Sample records for basements

  1. Seismic basement in Poland (United States)

    Grad, Marek; Polkowski, Marcin


    The area of contact between Precambrian and Phanerozoic Europe in Poland has complicated structure of sedimentary cover and basement. The thinnest sedimentary cover in the Mazury-Belarus anteclize is only 0.3-1 km thick, increases to 7-8 km along the East European Craton margin, and 9-12 km in the Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ). The Variscan domain is characterized by a 1- to 2-km-thick sedimentary cover, while the Carpathians are characterized by very thick sediments, up to c. 20 km. The map of the basement depth is created by combining data from geological boreholes with a set of regional seismic refraction profiles. These maps do not provide data about the basement depth in the central part of the TESZ and in the Carpathians. Therefore, the data set is supplemented by 32 models from deep seismic sounding profiles and a map of a high-resistivity (low-conductivity) layer from magnetotelluric soundings, identified as a basement. All of these data provide knowledge about the basement depth and of P-wave seismic velocities of the crystalline and consolidated type of basement for the whole area of Poland. Finally, the differentiation of the basement depth and velocity is discussed with respect to geophysical fields and the tectonic division of the area.

  2. Measure Guideline: Basement Insulation Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, R.; Mantha, P.; Puttagunta, S.


    This guideline is intended to describe good practices for insulating basements in new and existing homes, and is intended to be a practical resources for building contractors, designers, and also to homeowners.

  3. Still more complexity in mammalian basement membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erickson, A C; Couchman, J R


    At the epithelial/mesenchymal interface of most tissues lies the basement membrane (BM). These thin sheets of highly specialized extracellular matrix vary in composition in a tissue-specific manner, and during development and repair. For about two decades it has been apparent that all BMs contain...

  4. Basement membrane proteoglycans are of epithelial origin in rodent skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamane, Y; Yaoita, H; Couchman, J R


    Basement membrane proteoglycans in mammalian skin comprise at least one chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan and heparan sulfate proteoglycans, including perlecan. In this study, the origins of basement membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan and perlecan were investigated both in vivo and in vitro...

  5. Atypical anti-glomerular basement membrane disease


    Troxell, Megan L.; Donald C Houghton


    Background Anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) disease classically presents with aggressive necrotizing and crescentic glomerulonephritis, often with pulmonary hemorrhage. The pathologic hallmark is linear staining of GBMs for deposited immunoglobulin G (IgG), usually accompanied by serum autoantibodies to the collagen IV alpha-3 constituents of GBMs. Methods Renal pathology files were searched for cases with linear anti-GBM to identify cases with atypical or indolent course. Histopa...

  6. Basement Aquifers : How Useful Are Gravity Data ? (United States)

    Genthon, P.; Mouhouyouddine, A. H.; Hinderer, J.; Hector, B.; Yameogo, S.


    Gravity data with a few microgal precision were proved to be able to constrain the specific yield of various kinds of aquifer in West Africa from annual fluctuations of both the gravimetric and piezometric signals (Pfeffer et al., Geophys. J. Int., 2011; Hector et al., Geophys. J. Int., 2013). However some recent papers reported a disappointing potential of gravity measurements during a pumping experiment in a sandy aquifer (Blainey et al., WRR, 2007; Herckenrath et al., WRR, 2012) and their poor ability in constraining the transmissity and specific yield of the aquifer, which are the parameters to which pumping tests give access. Fresh basement rocks present generally a null porosity and the structure of basement aquifers is given by the weathering profile. In tropical climate, this profile consists of a few tens meter thick saprolite layer, with noticeable porosity but low permeability overlying the weathering front. This weathering front includes in many instances a fractured medium and presents a high permeability with variable porosity. It is hardly sampled in coring experiments. We present some numerical simulation results on the ability of gravity to constrain the transmissivity of this medium. Due to poroelasticity of clay minerals in the saprolite, soil subsidence is expected to occur during pumping with a significant gravity effect. Gravity measurements have therefore to be completed with leveling data at a millimetric precision. We present first the results of numerical modeling of the gravity and subsidence for a theoretical horizontally stratified basement aquifer, and show that gravity and leveling are able to provide independently the poroelasticity coefficient and a single transmissivity coefficient for the bottom of the aquifer, if the properties of the upper saprolites are known. We will discuss then the general case, where the aquifer presents a vertical fracture where the weathering profile thickens.

  7. Coarctation induces alterations in basement membranes in the cardiovascular system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipke, D W; McCarthy, K J; Elton, T S;


    ventricular hypertrophy was maximal within 5 days. In immunohistochemical studies, fibronectin and laminin were increased and the basement membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan decreased in both the subendothelial space and smooth muscle cell basement membranes of the aorta above the clip compared...... membrane components in the heart and vasculature peaked before maximal cardiac hypertrophy (5 days). These studies indicate that alterations in basement membrane component deposition in the hypertrophied vasculature occur at both transcriptional and translational levels and suggest that the cell attachment...

  8. Glomerular Basement Membrane Type IV Collagen in Health and Disease


    Fish, Alfred J.; Kashtan, Clifford E.; Matsukura, Hiro; Butkowski, Ralph J.


    Glomerular basement membrane is the major supporting structural element of the glomerular capillary wall. This is a highly complex locus which functionally serves as a filtration barrier, and has been the subject of detailed investigation. The composition of whole glomerular basement membrane suggests that collagen is a major component. Isolation and characterization of the collagenous domains has revealed that glomerular basement membrane is chiefly composed of type IV collagen. This molecul...

  9. The major basement membrane components localize to the chondrocyte pericellular matrix--a cartilage basement membrane equivalent?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Alexander J.; Nyström, Alexander; Hultenby, Kjell;


    In this study, we demonstrate that articular cartilage chondrocytes are surrounded by the defining basement membrane proteins laminin, collagen type IV, nidogen and perlecan, and suggest that these form the functional equivalent of a basement membrane. We found by real-time PCR that mouse chondro...

  10. Subsidence resistant repair of a block basement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A one story house was damaged by mine subsidence movement. The house is located in a small subsidence sag and is experiencing differential settlement and compressive ground strains. Instead of waiting for the ground movements to eventually stop, The Illinois Mine Subsidence Insurance Fund developed a permanent repair scheme that was implemented at the same time damaging mine subsidence movement was affecting the structure. This repair provided a significant structural resistance against the anticipated residual mine subsidence movement and was aesthetically acceptable to the homeowners. The repair consisted of epoxying vertical and horizontal steel straps and then applying a cover coat of fiber-cement on the unreinforced concrete block basement walls. The repair scheme was relatively untried, but had been successfully researched. This paper provides information on the mine subsidence movement/damage, the design concepts of steel strap/fiber-cement repair, construction details, performance and costs. Other applications of the use of the steel strap repair method are also discussed for releveling of a building and/or correcting subsidence damage to structures located in the tension zone

  11. Deforming Etna's Basement: Implications for Edifice stability. (United States)

    Bakker, Richard; Benson, Philip; Vinciguerra, Sergio


    At over 3 kilometers in height, Mt. Etna (Italy) is the largest volcano of continental Europe. The volcano formed on top of the alpine fold and thrust belt, with basaltic outflows lying unconformably on top of an alternation between sandstones, limestones and clays. Presently Etna's eastern flank is moving with speeds up to 2cm/yr to the east [Tibaldi and Groppelli, 2002]. It is the sequence of layers below the volcano that is thought to provide a complex, structurally controlled, mechanism to the volcano deformation as a whole. This is due to the interplay of gravitational forces, volcanic pressurization, and regional tectonics, which combine to play a complex role that remains poorly understood, especially when the physical and mechanical properties of the rocks are considered. In this study, we concentrate on the rock mechanical component, and in particular the formation known as Comiso Limestone. This limestone forms of one of the key lithologies of Etna's basement. The formation has been suggested to be affected by thermal weakening [Heap et al., 2013]. Previous work on Comiso Limestone suggests brittle behavior for the range of temperatures (up to 760 ˚C) and a significant reduction in strength with higher temperatures. [Mollo et al., 2011]. Chiodini et al [2011], speculate carbonate assimilation. This implies that the Carbondioxide created by decarbonatization, is able to escape. Using an internally heated "Paterson" type pressure vessel, we recreated conditions at 2-4 km depth (50-100 MPa) and using an anomalously high geotherm, as expected in volcanic settings (ranging from room to 600 ˚C). With the addition of confining pressure, we show a brittle to ductile transition occurs at a relatively low temperature of 300 ˚C. A significant decrease in strength occurs when the rock is exposed to temperatures exceeding 400 ˚C. In addition, we observe a significant difference in mechanical behavior between vented and unvented situations when decarbonatization is

  12. Basement configuration of KG offshore basin from magnetic anomalies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Subrahmanyam, V.; Swamy, K.V.; Raj, N.

    basement is faulted along the NW-SE direction with the upthrown side lying to the north of the anomaly trend of this region. The coincidence of magnetizations observed through the present interpretation with that of charnockites of neighbouring EGMB...

  13. Building America Top Innovations 2012: Basement Insulation Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes research on basement insulation, which identifies the wall installation methods and materials that perform best in terms of insulation and water resistance.

  14. Acoustic basement: Its relevance to Karwar port development

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Veerayya, M.; Almeida, F.

    Detailed bathymetric, side-scan sonar and shallow seismic surveys followed by sediment sampling were conducted in Karwar Bay, Karnataka, India to study the surficial geology with special emphasis on basement configuration for planning...

  15. Basement domain map of the conterminous United States and Alaska (United States)

    Lund, Karen; Box, Stephen E.; Holm-Denoma, Christopher S.; San Juan, Carma A.; Blakely, Richard J.; Saltus, Richard W.; Anderson, Eric D.; DeWitt, Ed


    The basement-domain map is a compilation of basement domains in the conterminous United States and Alaska designed to be used at 1:5,000,000-scale, particularly as a base layer for national-scale mineral resource assessments. Seventy-seven basement domains are represented as eighty-three polygons on the map. The domains are based on interpretations of basement composition, origin, and architecture and developed from a variety of sources. Analysis of previously published basement, lithotectonic, and terrane maps as well as models of planetary development were used to formulate the concept of basement and the methodology of defining domains that spanned the ages of Archean to present but formed through different processes. The preliminary compilations for the study areas utilized these maps, national-scale gravity and aeromagnetic data, published and limited new age and isotopic data, limited new field investigations, and conventional geologic maps. Citation of the relevant source data for compilations and the source and types of original interpretation, as derived from different types of data, are provided in supporting descriptive text and tables.

