84 months, range 9 to 186. Dialysis dependency was successfully reversed in three of six patients. Patient survival was 90% at the end of observation.IAS efficiently eliminates anti-GBM-antibodies suggesting non-inferiority to PE with regard to renal and patient survival. Hence IAS should be considered as a valuable treatment option for anti-GBM-disease, especially in patients presenting with a high percentage of crescents and dialysis dependency due to an unusual high proportion of responders.

  10. Permeation of macromolecules into the renal glomerular basement membrane and capture by the tubules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Marlon G.; Altenburg, Michael K.; Sanford, Ryan; Willett, Julian D.; Bleasdale, Benjamin; Ballou, Byron; Wilder, Jennifer; Li, Feng; Miner, Jeffrey H.; Berg, Ulla B.; Smithies, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    How the kidney prevents urinary excretion of plasma proteins continues to be debated. Here, using unfixed whole-mount mouse kidneys, we show that fluorescent-tagged proteins and neutral dextrans permeate into the glomerular basement membrane (GBM), in general agreement with Ogston's 1958 equation describing how permeation into gels is related to molecular size. Electron-microscopic analyses of kidneys fixed seconds to hours after injecting gold-tagged albumin, negatively charged gold nanoparticles, and stable oligoclusters of gold nanoparticles show that permeation into the lamina densa of the GBM is size-sensitive. Nanoparticles comparable in size with IgG dimers do not permeate into it. IgG monomer-sized particles permeate to some extent. Albumin-sized particles permeate extensively into the lamina densa. Particles traversing the lamina densa tend to accumulate upstream of the podocyte glycocalyx that spans the slit, but none are observed upstream of the slit diaphragm. At low concentrations, ovalbumin-sized nanoparticles reach the primary filtrate, are captured by proximal tubule cells, and are endocytosed. At higher concentrations, tubular capture is saturated, and they reach the urine. In mouse models of Pierson’s or Alport’s proteinuric syndromes resulting from defects in GBM structural proteins (laminin β2 or collagen α3 IV), the GBM is irregularly swollen, the lamina densa is absent, and permeation is increased. Our observations indicate that size-dependent permeation into the lamina densa of the GBM and the podocyte glycocalyx, together with saturable tubular capture, determines which macromolecules reach the urine without the need to invoke direct size selection by the slit diaphragm. PMID:28246329

  11. Geo-Thermochronometric Insights on the Cycladic Basement and Cycladic Blueschist Unit Contact in the Southern Cyclades, Ios Island, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flansburg, M. E.; Stockli, D. F.; Poulaki, E. M.; Soukis, K. I.

    2017-12-01

    The North Cycladic Detachment System, the West Cycladic Detachment System, and the Naxos-Paros Detachment accommodated large-scale Oligo-Miocene exhumation in the backarc of the retreating Hellenic subduction zone. While bivergent detachment faults in the northern and western Cyclades are either contained within the Cycladic Blueschist Unit (CBU) or at the CBU-Upper Unit interface, the sheared contact between the CBU and the underlying Cycladic Basement in the southern Cyclades (Ios) has been debated for over 30 years, largely due to the ambiguous coexistence of both top-to-the-N and top-to-the-S shear sense indicators and a lack of robust timing information. Reliable chronostratigraphic and thermal history constraints allow us to test whether the contact is a low-angle normal fault-possibly part of a larger detachment system-or the South Cycladic Thrust by placing absolute ages on deformation, determining older over younger relationships or vice versa, and quantifying possible differential exhumation during Cenozoic extension. Zircon U-Pb dating for the granitic Basement core of Ios gave Carboniferous-Permian age and shows that surrounding Basement metasedimentary units can be divided into two groups based on detrital zircon signatures. An older group of metasedimentary rocks have maximum depositional ages (MDAs) ranging from 450 Ma to 354 Ma and predate the intrusions, and late Permian Basement paragneisses are younger than the intrusions and likely originally deposited unconformably on the older units. Samples from the CBU in northern Ios yielded MDAs ranging from Mid-Jurassic to Late Cretaceous and appear to be repeated due to either thrusting or subduction accretion and exhibit older over younger relationships. MDA data from mapped CBU at the southern end of Ios yielded Ordovician to Permian ages, calling into question their assignment as CBU, while also revealing older over younger relationships. Zircon (U-Th)/He ages for the Basement and the CBU on Ios are 9

  12. Proterozoic crustal evolution of the Eucla basement, Australia: Implications for destruction of oceanic crust during emergence of Nuna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, C. L.; Smithies, R. H.; Spaggiari, C. V.; Wingate, M. T. D.; Quentin de Gromard, R.; Clark, C.; Gardiner, N. J.; Belousova, E. A.

    2017-05-01

    The crystalline basement beneath the Cretaceous to Cenozoic Bight and Eucla Basins, in Western Australia has received comparatively little attention even though it lies on the eastern margin of one of the most mineral resource endowed regions on the planet. This basement is characterized by a complex geological evolution spanning c. 2 billion years, but paucity of outcrop and younger basin cover present a daunting challenge to understand the basement geology. In this work the composition of the unexposed Proterozoic crystalline basement to the Bight and Eucla Basins is investigated through zircon Hf isotopes and whole rock geochemistry from new drillcore samples. This region includes two geophysically defined basement entities: The Madura Province, containing: 1) c. 1478 Ma Sleeper Camp Formation, which has variable isotopic signatures including evolved values interpreted to reflect reworking of rare slivers of hyperextended Archean crust, 2) 1415-1389 Ma Haig Cave Supersuite, with mantle-like isotope values interpreted as melting of subduction-modified N-MORB source, and 3) 1181-1125 Ma Moodini Supersuite, with juvenile isotopic signatures interpreted to reflect mixed mafic lower-crustal and asthenospheric melts produced at the base of thinned crust. The Coompana Province, to the east of the Madura Province, has three major magmatic components: 1) c. 1610 Ma Toolgana Supersuite, with chemical and isotopic characteristics of primitive arc rock, 2) c. 1490 Ma Undawidgi Supersuite, with juvenile isotope values consistent with extensional processes involving asthenospheric input and 3) 1192-1140 Ma Moodini Supersuite, with strong isotopic similarity to Moodini Supersuite rocks in the Madura Province. This new isotopic and geochemical data shows that the Madura and Coompana regions together represent a huge tract of predominantly juvenile material. Magma sources recognised, include; 1) depleted mantle, producing MORB-like crust at c. 1950 Ma, but also contributing to

  13. Three-dimensional Monte Carlo calculations of the neutron and γ-ray fluences in the TFTR diagnostic basement and comparisons with measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liew, S.L.; Ku, L.P.; Kolibal, J.G.

    1985-10-01

    Realistic calculations of the neutron and γ-ray fluences in the TFTR diagnostic basement have been carried out with three-dimensional Monte Carlo models. Comparisons with measurements show that the results are well within the experimental uncertainties

  14. Assessment of proteolytic degradation of the basement membrane: a fragment of type IV collagen as a biochemical marker for liver fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veidal, Sanne S.; Karsdal, Morten A.; Nawrocki, Arkadiusz

    2011-01-01

    Collagen deposition and an altered matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression profile are hallmarks of fibrosis. Type IV collagen is the most abundant structural basement membrane component of tissue, which increases 14-fold during fibrogenesis in the liver. Proteolytic degradation of collagens...

  15. Effect of basement structure and salt tectonics on deformation styles along strike: An example from the Kuqa fold-thrust belt, West China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neng, Yuan; Xie, Huiwen; Yin, Hongwei; Li, Yong; Wang, Wei

    2018-04-01

    The Kuqa fold-thrust belt (KFTB) has a complex thrust-system geometry and comprises basement-involved thrusts, décollement thrusts, triangle zones, strike-slip faults, transpressional faults, and pop-up structures. These structures, combined with the effects of Paleogene salt tectonics and Paleozoic basement uplift form a complex structural zone trending E-W. Interpretation and comprehensive analysis of recent high-quality seismic data, field observations, boreholes, and gravity data covering the KFTB has been performed to understand the characteristics and mechanisms of the deformation styles along strike. Regional sections, fold-thrust system maps of the surface and the sub-salt layer, salt and basement structure distribution maps have been created, and a comprehensive analysis of thrust systems performed. The results indicate that the thrust-fold system in Paleogene salt range can be divided into five segments from east to west: the Kela-3, Keshen, Dabei, Bozi, and Awate segments. In the easternmost and westernmost parts of the Paleogene salt range, strike-slip faulting and basement-involved thrusting are the dominant deformation styles, as basement uplift and the limits of the Cenozoic evaporite deposit are the main controls on deformation. Salt-core detachment fold-thrust systems coincide with areas of salt tectonics, and pop-up, imbricate, and duplex structures are associated with the main thrust faults in the sub-salt layer. Distribution maps of thrust systems, basement structures, and salt tectonics show that Paleozoic basement uplift controlled the Paleozoic foreland basin morphology and the distribution of Cenozoic salt in the KFTB, and thus had a strong influence on the segmented structural deformation and evolution of the fold-thrust belt. Three types of transfer zone are identified, based on the characteristics of the salt layer and basement uplift, and the effects of these zones on the fault systems are evaluated. Basement uplift and the boundary of

  16. Two-stage formation model of the Junggar basin basement: Constraints to the growth style of Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dengfa

    2016-04-01

    Junggar Basin is located in the central part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). Its basement nature is a highly controversial scientific topic, involving the basic style and processes of crustal growth. Some researchers considered the basement of the Junggar Basin as a Precambrian continental crust, which is not consistent with the petrological compositions of the adjacent orogenic belts and the crust isotopic compositions revealed by the volcanic rocks in the basin. Others, on the contrary, proposed an oceanic crust basement model that does not match with the crustal thickness and geophysical characteristics of the Junggar area. Additionally, there are several viewponits, such as the duplex basement with the underlying Precambrian crystalline rocks and the overlying pre-Carboniferous folded basement, and the collaged basement by the Precambrian micro-continent block in the central part and the Hercynian accretionary folded belts circling it. Anyway, it is necessary to explain the property of basement rock, its strong inhomogeneous compositions as well as the geophysical features. In this paper, based on the borehole data from more than 300 industry wells drilled into the Carboniferous System, together with the high-resolution gravity and magnetic data (in a scale of 1:50,000), we made a detailed analysis of the basement structure, formation timing and processes and its later evolution on a basis of core geochemical and isotopic analysis. Firstly, we defined the Mahu Pre-Cambrian micro-continental block in the juvenile crust of Junggar Basin according to the Hf isotopic analysis of the Carboniferous volcanic rocks. Secondly, the results of the tectonic setting and basin analysis suggest that the Junggar area incorporates three approximately E-W trending island arc belts (from north to south: Yemaquan- Wulungu-Chingiz, Jiangjunmiao-Luliang-Darbut and Zhongguai-Mosuowan- Baijiahai-Qitai island arcs respectively) and intervened three approximately E-W trending

  17. Basement depth and sedimentary infill from deep seismic reflection data at the western tip of the offshore Corinth Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, Arnaud; Tripsanas, Efthymios; Hubert-Ferrari, Aurélia; Beck, Christian; Sakellariou, Dimitris

    2015-04-01

    The Corinth rift is a young continental rift located in central Greece. The active part of the rift forms an E-W striking depression - the Gulf of Corinth - that is the deepest in its central part. Extensive seismic surveys have imaged the basin's basement and allowed to estimate the total extension across most of the Gulf except its western tip. Extension is high in the central part and decreases westward and eastward, as reflected in the present-day bathymetry. Two decades of GPS measurements have shown that the extension rate increases westwards from ~5 to 10-15 mm yr-1, but this is not consistent with the long term pattern. However, no data allowed so far to estimate the basement depth at the western tip of the Gulf, where the geodetic extension rate is the largest. Such data would allow to check the apparent inconsistency between the present rate and the long-term estimates of crustal extension. We present here an unpublished multichannel seismic line dating from 1979 and crossing the western tip of the Gulf of Corinth. The line is 22 km long and strikes WNW-ESE, from the Mornos delta to the West-Channel fault. A Maxipulse source has been used, allowing to image the basement below the synrift sedimentary infill. To the east, a ~1.6 km deep basin is imaged between the southern margin of the Gulf and an inactive south-dipping fault located between the Aigion and the Trizonia faults. The sedimentary infill consists in an alternation between basin-focused bodies made of incoherent reflections and more extensive high-amplitude reflectors. Attributing this alternation to eustatic variations give an age of 300-350 ka to the oldest well imaged deposits. Northwest of the Trizonia fault, the basement is imaged at shallower depth, i.e. ~450 m. The western tip of the seismic line reaches the Mornos delta, close to the northern shoreline. There, the depth to the basement is larger, reaching ~1.2 km. The infill is made of 3 units : on the basement lies a thin unit of

  18. Continental basement inheritance and multiscale rifted ocean margin architectures: case studies from the N Atlantic-Greenland region (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdsworth, R. E.; Wilson, R.; McCaffrey, K. J.; Imber, J.; Jones, R.

    2009-12-01

    It is widely believed that pre-existing basement structures significantly influence the development of rifts in both intracontinental and margin settings, but this hypothesis remains to be tested in many areas.We first investigate how fault reactivation controls the distribution and growth of individual faults in the post-breakup cover sequence of the Norwegian margin. We then use a combined onshore and offshore approach to address the wider problem of how intraplate basement structures control subsequent regional-scale fault patterns and kinematics. The influence of pre-existing, rift-related normal faults upon the early stages of fault growth in the post-breakup cover sequence is well illustrated offshore in the Vøring basin. Here Maastrichtian to Palaeocene age rift-related normal faults on the Nyk High were blanketed by Plio-Pleistocene sediments, which are cut locally by small (maximum throw directly above points of maximum throw or offsets along underlying rift-related faults, which therefore clearly control the location and architecture of later structures. Both upward and downward fault propagation from basement to cover and vice versa are recognised during this reactivation. Elastic interactions between en-echelon fault segments situated above basement heterogeneities are likely to promote the rapid growth of reactivated fault systems. Basement structures are often oriented significantly oblique to later rifting directions and can lead to transtensional deformation patterns. The Davis Strait of West Greenland contains the Ungava transform fault zone, which separates the failed spreading centres of the Labrador Sea and Baffin Bay. Detailed onshore studies of fault patterns and kinematics, at regional to outcrop scales, reveal the key roles played by two main transtensional fault systems. An older system of N-S trending en echelon normal faults bound a series of deep sedimentary basins of mid- upper-Cretaceous age that are linked by ESE-trending normal

  19. Identification of Zones and Areal Extent of Weathered Crystalline Basement in the Archean-Lower Proterozoic Crust of the South Tatar Arch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.B. Amelchenko

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on the data of geophysical surveys and deep drilling the depth to the crystalline basement and its weathered upper layer at the eastern flank of the South Tartar Arch varies from 1650 to 2500 m. Against the ongoing depletion of hydrocarbon reserves in the Paleozoic reservoirs of the region the basement becomes a promising exploration target. However the study of its architecture, composition and areal extent is largely hindered by so far very limited coring in this interval. In previous research correlation of core data and wireline logs was used for petrophysical characterization and identification of zones in a vertical profile of the upper weathered layer of the basement in the deep parametric test wells 50 Novournyak and 2000 Tyimazy with most complete core recovery. These characterization criteria have been utilized for analysis of 750 deep wells drilled in Bashkortostan within the South Tatar Arch which is bounded in the south by the Serafimovsko-Baltaevskiy Graben. In 340 wells based on wireline and production logs the upper weathered layer of the basement revealed certain distinct features of vertical zonation. The analysis resulted in thickness maps for Zone B and combined thickness maps for Zones B + C where the weathered basement is characterized by two morphological types – linear-areal and linear-fractured. The findings support the initial assumption that the obtained petrophysical characteristics may be applied to identify the weathered crystalline basement in wells with no core.

  20. Active basement uplift as seen with cosmogenic lenses: the Sierra Pie de Palo case (Western Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siame, L. L.; Sébrier, M.; Costa, C. H.; Ahumada, E. A.; Bellier, O.

    2013-12-01

    The Andean foreland of western Argentina (28°S-33°S) corresponds to retroarc deformations associated with the ongoing flat subduction of the Nazca plate beneath the South American lithosphere, and associated with high levels of seismic activity and crustal active faulting. To improve earthquake source identification and characterization in the San Juan region, data from seismology, structural geology and quantitative geomorphology can be integrated and combined to provide a seismotectonic model. In this model, the Andean back-arc of western Argentina has to be regarded as an obliquely converging foreland where Plio-Quaternary deformations are partitioned between strike-slip and thrust motions that are localized on the E-verging, thin-skinned Argentine Precordillera, and the W-verging thick-skinned Sierras Pampeanas, respectively. In this domain, the Sierra Pie de Palo is a key structure playing a major role in the partitioning of the Plio-Quaternary deformations. Located in the westernmost Sierras Pampeanas, the Sierra Pie de Palo forms a NNE striking, 80 km-long and 35-40 km-wide, ellipsoid range that reaches elevation as high as 3162 m. This mountain range is an actively growing basement fold associated with a high level of seismic activity (e.g., the November 23, 1977, Caucete, Mw 7.4 earthquake). To evaluate the degree of tectonic activity around the Sierra Pie de Palo, we combined a detailed morphometric analysis of the topography together with in situ-produced cosmogenic 10Be concentrations measured in (1) bedrock outcrops corresponding to the exhumed erosional regional surface, (2) surface boulders abandoned on alluvial fans deformed by active faults, and (3) in fluvial sediments sampled at the outlets of selected watersheds that drains out from the Sierra Pie de Palo. All together, our results allows: (1) assessing quantitative constraints on the rate of tectonic and denudation processes that are responsible for the active growth and erosion of the Sierra

  1. Revisiting Seafloor-Spreading in the Red Sea: Basement Nature, Transforms and Ocean-Continent Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapponnier, P.; Dyment, J.; Zinger, M. A.; Franken, D.; Afifi, A. M.; Wyllie, A.; Ali, H. G.; Hanbal, I.

    2013-12-01

    A new marine geophysical survey on the Saudi Arabian side of the Red Sea confirms early inferences that ~ 2/3 of the eastern Red Sea is floored by oceanic crust. Most seismic profiles south of 24°N show a strongly reflective, landward-deepening volcanic basement up to ~ 100 km east of the axial ridge, beneath thick evaporitic deposits. This position of the Ocean-Continent Boundary (OCB) is consistent with gravity measurements. The low amplitudes and long wavelengths of magnetic anomalies older than Chrons 1-3 can be accounted for by low-pass filtering due to thick sediments. Seafloor-spreading throughout the Red Sea started around 15 Ma, as in the western Gulf of Aden. Its onset was coeval with the activation of the Aqaba/Levant transform and short-cutting of the Gulf of Suez. The main difference between the southern and northern Red Sea lies not in the nature of the crust but in the direction and modulus of the plate motion rate. The ~ 30° counterclockwise strike change and halving of the spreading rate (~ 16 to ~ 8 mm/yr) between the Hermil (17°N) and Suez triple junctions results in a shift from slow (≈ North Atlantic) to highly oblique, ultra-slow (≈ Southwest Indian) ridge type. The obliquity of spreading in the central and northern basins is taken up by transform discontinuities that stop ~ 40 km short of the coastline, at the OCB. Three large transform fault systems (Jeddah, Zabargad, El Akhawein) nucleated as continental transfer faults reactivating NNE-trending Proterozoic shear zones. The former two systems divide the Red Sea into three main basins. Between ~15 and ~5 Ma, for about 10 million years, thick evaporites were deposited directly on top of oceanic crust in deep water, as the depositional environment, modulated by climate, became restricted by the Suez and Afar/Bab-el-Mandeb volcano-tectonic 'flood-gates.' The presence of these thick deposits (up to ~ 8 km) suffices to account for the difference between the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden

  2. The Outcropping Basement of the Demerara Marginal Plateau (French Guiana-Surinam): Results from DRADEM Dredges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingelhoefer, F.; Basile, C.; Girault, I.; Bernet, M.; Jean-Louis, P.; Agranier, A.; Loncke, L.; Heuret, A.; Poetisi, E.

    2017-12-01

    plateau, and to propose new relationships between the formation of the Demerara Plateau and the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province, based on a magmatic nature and Mesozoic age of the Demerara basement.

  3. Epithelial basement membrane injury and regeneration modulates corneal fibrosis after pseudomonas corneal ulcers in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Gustavo K; Santhiago, Marcony R; Santhanam, Abirami; Lassance, Luciana; Thangavadivel, Shanmugapriya; Medeiros, Carla S; Bose, Karthikeyan; Tam, Kwai Ping; Wilson, Steven E

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether myofibroblast-related fibrosis (scarring) after microbial keratitis was modulated by the epithelial basement membrane (EBM) injury and regeneration. Rabbits were infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa after epithelial scrape injury and the resultant severe keratitis was treated with topical tobramycin. Corneas were analyzed from one to four months after keratitis with slit lamp photos, immunohistochemistry for alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and monocyte lineage marker CD11b, and transmission electron microscopy. At one month after keratitis, corneas had no detectible EBM lamina lucida or lamina densa, and the central stroma was packed with myofibroblasts that in some eyes extended to the posterior corneal surface with damage to Descemet's membrane and the endothelium. At one month, a nest of stromal cells in the midst of the SMA + myofibroblasts in the stroma that were CD11b+ may be fibrocyte precursors to myofibroblasts. At two to four months after keratitis, the EBM fully-regenerated and myofibroblasts disappeared from the anterior 60-90% of the stroma of all corneas, except for one four-month post-keratitis cornea where anterior myofibroblasts were still present in one localized pocket in the cornea. The organization of the stromal extracellular matrix also became less disorganized from two to four months after keratitis but remained abnormal compared to controls at the last time point. Myofibroblasts persisted in the posterior 10%-20% of posterior stroma even at four months after keratitis in the central cornea where Descemet's membrane and the endothelium were damaged. This study suggests that the EBM has a critical role in modulating myofibroblast development and fibrosis after keratitis-similar to the role of EBM in fibrosis after photorefractive keratectomy. Damage to EBM likely allows epithelium-derived transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) to penetrate the stroma and drive development and

  4. Pan-African deformations in the basement of the Negele area, southern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yihunie, Tadesse

    2002-03-01

    Polydeformed and metamorphosed Neoproterozoic rocks of the East African Orogen in the Negele area constituted three lithostructurally distinct and thrust-bounded terranes. These are, from west to east, the Kenticha, Alghe and Bulbul terranes. The Kenticha and Bulbul terranes are metavolcano-sedimentary and ultramafic sequences, representing parts of the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS), which are welded to the central Alghe gneissic terrane of the Mozambique Belt affinity along N-S-trending sheared thrust contacts. Structural data suggest that the Negele basement had evolved through three phases of deformation. During D1 (folding) deformation, north-south upright and inclined folds with north-trending axes were developed. East and west-verging thrusts, right-lateral shearing along the north-oriented Kenticha and Bulbul thrust contacts and related structural elements were developed during D2 (thrusting) deformation. The pervasive D1 event is interpreted to have occurred at 620-610 Ma and the D2 event ended prior to 554 Ma. Right-lateral strike-slips along thrust contacts are interpreted to have been initiated during late D2. During D3, left-lateral strike-slip along the Wadera Shear Zone and respective strike-slip movements along conjugate set of shear zones were developed in the Alghe terrane, and are interpreted to have occurred later than 557 Ma. The structural data suggest that eastward thrusting of the Kenticha and westward tectonic transport of the Bulbul sequences over the Alghe gneissic terrane of the Mozambique Belt, during D2, were accompanied by right-lateral strike-slip displacements along thrust contacts. Right-lateral strike-slip movements along the Kenticha thrust contact, further suggest northward movement of the Kenticha sequence during the Pan-African orogeny in the Neoproterozoic. Left-lateral strike-slip along the orogen-parallel NNE-SSW Wadera Shear Zone and strike-slip movements along a conjugate set of shear zones completed final terrane

  5. Geochemical, microtextural and petrological studies of the Samba prospect in the Zambian Copperbelt basement: a metamorphosed Palaeoproterozoic porphyry Cu deposit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Master, Sharad; Mirrander Ndhlovu, N.

    2015-04-01

    Ever since Wakefield (1978, IMM Trans., B87, 43-52) described a porphyry-type meta-morphosed Cu prospect, the ca 50 Mt, 0.5% Cu Samba deposit (12.717°S, 27.833°E), hosted by porphyry-associated quartz-sericite-biotite schists in northern Zambia, there has been controversy about its origin and significance. This is because it is situated in the basement to the world's largest stratabound sediment-hosted copper province, the Central African Copperbelt, which is hosted by rocks of the Neoproterozoic Katanga Supergroup. Mineralization in the pre-Katangan basement has long played a prominent role in ore genetic models, with some authors suggesting that basement Cu mineralization may have been recycled into the Katangan basin through erosion and redeposition, while others have suggested that the circulation of fluids through Cu-rich basement may have leached out the metals which are found concentrated in the Katangan orebodies. On the basis of ca 490-460 Ma Ar-Ar ages, Hitzman et al. (2012, Sillitoe Vol., SEG Spec. Publ., 16, 487-514) suggested that Samba represents late-stage impregnation of copper mineralization into the basement, and that it was one of the youngest copper deposits known in the Central African Copperbelt. If the Samba deposit really is that young, then it would have post-dated regional deformation and metamorphism (560-510 Ma), and it ought to be undeformed and unmetamorphosed. The Samba mineralization consists of chalcopyrite and bornite, occurring as disseminations, stringers and veinlets, found in a zone >1 km along strike, in steeply-dipping lenses up to 10m thick and >150m deep. Our new major and trace element XRF geochemical data (14 samples) show that the host rocks are mainly calc-alkaline metadacites. Cu is correlated with Ag (Cu/Ag ~10,000:1) with no Au or Mo. Our study focused on the microtextures and petrology of the Samba ores. We confirm that there is alteration of similar style to that accompanying classical porphyry Cu mineralization

  6. The nature of the basement in the archaean Dharwar carton of southern India and the age of the peninsular gneiss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naha, K.; Vrevsky, A.B.; Bogomolov, Ye.S.

    1993-01-01

    The archaean peninsular gneiss of southern India is considered by a number of workers to be the basement upon which the Dharwar supra crustal rocks were deposited. However, the peninsular gneiss in its present state is a composite gneiss formed by syn kinematic migmatization during successive episodes of folding (DhF 1 , DhF 1a and DhF 2 ) that affected the Dharwar supra crustal rocks. An even earlier phase of migmatization and deformation (DhF * ) is evident from relict fabrics in small enclaves to represent the original basement for the Dharwar supra crustal rocks. Tonalitic pebbles in conglomerates of the Dharwar supergroup confirm the inference that the supra crustal rocks were deposited on a gneissic basement. Whole rock Rb-Sr ages of gneisses showing only the DhF 1 structure fall in the range of 3100-3200 Ma. Where the later deformation (DhF 2 ) has been associated with considerable recrystallization, the Rb-Sr ages are between 2500 Ma and 2700 Ma. Significantly, a new Rb-Sr analysis of tonalitic gneiss pebbles in the Kaldurga conglomerate of the Dharwar sequence is consistent with an age of ∼ 2500 Ma and not that of 3300 Ma reported earlier by Venkatasubramanian and Narayanaswamy (1974). Pb-Pb ages based on direct evaporation of detrital zircon grains from the metasedimentary rocks of the Dharwar sequence fall into two groups, 3300-3100 Ma, and 2800-3000 Ma. Stratigraphic, structural, textural and geochronologic data, therefore, indicate that the peninsular gneiss of the Dharwar craton evolved over a protracted period of time ranging from >3300 Ma to 2500 ma. (author). 26 refs., 13 figs., 8 tabs

  7. Composition and timing of carbonate vein precipitation within the igneous basement of the Early Cretaceous Shatsky Rise, NW Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldmacher, J.; Li, S.; Hauff, F. F.; Garbe-Schoenberg, C.; Yu, S.; Zhao, S.; Rausch, S.

    2013-12-01

    Shatsky Rise is an Early Cretaceous large igneous province located in the NW Pacific ca. 1500 km east of Japan and is the third-largest oceanic plateau on Earth (after Ontong Java and Kerguelen). Numerous calcium carbonate veins were recovered from the igneous basement of Shatsky Rise during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 324 (Sager et al., 2010). The chemical (Sr/Ca, Mg/Ca) and isotopic (87Sr/86Sr, 143Nd/144Nd, δ18O, δ13C) compositions of these veins were determined to constrain the timing of vein formation and to provide valuable data for the reconstruction of past seawater composition. A dominant control of seawater chemistry on calcite composition is evident for most investigated vein samples with varying compositional contribution from the basaltic basement. The Sr/Ca ratio of the vein calcite is positively correlated with Mg/Ca and with δ18O, indicating warmer/colder precipitation temperatures with decreasing/increasing Sr/Ca (and Mg/Ca) ratios, respectively. Distinctly higher formation temperatures (as inferred from oxygen isotope ratios) indicative of hydrothermal vein formation are only observed at one site (Site U1350, drilled into the central part of Shatsky Rise). The highest 87Sr/86Sr ratios (least basement influence) of vein samples at each drill site range form 0.707264 to 0.707550 and are believed to best reflect contemporaneous Early Cretaceous seawater composition. In principle, age information can be deduced by correlating these ratios with the global seawater Sr isotope evolution. Since the Sr isotopic composition of seawater has fluctuated three times between the early and mid Cretaceous (McArthur et al., 2001) no unambiguous precipitation ages can be constrained by this method and vein precipitation could have occurred at any time between ˜80 and 140 Ma. However, based on combined chemical and isotopic data and correlations of vein composition with formation depth and inferred temperature, we argue for a rather early

  8. De novo deposition of laminin-positive basement membrane in vitro by normal hepatocytes and during hepatocarcinogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, R; Wewer, U M; Thorgeirsson, S S

    1988-01-01

    De novo formation of laminin-positive basement membranes was found to be a distinct morphologic feature of diethylnitrosamine/phenobarbital-induced hepatocellular carcinomas of the rat. The first appearance of extracellularly located laminin occurred in the preneoplastic liver lesions......, a location where no laminin was seen in normal rat liver. The amount of extractable laminin from hepatocellular carcinomas was significantly higher (approximately 100 ng per mg tissue) than that of normal liver tissue (less than 20 ng per mg). In vitro experiments demonstrated that normal and preneoplastic...

  9. Thick-skinned tectonics in a Late Cretaceous-Neogene intracontinental belt (High Atlas Mountains, Morocco): The flat-ramp fault control on basement shortening and cover folding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekkak, A.; Ouanaimi, H.; Michard, A.; Soulaimani, A.; Ettachfini, E. M.; Berrada, I.; El Arabi, H.; Lagnaoui, A.; Saddiqi, O.

    2018-04-01

    Most of the structural studies of the intracontinental High Atlas belt of Morocco have dealt with the central part of the belt, whose basement does not crop out. Here we study the Alpine deformation of the North Subatlas Zone, which is the part of the Western High Atlas (WHA) Paleozoic Massif that involves both Paleozoic basement units and remnants of their Mesozoic-Cenozoic cover formations. Our aim is to better constrain the geometry and kinematics of the basement faults during the Alpine shortening. Based on detail mapping, satellite imagery and field observations, we describe an array of sub-equatorial, transverse and oblique faults between the WHA Axial Zone and the Haouz Neogene basin. They define a mosaic of basement blocks pushed upon one another and upon the Haouz basement along the North Atlas Fault (NAF). The Axial Zone makes up the hanging-wall of the Adassil-Medinet Fault (AMF) south of this mosaic. The faults generally presents flat-ramp-flat geometry linked to the activation of multiple décollement levels, either within the basement where its foliation is subhorizontal or within favourable cover formations (Jurassic evaporites, Lower Cretaceous silty red beds, Upper Cretaceous evaporitic marls, Neogene basal argillites). The occurrence of the North Atlas detachment (NAD) allowed folded pop-up units to develop in front of the propagating NAF. Shortening began as early as the Campanian-Maastrichtian along the AMF. The direction of the maximum horizontal stress rotated from NNE-SSW to NNW-SSE from the Maastrichtian-Paleocene to the Neogene. The amount of shortening reaches 20% in the Azegour transect. This compares with the shortening amount published for the central-eastern High Atlas, suggesting that similar structures characterize the Paleozoic basement all along the belt. The WHA thick-skinned tectonics evokes that of the frontal Sevier belt and of the external Western Alps, although with a much minor pre-inversion burial.

  10. Surface analogue outcrops of deep fractured basement reservoirs in extensional geological settings. Examples within active rift system (Uganda) and proximal passive margin (Morocco).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Bastien; Géraud, Yves; Diraison, Marc

    2014-05-01

    The important role of extensive brittle faults and related structures in the development of reservoirs has already been demonstrated, notably in initially low-porosity rocks such as basement rocks. Large varieties of deep-seated resources (e.g. water, hydrocarbons, geothermal energy) are recognized in fractured basement reservoirs. Brittle faults and fracture networks can develop sufficient volumes to allow storage and transfer of large amounts of fluids. Development of hydraulic model with dual-porosity implies the structural and petrophysical characterization of the basement. Drain porosity is located within the larger fault zones, which are the main fluid transfer channels. The storage porosity corresponds both to the matrix porosity and to the volume produced by the different fractures networks (e.g. tectonic, primary), which affect the whole reservoir rocks. Multi-scale genetic and geometric relationships between these deformation features support different orders of structural domains in a reservoir, from several tens of kilometers to few tens of meters. In subsurface, 3D seismic data in basement can be sufficient to characterize the largest first order of structural domains and bounding fault zones (thickness, main orientation, internal architecture, …). However, lower order structural blocks and fracture networks are harder to define. The only available data are 1D borehole electric imaging and are used to characterize the lowest order. Analog outcrop studies of basement rocks fill up this resolution gap and help the understanding of brittle deformation, definition of reservoir geometries and acquirement of reservoir properties. These geological outcrop studies give information about structural blocks of second and third order, getting close to the field scale. This allows to understand relationships between brittle structures geometry and factors controlling their development, such as the structural inheritance or the lithology (e.g. schistosity, primary

  11. A Novel Function for the nm23-Hl Gene: Overexpression in Human Breast Carcinoma Cells Leads to the Formation of Basement Membrane and Growth Arrest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howlett, Anthony R; Petersen, Ole W; Steeg, Patricia S; Bissell, Mina J

    1994-01-01

    We have developed a culture system using reconstituted basement membrane components in which normal human mammary epithelial cells exhibit several aspects of the development and differentiation process, including formation of acinar-like structures, production and basal deposition of basement membrane components, and production and apical secretion of sialomucins. Cell lines and cultures from human breast carcinomas failed to recapitulate this process. The data indicate the importance of cellular interactions with the basement membrane in the regulation of normal breast differentiation and, potentially, its loss in neoplasia. Our purpose was to use this assay to investigate the role of the putative metastasis suppressor gene nm23-H1 in mammary development and differentiation. The metastatic human breast carcinoma cell line MDA-MB-435, clones transfected with a control pCMVBamneo vector, and clones transfected with pCMVBamneo vector containing nm23-H1 complementary DNA (the latter of which exhibited a substantial reduction in spontaneous metastatic potential in vivo) were cultured within a reconstituted basement membrane. Clones were examined for formation of acinus-like spheres, deposition of basement membrane components, production of sialomucin, polarization, and growth arrest. In contrast to the parental cell line and control transfectants, MDA-MB-435 breast carcinoma cells overexpressing Nm23-H1 protein regained several aspects of the normal phenotype within reconstituted basement membrane. Nm23-H1 protein-positive cells formed organized acinus-like spheres, deposited the basement membrane components type IV collagen and, to some extent, laminin to the outside of the spheres, expressed sialomucin, and growth arrested. Growth arrest of Nm23-H1 protein-positive cells was preceded by and correlated with formation of a basement membrane, suggesting a causal relationship. The data indicate a previously unidentified cause-and-effect relationship between nm23-H1 gene

  12. Geochemical interpretation of the Precambrian basement and overlying Cambrian sandstone on Bornholm, Denmark: Implications for the weathering history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Lingli; Friis, Henrik; Yang, Tian

    2017-01-01

    A geochemical study of the Precambrian basement granites from the Borggård borehole on Bornholm, Denmark, suggests that the granites were moderately weathered (Chemical Index of Alteration-CIA=66–71) during subaerial exposure in a humid climate. The microcline iswell preserved,whereas plagioclase...... to the intermediate group of the regional granitoids on Bornholm. The source materials for the AKM (CIA = 71–72, PIA=94–96), the GadebyMember in the Borggård borehole (CIA=52–69, PIA=56–99) and an outcrop in Nexø, eastern Bornholm (CIA = 52–66, PIA = 61–96), have endured similar degrees of weak to moderate weathering...... but lost most of the plagioclase. The LSF has a comparable weathering history (CIA = 63–73), but the plagioclase is better preserved (PIA = 65–78). The significant variation of weathering rates of plagioclase and K-feldspar in the basement granite and the provenance of sandstone from the Borggård borehole...

  13. Fertility of late Archaean basement granite in the vicinity of U-mineralized Neoproterozoic Bhima basin, peninsular India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senthil Kumar, P.; Srinivasan, R.

    2002-01-01

    Late Archaean granitoids constituting the basement for the Neoproterozoic Bhima Group are exposed along the southern margin of the Bhima basin in southern India. These are rich in accessory minerals such as sphene, allanite, apatite and zircon, which are the main carriers of uranium and thorium. In situ gamma-ray spectrometric analysis reveals that these granitoids have higher abundances of Th, U and K (Th range 10-43 ppm, mean 26 ppm; U range 3-21 ppm, mean 8 ppm; K range 1.2-5.2%, mean 4.0%) relative to granitoids occurring farther away from the basin. Thus, they belong to the class of fertile granitoids from the point of view of uranium mineralization. The granitoids have been mylnotized and hydrothermally altered in the Gugi-Ukkinal fault zone, which constitutes the zone of uranium mineralization discovered recently along the southern margin of the Bhima basin. Uranium apparently derived from hydrothermal leaching of basement granitoid rocks may have got deposited in the fault zone at the contact of carbonate rocks, which provided favourable geochemical environment (Eh-pH conditions) for uranium precipitation. (author)

  14. Improved proliferation and differentiation capacity of human mesenchymal stromal cells cultured with basement-membrane extracellular matrix proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Ulrich; Kramer, Jan; Behrends, Jochen; Driller, Birgit; Wendler, Nils-Ole; Boehrnsen, Florian; Rohwedel, Jürgen; Schlenke, Peter

    2010-12-01

    In vitro cultured mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are characterized by a short proliferative lifespan, an increasing loss of proliferation capacity and progressive reduction of differentiation potential. Laminin-1, laminin-5, collagen IV and fibronectin are important constituents of the basement membrane extracellular matrix (ECM) that are involved in a variety of cellular activities, including cell attachment and motility. The in vitro proliferation capacity of MSC was significantly improved when the cells were incubated in the presence of basement membrane ECM proteins. For example, a mixture of proteins improved proliferation capacity 250-fold in comparison with standard conditions after five passages. Furthermore, in colony-forming unit-fibroblast (CFU-F) assays colony numbers and size were significantly extended. Blocking specific integrin cell-surface receptors, positive effects on the proliferation capacity of MSC were inhibited. Additionally, when MSC were co-cultivated with ECM proteins, cells maintained their multipotential differentiation capacity throughout many culture passages in comparison with cells cultivated on plastic. However, expansion of MSC on laminin-5 suppressed any subsequent chondrogenic differentiation. Our results suggest that expansion of bone marrow-derived MSC in the presence of ECM proteins is a powerful approach for generating large numbers of MSC, showing a prolonged capacity to differentiate into mesodermal cell lineages, with the exception of the lack of chondrogenesis by using laminin-5 coating.

  15. Deletion of the basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan type XVIII collagen causes hypertriglyceridemia in mice and humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph R Bishop

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Lipoprotein lipase (Lpl acts on triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in the peripheral circulation, liberating free fatty acids for energy metabolism or storage. This essential enzyme is synthesized in parenchymal cells of adipose tissue, heart, and skeletal muscle and migrates to the luminal side of the vascular endothelium where it acts upon circulating lipoproteins. Prior studies suggested that Lpl is immobilized by way of heparan sulfate proteoglycans on the endothelium, but genetically altering endothelial cell heparan sulfate had no effect on Lpl localization or lipolysis. The objective of this study was to determine if extracellular matrix proteoglycans affect Lpl distribution and triglyceride metabolism.We examined mutant mice defective in collagen XVIII (Col18, a heparan sulfate proteoglycan present in vascular basement membranes. Loss of Col18 reduces plasma levels of Lpl enzyme and activity, which results in mild fasting hypertriglyceridemia and diet-induced hyperchylomicronemia. Humans with Knobloch Syndrome caused by a null mutation in the vascular form of Col18 also present lower than normal plasma Lpl mass and activity and exhibit fasting hypertriglyceridemia.This is the first report demonstrating that Lpl presentation on the lumenal side of the endothelium depends on a basement membrane proteoglycan and demonstrates a previously unrecognized phenotype in patients lacking Col18.