  16. Expression of VLA-integrins and their related basement membrane ligands in gingiva from patients of various periodontitis categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gürses, N.; Thorup, Alis Karabulut; Reibel, J.;


    integrins, basement membrane, gingiva, periodontitis, periodontal disease activity immunofluorescence......integrins, basement membrane, gingiva, periodontitis, periodontal disease activity immunofluorescence...

  17. The deep structure of the Scythian Plate basement (United States)

    Bush, V. A.


    Over the last decade, the Scythian Plate and the adjacent territory in the north have been covered by high-precision aeromagnetic (1 : 50000) and aerogravimetric (1 : 100000) surveys. An interpretation of the results allows us to reveal the Riphean-Early Paleozoic basement beneath the fold basement of the Scythian Plate. The ophiolitic complex, three volcanic-terrigenous sequences, basic intrusions and Early Paleozoic granitoids, as well as large folds have been identified within the basement. The large sheet of the Early Paleozoic basement thrust over the pre-Riphean basement of Baltica is traced along the entire Scythian Plate from the Azov Sea to the Caspian Sea. A presumably Early Kimmerian fold complex that underlies the Middle-Upper Jurassic platform cover has been recognized in the West Kuban Trough and Timashevsky Step. This complex is thrust in the northeastern direction over the Early Paleozoic fold complex. The above data make it possible to revise the geological history of the southern framework of the East European Platform and to prove the consecutive accretion of heterogeneous terranes differing in age from the south.

  18. Basement depressurization using dwelling mechanical exhaust ventilation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanical ventilation exhaust system is commonly used in France to generate air renewal into building and especially into dwelling. It consists of a permanent mechanical air extraction from technical rooms (kitchen, bathrooms and toilets) using a unique fan connected to exhaust ducts. Natural air inlets in living room and bed rooms ensure an air flow from living spaces towards technical rooms. To fight against radon into building, the most recognised efficient technique is the Soil Depressurization System (S.D.S.) consisting in depressurizing the house basement. The aim of this study is to test the ability of the dwelling mechanical ventilation system to depressurize the basement in conjunction with air renewal of a house. For that purpose, a S.D.S. has been installed in an experimental house at CSTB during its construction. At first, tests undertaken with a variable velocity fan connected to the S.D.S. have characterised the permeability of the basement. It is shown that basement can be depressurized adequately with a relatively low air flow rate. At a second stage, S.D.S. has been connected to the exhaust ventilation fan used for the mechanical ventilation of the house. Results obtained show the ability of such ventilation system to generate sufficient depressurization in the basement and to ensure simultaneously adequate air change rate in the dwelling. (author)

  19. Microbial community transitions across the deep sediment-basement interface (United States)

    Labonté, J.; Lever, M. A.; Orcutt, B.


    Previous studies of microbial abundance and geochemistry in deep marine sediments indicate a stimulation of microbial activity near the sediment-basement interface; yet, the extent to which microbial communities in bottom sediments and underlying crustal habitats interact is unclear. We conducted tag pyrosequencing on DNA extracted from a spectrum of deep sediment-basement samples to try to identify patterns in microbial community shifts across sediment-basement interfaces, focusing on samples from the subsurface of the Juan de Fuca Ridge flank (IODP Expedition 327). Our results demonstrate that sediment and the basaltic crust harbor microbial communities that are phylogenetically connected, but the eveness is characteristic of the environment. We will discuss the microbial community transitions that occur horizontally along fluid flow pathways and vertically across the sediment basement interface, as well as the possible implications regarding the controls of microbial community composition along deep sediment-basement interfaces in hydrothermal systems. We will also highlight efforts to overcome sample contamination in crustal subsurface samples.

  20. Basement membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans: localization in adult rat tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, K J; Couchman, J R


    and characterization of core protein-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAb) against a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) present in Reichert's membrane, a transient extra-embryonic structure of rodents. This CSPG was also demonstrated to be present in adult rat kidney. We report here the tissue distribution...... of epitopes recognized by these MAb. The ubiquitous presence of these epitopes in the basement membranes of nearly all adult rat tissues demonstrates that at least one CSPG is a constituent of most basement membranes, and by virtue of its unique distribution is distinct from other chondroitin and dermatan...

  1. Injection-induced seismicity on basement faults including poroelastic stressing (United States)

    Chang, K. W.; Segall, P.


    Most significant induced earthquakes occur on faults within the basement beneath sedimentary cover. In this two-dimensional plane strain numerical study, we examine the full poroelastic response of basement faults to fluid injection into overlying strata, considering both (1) the permeability of the fault zone and (2) the hydraulic connectivity of the faults to the target horizon. Given hydraulic and mechanical properties, we compute the spatiotemporal change in Coulomb stress, which we separate into (1) the change in poroelastic stresses Δτs+fΔσn, where Δτs and Δσn are changes in shear and normal stress (Δτs>0 and Δσn>0 both favor slip), and (2) the change in pore pressure fΔp. Pore pressure diffusion into hydraulically connected, permeable faults dominates their mechanical stability. For hydraulically isolated or low-permeability faults, however, poroelastic stresses transmitted to deeper basement levels can trigger slip, even without elevated pore pressure. The seismicity rate on basement fault zones is predicted using the model of Dieterich (1994). High seismicity rates can occur on permeable, hydraulically connected faults due to direct pore pressure diffusion. Lower rates are predicted on isolated steeply dipping normal faults, caused solely by poroelastic stressing. In contrast, seismicity on similarly oriented reverse faults is inhibited.

  2. Magnetic basement in the central Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, K.V.L.N.S.; Ramana, M.V.; Ramprasad, T.; Desa, M.; Subrahmanyam, V.; Krishna, K.S.; Rao, M.M.M.

    . The N10-12 degrees W trending subsurface 85 degrees E Ridge buried under 2 to 3 km thick sediments is a prominent tectonic feature. Offshore basins characterised by deeper magnetic basement (approx. 9 km) and 100-200 km wide are present on either sides...

  3. Abnormal glomerular basement membrane in idiopathic multicentric osteolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, SJL; Vos, GD; Verschure, PDMM; Mulder, AH; Tiebosch, TMG


    The primary cause of nephropathy in idiopathic multicentric osteolysis is as yet unknown. We report a young girl with idiopathic multicentric osteolysis and nephropathy. An abnormal glomerular basement membrane was the only abnormality found in a renal biopsy taken 2 years before the development of

  4. Ultrastructure of basement membranes in developing shark tooth. (United States)

    Sawada, T; Inoue, S


    Based on studies of the tooth of largely mammalian species, the dental basement membranes are shown to be specialized for various roles significant in the development and maintenance of the tooth. Comparative studies with the nonmammalian tooth will facilitate further clarification of the mechanisms of mammalian tooth formation. In this study, basement membranes of the shark tooth in successive developmental stages was ultrastructurally examined for elucidation of their roles in odontogenesis. Teeth of a shark, Cephaloscyllium umbratile, were processed for thin section electron microscopy. Throughout the developmental stages the lamina densa of the basement membrane was made up of a fine network of "cords," irregular anastomosing strands known to be the major component of mammalian basement membranes. In the presecretory stage of the shark tooth, dental papilla cells were immobilized for their differentiation into odontoblasts by means of the binding of their processes to numerous narrow extensions of the lamina densa of the inner dental epithelium. In the secretory stage, a number of cords of the widened lamina densa were extended towards and bound to tubular vesicles of the forming enameloid. During the mineralization stage, fragments of the degrading enameloid matrix appeared to be moving through the lamina densa to the epithelial cells for processing. In the maturation stage, half of the lamina densa facing the enameloid was mineralized forming an advancing edge of mineralization of the enameloid. It provided strong binding and smooth transition of organic to mineral phase which may allow transportation of substances across the phases for enameloid maturation in a way similar to that reported in the mammalian tooth. These observations indicate that basement membranes of the developing shark tooth, as those in the mammalian tooth, play various roles, including anchoring, firm binding, and possible mediation of the transport of substances that are known to be

  5. Basement configuration of Visakhapatnam - Paradip continental margin from inversion of magnetic anomalies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, M.M.M.; Rao, S.J.; Venkateswarlu, K.; Murthy, K.S.R.; Murthy, I.V.R.; Subrahmanyam, A.S.

    faulted basement, in the inner shelf; (2) a NE-SW ridge-trough configuration in the mid shelf; (3) NW-SE trending basement upward off Bhimunipatnam to Kalingapatnam and (4) N-S trending shallow basement trend off Chilka Lake....

  6. Basement configuration of KG offshore basin from magnetic anomalies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Subrahmanyam; K V Swamy; Neetha Raj


    Marine magnetic anomalies along three representative profiles falling between shelf break and continent–ocean boundary in the offshore Krishna–Godavari basin were quantitatively interpreted for understandingthe nature and structure of the magnetic basement using inversion technique. The interpretation of theanomalies shows that the magnetic basement lies deeper than the base of the sediments, i.e., acousticbasement identified by the seismic studies. This interpretation also shows that the magnetic basementis faulted along the NW–SE direction with the upthrown side lying to the north of the anomaly trendof this region. The coincidence of magnetizations observed through the present interpretation with thatof charnockites of neighbouring EGMB and onshore K–G basin areas indicates that EGMB geology(charnockites, granitic gneiss, etc.) extends up to COB in the offshore K–G basin.

  7. Regulation of the basement membrane by epithelia generated forces (United States)

    Tanner, Kandice


    Tumor metastasis involves a progressive loss of tissue architecture and dissolution of structural boundaries between the epithelium and connective tissue. The basement membrane (BM), a specialized network of extracellular matrix proteins forms a barrier that physically restricts pre-invasive lesions such that they remain as local insults. The BM is not a static structure, but one that is constantly regenerated and remodeled in the adult organism. Matrix organization also regulates cell function. Thus alterations in the balance of synthesis, remodeling and proteolytic degradation of the extracellular matrix proteins may contribute to a loss of structural integrity. However, the de novo assembly and maintenance of the complex structural properties of in vivo basement membranes remain elusive. Here, this paper highlights the current understanding on the structural properties and the establishment of the BM, and discusses the potential role of self-generated forces in adult tissue remodeling and the maintenance of the BM as a malignancy suppressor.

  8. Antiglomerular basement membrane antibody-crescentic glomerulonephritis complicating chronic bronchiectasis. (United States)

    Enríquez, R; Cabezuelo, J B; Sirvent, A E; Andrada, E; Amorós, F; Orti, C


    A 68-year-old woman with chronic bronchiectasis presented with haematuria and severe oligoanuric renal failure with no other serious systemic manifestation. Antiglomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) antibodies and anti-myeloperoxidase antibodies were positive. Renal biopsy revealed anti-GBM crescentic glomerulonephritis. A conservative approach was followed and the patient is stable on chronic haemodialysis 6 months later. To the authors' knowledge, there has only been one previous report of anti-GBM disease complicating bronchiectasis.