  16. Rb-Sr and K-Ar isotopic evidence for neoproterozoic (Pan-African) granulite metamorphism from the basement of Mumbai offshore basin, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathore, S.S.; Vijan, A.R.; Singh, M.P.; Misra, K.N.; Prabhu, B.N.

    2000-01-01

    Precambrian basement from well HBM-1 in the Heera oil field of Mumbai offshore basin has been dated by Rb-Sr and K-Ar methods. Five granulitic basement samples from three conventional drill cores have yielded Rb-Sr isochron age of 502±25 Ma with an initial Sr ratio of 0.70855±0.00013. This age has been interpreted as the time of granulite facies metamorphism of the basement rocks in the region. Two whole rock samples from the basement of this well have yielded mutually concordant K-Ar ages of 505±16 Ma and 507±17 Ma. The K-Ar ages are significantly similar to Rb-Sr age obtained from this well, suggesting complete isotopic reequilibration around 500 Ma ago. The time of secondary thermal heating around 500 Ma ago in the basement of Heera field coincides with the widespread neoproterozoic (Pan-African) thermo-tectonic event extending from the Arabian Peninsula and eastern Africa covering Madagascar, southern India. Sri Lanka and East Antarctica. This study widens the limit of the Pan-African zone, which hitherto was thought to be confined to the western part (presently southern part) of the Indian subcontinent, towards further east. (author)

  17. Provenance of Austroalpine basement metasediments: tightening up Early Palaeozoic connections between peri-Gondwanan domains of central Europe and Northern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegesmund, S.; Oriolo, S.; Heinrichs, T.; Basei, M. A. S.; Nolte, N.; Hüttenrauch, F.; Schulz, B.

    2018-03-01

    New U-Pb and Lu-Hf detrital zircon data together with whole-rock geochemical and Sm-Nd data were obtained for paragneisses of the Austroalpine basement south of the Tauern Window. Geochemically immature metasediments of the Northern-Defereggen-Petzeck (Ötztal-Bundschuh nappe system) and Defereggen (Drauzug-Gurktal nappe system) groups contain zircon age populations which indicate derivation mainly from Pan-African orogens. Younger, generally mature metasediments of the Gailtal Metamorphic Basement (Drauzug-Gurktal nappe system), Thurntaler Phyllite Group (Drauzug-Gurktal nappe system) and Val Visdende Formation (South Alpine Basement) were possibly derived from more distant sources. Their significantly larger abundances of pre-Pan-African zircons record a more advanced stage of downwearing of the Pan-African belts and erosion of older basement when the Austroalpine terrane was part of the Early Palaeozoic Northern Gondwana passive margin. Most zircon age spectra are dominated by Ediacaran sources, with lesser Cryogenian, Tonian and Stenian contributions and subordinate Paleoproterozoic and Neoarchean ages. These age patterns are similar to those recorded by Cambro-Ordovician sedimentary sequences in northeastern Africa between Libya and Jordan, and in some pre-Variscan basement inliers of Europe (e.g. Dinarides-Hellenides, Alboran microplate). Therefore, the most likely sources seem to be in the northeastern Saharan Metacraton and the Northern Arabian-Nubian Shield (Sinai), further supported by whole-rock Sm-Nd and zircon Lu-Hf data.

  18. Structural analysis of an outcropping granite (Proterozoic basement of Yémen): faults and fractures distributions and scaling properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Garzic, Edouard; de L'Hamaide, Thibaut; Diraison, Marc; Géraud, Yves; de Urreiztieta, Marc; Hauville, Benoit; Champanhet, Jean-Michel

    2010-05-01

    Numerous deep fractured reservoirs in basement have risen in recent years for oil or geothermal production. Such reservoirs are often badly-known because of a lack of direct information. Indeed, structural models proposed are mostly based on 1D borehole data, and conventional geophysical methods like seismic profiles are not so good techniques to image basement structures. Therefore, understanding the effects of scale in the organization of fracture system is a key problem in modelling geometry of deep fractured reservoir. The aim of this study is to present a detailed structural analysis of an outcropping granite at different scales and to contribute to comprehension of scaling properties of faults systems. Multi-scale structural maps were produced by remote sensing techniques and field approaches in the granitic Proterozoic basement of Al-Mukalla (Yémen). This region, located at the Southern boundary of the Arabian Plate, has a Pan-African tectonic signature and then has undergone two phases of continental extension since Mesozoic times: Jurassic-Cretaceous and Oligo-Miocene rifting (i.e. Gulf of Aden opening). In a first time, very high resolution satellite imagery (QUICKBIRD) was used to construct map of structural lineaments from regional scale to micro-block scale (~1 km x 1 km). In a second time, field observations and fractures measurements performed at outcrop scale allow us to confirm suitability of satellite picking. Finally, description of the various structures existing in Burum's granite and characterization of geometrical and morphological features of faults, fractured corridors and joints enable us to interpret structural lineaments with better accuracy. Major faults strike N090°E and N120°E, whereas secondary structures strike N000°E and N040°E and are interpreted as minor faults, fractured corridors or joints. Consequently, brittle deformation is mainly characterised by structural blocks with parallelogram shaped with fault segments

  19. Proterozoic basement and Palaeozoic sediments in the Ringkøbing–Fyn High characterized by zircon U–Pb ages and heavy minerals from Danish onshore wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivarius, Mette; Friis, Henrik; Kokfelt, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    New data from the Proterozoic basement and scattered Palaeozoic sediments in the Ringkøbing–Fyn High including zircon U–Pb geochronometry, heavy mineral compositions and whole rock geochemistry is presented here to provide a frame of reference for detrital provenance studies. The Ringkøbing......–Fyn High is a WNW–ESE trending structural high including subcropping basement rocks, and the results indicate that it is a southerly extension of the Fennoscandian Shield. The zircon data show matching age distribution patterns in crystalline basement rocks obtained from two drill sites, the Glamsbjerg-1...... in the Arnum-1 well on the southern flank of the Ringkøbing–Fyn High has zircon ages (c. 1.54–1.53 Ga) that resemble those of gneiss in the Glamsbjerg High. The conglomeratic sandstone in the Ringe-1 well on the Glamsbjerg High has a dual age distribution as the matrix has late Palaeoproterozoic to early...

  20. Rb/Sr and U/Pb isotopic ages in basement rocks of Mina Gonzalito and Arroyo Salado, Atlantic North-Patagonian Massif, Rio Negro, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varela, Ricardo; Sato, Ana M.; Cingolani, Carlos A.; Basei, Miguel A.S.; Siga, Oswaldo; Sato, Kei

    1998-01-01

    Isotopic ages from metamorphic and plutonic rocks of the Atlantic area of North Patagonian basement indicate that the main crustal tectonic events occurred during the late Proterozoic to early Paleozoic times. Rb/Sr and U/Pb data in the 550-470 Ma interval suggest an old tecto-thermal activity during the upper Brazilian Cycle (Rio Doce Orogeny). At regional scale, the comparable Neo proterozoic basement of Ventania and sedimentary for eland cover of Tandilia continues to the Northeast, in the Dom Feliciano Belt. A possible correlation of the North Patagonian basement with igneous-metamorphic relics of Central Argentina (Pampean Ranges of San Luis-Cordoba and at La Pampa province) is also indicated. (author)

  1. Expression and deposition of basement membrane proteins by brain capillary endothelial cells in a primary murine model of the blood-brain barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Maj Schneider; Birkelund, Svend; Larsen, Annette Burkhart

    2016-01-01

    of the present study was to create four different in vitro constructs of the murine BBB to characterise if the expression and secretion of basement membrane proteins by the murine brain capillary endothelial cells (mBCECs) was affected by co-culturing with pericytes, mixed glial cells, or both. Primary m...... membrane, and astrocyte endfeet. To study the interaction of the different cells of the BBB, construction of in vitro BBB models is valuable. However, the modulation and contribution of the cells of the BBB to the synthesis of basement membrane proteins in vitro is not fully elaborated. Thus, the aim......, and immunofluorescent labelling were used. The mBCECs were found to express major basement membrane proteins in vitro and increased expression of laminin α5 and collagen IV α1 was correlated to the addition of BBB inducing factors (hydrocortisone, Ro20-1724, pCPT-cAMP). Co-culturing of the mBCECs with pericytes, mixed...

  2. Relationship of present saline fluid with paleomigration of basinal brines at the basement/sediment interface (Southeast basin – France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquilina, Luc; Dreuzy, Jean-Raynald De

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the isotopic composition (O, D, Sr, O SO 4 , S SO 4 , Cl, He) of a present saline fluid sample collected at the sediment/basement interface in the Permian continental formation at 634 m depth in the SE margin of the Massif Central shield (Ardèche margin of the Southeast basin of France). The fluid sample shows clear water–rock interaction processes, such as feldspar dissolution and kaolinite precipitation, which have led to high Na concentrations and water stable isotopes above the local meteoric water line. The geological formations of the SE margin of the Massif Central shield show that intensive fluid circulation phases occurred across the margin from the late Triassic to the middle Jurassic. The fluids most probably originated from fluid expulsion during burial of the thick Permo-Carboniferous sedimentary succession. These circulation phases were responsible for cementation of the margin and for the solutes in the matrix microporosity which were extracted by leaching core samples. The chemical and isotopic composition of the saline fluid sample at 634 m in the Permian rock is very similar to that of fluids in the microporosity of the rock matrix. Their S SO 4 , O SO 4 and Sr isotopic compositions are close to those of cements investigated in fracture fillings in the same geological formations. Simple diffusion computations and comparison of the chemical composition of the present free fluid sample with matrix porosity fluids indicate that the solutes in the present free fluid sample are related to solutes originating from fluid circulation events which occurred 160–200 Ma ago through their diffusion from the matrix microporosity. A two-stage fluid flow regime is proposed to interpret the chemistry of present and paleo-fluids. (1) During the extensional context (Permian to Cretaceous), basinal brines migrated along the basement/sediment interface after expulsion from the subsiding basin. This fluid migration would be responsible for

  3. Unravelling the Formation and Exhumation of the Cycladic Blueschist Unit and Basement in the Southern Aegean, Sikinos Island, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulaki, E. M.; Stockli, D. F.; Flansburg, M. E.; Soukis, K. I.

    2017-12-01

    The Cycladic Islands of Greece expose an assemblage of HP/LT metamorphic rocks that record both processes related to subduction and backarc metamorphic core complex formation in the wake of the Hellenic subduction zone retreat. Sikinos Island is located in the southern Cyclades and exposes both the Cycladic Blueschist Unit (CBU) - greenschist-facies marbles and schists with preserved blueschist-facies - and the tectonically underlying Cycladic Basement(CB) - felsic plutonic rocks and metasedimentary country rocks known as the Carapace. Both units experienced Eocene subduction under eclogite/blueschist facies conditions and Miocene large-magnitude back-arc extension under greenschist facies conditions. The contact between the two units has been described as an extensional shear zone or a subduction-related thrust that was reactivated as an extensional top-to-the-N detachment. This study presents new (1) zircon U-Pb data to determine detrital provenance and maximum depositional ages (MDAs) of the CBU intervals on Sikinos, constrain protolith ages for the CB and Carapace, and quantify the timing of HP-LT metamorphism, (2) zircon and apatite (U-Th)/He cooling ages to elucidate the cooling and exhumation history of the CBU and CB in Sikinos and the nature of the contact between the two units. Results from zircon U-Pb analysis from the CBU show a spread of detrital zircon U-Pb ages dominated by Triassic, Permian Variscan, Pan-African and Proterozoic modes and MDAs from Early Cretaceous to Late Jurassic. This is in contrast to ubiquitous Triassic CBU on other Cycladic islands. LA-SS-ICP depth-profile analysis allows for simultaneous trace element analysis and for the identification of metamorphic zircon rims with ages of 26, 50 and 70 Ma. Notably, metamorphic rims of 26 Ma have not been reported in the CBU of the southern Cyclades prior to this study. These rims appear to be restricted a zone along the CBU-Basement contact, suggesting fluid flow as a possible explanation

  4. Correlation of basement rocks from Waka Nui-1 and Awhitu-1, and the Jurassic regional geology of Zealandia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortimer, N.; Raine, J.I.; Cook, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    Core and cuttings of sandstone and mudstone from Waka Nui-1, an offshore oil exploration well west of Northland, and from Awhitu-1, a water bore in western Auckland, add to the growing number of samples retrieved from otherwise inaccessible basement of the Zealandia continent. On the basis of pollen and spores, the sedimentary rocks at the bottom of Waka Nui-1 are dated as Early-Middle Jurassic, and rocks from Awhitu-1 are Late Jurassic. On the basis of age, sandstone petrology, and geographic position, a correlation of rocks in both wells with Murihiku Terrane is probable. In New Zealand, Jurassic sedimentary rocks have usually been interpreted in a tectonostratigraphic terrane context. An alternative way to look at the New Zealand Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous sedimentary rocks is as potentially interconnected forearc, intra-arc, back-arc, and intracontinental basins that evolved adjacent to an active margin. (author). 47 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  5. A role for PDGF-C/PDGFRα signaling in the formation of the meningeal basement membranes surrounding the cerebral cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Andrae

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Platelet-derived growth factor-C (PDGF-C is one of three known ligands for the tyrosine kinase receptor PDGFRα. Analysis of Pdgfc null mice has demonstrated roles for PDGF-C in palate closure and the formation of cerebral ventricles, but redundancy with other PDGFRα ligands might obscure additional functions. In search of further developmental roles for PDGF-C, we generated mice that were double mutants for Pdgfc−/− and PdgfraGFP/+. These mice display a range of severe phenotypes including spina bifida, lung emphysema, abnormal meninges and neuronal over-migration in the cerebral cortex. We focused our analysis on the central nervous system (CNS, where PDGF-C was identified as a critical factor for the formation of meninges and assembly of the glia limitans basement membrane. We also present expression data on Pdgfa, Pdgfc and Pdgfra in the cerebral cortex and microarray data on cerebral meninges.

  6. Soluble salt removal from MSWI fly ash and its stabilization for safer disposal and recovery as road basement material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colangelo, F; Cioffi, R; Montagnaro, F; Santoro, L

    2012-06-01

    Fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWI) is classified as hazardous in the European Waste Catalogue. Proper stabilization processes should be required before any management option is put into practice. Due to the inorganic nature of MSWI fly ash, cementitious stabilization processes are worthy of consideration. However, the effectiveness of such processes can be severely compromised by the high content of soluble chlorides and sulphates. In this paper, a preliminary washing treatment has been optimized to remove as much as possible soluble salts by employing as little as possible water. Two different operating conditions (single-step and two-step) have been developed to this scope. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that stabilized systems containing 20% of binder are suitable for safer disposal as well as for material recovery in the field of road basement (cement bound granular material layer). Three commercially available cements (pozzolanic, limestone and slag) have been employed as binders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Sequential development of pulmonary hemorrhage with MPO-ANCA complicating anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody-mediated glomerulonephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peces, R; Rodríguez, M; Pobes, A; Seco, M

    2000-05-01

    We report a case of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis caused by anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) antibodies that progressed to end-stage renal disease in a 67-year-old woman with diabetes. Intensive combined immunosuppressive therapy with methylprednisolone bolus, oral prednisone, and cyclophosphamide led to negativity of anti-GBM antibodies but was not able to restore renal function. After 28 months of hemodialysis, the patient suddenly presented with pulmonary hemorrhage. In this setting, high levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO)-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) and negative anti-GBM antibodies were found. Therapy with oral prednisone and cyclophosphamide led to resolution of pulmonary hemorrhage and negativity of MPO-ANCA.

  8. Defective muscle basement membrane and lack of M-laminin in the dystrophic dy/dy mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, H; Christmas, P; Wu, X R

    1994-01-01

    -linked Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies. We have examined M-laminin expression in mice with autosomal recessive muscular dystrophy caused by the mutation dy. The heavy chain of M-laminin was undetectable in skeletal muscle, heart muscle, and peripheral nerve by immunofluorescence and immunoblotting......M-laminin is a major member of the laminin family of basement membrane proteins. It is prominently expressed in striated muscle and peripheral nerve. M-laminin is deficient in patients with the autosomal recessive Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy but is normal in patients with the sex...... tissue from dy/dy mice, suggesting that M-laminin heavy-chain mRNA may be produced at very low levels or is unstable. Information about the chromosomal localization of the M heavy-chain in human and mouse suggests that a mutation in the M-chain gene causes the muscular dystrophy in dy/dy mice. The dy...

  9. APLIKASI PENATAAN PARKIR BASEMENT MOBIL DENGAN POLA PETAK PARKIR 900 MENINGKATKAN KEPUASAN PENGGUNA PARKIR MALL RAMAYANA DENPASAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ketut Sutapa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mall Ramayana Denpasar sebagai pusat perbelanjaan memiliki fasilitas parkir baik di dalam maupun di luar gedung. Untuk meningkatkan kepuasan pengguna parkir, maka dilakukan pemberlakuan pola petak parkir mobil dengan sudut 900  melalui penerapan teknologi tepat guna dengan pendekatan sistemik, holistik, interdisipliner dan partisipatori. Pengukuran kondisi lingkungan (suhu, kelembaban, kebisingan, intensitas cahaya dilakukan menggunakan alat environment meter  dan anemometer (kecepatan angin. Data yang diperoleh selanjutnya dianalisis secara deskriptif dan diuji normalitasnya dengan uji Shapiro-Wilk  dan uji beda dengan One Way Anova, sedangkan yang tidak berdistribusi normal menggunakan uji Wilcoxon pada tingkat kemaknaan 5%. Hasil penelitian yang telah dilakukan terhadap perbaikan basement parkir mobil menunjukkan terjadinya peningkatan terhadap kepuasan ditinjau dari penurunan beban kerja sebesar 17,57%, penurunan penggunaan energi otot sebesar 29,96%, peningkatan kemudahan parkir sebesar 35,79%, peningkatan kenyamanan parkir  sebesar  54,63%, dan peningkatan produktivitas parkir sebesar 29,50%.

  10. A feasibility study on the expected seismic AVA signatures of deep fractured geothermal reservoirs in an intrusive basement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleardi, Mattia; Mazzotti, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    The deep geothermal reservoirs in the Larderello-Travale field (southern Tuscany) are found in intensively fractured portions of intrusive/metamorphic rocks. Therefore, the geothermal exploration has been in search of possible fracture signatures that could be retrieved from the analysis of geophysical data. In the present work we assess the feasibility of finding seismic markers in the pre-stack domain which may pinpoint fractured levels. Thanks to the availability of data from boreholes that ENEL GreenPower drilled in the deep intrusive basement of this geothermal field, we derived the expected amplitude versus angle (AVA) responses of the vapour reservoirs found in some intensely, but very localized, fractured volumes within the massive rocks. The information we have available limit us to build 1D elastic and isotropic models only and thus anisotropy effects related to the presence of fractures cannot be properly modelled. We analysed the velocities and the density logs pertaining to three wells which reached five deep fractured zones in the basement. The AVA response of the fractured intervals is modelled downscaling the log data to seismic scale and comparing the analytical AVA response (computed with the Aki and Richards approximation) and the AVA extracted from a synthetic common mid point (calculated making use of a reflectivity algorithm). The results show that the amplitude of the reflections from the fractured level is characterized by negative values at vertical incidence and by decreasing absolute amplitudes with the increase of the source to receiver offset. This contrasts with many observations from hydrocarbon exploration in clastic reservoirs where gas-sand reflections often exhibit negative amplitudes at short offsets but increasing absolute amplitudes for increasing source to receiver offsets. Thereby, some common AVA attributes considered in silicoclastic lithologies would lead to erroneous fracture localization. For this reason we propose a

  11. Histones have high affinity for the glomerular basement membrane. Relevance for immune complex formation in lupus nephritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmiedeke, T.M.; Stoeckl, F.W.W.; Weber, R.; Sugisaki, Y.; Batsford, S.R.; Vogt, A.

    1989-01-01

    An effort has been made to integrate insights on charge-based interactions in immune complex glomerulonephritis with nuclear antigen involvement in lupus nephritis. Attention was focussed on the histones, a group of highly cationic nuclear constituents, which could be expected to bind to fixed anionic sites present in the glomerular basement membrane (GBM). We demonstrated that all histone subfractions, prepared according to Johns, have a high affinity for GBM and the basement membrane of peritubular capillaries. Tissue uptake of 125 I-labeled histones was measured by injecting 200 micrograms of each fraction into the left kidney via the aorta and measuring organ uptake after 15 min. In glomeruli isolated from the left kidneys, the following quantities of histones were found: f1, 13 micrograms; f2a (f2al + f2a2), 17 micrograms; f2b, 17 micrograms; and f3, 32 micrograms. Kinetic studies of glomerular binding showed that f1 disappeared much more rapidly than f2a. The high affinity of histones (pI between 10.5 and 11.0; mol wt 10,000-22,000) for the GBM correlates well with their ability to form aggregates (mol wt greater than 100,000) for comparison lysozyme (pI 11, mol wt 14,000), which does not aggregate spontaneously bound poorly (0.4 micrograms in isolated glomeruli). The quantity of histones and lysozyme found in the isolated glomeruli paralleled their in vitro affinity for a Heparin-Sepharose column (gradient elution studies). This gel matrix contains the sulfated, highly anionic polysaccharide heparin, which is similar to the negatively charged heparan sulfate present in the GBM. Lysozyme eluted with 0.15 M NaCl, f1 with 1 M NaCl, and f2a, f2b, and f3 could not be fully desorbed even with 2 M NaCl; 6 M guanidine-HCl was necessary

  12. Histones have high affinity for the glomerular basement membrane. Relevance for immune complex formation in lupus nephritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmiedeke, T.M.; Stoeckl, F.W.W.; Weber, R.; Sugisaki, Y.; Batsford, S.R.; Vogt, A.

    1989-06-01

    An effort has been made to integrate insights on charge-based interactions in immune complex glomerulonephritis with nuclear antigen involvement in lupus nephritis. Attention was focussed on the histones, a group of highly cationic nuclear constituents, which could be expected to bind to fixed anionic sites present in the glomerular basement membrane (GBM). We demonstrated that all histone subfractions, prepared according to Johns, have a high affinity for GBM and the basement membrane of peritubular capillaries. Tissue uptake of /sup 125/I-labeled histones was measured by injecting 200 micrograms of each fraction into the left kidney via the aorta and measuring organ uptake after 15 min. In glomeruli isolated from the left kidneys, the following quantities of histones were found: f1, 13 micrograms; f2a (f2al + f2a2), 17 micrograms; f2b, 17 micrograms; and f3, 32 micrograms. Kinetic studies of glomerular binding showed that f1 disappeared much more rapidly than f2a. The high affinity of histones (pI between 10.5 and 11.0; mol wt 10,000-22,000) for the GBM correlates well with their ability to form aggregates (mol wt greater than 100,000) for comparison lysozyme (pI 11, mol wt 14,000), which does not aggregate spontaneously bound poorly (0.4 micrograms in isolated glomeruli). The quantity of histones and lysozyme found in the isolated glomeruli paralleled their in vitro affinity for a Heparin-Sepharose column (gradient elution studies). This gel matrix contains the sulfated, highly anionic polysaccharide heparin, which is similar to the negatively charged heparan sulfate present in the GBM. Lysozyme eluted with 0.15 M NaCl, f1 with 1 M NaCl, and f2a, f2b, and f3 could not be fully desorbed even with 2 M NaCl; 6 M guanidine-HCl was necessary.

  13. A public domain model for 1D temperature and rheology construction in basement-sedimentary geothermal exploration: an application to the Spanish Central System and adjacent basins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limberger, J.; Bonte, D.; Vicente, G. de; Beekman, F.; Cloetingh, S.; Wees, J.D. van

    2017-01-01

    Brittle basement and sedimentary rocks, in particular if these are underlain by radiogenic crust, are considered a prime target for enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). They are marked by high geothermal gradients, caused by radiogenic heat production, and are well suited to be used for geothermal

  14. Immunohistochemical localization of chondroitin sulfate, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, heparan sulfate proteoglycan, entactin, and laminin in basement membranes of postnatal developing and adult rat lungs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannes, P L; Burch, K K; Khosla, J

    1993-01-01

    Histologic preparations of lungs from 1-, 5-, 10-, 18-, and 25-day-old postnatal and adult rats were examined immunohistochemically with antibodies specific against chondroitin sulfate (CS), basement membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (BM-CSPG), heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG), entacti...

  15. Inferring the subsurface basement depth and the structural trends as deduced from aeromagnetic data at West Beni Suef area, Western Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Ahmed; Abdel Hafeez, Tharwat H.; Saleh, Hassan S.; Mohamed, Waheed H.

    2016-12-01

    The present work aimed to delineate the subsurface structures and to estimate the magnetic source depth at the selected area lying in West Beni Suef area, Western Desert, Egypt, following different geomagnetic techniques. The analysis of aeromagnetic data demonstrates five significant tectonic faults trending to NW-SE, ENE-WSW, NE-SW, E-W and NNW-SSE directions constructed using Euler deconvolution techniques. The execution of this study is initiated by transformation of the total intensity aeromagnetic data to the reduced to pole (RTP) magnetic intensity. This is followed by applying several transformation techniques and various filtering processes through qualitative and quantitative analyses on magnetic data. The reduced to the northern magnetic pole (RTP) data are separated spectrally into regional and residual magnetic components using the computed power spectrum of the magnetic data. The estimated mean depths of both regional and residual sources are found to be 5.27 km and 2.78 km respectively. Also, depth estimations have been conducted by application of the Euler deconvolution and 2-D modeling techniques. The results indicate that the eastern and northern parts of the study area discriminate deeper basement relief and the depth of basement surface reaches to 5095 m. While the southern and western parts of the study area discriminate shallower basement relief and the depth of basement surface reaches to 227 m. This study has given a clear picture of the geologic structures beneath the study area.

  16. A COMPARISON OF WINTER SHORT-TERM AND ANNUAL AVERAGE RADON MEASUREMENTS IN BASEMENTS OF A RADON-PRONE REGION AND EVALUATION OF FURTHER RADON TESTING INDICATORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Nirmalla G.; Steck, Daniel J.; Field, R. William

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate the temporal variability between basement winter short-term (7 to 10 days) and basement annual radon measurements. Other objectives were to test the short-term measurement’s diagnostic performance at two reference levels and to evaluate its ability to predict annual average basement radon concentrations. Electret ion chamber (short-term) and alpha track (annual) radon measurements were obtained by trained personnel in Iowa residences. Overall, the geometric mean of the short-term radon concentrations (199 Bq m−3) was slightly greater than the geometric mean of the annual radon concentrations (181 Bq m−3). Short-term tests incorrectly predicted that the basement annual radon concentrations would be below 148 Bq m−3 12% of the time and 2% of the time at 74 Bq m−3. The short-term and annual radon concentrations were strongly correlated (r=0.87, pradon potential when the reference level is lowered to 74 Bq m−3. PMID:24670901

  17. 19-DEJ-1, a hemidesmosome-anchoring filament complex-associated monoclonal antibody. Definition of a new skin basement membrane antigenic defect in junctional and dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fine, J D; Horiguchi, Y; Couchman, J R

    1989-01-01

    50% of patients with recessive dystrophic EB further suggests, for the first time, that an inherited defect in basement membrane is shared in patients with junctional and some recessive dystrophic EB. The difference in site of skin cleavage in the latter two disorders gives additional support...

  18. Integrated geophysical investigations of linkages between Precambrian basement and sedimentary structures in the Ucayali basin, Peru; Fort Worth basin, Texas; and Osage County, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elebiju, Olubunmi Olumide

    I conducted integrated geophysical studies within the Fort Worth basin, Texas; Osage County, Oklahoma, and the Ucayali basin, Peru. My studies are directed at understanding the relationships or links between Precambrian basement structures and sedimentary structures using these three areas as case studies. Links between basement structure, hydrocarbon reservoirs, and sedimentary sequences are not a new concept. Such relationships have been documented in the Paradox, Hardeman, Anadarko, Arkoma, Ardmore and Williston basins among others. Structures such as fault zones that can influence the formation of sedimentary basins and mineral deposits are often formed by intraplate tectonism. In order to compare the relationship between the Precambrian basement structures and sedimentary structures, I analyzed series of derivative and filtered maps of aeromagnetic and gravity data, which enhance basement structures, that were integrated with seismic data and seismic attribute data that enhance structures within the sedimentary sections. Other information such as well data and geologic information etc were also integrated. This integrated workflow facilitates the comparison of the links or relationships between the two structures. The results of the Fort Worth basin are presented in Chapter 3. The results of this integrated study show that the sedimentary structures within the study area are mainly related to basement structures because these structures are aligned parallel to anomalies identified on the high-resolution aeromagnetic (HRAM) data. The northeast-southwest and northwest-southeast orientations of sedimentary features are consistently parallel with Precambrian structural fabrics that are associated with structures such as the northeast trending Ouachita orogenic belt and the northwest trending Muenster Arch, which reactivated a late Cambrian/Late Precambrian faults. The knowledge gained in this study will impact oil and gas exploration and development within the

  19. Ric-8a, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for heterotrimeric G proteins, regulates bergmann glia-basement membrane adhesion during cerebellar foliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shang; Kwon, Hyo Jun; Huang, Zhen

    2012-10-24

    The cerebellum consists of an intricate array of lobules that arises during the process of foliation. Foliation not only increases surface area, but may also facilitate organization of cerebellar neural circuitry. Defects in cerebellar foliation are associated with a number of diseases. Yet, little is known about how foliation, a process involving large-scale and simultaneous movement of several different cell types, is coordinated by cell-cell signaling at the molecular level. Here we show that Ric-8a, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor in the G-protein-coupled receptor pathway, is specifically required in Bergmann glia during cerebellar foliation. We find that ric-8a mutation in mice results in disorganized Bergmann glial scaffolding, defective granule cell migration, and disrupted Purkinje cell positioning. These abnormalities result from primary defects in Bergmann glia since mutations in granule cells do not show similar effects. They first arise during late embryogenesis, at the onset of foliation, when ric-8a mutant Bergmann glia fail to maintain adhesion to the basement membrane specifically at emerging fissures. This suggests that Ric-8a is essential for the enhanced Bergmann glia-basement membrane adhesion required for fissure formation. Indeed, we find that ric-8a-deficient cerebellar glia show decreased affinity for basement membrane components. We also find that weakening Bergmann glia-basement membrane interaction by β1 integrin deletion results in a similar phenotype. These results thus reveal a novel role of Ric-8a in modulating Bergmann glia-basement membrane adhesion during foliation, and provide new insights into the signaling pathways that coordinate cellular movement during cerebellar morphogenesis.

  20. Geo-electrical investigation of near surface conductive structures suitable for groundwater accumulation in a resistive crystalline basement environment: A case study of Isuada, southwestern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayode, J. S.; Adelusi, A. O.; Nawawi, M. N. M.; Bawallah, M.; Olowolafe, T. S.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a geophysical surveying for groundwater identification in a resistive crystalline basement hard rock in Isuada area, Southwestern Nigeria. Very low frequency (VLF) electromagnetic and electrical resistivity geophysical techniques combined with well log were used to characterize the concealed near surface conductive structures suitable for groundwater accumulation. Prior to this work; little was known about the groundwater potential of this area. Qualitative and semi-quantitative interpretations of the data collected along eight traverses at 20 m spacing discovered conductive zones suspected to be fractures, faults, and cracks which were further mapped using Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) technique. Forty VES stations were utilized using Schlumberger configurations with AB/2 varying from 1 to 100 m. Four layers i.e. the top soil, the weathered layer, the partially weathered/fractured basement and the fresh basement were delineated from the interpreted resistivity curves. The weathered layers constitute the major aquifer unit in the area and are characterized by moderately low resistivity values which ranged between about 52 Ωm and 270 Ωm while the thickness varied from 1 to 35 m. The depth to the basement and the permeable nature of the weathered layer obtained from both the borehole and the hand-dug wells was used to categorize the groundwater potential of the study area into high, medium and low ratings. The groundwater potential map revealed that about 45% of the study area falls within the low groundwater potential rating while about 10% constitutes the medium groundwater potential and the remaining 45% constitutes high groundwater potential. The low resistivity, thick overburden, and fractured bedrock constitute the aquifer units and the series of basement depressions identified from the geoelectric sections as potential conductive zones appropriate for groundwater development.

  1. Basement and cover-rock deformation during Laramide contraction in the Northern Madison Range (Montana) and its influence on Cenozoic basin formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellogg, K.S. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Schmidt, C.J. [Western Michigan Univ., Kalamazoo, MI (United States); Young, S.W. [Conoco, Inc., Midland, TX (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Two major Laramide fault systems converge in the northwestern Madison Range: the northwest-striking, southwest-vergent Spanish Peaks reverse fault and the north-striking, east-vergent Hilgard thrust system. Analysis of foliation attitudes in basement gneiss north and south of the Spanish Peaks fault indicates that the basement in thrusted blocks of the Hilgard thrust system has been rotated by an amount similar to that of the basement-cover contact. In most places along the Hilgard thrust system, a large basement overhang, produced by thrusting of Archean blocks above rocks as young as Late Cretaceous, overlies a tight footwall syncline. This tight folding is largely concentric and was accommodated by flexural slip, resulting in severe crowding in synclinal hinges that resulted in observed or inferred features such as bedding-plane slip, imbricate and out-of-syncline thrusting, and hinge collapse. This paired fault system (the Madison normal fault system and the Hilgard thrust system) of the northern Madison Range is strikingly similar to other paired systems in southwestern Montana along and adjacent to the western margins of the Ruby Range, Snowcrest Range, Greenhorn Range, Tobacco Root Mountains, and Bridger Range. No hydrocarbon discoveries have been made in this unique structural province. However, petroleum exploration here has focused on basement-cored anticlines, both surface and subthrust, related to the two major Laramide fault systems and on the fault-bounded blocks of Tertiary rocks within the post-Laramide extensional basins. The interplay of the two Laramide fault systems during both Laramide shortening and Tertiary extension has produced a variety of possible structural traps in the Madison Range that have not yet been thoroughly investigated.

  2. Records of Mesoproterozoic taphrogenic events in the eastern basement of the Araçuaí Orogen, southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Maia Rabelo Fonte-Boa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The history of palaeocontinents alternates long fragmentation to drift periods with relatively short agglutination intervals. One of the products of a Rhyacian-Orosirian orogeny was a palaeocontinent that brought together the basement of the Araçuaí-West Congo orogen (AWCO with regions now located in the São Francisco and Congo cratons. From ca. 2 Ga to ca. 0.7 Ga, this large region of the São Francisco-Congo palaeocontinent was spared of orogenic events, but underwent at least five taphrogenic events recorded by anorogenic magmatism and/or sedimentation. The taphrogenic events are well documented in the AWCO proximal portions and neighboring cratonic regions, but lack evidence in the AWCO high-grade core. Our studies on amphibolites intercalated in the Rhyacian Pocrane complex, basement of the Rio Doce magmatic arc, allowed to the recognition of two Mesoproterozoic taphrogenic episodes. The oldest one, a Calymmian episode, is recorded by amphibolites with a zircon magmatic crystallization age at 1529 ± 37 Ma (U-Pb SHRIMP, and lithochemical signature of basaltic magmatism related to continental intraplate settings. Another set of amphibolite bodies records the youngest taphrogenic episode, a Stenian event, with a zircon magmatic crystallization age at 1096 ± 20 Ma (U-Pb SHRIMP, and lithochemical signature similar to mature magmatism of continental rift setting. The Calymmian episode (ca. 1.5 Ga correlates to the Espinhaço II basin stage and mafic dikes of the northern Espinhaço, Chapada Diamantina and Curaçá domains, while the Stenian episode (ca. 1.1 Ga correlates to the Espinhaço III basin stage. We also present U-Pb data for 87 detrital zircon grains from a quartzite lens intercalated in the Pocrane complex, the Córrego Ubá quartzite. Its age spectrum shows main peaks at 1176 ± 21 Ma (35%, 1371 ± 30 Ma (18%, 1536 ± 22 Ma (19%, 1803 ± 36 Ma (17% and 1977 ± 38 Ma (12%, suggesting a Stenian (ca. 1176 Ma maximum

  3. Unraveling an antique subduction process from metamorphic basement around Medellín city, Central Cordillera of Colombian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, Andres; Juliani, Caetano

    2011-10-01

    In the surroundings of Caldas and El Retiro cities (Colombia) metamorphic rocks derived from basic and pelitic protoliths comprise the Caldas amphibole schist and the Ancón schist respectively. Subordinated metamorphosed granite bodies (La Miel gneiss) are associated to these units, and The El Retiro amphibolites, migmatites and granulites crops out eastwards of these units, separated by shear zones. The Caldas amphibole schist and the Ancón schist protoliths could have been formed in a distal marine reduced environment and amalgamated to the South American continent in an apparent Triassic subduction event. The El Retiro rocks are akin to a continental basement and possible include impure metasediments of continental margin, whose metamorphism originated granulite facies rocks and migmatites as a result of the anatexis of quartz-feldspathic rocks. The metamorphism was accompanied by intense deformation, which has juxtaposed both migmatites and granulite blocks. Afterward, heat and fluid circulation associated with the emplacement of minor igneous intrusions resulted in intense fluid-rock interaction, variations in the grain size of the minerals and, especially, intense retrograde metamorphic re-equilibrium. Thermobarometric estimations for the Caldas amphibole schist indicate metamorphism in the Barrovian amphibolite facies. The metamorphic path is counter-clockwise, but retrograde evolution could not be precisely defined. The pressures of the metamorphism in these rocks range from 6.3 to 13.5 kbar, with narrow temperature ranging from 550 to 630 °C. For the Ancón schist metapelites the P- T path is also counter-clockwise, with a temperature increase evidenced by the occurrence of sillimanite and the cooling by later kyanite. The progressive metamorphism event occurred at pressures of 7.6-7.2 kbar and temperatures of 645-635 °C for one sample and temperature between 500 and 600 °C under constant pressure of 6 kbar. The temperature estimated for these rocks

  4. Ultrastructure of Reichert's membrane, a multilayered basement membrane in the parietal wall of the rat yolk sac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoué, S; Leblond, C P; Laurie, G W

    1983-11-01

    The ultrastructure of Reichert's membrane, a thick basement membrane in the parietal wall of the yolk sac, has been examined in 13-14-d pregnant rats. This membrane is composed of more or less distinct parallel layers, each one of which resembles a common basement membrane. After routine fixation in glutaraldehyde followed by osmium tetroxide, the layers appear to be mainly composed of 3-8-nm thick cords arranged in a three-dimensional network. Loosely scattered among the cords are unbranched, straight tubular structures with a diameter of 7-10 nm, which mainly run parallel to the surface and to one another; they are referred to as basotubules. Permanganate fixation emphasizes the presence of a thick feltwork of irregular material around basotubules. Finally, minute dot-like structures measuring 3.5 nm and referred to as double pegs are present within the meshes of the cord network. Reichert's membranes have been treated for 2-48 h at 25 degrees C with plasmin, a proteolytic enzyme known to rapidly digest laminin and fibronectin. After a 2-h treatment, most of the substance of the cords is digested away leaving a three-dimensional network of 1.5-2.0-nm thick filaments. The interpretation is that the cords are formed of a plasmin-resistant core filament and a plasmin-extractable sheath. When plasmin treatment is prolonged for 15 h or longer, the filaments are dissociated and disappear, while basotubules are maintained. Plasmin digestion also reveals that basotubules are composed of two parts: a ribbon-like helical wrapping and tubule proper. Further changes in the tubule under plasmin influence are interpreted as a dissociation into pentagonal units suggestive of the presence of the amyloid P component. After 48 h of plasmin treatment, basotubules are further disaggregated and dispersed, leaving only linearly arranged double pegs. Reichert's membranes with or without a 2-hr plasmin treatment have been immunostained by exposure to antibodies against either laminin or

  5. The Concertina Coast: the role of basement inheritance during repeated reactivation events along Australia's northern margin since the Permian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keep, Myra; Gartrell, Anthony

    2017-04-01

    Neogene to Recent inversions can be attributed at least in part to plate collision (locally) and far-field stress (generally), the cause(s), distribution(s) and intensity of these previous events remains unclear. Distributions of Precambrian basement and lineaments beneath the shelf, seen in potential field data, seemingly exert strong controls on reactivation locations and geometries. Interactions of long-lived, reactivated basement trends with larger-wavelength dynamic topography may also be important in dictating where and when inversion events occur. This presentation will examine the locations and manifestation of Late Permian to Recent events as seen in seismic data from areas of the NWS, and examine possible causes and consequences of repeated inversion of this rift/passive margin region.

  6. Fibrosis is not just fibrosis - basement membrane modelling and collagen metabolism differs between hepatitis B- and C-induced injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M J; Karsdal, M A; Kazankov, K

    2016-01-01

    and fibrosis only in CHC. Basement membrane collagen fragments P4NP7S and C4M were significantly higher in matched activity and fibrosis cohorts within CHB vs CHC. CONCLUSION: The main parameters to determine extracellular matrix biomarker levels are inflammation, fibrosis, and type of viral insult. Compared...... fragments in plasma from 197 chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients and 403 chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients matched for inflammation grade and fibrosis stage. Markers of matrix metalloprotease degraded type I, III, IV and VI collagen (C1M, C3M, C4M, C6M) and type III and IV collagen formation (Pro-C3, P4NP7S......). RESULTS: P4NP7S, C3M, C4M and C6M were significantly elevated in CHB compared to CHC. In contrast, Pro-C3 was significantly elevated in CHC compared to CHB. Pro-C3, C3M and C4M were increased in parallel with inflammation and fibrosis in both cohorts. C6M and P4NP7S were associated with inflammation...

  7. An in vitro model of the glomerular capillary wall using electrospun collagen nanofibres in a bioartificial composite basement membrane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadie C Slater

    Full Text Available The filtering unit of the kidney, the glomerulus, contains capillaries whose walls function as a biological sieve, the glomerular filtration barrier. This comprises layers of two specialised cells, glomerular endothelial cells (GEnC and podocytes, separated by a basement membrane. Glomerular filtration barrier function, and dysfunction in disease, remains incompletely understood, partly due to difficulties in studying the relevant cell types in vitro. We have addressed this by generation of unique conditionally immortalised human GEnC and podocytes. However, because the glomerular filtration barrier functions as a whole, it is necessary to develop three dimensional co-culture models to maximise the benefit of the availability of these cells. Here we have developed the first two tri-layer models of the glomerular capillary wall. The first is based on tissue culture inserts and provides evidence of cell-cell interaction via soluble mediators. In the second model the synthetic support of the tissue culture insert is replaced with a novel composite bioartificial membrane. This consists of a nanofibre membrane containing collagen I, electrospun directly onto a micro-photoelectroformed fine nickel supporting mesh. GEnC and podocytes grew in monolayers on either side of the insert support or the novel membrane to form a tri-layer model recapitulating the human glomerular capillary in vitro. These models will advance the study of both the physiology of normal glomerular filtration and of its disruption in glomerular disease.

  8. An immunohistochemical study of basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan (perlecan) in oral epithelial dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Mithilesh; Chandavarkar, Vidyadevi; Naik, Veena V; Kale, Alka D

    2013-01-01

    Basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan (perlecan) has been demonstrated in precancer lesions and carcinomas of oral cavity. It helps in malignant transformation of epithelial cells. The aim of our study was to understand the immuno-localization of perlecan in oral dysplastic epithelium and oral carcinomas. A total of 50 cases comprising 10 normal mucosa, 20 dysplastic mucosa, and 20 oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) were included in the retrospective study. They were examined for the presence of perlecan protein core by immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibody. Interpretation of the pattern of staining was done, and majority of the observations were taken for statistical analysis. In normal epithelium, perlecan was found to be present in basal layer at the cell border. In dysplastic epithelium, it was present in suprabasal layers also. With the increase in severity of dysplasia, its expression was more in suprabasal layers, and the immuno-localization was found to be at cell border and cytoplasm. In OSCC cases, perlecan was present in stroma and tumor islands. It was deduced from the above results that perlecan helps potentially in dysplastic changes of epithelial cells. It gets accumulated within the cell and intercellular spaces and serves as a reservoir for various growth factors. In OSCC, it breaks down and releases growth factors, which help in tumor progression, angiogenesis, and metastasis of the carcinoma.

  9. Skin Basement Membrane: The Foundation of Epidermal Integrity—BM Functions and Diverse Roles of Bridging Molecules Nidogen and Perlecan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Breitkreutz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The epidermis functions in skin as first defense line or barrier against environmental impacts, resting on extracellular matrix (ECM of the dermis underneath. Both compartments are connected by the basement membrane (BM, composed of a set of distinct glycoproteins and proteoglycans. Herein we are reviewing molecular aspects of BM structure, composition, and function regarding not only (i the dermoepidermal interface but also (ii the resident microvasculature, primarily focusing on the per se nonscaffold forming components perlecan and nidogen-1 and nidogen-2. Depletion or functional deficiencies of any BM component are lethal at some stage of development or around birth, though BM defects vary between organs and tissues. Lethality problems were overcome by developmental stage- and skin-specific gene targeting or by cell grafting and organotypic (3D cocultures of normal or defective cells, which allows recapitulating BM formation de novo. Thus, evidence is accumulating that BM assembly and turnover rely on mechanical properties and composition of the adjacent ECM and the dynamics of molecular assembly, including further “minor” local components, nidogens largely functioning as catalysts or molecular adaptors and perlecan as bridging stabilizer. Collectively, orchestration of BM assembly, remodeling, and the role of individual players herein are determined by the developmental, tissue-specific, or functional context.

  10. Basement membrane and vascular remodelling in smokers and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muller H Konrad

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about airway remodelling in bronchial biopsies (BB in smokers and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. We conducted an initial pilot study comparing BB from COPD patients with nonsmoking controls. This pilot study suggested the presence of reticular basement membrane (Rbm fragmentation and altered vessel distribution in COPD. Methods To determine whether Rbm fragmentation and altered vessel distribution in BB were specific for COPD we designed a cross-sectional study and stained BB from 19 current smokers and 14 ex-smokers with mild to moderate COPD and compared these to 15 current smokers with normal lung function and 17 healthy and nonsmoking subjects. Results Thickness of the Rbm was not significantly different between groups; although in COPD this parameter was quite variable. The Rbm showed fragmentation and splitting in both current smoking groups and ex-smoker COPD compared with healthy nonsmokers (p Conclusions Airway remodelling in smokers and mild to moderate COPD is associated with fragmentation of the Rbm and altered distribution of vessels in the airway wall. Rbm fragmentation was also present to as great an extent in ex-smokers with COPD. These characteristics may have potential physiological consequences.

  11. Magnetic constraints of basement structure offshore of western Kyushu, Japan; Kyushu seiho kaiiki ni okeru jiki ijo no kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuma, S.; Nakatsuka, T. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Ishihara, T. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes the results from the qualitative analysis of magnetic anomalies offshore of western Kyushu and from an analysis by a three-dimensional two-layer model inversion. The analysis ranged from Kyushu on the east to Jeju Island on the west and from the southern part of the Korean Peninsula on the north to Tanegashima and Yakushima Islands on the south, namely, the area of 580km from east to west and 580km from south to north. The analytical data used was Magnetic Anomaly Map of Asia (GSJ and CCOP, 1994). In the qualitative analysis, a pseudogravity anomaly map and a pole gravity anomaly map were prepared from the total magnetic force anomaly map by means of a frequency filter operation. As a result, it was noted that two distinctive magnetic high belts existed in the margin of the Tunghai Shelf, extending from the sea area to the west of the Nansei Islands continuously to NNE, and being distributed transversely through the Goto sedimentary basin. Additionally, in the inversion analysis, it was demonstrated that the magnetic basement became shallow at the margin of the Tunghai Shelf north of latitude 31 degrees north, extending nearly in the NNE direction through west of the Goto Islands, west of Tsushima Island, and continuing to the southern coast of the Korean Peninsula. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Hydrogeochemical characterization of a shallow groundwater system in the weathered basement aquifer of Ilesha area, southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Tijani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogeochemical characterization of a weathered basement aquifer in Ilesha area, southwest Nigeria, was carried out with respect to geogenic and anthropogenic influences on the shallow groundwater system. Physico-chemical parameters revealed a pH of 6.4–8.4 and EC of 22–825 μs/cm in the urban areas compared to a pH of 7.3–10.5 and relatively higher EC of 126–1027 μs/cm in the peri-urban area. The concentrations of major cations (Ca, Na, K, Mg in the urban areas revealed relatively lower average concentrations of 28.4, 16.7, 8.4 and 5.0 mg/L, respectively, compared to 82.5, 33.4, 19.3 and 12.4 mg/L, respectively, for the peri-urban areas. The low concentrations of major cations in the urban areas can be attributed to low mineral dissolution of quartzite and muscovite quartz-schist bedrocks compared to the weathered granitic, amphibolite and biotite schist in the peri-urban areas. Hydrochemical characterization revealed two main water types; namely Ca-Mg-(Na-HCO3 mostly in the urban areas suggesting CO2-charged infiltrating recharge rainwater, and Ca-Na-(K-SO4-Cl type in the peri-urban areas as products of water–rock interactions.

  13. 40Ar/39Ar incremental-release ages of biotite from a progressively remetamorphosed Archean basement terrane in southwestern Labrador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dallmeyer, R.D.

    1982-01-01

    Gneisses within Archean basement terrane adjacent to the southwestern portion of the Labrador Trough were variably retrograded during a regional metamorphism of Grenville age (ca. 1000 Ma). Bioties from non-retrograded segments of the gneiss terrane record 40 Ar/ 39 Ar plateau and isochron ages which date times of cooling following an episode of the Kenoran orogeny (2376-2391 Ma). A suite of gneiss samples displaying varying degrees of retrograde alteration was collected across the Grenville metamorphic gradient. Bioties in these samples show no petrographic evidence of retrograde alteration, however they do record internally discordant 40 Ar/ 39 Ar age spectra. Although the extent of internal discordance is variable, the overall character of the release patterns is similar with younger apparent ages recorded in intermediate-temperature gas fractions. The total-gas dates range from 2257+-27 Ma (northwest) to 1751+-23 Ma (southeast), suggesting that variable quantities of radiogenic argon were lost from the Archean biotites during Grenville metamorphism. The 'saddle-shaped' nature of the discordant spectra indicates that argon loss was not accomplished through single-stage, volume diffusion processes. (orig./ME)

  14. Suppression of Apoptosis by Basement Membrane Requires three-dimensional Tissue Organization and Withdrawal from the Cell Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudreau, N.; Werb, Z.; Bissell, M.J.

    1995-12-28

    The basement membrane (BM) extracellular matrix induces differentiation and suppresses apoptosis in mammary epithelial cells, whereas cells lacking BM lose their differentiated phenotype and undergo apoptosis. Addition of purified BM components, which are known to induce {beta}-casein expression, did not prevent apoptosis, indicating that a more complex BM was necessary. A comparison of culture conditions where apoptosis would or would not occur allowed us to relate inhibition of apoptosis to a complete withdrawal from the cell cycle, which was observed only when cells acquired a three-dimensional alveolar structure in response to BM. In the absence of this morphology, both the G1 cyclin kinase inhibitor p21/WAF-I and positive proliferative signals including c-myc and cyclin Dl were expressed and the retinoblastoma protein (Rb) continued to be hyperphosphorylated. When we overexpressed either c-myc in quiescent cells or p21 when cells were still cycling, apoptosis was induced. In the absence of three-dimensional alveolar structures, mammary epithelial cells secrete a number of factors including transforming growth factor a and tenascin, which when added exogenously to quiescent cells induced expression of c-myc and interleukin-{beta}1-converting enzyme (ICE) mRNA and led to apoptosis. These experiments demonstrate that a correct tissue architecture is crucial for long-range homeostasis, suppression of apoptosis, and maintenance of differentiated phenotype.

  15. Giant cell tubulitis with tubular basement membrane immune deposits: a report of two cases after cardiac valve replacement surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Anthony; Peutz-Kootstra, Carine J; Kowalewska, Jolanta; Logar, Christine M; Gitomer, Jeremy J; Davis, Connie L; Shankland, Stuart J; Alpers, Charles E; Smith, Kelly D

    2006-09-01

    This paper presents two elderly patients who had normal baseline renal function and had stenotic valvular lesions secondary to rheumatic fever and underwent aortic valve replacements with mechanical valves. Both patients developed acute renal failure after cardiac valve replacement procedures. The renal biopsies revealed acute granulomatous tubulointerstitial nephritis. The unique histologic features were tubular basement membrane (TBM) immune complex deposition detected by both immunofluorescence and electron microscopy and prominent multinucleated giant cells surrounding intact TBM. The temporal relationship to the surgical procedure and the subsequent recovery of the patients' renal functions upon therapy suggested that the renal failure may have been due to an allergic drug reaction from the perioperative exposure to unknown agents, such as prophylactic antibiotics and furosemide. The literature on TBM immune complex deposition was reviewed, and the pathophysiologic mechanisms that may account for the similarities between the clinicopathologic features of these two cases were examined. These two cases expand the histopathologic spectrum of previously described cases of putative drug-induced acute tubulointerstitial nephritis.

  16. Structural analysis of the Hasan-Robat marbles as traces of folded basement in the Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadimi, Alireza

    2015-11-01

    Cherty marbles of Hasan-Robat area, northwest of Isfahan, in the Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone of Iran preserves evidences of multiple deformational events. The Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone is the inner crystalline zone of the Zagros Orogen, which has been highly deformed and exhumed during continental collision between the Arabian Plate and Central Iran. The Hasan-Robat area is an example of the exposed Precambrian-Paleozoic basement rocks that stretched along two NW-SE-trending faults and located in the inner part of the HasanRobat positive flower strcuture. The Hasan-Robat marbles record a complex shortening and shearing history. This lead to the development of disharmonic ptygmatic folds with vertical to sub-vertical axes and some interference patterns of folding that may have been created from deformations during the Pan-African Orogeny and later phases. Based on this research, tectonic evolution of the Hasan-Robat area is interpreted as the product of three major geotectonic events that have been started after Precambrian to Quaternary: (1) old deformation phases (2) contractional movements and (3) strike-slip movements. Different sets and distributions of joints, faults and folds are confirmed with effect of several deformational stages of the area and formation of the flower structure.

  17. How to Study Basement Membrane Stiffness as a Biophysical Trigger in Prostate Cancer and Other Age-related Pathologies or Metabolic Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Teja, Mercedes; Breit, Claudia; Clarke, Mitchell; Talar, Kamil; Wang, Kai; Mohammad, Mohammad A.; Pickwell, Sage; Etchandy, Guillermina; Stasiuk, Graeme J.; Sturge, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Here we describe a protocol that can be used to study the biophysical microenvironment related to increased thickness and stiffness of the basement membrane (BM) during age-related pathologies and metabolic disorders (e.g. cancer, diabetes, microvascular disease, retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy). The premise of the model is non-enzymatic crosslinking of reconstituted BM (rBM) matrix by treatment with glycolaldehyde (GLA) to promote advanced glycation endproduct (AGE) generation via th...

  18. The role of basement tectonics in the control of sedimentary facies, structural patterns and salt plug emplacements in the Zagros fold belt of southwest Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuillan, Harry

    Extensive field observations over a large tract of continuous rock outcrops in the Zagros Mountain Range of southwest Iran have yielded a wealth of stratigraphic and structural detail. In the region structural anomalies are frequently associated with similar facies distribution patterns. In the eastern portion of the region emergent salt plugs of infra-Cambrian age exhibit the same alignment patterns. Such trends bear no apparent genetic relationship to the Tertiary folding responsible for the present fold belt grain of the Zagros Range but rather indicate affinity with linear basement features which are readily observable on Landsat imagery and air photographs. Superimposed on the eastern region's mode of facies trends and structure are localized variations which are directly attributed to pulses of salt diapiric activity. Thus stratigraphic data acquired from deep sections associated with salt domes can lead to erroneous overviews of regional facies distributions while anomalous dome-shaped structural features associated with elongate fold, so common to the fold belt, can only be attributed to near surface diapiric structures. The recognition of features related to basement tectonics and the realization of their implication in the control and modification of geological processes is an important adjunct to the search for hydrocarbon accumulations in the region. Indeed it can be shown that renewed movements on basement trends directly affect ooil production patterns as a consequence of the enhancement of fracture porosity and permeability in Tertiary carbonate reservoir structures. These constitute some of the world's largest oil-producing fields.

  19. Structural control of the basement in the central portion of the Santos Basin-Brazil; Controle estrutural do embasamento na porcao central da Bacia de Santos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izeli, Maira G.B.; Morales, Norberto; Souza, Iata A. de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas

    2008-07-01

    New discoveries of oil in deep water and ultra-deep water in Santos Basin suggest that it needs to be studied to better understanding of basement structures and their role in the basin control and configuration. This study characterizes the main tectonic structures of a portion at the central area of this basin, looking for their relation to the geological basement framework. The study is based on the integration of the geological and geophysical data from subsurface (offshore) and surface of the adjacent continent. These analyses include the continental structures that continue in direction of this basin (Guapiara Lineament and Ponta Grossa Arc), checking their possible influence on the basin evolution and deformation. To achieve the proposed goals, the Precambrian basement lineaments were extracted from the offshore area using remote sensing, as result was obtained strong NW-SE structural trend. According to the interpretation of seismic sections, it is possible to observe that this portion of the basin presents main NE-SW structural trend, and most of the structures are typical of passive margin and halokintics process. It is possible to see that some recognized faults in the rift deposits may be coinciding with the main continental guidelines which are projected into the basin. (author)

  20. Metal-rich fluid inclusions provide new insights into unconformity-related U deposits (Athabasca Basin and Basement, Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Antonin; Cathelineau, Michel; Boiron, Marie-Christine; Mercadier, Julien; Banks, David A.; Cuney, Michel

    2016-02-01

    The Paleoproterozoic Athabasca Basin (Canada) hosts numerous giant unconformity-related uranium deposits. The scope of this study is to establish the pressure, temperature, and composition (P-T-X conditions) of the brines that circulated at the base of the Athabasca Basin and in its crystalline basement before, during and after UO2 deposition. These brines are commonly sampled as fluid inclusions in quartz- and dolomite-cementing veins and breccias associated with alteration and U mineralization. Microthermometry and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) data from five deposits (Rabbit Lake, P-Patch, Eagle Point, Millennium, and Shea Creek) complement previously published data for the McArthur River deposit. In all of the deposits investigated, fluid inclusion salinity is between 25 and 40 wt.% NaCl equiv., with compositions displaying a continuum between a "NaCl-rich brine" end-member (Cl > Na > Ca > Mg > K) and a "CaCl2-rich brine" end-member (Cl > Ca ≈ Mg > Na > K). The CaCl2-rich brine has the highest salinity and shows evidence for halite saturation at the time of trapping. The continuum of compositions between the NaCl-rich brine and the CaCl2-rich brine end-members combined with P-T reconstructions suggest anisothermal mixing of the two brines (NaCl-rich brine, 180 ± 30 °C and 800 ± 400 bars; CaCl2-rich brine, 120 ± 30 °C and 600 ± 300 bars) that occurred under fluctuating pressure conditions (hydrostatic to supra-hydrostatic). However, because the two brines were U bearing and therefore oxidized, brine mixing was probably not the driving force for UO2 deposition. Several scenarios are put forward to account for the Cl-Na-Ca-Mg-K composition of the brines, involving combinations of seawater evaporation, halite dissolution, mixing with a halite-dissolution brine, Mg/Ca exchange by dolomitization, Na/Ca exchange by albitization of plagioclase, Na/K exchange by albitization of K-feldspar, and Mg loss by Mg

  1. Hampton Butte, a 30-Ma rhyodacite basement high bounding the subsiding Miocene to Pliocene High Lava Plains of Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iademarco, M. J.; Grunder, A.

    2012-12-01

    Hampton Butte, a 30-Ma rhyodacite basement high bounding the subsiding Miocene to Pliocene High Lava Plains Michael J. Iademarco and Anita L. Grunder The Hampton Butte area of south central Oregon lies at the boundary between major volcanic and tectonic provinces. Hampton Butte is a large rhyodacite dome complex dated at 30.39 ± 0.13 Ma and is slightly older than the 28.63 ± 0.17 Ma dacite of Cougar Butte to the immediate southeast. They extend the known distribution of vent rocks of John Day age (~35-20 Ma) and are among the oldest rocks exposed in southeastern Oregon. Excepting a remnant of a Cretaceous pluton that intrudes metasedimentary rocks of uncertain age in southeasternmost Oregon, there are no pre-Oligocene basement rocks in the northwest corner of the Basin and Range. Hampton Butte is at least 70 km east of the inferred Oligocene arc indicating that, if it was part of early Cascade volcanism, the arc was much broader than today. Hampton Butte lies at the northern margin of the High Lava Plains, which extend from behind the Cascades arc ~300 km eastward and separate the northwest corner of the Basin a Range form relatively little extended Blue Mountains region to the north. Rocks of the High Lava Plains (HLP) range from ~10 to 0 Ma and are high alumina olivine tholeiites intercalated with tuffaceous sediments and thin widespread ash-flow tuffs; the HLP is punctuated by rhyolite dome complexes that are successively younger to the west. A stack of compound flows of HLP basalt are banked on the south flank of Hampton Butte and dip about 5 degrees south, toward the HLP. These basalts have an age of 7.75 ± 0.06 Ma and correlate with a tongue of basalt with an age of 7.81 ± 0.06, which is preserved in a paleovalley cut into Hampton Butte. These basalts are part of an HLP-wide episode of ~7.5-8 Ma basalt activity. The Hampton Tuff is also banked on the south flank of Hampton Butte, like the basalts dips 5-7 degrees south. The Hampton Tuff yields an age of 3

  2. Kallikrein genes are associated with lupus and glomerular basement membrane–specific antibody–induced nephritis in mice and humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kui; Li, Quan-Zhen; Delgado-Vega, Angelica M.; Abelson, Anna-Karin; Sánchez, Elena; Kelly, Jennifer A.; Li, Li; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Jinchun; Yan, Mei; Ye, Qiu; Liu, Shenxi; Xie, Chun; Zhou, Xin J.; Chung, Sharon A.; Pons-Estel, Bernardo; Witte, Torsten; de Ramón, Enrique; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Barizzone, Nadia; Sebastiani, Gian Domenico; Merrill, Joan T.; Gregersen, Peter K.; Gilkeson, Gary G.; Kimberly, Robert P.; Vyse, Timothy J.; Kim, Il; D’Alfonso, Sandra; Martin, Javier; Harley, John B.; Criswell, Lindsey A.; Wakeland, Edward K.; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta E.; Mohan, Chandra

    2009-01-01

    Immune-mediated nephritis contributes to disease in systemic lupus erythematosus, Goodpasture syndrome (caused by antibodies specific for glomerular basement membrane [anti-GBM antibodies]), and spontaneous lupus nephritis. Inbred mouse strains differ in susceptibility to anti-GBM antibody–induced and spontaneous lupus nephritis. This study sought to clarify the genetic and molecular factors that may be responsible for enhanced immune-mediated renal disease in these models. When the kidneys of 3 mouse strains sensitive to anti-GBM antibody–induced nephritis were compared with those of 2 control strains using microarray analysis, one-fifth of the underexpressed genes belonged to the kallikrein gene family, which encodes serine esterases. Mouse strains that upregulated renal and urinary kallikreins exhibited less evidence of disease. Antagonizing the kallikrein pathway augmented disease, while agonists dampened the severity of anti-GBM antibody–induced nephritis. In addition, nephritis-sensitive mouse strains had kallikrein haplotypes that were distinct from those of control strains, including several regulatory polymorphisms, some of which were associated with functional consequences. Indeed, increased susceptibility to anti-GBM antibody–induced nephritis and spontaneous lupus nephritis was achieved by breeding mice with a genetic interval harboring the kallikrein genes onto a disease-resistant background. Finally, both human SLE and spontaneous lupus nephritis were found to be associated with kallikrein genes, particularly KLK1 and the KLK3 promoter, when DNA SNPs from independent cohorts of SLE patients and controls were compared. Collectively, these studies suggest that kallikreins are protective disease-associated genes in anti-GBM antibody–induced nephritis and lupus. PMID:19307730

  3. Intraepithelial expression of perlecan, a basement membrane-type heparan sulfate proteoglycan reflects dysplastic changes of the oral mucosal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikarashi, Terué; Ida-Yonemochi, Hiroko; Ohshiro, Kazufumi; Cheng, Jun; Saku, Takashi

    2004-02-01

    Intercellular deposition of perlecan, a major heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) of the basement membrane, is known to result in characteristic stellate reticulum-like structures in ameloblastomas or tooth germs. Although enlargement of the intercellular space is one of the histological characteristics of epithelial dysplasia of oral mucosa, the mode of expression of perlecan is poorly understood in these epithelial lesions. Eighty-two biopsy specimens consisting of normal and hyperplastic epithelium, epithelial dysplasia, and squamous cell carcinomas were examined for both perlecan core protein and heparan sulfate (HS) chains by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. In normal and hyperplastic epithelium, perlecan core protein and HS chains were localized in the cell border of parabasal cells and lower prickle cells, and HS chains were also found in basal cells. With an increase in the severity of epithelial dysplasia, the core protein was heavily and extensively deposited in the interepithelial space as well as in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells from the basal to the surface layers. Its gene expression was confirmed in the cells around the protein deposits. On the other hand, HS chains were enhanced in mild dysplasia, but decreased in moderate and severe dysplasias. In squamous cell carcinomas, either the core protein or HS chains were found scarcely in tumor cells but abundantly in the stromal space. The findings indicate that perlecan is localized in the intercellular space of the oral epithelia, and that it is over-expressed in dysplastic epithelial cells and is deposited in their interepithelial space, which results in the histology of reduction of cellular cohesion.

  4. PF-1355, a mechanism-based myeloperoxidase inhibitor, prevents immune complex vasculitis and anti-glomerular basement membrane glomerulonephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; Warner, Roscoe; Ruggeri, Roger; Su, Chunyan; Cortes, Christian; Skoura, Athanasia; Ward, Jessica; Ahn, Kay; Kalgutkar, Amit; Sun, Dexue; Maurer, Tristan S; Bonin, Paul D; Okerberg, Carlin; Bobrowski, Walter; Kawabe, Thomas; Zhang, Yanwei; Coskran, Timothy; Bell, Sammy; Kapoor, Bhupesh; Johnson, Kent; Buckbinder, Leonard

    2015-05-01

    Small vessel vasculitis is a life-threatening condition and patients typically present with renal and pulmonary injury. Disease pathogenesis is associated with neutrophil accumulation, activation, and oxidative damage, the latter being driven in large part by myeloperoxidase (MPO), which generates hypochlorous acid among other oxidants. MPO has been associated with vasculitis, disseminated vascular inflammation typically involving pulmonary and renal microvasculature and often resulting in critical consequences. MPO contributes to vascular injury by 1) catabolizing nitric oxide, impairing vasomotor function; 2) causing oxidative damage to lipoproteins and endothelial cells, leading to atherosclerosis; and 3) stimulating formation of neutrophil extracellular traps, resulting in vessel occlusion and thrombosis. Here we report a selective 2-thiouracil mechanism-based MPO inhibitor (PF-1355 [2-(6-(2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-4-oxo-2-thioxo-3,4-dihydropyrimidin-1(2H)-yl)acetamide) and demonstrate that MPO is a critical mediator of vasculitis in mouse disease models. A pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic response model of PF-1355 exposure in relation with MPO activity was derived from mouse peritonitis. The contribution of MPO activity to vasculitis was then examined in an immune complex model of pulmonary disease. Oral administration of PF-1355 reduced plasma MPO activity, vascular edema, neutrophil recruitment, and elevated circulating cytokines. In a model of anti-glomerular basement membrane disease, formerly known as Goodpasture disease, albuminuria and chronic renal dysfunction were completely suppressed by PF-1355 treatment. This study shows that MPO activity is critical in driving immune complex vasculitis and provides confidence in testing the hypothesis that MPO inhibition will provide benefit in treating human vasculitic diseases. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  5. A bioartificial environment for kidney epithelial cells based on a supramolecular polymer basement membrane mimic and an organotypical culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollet, Björne B; Bogaerts, Iven L J; van Almen, Geert C; Dankers, Patricia Y W

    2017-06-01

    Renal applications in healthcare, such as renal replacement therapies and nephrotoxicity tests, could potentially benefit from bioartificial kidney membranes with fully differentiated and functional human tubular epithelial cells. A replacement of the natural environment of these cells is required to maintain and study cell functionality cell differentiation in vitro. Our approach was based on synthetic supramolecular biomaterials to mimic the natural basement membrane (BM) on which these cells grow and a bioreactor to provide the desired organotypical culture parameters. The BM mimics were constructed from ureidopyrimidinone (UPy)-functionalized polymer and bioactive peptides by electrospinning. The resultant membranes were shown to have a hierarchical fibrous BM-like structure consisting of self-assembled nanofibres within the electrospun microfibres. Human kidney-2 (HK-2) epithelial cells were cultured on the BM mimics under organotypical conditions in a custom-built bioreactor. The bioreactor facilitated in situ monitoring and functionality testing of the cultures. Cell viability and the integrity of the epithelial cell barrier were demonstrated inside the bioreactor by microscopy and transmembrane leakage of fluorescently labelled inulin, respectively. Furthermore, HK-2 cells maintained a polarized cell layer and showed modulation of both gene expression of membrane transporter proteins and metabolic activity of brush border enzymes when subjected to a continuous flow of culture medium inside the new bioreactor for 21 days. These results demonstrated that both the culture and study of renal epithelial cells was facilitated by the bioartificial in vitro environment that is formed by synthetic supramolecular BM mimics in our custom-built bioreactor. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Thrusting and multiple folding in the Neoproterozoic Pan-African basement of Wadi Hodein area, south Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdeen, M. M.; Sadek, M. F.; Greiling, R. O.

    2008-09-01

    Detailed field mapping and structural studies of the area around the mouth of Wadi Hodein, some 20 km west of Shalatein at the Red Sea coast in the south Eastern Desert of Egypt, revealed four phases of structural deformation (D1-D4) affecting the Neoproterozoic Pan-African basement rocks. D1 is related to arc-arc collision and is represented by ENE-WSW oriented megascopic upright open folds associated with low angle thrusts and mesoscopic tight, overturned and recumbent F1 folds. Kinematic indicators indicate thrusting towards the SSE. D2 is represented by NNW-SSE oriented megascopic and mesoscopic folds, which are tight, verge towards the WSW and display a left-stepping en echelon pattern. D3 includes major NNW-SSE trending sinistral shear zones that show subordinate reverse fault components and dip steeply towards the ENE. These sinistral shear zones are comparable with the Najd Fault System, as they display a similar sense of movement and relationships to earlier structures. Therefore, they are interpreted to be the continuation of the Najd Shear System in southern Egypt. D2 and D3 are related to accretion of east and west Gondwana. D4 is represented by E-W oriented dextral faults with left-stepping segments. The first three deformation events are in agreement with the general evolutionary model for the East African Orogen in the Arabian-Nubian Shield that begins with NNW-SSE shortening, followed by ENE-WSW compression and subsequent deformation by the NNW-SSE striking Najd Fault System. The E-W dextral faults may be the conjugate shear fractures to the D3 NNW-SSE oriented sinistral wrench faults or are related to a subsequent event, D4. NW-SE oriented gold-bearing quartz veins originated during D1 and were subsequently deformed by D2-D4 events.

  7. Basement-cover relationships in the Grampian Caledonides of Scotland - extensional strain preceding continental rupture and generation of the Laurentian ocean-continent transition zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Graham; Smith, Martin; Gillespie, Martin; Thomas, Christopher; Krabbendam, Maarten

    2010-05-01

    Ancient rift and passive margin basins can frequently only be studied in outcrop after uplift following orogenesis. Such basins are thus deformed, metamorphosed and partially eroded as a consequence of closure of the oceanic system in which the passive margin was originally established. As a result there are significant challenges in restoration and interpretation of the original basin geometries and lithostratigraphical relationships. The mid-Neoproterozoic to Cambrian Dalradian Supergroup of Scotland and Ireland was intensively deformed and metamorphosed by mid-Ordovician arc-accretion (c. 460 Ma) during the Caledonian Orogeny. Nevertheless, we can determine a history of stretching and break-up associated with rupture of the Neoproterozoic supercontinent of Rodinia and opening of Iapetus. Continental fragments apparently separated from the passive margin during rift-drift transition. The extensional structures bounding the various fragments subsequently exerted control on the collisional geometry and acted as nuclei for deformation structures during Caledonian orogenesis. Reading the record of Neoproterozoic extension in the Scottish Caledonides is further complicated by the need to unravel the structural record at the boundary between the Dalradian Supergroup and underlying early-Neoproterozoic metamorphic basement. The depositional age of the Dalradian succession is not well constrained but the oldest strata could pre-date 800 Ma. If such should be the case, then the thick siliciclastic deposits characteristic of the lower Dalradian Grampian Group succession accumulated before 800 Ma during an early stretching phase (distributed high angle faulting) that led to crustal thinning (low-angle shearing). A major low-angle, regional-scale ductile shear zone in the upper levels of the underlying basement is arranged sub-parallel to the present structural base of the Dalradian. The high-temperature regional metamorphism in basement is c. 830 Ma old while the ductile

  8. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb and muscovite K-Ar ages of basement rocks from the south arm of Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaya, Asri; Nishikawa, Osamu; Hayasaka, Yasutaka

    2017-11-01

    The zircon U-Pb and muscovite K-Ar age from the Bantimala, Barru and Biru basement complexes in the South Arm of Sulawesi, Indonesia provide new information regarding the timing of magmatism, metamorphism and sedimentation in this region and have implications for the origin and evolution of the study area. The study area is at the juncture between the southeast margin of Sundaland and Bird's Head-Australia. The age of both the zircon U-Pb of detrital materials in the Bantimala Complex and the muscovite K-Ar of amphibolite in the Biru Complex fall in the Late Early Cretaceous (between 109 and 115 Ma), which is a similar age range to previous data for both the sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. The youngest detrital zircon in the schist samples from the Barru Complex fall into the Triassic in age (between 243 and 247 Ma). These age data indicate that the protolith of all three basement complexes were involved in the subduction system and metamorphosed in the late Early Cretaceous, but there are several differences in their deposition environment under and out of the influence of the late Early Cretaceous magmatism in the Bantimala and Barru Complexes, respectively. Felsic igneous activities are confirmed in the Late Cretaceous and the Eocene by the zircon U-Pb age of igneous rocks intruding or included as detrital fragments in three basement complexes. These dates are similar to those reported from the Meratus Complex of South Kalimantan. The detrital zircon age distributions of the basement rocks in the South Arm of Sulawesi display predominant Mesozoic (Cretaceous and Triassic) and Paleozoic populations with a small population of Proterozoic ages supporting the hypothesis that the West Sulawesi block originated from the region of the circum Bird's Head-Australian, namely the Inner Banda block. The absence of Jurassic zircon age population in the South Arm of Sulawesi suggests the division of the South Arm of Sulawesi from the Inner Banda block in early stage of

  9. The influence of the crystalline basement structures on the petroleum context of the Reconcavo, Brazil; A influencia de estruturas do embasamento cristalino no contexto petrolifero da Bacia sedimentar do Reconcavo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapucaia, Najara Santos; Pereira, Cicero da Paixao; Sousa, Daiana Leite de; Silva, Michelangelo Gomes da [Bahia Univ., Salvador, BA (Brazil). Curso de Pos-graduacao em Geofisica]. E-mail: nss@cpgg.ufba.br; cicerocpgg.ufba.br; dls@cpgg.ufba.br; mgs@cpgg.ufba.br

    2003-07-01

    The Reconcavo Basin, a typical example of sedimentary rift basin, is one important Brazilian petroliferous basin. Its structure has been aligned following the pre-Brazilian lithostratigraphic and geotectonic unconformities of the Sao Francisco Craton. This actual work defines some geological context areas of the Reconcavo basin and its crystalline basement, which are registers of great importance for petroleum exploration. The Itanagra target, located at the basin/basement contact, includes the Itanagra-Aracas Fault which has important rift characteristics known as longitudinal accommodation zones (relay zones) responsible for the entrance of sediments in the basin. The Acu da Torre - Rio Pojuca target, located at the basement, suggests the basement control during the rift opening. One on them is the existence of NW-SE oriented lineations in the basement parallel with Mata-Catu and Itanagra-Aracas faults, of sinistral and dextral movements. Another remarkable structure in this target is the parallelism between the basement foliations and gneiss banding, oriented NE-SW, similar to Salvador, Mata-Aracas and Lamarao faults, among others. At last, the Mata de Sao Joao target, located inside the basin, has relevant structures in the configuration of the Reconcavo Basin, as Mata-Catu fault, which controls sin-sedimentary folds. (author)

  10. Faults in Paleozoic basement and their participation in Alpine deformation of Greater Caucasus – evidences from materials of restored (balanced) sections in folded sedimentary cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovlev, Fedor

    2015-04-01

    Method. As each fold has information about strain, numerous folds (0.1-1 km width) inside of hinterland (stripe about 1000 x 50 km) of Greater Caucasus (GC) allow to restore structure for whole sedimentary cover. Material of 24 detailed sections of 510 km total actual length in three regions was used for restoration of structure. These sections were split on 505 domains as associations of 2-5 folds. Three parameters of morphology were measured in these domains: dip of axial plain, dip of envelope plain, value of shortening as interlimb angle [1, 2, 3]. Because these parameters correlate with ellipsoid (ellipse) of strain for domain, sequence of three kinematic operations allow to restore actual state of domain to pre-folded state (from ellipse to circle): rotation to horizontal position of envelope plain, horizontal simple shear to vertical axial plain and vertical flattening (pure shear). Aggregation of chain of pre-folded domains is forming a pre-folded state of whole section, and it allows to calculate of shortening value. For correct detailing of strain study, 78 "structural cells" were formed by aggregation of 5-10 domains in each cell. Some additional observations and calculations allow to find initial and post-folded thickness of sedimentary cover, depth of cover bottom, virtual position of cover top (amplitude of erosion) for all tectonic cells. The received result for 78 cells allowed to understand the main features of GC structure, to see a distribution of basement top depth, to give behavior pattern of the basement and to find a role of faults in shortening of the basement and of sedimentary cover. Results. Three regions of GC were studied: North-Western Caucasus (NWC) [1], Chiaur tectonic zone in South Ossetia (ChZ) and two zones in South-Eastern Caucasus - Tfan Zone (TZ) and Shakhdag zone (ShZ) [3]. The shortening values for structural cells were found as 49% in average for ShZ (with deviations 37÷62%), 55% for TZ (36÷67%), 57% for ChZ (46÷67%) and

  11. Role of low angle normal faulting and basement thrusting on the structural architecture of the Northern Apennines (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molli, Giancarlo; Carlini, Mirko; Vescovi, Paolo; Artoni, Andrea; Balsamo, Fabrizio; Camurri, Francesca; Clemenzi, Luca; Storti, Fabrizio; Torelli, Luigi

    2017-04-01

    The Northern Apennines of Italy are a classical site for studying fundamental issues in thrust wedges, such as ophiolite formation and emplacement, interplay between tectonics and sedimentation, role of out-of-sequence thrusting, syn-orogenic versus post-orogenic extension, along strike segmentation, etc. Accordingly, the Northern Apennines have been extensively studied since more than two centuries ago. Despite the huge amount of available data with different resolution, a 3D comprehensive regional view combining in a modern framework all available surface and subsurface information for contiguous sectors of the chain is still lacking. We performed such an attempt in the area framed between the Taro valley to the north and the northern termination of the Alpi Apuane to the south. The region includes the main morphostructural zones of the North-West Apennines from the Tyrrhenian coast West-Northwest of La Spezia, through the main topographic divide of the Apennines, to the external frontal part of the chain. The area has been investigated through a multidisciplinary approach that integrated: 1) surface geological data collected during the last two decades of structural and stratigraphic field works in the internal as well as external sectors of the chain; 2) subsurface geological data including: a) interpretation of 1200 Km of seismic reflection profiles tied to surface geology and b) analysis of 39 boreholes stratigraphies. The construction of two regional NE-SW trending cross-sections (the Levanto-Pontremoli-Parma to the North and the La Spezia-Sarzana-North Apuane-Cerreto to the South), connected by the NW-SE trending Taro River-Lunigiana Area-Alpi Apuane composite section, allowed us to illustrate (i) the role of out-of-sequence blind thrusting in the basement, (ii) the presence of low angle normal faulting and its relationships with recent to active high angle normal faulting. Both extensional and contractional systems have relevant implications for the

  12. New Sm/Nd and U/Pb geochronological constraints of the Archean to neoproterozoic evolution of the Amparo basement complex of the Central Ribeira Belt, Southeastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetter, A.H.; Hackspacher, P.C.; Ebbert, H.D; Dantas, E.L; Costa, A.C.D. da

    2001-01-01

    The Amparo Basement Complex is a distinctive collage of migmatitic tronjhemitetonalite- granodiorite (TTG) orthogneisses that represents the older basement exposures within the Central Ribeira Belt, a Late Neoproterozoic (ca. 600 Ma) collisional belt in southeastern Brazil. These basement gneisses are overlain by Mesoproterozoic to Neoproterozoic supracrustal sequences, and intruded by Neoproterozoic collisional granitoids. Pioneering Rb/Sr, Pb/Pb and K/Ar geochronological studies of the Amparo Complex, e.g. (Wernick et al., 1981; Wernick and Oliveira, 1986; Arthur, 1988; Tassinari, 1988; Campos Neto, 1991) provided some initial insights into the antiquity and geologic evolution of the complex, but little about the crustal evolution of the constituent gneisses. Furthermore, the susceptibility of these systems to partial isotopic resetting, left some doubt about the timing and true number of geologic events recorded by these polydeformed rocks. Recent Sm/Nd whole rock (Dantas et al., 2000) and new U/Pb single crystal zircon and monazite data obtained from the Amparo Complex, however, now furnish information on the crustal growth history of the basement and provide precise age constraints on the timing of events related to the geologic evolution of the complex. Based on these new data, it appears that the oldest rocks within the complex are polymigmatized tronjhemitic gneisses located near the town of Amparo. The oldest phase of this migmatite yields a U/Pb zircon age of 3,024 +/- 9 Ma. Sm/Nd data from this locale yields a Nd T(DM) model age of 3.28 Ga suggesting that the genesis of this crustal unit involved some input from yet older crust. Data from banded tonalitic gneisses collected ca. 50 km south of Amparo indicate that subsequent Archean crustal growth around the older core occurred around 2.77 Ga (U/Pb zircon age of 2,772 +/- 26 Ma. A Nd T(DM) model age of 3.02 Ga obtained from these tonalites also indicate enrichment from older crustal sources during their

  13. The activity concentrations of 222Rn and corresponding health risk in groundwater samples from basement and sandstone aquifer; the correlation to physicochemical parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdurabu, Wedad Ali; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi; Saleh, Muneer Aziz; Heryansyah, Arien

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the activity concentrations of 222 Rn and to assess the corresponding health risk in groundwater samples obtained in Juban District, Ad Dali’ Governorate, Yemen. The measurements were performed by RAD 7 radon detector manufactured by DURRIDGE COMPANY Inc. The activity concentrations of 222 Rn ranged from 1.0±0.2 Bq l −1 to 896.0±0.8 Bq l −1 . 57% of the groundwater samples were above the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) recommended value for Rn in water. Induced coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to determine the concentrations of uranium in groundwater samples. The measured concentration of U ranged from 0.33±0.01 μg l −1 to 24.6±0.6 μg l −1 . The results were comparable to internationally recommended values. The highest concentration of U and 222 Rn were found to be in the basement aquifer, while the lowest concentrations of both radionuclides were in the sandstone aquifer. High concentrations of Rn are found along fault zones. The relationship between the activity concentration of 222 Rn, concentration of U and physicochemical parameters were investigated. The results showed a very strong relationship between activity concentrations of 222 Rn with concentrations of U and the salinity of water. - Highlights: • The highest concentration of U and 222 Rn was found to be in the basement aquifer. • A 57% of the groundwater samples were above the USEPA recommended value. • Mean annual effective dose for ingestion was 24 times the world average. • Mean annual effective dose for inhalation was 23 times the world. • Strong relationship between 222 Rn with concentration of U in the basement aquifer.