  9. Uranium distribution in the Variscan Basement of Northeastern Sardinia


    Kaçeli, Xhixha M.; Albèri, M.; Baldoncini, M.; Bezzon, G. P.; Buso, G. P.; Callegari, I.; Casini, L.; Cuccuru, S.; Fiorentini, G.; Guastaldi, E.; F. Mantovani; Mou, L.; G. Oggiano; Puccini, A.; Alvarez, C. Rossi


    We present a detailed map of the uranium distribution and its uncertainties in the Variscan Basement of Northeastern Sardinia (VBNS) at a scale 1:100,000. An area of 2100 km2 was investigated by means of 535 data points obtained from laboratory and in situ gamma-ray spectrometry measurements. These data volume corresponds to the highest sampling density of the European Variscides, aimed at studying the genetic processes of the upper crust potentially triggered by an enrichment of radiogenic h...

  10. Basement faults and volcanic rock distributions in the Ordos Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Volcanic rocks in the Ordos Basin are of mainly two types: one in the basin and the other along the margin of the basin. Besides those along the margin, the marginal volcanic rocks also include the volcanic rocks in the Yinshanian orogenic belt north of the basin. Based on the latest collection of gravitational and aeromagnetic data, here we interpret basement faults in the Ordos Basin and its peripheral region, compare the faults derived from aeromagnetic data with those from seismic data, and identify the geological ages of the fault development. Two aeromagnetic anomaly zones exist in the NE-trending faults of the southern basin, and they are in the volcanic basement formed in pre-Paleozoic. These NE-trending faults are the channel of volcanic material upwelling in the early age (Archean-Neoproterozoic), where igneous rocks and sedimentary rocks stack successively on both sides of the continental nucleus. In the Cambrian, the basin interior is relatively stable, but in the Late Paleozoic and Mesozoic, the basin margin underwent a number of volcanic activities, accompanied by the formation of nearly north-south and east-west basement faults in the basin periphery and resulting in accumulation of great amount of volcanic materials. Volcanic tuff from the basin periphery is discovered in the central basin and volcanic materials are exposed in the margins of the basin. According to the source-reservoir-cap rock configuration, the basin peripheral igneous traps formed in the Indosinian-Early Yanshanian and Late Hercynian are favorable exploration objectives, and the volcanic rocks in the central basin are the future target of exploration.

  11. Formation and Evolution of the Junggar basin basement (United States)

    He, D.


    Junggar Basin is located in the central part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). Its basement nature is a highly controversial scientific topic, involving the basic style and processes of crustal growth.Based on the borehole data from over 300 wells drilled into the Carboniferous System, together with the high-resolution gravity and magnetic data (in a 1:50,000 scale), we made a detailed analysis of the basement structure, formation timing and process and later evolution on basis of core geochemical and isotopic analysis. Firstly, we defined the Mahu Precambrian micro-continental block in the juvenile crust of Junggar Basin according to the Hf isotopic analysis of the Carboniferous volcanic rocks. Secondly, the results of the tectonic setting and basin analysis suggest that the Junggar area incorporates three approximately E-W trending island arc belts (from north to south: Yemaquan-Wulungu-Chingiz, Jiangjunmiao-Luliang-Darbut and Zhongguai-Mosuowan-Baijiahai-Qitai respectively) and intervened three approximately E-W trending retro-arc or inter-arc basin belts from north to south, such as Santanghu-Suosuoquan-Emin, Wucaiwan-Dongdaohaizi-Mahu (Mahu block sunk as a bathyal basin during this phase) and Fukang-western well Pen1 accordingly. Thirdly, the closure of these retro-arc or inter-arc basins gradually toward the south led to the occurrence of collision and amalgamation of the above-mentioned island arcs during the Carboniferous, constituting the basic framework of the Junggar "block". Fourthly, the emplacement of large-scale mantle-derived magmas occurred in the latest Carboniferous or Early Permian. For instance, the well Mahu 5 penetrate the latest Carboniferous basalts with a thickness of over 20m, and these mantle-derived magmas concreted the above-mentioned island arc-collaged body. Therefore, the Junggar basin basement mainly comprises pre-Carboniferous collaged basement, and its formation is characterized by two-stage growth model, involving the

  12. Basement membrane changes in capillaries of the ageing human retina (United States)

    Powner, Michael B; Scott, Andrew; Zhu, Meidong; Munro, Peter M G; Foss, Alexander J E; Hageman, Gregory S; Gillies, Mark C; Fruttiger, Marcus


    Objectives The ultrastructural appearance of retinal capillaries can yield important information about disease mechanisms, but is not well characterised in human post mortem samples. We therefore aimed to create a baseline for the appearance of capillaries and establish how this is influenced by post mortem fixation delays and donor age. Methods Electron microscopy was used to characterise retinal capillaries in 20 anonymous donors (with no known eye diseases) of various ages and with various post mortem fixation delays. In addition, samples from six patients with conditions that are known to affect the retinal vasculature (four cases of type 2 diabetes without diabetic retinopathy, one case of diabetic retinopathy and one case of macular telangiectasia type 2) were analysed. Results Vacuoles were found in capillary basement membranes at the vessel—glia interface in all samples, from both the normal and disease cases. Vacuole frequency increased with donor age but was not influenced by post mortem fixation delays. Conclusion Vacuoles in the basement membrane are a normal feature of adult human retinal capillaries and do not indicate disease. Their incidence increases with age and might be a contributing factor to late-onset pathologies of the retinal vasculature. PMID:21606466

  13. Immunohistochemical localization of basement membrane components during hair follicle morphogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westgate, G E; Shaw, D A; Harrap, G J;


    Specific antisera were used to investigate the distributions of several basement membrane zone (BMZ) components, namely, bullous pemphigoid antigen (BPA), heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG), laminin, and type IV collagen, during the development of hair follicles in late embryo rats. BPA was not ......Specific antisera were used to investigate the distributions of several basement membrane zone (BMZ) components, namely, bullous pemphigoid antigen (BPA), heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG), laminin, and type IV collagen, during the development of hair follicles in late embryo rats. BPA...... of the elongating follicle. HSPG was associated with the basal cell layer prior to the appearance of hair follicle primordia and became BMZ-associated before birth but after follicle buds were first observed. HSPG was also found to be associated with the basal cell surfaces in the epidermis, but not in the hair...... follicle. Laminin and type IV collagen were continually present in epidermal and follicular BMZ both before and during development of hair follicles and were later present in the dermal papilla matrix. From these observations we conclude that (1) laminin and type IV collagen are functionally important...

  14. Provenance of Neoproterozoic sedimentary basement of northern Iran, Kahar Formation (United States)

    Etemad-Saeed, Najmeh; Hosseini-Barzi, Mahboubeh; Adabi, Mohammad Hossein; Sadeghi, Abbas; Houshmandzadeh, Abdolrahim


    This article presents new data to understand the nature of the hidden crystalline basement of northern Iran and the tectonic setting of Iran during late Neoproterozoic time. The siliciclastic-dominated Kahar Formation represents the oldest known exposures of northern Iran and comprises late Ediacaran (ca. 560-550 Ma) compositionally immature sediments including mudrocks, sandstones, and conglomerates. This work focuses on provenance of three well preserved outcrops of this formation in Alborz Mountains: Kahar Mountain, Sarbandan, and Chalus Road, through petrographic and geochemical methods. Mineralogical Index of Alteration (MIA) and Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA-after correction for K-metasomatism) values combined with A-CN-K relations suggest moderate weathering in the source areas. The polymictic nature of Kahar conglomerates indicates a mixed provenance for them. However, modal analysis of Kahar sandstones (volcanic to plagioclase-rich lithic arkose) and whole rock geochemistry of mudrocks suggest that they are largely first-cycle sediments and that their sources were remarkably late Ediacaran, intermediate-felsic igneous rocks from proximal arc settings. Tectonic setting discrimination diagrams also indicate a convergent plate margin and continental arc related basin for Kahar sediments. This interpretation is supported by the phyllo-tectic to tectic composition and geochemistry of mudrocks. These results reveal the presence of a felsic/intermediate subduction-related basement (∼600-550 Ma) in this region, which provides new constraints on subduction scenario during this time interval in Iran, as a part of the Peri-Gondwanan terranes.

  15. Basement topography and fresh-water resources of the coastal aquifer at Acapetahua, Chiapas, Mexico


    Birgit Steinich; Gerardo Bocanegra; Eva Sánchez


    The coastal aquifer of Acapetahua, Chiapas, southeastern Mexico, consists of one hydrostratigraphic unit composed of continental sediments overlying a crystalline basement. Twenty-four resistivity soundings were conducted and fifty-one water samples were taken in order to determine basic aquifer characteristics such as aquifer geometry and fresh water reserves. The basement topography in the study area is characterized by hills and deep valleys with highly variable basement depths ranging fro...

  16. Investigation on evaluation method for characteristic seismic transmission. Standard earthquake basement from observation records of earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation of standard earthquake movement in seismic-resistant design for nuclear power plants is important and carried out at free surface of base stratum according to the guidelines. However, the seismic transmittance differs from site to site depending on the geological features, basement depth, and the state of uppers above the basement. The present method takes into account site characteristic propagation character between the basement surface and top surface and using standard and uniform earthquake motion throughout the country. Thus, the report presents investigation results of characteristic seismic motion at the basement from the records of observed earthquakes. (S. Ohno)

  17. Structural analysis of a fractured basement reservoir, central Yemen (United States)

    Veeningen, Resi; Rice, Hugh; Schneider, Dave; Grasemann, Bernhard; Decker, Kurt


    The Pan-African Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS), within which Yemen lies, formed as a result of Neoproterozoic collisional events between c. 870-550 Ma. Several subsequent phases of extension occurred, from the Mesozoic (due to the breakup of Gondwana) to the Recent (forming the Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea). These resulted in the formation of numerous horst- and-graben structures and the development of fractured basement reservoirs in the southeast part of the ANS. Two drill cores from the Mesozoic Marib-Shabwa Basin, central Yemen, penetrated the upper part of the Pan-African basement. The cores show both a lithological and structural inhomogeneity, with variations in extension-related deformation structures such as dilatational breccias, open fractures and closed veins. At least three deformation events have been recognized: D1) Ductile to brittle NW-SE directed faulting during cooling of a granitic pluton. U-Pb zircon ages revealed an upper age limit for granite emplacement at 627±3.5 Ma. As these structures show evidence for ductile deformation, this event must have occurred during the Ediacaran, shortly after intrusion, since Rb/Sr and (U-Th)/He analyses show that subsequent re-heating of the basement did not take place. D2) The development of shallow dipping, NNE-SSW striking extensional faults that formed during the Upper Jurassic, simultaneously with the formation of the Marib-Shabwa Basin. These fractures are regularly cross-cut by D3. D3) Steeply dipping NNE-SSW to ENE-WSW veins that are consistent with the orientation of the opening of the Gulf of Aden. These faults are the youngest structures recognized. The formation of ductile to brittle faults in the granite (D1) resulted in a hydrothermally altered zone ca. 30 cm wide replacing (mainly) plagioclase with predominantly chlorite, as well as kaolinite and heavy element minerals such as pyrite. The alteration- induced porosity has an average value of 20%, indicating that the altered zone is potentially a

  18. Effects of radiation on the permeability of human basement membranes (United States)

    Fan, B.-T.; Achour, S.; Simmonet, F.; Guerin, D.