  14. Effects of irregular basement structure on the geometry and emplacement of frontal thrusts and duplexes in the Quebec Appalachians: Interpretations from well and seismic reflection data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinovskaya, E.; Malo, M.; Badina, F.

    2014-12-01

    Irregular basement geometry may affect thrust propagation in foreland fold-thrust belts creating a perturbation in structural continuity of hydrocarbon fields. Here we investigate how the irregular pattern of normal faults, along with the presence of uplifts and transverse faults in the Grenvillian basement has influenced the geometry and emplacement of frontal thrusts and duplexes in the parautochthonous domain of the southern Quebec Appalachians during the middle-late Ordovician Taconian orogeny. Integration of data from surface geology, wells, and 2D and 3D seismic reflection surveys into a regional-scale structural model is used to reconstruct the 3D geometry and emplacement history of one- and two-horse duplexes in the Joly-Saint-Flavien gas storage area. The normal hinterland to foreland sequence of thrusting in this area is complicated by the differential emplacement of tectonic slices along strike of the orogenic front, starting in the SW and developing subsequently to the NE within each structural level. The shortening related to duplex emplacement decreases laterally over the distance of 20 km from - 49% in the SW (Joly area) to - 31% in the NE (Saint-Flavien area). Duplex emplacement resulted from the differential forward propagation, deflexion and vertical-axis rotation of the roof thrust (Logan's Line), which, in turn, has been induced by the presence of frontal uplift and transverse faults in the basement. The structural-lithological analysis of tectonic slices and restoration of their initial location allows us to consider the lower slice of the Joly duplex as a structural trap comparable to the fractured reservoir in lower Ordovician dolomites of the Saint-Flavien duplex.

  15. Mesozoic Crustal Thickening of the Longmenshan Belt (NE Tibet, China) by Imbrication of Basement Slices: Insights From Structural Analysis, Petrofabric and Magnetic Fabric Studies, and Gravity Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Zhenhua; Martelet, Guillaume; Lin, Wei; Faure, Michel; Chen, Yan; Wei, Wei; Li, Shuangjian; Wang, Qingchen

    2017-12-01

    This work first presents field structural analysis, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) measurements, and kinematic and microstructural studies on the Neoproterozoic Pengguan complex located in the middle segment of the Longmenshan thrust belt (LMTB), NE Tibet. These investigations indicate that the Pengguan complex is a heterogeneous unit with a ductilely deformed NW domain and an undeformed SE domain, rather than a single homogeneous body as previously thought. The NW part of the Pengguan complex is constrained by top-to-the-NW shearing along its NW boundary and top-to-the-SE shearing along its SE boundary, where it imbricates and overrides the SE domain. Two orogen-perpendicular gravity models not only support the imbricated shape of the Pengguan complex but also reveal an imbrication of high-density material hidden below the Paleozoic rocks on the west of the LMTB. Regionally, this suggests a basement-slice-imbricated structure that developed along the margin of the Yangtze Block, as shown by the regional gravity anomaly map, together with the published nearby seismic profile and the distribution of orogen-parallel Neoproterozoic complexes. Integrating the previously published ages of the NW normal faulting and of the SE directed thrusting, the locally fast exhumation rate, and the lithological characteristics of the sediments in the LMTB front, we interpret the basement-slice-imbricated structure as the result of southeastward thrusting of the basement slices during the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous. This architecture makes a significant contribution to the crustal thickening of the LMTB during the Mesozoic, and therefore, the Cenozoic thickening of the Longmenshan belt might be less important than often suggested.

  16. Normal and tumor-derived myoepithelial cells differ in their ability to interact with luminal breast epithelial cells for polarity and basement membrane deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudjonsson, Thorarinn; Ronnov-Jessen, Lone; Villadsen, Rene; Rank, Fritz; Bissell, Mina J.; Petersen, Ole William

    2001-10-04

    The signals that determine the correct polarity of breast epithelial structures in vivo are not understood. We have shown previously that luminal epithelial cells can be polarized when cultured within a reconstituted basement membrane gel. We reasoned that such cues in vivo may be given by myoepithelial cells. Accordingly, we used an assay where luminal epithelial cells are incorrectly polarized to test this hypothesis. We show that culturing human primary luminal epithelial cells within collagen-I gels leads to formation of structures with no lumina and with reverse polarity as judged by dual stainings for sialomucin, epithelial specific antigen or occludin. No basement membrane is deposited, and {beta}4-integrin staining is negative. Addition of purified human myoepithelial cells isolated from normal glands corrects the inverse polarity, and leads to formation of double-layered acini with central lumina. Among the laminins present in the human breast basement membrane (laminin-1, -5 and -10/11), laminin-1 was unique in its ability to substitute for myoepithelial cells in polarity reversal. Myoepithelial cells were purified also from four different breast cancer sources including a biphasic cell line. Three out of four samples either totally lacked the ability to interact with luminal epithelial cells, or conveyed only correction of polarity in a fraction of acini. This behavior was directly related to the ability of the tumor myoepithelial cells to produce {alpha}-1 chain of laminin. In vivo, breast carcinomas were either negative for laminin-1 (7/12 biopsies) or showed a focal, fragmented deposition of a less intensely stained basement membrane (5/12 biopsies). Dual staining with myoepithelial markers revealed that tumorassociated myoepithelial cells were either negative or weakly positive for expression of laminin-1, establishing a strong correlation between loss of laminin-1 and breast cancer. We conclude that the double-layered breast acinus may be

  17. cDNA cloning of the basement membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan core protein, bamacan: a five domain structure including coiled-coil motifs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, R R; Couchman, J R

    1997-01-01

    obtained cDNA clones encoding the entire bamacan core protein of Mr = 138 kD, which reveal a five domain, head-rod-tail configuration. The head and tail are potentially globular, while the central large rod probably forms coiled-coil structures, with one large central and several very short interruptions....../translation product from a full-length bamacan cDNA. The unusual structure of this proteoglycan is indicative of specific functional roles in basement membrane physiology, commensurate with its distinct expression in development and changes in disease models....

  18. Distribution, ultrastructural localization, and ontogeny of the core protein of a heparan sulfate proteoglycan in human skin and other basement membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horiguchi, Y; Couchman, J R; Ljubimov, A V

    1989-01-01

    A variety of heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG) have been identified on cell surfaces and in basement membrane (BM). To more fully characterize HSPG in human skin BM, we used two monoclonal antibodies (MAb) directed against epitopes of the core protein of a high molecular weight HSPG isolated...... from murine EHS tumor. Indirect immunofluorescence revealed linear distribution of HSPG within all skin BM, and within BM of all other human organs investigated. In a study of the ontogeny of HSPG in human skin BM, HSPG was detectable as early as 54 gestational days, comparable with other ubiquitous BM...

  19. Late Mesoproterozoic to Early Paleozoic history of metamorphic basement from the southeastern Chiapas Massif Complex, Mexico, and implications for the evolution of NW Gondwana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Bodo; González-Guzmán, Reneé; Manjarrez-Juárez, Román; Cisneros de León, Alejandro; Martens, Uwe; Solari, Luigi; Hecht, Lutz; Valencia, Victor

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, U-Pb zircon geochronology, Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd isotope systematics, geochemistry and geothermobarometry of metaigneous basement rocks exposed in the southeastern Chiapas Massif Complex are presented. Geologic mapping of the newly defined "El Triunfo Complex" located at the southeastern edge of the Chiapas Massif reveals (1) partial melting of a metamorphic basement mainly constituted by mafic metaigneous rocks (Candelaria unit), (2) an Ediacaran metasedimentary sequence (Jocote unit), and (3) occurrence of massif-type anorthosite. All these units are intruded by undeformed Ordovician plutonic rocks of the Motozintla suite. Pressure and temperature estimates using Ca-amphiboles, plagioclase and phengite revealed prograde metamorphism that reached peak conditions at 650 °C and 6 kbar, sufficient for partial melting under water saturated conditions. Relict rutile in titanite and clinopyroxene in amphibolite further indicate a previous metamorphic event at higher P-T conditions. U-Pb zircon ages from felsic orthogneiss boudins hosted in deformed amphibolite and migmatite yield crystallization ages of 1.0 Ga, indicating that dry granitic protoliths represent remnants of Rodinia-type basement. Additionally, a mid-Tonian ( 920 Ma) metamorphic overprint is suggested by recrystallized zircon from a banded gneiss. Zircon from folded amphibolite samples yield mainly Ordovician ages ranging from 457 to 444 Ma that are indistinguishable from the age of the undeformed Motozintla plutonic suite. Similar ages between igneous- and metamorphic- zircon suggest a coeval formation during a high-grade metamorphic event, in which textural discrepancies are explained in terms of differing zircon formation mechanisms such as sub-solidus recrystallization and precipitation from anatectic melts. In addition, some amphibolite samples contain inherited zircon yielding Stenian-Tonian ages around 1.0 Ga. Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd isotopes and geochemical data indicate that the protoliths of

  20. Field experiment for investigation of very shallow basement structure by micro-gravity survey; Microgravity tansa no gokusenbu kiban chosa eno tekiyo jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshita, K.; Nozaki, K. [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    This paper illustrates the field experiment results in which micro-gravity survey was applied to investigation of very shallow basement structure between a few m and 10 m. Its applicability was discussed. In principle, the micro-gravity survey was conducted at the measuring points in a grid with 20 m pitch. Measuring points of 174 were used. The gravity system used for the measurements is an automatic gravimeter CG-3M made by the Scintrex. Survey results of P-wave reflection method conducted at the site using a vibrator focus were used as control data of micro-gravity survey. Consequently, change in the thickness of surface layer (earth filling) shallower than the depth of -10 m could be grasped as a plane. It was found that the micro-gravity survey is a useful method for the investigation of very shallow basement structure. Survey results by the reflection method could contribute to the determination of trend face at filtration and construction of density model as well as the geologic interpretation of gravity anomaly. As a result, reliability of micro-gravity survey and reflection method could be enhanced, mutually. 3 refs., 8 figs.

  1. U-Pb detrital zircon geochronology from the basement of the Central Qilian Terrane: implications for tectonic evolution of northeastern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changfeng; Wu, Chen; Zhou, Zhiguang; Yan, Zhu; Jiang, Tian; Song, Zhijie; Liu, Wencan; Yang, Xin; Zhang, Hongyuan

    2018-03-01

    The Tuolai Group dominates the Central Qilian Terrane, and there are different opinions on the age and tectonic attribute of the Tuolai Group. Based on large-scale geologic mapping and zircon dating, the Tuolai Group is divided into four parts: metamorphic supracrustal rocks, Neoproterozoic acid intrusive rocks, early-middle Ordovician acid intrusive rocks and middle Ordovician basic intrusive rocks. The metamorphic supracrustal rocks are the redefined Tuolai complex-group and include gneiss and schist assemblage by faulting contact. Zircon U-Pb LA-MC-ICP-MS dating was conducted on these samples of gneiss and migmatite from the gneiss assemblage, quartzite, two-mica schist and slate from the schist assemblage. The five detrital samples possess similar age spectra; have detrital zircon U-Pb main peak ages of 1.7 Ga with youngest U-Pb ages of 1150 Ma. They are intruded by Neoproterozoic acid intrusive rocks. Therefore, the Tuolai Group belonging to late Mesoproterozoic and early Neoproterozoic. With this caveat in mind, we believe that U-Pb detrital zircon dating, together with the geologic constraints obtained from this study and early work in the neighboring regions. We suggest that the formation age of the entire crystalline basement rocks of metasedimentary sequence from the Central Qilian Terrane should be constrained between the Late Mesoproterozoic and the Late Neoproterozoic, but not the previous Paleoproterozoic. The basement of the Central Qilian Terrane contains the typical Grenville ages, which indicates the Centre Qilian Terrane have been experienced the Grenville orogeny event.

  2. Anomalous uranium concentration in Archaean basement Shear at Dhani Basri and its significance on Southern Margin of Alwar sub-basin, Rajasthan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panigrahi, B.; Shaji, T.S.; Sharma, G.S.; Yadav, O.P.; Nanda, L.K.

    2008-01-01

    Prominent shear zones cutting through the basement and cover rocks of Delhi Supergroup have been recognized in Dhani Basri - Ramewala sector of Dausa district, Rajasthan. One such shear zone traversing the granite gneiss (Archaean basement) has been observed at Dhani Basri. The sheared rock is exposed in the form of a small hump and gives appearance of quartzite due to intense silicification. Grab samples collected from the shear zone rock analysed upto 93 ppm U 3 O 8 and <10 ppm ThO 2 , which is anomalous in comparison to unsheared rock which analysed 51 ppm eU 3 O 8 , upto 5 ppm U 3 O 8 and 80 ppm ThO 2 . Gamma-ray logging of boreholes drilled by GSI across this shear zone indicated uranium mineralization of the order of 0.030% eU 3 O 8 x 5.40 m and the primary radioactive mineral has been identified as uraninite. The extension of Dhani Basri shear zone inside the cover rocks of Meso-Proterozoic Delhi Supergroup of rocks of Alwar sub-basin is of paramount importance in locating unconformity related as well as hydrothermal vein type uranium mineralization. (author)

  3. Synchronous egress and ingress fluid flow related to compressional reactivation of basement faults: the Phoenix and Gryphon uranium deposits, southeastern Athabasca Basin, Saskatchewan, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zenghua; Chi, Guoxiang; Bethune, Kathryn M.; Eldursi, Khalifa; Thomas, David; Quirt, David; Ledru, Patrick

    2018-02-01

    Previous studies on unconformity-related uranium deposits in the Athabasca Basin (Canada) suggest that egress flow and ingress flow can develop along single fault systems at different stages of compressional deformation. This research aims to examine whether or not both ingress and egress flow can develop at the same time within an area under a common compressional stress field, as suggested by the reverse displacement of the unconformity surface by the basement faults. The study considers the Phoenix and Gryphon uranium deposits in the Wheeler River area in the southeastern part of the Athabasca Basin. Two-dimensional numerical modeling of fluid flow, coupled with compressional deformation and thermal effects, was carried out to examine the fluid flow pattern. The results show that local variations in the basement geology under a common compressional stress field can result in both egress and ingress flow at the same time. The fault zone at Phoenix underwent a relatively low degree of deformation, as reflected by minor reverse displacement of the unconformity, and egress flow developed, whereas the fault zone at Gryphon experienced a relatively high degree of deformation, as demonstrated by significant reverse displacement of the unconformity, and ingress flow was dominant. The correlation between strain development and location of uranium mineralization, as exemplified by Gryphon and Phoenix uranium deposits, suggests that the localization of dilation predicted by numerical modeling may represent favourable sites for uranium mineralization in the Athabasca Basin.

  4. Collagen metabolism and basement membrane formation in cultures of mouse mammary epithelial cells: Induction of assembly on fibrillar type I collagen substrata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, G.; van der Schueren, B.; van den Berghe, H.; Nusgens, B.; Van Cauwenberge, D.; Lapiere, C.

    1987-01-01

    Collagen metabolism was compared in cultures of mouse mammary epithelial cells maintained on plastic or fibrillar type I collagen gel substrata. The accumulation of dialysable and non-dialysable [ 3 H]hydroxyproline and the identification of the collagens produced suggest no difference between substrata in the allover rates of collagen synthesis and degradation. The proportion of the [ 3 H]collagen which accumulates in the monolayers of cultures on collagen, however, markedly exceeds that of cultures on plastic. Cultures on collagen deposit a sheet-like layer of extracellular matrix materials on the surface of the collagen fibers. Transformed cells on collagen produce and accumulate more [ 3 H]collage, yet are less effective in basement membrane formation than normal cells, indicting that the accumulation of collagen alone and the effect of interstitial collagen thereupon do not suffice. Thus, exogenous fibrillar collagen appears to enhance, but is not sufficient for proper assembly of collagenous basement membrane components near the basal epithelial cell surface

  5. U-Pb detrital zircon geochronology from the basement of the Central Qilian Terrane: implications for tectonic evolution of northeastern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changfeng; Wu, Chen; Zhou, Zhiguang; Yan, Zhu; Jiang, Tian; Song, Zhijie; Liu, Wencan; Yang, Xin; Zhang, Hongyuan

    2017-08-01

    The Tuolai Group dominates the Central Qilian Terrane, and there are different opinions on the age and tectonic attribute of the Tuolai Group. Based on large-scale geologic mapping and zircon dating, the Tuolai Group is divided into four parts: metamorphic supracrustal rocks, Neoproterozoic acid intrusive rocks, early-middle Ordovician acid intrusive rocks and middle Ordovician basic intrusive rocks. The metamorphic supracrustal rocks are the redefined Tuolai complex-group and include gneiss and schist assemblage by faulting contact. Zircon U-Pb LA-MC-ICP-MS dating was conducted on these samples of gneiss and migmatite from the gneiss assemblage, quartzite, two-mica schist and slate from the schist assemblage. The five detrital samples possess similar age spectra; have detrital zircon U-Pb main peak ages of 1.7 Ga with youngest U-Pb ages of 1150 Ma. They are intruded by Neoproterozoic acid intrusive rocks. Therefore, the Tuolai Group belonging to late Mesoproterozoic and early Neoproterozoic. With this caveat in mind, we believe that U-Pb detrital zircon dating, together with the geologic constraints obtained from this study and early work in the neighboring regions. We suggest that the formation age of the entire crystalline basement rocks of metasedimentary sequence from the Central Qilian Terrane should be constrained between the Late Mesoproterozoic and the Late Neoproterozoic, but not the previous Paleoproterozoic. The basement of the Central Qilian Terrane contains the typical Grenville ages, which indicates the Centre Qilian Terrane have been experienced the Grenville orogeny event.

  6. Internal structure of the Supragetic Unit basement in the Serbian Carpathians and its significance for the late Early Cretaceous nappe-stacking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstekanić Nemanja

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fault-related folds and hanging-wall structures reflect the geometry of the main thrusts in foldthrust belts. The results of the structural analysis of the Supragetic Unit metamorphic basement in eastern Serbia at map-, outcrop- and thin-section scale, and its importance for the late Early Cretaceous nappe-stacking are presented in this paper. The Supragetic Unit metamorphic basement includes various volcano-sedimentary rocks of Ordovician-Silurian protolith age. They were metamorphosed to the low greenschist facies with temperatures reaching 300-350°C and pressure reaching 0.3-0.5 GPa. The microscale studies show that quartz and albite demonstrate dominantly bulging and locally subgrain rotation recrystallisation, while chlorite, sericite and muscovite define spaced to continuous foliation recognised both at the outcrop- and the thin-section-scale. The statistical analysis based on the available map data shows low- to high-angle west-dipping foliation which is interpreted as an indicator of flat-ramp geometry of the Supragetic thrust, rather than east-vergent tight to isoclinal folding. At the thin-section scale ductile to semi-ductile C’-S structures indicate top to ESE thrusting. Subsequent kinking, recognised both at the outcrop- and the thin-section-scale, deform the older foliation. Those kink bands are the result of WNW-ESE to NW-SE compression and could represent the later stage of a continuous deformation event during which C’-S structures were formed. The youngest, brittle deformation is represented by subvertical joints with no offset recognised in thin-sections. The structural characteristics of the Supragetic Unit low-grade metamorphic basement in the studied areas, combined with tectonothermal events recognised elsewhere in Dacia mega-unit, could imply a possible initiation of the late Early Cretaceous nappe-stacking in the ductile to semi-ductile/semi-brittle domain. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and

  7. Gondwanan/peri-Gondwanan origin for the Uchee terrane, Alabama and georgia: Carolina zone or Suwannee terrane(?) and its suture with Grenvillian basement of the Pine Mountain window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steltenpohl, M.G.; Mueller, P.M.; Heatherington, A.L.; Hanley, T.B.; Wooden, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    The poorly known, suspect, Uchee terrane occupies a critical tectonic position with regard to how and when peri-Gondwanan (Carolina) and Gondwanan (Suwannee) terranes were sutured to Laurentia. It lies sandwiched between Laurentian(?) continental basement exposed in the Pine Mountain window and adjacent buried Gondwanan crust of the Suwannee terrane. The Uchee terrane has been proposed as both a septum of Piedmont rocks that once was continuous across the erosionally breached Pine Mountain window or part of the Carolina zone. To help resolve this issue, we conducted U-Pb (SHRIMP-RG) (sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe-reverse geometry) zircon studies and whole-rock isotopic analyses of principal metasedimentary and metaplutonic units. U-Pb ages for zircons from the Phenix City Gneiss suggest igneous crystallization at ca. 620 Ma, inheritance ca. 1000 to ca. 1700 Ma, and a ca. 300 Ma (Alleghanian) overprint recorded by zircon rims. Zircons from the metasedimentary/metavolcaniclastic Moffits Mill Schist yield bimodal dates at ca. 620 and 640 Ma. The 620 to 640 Ma dates make these rocks age-equivalent to the oldest parts of the Carolina slate belt (Virgilina and Savannah River) and strongly suggest a Gondwanan (Pan-African and/or Trans-Brasiliano) origin for the Uchee terrane. Alternatively, the Uchee terrane may be correlative with metamorphic basement of the Suwannee terrane. The ca. 300 Ma overgrowths on zircons are compatible with previously reported 295 to 288 Ma 40Ar/39Ar hornblende dates on Uchee terrane rocks, which were interpreted to indicate deep tectonic burial of the Uchee terrane contemporaneous with the Alleghanian orogeny recorded in the foreland. Temperature-time paths for the Uchee terrane are similar to that of the Pine Mountain terrane, indicating a minimum age of ca. 295 Ma for docking. In terms of tectono-metamorphic history of the Uchee terrane, it is important to note that no evidence for intermediate "Appalachian" dates (e.g, Acadian or

  8. Basement blocks and basin inversion structures mapped using reprocessed Gulfrex 2D seismic data, Caribbean-South American oblique collisional zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalona, A.; Sena, A.; Mann, P.

    2003-12-01

    We have reprocessed and reinterpreted more than 10,000 km of "Gulfrex" multi-channel 2D seismic reflection lines collected by Gulf Oil Corporation in 1972 along the northern margin of South America (offshore Venezuela and Trinidad). These digital data were donated to the University of Texas Institute for Geophysics and represent the largest single, digital reflection survey of the region. Reprocessing of these data included: format correction, filtering, post-stack multiple suppression, and fk migration. Reprocessed data were loaded and interpreted on a workstation. The data straddle a 2,000,000 km2 zone of Paleocene-Recent, time-transgressive, oblique collision between the Caribbean arc system and the passive continental margin of northern South America. Free-air, satellite gravity data shows the remarkable 1000-km-scale continuity of four basement ridges between the uncollided part of the Caribbean arc system (NS-trending Lesser Antilles arc) and the EW-trending collisional area north of Venezuela. The basement ridges involved in the Venezuelan collisional zone include: 1) Aruba-Bonaire-Curacao ridge that can be traced as a continuous feature to the Aves ridge remnant arc of the Lesser Antilles; 2) the partially inverted Blanquilla-Bonaire basin that can be traced into the Grenada back-arc basin; 3) Margarita-Los Testigos platform that can be traced to the Lesser Antilles volcanic arc; and 4) foreland basins and fold-thrust belts of eastern Venezuela (Serrania del Interior and Maturin basin) that can be traced to the Tobago forearc basin and Barbados accretionary prism. Gulfrex data document the progressive change of basinal fault systems from NS-striking normal faults formed in extensional, Lesser Antilles intra-arc settings to rotated and inverted, NE and EW-striking normal faults deformed in the collisional area north of Venezuela. Age of initial shortening of basinal areas and inversion of normal faults setting does not follow the simple, expected pattern of

  9. A low-δ18O intrusive breccia from Koegel Fontein, South Africa: Remobilisation of basement that was hydrothermally altered during global glaciation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olianti, Camille A. E.; Harris, Chris

    2018-02-01

    The Cretaceous Koegel Fontein igneous complex is situated on the west coast of South Africa, and has a high proportion of rocks with abnormally low δ18O values. The rocks with the lowest δ18O values (- 5.2‰) belong to intrusive matrix-supported breccia pipes and dykes, containing a variety of clast types. The breccia rocks range in SiO2 from 44 to 68 wt% and their whole-rock δ18O values vary between - 5.2‰ and + 1.8‰. The major and trace element composition of the breccia rocks is consistent with them containing variable proportions of clasts of Cretaceous intrusive rocks and basement gneiss and the matrix being fluidized material derived from the same source as the clasts. Based on the nature of the clasts contained in the breccia, it was emplaced just prior to intrusion of the main Rietpoort Granite at 134 Ma. All components of the breccia have low δ18O value and, at least in the case of the gneiss clasts, this predates incorporation in the fluidized material. Although the early Cretaceous appears to have been a period of cold climate, it is unlikely that the δ18O values of ambient precipitation ( - 10‰) would have been low enough to have generated the required 18O-depletion. The basement gneiss was probably 2-3 km below the Cretaceous surface, minimizing the possibility of interaction with isotopically unmodified meteoric water, and there is no evidence for foundered blocks of cover rocks in the breccia. There is, therefore, no evidence for downwards movement of material. We favour a model where basement gneiss interacted with extremely 18O-depleted fluid during crustal reworking at 547 Ma, a time of global glaciation. Low-δ18O metamorphic fluids produced by dehydration melting of 18O-depleted gneiss became trapped and, as the fluid pressure increased, failure of the seal resulted in explosive upwards movement of fluidized breccia. Migration was along pre-existing dykes, incorporating fragments of these dykes, as well as the country rock gneiss.

  10. U-Pb SHRIMP-RG zircon ages and Nd signature of lower Paleozoic rifting-related magmatism in the Variscan basement of the Eastern Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, F.J.; Iriondo, A.; Dietsch, C.; Aleinikoff, J.N.; Peucat, J.J.; Cires, J.; Reche, J.; Capdevila, R.

    2011-01-01

    The ages of orthogneisses exposed in massifs of the Variscan chain can determine whether they are part of a pre-Neoproterozoic basement, a Neoproterozoic, Panafrican arc, or are, in fact, lower Paleozoic, and their isotopic compositions can be used to probe the nature of their source rocks, adding to the understanding of the types, distribution, and tectonic evolution of peri-Gondwanan crystalline basement. Using SHRIMP U-Pb zircon geochronology and Nd isotopic analysis, pre-Variscan metaigneous rocks from the N??ria massif in the Eastern Pyrenean axial zone and the Guilleries massif, 70km to the south, have been dated and their Nd signatures characterized. All dated orthogneisses from the N??ria massif have the same age within error, ~457Ma, including the Ribes granophyre, interpreted as a subvolcanic unit within Caradocian sediments contemporaneous with granitic magmas intruded into Cambro-Ordovician sediments at deeper levels. Orthogneisses in the Guilleries massif record essentially continuous magmatic activity during the Ordovician, beginning at the Cambro-Ordovician boundary (488??3Ma) and reaching a peak in the volume of magma in the early Late Ordovician (~460Ma). Metavolcanic rocks in the Guilleries massif were extruded at 452??4Ma and appear to have their intrusive equivalent in thin, deformed veins of granitic gneiss (451??7Ma) within metasedimentary rocks. In orthogneisses from both massifs, the cores of some zircons yield Neoproterozoic ages between ~520 and 900Ma. The age of deposition of a pre-Late Ordovician metapelite in the Guilleries massif is bracketed by the weighted average age of the youngest detrital zircon population, 582??11Ma, and the age of cross-cutting granitic veins, 451??7Ma. Older detrital zircons populations in this metapelite include Neoproterozoic (749-610Ma; n=10), Neo- to Mesoproterozoic (1.04-0.86Ga; n=7), Paleoproterozoic (2.02-1.59Ga; n=5), and Neoarchean (2.74-2.58Ga; n=3). Nd isotopic analyses of the N??ria and Guilleries

  11. Immunohistochemical distribution of laminin-332 and collagen type IV in the basement membrane of normal horses and horses with induced laminitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, M B; Pollitt, C C

    2011-07-01

    The basement membrane (BM) is a thin layer of extracellular matrix that regulates cell functions as well as providing support to tissues of the body. Primary components of the BM of epithelial tissues are laminin-332 (Ln-332) and collagen type IV. Equine laminitis is a disease characterized by destruction and dislocation of the hoof lamellar BM. Immunohistochemistry was used to characterize the distribution of Ln-332 and collagen type IV in the organs of normal horses and these proteins were found to be widespread. Analysis of a panel of tissue samples from horses with experimentally-induced laminitis revealed that Ln-332 and collagen type IV degradation occurs in the skin and stomach in addition to the hoof lamellae. These findings suggest that BM degradation is common to many epithelial tissues during equine laminitis and suggests a role for systemic trigger factors in this disease. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Stratum, a Homolog of the Human GEF Mss4, Partnered with Rab8, Controls the Basal Restriction of Basement Membrane Proteins in Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Devergne

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The basement membrane (BM, a sheet of extracellular matrix lining the basal side of epithelia, is essential for epithelial cell function and integrity, yet the mechanisms that control the basal restriction of BM proteins are poorly understood. In epithelial cells, a specialized pathway is dedicated to restrict the deposition of BM proteins basally. Here, we report the identification of a factor in this pathway, a homolog of the mammalian guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF Mss4, which we have named Stratum. The loss of Stratum leads to the missecretion of BM proteins at the apical side of the cells, forming aberrant layers in close contact with the plasma membrane. We found that Rab8GTPase acts downstream of Stratum in this process. Altogether, our results uncover the importance of this GEF/Rab complex in specifically coordinating the basal restriction of BM proteins, a critical process for the establishment and maintenance of epithelial cell polarity.

  13. Immunohistochemical localization of chondroitin sulfate, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, heparan sulfate proteoglycan, entactin, and laminin in basement membranes of postnatal developing and adult rat lungs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannes, P L; Burch, K K; Khosla, J

    1993-01-01

    , and laminin. A monoclonal antibody specific for the glycosaminoglycan portion (CS) of CSPG and a monoclonal antibody against the core protein of CSPG were used in an immunoperoxidase sequence to stain extracellular matrix (ECM) components of pulmonary basement membranes (BMs). Anti-CS stained airway BM...... alveolar, airway, and vascular BMs, in addition to smooth muscle external laminae (EL), in the adult and developing rat. Immunostaining for CSPG required hyaluronidase digestion, whereas CS staining was lost with the same treatment. A polyclonal antibody to the core protein of HSPG was found...... with CSPG, except that entactin showed particular affinity for EL. These results offer a more detailed perspective on previous survey observations of CSPG, HSPG, and entactin in the rat lung, and describe the immunoreactivity of CS for the first time.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)...

  14. In vitro blood-brain barrier models for drug research: state-of-the-art and new perspectives on reconstituting these models on artificial basement membrane platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Jayati; Shi, Yejiao; Azevedo, Helena S

    2016-09-01

    In vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB) models are indispensable screening tools for obtaining early information about the brain-penetrating behaviour of promising drug candidates. Until now, in vitro BBB models have focused on investigating the interplay among cellular components of neurovascular units and the effect of fluidic sheer stress in sustaining normal BBB phenotype and functions. However, an area that has received less recognition is the role of the noncellular basement membrane (BM) in modulating BBB physiology. This review describes the state-of-the-art on in vitro BBB models relevant in drug discovery research and highlights their strengths, weaknesses and the utility potential of some of these models in testing the permeability of nanocarriers as vectors for delivering therapeutics to the brain. Importantly, our review also introduces a new concept of engineering artificial BM platforms for reconstituting BBB models in vitro. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Kovdor-2015 experiment: study of the parameters of a conductive layer of dilatancy-diffusion nature (DD Layer) in the Archaean crystalline basement of the Baltic Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhamaletdinov, A. A.; Velikhov, E. P.; Shevtsov, A. N.; Kolobov, V. V.; Kolesnikov, V. E.; Skorokhodov, A. A.; Korotkova, T. G.; Ivonin, V. V.; Ryazantsev, P. A.; Birulya, M. A.

    2017-06-01

    This paper addresses the Kovdor-2015 Experiment involving frequency electromagnetic soundings of the Archaean basement of the Earth's crust in the southwestern part of the Kola Peninsula. Eleven soundings were carried out using two transmitting arrangements, 85 km apart. Each arrangement consisted of two mutually orthogonal grounded electric dipoles of 1.5 km long. The distances between the source and the receiver were 25 and 50 km. Interpretation of the results took into account the influence of displacement currents and static distortions. It is found that there is an intermediate conductive layer of the dilatancy-diffusion nature (DD layer) with a longitudinal conductivity of about one siemens at depths ranging from 1.5-2 to 5-7 km. The results are interpreted in the terms of geodynamics.

  16. Reciprocal interactions between Beta1-integrin and epidermal growth factor in three-dimensional basement membrane breast cultures: A different perspective in epithelial biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, F.; Weaver, V.M.; Petersen, O.W.; Larabell, C.A.; Dedhar, S.; Briand, P.; Lupu, R.; Bissell, M.J.

    1998-09-30

    Anchorage and growth factor independence are cardinal features of the transformed phenotype. Although it is logical that the two pathways must be coregulated in normal tissues to maintain homeostasis, this has not been demonstrated directly. We showed previously that down-modulation of {beta}1-integrin signaling reverted the malignant behavior of a human breast tumor cell line (T4-2) derived from phenotypically normal cells (HMT-3522) and led to growth arrest in a threedimensional (3D) basement membrane assay in which the cells formed tissue-like acini (14). Here, we show that there is a bidirectional cross-modulation of {beta}1-integrin and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling via the mitogenactivated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. The reciprocal modulation does not occur in monolayer (2D) cultures. Antibodymediated inhibition of either of these receptors in the tumor cells, or inhibition of MAPK kinase, induced a concomitant downregulation of both receptors, followed by growth-arrest and restoration of normal breast tissue morphogenesis. Crossmodulation and tissue morphogenesis were associated with attenuation of EGF-induced transient MAPK activation. To specifically test EGFR and {beta}1-integrin interdependency, EGFR was overexpressed in nonmalignant cells, leading to disruption of morphogenesis and a compensatory up-regulation of {beta}1-integrin expression, again only in 3D. Our results indicate that when breast cells are spatially organized as a result of contact with basement membrane, the signaling pathways become coupled and bidirectional. They further explain why breast cells fail to differentiate in monolayer cultures in which these events are mostly uncoupled. Moreover, in a subset of tumor cells in which these pathways are misregulated but functional, the cells could be 'normalized' by manipulating either pathway.

  17. Assessment of groundwater potential of the crystalline basement of Wadi-Fira (Eastern Chad) using a multi-criteria correlation analysis and Remote Sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahim Mahamat, Hamza; Coz Mathieu, Le; Abderamane, Hamit; Razack, Moumtaz

    2017-04-01

    Access to water in the Wadi-Fira aquifer system is a crucial problem in Eastern Chad because of (i) the complexity of the hydrogeological context (fractured basement), (ii) large extent of the study area (50,000 km2); And (iii) hard-to-access field data (only 34 water points were available to determine physicochemical and hydrodynamic parameters) often associated with high uncertainty. This groundwater resource is paramount in this arid environment, to meet the water needs of an increasingly growing population (refugees from Darfur) with a predominant pastoral activity. In order to optimally exploit the available data, correlative analyzes are carried out by integrating the spatial dimension of the data with GIS tools. A three-step strategy is thus implemented, based on: (i) point field data with physicochemical and hydrodynamic parameters; (ii) maps interpolated from point data, to increase the number of ''comparable'' parameters for each site; and (iii) interpolated maps coupled to maps from Remote Sensing results describing the area's structural geomorphology (slopes, hydrographic network, faults). The first results show marked correlations between physico-chemical and hydrodynamical parameters. According to the correlation matrix, the static level correlates significantly with the dominant cations (Ca2+ ; R = 0.52) and anions (HCO3- ; R = 0.53). Correlations are lower between electrical conductivity and transmissivity, and electrical conductivity and measured static level. A negative correlation is observed between Fluorine and transmissivity (r = -0.65), and the altered horizon (r = -0.5). The most significant discharges are obtained in fissured horizons. The correlative analysis allowsto differentiate mapped sectors according to the productivity and chemical quality regarding groundwater resource. Keywords: Hydrodynamics, Hydrochemistry, Remote Sensing, SRTM, Basement aquifer, Alteration, Lineaments, Wadi-Fira, Tchad.

  18. The age and composition of the pre-Cenozoic basement of the Jalisco Block: implications for and relation to the Guerrero composite terrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, Victor A.; Righter, Kevin; Rosas-Elguera, Jose; López-Martínez, Margarita; Grove, Marty

    2013-09-01

    The Jalisco Block is thought to be part of the Guerrero terrane, but the nature and age of the underlying crystalline basement are largely unknown. We have collected a suite of schists, granitoids, and weakly metamorphosed marine sediments from various parts of the Jalisco Block including Atenguillo and Ameca, Mascota and San Sebastián, Cuale, Puerto Vallarta, Punta Mita, Yelapa, and Tomatlán. The schists range in age from 135 to 161 Ma, with many exhibiting Proterozoic and Phanerozoic zircon ages. The granitoids range in age from 65 to 90 Ma, and are calc-alkaline compositionally—similar to granitoids from the Puerto Vallarta and Los Cabos batholiths. The Jalisco granitoids also experienced similar uplift rates to granitoids from the regions to the north and south of the Jalisco Block. The marine sediments yield a maximum depositional age of 131 Ma, and also contain a significant zircon population with ages extending back to the Archean. Granitoids from this study define two age groups, even after the effects of thermal resetting and different closure temperatures are considered. The 66.8-Ma silicic ash flow tuff near Union de Tula significantly expands the extent of this Cretaceous-Paleocene age ash flow tuff unit within the Jalisco Block, and we propose calling the unit "Carmichael silicic ash flow tuff volcanic succession" in honor of Ian Carmichael. The ages of the basement schists in the Jalisco Block fully overlap with the ages of terranes of continental Mexico, and other parts of the Guerrero terrane in the south, confirming the autochthonous origin of the Jalisco Block rather than exotic arc or allochthonous origin. Geologic data, in combination with geochronologic and oxygen isotopic data, suggest the evolution of SW Mexico with an early 200-1,200-Ma passive margin, followed by steep subduction in a continental arc setting at 160-165 Ma, then shallower subduction by 135 Ma, and finally, emplacement of granitoids at 65-90 Ma.

  19. Geotectonic structural interpretation of the basement complex at the eastern border of the Espinhaco ridge, in Guanhaes and Gouveia region, based on an integration of their U/Pb and K/Ar geochronology united

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, W.; Salvador, E.D.; Siga Junior, O.; Sato, K.; Dossin, I.A.; Dossin, T.M.