    The influence of radiation on the permeability properties of human basement membrane was investigated by measuring the diffusion rate of several organic compounds (glycine, proline, glucose, urea and insulin) through human anterior lens capsules. The basement membranes borne an γ-irradiation treatment change significantly their permeability vis-a-vis studied organic substances. This modification in physico-chemical properties is probably due to the radiation, which alters or degrades the complex structure (or architecture) of basement membranes. Moreover the change in permeability is dependent upon the diffusing compounds. An increase in diffusion has been observed for glucose, glycine and urea. However for insulin and proline, a decrease in diffusion rate was observed. L'influence de radiation sur la perméabilité de la membrane basale a été étudiée par la mesure de la vitesse de diffusion de plusieurs composés organiques d'intérêt biologique (glycine, proline, glucose, urée et insuline) à travers la lame basale antérieure du cristallin de l'oil humain. Les membranes basales qui sont traitées avec l'irradiation γ changent significativement leur perméabilité vis-à-vis des substances organiques. Ce changement de propriétés physico-chimiques est probablement dû à l'altération ou la dégradation de la structure (ou de l'architecture) de la membrane basale entraînée par l'irradiation. De plus, la modification de la perméabilité de la membrane basale est dépendante des composés diffusants. Une augmentation de la vitesse de diffusion a été observée pour le glucose, le glycine et l'urée. Par contre, dans les cas de l'insuline et de la proline, on a observé une diminution de la vitesse de diffusion.

  19. Laminin isoforms in endothelial and perivascular basement membranes (United States)

    Yousif, Lema F.; Di Russo, Jacopo; Sorokin, Lydia


    Laminins, one of the major functional components of basement membranes, are found underlying endothelium, and encasing pericytes and smooth muscle cells in the vessel wall. Depending on the type of blood vessel (capillary, venule, postcapillary venule, vein or artery) and their maturation state, both the endothelial and mural cell phenotype vary, with associated changes in laminin isoform expression. Laminins containing the α4 and α5 chains are the major isoforms found in the vessel wall, with the added contribution of laminin α2 in larger vessels. We here summarize current data on the precise localization of these laminin isoforms and their receptors in the different layers of the vessel wall, and their potential contribution to vascular homeostasis. PMID:23263631

  20. The bi-functional organization of human basement membranes. (United States)

    Halfter, Willi; Monnier, Christophe; Müller, David; Oertle, Philipp; Uechi, Guy; Balasubramani, Manimalha; Safi, Farhad; Lim, Roderick; Loparic, Marko; Henrich, Paul Bernhard


    The current basement membrane (BM) model proposes a single-layered extracellular matrix (ECM) sheet that is predominantly composed of laminins, collagen IVs and proteoglycans. The present data show that BM proteins and their domains are asymmetrically organized providing human BMs with side-specific properties: A) isolated human BMs roll up in a side-specific pattern, with the epithelial side facing outward and the stromal side inward. The rolling is independent of the curvature of the tissue from which the BMs were isolated. B) The epithelial side of BMs is twice as stiff as the stromal side, and C) epithelial cells adhere to the epithelial side of BMs only. Side-selective cell adhesion was also confirmed for BMs from mice and from chick embryos. We propose that the bi-functional organization of BMs is an inherent property of BMs and helps build the basic tissue architecture of metazoans with alternating epithelial and connective tissue layers.

  1. The bi-functional organization of human basement membranes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willi Halfter

    Full Text Available The current basement membrane (BM model proposes a single-layered extracellular matrix (ECM sheet that is predominantly composed of laminins, collagen IVs and proteoglycans. The present data show that BM proteins and their domains are asymmetrically organized providing human BMs with side-specific properties: A isolated human BMs roll up in a side-specific pattern, with the epithelial side facing outward and the stromal side inward. The rolling is independent of the curvature of the tissue from which the BMs were isolated. B The epithelial side of BMs is twice as stiff as the stromal side, and C epithelial cells adhere to the epithelial side of BMs only. Side-selective cell adhesion was also confirmed for BMs from mice and from chick embryos. We propose that the bi-functional organization of BMs is an inherent property of BMs and helps build the basic tissue architecture of metazoans with alternating epithelial and connective tissue layers.

  2. Basement membrane abnormalities in human eyes with diabetic retinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljubimov, A V; Burgeson, R E; Butkowski, R J;


    Vascular and parenchymal basement membranes (BMs) are thickened in diabetes, but alterations in individual BM components in diabetic eyes, especially in diabetic retinopathy (DR), are obscure. To identify abnormalities in the distribution of specific constituents, we analyzed cryostat sections...... of human eyes obtained at autopsy (seven normal, five diabetic without DR, and 13 diabetic with DR) by immunofluorescence with antibodies to 30 BM and extracellular matrix components. In non-DR eyes, no qualitative changes of ocular BM components were seen. In some DR corneas, epithelial BM was stained...... discontinuously for laminin-1, entactin/nidogen, and alpha3-alpha4 Type IV collagen, in contrast to non-DR corneas. Major BM alterations were found in DR retinas compared to normals and non-DR diabetics. The inner limiting membrane (retinal BM) of DR eyes had accumulations of fibronectin (including cellular...

  3. Tectonic evolution of the Tombel graben basement, southwestern Cameroon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.S.Njome; C.E.Suh


    Planar structures (foliations and fractures) around the Tombel graben (southwestern end of the Central African Shear zone system) have been investigated and analyzed with the aim of unraveling the tectonic evolution of the basement. The foliations show two major trends, an older N-S-trending gneissose layering of uncertain agereworked by a later Pan-African (600 + 50 Ma) NE-SW ductile trend that is contemporaneous with sinistral shearing and mylonitization. The brittle phase characterized by NW-SE-trending open and partially filled fractures is younger than the mylonitization event and although it has not been dated, it is suggested that the origin of these fractures is linked to the onset of volcanism along the Cameroon volcanic line-31 m.y. ago.The mylonitic foliation is recognized for the first time and supports a tectonic evolution model for the Tombel graben in which ductile non-coaxial deformation was succeeded by brittle failure.

  4. Production of monoclonal antibodies to human glomerular basement membrane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Using the technique of somatic cell fusion, we produced monoclonal antibodies to collagenase-digested human glomerular basement membrane (GBM. Fourteen monoclonal antibodies which reacted with normal human kidney in indirect immunofluorescence (IIF studies were produced. An analysis of the binding patterns indicated that the antigens recognized could be divided into six broad groups. Monoclonal antibody B3-H10 (Group 1 reacted with only GBM in a fine granular pattern. A5-B12 and B5-C2 (Group 2 reacted with GBM and peritubular capillary in a linear pattern. B2-A12 (Group 3 reacted with only epithelial cells. Al-C9 and A4-E2 (Group 4 showed a mesangial pattern in glomerulus and a lineal pattern in tubular basement membrane (TBM, Bowman's capsule and peritubular capillary. A1-E1, A1-E11, A2-E6, A3-B6, A4-F8 and B5-H2 (Group 5 recognized determinants common to GBM, TBM, Bowman's capsule and/or peritubular capillary. A3-F1 and B5-E10 (Group 6 reacted with TBM and Bowman's capsule. The staining pattern of B3-H10 (Group 1 was characteristic because it was not linear, but finely granular along the GBM. The staining pattern of B2-A12 (Group 3 was also characteristic because only epithelial cells were stained, and processes of epithelial cells were observed as fine fibrils. To the best of our knowledge, these two types of monoclonal antibodies have not been reported previously.

  5. Basement structures and geophysical anomalies in eastern New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, G.R.; Suleiman, A.S.


    To understand basement structures in eastern New Mexico better, an integrated analysis of subsurface and geophysical data in the area was undertaken. A data base of 6600 gravity stations was used to generate complete Bouguer anomaly, polynomial, and residual maps. Aeromagnetic data for the New Mexico area were used to generate total intensity, residual, and low-pass filtered magnetic maps. The complete Bouguer gravity and total intensity magnetic maps show a large relief, which indicates substantial structures are present. A fifth-order polynomial surface map shows a regional gravity increase from the northwest to the southeast, and the residuals with respect to this surface provide a better definition of upper crustal structures, which are some-what obscured in the complete Bouguer gravity map. A low-pass filtered magnetic map, which was constructed from the third-order residual magnetic map, enhanced the major structures of interest in this study. These anomaly maps and the drilling results in the area were used to construct new maps of the depth to the Precambrian basement in the area. The authors obtained four major results concerning the features in this study area: (1) they believe the Southern Oklahoma aulacogen extends northwest as far as the Cimarron arch; (2) the north-south-trending, negative anomalies located along long. 105/sup 0/W in southern New Mexico possibly represent an extension of the Tucumcari basin or a new basin; (3) the exposed Precambrian rocks located west of the Raton and Las Vegas basins may be allochthonous because they overlie the negative anomalies associated with these basins; and (4) the central Basin platform is underlain by a large mafic mass, which has been recently penetrated by deep drilling in Pecos County, Texas.

  6. The Acinar Cage: Basement Membranes Determine Molecule Exchange and Mechanical Stability of Human Breast Cell Acini.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aljona Gaiko-Shcherbak

    Full Text Available The biophysical properties of the basement membrane that surrounds human breast glands are poorly understood, but are thought to be decisive for normal organ function and malignancy. Here, we characterize the breast gland basement membrane with a focus on molecule permeation and mechanical stability, both crucial for organ function. We used well-established and nature-mimicking MCF10A acini as 3D cell model for human breast glands, with ether low- or highly-developed basement membrane scaffolds. Semi-quantitative dextran tracer (3 to 40 kDa experiments allowed us to investigate the basement membrane scaffold as a molecule diffusion barrier in human breast acini in vitro. We demonstrated that molecule permeation correlated positively with macromolecule size and intriguingly also with basement membrane development state, revealing a pore size of at least 9 nm. Notably, an intact collagen IV mesh proved to be essential for this permeation function. Furthermore, we performed ultra-sensitive atomic force microscopy to quantify the response of native breast acini and of decellularized basement membrane shells against mechanical indentation. We found a clear correlation between increasing acinar force resistance and basement membrane formation stage. Most important native acini with highly-developed basement membranes as well as cell-free basement membrane shells could both withstand physiologically relevant loads (≤ 20 nN without loss of structural integrity. In contrast, low-developed basement membranes were significantly softer and more fragile. In conclusion, our study emphasizes the key role of the basement membrane as conductor of acinar molecule influx and mechanical stability of human breast glands, which are fundamental for normal organ function.

  7. Basement domain map of the conterminous U.S.A. and Alaska (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The basement-domain map is a compilation of basement domains in the conterminous United States and Alaska designed to be used at 1:5,000,000-scale, particularly as...

  8. Basement Surface Faulting and Topography for Savannah River Site and Vicinity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cumbest, R.J.


    This report integrates the data from more than 60 basement borings and over 100 miles of seismic reflection profiling acquired on the Savannah River Site to map the topography of the basement (unweathered rock) surface and faulting recorded on this surface.

  9. Enhanced assembly of basement membrane matrix by endodermal cells in response to fibronectin substrata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austria, M R; Couchman, J R


    Basement membranes are complex extracellular matrices contributing to the regulation of growth, migration and differentiation of many cell types. However, little is known about the mechanisms regulating the deposition and assembly of basement membrane from its constituents. We have investigated t...

  10. Basement Surface Faulting and Topography for Savannah River Site and Vicinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report integrates the data from more than 60 basement borings and over 100 miles of seismic reflection profiling acquired on the Savannah River Site to map the topography of the basement (unweathered rock) surface and faulting recorded on this surface

  11. A sonic well log of the basement complex of the Walvis Ridge (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Philip D.; Borella, Peter E.


    A sonic well log was obtained within the basement complex of the Walvis Ridge during Deep Sea Drilling Project Leg 74. The top of the basement complex is characterized by smooth acoustic reflectors. The rocks recovered within the basement complex consist of basalts with intercalated sediments. According to the log ˜-50% of the upper 75 m of basement are igneous rocks and the other 50% sedimentary. Sonobuoy results indicate that the ratio of sediments to basalt increases with depth for an additional 225 m until a typical oceanic velocity structure is observed. Paleontological results suggest that the processes forming this upper 300 m of the basement complex was accomplished within a short time interval.

  12. Fluid Mechanics of the Vascular Basement Membrane in the Brain (United States)

    Coloma, Mikhail; Hui, Jonathan; Chiarot, Paul; Huang, Peter; Carare, Roxana; McLeod, Kenneth; Schaffer, David


    Beta-amyloid is a normal product of brain metabolic function and is found within the interstitial fluid of the brain. Failure of the clearance of beta-amyloid from the aging brain leads to its accumulation within the walls of arteries and to Alzheimer's disease. The vascular basement membrane (VBM) within the walls of cerebral arteries surrounds the spirally arranged smooth muscle cells and represents an essential pathway for removal of beta-amyloid from the brain. This process fails with the stiffening of arterial walls associated with aging. In this study we hypothesize that the deformation of the VBM associated with arterial pulsations drives the interstitial fluid to drain in the direction opposite of the arterial blood flow. This hypothesis is theoretically investigated by modeling the VBM as a thin, coaxial, fluid-filled porous medium surrounding a periodically deforming cylindrical tube. Flow and boundary conditions required to achieve such a backward clearance are derived through a control volume analysis of mass, momentum, and energy.

  13. The vascular basement membrane as "soil" in brain metastasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Shawn Carbonell

    Full Text Available Brain-specific homing and direct interactions with the neural substance are prominent hypotheses for brain metastasis formation and a modern manifestation of Paget's "seed and soil" concept. However, there is little direct evidence for this "neurotropic" growth in vivo. In contrast, many experimental studies have anecdotally noted the propensity of metastatic cells to grow along the exterior of pre-existing vessels of the CNS, a process termed vascular cooption. These observations suggest the "soil" for malignant cells in the CNS may well be vascular, rather than neuronal. We used in vivo experimental models of brain metastasis and analysis of human clinical specimens to test this hypothesis. Indeed, over 95% of early micrometastases examined demonstrated vascular cooption with little evidence for isolated neurotropic growth. This vessel interaction was adhesive in nature implicating the vascular basement membrane (VBM as the active substrate for tumor cell growth in the brain. Accordingly, VBM promoted adhesion and invasion of malignant cells and was sufficient for tumor growth prior to any evidence of angiogenesis. Blockade or loss of the beta1 integrin subunit in tumor cells prevented adhesion to VBM and attenuated metastasis establishment and growth in vivo. Our data establishes a new understanding of CNS metastasis formation and identifies the neurovasculature as the critical partner for such growth. Further, we have elucidated the mechanism of vascular cooption for the first time. These findings may help inform the design of effective molecular therapies for patients with fatal CNS malignancies.

  14. Magnetically inferred basement structure in central Saudi Arabia (United States)

    Johnson, Peter R.; Stewart, Ian C. F.


    A compilation of magnetic data acquired during the past three decades for a region in central Saudi Arabia where Precambrian basement is partly exposed on the Arabian shield and partly concealed by overlying Phanerozoic strata, shows a central sector of conspicuous N-S-trending anomalies, a heterogeneous western sector of short-wavelength, high-intensity anomalies, and an eastern sector of low- to moderate-intensity broad-wavelength anomalies. Anomalies in the western and central sectors correlate with Neoproterozoic metavolcanic, metasedimentary, and intrusive rocks of the Arabian shield and are interpreted as delineating extensions of shield-type rocks down-dip beneath Phanerozoic cover. These rocks constitute terranes making up part of a Neoproterozoic orogenic belt that underlies Northeast Africa and western Arabia and it is proposed that their magnetically indicated easternmost extent marks the concealed eastern edge of the orogenic belt in central Arabia. The flat magnetic signature of the eastern sector, not entirely accounted for as an effect of deep burial, may reflect the presence of a crustal block different in character to the terranes of the orogenic belt and, speculatively, may outline a continental block that, according to some tectonic models of the region, collided with the Neoproterozoic terranes and thereby caused their deformation and tectonic accretion.

  15. Uranium distribution in the Variscan Basement of Northeastern Sardinia

    CERN Document Server

    Kaçeli, Xhixha M; Baldoncini, M; Bezzon, G P; Buso, G P; Callegari, I; Casini, L; Cuccuru, S; Fiorentini, G; Guastaldi, E; Mantovani, F; Mou, L; Oggiano, G; Puccini, A; Alvarez, C Rossi; Strati, V; Xhixha, G; Zanon, A


    We present a detailed map of the uranium distribution and its uncertainties in the Variscan Basement of Northeastern Sardinia (VBNS) at a scale 1:100,000. An area of 2100 km2 was investigated by means of 535 data points obtained from laboratory and in situ gamma-ray spectrometry measurements. These data volume corresponds to the highest sampling density of the European Variscides, aimed at studying the genetic processes of the upper crust potentially triggered by an enrichment of radiogenic heat-producing elements. For the first time the Kriging with Variance of Measurement Error method was used to assign weights to the input data which are based on the degree of confidence associated to the measurements obtained with different gamma-ray spectrometry techniques. A detailed tuning of the model parameters for the adopted Experimental Semi-Variogram led to identify a maximum distance of spatial variability coherent to the observed tendency of the experimental data. We demonstrate that the obtained uranium distri...

  16. Constraining heat production rates in Ireland's basement rocks: measurements of exposed basement and correlations from across the Caledonides (United States)

    Willmot Noller, Nicola; Daly, Stephen


    Ireland is situated on stable lithosphere and much of its surface geology features thick Upper Palaeozoic sedimentary sequences, and a few shallow Permo-Triassic basins, for which measured geothermal gradients are generally moderate. Nevertheless, crystalline rocks beneath these basins might produce enough heat for a viable deep-drilled, low enthalpy geothermal resource. Accurate knowledge of the lateral and vertical distribution of radiogenic heat production is, therefore, important in helping to define geothermal exploration targets. The crystalline basement of Ireland is interpreted as an assemblage formed from the convergence of Laurentia and Gondwanan terranes during the closure of the Iapetus Ocean and the Caledonian orogenic event. Despite the extensive sedimentary cover observed today, folding and faulting episodes during the Caledonian and the subsequent Variscan orogenies enabled exhumation of a wide range of Precambrian and Palaeozoic rocks, albeit exposed at relatively few sites across Ireland. A mean calculated heat production rate (HPR) derived from these outcrops is used as a proxy for the equivalent stratigraphic unit at depth. This has been achieved using established heat production constants, rock density and known concentrations of uranium, thorium and potassium, combined with a knowledge of geological mapping and geophysical data. To further constrain the vertical component of heat production distribution, Irish metapelitic xenoliths emplaced in Lower Carboniferous volcanics in the Iapetus Suture Zone (ISZ) in central Ireland are regarded as a reliable representation of the present-day lower crust there. The xenoliths have a mean HPR of 1.7 μW/m3; this is similar to a mean HPR of 1.9 μW/m3 measured in exposed Ordovician sedimentary rocks in the south east of Ireland. The slightly lower HPR in the xenoliths is a consequence of reduced uranium concentrations, probably owing to the radioelement's mobility. It is likely that these Ordovician rocks

  17. Basement interface structural characteristics beneath Jiashi strong earthquake swarm area in Xinjiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Zhao-fan; DUAN Yong-hong; TIAN Xiao-feng; PAN Ji-shun; ZHANG Jian-shi; HU Xiu-qi


    The seismic data obtained from high resolution seismic refraction profile in Jiashi strong earthquake swarm area in Xinjiang, China were further processed with ray hit analysis method and more complete basement interface structural characteristics beneath Jiashi strong earthquake swarm area were determined. The results show that there are two clear basement interfaces at the upper crust in Jiashi strong earthquake swarm area. The first one with buried depth ranging from 2.6 km to 3.3 km presents integral and continuous structure, and it appears an inclined plane interface and smoothly rises up toward Tianshan Mountain. The second basement interface with buried depth from 8.5 km to 11.8 km, is the antiquated crystalline basement of Tarim basin. Near the post number of 37 km, the buried depth of the crystalline basement changed abruptly by 2.5 km, which maybe result from an ultra crystalline basement fault. If taking this fault as a boundary, the crystalline basement could be divided into two parts, i.e. the southwestern segment with buried depth about 11.5 km, and the northeastern segment with buried depth approximately from 8.5 km to 9.0 km. That is to say, in each segment, the buried depth changes not too much. The northeast segment rises up as a whole and upheaves slightly from southwest to northeast, which reflects the upper crustal deformation characteristics under the special tectonic background at the northwestern edge of Tarim basin.