    1990-01-01

    The basement complex at the eastern border of the Espinhaco ridge is composed of predominantly gneissic rocks which were subjected to migmatization and granitization. Overall the area shows complex tectonic evolution with recurrence of tectonomagmatic and metamorphic events as supported by geological, geochronological and structural studies. The Rb/Sr geochronology carried out on the basement rocks and metavolcanics from the Espinhaco interpreted together with the published U-Pb, Rb-Sr and K-Ar data defines the following scenario for the Precambrian crustal evolution. 1. Primary origin of a sialic crust at 2.97-2.84 Ga. ago as supported by U-Pb zircon ages. 2. Crustal reworking of the Archean crust and subordinate juvenile accretion from upper mantle during the 2.2-2.OGa. period, as suggested by the isochrons. 3. Recurrence of Middle Proterozoic events over the basement rocks (gneisses and charnockites) and metavolcanics of the Espinhaco as showed by isochrons. 4. Development of Late Proterozoic migmatization over the basement rocks (0.75 Ga., R.I.= 0.787) is association with Collisional tectonics and resetting of K-Ar mineral systems. (author)

  20. Zircon U-Pb geochronology, geochemistry and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes from the metamorphic basement in the Wuhe Complex: Implications for Neoarchean active continental margin along the southeastern North China Craton and constraints on the petrogenesis of Mesozoic granitoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andong Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report zircon U-Pb geochronology, geochemistry and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope data from mafic granulites and garnet amphibolites of the Wuhe Complex in the southeastern margin of the North China Craton (NCC. In combination with previous data, our results demonstrate that these rocks represent fragments of the ancient lower crust, and have features similar to those of the granulite basement in the northern margin of the NCC. A detailed evaluation of the Pb isotope data shows that Pb isotopes cannot effectively distinguish the role of the Yangtze Craton basement from that of the NCC basement with regard to the source and generation of magmas, at least for southeastern NCC. The age data suggest that the protoliths of the granulites or amphibolites in the Wuhe Complex were most likely generated in Neoarchean and that these rocks were subjected to Paleoproterozoic (1.8–1.9 Ga high-pressure granulite facies metamorphism. This study also shows that the Precambrian metamorphic basement in the southeastern margin of the NCC might have formed in a tectonic setting characterized by a late Neoarchean active continental margin.

  1. Study of the activity concentration of natural radionuclides in the basement of an old nuclear facility; Estudio de la concentracion de actividad de radionucleidos naturales en el suelo de una antigua instalacion nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yague, L.; Alvarez, A.; Navarro, N.; Noguerales, C.

    2011-07-01

    We present the results of the radiological characterization performed in the basement of a small piece of land for the location of a decommissioned nuclear facility. The operational history of the Installation and radiological data obtained during the various stages of decommissioning radiological indicate that the inventory to consider is that of uranium isotopes and their immediate descendants.

  2. Biogeochemistry of dissolved methane and hydrogen in basement fluids of the sediment-buried Juan de Fuca Ridge flank at Boreholes (CORKs) 1301A, 1362A and 1362B: methane isotopic compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, H.; Cowen, J. P.; Olson, E. J.; Lilley, M. D.; Jungbluth, S.; Rappe, M. S.

    2013-12-01

    The ocean crust is the largest aquifer system on Earth. Within the sediment-buried 3.5 Myr basaltic crust of the eastern Juan de Fuca Ridge (JFR) flank, the circulating basement fluids have moderate temperature (~65°C) and potentially harbor a substantial subseafloor biosphere. With dissolved oxygen and nitrate exhausted, sulfate may serve as the major electron acceptor in this environment. This study aims to evaluate the availability and the biogeochemistry of two important electron donors, methane and hydrogen, for the subseafloor biosphere. Basement fluids were collected via stainless steel and ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene fluoropolymer (ETFE) fluid delivery lines associated with Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kits (CORKs) that extend from basement depths to outlet ports at the seafloor. Three CORKs were visited; 1301A, 1362A and 1362B lie within 200 to 500 m of each other, and their fluid intakes lie at ~30, ~60, and ~50 m below the sediment-basement interface (mbs), respectively. In addition, CORK 1362A contains a second intake at a deep (~200 mbs) horizon. The basement fluids from the three CORKs contained significantly higher concentrations of methane (1.5-13μM) and hydrogen (0.05-1.1 μM) than in bottom seawater (0.002 and 0.0004, respectively), indicating that prevalence and availability of both methane and hydrogen as electron donors for the subseafloor biosphere. Thermodynamic calculations show that sulfate reduction coupled with either methane or hydrogen oxidation is energy yielding in the oceanic basement. The δ13C values of methane ranged from -43×1‰ to -58×0.3‰; the δ2H values of methane in CORKs 1301A, 1362A and 1362B fluids were 57×5‰, -262×2‰, -209×2‰, respectively. The isotopic compositions suggest that methane in the basement fluid is of biogenic origin. Interestingly, the δ2H value of methane in the CORK 1301A fluids is far more positive than that in other marine environments

  3. U-Th-PbT Monazite Gechronology in the South Carpathian Basement: Variscan Syn-Metamorphic Tectonic Stacking and Long-Lasting Post-Peak Decompressional Overprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Săbău, G.; Negulescu, E.

    2012-12-01

    Dating metamorphic events appears to be unsatisfactorily addressed by most of the widely-employed and otherwise accurate and productive isotopic techniques, because the phases and systems investigated do not directly relate to the metamorphic events themselves. An adequate answer to this challenge is instead provided by microprobe-assisted chemical U-Th-PbT monazite geochronology, by its spatial resolution, truly in situ character and the possibility to reference analyses against well-defined textural environments and features, as well as a qualitative timeframe derived therefrom. Though chemical U-Th-PbT monazite geochronology is increasingly applied to seek answers ranging form a general characterization to fine details of the thermotectonic evolution of magmatic and metamorphic rocks, there are so far, unlike in the case of isotopic geochronological methods, no clearly defined standard analytical and data processing protocols. Two main reasons for this have to be mentioned, namely that chemical U-Th-PbT chronology is actually a proxy for isotopic geochronology, and the quantification of the errors and their propagation cannot be directly assessed because apparent ages are related to the measured element concentrations by an implicit function, the law of radioactive decay. Current approaches rely on treating calculated individual age values as primary data, a priori grouping of analyses supposed (and subsequently tested) to be coeval, and their statistical processing in order to obtain age values. An alternative approach we applied in basement units of the South Carpathians consists in an explicit approximation of the age formula and associated errors propagated from element concentrations to age values, and individual treatment of each age datum. The separation of the age clusters from the overall age spectrum of each sample was operated by tracing the variations of the normalized age gradient on the age spectrum sorted by increasing age values, and fine

  4. Ophiolitic basement to the Great Valley forearc basin, California, from seismic and gravity data: Implications for crustal growth at the North American continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, N.J.; Beaudoin, B.C.; Klemperer, S.L.; Levander, A.; Luetgert, J.; Meltzer, A.; Mooney, W.; Tréhu, A.

    1997-01-01

    The nature of the Great Valley basement, whether oceanic or continental, has long been a source of controversy. A velocity model (derived from a 200-km-long east-west reflection-refraction profile collected south of the Mendocino triple junction, northern California, in 1993), further constrained by density and magnetic models, reveals an ophiolite underlying the Great Valley (Great Valley ophiolite), which in turn is underlain by a westward extension of lower-density continental crust (Sierran affinity material). We used an integrated modeling philosophy, first modeling the seismic-refraction data to obtain a final velocity model, and then modeling the long-wavelength features of the gravity data to obtain a final density model that is constrained in the upper crust by our velocity model. The crustal section of Great Valley ophiolite is 7-8 km thick, and the Great Valley ophiolite relict oceanic Moho is at 11-16 km depth. The Great Valley ophiolite does not extend west beneath the Coast Ranges, but only as far as the western margin of the Great Valley, where the 5-7-km-thick Great Valley ophiolite mantle section dips west into the present-day mantle. There are 16-18 km of lower-density Sierran affinity material beneath the Great Valley ophiolite mantle section, such that a second, deeper, "present-day" continental Moho is at about 34 km depth. At mid-crustal depths, the boundary between the eastern extent of the Great Valley ophiolite and the western extent of Sierran affinity material is a near-vertical velocity and density discontinuity about 80 km east of the western margin of the Great Valley. Our model has important implications for crustal growth at the North American continental margin. We suggest that a thick ophiolite sequence was obducted onto continental material, probably during the Jurassic Nevadan orogeny, so that the Great Valley basement is oceanic crust above oceanic mantle vertically stacked above continental crust and continental mantle.

  5. One Basin, One Stress Regime, One Orientation of Seismogenic Basement Faults, Variable Spatio-Temporal Slip Histories: Lessons from Fort Worth Basin Induced Earthquake Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeShon, H. R.; Brudzinski, M.; Frohlich, C.; Hayward, C.; Jeong, S.; Hornbach, M. J.; Magnani, M. B.; Ogwari, P.; Quinones, L.; Scales, M. M.; Stump, B. W.; Sufri, O.; Walter, J. I.

    2017-12-01

    Since October 2008, the Fort Worth basin in north Texas has experienced over 30 magnitude (M) 3.0+ earthquakes, including one M4.0. Five named earthquake sequences have been recorded by local seismic networks: DFW Airport, Cleburne-Johnson County, Azle, Irving-Dallas, and Venus-Johnson County. Earthquakes have occurred on northeast (NE)-southwest (SW) trending Precambrian basement faults and within the overlying Ellenburger limestone unit used for wastewater disposal. Focal mechanisms indicate primarily normal faulting, and stress inversions indicate maximum regional horizontal stress strikes 20-30° NE. The seismogenic sections of the faults in either the basement or within the Ellenburger appear optimally oriented for failure within the modern stress regime. Stress drop estimates range from 10 to 75 bars, with little variability between and within the named sequences, and the values are consistent with intraplate earthquake stress drops in natural tectonic settings. However, the spatio-temporal history of each sequence relative to wastewater injection data varies. The May 2015 M4.0 Venus earthquake, for example, is only the largest of what is nearly 10 years of earthquake activity on a single fault structure. Here, maximum earthquake size has increased with time and exhibits a log-linear relationship to cumulative injected volume from 5 nearby wells. At the DFW airport, where the causative well was shut-in within a few months of the initial earthquakes and soon after the well began operation, we document migration away from the injector on the same fault for nearly 6 km sporadically over 5 years. The Irving-Dallas and Azle sequences, like DFW airport, appear to have started rather abruptly with just a few small magnitude earthquakes in the weeks or months preceding the significant set of magnitude 3.5+ earthquakes associated with each sequence. There are no nearby (<10 km) injection operations to the Irving-Dallas sequence and the Azle linked wells operated for

  6. Diferentiation of Basements Types Using Seismic Reflection Data and 40Ar-39Ar Dating in the Western Half of the Farallon Basin (gulf of California, Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñero Lajas, D.; González Fernández, A.; López-Martínez, M.; Lonsdale, P.; Kluesner, J.

    2009-04-01

    The Gulf of California is an active continental rift with an oblique right lateral displacement. Defining a clear boundary between continental and oceanic crust is difficult due to the high sedimentation rate. The new crust is a mixture of sills and sediments that do not produce aligned magnetic anomalies. The main objective of this work is to identify this boundary in the western part of the Farallon Basin. In order to accomplish this goal we used multichannel 2D high-resolution seismic reflection data taken during a cruise aboard oceanographic vessel Francisco de Ulloa in 2006. We also used petrological characterization and 40Ar-39Ar dating of continental samples collected in nearby Santa Catalina, Santa Cruz and San Diego islands, Punta Botella in the Baja California Peninsula, and marine samples of the continental margin next to Las Animas island (ROCA 2008 cruise). Oceanic crust created in the Farallòn spreading axis is identified primarily by saucer-shaped structures in the seismic profiles, which are interpreted as sills. The plutonic continental basement is located on the westernmost part of the margin and is recognized by a continuous high amplitude reflector. There are also volcanic patches in this area, like the South Farallon Massif, which are evident as discontinuities in the high amplitude reflector and with a different seismic character. The Farallon Basin is affected by two different tectonic regimes, the first (compressive) is related to the subduction of the Farallon Plate under the North American Plate, when the plutonic basement was originated. It consists of granodiorites and tonalites belonging to two phases of subduction during the Upper Cretaceous and Early Miocene. Outcrops of the latter phase are exposed in the peninsula of Baja California (Conception Bay); Mexico mainland (middle Sinaloa); and dredged samples of Pescadero Basin. These are similar to the plutonic Santa Catalina Island outcrop described and dated in this study. These

  7. A revised stratigraphy and petrogenetic interpretation of the Cordilleran basement in the Mazatlan, Sinaloa region (NW Mexico): Evidence from new geochemical and geochronological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrieta, G. F.; Schaaf, P. E.; Maldonado, R.; Solis, G.; Weber, B.; Rodriguez, L.

    2013-12-01

    The age, composition, and thermal history of the cordilleran basement in NW Mexico are still poorly known. We focus here on the Mazatlan, Sinaloa region where previous works identified the following sequences: 158 Ma orthogneisses(U-Pb) are covered by metamorphosed clastic sediments of supposed Jurassic age which are intruded by a mafic complex mainly represented by 134-139 Ma gabbros (K-Ar hornblende ages). Both rock series are considered as parts of the basement in this region. The remaining stratigraphy is characterized by a batholitic complex formed by two major magmatic events. The first one, around 100 Ma (U-Pb and K-Ar), is tonalitic in composition with some signs of regional deformation associated to a syntectonic emplacement. The second one, between 46 and 83 Ma (K-Ar), varies from diorite to granodiorite. The latter is the most widely distributed event, hosts the important ore deposits in the region and is interpreted to be emplaced postectonically, and. Our new U-Pb geochronological data include the identification of two additional plutonic events. The first occurred at 136 Ma and was obtained from the Concordia granodiorite 30 km E of Mazatlan. This unit was formerly dated at 54 Ma (hornblend, biotite; K-Ar). A fourth plutonic unit (Copala granodiorite) was dated at 28 Ma and can be correlated to the Upper Sierra Madre Supergroup. Additionally we obtained detrital zircon ages from a paragneiss covering the 158 Ma orthogneisses with peaks at 256 Ma, 492 Ma, and 1014 Ma. Our field observations indicate a reset of the 134-139 Ma gabbro ages by the close Concordia granodiorite, whose biotites were in turn rehomogenized by the 46 to 83 Ma plutonic event. Until now very few geochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic studies with petrogenetic interpretation of the units mentioned above are published. The results of our new investigations will be presented at the meeting as well as a new dataset for the coastal Quaternary Piaxtla basalt and its peridotitic xenoliths. These

  8. Update of the basement model of the Cerro Prieto, B. C., geothermal field, Mexico; Actualizacion del modelo del basamento en el campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, B.C., Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Lopez, Macario [Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, Comision Federal de Electricidad, Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico)

    1999-04-01

    With the aim to actualize the basement model of the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field, a gravity interpretation has been held. We modeled in 2.5 D, nine profiles traced over the Bouguer anomaly map. Well data concerning lithology and density changes were used to fit the gravity models. Results of this work confirm that the geometry of the basement of Cerro Prieto, corresponds to a structural sequence. From west to east it starts as a big depression, continues with a strong uplift of the basement in the middle sector and finally deepens eastward in steps. The basement model proposed in the present work, defines a similar trend to that established by Fonseca y Razo (1980), but there are differences in basement depth in some areas. In the present model we interpret basement depths between 200 and 400 m deeper than in previous models to the south and northwest of the actual exploitation zone. [Spanish] Con el fin de actualizar el modelo del basamento en el Campo Geotermico de Cerro Prieto, se realizo una reinterpretacion gravimetrica, modelando en 2.5 D, 9 perfiles trazados sobre el mapa de anomalia de Bouguer. Utilizando la informacion litologica obtenida a traves de numerosas perforaciones profundas, se hicieron coincidir, dentro de los mofelos gravimetricos, las principales variaciones litologicas con cambios en la densidad. Los resultados de este trabajo reiteran que la geometria del basamento del Campo de Cerro Prieto, vista de W a E, corresponde con una secuencia estructural que se inicia con una gran depresion en el W, continua con un fuerte levantamiento y finalmente se extiende con una tendencia a profundizarse hacia el E de forma escalonada. El modelo de basamento derivado del presente trabajo, define una tendencia muy similar al modelo de basamento establecido (Fonseca y Razo, 1980), pero difiere en cuanto a la profundidad en algunos sectores del campo. En el actual trabajo se interpreta una profundidad entre 200 y 400 m mayor hacia el sur y noroeste de la

  9. A practical assessment of aquifer discharge for regional groundwater demand by characterizing leaky confined aquifer overlain on a Mesozoic granitic gneiss basement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, David Ching-Fang

    2018-04-01

    Due to increasing population worldwide, there is an urgent need to manage these important but diminishing groundwater resources efficiently to ensure their continued availability. The major innovative design of this study is to provide a practical assessment process for groundwater discharge under a regional demand by characterizing the nature of leaky confined aquifers overlain on a Mesozoic granitic gneiss basement which involves the important groundwater system in the Kinmen region (Taiwan, ROC) and the assessment of adoptable groundwater discharge in aquifer is needed. The storage coefficient presents an order of one in a thousand and hydraulic conductivity is approximately at the order of 1-8 m/d and 0.4-0.9 m/d for aquifer and aquitard respectively. Groundwater discharge and admissible number of pumping well is suggested considering scheduled maximum groundwater volume and head decline change for eastern and western studied area respectively. The safety subjected to the conservative issue is then addressed by the use of scheduled maximum groundwater volume. It reveals that the safety can be ensured using the indicator as scheduled maximum groundwater volume with predefined scenarios. The result can be utilized practically for developing management strategy of groundwater resources due to the applicability and novel of method.

  10. Preliminary study of the physico-chemical and hydrodynamical characteristics of the crystalline basement aquifer of the Ihorombe region (south of Madagascar)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakotoaridera, Z.S.

    2008-04-01

    The hydrochemical, hydrogeological and isotopic data have been used to determine the chemical and hydrodynamical characteristics of crystalline basement aquifer of the Ihorombe region. The study area is located in the District of Ihosy, which is about 600 km in the south of Antananarivo along the national road 7. Two types of aquifer have been found in this area: a phreatic aquifer composed of alterd metamorphic rocks, and a semi confined aquifer, which flows in a fissured and fractured rocks such as gneiss, and leptinites.The ground water mineralization is controlled by HCO 3- , Ca 2+ , Na + , Cl - . The dominant hydrochemical types of water in the study area are calcium and sodium bicarbonate. Some water samples show chloride types. The groundwater mineralization process is especially due to water rock interaction. The ground water is directly recharged by rain water. For the phreatic aquifer, the tritium values have provide a mean resident time less than 50 years, and for the semi confined aquifer, it is approximately above 100 years. [fr

  11. The basement of the Punta de Este Terrane: A meso proterozoic heritage at the eastern border of Rio de La Plata craton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preciozzi, F.; Peel, E.; Sanchez, L.; Basei, M.

    2005-01-01

    U-Pb zircon ages between 1000 and 900 Ma corresponding to the nuclei of zircon crystals extracted from the basement of the Punta del Este Terrane (Eastern Uruguay) allowed the correlation of the protoliths of this domain with rocks attributed to the Namaqua Belt in Southwestern Africa. SHRIMP ages obtained for the ortho gneissic rocks allowed to place at ca. 750 Ma the generations of gneisses and migmatites. Differently from what occurred in Africa, reworking of this crustal segment during the Brasiliano-Pan african orogenesis was very intense, reaching the granulite facies around 640Ma. Acid volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks (Sierra de Aguirre Formation) with ages around 570 Ma, late sedimentary basins (San Carlos Formation) and post-tectonic granitoids (Santa Teresa and José Ignacio batholith s) mark the end of the events related with the Brasiliano/Pan-African orogenesis. The final collision between the Punta del Este Terrane and the western domains represented by the Dom Feliciano Belt and the Río de La Plata Craton may have occurred at around 535 Ma

  12. Genesis and evolution of a Paleoproterozoic basement inlier within West Gondwana addressed by Sm-Nd isotopic geochemistry and Zr saturation thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares, Claudia Sayão; Duarte, Beatriz Paschoal; Machado, Hugo Tavares; Viana, Samuel Magalhães; Figueiredo, Pedro Lontra Costa de

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents new isotopic Sm-Nd ID-TIMS data and applies the Zr saturation thermometry on orthogneisses of the Quirino Complex to address the mechanisms of magma genesis, evolution and tectonic setting. Quirino Complex is considered a Paleoproterozoic basement inlier within a Neoproterozoic belt, comprised of two distinct calcalkaline magmatic suites: a Siderian to Rhyacian high-K suite (2.30-2.19 Ga); and a Rhyacian medium-K suite (2.17-2.16 Ga). High zircon solubility and εNd(t) values (+2.7 to -5.8) indicate that the protoliths of the high-K suite gneisses can be related to high-temperature (TZr = ca. 810 °C) I-type granites. The gneisses of the medium-K suite display isotopic signature for crustal residence (εNd(t) = -17.9 and -8.1). Their protoliths, rich in inherited zircons (ca. 3.0 Ga) and other restitic/refractory components (hornblende clots and mafic enclaves), were derived from partial melting of Archean crust at relatively low temperature (TZr = ca. 750 °C) within a collisional tectonic setting.

  13. A direct contact between astrocyte and vitreous body is possible in the rabbit eye due to discontinuities in the basement membrane of the retinal inner limiting membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Haddad

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Different from most mammalian species, the optic nerve of the rabbit eye is initially formed inside the retina where myelination of the axons of the ganglion cells starts and vascularization occurs. Astrocytes are confined to these regions. The aforementioned nerve fibers known as medullated nerve fibers form two bundles that may be identified with the naked eye. The blood vessels run on the inner surface of these nerve fiber bundles (epivascularization and, accordingly, the accompanying astrocytes lie mostly facing the vitreous body from which they are separated only by the inner limiting membrane of the retina. The arrangement of the astrocytes around blood vessels leads to the formation of structures known as glial tufts. Fragments (N = 3 or whole pieces (N = 3 of the medullated nerve fiber region of three-month-old male rabbits (Orictolagus cuniculus were fixed in glutaraldehyde followed by osmium tetroxide, and their thin sections were examined with a transmission electron microscope. Randomly located discontinuities (up to a few micrometers long of the basement membrane of the inner limiting membrane of the retina were observed in the glial tufts. As a consequence, a direct contact between the astrocyte plasma membrane and vitreous elements was demonstrated, making possible functional interactions such as macromolecular exchanges between this glial cell type and the components of the vitreous body.

  14. Oil/source rock correlations in the Polish Flysch Carpathians and Mesozoic basement and organic facies of the Oligocene Menilite Shales: Insights from hydrous pyrolysis experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, John B.; Kotarba, M.J.; Lewan, M.D.; Wieclaw, D.

    2004-01-01

    The Oligocene Menilite Shales in the study area in the Polish Flysch Carpathians are organic-rich and contain varying mixtures of Type-II, Type-IIS and Type-III kerogen. The kerogens are thermally immature to marginally mature based on atomic H/C ratios and Rock-Eval data. This study defined three organic facies, i.e., sedimentary strata with differing hydrocarbon-generation potentials due to varying types and concentrations of organic matter. These facies correspond to the Silesian Unit and the eastern and western portions of the Skole Unit. Analysis of oils generated by hydrous pyrolysis of outcrop samples of Menilite Shales demonstrates that natural crude oils reservoired in the flysch sediments appear to have been generated from the Menilite Shales. Natural oils reservoired in the Mesozoic basement of the Carpathian Foredeep appear to be predominantly derived and migrated from Menilite Shales, with a minor contribution from at least one other source rock most probably within Middle Jurassic strata. Definition of organic facies may have been influenced by the heterogeneous distribution of suitable Menilite Shales outcrops and producing wells, and subsequent sample selection during the analytical phases of the study. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Low enthalpy Na-chloride waters from the Lunigiana and Garfagnana grabens, Northern Apennines, Italy: Tracing fluid connections and basement interactions via chemical and isotopic compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschetti, Tiziano; Toscani, Lorenzo; Barbieri, Maurizio; Mucchino, Claudio; Marino, Tiziana

    2017-12-01

    The Na-Cl waters from NW Tuscany (central Italy) record similar water isotopic and major chemical compositions, which demonstrate their meteoric origin and interactions with Upper Triassic evaporites and the metamorphic units of the Paleozoic basement. Slight differences are found in the deep temperature-pressure conditions of the Lunigiana graben (39-42 °C/143-145 bar) and the Garfagnana graben (73-78 °C/250-256 bar). In particular, the thermal fluids outpouring from Garfagnana are probably related to a common deep reservoir or interconnected fluids. Their differences are mainly evidenced by strontium isotopic ratio data (87Sr/86Sr), which combined with previously published sulfur isotope ratios (34S/32S) demonstrate the involvement of vein barites in water-rock interactions. Most likely, these minerals formed during Upper Oligocene-Miocene tectogenesis due to the mixing of fluids from the Verrucano Group and Upper Triassic units. The results of this hydrogeochemical study of the deep Na-Cl fluids could better clarify the distribution of the Verrucano Group within this area and the related discrepancies in the stratigraphic interpretations of the Palaeozoic-Mesozoic transition. Furthermore, the possible presence of an interconnected reservoir could be used to help interpret data produced by the local geochemical monitoring of seismic activity.

  16. Reticular Basement Membrane Vessels Are Increased in COPD Bronchial Mucosa by Both Factor VIII and Collagen IV Immunostaining and Are Hyperpermeable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Soltani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective. Using Collagen IV staining, we have previously reported that the reticular basement membrane (Rbm is hypervascular and the lamina propria (LP is hypovascular in COPD airways. This study compared Collagen IV staining with vessels marked with anti-Factor VIII and examined vessel permeability in bronchial biopsies from COPD and normal subjects using albumin staining. Results. Anti-Collagen IV antibody detected more vessels in the Rbm (P=0.002 and larger vessels in both Rbm (P<0.001 and LP (P=0.003 compared to Factor VIII. COPD airways had more vessels (with greater permeability in the Rbm (P=0.01 and fewer vessels (with normal permeability in the LP compared to controls with both Collagen IV and Factor VIII antibodies (P=0.04 and P=0.01. Conclusion. Rbm vessels were increased in number and were hyperpermeable in COPD airways. Anti-Collagen IV and anti-Factor VIII antibodies did not uniformly detect the same vessel populations; the first is likely to reflect larger and older vessels with the latter reflecting smaller, younger vessels.

  17. Calymmian magmatism in the basement of the Jauru Terrain (Rondonian - San Ignacio Province), Amazon Craton: U-Pb and Sm-Nd geochemistry and geochronology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fachetti, Frankie James Serrano; Costa, Ana Claudia Dantas da; Silva, Carlos Humberto da, E-mail: frankiefachetti@hotmail.com, E-mail: acdcosta@ufmt.br, E-mail: chsilva@ufmt.br [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), Cuiaba, MT (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencias Exatas e da Terra

    2016-11-01

    The Taquarussu Orthogneiss and the Guadalupe Granodiorite, part of the Rondonian-San Ignacio Province basement, southwest of the Amazonian Craton, correspond to oriented bodies with a NW trend. The rocks show granodiorite composition with minor occurrences of coarse grained monzogranites consisting essentially of plagioclase, quartz, microcline, orthoclase and biotite. The accessory minerals are amphibole, titanite, garnet, apatite, epidote, zircon and opaque. The geochemical data indicate that the rocks are classified as granodiorites and monzogranites, with an intermediate to acid magmatism, sub-alkaline character, from the calc-alkaline to the high-K calc-alkaline series, with alumina ratios ranging from metaluminous to lightly peraluminous. The rocks were classified as generated in volcanic islands arc environment and the U-Pb data (SHRIMP zircon) show a concord age 1575 ± 6 Ma. The Sm-Nd model age (T{sub DM}) is 1.63 Ga with εNd (t = 1.57 Ga) ranging from -1.52 to +0.78. These data indicate that these rocks are probably a juvenile crust with a possible contamination of crustal rocks. (author)

  18. Reduced fibulin-2 contributes to loss of basement membrane integrity and skin blistering in mice lacking integrin α3β1 in the epidermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longmate, Whitney M; Monichan, Ruby; Chu, Mon-Li; Tsuda, Takeshi; Mahoney, My G; DiPersio, C Michael

    2014-06-01

    Deficient epidermal adhesion is a hallmark of blistering skin disorders and chronic wounds, implicating integrins as potential therapeutic targets. Integrin α3β1, a major receptor in the epidermis for adhesion to laminin-332 (LN-332), has critical roles in basement membrane (BM) organization during skin development. In the current study we identify a role for α3β1 in promoting stability of nascent epidermal BMs through induction of fibulin-2, a matrix-associated protein that binds LN-332. We demonstrate that mice lacking α3β1 in the epidermis display ruptured BM beneath neo-epidermis of wounds, characterized by extensive blistering. This junctional blistering phenocopies defects reported in newborn α3-null mice, as well as in human patients with α3 gene mutations, indicating that the developmental role of α3β1 in BM organization is recapitulated during wound healing. Mice lacking epidermal α3β1 also have reduced fibulin-2 expression, and fibulin-2-null mice display perinatal skin blisters similar to those in α3β1-deficient mice. Interestingly, α3-null wound epidermis or keratinocytes also show impaired processing of the LN-332 γ2 chain, although this defect was independent of reduced fibulin-2 and did not appear to cause blistering. Our findings indicate a role for integrin α3β1 in BM stability through fibulin-2 induction, both in neonatal skin and in adult wounds.

  19. Products of the unc-52 gene in Caenorhabditis elegans are homologous to the core protein of the mammalian basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalski, T M; Williams, B D; Mullen, G P; Moerman, D G

    1993-08-01

    Mutations in the unc-52 gene of Caenorhabditis elegans affect attachment of the myofilament lattice to the muscle cell membrane. Here, we demonstrate that the unc-52 gene encodes a nematode homolog of perlecan, the mammalian basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan. The longest potential open reading frame of this gene encodes a 2482-amino-acid protein with a signal peptide and four domains. The first domain is unique to the unc-52 polypeptide, whereas the three remaining domains contain sequences found in the LDL receptor (domain II) laminin (domain III) and N-CAM (domain IV). We have identified three alternatively spliced transcripts that encode different carboxy-terminal sequences. The two larger transcripts encode proteins containing all or part of domain IV, whereas the smaller transcript encodes a shortened polypeptide that completely lacks domain IV. We have determined that the disorganized muscle phenotype observed in unc-52(st196) animals is caused by the insertion of a Tc1 transposon into domain IV. Two monoclonal antibodies that recognize an extracellular component of all contractile tissues in C. elegans fail to stain embryos homozygous for a lethal unc-52 allele. We have mapped the epitopes recognized by both monoclonal antibodies to a region of domain IV in the unc-52-encoded protein sequence.

  20. A low-angle normal fault and basement structures within the Enping Sag, Pearl River Mouth Basin: Insights into late Mesozoic to early Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the South China Sea area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Qing; Mei, Lianfu; Shi, Hesheng; Shu, Yu; Camanni, Giovanni; Wu, Jing

    2018-04-01

    The basement structure of the Cenozoic Enping Sag, within the Pearl River Mouth Basin on the northern margin of South China Sea, is revealed by borehole-constrained high-quality 3D seismic reflection data. Such data suggest that the Enping Sag is bounded in the north by a low-angle normal fault. We interpret this low-angle normal fault to have developed as the result of the reactivation of a pre-existing thrust fault part of a pre-Cenozoic thrust system. This is demonstrated by the selective reactivation of the pre-existing thrust and by diffuse contractional deformation recognized from the accurate analysis of basement reflections. Another significant result of this study is the finding of some residual rift basins within the basement of the Enping Sag. Both the thrust system and the residual basins are interpreted to have developed after the emplacement of continental margin arc-related granitoids (J3-K1) that define the basement within the study area. Furthermore, seismic sections show that the pre-existing residual rift basins are offset by the main thrust fault and they are both truncated by the Tg unconformity. These structural relationships, interpreted in the frame of previous studies, help us to reconstruct a six-event structural evolution model for the Enping Sag from the late Mesozoic to the early Cenozoic. In particular, we interpret the residual rift basins to have formed as the result of back-arc extension due to the slab roll-back of the Paleo-Pacific Plate subduction in the early K2. The thrust system has recorded a compressional event in the late K2 that followed the back-arc extension in the SCS area. The mechanism of this compressional event is still to be clarified, and might be related to continuous subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Plate or to the continent-continent collision between a micro-continental block and the South China margin.

  1. Relation between peak period of microtremor spectral ratio (horizontal and vertical components) and basement depth; Bido no suiheido/jogedo supekutoru hi no peak to kiso shindo tono kankei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, H.; Mizutani, K.; Saito, T. [Iwate University, Iwate (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-05-01

    The peak period of the horizontal/vertical spectral ratio of microtremors was referred to the underground structure for the purpose of finding out if it was possible to estimate the ground structure by use of the peak period of the spectral ratio. The observation was carried in the areas of Morioka City and Hachinohe City using seismographs for measuring east-west, north-south, and up-down motions. As for the relationship between the peak period of the spectral ratio distribution involving 490 observation sites and the known gravity anomalies in the Morioka City area, it was found that the peak period of the spectral ratio tended to be shorter from west toward east while the gravity anomalies were greater from west toward east. Again, as for the relations with the underground geology, the period was longer when the distance to the granite basement was greater, and shorter when smaller. In the Hachinohe City area, relations not only of the first period peak but also of the second period peak to the basement were disclosed, which indicates the possibility that the peak period of the spectral ratio will be used as a means for estimating the basement structure. 2 refs., 8 figs.

  2. Mafic microgranular enclaves (MMEs) in amphibole-bearing granites of the Bintang batholith, Main Range granite province: Evidence for a meta-igneous basement in Western Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quek, Long Xiang; Ghani, Azman A.; Chung, Sun-Lin; Li, Shan; Lai, Yu-Ming; Saidin, Mokhtar; Amir Hassan, Meor H.; Muhammad Ali, Muhammad Afiq; Badruldin, Muhammad Hafifi; Abu Bakar, Ahmad Farid

    2017-08-01

    Mafic microgranular enclaves (MMEs) with varying sizes are a common occurrence in porphyritic amphibole-bearing granite of the Bintang batholith, which is part of the Main Range granite province. The MMEs of the amphibole-bearing granite are significant as they are related to the I-type granitoids within the Main Range granite province. Petrographic observations indicate the MMEs are mantled with coarse mafic crystals on the rim and contain similar minerals to the host (biotite + plagioclase + K-feldspar + pyroxene + amphibole), but in different proportions. Geochemical analyses indicate the MMEs are shoshonitic with mg# comparable to the granite host. Substantial similarities exist between the MMEs and granite with regards to the normalized rare earth element patterns and trace elements variation diagrams. The MMEs and granite are not completely coeval as the MME zircon U-Pb age (224.3 ± 1.2 Ma) is slightly older than its granite host zircon U-Pb age (216.2 ± 1.0 Ma). The age difference is also observed from the unusual 500 m-long Tiak MME and another amphibole-bearing granite sample from the south of the pluton, which yield 221.8 ± 1.1 Ma and 217.4 ± 1.0 Ma respectively. The oldest inherited zircons found in the MME and granite are 2.0 Ga and 1.3 Ga respectively, while the oldest xenocrystic zircons found in the MME and granite are 2.5 Ga and 1.5 Ga respectively. Identical negative εHf(t) values from zircon U-Pb and Lu-Hf analysis for a MME-granite pair indicates the rocks were generated from a similar, ancient source in the basement. Combining the results, we suggest that incongruent melting of an ancient protolith played an important part in the evolution of the MMEs and granite and the MMEs characteristics are best explained as restite. The zircon Hf model age (two-stage) and the I-type peritectic and restitic mineral assemblages in the MMEs further describe the protolith as Early Proterozoic-Late Archean (≈2.5 Ga) meta-igneous rock. This shows the

  3. Managed aquifer recharge in weathered crystalline basement aquifers in India: Monitoring of the effect of tank infiltration on water quality over several monsoon events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alazard, Marina; Boisson, Alexandre; Maréchal, Jean-Christophe; Dewandel, Benoît; Perrin, Jérôme; Pettenati, Marie; Picot-Colbeaux, Géraldine; Ahmed, Shakeel; Thiéry, Dominique; Kloppmann, Wolfram

    2015-04-01

    Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) structures like percolation tanks are considered by the Indian national and regional governments as major option for tackling declining groundwater levels due to overexploitation for irrigation purposes (Boisson et al., 2014). Their main purpose is to restore groundwater availability under strong climatic and anthropogenic pressure. Furthermore, MAR-induced dilution with fresh surface water is generally expected to improve groundwater quality with respect to both anthropogenic and geogenic contaminants (total mineralisation, nitrates, chlorides, sulphates and fluoride contents). The impact of a percolation tank on groundwater quality was investigated in a context that is typical for hydro-climatic and geological settings in southern and eastern India: fractured crystalline basement aquifers overlain by a weathering zone under semi-arid climate. Water level data and geochemical indicators (stable isotopes and major ions) were monitored for both groundwater and surface water, over several successive monsoon events. In case of high to very high water levels, the groundwater quality is globally improved. However, in a few cases, the quality of the groundwater can be negatively impacted due to leaching of salts under the tank, particularly during the first rain events of the monsoon. Geogenic fluoride contents in groundwater, induced by water-rock interaction and enhanced by recycling of agricultural return flow under paddy fields, is found to be relatively stable over the year. This finding points out that the underlying processes, mainly dissolution of F-bearing phases like fluorapatites combined with Ca/Na cation exchange and calcite precipitation, both limiting the possibility of F-removal via fluorite precipitation (Pettenati et al., 2013, 2014), are not impacted by the hydrological conditions. This work highlights the complexity of the recharge processes in crystalline aquifers, enhanced by the variability of hydrological conditions

  4. The role of E-W basement faults in the Mesozoic geodynamic evolution of the Gafsa and Chotts basins, south-central Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amri, Dorra Tanfous; Dhahri, Ferid; Soussi, Mohamed; Gabtni, Hakim; Bédir, Mourad

    2017-10-01

    The Gafsa and Chotts intracratonic basins in south-central Tunisia are transitional zones between the Atlasic domain to the north and the Saharan platform to the south. The principal aim of this paper is to unravel the geodynamic evolution of these basins following an integrated approach including seismic, well log and gravity data. These data are used to highlight the tectonic control on the deposition of Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous series and to discuss the role of the main faults that controlled the basin architecture and Cretaceous-Tertiary inversion. The horizontal gravity gradient map of the study area highlights the pattern of discontinuities within the two basins and reveals the presence of deep E-W basement faults. Primary attention is given to the role played by the E-W faults system and that of the NW-SE Gafsa fault which was previously considered active since the Jurassic. Facies and thickness analyses based on new seismic interpretation and well data suggest that the E-W-oriented faults controlled the subsidence distribution especially during the Jurassic. The NW-SE faults seem to be key structures that controlled the basins paleogeography during Late Cretaceous-Cenozoic time. The upper Triassic evaporite bodies, which locally outline the main NW-SE Gafsa fault, are regarded as intrusive salt bodies rather than early diapiric extrusions as previously interpreted since they are rare and occurred only along main strike-slip faults. In addition, seismic lines show that Triassic rocks are deep and do not exhibit true diapiric features.

  5. The association of HLA-DQB1, -DQA1 and -DPB1 alleles with anti- glomerular basement membrane (GBM disease in Chinese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Xu-Jie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human leukocyte antigen (HLA alleles are associated with many autoimmune diseases, including anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM disease. In our previous study, it was demonstrated that HLA-DRB1*1501 was strongly associated with anti-GBM disease in Chinese. However, the association of anti-GBM disease and other HLA class II genes, including HLA-DQB1, -DQA1,-DPB1 alleles, has rarely been investigated in Asian, especially Chinese patients. The present study further analyzed the association between anti-GBM disease and HLA-DQB1, -DQA1, and -DPB1 genes. Apart from this, we tried to locate the potential risk amino acid residues of anti-GBM disease. Methods This study included 44 Chinese patients with anti-GBM disease and 200 healthy controls. The clinical and pathological data of the patients were collected and analyzed. Typing of HLA-DQB1, -DQA1 and -DPB1 alleles were performed by bi-directional sequencing of exon 2 using the SeCoreTM Sequencing Kits. Results Compared with normal controls, the prevalence of HLA-DPB1*0401 was significantly lower in patients with anti-GBM disease (3/88 vs. 74/400, p = 4.4 × 10-4, pc = 0.039. Comparing with normal controls, the combination of presence of DRB1*1501 and absence of DPB1*0401 was significantly prominent among anti-GBM patients (p = 2.0 × 10-12, pc = 1.7 × 10-10. Conclusions HLA-DPB1*0401 might be a protective allele to anti-GBM disease in Chinese patients. The combined presence of DRB1*1501 and absence of DPB1*0401 might have an even higher risk to anti-GBM disease than HLA-DRB1*1501 alone.