  18. Type IV Collagens and Basement Membrane Diseases: Cell Biology and Pathogenic Mechanisms. (United States)

    Mao, Mao; Alavi, Marcel V; Labelle-Dumais, Cassandre; Gould, Douglas B


    Basement membranes are highly specialized extracellular matrices. Once considered inert scaffolds, basement membranes are now viewed as dynamic and versatile environments that modulate cellular behaviors to regulate tissue development, function, and repair. Increasing evidence suggests that, in addition to providing structural support to neighboring cells, basement membranes serve as reservoirs of growth factors that direct and fine-tune cellular functions. Type IV collagens are a major component of all basement membranes. They evolved along with the earliest multicellular organisms and have been integrated into diverse fundamental biological processes as time and evolution shaped the animal kingdom. The roles of basement membranes in humans are as complex and diverse as their distributions and molecular composition. As a result, basement membrane defects result in multisystem disorders with ambiguous and overlapping boundaries that likely reflect the simultaneous interplay and integration of multiple cellular pathways and processes. Consequently, there will be no single treatment for basement membrane disorders, and therapies are likely to be as varied as the phenotypes. Understanding tissue-specific pathology and the underlying molecular mechanism is the present challenge; personalized medicine will rely upon understanding how a given mutation impacts diverse cellular functions.

  19. Expression of basement membrane components through morphological changes in the hair growth cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; Gibson, W T


    The amount and distribution of fibronectin associated with hair follicles was found to vary during the hair growth cycle in the rat. Immunocytochemical staining of follicles in mid-late anagen (the growth stage) revealed the presence of fibronectin in the dermal papilla matrix, in the basement...... membrane separating this from the epithelial cells of the hair bulb, and in the basement membrane and connective tissue sheath which underly the cells of the outer root sheath. Early in catagen, the transitional stage, staining of the dermal papilla matrix disappeared. Fibronectin persisted in the basement...

  20. Remodeling of basement membrane in patients with asthma. (United States)

    Grigoraş, Adriana; Grigoraş, Constantin Cristian; Giuşcă, Simona Eliza; Căruntu, Irina Draga; Amălinei, Cornelia


    The "bronchial remodeling" specific for the asthmatic disease consists in irreversible changes of the bronchial wall, including glandular and smooth muscle fibers hyperplasia and÷or hypertrophy, goblet cells hyperplasia, and thickening of basement membrane (BM). We aimed to analyze the BM thickness in asthma patients, in order to validate the relationship between its changes and the disease severity defined in agreement with the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) criteria. The study group has been formed of 38 patients with different degrees of severity of asthma established by spirometry using Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV1), and two patients without asthma symptoms as controls. The specimens harvested by fibrobronchoscopy have been processed by paraffin embedding followed by Hematoxylin-Eosin (HE) and Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS) staining. For each case, the BM measurement has been realized by a "point-by-point" method. Statistical analysis has been performed using SPSS 17 software, by applying non-parametric correlation tests. The quantitative assessment revealed a progressive increase in BM thickness during the course of the disease, from a mean value of 11.2 μm in stage 1 to that of 15.6 μm in stage 4. Even if this process has been noticed starting with the first stage of asthma, the differences in the BM size were statistically significant only for stages 1 and 3 (p=0.047), stages 1 and 4 (p=0.000), stages 2 and 3 (p=0.000), and stages 3 and 4 (p=0.000). Spearman's test has shown an opposite correlation between the BM thickness and asthma severity defined by FEV1 values (r=-0.86, pasthma and continues in a progressive modality, the BM thickening being correlated with the disease severity. Thus, we support the concept of biological consequences of BM thickening in asthma pathogenesis, a mechanism still incompletely deciphered. PMID:27151696

  1. Pericapillary basement membrane thickening in human skeletal muscles. (United States)

    Baum, Oliver; Bigler, Marius


    The basement membrane (BM) surrounding capillaries in skeletal muscles varies physiologically in thickness according to age, physical fitness, and anatomical site in humans. Furthermore, the pericapillary BM thickness (CBMT) increases pathophysiologically during several common disease states, including peripheral arterial disease and diabetes mellitus. This review on CBM thickening in human skeletal muscles is two pronged. First, it addresses the advantages/disadvantages of grid- and tablet-based measuring and morphometric techniques that are implemented to assess the CBMT on transmission electron micrographs. Second, it deals with the biology of CBM thickening in skeletal muscles, particularly its possible causes, molecular mechanisms, and functional impact. CBM thickening is triggered by several physical factors, including diabetes-associated glycation, hydrostatic pressure, and inflammation. Increased biosynthesis of type IV collagen expression or repetitive cycles in pericyte or endothelial cell degeneration/proliferation appear to be most critical for CBM accumulation. A thickened CBM obviously poses a greater barrier for diffusion, lowers the microvascular elasticity, and impedes transcytosis of inflammatory cells. Our own morphometric data reveal the CBM enlargement to be not accompanied by the pericyte coverage. Owing to an overlap or redundancy in the capillary supply, CBM thickening in skeletal muscles might not be such a devastating occurrence as in organs with endarterial circulation (e.g., kidney and retina). CBM growth in skeletal muscles can be reversed by training or administration of antidiabetic drugs. In conclusion, CBM thickening in skeletal muscles is a microvascular remodeling process by which metabolic, hemodynamic, and inflammatory forces are integrated together and which could play a hitherto underestimated role in etiology/progression of human diseases.

  2. Characteristics of the crystalline basement beneath the Ordos Basin:Constraint from aeromagnetic data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhentao Wang; Hongrui Zhou; Xunlian Wang; Xiuchun Jing


    Aeromagnetic anomaly zonation of the Ordos Basin and adjacent areas was obtained by processing high-precision and large-scale aeromagnetic anomalies with an approach of reduction to the pole upward continuation. Comparative study on aeromagnetic and seismic tomography suggests that aeromagnetic anomalies in this area are influenced by both the magnetic property of the rock and the burial depth of the Precambrian crystalline basement. Basement depth might be the fundamental control factor for aeromagnetic anomalies because the positive and negative anomalies on the reduction to the pole-upward-continuation anomaly maps roughly coincide with the uplifts and depressions of the crystal-line basement in the basin. The results, together with the latest understanding of basement faults, SHRIMP U-Pb zircon dating of metamorphic rock and granite, drilling data, detrital zircon ages, and gravity data interpretation, suggest that the Ordos block is not an entirety of Archean.

  3. Numerical investigation of thermal response of basement wall systems with low emissivity material and furred airspace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saber, Hamed H.; Maref, Wahid; Swinton, Michael C. [Institute for Research in Construction, National Research Council Canada (Canada)], email:


    In Canada, most basements are used as a living space rather than a utility area and they are presumed to be inside the envelope. Basements account for significant heat loss and it is therefore crucial to improve their thermal resistance. The aim of this paper is to present a new method for increasing a basement's insulation by using foil in a furred-assembly with airspace next to the foil. The steady-state and transient thermal performance of this system was modeled using hygIRC-C and compared to a wall without furred airspace assembly. Results showed that the thermal performance of the system depends on the soil, outdoor and indoor temperatures, and that it can provide 17.7% energy savings compared to a wall without furred airspace assembly. This study highlighted that using foil in a furred-assembly with airspace next to the foil in basements can help reduce energy consumption.

  4. The geology and geochemistry of the Lumwana Basement hosted copper-cobalt (uranium) deposits, NW Zambia


    Bernau, Robin


    The Lumwana Cu±Co deposits Malundwe and Chimiwungo are examples of pre-Katangan mineralized basement that are located in the Domes Region of the Lufilian Arc, an arcuate North neo-Proterozoic fold belt, which hosts the Zambian and Congolese deposits that make up the Central African Copperbelt. The Lumwana deposits are situated within the Mwombezhi Dome; a Mesoproterozoic basement inlier consisting of highly sheared amphibolite grade schist to gneiss units that host the Cu±Co mineralization. K...

  5. Contribution To The Geology Of Basement Rocks In The South Western Desert Of Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three major Precambrian basement inliers are exposed in the South Western Desert of Egypt between Long. 29 degree E and the River Nile within the Uweinat-Bir Safsaf-Aswan E-W uplift system. These are Bir Safsaf, Gabal EI-Asr and Gabal Umm Shaghir areas. Smaller outcrops include Gabal EI-Gara El-Hamra and Gabal El-Gara EI-Soda, Gabal Siri, GabaI EI-Fantas and Aswan-Kalabsha area as well as the scattered outcrops around Darb El-Arbain road. Band ratios 5/7, 5/1, 4 of Landsat TM images were applied to delineate the borders, the lithologic units and structural features of low relief basement outcrops within the surrounding flat lying sedimentary rocks and sand plains. These basement rocks comprise ortho gneisses (assumed by many authors as related to old continent pre Pan-African rocks), G 1 tonalite-granodiorite, and G2 monzogranite-alkali feldspar granite intruded by variable dykes. The boundaries between the basement exposures and the sedimentary rocks are marked by nonconformity surfaces or sets of faults. Both basement and sedimentary rocks are intruded by Mesozoic syenite-G3 granites, rhyolite, trachytic plugs and Upper Cretaceous to Tertiary basalts. The basement exposures are structurally controlled by major E- W fault systems. Their vertical uplifting is overprinted by folding the overlying sedimentary rocks. This study revealed that, the different basement exposures in the SE of the Western Desert of Egypt are similar in appearance and field relations to the Pan-African basement rocks extending towards the east of the River Nile and exposed everywhere in the Eastern Desert of Egypt

  6. Petrography Of The Basement Complex Of Maddhapara Mining (Production Level) Dinajpur District, Bangladesh


    Islam, Md. Saidul; Quamruzzaman, Chowdhury; Monir, Md. Minhaj Uddin; Jahan, Sakura; Begum, Momtaj


    This research work deals with the petrography of the Palaeoproterozoic Basement Complex (production level) Maddhapara Granite mining project area, Dinajpur district, Bangladesh. Tectonically the study area is a continuation of the Central Indian Tectonic Zone (CITZ), where the Basement Complex is overlain by the Tertiary thin to moderate sediment sequence. The present study has been performed on the basis of collected samples which are taken from the production level at the elevation of about...

  7. Gravity and magnetic field features and basement relief of the Sanjiang Basin in Heilongjiang Province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sanjiang Basin has received more attention in Mesozoic stratum and petroleum potential research because of its particularity in geographic and tectonic position. There remains debate on the basement structure of the basin since igneous rocks and faults make the structure and stratigraphy more complicated. In this paper we utilize gravity and magnetic data as well as petrophysical properties and drilling logs to understand the structure of the Sanjiang Basin. The study is focused on the comparison between the western and eastern parts of the basin. The comparison reveals that there are distinct differences in the gravity and magnetic field between the western and eastern parts. The integrated analysis of the gravity, magnetic, geological, petrophysical data and drilling logs indicates that the difference in the gravity and magnetic field results from the different basement structure and caprock formation of the two parts of the basin. The basement consists of three parts from west to east, the Proterozoic crystalline basement, the Neopaleozoic fold basement and the Lower Mesozoic fold basement separately. The Tongjiang–Yingchun Fault and the Qinglongshan–Xiaoheyan Fault controlled the formation and development of depressions and uplifts and also affected the sedimentation and volcanic activities of the basin. The Sanjiang Basin has relatively thin and stable crust thickness, varying around 33 km, and the deep structure has control and constraint over the shallow conformations. (paper)

  8. Basement Kind Effects on Air Temperature of a Solar Chimney in Baghdad - Iraq Weather

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miqdam Tariq Chaichan


    Full Text Available A solar updraft tower power plant (solar tower is a solar thermal power plant that utilizes a combination of solar air collector and central updraft tube to generate an induced convective flow which drives pressure staged turbines to generate electricity. This paper presents practical results of a prototype of a solar chimney with thermal mass, where the glass surface is replaced by transparence plastic cover. The study focused on chimney's basements kind effect on collected air temperatures. Three basements were used: concrete, black concrete and black pebbles basements. The study was conducted in Baghdad from August to November 2009. The results show that the best chimney efficiency attained was 49.7% for pebbles base. The highest collected air temperature reached was 49ºC when using the black pebbles basement also.also, the maximum basement temperature measured was 59ºC for black pebbles. High increaments in collected air temperatures were achieved in comparison with the ambient air temperatures for the three basement kinds. The highest temperature difference reached was 22ºC with the pebble ground.

  9. A Review on the Potential Role of Basement Membrane Laminin in the Pathogenesis of Psoriasis. (United States)

    McFadden, J P; Kimber, I


    We have previously reviewed alterations to basement membrane laminin in psoriasis and how disruption of this layer could lead to at least some of the pathological changes observed. We here postulate that basement membrane laminin is the key antigen in driving psoriasis, inducing a T cell-mediated autoimmune response. For laminin to be considered as the key autoantigen in psoriasis, it would be reasonable to expect the following to be demonstrable: (1) that autoantigens are present in psoriatic inflammation; (2) that basement membrane laminin is perturbed in involved and uninvolved skin, and that some of the pathological changes associated with psoriasis could be predicted as a sequel to this; (3) that disruption of the basement membrane is among the earliest events in the evolution of psoriatic lesions; (4) that as streptococcal pharyngitis is the most clearly defined event to trigger or exacerbate psoriasis, then a T cell-mediated autoimmune response to laminin should be anticipated as a potential sequelae to streptococcal pharyngitis; (5) that T cells in psoriasis can be shown to react to peptides with homology to laminin; (6) that HLACw6, as the most closely related gene associated with psoriasis and which is involved in antigen expression, should be preferentially expressed within lesional psoriasis towards the basement membrane, together with other proximal associated immune activity; and (7) that there is some association between antilaminin pemphigoid, a humorally mediated autoimmune disease to skin basement membrane laminin, and psoriasis. We here review the data relevant to each of these requirements.

  10. Vascular basement membranes as pathways for the passage of fluid into and out of the brain. (United States)

    Morris, Alan W J; Sharp, Matthew MacGregor; Albargothy, Nazira J; Fernandes, Rute; Hawkes, Cheryl A; Verma, Ajay; Weller, Roy O; Carare, Roxana O


    In the absence of conventional lymphatics, drainage of interstitial fluid and solutes from the brain parenchyma to cervical lymph nodes is along basement membranes in the walls of cerebral capillaries and tunica media of arteries. Perivascular pathways are also involved in the entry of CSF into the brain by the convective influx/glymphatic system. The objective of this study is to differentiate the cerebral vascular basement membrane pathways by which fluid passes out of the brain from the pathway by which CSF enters the brain. Experiment 1: 0.5 µl of soluble biotinylated or fluorescent Aβ, or 1 µl 15 nm gold nanoparticles was injected into the mouse hippocampus and their distributions determined at 5 min by transmission electron microscopy. Aβ was distributed within the extracellular spaces of the hippocampus and within basement membranes of capillaries and tunica media of arteries. Nanoparticles did not enter capillary basement membranes from the extracellular spaces. Experiment 2: 2 µl of 15 nm nanoparticles were injected into mouse CSF. Within 5min, groups of nanoparticles were present in the pial-glial basement membrane on the outer aspect of cortical arteries between the investing layer of pia mater and the glia limitans. The results of this study and previous research suggest that cerebral vascular basement membranes form the pathways by which fluid passes into and out of the brain but that different basement membrane layers are involved. The significance of these findings for neuroimmunology, Alzheimer's disease, drug delivery to the brain and the concept of the Virchow-Robin space are discussed. PMID:26975356

  11. Late-Paleozoic emplacement and Meso-Cenozoic reactivation of the southern Kazakhstan granitoid basement (United States)

    De Pelsmaeker, Elien; Glorie, Stijn; Buslov, Mikhail M.; Zhimulev, Fedor I.; Poujol, Marc; Korobkin, Valeriy V.; Vanhaecke, Frank; Vetrov, Evgeny V.; De Grave, Johan


    The Ili-Balkhash Basin in southeastern Kazakhstan is located at the junction of the actively deforming mountain ranges of western Junggar and the Tien Shan, and is therefore part of the southwestern Central Asian Orogenic Belt. The basement of the Ili-Balkhash area consists of an assemblage of mainly Precambrian microcontinental fragments, magmatic arcs and accretionary complexes. Eight magmatic basement samples (granitoids and tuffs) from the Ili-Balkhash area were dated with zircon U-Pb LA-ICP-MS and yield Carboniferous to late Permian (~ 350-260 Ma) crystallization ages. These ages are interpreted as reflecting the transition from subduction to (post-) collisional magmatism, related to the closure of the Junggar-Balkhash Ocean during the Carboniferous-early Permian and hence, to the final late Paleozoic accretion history of the ancestral Central Asian Orogenic Belt. Apatite fission track (AFT) dating of 14 basement samples (gneiss, granitoids and volcanic tuffs) mainly provides Cretaceous cooling ages. Thermal history modeling based on the AFT data reveals that several intracontinental tectonic reactivation episodes affected the studied basement during the late Mesozoic and Cenozoic. Late Mesozoic reactivation and associated basement exhumation is interpreted as distant effects of the Cimmerian collisions at the southern Eurasian margin and possibly of the Mongol-Okhotsk Orogeny in SE Siberia during the Jurassic-Cretaceous. Following tectonic stability during the Paleogene, inherited basement structures were reactivated during the Neogene (constrained by Miocene AFT ages of ~ 17-10 Ma). This late Cenozoic reactivation is interpreted as the far-field response of the India-Eurasia collision and reflects the onset of modern mountain building and denudation in southeast Kazakhstan, which seems to be at least partially controlled by the inherited basement architecture.

  12. Modeling differentiation of Karaj Dam basement igneous rocks (northern Iran) (United States)

    Esmaeily, D.; M-Mashhour, R.


    The Karaj Dam basement igneous body (KDB) is located in the north of city of Karaj, 30 km from city of Tehran, which lies between 35° 50' N to 36° 05' N and between 50° 50' E to 51° 15' E. It is one of the several plutonic bodies within the E-W trending Alborz zone in northern Iran. Following the late Cretaceous orogenic movements, vast volumes of dacite, andesites and basaltic lavas with tuffaceous and other clastic sediments were deposited during Eocene time, forming Karaj Formation in central Iran and Albourz. The KDB is penetrated thorough middle and upper tuff units from Karaj Formation which is underlain by late Jurassic depositions (Shemshak Formation) and overlain by the Neogene red Conglomerates in regard to stratographic consideration. It is mainly composed of a layered series dominated by gabbro, diorite and monzonite, which is a rock sequence formed upward from the lower to upper chilled margins, respectively. The chilled margins, which have gabbroic in composition, show porphyritic texture with euhedral to subhedral plagioclase (andesine & labradorite) and pyroxene (augite) megacrysts up to 5 mm long. These rocks become coarse-grained inward and transform to equigranular texture gradually.In addition, a small fine-grained doleritic stock as well as some doleritic dykes is intrusive into the pyroclastic volcanic rocks of Karaj Formation. It is possible to observe doleritic enclaves included in the KDB, indicating that the KDB are slightly younger than the dolerites. Whole rock geochemistry and mineral chemistry of the plagioclase and pyroxene in various rock samples, suggest differentiation processes. The Mg# of the pyroxene and An% of plagioclase of the contact chilled samples can be used as an indication of the original magma and plotted between the gabbro and monzonitic samples. In addition, increasing of the Mg# within the whole rock samples from the upper of contact chilled, in comparison to the lower one, demonstrates elemental differentiation

  13. Fracture and vein characterization of a crystalline basement reservoir, central Yemen (United States)

    Veeningen, R.; Grasemann, B.; Decker, K.; Bischoff, R.; Rice, A. H. N.