  6. Modelling of radionuclide transport in crystalline basement for demonstration of spent nuclear fuel disposal feasibility (case of South-eastern Lithuania)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakimaviciute-Maseliene, V.; Mazeika, J.; Petrosius, R.

    2006-01-01

    The Strategy of Radioactive Waste Management of Lithuania provides for evaluating the possibilities of disposal in a deep geological repository of spent nuclear fuel and long-lived radioactive waste originated from the Ignalina NPP. The initial feasibility studies performed in Lithuania during 2001-2004 focus on screening all potentially prospective rock types as a host medium for a repository. Since most information is available on crystalline basement and sedimentary cover of South-eastern Lithuania, this host medium was selected for model case studies. Taking into account the main assumptions (the canister defect scenario proposed by Swedish experts and evaluated by Lithuanian Energy Institute experts) groundwater flow and radionuclide (iodine-129 as a mobile and long-lived one) transport modeling using FEFLOW computer code was performed to model the domain (approximately a 0.8 km long, 0.6 km wide and 0.52 km thick far-field block) of South-eastern Lithuania. The model domain comprises a Proterozoic-Archaean aquifer with an overlaying aquifer system of sedimentary cover. The upward groundwater flow through a defected canister located in a tectonically damaged zone was conservatively generated. The main results of calculations are the following: in case of upward groundwater flow, the maximum activity concentration of I-129 in the single longitudinal tectonic fracture above the defected canister will not exceed 10 -4 Bq/l, and in the active water exchange zone it is close to 10 -7 Bq/l. These figures show that doses obtained by a human recipient via the aquatic pathway should be below the dose limit (1 mSv/y). Location of the model domain in Southeastern Lithuania does not mean any reference to the site for a deep geological repository. (author)

  7. Detection of gelatinolytic activity in developing basement membranes of the mouse embryo head by combining sensitive in situ zymography with immunolabeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkantidis, Nikolaos; Katsaros, Christos; Chiquet, Matthias

    2012-10-01

    Genetic evidence indicates that the major gelatinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 are involved in mammalian craniofacial development. Since these matrix metalloproteinases are secreted as proenzymes that require activation, their tissue distribution does not necessarily reflect the sites of enzymatic activity. Information regarding the spatial and temporal expression of gelatinolytic activity in the head of the mammalian embryo is sparse. Sensitive in situ zymography with dye-quenched gelatin (DQ-gelatin) has been introduced recently; gelatinolytic activity results in a local increase in fluorescence. Using frontal sections of wild-type mouse embryo heads from embryonic day 14.5-15.5, we optimized and validated a simple double-labeling in situ technique for combining DQ-gelatin zymography with immunofluorescence staining. MMP inhibitors were tested to confirm the specificity of the reaction in situ, and results were compared to standard SDS-gel zymography of tissue extracts. Double-labeling was used to show the spatial relationship in situ between gelatinolytic activity and immunostaining for gelatinases MMP-2 and MMP-9, collagenase 3 (MMP-13) and MT1-MMP (MMP-14), a major activator of pro-gelatinases. Strong gelatinolytic activity, which partially overlapped with MMP proteins, was confirmed for Meckel's cartilage and developing mandibular bone. In addition, we combined in situ zymography with immunostaining for extracellular matrix proteins that are potential gelatinase substrates. Interestingly, gelatinolytic activity colocalized precisely with laminin-positive basement membranes at specific sites around growing epithelia in the developing mouse head, such as the ducts of salivary glands or the epithelial fold between tongue and lower jaw region. Thus, this sensitive method allows to associate, with high spatial resolution, gelatinolytic activity with epithelial morphogenesis in the embryo.

  8. Geochronological data for lithostratigraphic complexes of a crystalline basement from the South regions of Minas Gerais and adjacent areas of the Sao Paulo state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashita, K.; Artur, A.C.; Wernick, E.

    1988-01-01

    New geochronological data (Rb/Sr, Pb/Pb) for the Amparo and Pinhal Complexes, southern State of Minas Gerais and adjacent areas of the State of Sao Paulo are presented and discussed with respect to other lithostratigraphic complexes which there occur. Among the different complexes considered, 4 are composed mainly by rock belonging to typical infrastructure associations. They are the Barcelona, the Guaxupe, the Amparo and the Pinhal complexes. The Barbacena Complex is a typical gray gneiss complex and geochronological data by different methods confirm its Archean age. The Guaxupe Complex is composed mainly by different types of charnockitic rocks and an Archean age is assumed on geotectonic basis due to its neighboring association with the gray gneiss/greenstone belt, a though confirming geochronological data are still missing, a normal feature in this type of mobile belts which generally show a complex, polycyling evolution. Geochronological data by different methods on diverse rock types indicates that the Amparo and Pinhal complexes are respectively of Lower an Upper proterozoic age. Geochronological, geological and petrographic data reveal that both complexes are composed mainly by 3 basic rock associations: a-mainly derived magmatic rocks including mafic/ultramafic ones as well as calc-alkaline, subalcaline and even alkaline granitoids; b-orthogneisses, migmatites and crustal granites derived by metamorphic processes acting on older, pre-existing rocks; corthogneisses and migmatites resulting from metamorphic processes acting on magmatic rocks intruded during the same tecto-metamorphic cycle during which its transformation took place. The results suggest a polycyclic evolution by successive tecto-metamorphic events which affected the older rocks of the considered are either by the reworking of enclosing rocks around pericratonic continental main magmatic arcs or by the remobilisation of older basement rocks during continental collisions. (author) [pt

  9. Burial history, thermal history and hydrocarbon generation modelling of the Jurassic source rocks in the basement of the Polish Carpathian Foredeep and Outer Carpathians (SE Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosakowski, Paweł; Wróbel, Magdalena

    2012-08-01

    Burial history, thermal maturity, and timing of hydrocarbon generation were modelled for the Jurassic source rocks in the basement of the Carpathian Foredeep and marginal part of the Outer Carpathians. The area of investigation was bounded to the west by Kraków, to the east by Rzeszów. The modelling was carried out in profiles of wells: Będzienica 2, Dębica 10K, Góra Ropczycka 1K, Goleszów 5, Nawsie 1, Pławowice E1 and Pilzno 40. The organic matter, containing gas-prone Type III kerogen with an admixture of Type II kerogen, is immature or at most, early mature to 0.7 % in the vitrinite reflectance scale. The highest thermal maturity is recorded in the south-eastern part of the study area, where the Jurassic strata are buried deeper. The thermal modelling showed that the obtained organic matter maturity in the initial phase of the "oil window" is connected with the stage of the Carpathian overthrusting. The numerical modelling indicated that the onset of hydrocarbon generation from the Middle Jurassic source rocks was also connected with the Carpathian thrust belt. The peak of hydrocarbon generation took place in the orogenic stage of the overthrusting. The amount of generated hydrocarbons is generally small, which is a consequence of the low maturity and low transformation degree of kerogen. The generated hydrocarbons were not expelled from their source rock. An analysis of maturity distribution and transformation degree of the Jurassic organic matter shows that the best conditions for hydrocarbon generation occurred most probably in areas deeply buried under the Outer Carpathians. It is most probable that the "generation kitchen" should be searched for there.

  10. Numerical models of pore pressure and stress changes along basement faults due to wastewater injection: Applications to the 2014 Milan, Kansas Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearn, Elizabeth H.; Koltermann, Christine; Rubinstein, Justin R.

    2018-01-01

    We have developed groundwater flow models to explore the possible relationship between wastewater injection and the 12 November 2014 Mw 4.8 Milan, Kansas earthquake. We calculate pore pressure increases in the uppermost crust using a suite of models in which hydraulic properties of the Arbuckle Formation and the Milan earthquake fault zone, the Milan earthquake hypocenter depth, and fault zone geometry are varied. Given pre‐earthquake injection volumes and reasonable hydrogeologic properties, significantly increasing pore pressure at the Milan hypocenter requires that most flow occur through a conductive channel (i.e., the lower Arbuckle and the fault zone) rather than a conductive 3‐D volume. For a range of reasonable lower Arbuckle and fault zone hydraulic parameters, the modeled pore pressure increase at the Milan hypocenter exceeds a minimum triggering threshold of 0.01 MPa at the time of the earthquake. Critical factors include injection into the base of the Arbuckle Formation and proximity of the injection point to a narrow fault damage zone or conductive fracture in the pre‐Cambrian basement with a hydraulic diffusivity of about 3–30 m2/s. The maximum pore pressure increase we obtain at the Milan hypocenter before the earthquake is 0.06 MPa. This suggests that the Milan earthquake occurred on a fault segment that was critically stressed prior to significant wastewater injection in the area. Given continued wastewater injection into the upper Arbuckle in the Milan region, assessment of the middle Arbuckle as a hydraulic barrier remains an important research priority.

  11. Poliomyelitis in MuLV-infected ICR-SCID mice after injection of basement membrane matrix contaminated with lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson Scholz, Jodi A; Garg, Rohit; Compton, Susan R; Allore, Heather G; Zeiss, Caroline J; Uchio, Edward M

    2011-10-01

    The arterivirus lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV) causes life-long viremia in mice. Although LDV infection generally does not cause disease, infected mice that are homozygous for the Fv1(n) allele are prone to develop poliomyelitis when immunosuppressed, a condition known as age-dependent poliomyelitis. The development of age-dependent poliomyelitis requires coinfection with endogenous murine leukemia virus. Even though LDV is a common contaminant of transplantable tumors, clinical signs of poliomyelitis after inadvertent exposure to LDV have not been described in recent literature. In addition, LDV-induced poliomyelitis has not been reported in SCID or ICR mice. Here we describe the occurrence of poliomyelitis in ICR-SCID mice resulting from injection of LDV-contaminated basement membrane matrix. After exposure to LDV, a subset of mice presented with clinical signs including paresis, which was associated with atrophy of the hindlimb musculature, and tachypnea; in addition, some mice died suddenly with or without premonitory signs. Mice presenting within the first 6 mo after infection had regions of spongiosis, neuronal necrosis and astrocytosis of the ventral spinal cord, and less commonly, brainstem. Axonal degeneration of ventral roots prevailed in more chronically infected mice. LDV was identified by RT-PCR in 12 of 15 mice with typical neuropathology; positive antiLDV immunolabeling was identified in all PCR-positive animals (n = 7) tested. Three of 8 mice with neuropathology but no clinical signs were LDV negative by RT-PCR. RT-PCR yielded murine leukemia virus in spinal cords of all mice tested, regardless of clinical presentation or neuropathology.

  12. Investigation of the influence of lineaments, lineament intersections and geology on groundwater yield in the basement complex terrain of Ondo State, Southwestern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinluyi, Francis O.; Olorunfemi, Martins O.; Bayowa, Oyelowo G.

    2018-03-01

    The influence of lineaments, lineament intersections and geology on the groundwater yield of the basement terrain of Ondo State was investigated using optical remote sensing data, Aster DEM, geology, and borehole yield data. Landsat-7 ETM+ and Aster DEM were processed to generate composite lineament map. The study area was traversed by five (5) main lineament populations trending N-S, NE-SW, E-W, ENE-WSW, NNW-SSE. Boreholes sited on lineament exhibited a yield range of between 0.8 and 1.28 l/s with an average yield of 1.04 l/s. Boreholes sited close to lineament gave groundwater yield values of between 0.5 and 1.28 l/s and an average yield of 1 l/s, while boreholes located outside lineament gave groundwater yield range of between 0.2 and 1.26 l/s with an average yield of 0.98 l/s. The investigation of the hydrogeological characteristics of the lithologies by superimposing the yield data showed average yield of 0.98 l/s for migmatite gneiss biotite granite undifferentiated (M), 1.01 l/s for porphyritic granite (OGp), 1.03 l/s for medium- to coarse-grained (OGe), 1.17 l/s for pelitic schist undifferentiated (Su), 1.24 l/s for quartz schist and quartzite (Eq), 1.12 l/s for older granite undifferentiated (OGu), 0.5 l/s for slightly migmatised medium-grained granite-gneiss (gg) and 1.23 l/s for fine-grained flaggy quartzite and schists (Sf). The study concluded that borehole data located on or near lineaments or at intersection of lineaments gave higher yields more than those located before lineaments or outside lineaments, while quartz schist and quartzite exhibited the highest average groundwater yield of all the lithological units.

  13. Criticality Safety Evaluation for Small Sample Preparation and Non-Destructive Assay (NDA) Operations in Wing 7 Basement of the CMR Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunkle, Paige Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zhang, Ning [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-02

    Nuclear Criticality Safety (NCS) has reviewed the fissionable material small sample preparation and NDA operations in Wing 7 Basement of the CMR Facility. This is a Level-1 evaluation conducted in accordance with NCS-AP-004 [Reference 1], formerly NCS-GUIDE-01, and the guidance set forth on use of the Standard Criticality Safety Requirements (SCSRs) [Reference 2]. As stated in Reference 2, the criticality safety evaluation consists of both the SCSR CSED and the SCSR Application CSED. The SCSR CSED is a Level-3 CSED [Reference 3]. This Level-1 CSED is the SCSR Application CSED. This SCSR Application (Level-1) evaluation does not derive controls, it simply applies controls derived from the SCSR CSED (Level-3) for the application of operations conducted here. The controls derived in the SCSR CSED (Level-3) were evaluated via the process described in Section 6.6.5 of SD-130 (also reproduced in Section 4.3.5 of NCS-AP-004 [Reference 1]) and were determined to not meet the requirements for consideration of elevation into the safety basis documentation for CMR. According to the guidance set forth on use of the SCSRs [Reference 2], the SCSR CSED (Level-3) is also applicable to the CMR Facility because the process and the normal and credible abnormal conditions in question are bounded by those that are described in the SCSR CSED. The controls derived in the SCSR CSED include allowances for solid materials and solution operations. Based on the operations conducted at this location, there are less-than-accountable (LTA) amounts of 233U. Based on the evaluation documented herein, the normal and credible abnormal conditions that might arise during the execution of this process will remain subcritical with the following recommended controls.

  14. A two-dimensional model of the colonic crypt accounting for the role of the basement membrane and pericryptal fibroblast sheath.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara-Jane Dunn

    Full Text Available The role of the basement membrane is vital in maintaining the integrity and structure of an epithelial layer, acting as both a mechanical support and forming the physical interface between epithelial cells and the surrounding connective tissue. The function of this membrane is explored here in the context of the epithelial monolayer that lines the colonic crypt, test-tube shaped invaginations that punctuate the lining of the intestine and coordinate a regular turnover of cells to replenish the epithelial layer every few days. To investigate the consequence of genetic mutations that perturb the system dynamics and can lead to colorectal cancer, it must be possible to track the emerging tissue level changes that arise in the crypt. To that end, a theoretical crypt model with a realistic, deformable geometry is required. A new discrete crypt model is presented, which focuses on the interaction between cell- and tissue-level behaviour, while incorporating key subcellular components. The model contains a novel description of the role of the surrounding tissue and musculature, based upon experimental observations of the tissue structure of the crypt, which are also reported. A two-dimensional (2D cross-sectional geometry is considered, and the shape of the crypt is allowed to evolve and deform. Simulation results reveal how the shape of the crypt may contribute mechanically to the asymmetric division events typically associated with the stem cells at the base. The model predicts that epithelial cell migration may arise due to feedback between cell loss at the crypt collar and density-dependent cell division, an hypothesis which can be investigated in a wet lab. This work forms the basis for investigation of the deformation of the crypt structure that can occur due to proliferation of cells exhibiting mutant phenotypes, experiments that would not be possible in vivo or in vitro.

  15. development in a basement terrain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2004-05-17

    May 17, 2004 ... The electromagnetic VLF (Very Low Frequency) geophysi- cal method provides a quick and powerful tool for the study of shallow conducting lineament features in the near-sur- face earth (Telford et al., 1977). The method is based on measurement of the secondary magnetic field induced in.

  16. Pre-Alpine evolution of the Seckau Complex (Austroalpine basement/Eastern Alps): Constraints from in-situ LA-ICP-MS Usbnd Pb zircon geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandl, Magdalena; Kurz, Walter; Hauzenberger, Christoph; Fritz, Harald; Klötzli, Urs; Schuster, Ralf

    2018-01-01

    intermediate to acidic metagranitoids with I-type affinity. The detrital zircon age spectra suggest a Neoproterozoic ancestry of the Glaneck Metamorphic Suite, which was located west of the Arabian Nubian Shield, probably next to the Trans-Saharan Belt. The early Paleozoic evolution of the recent Seckau Complex shows similarities to basement units of the Southalpine Unit, parts of the Austroalpine Unit and the Tatric and Veporic units of the Central Western Carpathians.

  17. How to Study Basement Membrane Stiffness as a Biophysical Trigger in Prostate Cancer and Other Age-related Pathologies or Metabolic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Teja, Mercedes; Breit, Claudia; Clarke, Mitchell; Talar, Kamil; Wang, Kai; Mohammad, Mohammad A; Pickwell, Sage; Etchandy, Guillermina; Stasiuk, Graeme J; Sturge, Justin

    2016-09-20

    Here we describe a protocol that can be used to study the biophysical microenvironment related to increased thickness and stiffness of the basement membrane (BM) during age-related pathologies and metabolic disorders (e.g. cancer, diabetes, microvascular disease, retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy). The premise of the model is non-enzymatic crosslinking of reconstituted BM (rBM) matrix by treatment with glycolaldehyde (GLA) to promote advanced glycation endproduct (AGE) generation via the Maillard reaction. Examples of laboratory techniques that can be used to confirm AGE generation, non-enzymatic crosslinking and increased stiffness in GLA treated rBM are outlined. These include preparation of native rBM (treated with phosphate-buffered saline, PBS) and stiff rBM (treated with GLA) for determination of: its AGE content by photometric analysis and immunofluorescent microscopy, its non-enzymatic crosslinking by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS PAGE) as well as confocal microscopy, and its increased stiffness using rheometry. The procedure described here can be used to increase the rigidity (elastic moduli, E) of rBM up to 3.2-fold, consistent with measurements made in healthy versus diseased human prostate tissue. To recreate the biophysical microenvironment associated with the aging and diseased prostate gland three prostate cell types were introduced on to native rBM and stiff rBM: RWPE-1, prostate epithelial cells (PECs) derived from a normal prostate gland; BPH-1, PECs derived from a prostate gland affected by benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH); and PC3, metastatic cells derived from a secondary bone tumor originating from prostate cancer. Multiple parameters can be measured, including the size, shape and invasive characteristics of the 3D glandular acini formed by RWPE-1 and BPH-1 on native versus stiff rBM, and average cell length, migratory velocity and persistence of cell movement of 3D spheroids formed by PC3 cells under

  18. A reworked Lake Zone margin: Chronological and geochemical constraints from the Ordovician arc-related basement of the Hovd Zone (western Mongolia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soejono, Igor; Buriánek, David; Janoušek, Vojtěch; Svojtka, Martin; Čáp, Pavel; Erban, Vojtěch; Ganpurev, Nyamtsetseg

    2017-12-01

    The primary relationships and character of the boundaries between principal lithotectonic domains in the Mongolian tract of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) are still poorly constrained. This brings much uncertainty in understanding of the orogeny configuration and the complete accretionary history. The plutonic Khuurai Tsenkher Gol Complex and the mainly metasedimentary Bij Group represent associated medium- to high-grade basement complexes exposed in the Hovd Zone close to its boundary with the Lake Zone in western Mongolia. The Khuurai Tsenkher Gol Complex is composed of variously deformed acid to basic magmatic rocks intimately associated with the metamorphosed sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the Bij Group. Results of our field work, new U-Pb zircon ages and whole-rock geochemical data suggest an existence of two separate magmatic events within the evolution of the Khuurai Tsenkher Gol Complex. Early to Mid-Ordovician (476 ± 5 Ma and 467 ± 4 Ma protoliths) normal- to high-K calc-alkaline orthogneisses, metadiorites and metagabbros predominate over Mid-Silurian (430 ± 3 Ma) tholeiitic-mildly alkaline quartz monzodiorites. Whereas the geochemical signature of the former suite unequivocally demonstrates its magmatic-arc origin, that of the latter quartz monzodiorite suggests an intra-plate setting. As shown by Sr-Nd isotopic data, the older arc-related magmas were derived from depleted mantle and/or were generated by partial melting of juvenile metabasic crust. Detrital zircon age populations of the metasedimentary rocks together with geochemical signatures of the associated amphibolites imply that the Bij Group was a volcano-sedimentary sequence, formed probably in the associated fore-arc wedge basin. Moreover, our data argue for an identical provenance of the Altai and Hovd domains, overall westward sediment transport during the Early Palaeozoic and the east-dipping subduction polarity. The obvious similarities of the Khuurai Tsenkher Gol Complex

  19. Origins of streamflow in a crystalline basement catchment in a sub-humid Sudanian zone: The Donga basin (Benin, West Africa): Inter-annual variability of water budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séguis, L.; Kamagaté, B.; Favreau, G.; Descloitres, M.; Seidel, J.-L.; Galle, S.; Peugeot, C.; Gosset, M.; Le Barbé, L.; Malinur, F.; Van Exter, S.; Arjounin, M.; Boubkraoui, S.; Wubda, M.

    2011-05-01

    basement, for example, the upper courses of several major West African rivers (Senegal, Niger, Bani, and Volta).

  20. Pulmonary renal syndrome in a child with coexistence of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies and anti-glomerular basement membrane disease: case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanović, Radovan; Minić, Predrag; Marković-Lipkovski, Jasmina; Stajić, Nataša; Savić, Nataša; Rodić, Milan

    2013-03-22

    Pulmonary renal syndrome (PRS), denoting the presence of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage and glomerulonephritis as manifestations of systemic autoimmune disease, is very rare in childhood. The coexistence of circulating anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) and anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) disease in children affected by this syndrome is exceptional, with unfavorable outcome in five out of seven patients reported to date. We describe a child with PRS associated with both circulating anti-myeloperoxidase (anti-MPO) ANCA and anti-GBM disease on renal biopsy who was successfully treated with immunosuppressive therapy. A 10-year old girl presented with fever, fatigue, malaise, and pallor followed by hemoptysis and severe anemia. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage was revealed on fiberoptic bronchoscopy. Renal findings consisted of microscopic hematuria, moderate proteinuria, and anti-GBM disease on renal biopsy. ANCA with anti-MPO specificity were present whereas anti-GBM antibodies were on borderline for positivity. Methyl-prednisolone pulses followed by prednisone led to cessation of hemoptysis, marked improvement of lung fuction, and normal finding on chest x-ray within 10 days. An immunosuppressive regimen was then given consisting of prednisone daily for 4 weeks with subsequent taper on alternate day, i.v. cyclophosphamide pulses monthly for 6 doses, followed by mycophenolate mofetil that resulted in normal lung function tests, hemoglobin concentration, and anti-MPO level within four subsequent weeks. During 10-months of follow-up she remained well, her blood pressure and renal function tests were normal, and proteinuria and hematuria gradually resolved. We report a child with an exceptionally rare coexistence of circulating ANCA and anti-GBM disease manifesting as PRS in whom renal disease was not the prominent part of clinical presentation, contrary to other reported pediatric patients. A review of literature on disease with double positive antibodies is

  1. C-O-H-N fluids circulations and graphite precipitation in reactivated Hudsonian shear zones during basement uplift of the Wollaston-Mudjatik Transition Zone: Example of the Cigar Lake U deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martz, Pierre; Cathelineau, Michel; Mercadier, Julien; Boiron, Marie-Christine; Jaguin, Justine; Tarantola, Alexandre; Demacon, Mickael; Gerbeaud, Olivier; Quirt, David; Doney, Amber; Ledru, Patrick

    2017-12-01

    Graphitic shear zones are spatially associated with unconformity-related uranium deposits that are located around the unconformity between the strata of the Paleo- to Mesoproterozoic Athabasca Basin (Saskatchewan, Canada) and its underlying Archean to Paleoproterozoic basement. The present study focuses on basement-hosted ductile-brittle graphitic shear zones near the Cigar Lake U deposit, one of the largest unconformity-related U deposits. The goal of the study is to decipher the pre-Athabasca Basin fluid migration history recorded within such structures and its potential role on the formation of such exceptional deposit. Dominantly C-O-H(-N) metamorphic fluids have been trapped in Fluid Inclusion Planes (FIPs) in magmatic quartz within ductile-brittle graphitic shear zones active during retrograde metamorphism associated with the formation of the Wollaston-Mudjatik Transition Zone (WMTZ) between ca. 1805 and 1720 Ma. Such fluids show a compositional evolution along the retrograde path, from a dense and pure CO2 fluid during the earliest stages, through a lower density CO2 ± CH4-N2 (± H2O) fluid and, finally, to a very low density CH4-N2 fluid. Statistical study of the orientation, distribution, proportion, and chemical characterization of the FIPs shows that: i) CO2 (δ13CCO2 around - 9‰ PDB) from decarbonation reactions and/or partial water-metamorphic graphite equilibrium initially migrated regionally and pervasively under lithostatic conditions at about 500 to 800 °C and 150 to 300 MPa. Such P-T conditions attest to a high geothermal gradient of around 60 to 90 °C/km, probably related to rapid exhumation of the basement or a large-scale heat source. ii) Later brittle reactivation of the shear zone at around 450 °C and 25-50 MPa favored circulation of CO2-CH4-N2(± H2O) fluids in equilibrium with metamorphic graphite (δ13CCO2 around - 14‰) under hydrostatic conditions and only within the shear zones. Cooling of these fluids and the water uptake linked

  2. Targeted Expression of Stromelysin-1 in Mammary Gland Provides Evidence for a Role of Proteinases in Branching Morphogenesis and the Requirement for an Intact Basement Membrane for Tissue-specific Gene Expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sympson, Carolyn J; Talhouk, Rabih S; Alexander, Caroline M; Chin, Jennie R; Cliff, Shirley M; Bissell, Mina J; Werb, Zena

    1994-05-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is an important regulator of the differentiated phenotype of mammary epithelial cells in culture. Despite the fact that ECM-degrading enzymes have been implicated in morphogenesis and tissue remodeling, there is little evidence for a direct role for such regulation in vivo. We generated transgenic mice that express autoactivated isoforms of the matrix metalloproteinase stromelysin-1, under the control of the whey acidic protein gene promoter, to examine the effect of inappropriate expression of this enzyme. Stromelysin-1 is implicated as the primary player in the loss of basement membrane and loss of function in the mammary gland during involution. The transgene was expressed at low levels in mammary glands of virgin female mice, leading to an unexpected phenotype: The primary ducts had supernumerary branches and showed precocious development of alveoli that expressed beta-casein at levels similar to that of an early- to mid-pregnant gland. Lactating glands showed high levels of transgene expression, with accumulation at the basement membrane, and a decrease in laminin and collagen IV, resulting in a loss of basement membrane integrity; this was accompanied by a dramatic alteration of alveolar morphology, with decreased size and shrunken lumina containing little beta-casein. During pregnancy, expression of endogenous whey acidic protein and beta-casein was reduced in transgenic glands, confirming the observed dependence of milk protein transcription of ECM in mammary epithelial cells in culture. These data provide direct evidence that stromelysin-1 activity can be morphogenic for mammary epithelial cells, inducing hyperproliferation and differentiation in virgin animals, and that its lytic activity can, indeed, disrupt membrane integrity and reduce mammary-specific function. We conclude that the balance of ECM-degrading enzymes with their inhibitors, and the associated regulation of ECM structure, is crucial for tissue-specific gene

  3. The Pinkie Unit of the Southwestern Svalbard Caledonian Province and its bearing on distribution of the Torellian-Timanian basement in the High Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kośmińska, Karolina; Majka, Jarosław; Manecki, Maciej

    2015-04-01

    (post-950Ma; Kośmińska, unpublished data). If this is a case, the Pinkie Unit will provide another evidence of the Torellian-Timanian (late Neoproterozoic, e.g. Majka et al. 2008) tectonothermal event within the Svalbard's Caledonides. In turn, it can bear important implications for Arctic tectonic reconstructions. This project is financed by NCN research project No 2013/11/N/ST10/00357. References: Holdaway M.J., 2001. Recalibration of the GASP geobarometer in light of recent garnet and plagioclase activity models and versions of the garnet-biotite geothermometer. American Mineralogist, 86, 1117-1129. Majka J., Mazur S., Czerny J., Manecki M., Holm D.K., 2008. Late Neoproterozoic amphibolite facies metamorphism of a pre-Caledonian basement block in southwest Wedel Jarlsberg Land, Spitsbergen: new evidence from U-Th-Pb dating of monazite. Geological Magazine, 145, 822-830. Wu C. M., 2014. Revised empirical garnet-biotite-muscovite-plagioclase (GBMP) geobarometer in metapelites. Journal of Metamorphic Geology. doi: 10.1111/jmg.12115

  4. U-Pb SHRIMP and Sm-Nd geochronology of the Silvânia Volcanics and Jurubatuba Granite: juvenile Paleoproterozoic crust in the basement of the Neoproterozoic Brasília Belt, Goiás, central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FISCHEL DANIELLE P.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available U-Pb SHRIMP and Sm-Nd isotopic ages were determined for felsic metavolcanic rocks from the Silvânia Sequence and Jurubatuba Granite in the central part of the Brasília Belt. Zircon grains from a metavolcanic sample yielded 2115 ± 23 Ma and from the granite yielded 2089 ± 14 Ma, interpreted as crystallization ages of these rocks. Six metavolcanic samples of the Silvânia Sequence yielded a six-point whole-rock Sm-Nd isochron indicating a crystallization age of 2262 ± 110 Ma and positive epsilonNd(T = +3.0 interpreted as a juvenile magmatic event. Nd isotopic analyses on samples from the Jurubatuba Granite have Paleoproterozoic T DM model ages between 2.30 and 2.42 Ga and epsilonNd(T values vary between -0.22 and -0.58. The oldest T DM value refers to a sedimentary xenolith in the granite. These results suggest crystallization ages of Silvânia volcanics and Jurubatuba Granite are the first evidence of a ca. 2.14-2.08 juvenile magmatic event in the basement of the central part of the Brasília Belt that implies the presence of arc/suture hidden in reworked basement of the Brasília Belt.

  5. U-Pb SHRIMP and Sm-Nd geochronology of the Silvania Volcanics and Jurubatuba Granite: juvenile paleoproterozoic crust in the basement of the Neo proterozoic Brasilia Belt, Goias, central Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischel, Danielle P.; Pimentel, Marcio M.; Fuck, Reinhardt A. [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias; Armstrong, Richard [Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia). Research School of Earth Sciences

    2001-09-15

    U-Pb SHRIMP and Sm-Nd isotopic ages were determined for felsic meta volcanic rocks from the Silvania Sequence and Jurubatuba Granite in the central part of the Brasilia Belt. Zircon grains from a meta volcanic sample yielded 2115 {+-} 23 Ma and from the granite yielded 2089 {+-}14 Ma, interpreted as crystallization ages of these rocks. Six meta volcanic samples of the Silvania Sequence yielded a six-point whole-rock Sm-Nd isochron indicating a crystallization age of 2262 {+-}110 Ma and positive {epsilon}{sub Nd} (T) = +3.0 interpreted as a juvenile magmatic event. Nd isotopic analyses on samples from the Jurubatuba Granite have Paleoproterozoic T{sub DM} model ages between 2.30 and 2.42 Ga and {epsilon}{sub Nd} (T) values vary between -0.22 and -0.58. The oldest T{sub DM} value refers to a sedimentary xenolith in the granite. These results suggest crystallization ages of Silvania volcanics and Jurubatuba Granite are the first evidence of a ca. 2.14-2.08 juvenile magmatic event in the basement of the central part of the Brasilia Belt that implies the presence of arc/suture hidden in reworked basement of the Brasilia Belt. (author)

  6. Influence of inherited structures on the growth of basement-cored ranges, basin inversion and foreland basin development in the Central Andes, from apatite fission-track and apatite Helium thermochronology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, S.; Sobel, E. R.; Del Papa, C.; Jelinek, A. R.; Muruaga, C.

    2017-12-01

    The Central Andes in NW of Argentina is part of a long-lived subduction zone, active since the Paleozoic. This region experienced several tectonic cycles; each of which created an unique set of structures and may have reactivated preexisting structures. These inherited structures may exert a first-order control over the different foreland deformational styles observed along the strike in the Central Andes. Our study area is located between 26°S and 28°S on the transition between the broken foreland (Santa Barbara system), which expresses a combination of thin-skin and thick-skin styles, and the Sierras Pampeanas, which is deform in a thick-skin style. The Cumbres Calchaquies range and the associated Choromoro Basin are located in the northern part of the study area, and are the southern expression of the Santa Barbara system. Published thermochronology data suggest that the rocks from the basement experienced Late Cretaceous and Late Miocene exhumation; the associated sedimentary rocks within the Choromoro basin experienced Paleogene and Late Miocene deformational phases. In contrast, the Sierra Aconquija range, located immediately south on the transition to the Sierras Pampeanas (thick skin) foreland basin, exhibit larger amounts of Miocene exhumation and lack of Cretaceous exhumation; the associated sedimentary rocks from the Tucuman basin have not been deformed since the Cretaceous. Our goal is to understand the evolution of the structural blocks and the structures responsible for the along strike changes in foreland basin deformational styles and their relation with inherited structures from previous tectonic cycles. We are obtaining new apatite U-Th/He and fission track data to reconstruct the thermal history of the basement, accompanied by U-Pb geochronology and stratigraphy to constrain the evolution of the associated sedimentary basins. Preliminary results combined with published data suggest that inherited structures within the study area have evolved

  7. Evidence for an Early Cretaceous mineralizing event above the basement/sediment unconformity in the intracratonic Paris Basin: paragenetic sequence and Sm-Nd dating of the world-class Pierre-Perthuis stratabound fluorite deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigoux, Morgane; Delpech, Guillaume; Guerrot, Catherine; Pagel, Maurice; Augé, Thierry; Négrel, Philippe; Brigaud, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    World-class stratabound fluorite deposits are spatially associated with the basement/sediment unconformity of the intracratonic Paris Basin and the Morvan Massif in Burgundy (France). The reserves are estimated to be about 5.5 Mt of fluorite within six fluorite deposits. In this study, we aim to determine the age of the major fluorite mineralization event of the Pierre-Perthuis deposit (1.4 Mt fluorite) by a combined study of the paragenetic mineral sequence and Sm-Nd dating on fluorite crystals. Fluorite occurs as isolated cubes or filling geodes in a Triassic, silicified, dolomitic formation. Three fluorite stages associated with sphalerite, pyrite, galena, barite, and quartz have been distinguished using optical, cathodoluminescence, and scanning electron microscopes. Seven crystals of the geodic fluorite stage were analyzed for their rare earth element (REE) contents and their 147Sm/144Nd and 143Nd/144Nd isotopic compositions. The normalized REE distribution displays homogeneous bell-shaped patterns for all the geodic fluorite samples with a Mid-REE enrichment over the Light-REE and Heavy-REE. The 147Sm/144Nd varies from 0.3108 to 0.5504 and the 143Nd/144Nd from 0.512313 to 0.512518. A six-point Sm-Nd isochron defines an age of 130 ± 15 Ma (initial 143Nd/144Nd = 0.512054, MSWD = 0.21). This Sm-Nd isochron provides the first age for the stratabound fluorite sediment-hosted deposit, related to an unconformity in the Paris Basin, and highlights a major Early Cretaceous fluid circulation event mainly above the basement/sediment unconformity during a flexural deformation of the Paris Basin, which relates to the rifting of the Bay of Biscay and the formation of the Ligurian Sea in the Western Europe domain.

  8. Crustal basement controls granitoid magmatism, and implications for generation of continental crust in subduction zones: A Sr-Nd-Hf-O isotopic study from the Paleozoic Tongbai orogen, central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Wu, Yuan-Bao; Yang, Jin-Hui; Qin, Zheng-Wei; Duan, Rui-Chun; Zhou, Lian; Yang, Sai-Hong

    2017-06-01

    Ascertaining the petrogenesis of granitoid rocks in subduction zones holds the key for understanding the processes of how continental crust is produced. The synchronous Taoyuan and Huanggang plutons occur in two different geological units of the Paleozoic Tongbai orogen of central China. They provide an optimal opportunity for a study to address the role of the crustal basement in generating voluminous granitoid magmatism in subduction zones. The Taoyuan and Huanggang plutons have identical U-Pb zircon crystallization ages of 440-444 Ma, which are temporally related to northward subduction of the Paleotethyan Ocean. The Taoyuan samples show high SiO2 (73.36-79.16%) and low Al2O3 (12.00-13.45%) contents, Mg numbers (20.6-38.2), and Sr/Y (2.04-10.1) and (La/Yb)N (2.34-7.32) ratios with negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.33-0.93). They yielded positive εNd(t) (+ 3.0 to + 6.7) and εHf(t) (+ 11.8 to + 13.2) values, elevated initial Sr isotopic ratios (0.7040-0.7057) and relatively low zircon δ18O values of 4.62-5.39‰. These suggest that they were produced through partial melting of hydrothermally altered lower crust of the accreted Erlangping oceanic arc. In contrast, the Huanggang samples exhibit variable whole-rock geochemical and isotopic compositions with SiO2 contents of 57.01-64.42 wt.%, initial Sr isotopic ratios of 0.7065-0.7078, and εNd(t) values of - 5.7 to - 9.4. Additionally, they have high zircon δ18O values of 7.57-8.45‰ and strongly negative zircon εHf(t) values of - 14.4 to - 10.5. They were suggested to have been mainly derived from ancient continental crust of the Kuanping crustal unit with the addition of 20-40% juvenile, mantle-derived material. Accordingly, the granitoids in both oceanic and continental arcs are likely to be mainly derived from intracrustal melting of their crustal basement. It is revealed by the Huanggang pluton that little net continental crust growth occurs in continental arcs, and addition of new volume of continental

  9. Subduction of Proterozoic to Late Triassic continental basement in the Guatemala suture zone: A petrological and geochronological study of high-pressure metagranitoids from the Chuacús complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Roberto; Ortega-Gutiérrez, Fernando; Ortíz-Joya, Guillermo A.

    2018-05-01

    Many continental subduction complexes contain abundant granitic rocks coexisting with minor volumes of eclogite-facies rocks. Characterization of granitic protoliths is crucial to decipher the origin of subducted continental crust, whereas knowledge of its metamorphic evolution is required to constrain the mechanisms of burial and exhumation. In this work we present geochronological and petrological evidence that demonstrate the occurrence of a subducted Proterozoic to Late Triassic granitic basement in the Chuacús complex of central Guatemala. Metagranitoids exposed in this area are interlayered with eclogite and other high-pressure rocks, and their structure is considerably variable due to strain partitioning during deformation. Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry U-Pb zircon data from two ferroan metagranites yield protolith crystallization ages of ca. 1.1 Ga and their trace-element abundances suggest an origin related to intraplate magmatism, while a high-silica, peraluminous metagranite is dated at 1.0 Ga and was probably originated by partial melting of a high-grade continental crust. On the other hand, two megacrystic to augen metagranitoids yield protolith crystallization ages of ca. 224 Ma, which are identical within errors to the protolith age of hosted eclogitic metabasites. Their high incompatible trace element abundances together with the observed spatial-temporal relationships with mafic protoliths suggest that Late Triassic bimodal magmatism in the Chuacús complex was probably originated in a within-plate setting. Regardless of their age or structure, the studied metagranites preserve evidences for high-pressure metamorphic equilibration, such as the occurrence of Ca-rich garnet (XCa up to 0.52) in association with phengite (Si contents of up to 3.4 pfu) and rutile. The integration of Zr-in-rutile thermometry and phengite barometry allows the peak metamorphic conditions to be constrained at 640-680 °C and 13 kbar. This

  10. Major and minor elements and traces in igneous rocks from crystalline basement of Parana by X-ray fluorescence; Elementos maiores, menores e tracos, em rochas igneas do escudo cristalino paranaense por fluorescencia de raios-X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Ademar O.; Pecequilo, Brigitte R.S.; Scapin, Marcos A.; Salvador, Vera L.R., E-mail: aoferreira@ipen.br, E-mail: brigitte@ipen.br, E-mail: mascapin@ipen.br, E-mail: vsalvado@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Major and minor components of 30 acid and basic igneous rocks (granites, syenites, riolites and a basalt) of the Parana state crystalline basement were determined by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (WDXRF), in order to evaluate the similarity in terms of the compositional content. The corrections of interelements effects (absorption/intensification) were performed by means of the fundamental parameters (FP) method. The methodology was validated using a certificated reference material. The main oxides found associated with the quantified elements are SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}O, K{sub 2}O, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CaO, MgO, TiO{sub 2}, P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, MnO, SO{sub 3}, NiO, ZnO, Rb{sub 2}O. Through statistical analysis, the studied samples were organized in 3 groups of similar compositions: syenites, light granites and basalt and dark granites. The results show that the WDXRF technique is a robust tool that enables distinction even between similar geological samples. (author)

  11. Early paleozoic granitoids in the southern Vanoise basement: U-Pb geochronology of the Arpont meta-granite (Savoy, French Alps); Granitoides d`age paleozoique inferieur dans le socle de Vanoise meridionale: geochronologie U-Pb du metagranite de l`Arpont (Alpes de Savoir, France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertrand, J.M. [Laboratoire de geodynamique des chaines alpines, LGCA-CISM, 73 - Le Bourget-du-Lac (France); Leterrier, J. [Centre de recherches petrographiques et geochimique, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    1997-12-01

    The U-Pb age of a meta-granite from southern Vanoise (Brianconnais` domain) at 479{+-} 4 Ma confirms hat the micaschists which dominate this pre-alpine basement are, at least, of Early Paleozoic age. The rare magmatic rocks occurring in Vanoise and showing alkaline affinities, may be compared to the orthogneisses belonging to the Cambrian-Ordovician extensional event well known in other parts of the Varican belt. (authors) 27 refs.

  12. Determination of the Antarctic region active margin basement by using integration of the information coming from the multichannel seismic analysis and the magnetometry; Determinacao do embasamento da margen ativa da regiao Antartica pela integracao de informacoes provenientes da sismica multicanal e da magnetometria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Luiz Carlos [Diretoria de Hidrografia e Navegacao, XX (Brazil); Gomes, Benedito Souza [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Gamboa, Luiz Antonio P. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    1999-07-01

    Geophysical measurements were carried out in the Western Margin of the Antarctic Peninsula and Bransfield Strait by the Brazilian Antarctic Program during the summers of 1987 and 1988. The present work, using a continued seismic multi channel and magnetometry data profile crossing the area, intends to present a two-dimensional model of the interface sediment/basement and contribute to the understanding of the complex geology verified in the studying area. By this model, the main provinces of the are (Deep Ocean, South Shetland Trench, Accretionary Prism, Volcanic Arc South Shetland Islands and Bransfield Basin) could be determined. The seismic and magnetic measurements information when superposed can attribute more consistencies to the interpreted basement; although each method has its particular resolution. This way, when the seismic interpretation was not possible due to complex structures disposition, magnetic measurements could offer good estimation about basement depth. The fit between both methods (seismic and magnetic measurements) was reasonable both on the oceanic basin and in the region of Bransfield Strait. The magnetometry, as as well seismic, was sensible to the dip of Drake Plate at South Shetland Trench and the Intrusive occurrence at Bransfield Basin axis. (author)

  13. Applicability of the spatial autocorrection method for estimation of basement structure in Kanto plain. Array measurements of microtremors close to the Iwatsuki and Shimosa deep borehole observatory; Kanto heiya no kiban kozo suitei no tame no kukan jiko sokanho no tekiyosei. Iwatsuki Shimosa jiban katsudo kansokusei ni okeru array bido kansoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuoka, T.; Umezawa, N.; Shiraishi, H. [Saitama Institute of Environmental Pollution, Saitama (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    To investigate applicability of the spatial autocorrection method which is a microtremors exploration method for the estimation of basement structure, array measurements of microtremors were performed using the Iwatsuki and Shimosa deep borehole observatory where detailed structures were clarified as well as the Fuchu and Koto deep borehole observatory. In this study, estimated velocity structures of S-wave were compared with the geological sequence and results of acoustic velocity logging. The phase velocity was estimated by the spatial autocorrection method using FFT. The phase velocity with a smooth normal dispersion was observed in the periodic range from 0.5 to 5 sec in Iwatsuki, and from 0.5 to 4 sec in Shimosa by the combination of four-point circular arrays with radii of 100, 300, and 600 m. The underground structures estimated from the phase velocities coincided well with the geological sequence, and results of acoustic velocity logging and velocity logging for each borehole. For the Iwatsuki borehole, the basement velocity was also estimated properly in the periodic range of observation. While, for the Shimosa borehole, measurements with the period around 6 sec were required to estimate the basement velocity more accurately. 13 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Detrital zircon age signatures of Precambrian metasediments from southern Wedel Jarlsberg Land and Sørrkapp Land (Spitsbergen) defining a major tectonic boundary within the Southwestern Svalbard's Caledonian Basement Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemniak, Grzegorz; Kośmińska, Karolina; Majka, Jarosław; Schneider, David; Lorenz, Henning; Barnes, Chris; Manecki, Maciej

    2017-04-01

    Here we present SIMS and LAICPMS U-Pb geochronology for detrital zircon grains from metasedimentary rocks of southern Wedel Jarlsberg Land (WJL) and Sørkapp Land in the southwestern Svalbard's Caledonian Basement Province. The data for the Gulliksenfjellet Formation are characterized by a lack of detrital ages age signature is instead dominated by Paleoproterozoic (1.75, 1.9, 2.5 Ga) populations with a small Archean (3-3.1 Ga) component. The Eimfjellbreane and Skjerstranda formations of the Eimfjellet Complex are characterized by a maximum sedimentation age as young as the Neoproterozoic/Mesoproterozoic boundary (0.98-1.02 Ga). The dominant population is composed of early Mesoproterozoic to Paleoproterozoic ages of ca. 1.5 and 1.8 Ga with a minor Neoarchean presence (2.68 Ga). Tectonically lower, the Isbjørnhamna Group has similar detrital zircon age populations dominated by ca. 1.6 Ga ages and subordinate groups at 1.07, 1.2 and 1.7 Ga; no detrital zircons age signatures of an unnamed unit of metasedimentary rocks in Sørkapp Land present an array stretching from populations of Early Neoproterozoic age to single Archean grains, an age distribution that is similar to the Isbjørnhamna Group: the largest age population at 1.69 Ga with minor peaks at ca. 1.1, 1.3, 1.85 and 2.4-2.5 Ga. The Deillega and Sofiebogen groups, exposed north of the Vimsodden-Kosibapasset Shear Zone (VKZ) are characterized by noticeably different detrital zircon age patterns. A Mesoproterozoic to early Paleoproterozoic (c. 1.44-1.62 Ga) population defines the largest component with a minor early Neoproterozoic (0.81-0.9 Ga) signatures and a distinct lack of Archean dates. The markedly different age distributions in samples that originate north and south of the VKZ suggest different sedimentary sources for the respective stratigraphic units and support the model that the VKZ is a major tectonic boundary separating two different terranes (Mazur et al. 2009). Our data suggest that the

  15. Results of an experiment in a Zion-like geometry to investigate the effect of water on the containment basement floor on direct containment heating (DCH) in the Surtsey Test Facility: The IET-4 test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.D.; Blanchat, T.K.; Pilch, M.; Nichols, R.T.

    1992-09-01

    This document discusses the fourth experiment of the Integral Effects Test (IET-4) series which was conducted to investigate the effects of high pressure melt ejection on direct containment heating. Scale models (1:10) of the Zion reactor pressure vessel (RPV), cavity, instrument tunnel, and subcompartment structures were constructed in the Surtsey Test Facility at Sandia National Laboratories. ne RPV was modeled with a melt generator that consisted of a steel pressure barrier, a cast MgO crucible, and a thin steel inner liner. The melt generator/crucible had a hemispherical bottom head containing a graphite limitor plate with a 3.5-cm exit hole to simulate the ablated hole in the RPV bottom head that would be tonned by tube ejection in a severe nuclear power plant accident. The reactor cavity model contained 3.48 kg of water with a depth of 0.9 cm that corresponded to condensate levels in the Zion plant. A 43-kg initial charge of iron oxide/aluminum/chromium thermite was used to simulate corium debris on the bottom head of the RPV. Molten thermite was ejected into the scaled reactor cavity by 6.7 MPa steam. IET-4 replicated the third experiment in the IET series (IET-3), except the Surtsey vessel contained slightly more preexisting oxygen (9.6 mol.% vs. 9.0 mol.%), and water was placed on the basement floor inside the crane wall. The cavity pressure measurements showed that a small steam explosion occurred in the cavity at about the same time as the steam explosion in IET-1. The oxygen in the Surtsey vessel in IET-4 resulted in a vigorous hydrogen bum, which caused a significant increase in the peak pressure, 262 kPa compared to 98 kPa in the IET-1 test. EET-3, with similar pre-existing oxygen concentrations, also had a large peak pressure of 246 kPa

  16. The Campanian-Maastrichtian foraminiferal biostratigraphy of the basement sediments from the southern Pannonian Basin (Vojvodina, northern Serbia): implications for the continuation of the Eastern Vardar and Sava zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunčić, Milena; Dulić, Ivan; Popov, Olivera; Bogićević, Goran; Vranjković, Alan

    2017-04-01

    Micropalaeontological and biostratigraphical studies included Campanian-Maastrichtian complexes from five oil exploration wells drilled in northern Serbia (Vojvodina): the first is a carbonate-clastic complex and second is a complex containing ophiolites intercalated with hemipelagic and pelagic sediments. Within the studied complexes, rich associations of planktonic and benthic foraminifera, calcareous nannoplankton, palynomorphs, as well as shallow and deep-water fossil detritus were determined. The presence of relatively rich associations of planktonic foraminifera allowed recognition of two biozones: the Globotruncana ventricosa Zone, observed in the sediments of the carbonate-clastic complex and the Gansserina gansseri Zone, observed in both complexes. Except biozones, based on documented index species, for some units in both complexes, larger benthic foraminifera species had special biostratigraphical value, and in some of them, the calcareous nannoplankton zones were recognized. The studied complexes represent deep-water formations, generated in oceanic island arc and trough zones. The presence of limestones, which originate from destroyed rudist reefs, is explained by transfer by means of gravitational transport mechanisms of shallow-water sediments to deep-water depositional environments. In this paper, the results of more detailed biostratigraphical and palaeo-ecological studies of foraminifera associations in Campanian-Maastrichtian complexes in Vojvodina are presented. Combined with lithological studies, seven units were determined within the complexes. The obtained results are important as a part of multidisciplinary, regional exploration of both complexes, generated in specific geological conditions, that today constitute a part of the pre-Neogene basement complex in the southeastern part of the Pannonian Basin. The Campanian- Maastrichtian carbonate-clastic complex represents sedimentary cover of the Eastern Vardar Ophiolitic Unit, while the

  17. Mapping magnetic lineaments and subsurface basement beneath ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    65

    4.2.1 Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). 219. PSO (Kennedy and Eberhart, 1995), a global optimization method, is one of the naturally. 220 inspired metaheuristic algorithms using the behaviour of bird flocks and fish schools. 221 searching for food (Pallero et al., 2015; Ekinci, 2016; Essa and Elhussein, 2018). The. 222.

  18. Nevada Isostatic Residual Gravity Over Basement

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study of gravity data from Nevada is part of a statewide analysis of mineral resources. The main objective of the gravity study were: 1) to infer the structure...

  19. Comparison of different digital elevation models and satellite imagery for lineament analysis: Implications for identification and spatial arrangement of fault zones in crystalline basement rocks of the southern Black Forest (Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meixner, J.; Grimmer, J. C.; Becker, A.; Schill, E.; Kohl, T.

    2018-03-01

    first order results of the spatial arrangement of critically stressed faults in crystalline basement rocks.

  20. Combining outcrop, magnetic, and airborne LiDAR data in a course-based undergraduate research experience (CURE): interpretation of bedrock fracturing in the northeastern Deep River Basin and adjacent basement, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedigo, R.; Waters-Tormey, C. L.; Styers, D.; Hurst, E.

    2017-12-01

    Course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) are a way for students to learn the power of combining geological, geophysical, and geodetic datasets, while also generating new results to answer real questions. A 5-week undergraduate geophysics CURE combined newly released public domain LiDAR-derived ground models with outcrop and magnetic data. The goal was to see if this approach could improve understanding of bedrock fracture sets in the NC Piedmont, which in turn would improve decisions about groundwater resources and proposed hydraulic fracturing of "tight" shale reservoirs in the 230 Ma Deep River failed rift basin. The 10 km2 study area was selected because it straddles the fault contact between crystalline basement and basin sedimentary rocks, it contains 200 Ma NW-SE trending mafic dikes related to successful rifting of Pangea common in the Piedmont, bedrock exposure is typical of the Piedmont (poor), and its land use history is representative of much of the Piedmont. Students visited representative field sites to collect observations then manually identified lineaments in several adjacent LiDAR ground model tiles. Results suggest that (1) lineaments as short as a few m are easily identified except underneath Quaternary deposits, (2) the dominant lineament set trends NW-SE with m- to 10 m-scale spacing, (3) lineaments are better expressed in sedimentary rocks and (4) do not spatially coincide with dike traces. Using field observations, map patterns, and total magnetic intensity profiles across several dikes, the lineaments are interpreted to be edges of subvertical joint fractures recording extension parallel to the dikes' dilation direction. The CURE concluded with students in small groups proposing next steps for the larger research project. The CURE introduced geology majors to the power of using geophysical and remote sensing data with geological data to address geoscience questions. Student feedback was very positive even though the learning

  1. Colorectal laterally spreading tumors show characteristic expression of cell polarity factors, including atypical protein kinase C λ/ι, E-cadherin, β-catenin and basement membrane component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Yasushi; Nagashima, Yoji; Morioka, Kaori; Akimoto, Kazunori; Kojima, Yasuyuki; Ishikawa, Takashi; Goto, Ayumu; Kobayashi, Noritoshi; Watanabe, Kazuteru; Ota, Mitsuyoshi; Fujii, Shoichi; Kawamata, Mayumi; Takagawa, Ryo; Kunizaki, Chikara; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Nakajima, Atsushi; Maeda, Shin; Shimada, Hiroshi; Inayama, Yoshiaki; Ohno, Shigeo; Endo, Itaru

    2014-09-01

    Colorectal flat-type tumors include laterally spreading tumors (LSTs) and flat depressed-type tumors. The former of which shows a predominant lateral spreading growth rather than an invasive growth. The present study examined the morphological characteristics of LSTs, in comparison with polypoid- or flat depressed-type tumors, along with the expression of atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) λ/ι, a pivotal cell polarity regulator, and the hallmarks of cell polarity, as well as with type IV collagen, β-catenin and E-cadherin. In total, 37 flat-type (24 LSTs and 13 flat depressed-type tumors) and 20 polypoid-type colorectal tumors were examined. The LSTs were classified as 15 LST adenoma (LST-A) and nine LST cancer in adenoma (LST-CA). An immunohistochemical examination was performed on aPKC λ/ι, type IV collagen, β-catenin and E-cadherin. The LST-A and -CA showed a superficial replacing growth pattern, with expression of β-catenin and E-cadherin in the basolateral membrane and type IV collagen along the basement membrane. In addition, 86.6% of LST-A and 55.6% of LST-CA showed aPKC λ/ι expression of 1+ (weak to normal intensity staining in the cytoplasm compared with the normal epithelium). Furthermore, ~45% of the polypoid-type adenomas showed 2+ (moderate intensity staining in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus) and 66.7% of the polypoid-type cancer in adenoma were 3+ (strong intensity staining in the cytoplasm and nucleus). A statistically significant positive correlation was observed between the expression of aPKC λ/ι and β-catenin (r=0.842; P<0.001), or type IV collagen (r=0.823; P<0.001). The LSTs showed a unique growth pattern, different from the expanding growth pattern presented by a polypoid tumor and invasive cancer. The growth characteristics of LST appear to be caused by adequate coexpression of β-catenin, type IV collagen and aPKC λ/ι.

  2. Exploration of underground basement structures in Kanto plain using the spatial autocorrelation method. 1. S-wave velocity structure along the line from Hatoyama, Saitama to Noda, Chiba; Kukan jiko sokanho ni yoru Kanto heiya no kiban kozo tansa. 1. Saitamaken Hatoyama machi - Chibaken Nodashi kan no S ha sokudo kozo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuoka, T.; Umezawa, N.; Shiraishi, H. [Saitama Institute of Environmental Pollution, Saitama (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    The Saitama prefectural government has been conducting basement structure exploration using the spatial autocorrelation method by dividing the entire plain area into meshes, for the purpose of improving the accuracy of estimating large-scale seismic damages. This paper reports the result of explorations on meshes in the east-west direction in the central part of Saitama Prefecture. The present exploration was intended on ten meshes in the east-west direction along the north latitude 36-degree line. The number of exploration points is 13 comprising three points on the hilly area bordering on the eastern edge of the Kanto mountainous area and ten points on the plain area. The arrangement constitutes a traverse line with a total distance of about 33 km from the west edge (Hatoyama-machi in Saitama Prefecture) to the east edge (Noda City in Chiba Prefecture). The phase velocities were estimated from the result of the array microtremor observations using the spatial autocorrelation method applied with the FET. The phase velocities were used to estimate underground structures by using an inverse analysis. As a result, detailed two-dimensional S-wave velocity structures were revealed on the traverse line. The velocity cross section expresses change in the basement structures with sufficient resolution, and at the same time the information is judged highly harmonious with existing deep boring data and the result of artificial earthquake exploration. 15 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Evolution and origin of brines in proterozoic basins in the vicinity of the basement / cover unconformity. Application to uranium deposits in the Kombolgie (Australia) and Athabasca (Canada) basins; Evolution et origine des saumures dans les bassins proterozoiques au voisinage de la discordance socle/couverture. L'exemple de l'environnement des gisements d'uranium associes aux bassins Kombolgie (Australie) et Athabasca (Canada)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derome, D

    2002-11-01

    The nature, evolution and origin of the fluids circulating at the basis of two Proterozoic sandstone basins (Kombolgie, Australia and Athabasca, Canada), associated with unconformity type uranium mineralization have been characterised. The coupling of several techniques (micro-thermometry, Raman, LIBS) for analysing individual fluid inclusions trapped in different quartz generations, sampled in the vicinity of Australian and Canadian uranium deposits, has led to the quantitative determination of the composition of the paleo-fluids which may have had a role in the genesis of these deposits. The P-T,x evolution of these fluids, in the vicinity of the interface between the basement and the sedimentary cover, has been reconstructed. The proposed fluid circulation model for the two basins is the following: - A sodium dominated chloride-rich brine (15-20 wt% NaCl + 4-12 wt% CaCl{sub 2}), highly oxidising (equilibrated with hematite) is responsible for the early diagenetic silicification. - The circulation of a calcium chloride-rich brine (25-30 wt.% CaCl{sub 2}+0-10 wt.% NaCl) was responsible for the deposition of a second quartz generation and dravite (magnesium-rich tourmaline) in the sandstone at the nose of the reverse basement-rooted faults. The highly calcic nature of this brine probably results from the evolution of the sodic brine through Na{r_reversible}Ca exchange in the basement. A low salinity fluid with traces of methane was heated heated in the basement rocks. It was mixed with the brines at the basis of the Kombolgie basin, during tectonic movements and hydraulic brecciation. This fluid has been rarely observed in the Canadian deposits. This study has shown many similarities between the fluid regimes of the Kombolgie and Athabasca basins. In both districts, a mixing between two Na-Ca-(Mg) chloride brines has been evidenced. Estimated temperatures and depths (about 5 km) are similar for both basins. However the brines observed at the basis of the Athabasca

  4. U-Pb zircon geochronology of intrusive and basement rocks in the Jacurici Valley region, Sao Francisco Craton, BA, Brazil; Geocronologia U-Pb em zircao de rochas intrusivas e de embasamento na regiao do Vale do Jacurici, Craton do Sao Francisco, BA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, Carlos Jose Sobrinho da; Frantz, Jose Carlos; Marques, Juliana Charao; Roos, Siegbert; Peixoto, Vinicius Medina, E-mail: silveira.carlosjose@hotmail.com, E-mail: jose.frantz@propesq.ufrgs.br, E-mail: juliana.marques@ufrgs.br, E-mail: sig_duda@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: vinimpeixoto@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Laboratorio de Geologia Isotopica; Queiroz, Waldemir Jose Alves de, E-mail: waldemirqueiroz@hotmail.com [Companhia de Ferro Ligas da Bahia (FERBASA), Pojuca, BA (Brazil)

    2015-09-15

    The Jacurici Complex, located in the NE of the Sao Francisco Craton, is constituted by several Cr-mineralized mafic-ultramafic N-S bodies, possible fragments of a single sill disrupted during deformation. Some works suggest it is intruded on the Serrinha Block while others consider it in the Salvador-Curaca Belt. The basement on this region is informally divided into paragneisses and orthogneisses; the latter is supposed to be younger considering it is less deformed. Petrography revealed that some of the paragneisses are alkali-feldspar granite strongly milonitized. The orthogneisses occur at the north and consist, at least in part, of monzogranites with heterogeneous deformation, locally of low temperature. U-Pb zircon dating were performed for five representative samples. Just three provided good concordia ages. A mafic rock produced a 2102 ± 5 Ma age and it is petrographically similar to the metanorites described in the Jacurici Complex, being interpreted as the record of the first pulses of the mafic magmatism. A monzogranite yielded a 2995 ± 15 Ma age, older than expected, related to the Serrinha Block. The alkali-feldspar granite yielded a 2081 ± 3 Ma age. The Itiuba Syenite and the pegmatites that crosscut the Jacurici Complex have similar ages. Considering the lack of information about the supracrustal sequence that hosts the intrusive alkaline and mafic-ultramafic rocks at the Ipueira and the Medrado areas, it is possible that part of the terrain belongs to the Salvador-Curaca Belt. We suggest that the Jacurici Complex could be intruded after the tectonic amalgamation between the Serrinha Block and the older part of the Salvador-Curaca Belt and, therefore, could be hosted by both terrains. (author)

  5. SHRIMP chronology of the Magallanes Basin basement, Tierra del Fuego: Cambrian plutonism and Permian high-grade metamorphism Geocronología SHRIMP del basamento de la Cuenca de Magallanes, Tierra del Fuego: plutonismo Cámbrico y metamorfismo Pérmico de alto grado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Hervé

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Five new SHRTMP U-Pb zircon ages are reported for gneisses and foliated plutonic rocks belonging to the Tierra del Fuego igneous and metamorphic basement complex (TFIMC, obtained from the bottom of borehole cores through the Magallanes Basin. Three of the samples yielded weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages (523±7 Ma, 522±6 Ma and 538±6 Ma, interpreted as indicating Early Cambrian igneous crystallization of the host rocks. A migmatitic gneiss shows peaks at ca. 950-1,100 Ma and 560-650 Ma from inherited zircon grains in addition to two grains with ages of ca. 525 Ma, suggesting involvement of Grenvillian and Brasiliano material in the protolith of a Cambrian migmatite. A cordierite-sillimanite-garnet gneiss contains igneous zircons of Cambrian age and a population of U-rich metamorphic Permian zircons, indicating that a Permian high-grade metamorphic and anatectic (P=2-3 kbar, T=730-770°C event affected the Cambrian igneous rocks or sedimentary rocks derived from them. Cambrian/Ediacaran plutonic rocks are known from the basement of NW Argentina, the Sierra de la Ventana, the Cape Fold Belt in South Africa, and the Ross Orogen in Antarctica. The Permian metamorphic event is coeval with the deformation and low-grade metamorphism of the sedimentary successions that overlie the basement in many of these areas. In Tierra del Fuego at least 8 to 12 km of cover rocks were removed following the high-grade Permian metamorphic episode and the unconformable deposition of the Tobífera Formation volcanic rocks in the Middle to Late Jurassic. This eroded cover could nave been an important source of detritus for the conglomeratic Permian and Triassic? Successions of neighboring regions in South America, Africa and Antarctica.Cinco nuevas edades radiométricas logradas mediante análisis U-Pb en circón utilizando el SHRIMP, fueron determinadas en gneises y rocas plutónicas foliadas obtenidas desde el fondo de pozos de sondajes en la Cuenca de Magallanes y

  6. Assesment Of The Hydrogeologic Properties Of The Basement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal of Geological Sciences ... An analysis of existing borehole data from the Bauchi State Water Board (BSWB) and Bauchi State Agricultural Development Project (BSADP) was carried out with the aim of defining areas ... KEY WORDS: Groundwater, Pumping test data, Aquifers, Transmissivities, conductivities.

  7. Fluid flow and permeabilities in basement fault zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollinsworth, Allan; Koehn, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Fault zones are important sites for crustal fluid flow, specifically where they cross-cut low permeability host rocks such as granites and gneisses. Fluids migrating through fault zones can cause rheology changes, mineral precipitation and pore space closure, and may alter the physical and chemical properties of the host rock and deformation products. It is therefore essential to consider the evolution of permeability in fault zones at a range of pressure-temperature conditions to understand fluid migration throughout a fault's history, and how fluid-rock interaction modifies permeability and rheological characteristics. Field localities in the Rwenzori Mountains, western Uganda and the Outer Hebrides, north-west Scotland, have been selected for field work and sample collection. Here Archaean-age TTG gneisses have been faulted within the upper 15km of the crust and have experienced fluid ingress. The Rwenzori Mountains are an anomalously uplifted horst-block located in a transfer zone in the western rift of the East African Rift System. The north-western ridge is characterised by a tectonically simple western flank, where the partially mineralised Bwamba Fault has detached from the Congo craton. Mineralisation is associated with hydrothermal fluids heated by a thermal body beneath the Semliki rift, and has resulted in substantial iron oxide precipitation within porous cataclasites. Non-mineralised faults further north contain foliated gouges and show evidence of leaking fluids. These faults serve as an analogue for faults associated with the Lake Albert oil and gas prospects. The Outer Hebrides Fault Zone (OHFZ) was largely active during the Caledonian Orogeny (ca. 430-400 Ma) at a deeper crustal level than the Ugandan rift faults. Initial dry conditions were followed by fluid ingress during deformation that controlled its rheological behaviour. The transition also altered the existing permeability. The OHFZ is a natural laboratory in which to study brittle fault rocks, and younger Mesozoic age faults may provide analogues for the West Shetland basin. Samples have been collected from both of these localities, and will be examined by optical and scanning electron microscopy. X-Ray micro-tomography will also be used to analyse the permeability characteristics of the fault rocks. Our understanding of fault zone permeability is crucial for a number of research areas, including earthquake geoscience, economic mineral formation, and hydrocarbon systems. As a result, this research has relevance to a variety of industry sectors, including oil and gas (and ccs), nuclear waste disposal, geothermal and mining.

  8. Subpublications from a Basement in Snaregade 6, Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kromann, Thomas Hvid

    2016-01-01

    Arena Sub-Pub, an initiative organized by the Arena publishing house, made printing devices available to (theoretically) everyone. This idea of autonomy, this do-it-yourself-philosophy, this institutional critique as well as the creation of autonomous spaces, grew directly out of the ideas of dem...

  9. Acoustic basement: Its relevance to Karwar port development

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Veerayya, M.; Almeida, F.

    and development of an all-weather port. The depths in the survey area vary from 1 to 16 m. The seabed is fairly smooth and relatively steep from the shore up to 6 m, beyond which it slopes gently seaward. Sonographs indicate tidal furrows between 7 and 8.5 m...

  10. Aeromagnetic mapping of basement relief features in parts of Lower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two (2) aeromanetic maps on a scale of 1:100,000 covering parts of the Lower Benue Trough (Afikpo sheet 313 and Ugep sheet314) were digitized manually along a total of 70 profiles lines to obtain 5422 data points. The digitized values were contoured to obtain the total magnetic field intensity map of the study area.

  11. Basement configuration of KG offshore basin from magnetic anomalies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    extends up to COB in the offshore K–G basin. 1. Introduction. The Eastern Continental Margin of India (ECMI) has been a seat of vigorous geophysical exploration ..... Precambrian Gondwanaland; J. Geol. 97 646–648. Kumar S P 1983 Geology and hydrocarbon prospects of. Krishna–Godavari and Cauvery basins; Petrol.

  12. Field occurrence and structural characteristics of basement rocks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bunu Area in part of Kabba-Lokoja-Igarra Schist Belt, southwestern Nigeria. ... structures in the NW-SE to N-S directions are filled by quartz veins, dolerites and pegmatite dykes and serve as conduits and pathway of the gold bearing ore fluids.

  13. The Baltic interconnected power system; technical basement and development problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreslinsh, V.; Pervushin, Yu.; Zeltinsh, N.

    1997-01-01

    Three Baltic states, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania are located on the Eastern shore of the Baltic Sea and to North-West of the newly independent states of the former Soviet Union. The Baltic States were part of the SU for many years and consequently a part of a highly structured and centralised system. Prior to gaining independence in 1991, Baltic's power system had been planned and operated as a part of the North -West Interconnected Power Systems (Ips) of the former SU for 30 years. That is why the power systems of individual countries of the Baltic were not planned or operated as a independent systems but regionally, with the planning based on the optimisation of the whole Nord-West interconnected system. The Nord-West IPS included the power systems of Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Belarus, as well as six North-West regions of Russia: Leningrad, Kola Peninsula, Karelia, Pskov, Novgorod, and Kaliningrad. Analysis of the structure, conditions, loads, specifics technical features, basics operation data of the main power stations in the Baltic IPS is given

  14. Upgrading Basements for Combined Nuclear Weapons Effects: Expedient Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-05-01

    blast soe pesemnted hereint, with fte ada "ess "Ma tat% OW awe mat to cae and Uthany msew dimassiems sow are fer illuetatfme ieim only, *e., not...National Bureau of Standards Washington, D.C. 20234 Director Lovelace Foundation Mr. Henry S. Wakabayashi 1 5200 Gibson Boulevard, S.E. Research and

  15. Structure of Charnockitic basement in a part of the Krishna ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    movements of faulted blocks of EGMB. In the present investigation an area of 8000km. 2 of EGMB lying .... on its north also by positive anomalies, as sug- gested by the few conspicuous linear positive anom- aly contours .... top of the faulted anomalous body can be expected to be encountered not shallower than 4.2km, and.

  16. Basement configuration of KG offshore basin from magnetic anomalies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2Department of Geology, Adikavi Nannaya University, GSL SO, Rajahmundry 533 296, India. ∗. Corresponding author. e-mail: baalukandadai@yahoo.co.in. Marine magnetic ..... Sri Lanka, India and Antarctica; Osaka City University;. J. Geosci. 31 1–17. MS received 11 May 2015; revised 30 November 2015; accepted 6 ...

  17. lithologic characterisation of the basement aquifers of awe and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal

    The purpose of electrical surveys is to determine the subsurface resistivity distribution. Artificially-generated currents is introduced into the ground and the resulting potential differences is measured at the surface. From Ohm's law the electrical resistance R of a material is proportional to the length L of the current path and ...

  18. permeant properties of foundation soils in the basement complex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    the soils decreases with K, and rate at which water flows in the soil will rather influence the rate and amount of ... The rocks have witnessed varying degrees of .... particles. % Silt- sized. Particles. %. Fine s. % Sand- sized particles. %. Gravel- sized particles. Effective size, D10. (mm). Coeffic ient of perme ability. (K) m/s. PIT 1.

  19. Does Alport syndrome affect the basement membrane of peritoneal vessels?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sampimon, Denise E.; Vlijm, Anniek; Struijk, Dirk G.; Krediet, Raymond T.

    2010-01-01

    Alport syndrome and encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) are both rare diseases. Their joint occurrence is highly unlikely. Two patients at our center with Alport syndrome developed EPS. We therefore hypothesized that Alport syndrome might predispose to the development of EPS and that this

  20. Geochemistry of crystalline basement rocks SW Ugep, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geochemical data on low-grade metasedimentary phyllites and schists of SW Ugep show that they were derived from predominantly pelitic parent rocks. They form a supracrustal cover on an orthogneiss of granitic composition. The metasediments are enriched in Si02, Al203 and Zr but improverished in Ni. Intrusion of ...

  1. Evaluation of Fractured Basement Complex Rock Porosity by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    current resistivity sounding as complementary geophysical technique to Schlumberger vertical electrical sounding in characterizing fractured geologic systems. Previously, Schlumberger vertical electrical sounding was used to collect data.

  2. Lithologic characterisation of the basement aquifers of Awe and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Just like many communities in Nigeria, people living in Awe and Akinmorin areas rely on groundwater supply for their domestic water need. However, these areas are underlain by impermeable crystalline rocks that included migmatite, schist and quartzite that can only transmit water when fractured and where there is ...

  3. Basement and alluvial aquifers of Malawi: An overview of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elizabeth B Mapoma

    2014-02-17

    Feb 17, 2014 ... prescribing the water borne health implications in an area. Aquifer quality characteristics. Various studies on groundwater quality have been carried out in several districts in Malawi. Table 1 summarizes the range of biological, physical and chemical quality parameters observed in various districts.

  4. Structure of Charnockitic basement in a part of the Krishna ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Department of Geophysics, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530 003, India. ∗ e-mail: ivr−murthy@yahoo.com. A regional magnetic survey was carried out over an area of 8000km. 2 in Godavari districts of. Andhra Pradesh, India, which is covered by the rocks of Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt (EGMB) viz., the Khondalitic series ...

  5. lithologic characterisation of the basement aquifers of awe and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal

    Just like many communities in Nigeria, people living in Awe and Akinmorin areas rely on groundwater supply for their domestic water need. However, these areas are underlain by impermeable crystalline rocks that included migmatite, schist and quartzite that can only transmit water when fractured and where there is ...

  6. Basement and alluvial aquifers of Malawi: An overview of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elizabeth B Mapoma

    2014-02-17

    Feb 17, 2014 ... seeks to identify literature on Malawi's groundwater and use the same to summarize physico-chemical ... values in one paper that will act as a starting point when identifying references about groundwater ... away the weathering products; and, (4) The Rift valley floor (hosting the alluvial plain) located below ...

  7. Permeant Properties of Foundation Soils in the Basement Complex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inverse relationship exist between K and amount of clay (r = -0.34), K and amount of silt (r = -0.29) as well as exists between K and amount of sand (r = -0.015). It follows that the amount of clay in the soils decreases with K, and rate at which water flows in the soil will rather influence the rate and amount of foundation ...

  8. field occurrence and structural characteristics of basement rocks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal

    NNW/NW- (65.68%). • E - W (8.28%). • NE - SW (26.04%). The brittle structures trend predominantly in the. NNW/NW direction while the ductile structures trend in the. NNE/NE direction. Table 3: Summary of strike azimuth frequency data of structures (foliations, joints/fractures and veins) in the study area. Structural Elements.

  9. Geophysical images of basement rocks. Geophysical images in the Guianese basement. Airborne geophysical campaign in French Guiana - 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delor, C.; Perrin, J.; Truffert, C.; Asfirane, F.; Rossi, Ph.; Bonjoly, D.; Dubreuihl, J.; Chardon, D.

    1998-01-01

    The French Office for Geological and Mining Research (BRGM) has carried out a high sensitivity airborne geophysical survey of northern French Guiana during the second half of 1996. The aim was to realize a high resolution magnetic and gamma spectrometric mapping for future prospecting, land use and environment management. This paper describes in details the geophysical campaign, the material used, the navigation techniques, the processing of magnetic data, the gamma radiation sources used, the spectrometric calibrations and the geologic interpretation of the results. (J.S.)

  10. NewsMars: Express journey to Mars ASE 2003: Knocked out by meteorites Events: Sun-Earth Day ASE 2003: Fun Physics - popular as ever Appointments: Sykes to bring science to the people UK Science Education: The future's bright, the future's science ASE 2003: A grand finale for Catherine Teaching Resources: UK goes to the planets Cambridge Physics Update: Basement physics Conferences: Earth Science Teachers' Association Conference 2003 New Website: JESEI sets sail GIREP: Teacher education seminar Malaysia: Rewards for curriculum change Cambridge Physics Update: My boomerang will come back! Teaching Resources: Widening particiption through ideas and evidence with the University of Surrey Wales: First Ffiseg Events: Nuna: Solar car on tour Physics on Stage: Physics on Stage 3 embraces life Symposium: In what sense a nuclear 'debate'? Gifted and Talented: Able pupils experiencing challenging science Australia: ISS flies high Down Under

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-03-01

    Mars: Express journey to Mars ASE 2003: Knocked out by meteorites Events: Sun-Earth Day ASE 2003: Fun Physics - popular as ever Appointments: Sykes to bring science to the people UK Science Education: The future's bright, the future's science ASE 2003: A grand finale for Catherine Teaching Resources: UK goes to the planets Cambridge Physics Update: Basement physics Conferences: Earth Science Teachers' Association Conference 2003 New Website: JESEI sets sail GIREP: Teacher education seminar Malaysia: Rewards for curriculum change Cambridge Physics Update: My boomerang will come back! Teaching Resources: Widening particiption through ideas and evidence with the University of Surrey Wales: First Ffiseg Events: Nuna: Solar car on tour Physics on Stage: Physics on Stage 3 embraces life Symposium: In what sense a nuclear 'debate'? Gifted and Talented: Able pupils experiencing challenging science Australia: ISS flies high Down Under

  11. New data on the basement of Franz Josef Land, Arctic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ershova, V. B.; Prokopiev, A. V.; Sobolev, N. N.; Petrov, E. O.; Khudoley, A. K.; Faleide, J. I.; Gaina, C.; Belyakova, R. V.

    2017-03-01

    We have studied pebbles of igneous rocks from the Lower Jurassic sedimentary succession of Hall Island, Franz Josef Land. Pebbles are represented by felsic intrusive and extrusive rocks, often cataclased and greisenized. The U-Pb age of crystallization for zircons of the studied samples yielded the Latest Devonian-Early Carboniferous and Early-Middle Permian ages. In addition, the studied zircons demonstrate a broad scatter of ages, from Middle Paleozoic to Mesozoic, suggesting repeated thermal reworking and metamorphism of granites. It is shown that coeval Late Paleozoic magmatism indicates the similarity of the geological evolution of the northern Barents Sea and the Severnaya Zemlya archipelago.

  12. Rac1 is essential for basement membrane-dependent epiblast survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Xiaowen; Liu, Jie; Qi, Yanmei

    2010-01-01

    biological process are largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that Rac1 ablation in embryonic stem cell-derived embryoid bodies (EBs) leads to massive apoptosis of epiblast cells in contact with the BM. Expression of wild-type Rac1 in the mutant EBs rescues the BM-contacting epiblast, while expression...... of a constitutively active Rac1 additionally blocks the apoptosis of inner cells and cavitation, indicating that the spatially regulated activation of Rac1 is required for epithelial cyst formation. We further show that Rac1 is activated through integrin-mediated recruitment of the Crk-DOCK180 complex and mediates BM...

  13. Reduction of Risk to Fire Fighters in Responding to Basement Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    d’imagerie thermique durant chaque évaluation. Les observations ont montré que, même quand les concentrations étaient inférieures à celles...premiers intervenants est nettement réduite lorsqu’ils pénètrent dans la structure. Il faut donc se munir d’une caméra thermique et prendre diverses...medical services) across Canada through research, development of standards, product evaluation, technology transfer , science and technology advocacy

  14. Autoantibodies to myeloperoxidase aggravate mild anti-glomerular-basement-membrane-mediated glomerular injury in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeringa, P.; Brouwer, E.; Klok, P. A.; Huitema, M. G.; van den Born, J.; Weening, J. J.; Kallenberg, C. G.

    1996-01-01

    Autoantibodies to myeloperoxidase (MPO) are present in sera from patients with various forms of vasculitis-associated glomerulonephritis. Evidence for a pathogenic role of anti-MPO antibodies has been provided mainly by in vitro studies. We studied the pathogenic role of autoantibodies to MPO in a

  15. The role of E–W basement faults in the Mesozoic geodynamic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Gafsa and Chotts intracratonic basins in south-central Tunisia are transitional zones between the Atlasic domain to the north and the Saharan platform to the south. The principal aim of this paper is to unravel the geodynamic evolution of these basins following an integrated approach including seismic, well log and ...

  16. Geophysical studies for the evaluation of offshore placer deposits and basement configuration

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramana, M.V.; Rao, T.K.S.P.; Srinivas, K.

    and c) medium to long wavelength and large amplitude anomalies. Besides, the anomaly map is characterisEd. by N-S, NW-SE and WNW-ESE trending magnetic lineaments. The presence of high frequency and short wavelength magnetic anomalies is due...

  17. Basement and climate controls on proximal depositional systems in continental settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ventra, D.

    2011-01-01

    This doctoral dissertation discusses the sedimentology and dynamics of selected, modern and ancient clastic depositional systems (alluvial fans and colluvial aprons) at continental basin margins. The focus on single depositional systems gave the opportunity to devote particular attention to

  18. Structural analysis of how podocytes detach from the glomerular basement membrane under hypertrophic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilhelm eKriz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Podocytes are lost by detachment from the GBM as viable cells; details are largely unknown. We studied this process in the rat after growth stimulation with FGF-2. Endothelial and mesangial cells responded by hyperplasia, podocytes underwent hypertrophy, but, in the long run, developed various changes that could either be interpreted showing progressing stages in detachment from the GBM or stages leading to a tighter attachment by foot process effacement (FPE. This occurred in microdomains within the same podocyte; thus features of detachment and of reinforced attachment may simultaneously be found in the same podocyte.(1 Initially, hypertrophied podocytes underwent cell body attenuation and formed large pseudocysts, i.e. expansions of the subpodocyte space.(2 Podocytes entered the process of FPE starting with the retraction of foot processes and the replacement of the slit diaphragm by occluding junctions thereby sealing the filtration slits. Successful completion of this process led to broad attachments of podocyte cell bodies to the GBM. (3 Failure of sealing the slits led to gaps of varying width between retracting foot processes facilitating the outflow of the filtrate from the GBM.(4 Since those gaps are frequently overarched by broadened primary processes the drainage of the filtrate into the Bowman's space may be hindered leading to the formation of small pseudocysts associated with bare areas of GBM.(5 The merging of pseudocysts created a system of communicating chambers through which the filtrate has to pass to reach Bowman's space. Multiple flow resistances in series likely generated an expansile force on podocytes contributing to detachment.(6 Such a situation appears to proceed to complete disconnection generally of a group of podocytes owing to the junctional connections between them. (7 Since such groups of detaching podocytes generally make contact to parietal cells, they start the formation of tuft adhesions to Bowman's capsule.

  19. Linking the basement geology along the Africa-South America coasts in the South Atlantic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konopásek, J.; Sláma, Jiří; Košler, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 280, July (2016), s. 221-230 ISSN 0301-9268 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Gondwana reconstruction * South Atlantic Ocean * Plate tectonics * Kaoko Belt * Dom Feliciano Belt Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 3.843, year: 2016

  20. The role of E–W basement faults in the Mesozoic geodynamic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dorra Tanfous Amri

    2017-10-10

    Oct 10, 2017 ... and occurred only along main strike-slip faults. In addition, seismic lines show that Triassic rocks are .... ated anticlines are due to an E–W strike-slip fault, whereas Zargouni (1985), Boukadi (1994), Zouari ...... right–lateral oblique–slip features such as the Gafsa fault (Boukadi and Bédir 1996; Hlaiem 1999; ...

  1. Histopathological and ultrastructural analysis of vestibular endorgans in Meniere's disease reveals basement membrane pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCall Andrew A

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We report the systematic analysis of the ultrastructural and cytological histopathology of vestibular endorgans acquired from labyrinthectomy in Meniere's disease. Methods 17 subjects with intractable Meniere's disease and ipsilateral non-serviceable hearing presenting to the Neurotology Clinic from 1997 to 2006 who chose ablative labyrinthectomy (average age = 62 years; range 29–83 years participated. The average duration of symptoms prior to surgery was 7 years (range 1–20 years. Results Nearly all vestibular endorgans demonstrated varying degrees of degeneration. A monolayer of epithelial cells occurred significantly more frequently in the horizontal cristae (12/13 = 92% (p Conclusion Systematic histopathological analysis of the vestibular endorgans from Meniere's disease demonstrated neuroepithelial degeneration which was highly correlated with an associated BM thickening. Other findings included hair cell and supporting cell microvessicles, increased intercellular clear spaces in the stroma, and endothelial cell vacuolization and stromal perivascular BM thickening.

  2. Analysis of Wind Energy Potential and Vibrations Caused by Wind Turbine on Its Basement

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaláb, Z.; Hanslian, David; Stolárik, M.; Pinka, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 3 (2014), s. 151-159 ISSN 1335-1788 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : wind turbine * wind energy potential * wind map * wind map * experimental measurement * vibration velocity Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 0.329, year: 2014 http://actamont.tuke.sk/pdf/2014/n3/6kalab.pdf

  3. The role of E-W basement faults in the Mesozoic geodynamic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    8

    the E–W-oriented faults controlled the subsidence distribution especially during the Jurassic. The NW–SE faults seem to be key structures that controlled the basins paleogeography during the Cretaceous–Cenozoic time. The upper Triassic evaporites bodies, which locally outline the main NW–SE Gafsa fault, are regarded ...

  4. Lack of endothelial nitric oxide synthase aggravates murine accelerated anti-glomerular basement membrane glomerulonephritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeringa, P; van Goor, H; Itoh-Lindstrom, Y; Maeda, N; Falk, RJ; Assmann, KJM; Kallenberg, CGM; Jennette, JC

    Nitric oxide (NO) radicals generated by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) are involved in the regulation of vascular tone. In addition, NO radicals derived from eNOS inhibit platelet aggregation and leukocyte adhesion to the endothelium and, thus, may have anti-inflammatory effects. To study

  5. Off Our Lawns and out of Our Basements: How We (Mis)Understand the Millennial Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechler, Heather

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author explores the existing research on the characteristics of Millennials within historical, social, and economic contexts. While many researchers have made claims about Millennials, they fail to consider how parenting styles, economic factors, historical events, and shifts in educational priorities may have created the…

  6. Some aspects of regional flow of variable-density groundwater in crystalline basement rock of Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voss, C.I.; Andersson, Johan

    1991-12-01

    The distribution of saltwaters in the Baltic shield in Sweden is consistent with ongoing but incomplete Holocene flushing and depends on the geometry and connectivity of conductive structures at both regional and local scales, and on the surface topography. Numerical simulation of regional variable-density fluid flow during Holocene land-rise and coastal regression shows that the existence of any old saltwater, whether derived from submarine recharge in regions below Sweden's highest post-glacial coastline or geochemical processes, is an indication either of slow fluid movements through the bedrock over long times, or of long travel distances through fracture systems before arriving at measurement points. During the land-rise period, regional flow is not affected by the variable density of fluids in the upper few kilometers of the shield and the topography of the water table is the only driving force. The spatial distribution of meteoric flushing water and pre-Holocene waters may be complex, with the possibility of relatively fresh water in fracture zones below salty units even at depths of a few kilometers. The domination of the topographic driving force implies that deep saltwater is not necessarily stagnant, and significant saltwater flows may be expected to occur in well-connected horizons even at depth. Local topography variation and fracture zone location combine to create a complex flow field in which local topographic driving forces extend to considerable depth in some areas, whereas regional topographic forces predominate in others. Thus, a pattern may be difficult to discern in measurements of the regional saltwater distribution, although it is clear that the coastal region is the major zone of discharge for deeper pre-Holocene fluids. During the land-rise period, regional flow equilibrates with changing climatic conditions and coastal positions, while the distribution of flushing water and older waters lags and will perpetually change between successive glaciations. (au)

  7. The role of E–W basement faults in the Mesozoic geodynamic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dorra Tanfous Amri

    2017-10-10

    Oct 10, 2017 ... Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous series and to discuss the role of the main faults that controlled the basin architecture and ... Primary attention is given to the role played by the E–W faults system and that of the NW–SE Gafsa fault ...... Cretaceous series exhibit remarkable variations. Uplifted areas in the ...

  8. In-Flight Self-Alignment Method Aided by Geomagnetism for Moving Basement of Guided Munitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang-biao Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to power-after-launch mode of guided munitions of high rolling speed, initial attitude of munitions cannot be determined accurately, and this makes it difficult for navigation and control system to work effectively and validly. An in-flight self-alignment method aided by geomagnetism that includes a fast in-flight coarse alignment method and an in-flight alignment model based on Kalman theory is proposed in this paper. Firstly a fast in-flight coarse alignment method is developed by using gyros, magnetic sensors, and trajectory angles. Then, an in-flight alignment model is derived by investigation of the measurement errors and attitude errors, which regards attitude errors as state variables and geomagnetic components in navigation frame as observed variables. Finally, fight data of a spinning projectile is used to verify the performance of the in-flight self-alignment method. The satisfying results show that (1 the precision of coarse alignment can attain below 5°; (2 the attitude errors by in-flight alignment model converge to 24′ at early of the latter half of the flight; (3 the in-flight alignment model based on Kalman theory has better adaptability, and show satisfying performance.

  9. In vivo imaging of basement membrane movement: ECM patterning shapes Hydra polyps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aufschnaiter, Roland; Zamir, Evan A; Little, Charles D; Özbek, Suat; Münder, Sandra; David, Charles N; Li, Li; Sarras, Michael P; Zhang, Xiaoming

    2011-12-01

    Growth and morphogenesis during embryonic development, asexual reproduction and regeneration require extensive remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM). We used the simple metazoan Hydra to examine the fate of ECM during tissue morphogenesis and asexual budding. In growing Hydra, epithelial cells constantly move towards the extremities of the animal and into outgrowing buds. It is not known, whether these tissue movements involve epithelial migration relative to the underlying matrix or whether cells and ECM are displaced as a composite structure. Furthermore, it is unclear, how the ECM is remodeled to adapt to the shape of developing buds and tentacles. To address these questions, we used a new in vivo labeling technique for Hydra collagen-1 and laminin, and tracked the fate of ECM in all body regions of the animal. Our results reveal that Hydra 'tissue movements' are largely displacements of epithelial cells together with associated ECM. By contrast, during the evagination of buds and tentacles, extensive movement of epithelial cells relative to the matrix is observed, together with local ECM remodeling. These findings provide new insights into the nature of growth and morphogenesis in epithelial tissues.

  10. FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR-2 DURING POSTNATAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE TRACHEAL BASEMENT MEMBRANE ZONE. (R827442)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  11. Basement configuration of Visakhapatnam - Paradip continental margin from inversion of magnetic anomalies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, M.M.M.; Rao, S.J.; Venkateswarlu, K.; Murthy, K.S.R.; Murthy, I.V.R.; Subrahmanyam, A.S.

    . References 1 Curray J R, Emmel F J, Moore D G & Raitt R W, in: Ocean basins and margins, 6 (Plenum, New York) 1982, pp. 399-450. 2 Rao T C S & Murthy K S R, Magnetic surveys over the con- tinental shelf off Visakhapatnam, Mahasagar - Bull Nat Inst... Visakhapatnam, east coast of India, Indian J Earth Sci, 14(1987) 109-113. 8 Murthy K S R, Rao M M M, Rao T C S & Subrahmanyam A S, A comparative study of Werner deconvolution and con- ventional modelling of marine magnetic data, Geophy Res Bull, 25(1987) 152...

  12. Magnetic studies of basement off the coast of Bombay, West of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, D.G.

    ) and present stud- ies. Geological setting Onshore geology The geology of the onshore area between lati- tudes 15 o N and 25” N and longitudes 69”30’E and 82”OO’E adjacent to the study area is con- cealed underneath basalts (Deccan traps) of un- known... resulted in the observed struct- ural configuration in the study area of the con- tinental margin, northwest of India. Acknowledgements The author is indebted to Dr. B.N. Desai, for encouragement while carrying out the studies. Part of the data...

  13. Matrigel Basement Membrane Matrix influences expression of microRNAs in cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, Karina J.; Tsykin, Anna; Giles, Keith M.; Sladic, Rosemary T.; Epis, Michael R.; Ganss, Ruth; Goodall, Gregory J.; Leedman, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Matrigel alters cancer cell line miRNA expression relative to culture on plastic. ► Many identified Matrigel-regulated miRNAs are implicated in cancer. ► miR-1290, -210, -32 and -29b represent a Matrigel-induced miRNA signature. ► miR-32 down-regulates Integrin alpha 5 (ITGA5) mRNA. -- Abstract: Matrigel is a medium rich in extracellular matrix (ECM) components used for three-dimensional cell culture and is known to alter cellular phenotypes and gene expression. microRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression and have roles in cancer. While miRNA profiles of numerous cell lines cultured on plastic have been reported, the influence of Matrigel-based culture on cancer cell miRNA expression is largely unknown. This study investigated the influence of Matrigel on the expression of miRNAs that might facilitate ECM-associated cancer cell growth. We performed miRNA profiling by microarray using two colon cancer cell lines (SW480 and SW620), identifying significant differential expression of miRNAs between cells cultured in Matrigel and on plastic. Many of these miRNAs have previously been implicated in cancer-related processes. A common Matrigel-induced miRNA signature comprised of up-regulated miR-1290 and miR-210 and down-regulated miR-29b and miR-32 was identified using RT-qPCR across five epithelial cancer cell lines (SW480, SW620, HT-29, A549 and MDA-MB-231). Experimental modulation of these miRNAs altered expression of their known target mRNAs involved in cell adhesion, proliferation and invasion, in colon cancer cell lines. Furthermore, ITGA5 was identified as a novel putative target of miR-32 that may facilitate cancer cell interactions with the ECM. We propose that culture of cancer cell lines in Matrigel more accurately recapitulates miRNA expression and function in cancer than culture on plastic and thus is a valuable approach to the in vitro study of miRNAs.

  14. Synthesis and localization of two sulphated glycoproteins associated with basement membranes and the extracellular matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hogan, B L; Taylor, A; Kurkinen, M

    1982-01-01

    interactions and are not precursors or products of each other. They contain asparagine-linked oligosaccharides, but these are not the exclusive sites of sulphate labeling. Antiserum raised against the Mr 150,000 sgp C of Reichert's membranes has been used in an immunohistochemical analysis of rat skin...

  15. Protoliths of the high-pressure tectonic blocks from the South Carpathians basement units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negulescu, Elena; Săbău, Gavril; Massonne, Hans-Joachim

    2014-05-01

    Several high-pressure (HP) blocks (eclogites, metagabbronorites, garnet-chloritoid-bearing schists and garnet-kyanite mylonites) hosted in medium-pressure metamorphic complexes from the Lotru Metamorphic Suite (LMS), Leaota Massif (LM), and Făgăraş Massif (FM) were investigated in order to derive the nature of their protoliths based on geochemical data and relict fabrics. The variation diagrams using Niggli values (Niggli, 1954) document a typical pelitic protolith for the HP garnet-chloritoid-bearing schists and garnet-kyanite mylonitic gneiss from the LM. Classification diagrams using major- and trace-element data show that most of the compositions of eclogite and metagabbronorite concentrate in and around the field of basalts. A few elogites from the LM and LMS have compositions similar to picrites, rich in Cr and Ni. Thus, the classification diagrams confirm the assumed basaltic character of the studied eclogites and the fact that alterations did not significantly change the original composition. However, there is one notable exception of a very-high pressure (VHP) eclogite and its metasomatic envelope (Negulescu et al., 2009) from the LM. The tholeiitic and in many instances clear MORB character of the eclogites is also illustrated in the Mullen discriminant plot (Mullen, 1983), in contrast to the VHP-eclogite, as also REE-patterns indicate. The protoliths of the studied eclogites and metagabbronorites range from N-MORB to E-MORB. The VHP-eclogite and its rind display, despite metasomatic alterations, similar REE-patterns and other trace element concentrations, comparable with that of North American shale, thereby supporting the sedimentary origin of their protoliths (Negulescu et al., 2009). The most primitive sample is a Ca, Al-rich eclogite from the FM with an overall low REE concentration, displaying a slight Eu anomaly and a tea-spoon shaped LREE depletion indicative of a cumulate origin. The same origin is also probable for a few eclogites from the LMS with a similar kind of REE-patterns. Some E-MORB type eclogites and metagabbronorites from the LM are enriched in LILE and depleted in HFSE (Nb, Zr, Ti). The consequences of the geochemical features are also supported by relict magmatic microtextures. Many eclogites contain microdomains indicating precursor phases replaced by eclogitic assemblages: (1) idiomorphic shapes of former Ti-rich clinopyroxene phenocrystals, replaced by garnet and omphacite, marked by cloudy areas containing rutile dust; (2) prismatic garnet pseudomorphs after plagioclase (3) sharply-delimited domains in composite garnet with abundant quartz inclusions outlining former plagioclase contours; and (4) omphacite replacing magmatic pyroxenes. The geochemical, petrological and thermobaric data available for the South Carpathians HP/low-medium temperature complexes document geochemical and thermobaric contrasts among adjacent lithologies, as well as ocean-derived protoliths enclosed in upper crustal rocks, in apparent structural congruence. This structural setting indicates an intricate tectonometamorphic history involving collision-associated stacking, crustal imbrications, and amalgamation of units originating from distinct continental blocks. Negulescu E. et al. (2009) Journal of Petrology 50/1, 103-125. Niggli P. (1954) Rocks and mineral Deposits. San Francisco, Freeman, 559p. Mullen E. D. (1983) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 62, 53-62.

  16. Evaluation of Maximum Radionuclide Groundwater Concentrations for Basement Fill Model. Zion Station Restoration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-05-20

    ZionSolutions is in the process of decommissioning the Zion Nuclear Power Station (ZNPS). After decommissioning is completed, the site will contain two reactor Containment Buildings, the Fuel Handling Building and Transfer Canals, Auxiliary Building, Turbine Building, Crib House/Forebay, and a Waste Water Treatment Facility that have been demolished to a depth of 3 feet below grade. Additional below ground structures remaining will include the Main Steam Tunnels and large diameter intake and discharge pipes. These additional structures are not included in the modeling described in this report, but the inventory remaining (expected to be very low) will be included with one of the structures that are modeled as designated in the Zion Station Restoration Project (ZSRP) License Termination Plan (LTP). The remaining underground structures will be backfilled with clean material. The final selection of fill material has not been made.

  17. FLUORESCENCE OVERLAY ANTIGEN MAPPING OF THE EPIDERMAL BASEMENT-MEMBRANE ZONE .1. GEOMETRIC ERRORS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BRUINS, S; DEJONG, MCJM; HEERES, K; WILKINSON, MHF; JONKMAN, MF; VANDERMEER, JB

    To identify in tissue sections the relative positions of antigen distributions close to the resolving power of the microscope, we have developed the fluorescence overlay antigen mapping (FOAM) procedure. As this technique makes high demands on the geometric fidelity of the overlay image, it is

  18. FLUORESCENCE OVERLAY ANTIGEN MAPPING OF THE EPIDERMAL BASEMENT-MEMBRANE ZONE .2. COLOR FIDELITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BRUINS, S; DEJONG, MCJM; HEERES, K; WILKINSON, MHF; JONKMAN, MF; VANDERMEER, JB

    In this second report on the fluorescence overlay antigen mapping (FOAM) technique, we highlight some of the errors that may influence faithful color rendition of slide preparations using triple antigen immunofluorescence staining. Reliable interpretation of multicolor fluorescence images requires

  19. Basement structure beneath the innershelf off Mahabalipuram to Palar River, east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murthy, K.S.R.; Venkateswarlu, K.; Rao, T.C.S.

    Magnetic data along three coastal parallel profiles over the innershelf (30-50 m water depth) off Mahabalipuram recorded short wavelength and high amplitude (peak to peak of the order of 200-700 nT) anomalies. Two linear NW-SE trends were delineated...

  20. Manganiferous minerals of the epidote group from the Archaean basement of West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katerinopoulou, Anna; Balic Zunic, Tonci; Kolb, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    The chemical compositions and crystal structures of Mn3+-containing minerals from the epidote group in Greenland rocks are investigated and described in detail. They occur in hydrothermally altered Archaean mafic sequences within the gneissic complex of the North Atlantic craton of West Greenland...

  1. Triassic beds in the basement of the Adriatic-Dinaric carbonate platform of Mt. Svilaja (Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Jelaska

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available On the southwestern slope of Mt. Svilaja a Triassic sequence is exposed. It is composed of Lower Triassic carbonate siliciclastic shelf beds that are unconformably overlain by Anisian breccia. The overlying pelagic Anisian and Ladinian strata with pyroclastic rockscan be interpreted as a result of rift tectonics of Adria micro-plate. A 500 m thick sequence is capped by an emersion surface by karstification and terrigenous sediments including conglomerate as a result of Late Triassic transgression and marking the lower boundaryof a new, Late Mesozoic, megasequence of the External Dinarides.By means of conodont study, in the lowermost part of the studied Mesozoic sequence, a Lower Triassic shallow-water conodont fauna yielding Pachycladina obliqua apparatus was recorded. Pelagic limestone beds overlying the »Otarnik breccia« are marked byconodont elements of the Anisian constricta Zone. The Ladinian interval is characterized (from bottom to top: trammeri A. Z., hungaricus A. Z. and mungoensis A. Z. The uppermost part of the section below the emersion surface is identified by Pseudofurnishiusmurchianus, indicating the Upper Ladinian-Lower Carnian murchianus Zone.

  2. Dye Transport across the Retinal Basement Membrane of the Blowfly Calliphora erythrocephala

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weyrauther, E.; Roebroek, J.G.H.; Stavenga, D.G.

    In the blowfly, Calliphora erythrocephala, transport of dye into or out of the retina, following injection into the eye or thorax, was investigated, mainly by microspectrophotometry and fluorimetry. After injection into the eye, Phenol Red, Trypan Blue, Lucifer Yellow and 9-amino-acridine were

  3. CORRELATIVE LIGHT AND IMMUNOHISTOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE BASEMENT MEMBRANE OF THE HUMAN SQUAMOUS CERVICAL CARCINOMA

    OpenAIRE

    Masato, YAMASAKI; Gaiko, UEDA; Masaki, INOUE; Yoshiaki, TANAKA; IKeiichi, KURACH; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Osaha University Medical School; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Osaha University Medical School; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Osaha University Medical School; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Osaha University Medical School; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Osaha University Medical School

    1980-01-01

    子宮頚部扁平上皮癌に基底膜は存在するか否か光顕・電顕的に多くの研究がなされてきた.1968年Beutner et al.はbullous pemphigioid患者血清が扁平上皮に対する抗基底膜抗体を含むことが明らかにされた.今回,我々は子宮頚部の上皮内癌3例,微小浸潤癌1例,浸潤癌27例を用い,凍結切片を作製し,抗基底膜抗体を含むbullous pemphigioid患者血清を用い蛍光抗体法による基底膜の観察を行なった.更に同一症例について,PAS及びMucin染色を行なった.蛍光抗体法による基底膜の観察では上皮内癌3例及び正常上皮では全て連続した蛍光の線が認められた.浸潤癌27例中7例に陽性で,keratinizing type 1/3, large cell type 6/23, small cell type 1/1例に陽性所見を認めた.CPL分類ではC型3/9,P型5/16,L型0/2が陽性であった.間質細胞反応との関連では細胞浸潤の軽度のもの5/16例,中等度・高度のもの3/11例に陽性であった.PAS及びMucin染色との比較検討を行なうと,PAS陽性基底膜例では3...

  4. ASSESSMENT OF VAPOR INTRUSION IN HOMES NEAR THE RAYMARK SUPERFUND SITE USING BASEMENT AND SUB-SLAB AIR SAMPLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report describes the results of an investigation conducted to assist EPA’s New England Regional Office in evaluating vapor intrusion at 15 homes and one commercial building near the Raymark Superfund Site in Stratford, Connecticut. Methods were developed to sample sub-slab ...

  5. STATUS OF AVAILABLE MICRONUTRIENTS OF THE BASEMENT COMPLEX ROCK – DERIVED ALFISOLS IN NORTHERN NIGERIA SAVANNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Yetunde Oyinlola

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The contents of available boron, zinc, copper, iron and manganese were determined in twenty surface soils (0-30cm depth and profile pits collected from Northern Guinea and Sudan savanna zones which are the major tomato and horticultural crops growing areas of northern Nigeria savanna. The contents of available B from surface soils, extracted with hot water, varied from 0.04 – 0.28 with a mean of 0.14 mg kg-1, while Zn, Cu, Fe  and Mn, extracted with 0.1N HCl, varied from 1.8 –10.5, 1.0 –  9.0, 2.5 –75 and 2.8 – 18 mg kg-1, with  means of 4.2, 2.9, 19.6 and 9.2 mg kg-1 respectively. The contents of B, Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn in the profile pits ranged from 0.08 – 0.18, 1.5 – 3.5, 0.9 – 3.3, 14 – 26.2 and 11.2 – 20.5 mg kg-1 with means of 0.12, 2.4, 1.9, 20.7 and 15.0mg kg-1 respectively. Boron is deficient in all the soils; Zn is deficient in only some of the soils, while the contents of the other micronutrients are adequate. The micronutrients are significantly related to some of the soil properties tested, Soil clay correlated (P=0.01 positively with Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe (r= 0.476**, 0.404**, 0.407** and 0.469** respectively. Similarly, organic C correlated positively with Fe, Cu and Mn.  Also, there are significant relationships among the micronutrients; Fe correlated with all the other micronutrients – Cu, Zn, Mn (P=0.01 and B (P=0.05.  While Zn correlated with Fe, Cu and Mn. For soils of the pedons, sand and silt correlated with Zn and Cu, pH (H2O correlated with Fe, while pH (CaCl2 correlated with B and Fe. Among the micronutrients, B and Cu correlated with Zn. There would be need for B and Zn application to the soils for successful and profitable crop production.

  6. Basement membrane and interstitial proteoglycans produced by MDCK cells correspond to those expressed in the kidney cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erickson, A C; Couchman, J R

    2001-01-01

    ) cells has been utilized. Proteoglycans were prepared from conditioned medium by DEAE anion exchange chromatography. The eluted PGs were treated with heparitinase or chondroitinase ABC (cABC), separately or combined, followed by SDS-PAGE. Western blot analysis, using antibodies specific for various PG...

  7. Seismic Model and Geological Interpretation of the Basement Beneath the Doupovske Hory Volcanic Complex (NW Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Valenta, Jan; Brož, Milan; Málek, Jiří; Mlčoch, B.; Rapprich, V.; Skácelová, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 3 (2011), s. 597-617 ISSN 1895-6572 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300460602 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : seismic refraction * seismic tomography * Doupovske Hory Volcanic Complex Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 0.617, year: 2011

  8. Structural, metamorphic and geochronological insights on the Variscan evolution of the Alpine basement in the Belledonne Massif (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fréville, Kévin; Trap, Pierre; Faure, Michel; Melleton, Jérémie; Li, Xian-Hua; Lin, Wei; Blein, Olivier; Bruguier, Olivier; Poujol, Marc

    2018-02-01

    A structural and petrochronological study was carried out in the southern part of the Belledonne crystalline massif. A first tectonometamorphic event, Dx, corresponds to the eastward thrusting of the Chamrousse ophiolitic complex characterized by a low-temperature-moderate-pressure metamorphism reaching 0.535 ± 0.045 GPa and 427.5 ± 17.5 °C. A subsequent D1 deformation is defined by a penetrative S1 foliation that mostly dips toward the west and displays an E-W- to NE-SW-trending mineral and stretching lineation L1. D1 is associated with a top-to-the east shearing and is responsible for the crustal thickening accommodated by the eastward nappe stacking and the emplacement of the Chamrousse ophiolitic complex upon the Rioupéroux-Livet unit. This event is characterized by an amphibolite facies metamorphism (0.58 GPa ± 0.06; 608 ± 14 °C) that attains partial melting at the base of the nappe pile (0.78 ± 0.07 GPa; 680.5 ± 11.5 °C). LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating of monazite grains from the mica schists of the Rioupéroux-Livet unit constrain the age of D1 to 337 ± 7 Ma. The D2 tectono-metamorphic event is characterized by NE-SW trending, upright to NE-verging synfolial folding. Folding associated with D2 is pervasively developed in all lithotectonic units with the development of a steeply-dipping S2 foliation. In particular, D2 involves the uppermost weakly metamorphosed Taillefer unit. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating performed on detrital zircon grains shows that the Taillefer conglomerates was deposited during the Visean. A zircon SIMS U-Pb age of 352 ± 1 Ma from a plagioglase-rich leucocratic sill of the Rioupéroux-Livet unit is interpreted as the age of magmatic emplacement. Our results suggest that the D2 event took place between 330 Ma and 310 Ma. We propose a new interpretation of the tectonometamorphic evolution of the southern part of the Belledonne massif, focusing on the Middle Carboniferous stages of the Variscan orogeny.

  9. The Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase p38 alpha Regulates Tubular Damage in Murine Anti-Glomerular Basement Membrane Nephritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller, Ralf; Daniel, Christoph; Hugo, Christian; Amann, Kerstin; Mielenz, Dirk; Endlich, Karlhans; Braun, Tobias; van der Veen, Betty; Heeringa, Peter; Schett, Georg; Zwerina, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is thought to play a central role in acute and chronic inflammatory responses. Whether p38MAPK plays a pathogenic role in crescentic GN (GN) and which of its four isoforms is preferentially involved in kidney inflammation is not definitely known. We thus

  10. Origin and provenance of basement metasedimentary rocks from the Xolapa Complex: New constraints on the Chortis-southern Mexico connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talavera-Mendoza, Oscar; Ruiz, Joaquín; Corona-Chavez, Pedro; Gehrels, George E.; Sarmiento-Villagrana, Alicia; García-Díaz, José Luis; Salgado-Souto, Sergio Adrian

    2013-05-01

    The U-Pb (LA-MC-ICPMS) geochronology of Xolapa metasedimentary rocks from Tierra Colorada, Guerrero to Puerto Ángel, Oaxaca in southern Mexico reveals that their protoliths accumulated in two distinctive cycles of sedimentation, one of Early Jurassic age and another of Late Cretaceous age. These ages are younger than thought and demonstrate that Xolapa metasedimentary rocks are not rocks from the Acatlán or Oaxacan complexes or their Paleozoic sedimentary covers as claimed. However, detrital zircon ages indicate that Xolapa sediments received contemporaneous detritus most likely from these assemblages suggesting a probably (para-)autochthonous origin for the Xolapa terrane. Xolapa rocks record two major tectonothermal events of 64-59 Ma and ~34 Ma; the first event produced the high-grade metamorphism and widespread migmatization that characterize Xolapa and the second event is likely related to extended heating produced by coeval arc plutonism. Pre-Jurassic assemblages of the Chortis block of Central America contain zircon populations that significantly coincide with those recorded in both, the Acatlán and Oaxacan complexes and their Paleozoic sedimentary covers as well as with those recorded in Xolapa metasediments, which suggests a spatial connection among these petrotectonic assemblages during much of the Mesozoic. It is proposed that Xolapa was generated in a basin floored by Permian rocks flanked on one side by southern Mexico terranes and on the other side by the Chortis block. Contraction of the basin tied to the approach and accretion of the Guerrero terrane arc assemblages during Late Cretaceous time produced crustal thickening and high-grade metamorphism and migmatization at mid-crustal levels. Diachronic exhumation of Xolapa began during Early Paleogene time very likely promoted by the detachment and migration of the Chortis block. The migration would additionally produce slicing of Xolapa assemblages generating its elongated and juxtaposed structure and the margin truncation that characterizes southern Mexico.

  11. [Comparison of the shear bond strength by using nano silica sol to zirconia basement and veneer porcelain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Si-qian; Zhang, Da-feng; Zhen, Tie-li; Yang, Jing-yuan; Lin, Ting-ting; Ma, Jian-feng

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the feasibility of using sol gel technique to produce thin layer nano silicon dioxide on zirconia ceramic surface and the effect of improving shear bond strength between zirconia and veneer porcelain. The presintered zirconia specimen was cut into a rectangle block piece (15 mm×10 mm×2.5 mm), a total of 40 pieces were obtained and divided into 4 groups, each group had 10 pieces. Four different treatments were used in each group respectively. Pieces in group A (control group) were only sintered at 1450°C to crystallization; pieces in group B underwent 30% nano silica sol infiltration first and then were sintered at 1450°C to crystallization; piece in group C underwent crystallization first at 1450°C, then 30% nano silica sol infiltration and were sintered at 1450°C again; pieces in group D was coated by nano silica sol and then sintered at 1450°C to crystallization; ten rectangle block pieces (12 mm×8 mm×2 mm) in group E were made. Cylinder veneers 5 mm in diameter and 4 mm in height were produced in each group and the shear bond strength was tested. Data were statistically analyzed by SPSS 19.0 software package. The shear bond strength of the 5 group specimens were: (28.12±2.95) MPa in group A, (31.09±3.94) MPa in group B, (25.60±2.45) MPa in group C, (31.75±4.90) MPa in group D, (28.67±3.95) MPa in group E, respectively. Significant differences existed between the 5 groups, and group C had significant difference compared with group B and D. CONCLUSIONS:① Use of nano silicon sol gel on presintered zirconia surface to make thin layer of nano silicon dioxide can improve the shear bond strength between zirconia and veneer; ②Using nano silicon sol gel on crystallization zirconia surface to make thin layer of nano silicon dioxide will decrease the shear bond strength between zirconia and veneer; ③ Zirconia veneer bilayer ceramic has the same shear bond strength with porcelain fused to Ni Cr alloy; ④Use of sol gel technique to produce thin layer nano silicon dioxide on zirconia ceramic surface is feasible and can improve shear bond strength between zirconia and veneer porcelain.

  12. Magnetic anomalies and their possible relation with heavy mineral placers and basement configuration in Mirya bay, Konkan coast, Maharashtra, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramana, M.V.

    The offshore ilmenite placers off the Konkan coast have been explored in detail by echosounding, shallow seismic profiling and magnetic measurements followed by extensive sea bed sampling. The magnetic data show two different types of anomalies: (1...

  13. Basement Fill Model Evaluation of Maximum Radionuclide Concentrations for Initial Suite of Radionuclides. Zion Station Restoration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, Terry

    2014-01-01

    ZionSolutions is in the process of decommissioning the Zion Nuclear Power Plant in order to establish a new water treatment plant. There is some residual radioactive particles from the plant which need to be brought down to levels so an individual who receives water from the new treatment plant does not receive a radioactive dose in excess of 25 mrem/y -1 as specified in 10 CFR 20 Subpart E. The objectives of this report are: (a) To present a simplified conceptual model for release from the buildings with residual subsurface structures that can be used to provide an upper bound on radionuclide concentrations in the fill material and the water in the interstitial spaces of the fill. (b) Provide maximum water concentrations and the corresponding amount of mass sorbed to the solid fill material that could occur in each building for use by ZSRP in selecting ROCs for detailed dose assessment calculations.

  14. Foundation integrity assessment using integrated geophysical and geotechnical techniques: case study in crystalline basement complex, southwestern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olayanju, G. M.; Mogaji, K. A.; Lim, H. S.; Ojo, T. S.

    2017-06-01

    The determination of parameters comprising exact depth to bedrock and its lithological type, lateral changes in lithology, and detection of fractures, cracks, or faults are essential to designing formidable foundations and assessing the integrity of civil engineering structures. In this study, soil and site characterization in a typical hard rock geologic terrain in southwestern Nigeria were carried out employing integrated geophysical and geotechnical techniques to address tragedies in civil engineering infrastructural development. The deployed geophysical measurements involved running both very low frequency electromagnetic (VLF-EM) and electrical resistivity methods (dipole-dipole imaging and vertical electrical sounding (VES) techniques) along the established traverses, while the latter technique entailed conducting geological laboratory sieve analysis and Atterberg limit-index tests upon the collected soil samples in the area. The results of the geophysical measurement, based on the interpreted VLF-EM and dipole-dipole data, revealed conductive zones and linear features interpreted as fractures/faults which endanger the foundations of public infrastructures. The delineation of four distinct geoelectric layers in the area—comprised of topsoil, lateritic/clayey substratum, weathered layer, and bedrock—were based on the VES results. Strong evidence, including high degree of decomposition and fracturing of underlying bedrock revealed by the VES results, confirmed the VLF-EM and dipole-dipole results. Furthermore, values in the range of 74.2%-77.8%, 55%-62.5%, 23.4%-24.5%, 7.7%-8.2%, 19.5%-22.4%, and 31.65%-38.25% were obtained for these geotechnical parameters viz soil percentage passing 0.075 mm sieve size, liquid limit, plasticity index, linear shrinkage, natural moisture content, and plastic limit, respectively, resulting from the geotechnical analysis of the soil samples. The comparatively analyzed geophysical and geotechnical results revealed a high weathering of charnockitic rocks resulting in plastic clay material mapped with a mean resistivity value of 73 Ohm-m, in conformity with the obtained geotechnical parameters, which failed to agree with the standard specification of subsoil foundation materials and which, in turn, can impact negatively on the foundational integrity of infrastructures. Based on these results, the area subsoils’ competence for foundation has been rated poor to low. This study has more widely demonstrated the effective application of integrative geophysical and geotechnical methods in the assessment of subsoil competence.

  15. Human Papillomavirus Species-Specific Interaction with the Basement Membrane-Resident Non-Heparan Sulfate Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen F. Richards

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Using a cell culture model where virus is bound to the extracellular matrix (ECM prior to cell surface binding, we determined that human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16 utilizes ECM resident laminin (LN 332 as an attachment receptor for infectious entry. In presence of LN332, soluble heparin can function as ligand activator rather than competitive inhibitor of HPV16 infection. We also show that the ability to use LN332 binding as a productive attachment step for infectious entry is not conserved amongst HPV types. In the alpha genus, species 9 members (HPV16 attach to ECM via LN332, while members of species 7 (HPV18 are completely inhibited by heparin pre-incubation due to an inability to use LN332. Since HPV species 7 and 9 are preferentially associated with adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix, respectively, our data provide first evidence that pre-entry events may contribute to the anatomical-site preference of HPV species.

  16. Reduction of nitrogen compounds in oceanic basement and its implications for HCN formation and abiotic organic synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neubeck Anna

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hydrogen cyanide is an excellent organic reagent and is central to most of the reaction pathways leading to abiotic formation of simple organic compounds containing nitrogen, such as amino acids, purines and pyrimidines. Reduced carbon and nitrogen precursor compounds for the synthesis of HCN may be formed under off-axis hydrothermal conditions in oceanic lithosphere in the presence of native Fe and Ni and are adsorbed on authigenic layer silicates and zeolites. The native metals as well as the molecular hydrogen reducing CO2 to CO/CH4 and NO3-/NO2- to NH3/NH4+ are a result of serpentinization of mafic rocks. Oceanic plates are conveyor belts of reduced carbon and nitrogen compounds from the off-axis hydrothermal environments to the subduction zones, where compaction, dehydration, desiccation and diagenetic reactions affect the organic precursors. CO/CH4 and NH3/NH4+ in fluids distilled out of layer silicates and zeolites in the subducting plate at an early stage of subduction will react upon heating and form HCN, which is then available for further organic reactions to, for instance, carbohydrates, nucleosides or even nucleotides, under alkaline conditions in hydrated mantle rocks of the overriding plate. Convergent margins in the initial phase of subduction must, therefore, be considered the most potent sites for prebiotic reactions on Earth. This means that origin of life processes are, perhaps, only possible on planets where some kind of plate tectonics occur.

  17. AGE-modified basement membrane cooperates with Endo180 to promote epithelial cell invasiveness and decrease prostate cancer survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez-Teja, Mercedes; Gronau, Julian H; Breit, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    in non-transformed PECs via a molecular mechanism linked to cancer progression. This study provides a rationale for targeting CTLD2 in Endo180 in prostate cancer and other pathologies in which increased basal lamina thickness and tissue stiffness are driving factors. © 2014 The Authors. The Journal......Biomechanical strain imposed by age-related thickening of the basal lamina and augmented tissue stiffness in the prostate gland coincides with increased cancer risk. Here we hypothesized that the structural alterations in the basal lamina associated with age can induce mechanotransduction pathways...... in prostate epithelial cells (PECs) to promote invasiveness and cancer progression. To demonstrate this, we developed a 3D model of PEC acini in which thickening and stiffening of basal lamina matrix was induced by advanced glycation end-product (AGE)-dependent non-enzymatic crosslinking of its major...

  18. A model of basement structure from magnetic anomalies of the Bombay High oil-field west of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, D.G.

    "--"~'~ - "~" FAULT u NO0 7qO0- C LOS U RE i ( After Sahay. 1978) + DRY HOLE DES AREA N kilometers ' OIL WELL • DES IA 1 •, 7~:oo'E , 71-3o' I , 9"~O'E (a) Fig.2. a. Seismic contour map of the Bombay offshore basin and the Bombay High. Contour interval 200 m...

  19. Hydrogeological processes controlling water quality in the crystalline basement aquifer of the Vea Catchment in Northeast Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffi, K. V.; Obuobie, E.; Banning, A.; Wohnlich, S.

    2016-12-01

    In the Vea catchment of Northeast Ghana, groundwater appears to be a good alternative source for domestic and agricultural water supply as surface water is largely unavailable in the prolonged dry season that characterises this semi-arid area underlain by a crystalline rock aquifer. But the usability of water depends on its quality and therefore this study was done to investigate the processes influencing groundwater hydrochemistry in the study area to inform sustainable development and use of the resource. Sixty one groundwater samples were collected from different lithologies of the crystalline aquifer, and analysed for hydrochemical and physico-chemical parameters. Results show that groundwater chemistry is governed by rock-water interaction in the area. It is mainly controlled by cation exchange and silicate weathering processes. The majority of the samples was found to cluster in the Ca-Mg-HCO3 water type, regardless of aquifer geology. From a hydrochemistry perspective, the groundwater in the area is generally suitable for irrigation and drinking purposes.

  20. The crystalline basement of Estonia: rock complexes of the Palaeoproterozoic Orosirian and Statherian and Mesoproterozoic Calymmian periods, and regional correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirs, Juho

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available New data on the Fennoscandian Shield and the Baltic area suggest a need for reinterpretation of the stratigraphy of Estonian Precambrian rock complexes. The rocks of the Tallinn Zone formed in the framework of the Fennian orogeny at the margin of the Bergslagen microcontinent 1.90–1.88 Ga ago. The precise age of the Alutaguse Zone is not known. It may have formed either during the 1.93–1.91 Ga Lapland–Savo orogeny or as a rifted eastern part of the Tallinn Zone in the Fennian orogeny. The granulites of western and southern Estonia belong to the volcanic arcs inside the 1.84–1.80 Ga Svecobaltic orogenic belt and show peak metamorphic conditions of 1.78 Ga. Small shoshonitic plutons formed 1.83–1.63 Ga, the small granitic plutons of the Wiborg Rapakivi Subprovince 1.67–1.62 Ga, and the Riga pluton 1.59–1.54 Ga ago.