    The country of Yemen is located in the south-western part of the Arabian plate. The Pan-African basement found in western and central Yemen is highly deformed during the Proterozoic eon and is part of the Arabian-Nubian shield ANS (670-540Ma). This ANS is a result of the amalgamation of high-grade gneiss terranes and low-grade island arcs. The development of an extensive horst-and-graben system related to the breakup of Gondwana in the Mesozoic, has reactivated the Pan-African basement along NW-SE trending normal faults. As a result, younger Meosozoic marls, sandstones, clastics and limestones are unconformably overlying the basement. Some of these formations act as a source and/or reservoir for hydrocarbons. Due to fracturing of the basement, hydrocarbons have migrated horizontally into the basement, causing the crystalline basement to be a potential hydrocarbon reservoir. Unfortunately, little is known about the Pan-African basement in Central Yemen and due its potential as a reservoir, the deformation and oil migration history (with a main focus on the fracturing and veining history) of the basement is investigated in high detail. Representative samples are taken from 2 different wells from the Habban Field reservoir, located approximately 320 ESE of Sana'a. These samples are analysed using e.g. the Optical Microscope, SEM, EDX and CL, but also by doing Rb-Sr age dating, isotope analysis and fluid inclusion analysis. In well 1, the only lithology present is an altered gneiss with relative large (<5 cm diameter) multi-mineralic veins. In well 3, quartzite (top), gneiss (middle) and quartz porphyry's (middle) are intruded by a so called "younger" granitoid body (592.6±4.1Ma). All lithologies record polyphase systems of mineral veins. Pyrite and saddle dolomite in these veins have euhedral shapes, which means that they have grown in open cavities. Calcite is the youngest mineral in these veins, closing the vein and aborting the fluid flow. Fluid inclusions inside

  14. Cuddapah uranium province, Andhra Pradesh role of basement granites, tectonism and geochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cuddapah Uranium Province encompasses two economically viable genetic types of uranium deposits as the carbonate-hosted stratabound uranium deposits around Tummalapalle-Rachakuntapalle area, and the unconformity-proximal type in basement granitoids and overlying Srisailam/Banganapalle quartzite in the Lambapur-Peddagattu-Chitrial-Koppunuru area . Besides, the basin characteristically hosts important occurrences, of fracture controlled uranium mineralisation in Gulcheru quartzite near Gandi and in basement granitoid around Lakkireddipalle-Rayachoti; shear-controlled along the thrusted eastern margin of Cuddapah basin in basic metavolcanics and schists at Gudarukoppu and Kasturigattu. In the northern part of the basin, uranium deposits of Lambapur, Peddagattu, Chitrial, and Koppunuru area characteristically show association of ore bodies along structures formed by intersection of prominent basement fractures with the unconformity separating Srisailam and Palnad sediments from the basement. In the southwestern part of the basin, potential carbonate-hosted, stratabound uranium mineralisation extends over a 160 km long belt from Chelumpalli to Maddimadugu with large-tonnage, low-grade, uranium deposits in Tummallapalle-Rachakuntapalle area. The unconformity-proximal and fracture controlled deposits/prospects characteristically share a common source for uranium, repeated tectonism, weathering of the basement granitoids and episodic, epigenetic hydrothermal processes of uranium mineralisation. This paper evaluates the role of granitoids spatially and temporally associated with uranium mineralisation in making the Cuddapah Basin a unique uranium province. (author)

  15. Characteristic aerial and ground radioactives of basement and sedimentary rocks in (Egypt): relations and natural cycles across geologic time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Each geologic unit, exposure, formation or rock group of the exposed precambrian I (igneous and metamorphic) basement complex (Upper proterozoic) and phanerozoic cover sediments in an area covering about 4500 km2 located in the central eastern desert of egypt, has been found to possess certain radioactivity characteristics and levels. Minimum values of radiation are generally associated with the first basement volcanics, maximum values are correlated are correlated with the third basement plutonites and phosphate formation (upper cretaceous), while intermedialte values are connected with the first basement sediments and upper eocene-quaternary fifth detrital-calcareous-evaporite sediments. Therefore, the radioactivities of various rock groups of the precambrian I basement complex - except the first basement sediments sediments- correlate progressively well with their chronology. Generally, the increase of radioactivity within this complex is connected with the transition into final stages of the magmatic evolution

  16. Molecular sieve of the rat glomerular basement membrane: a transmission electron microscopic study of enzyme-treated specimens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Isolated rat glomerular basement membrane was treated with elastase and observed by transmission electron microscopy. The treatment with elastase revealed the fundamental structure of the glomerular basement membrane quite clearly, and enabled the observation of a sieve structure within the glomerular basement membrane. This sieve structure may play a major role in the filtration of blood as well as in the production of urine. Treatment with antibody showed that the sieve was mainly constituted of type IV collagen.

  17. Fracture Analysis of basement rock: A case example of the Eastern Part of the Peninsular Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In general, reservoir rocks can be defined into carbonates, tight elastics and basement rocks. Basement rocks came to be highlighted as their characteristics are quite complicated and remained as a significant challenge in exploration and production area. Motivation of this research is to solve the problem in some area in the Malay Basin which consist fractured basement reservoirs. Thus, in order to increase understanding about their characteristic, a study was conducted in the Eastern part of the Peninsular Malaysia. The study includes the main rock types that resemble the offshore rocks and analysis on the factors that give some effect on fracture characteristic that influence fracture systems and fracture networks. This study will allow better fracture prediction which will be beneficial for future hydrocarbon prediction in this region

  18. Immunological characterization of a basement membrane-specific chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, K J; Accavitti, M A; Couchman, J R


    Reichert's membrane, an extraembryonic membrane present in developing rodents, has been proposed as an in vivo model for the study of basement membranes. We have used this membrane as a source for isolation of basement membrane proteoglycans. Reichert's membranes were extracted in a guanidine/3...... (Mr = 5-6 x 10(5)), with a core protein of Mr = approximately 1.5-1.6 x 10(5) and composed exclusively of chondroitin sulfate chains with an average Mr = 1.6-1.8 x 10(4). In addition, a CSPG was purified from adult rat kidney, whose core protein was also Mr = 1.6 x 10(5). The proteoglycan and its core...... protein were also recognized by all four mAbs. Indirect immunofluorescence of rat tissue sections stained with these antibodies reveal a widespread distribution of this proteoglycan, localized specifically to Reichert's membrane and nearly all basement membranes of rat tissues. In addition to heparan...

  19. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating from granitoids in southern basement of Songliao basin: Constraints on ages of the basin basement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO FuHong; XU WenLiang; YANG DeBin; PEI FuPing; LIU XiaoMing; HU ZhaoChu


    Seven LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb datings from granitoids in the southern basement of the Songliao basin were done in order to constrain the ages of the basin basement. The cathodoluminescence (CL) images of the zircons from seven granitoids indicate that they are euhedral-subhedral ones with striped absorption and obvious oscillatory zoning rims. The dating results show that a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age is 236±3 Ma for quartz diorite (sample No.T6-1) located in the western slope of the basin, that weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages are 319±1 Ma (2126 m) and 361±2 Ma (1994 m) for diorite (sample No.YC1-1) and granite (sample No.YC1-2) located in northern part of southeastern uplift of the basin, respectively, and that weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages are 161±5 Ma, 165±2 Ma, 165±1 Ma and 161±4 Ma for samples Q2-1, SN121, SN122, and SN72 granitoids located in southern part of southeastern uplift of the basin, respectively. The statistical results of ages suggest that the middle Jurassic granitoids constitute the main part of basement granitoids, and that the Hercynian and Indo-Sino magmatisms also occur in the basin basement. It is implied that the Songliao basin should be a rift one formed in the intracontinent or active continental margin settings in the late Mesozoic after the Middle Jurassic orogeny took place.

  20. Development and heterogeneity of antigens in the immature nephron. Reactivity with human antiglomerular basement membrane autoantibodies.


    Jeraj, K.; Fish, A. J.; Yoshioka, K; Michael, A. F.


    Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy was performed with 15 human anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibodies and mouse monoclonal antibodies to Type IV collagen (MBM4) and renal basement membranes (MBM15) on renal tissue from 6 fetuses (gestational age, 15-23 weeks), 8 infants (age, 1-21 days), and 8 children and adults (ages, 3-27 years). Of the 15 human anti-GBM antibodies that react with GBM in adult glomeruli, only 4 identified antigens in the GBM of fetal and infant glomeruli. I...

  1. Precambrian crystalline basement map of Idaho-an interpretation of aeromagnetic anomalies (United States)

    Sims, P.K.; Lund, Karen; Anderson, E.


    Idaho lies within the northern sector of the U.S. Cordillera astride the boundary between the Proterozoic continent (Laurentia) to the east and the Permian to Jurassic accreted terranes to the west. The continental basement is mostly covered by relatively undeformed Mesoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks and intruded or covered by Phanerozoic igneous rocks; accordingly, knowledge of the basement geology is poorly constrained. Incremental knowledge gained since the pioneering studies by W. Lindgren, C.P. Ross, A.L. Anderson, A. Hietanen, and others during the early- and mid-1900's has greatly advanced our understanding of the general geology of Idaho. However, knowledge of the basement geology remains relatively poor, partly because of the remoteness of much of the region plus the lack of a stimulus to decipher the complex assemblage of high-grade gneisses and migmatite of central Idaho. The availability of an updated aeromagnetic anomaly map of Idaho (North American Magnetic Anomaly Group, 2002) provides a means to determine the regional Precambrian geologic framework of the State. The combined geologic and aeromagnetic data permit identification of previously unrecognized crystalline basement terranes, assigned to Archean and Paleoproterozoic ages, and the delineation of major shear zones, which are expressed in the aeromagnetic data as linear negative anomalies (Finn and Sims, 2004). Limited geochronologic data on exposed crystalline basement aided by isotopic studies of zircon inheritance, particularly Bickford and others (1981) and Mueller and others (1995), provide much of the geologic background for our interpretation of the basement geology. In northwestern United States, inhomogeneities in the basement inherited from Precambrian tectogenesis controlled many large-scale tectonic features that developed during the Phanerozoic. Two basement structures, in particular, provided zones of weakness that were repeatedly rejuvenated: (1) northeast-trending ductile

  2. Zircon U-Pb ages of the basement rocks beneath the Songliao Basin, NE China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The basement of the Songliao Basin is mainly composed of slightly-metamorphosed or unmetamorphosed Paleozoic strata, granites and gneiss. Petrographical studies indicate that the gneiss was originally the granitic intrusions which were deformed in the later stage. One undeformed granitic rock sample gives a U-Pb age of (305±2) Ma, and the mylonitic granite yields a U-Pb age of (165±3) Ma. Both of the two samples contain no inherited zircon, which suggests that there is no large-scale Precambrian crystalline basement beneath the Songliao Basin.

  3. Rat hair follicle dermal papillae have an extracellular matrix containing basement membrane components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R


    Dermal papillae are small mesenchymally derived zones at the bases of hair follicles which have an important role in hair morphogenesis in the embryo and control of the hair growth cycle in postnatal mammals. The cells of the papilla are enmeshed in a dense extracellular matrix which undergoes...... extensive changes in concert with the hair cycle. Here it is shown that this matrix in anagen pelage follicles of postnatal rats contains an abundance of basement membrane components rather than dermal components such as interstitial collagens. In particular, type IV collagen, laminin, and basement membrane...

  4. Integrating Reflection Seismic, Gravity and Magnetic Data to Reveal the Structure of Crystalline Basement: Implications for Understanding Rift Development (United States)

    Lenhart, Antje; Jackson, Christopher A.-L.; Bell, Rebecca E.; Duffy, Oliver B.; Fossen, Haakon; Gawthorpe, Robert L.


    Numerous rifts form above crystalline basement containing pervasive faults and shear zones. However, the compositional and mechanical heterogeneity within crystalline basement and the geometry and kinematics of discrete and pervasive basement fabrics are poorly understood. Furthermore, the interpretation of intra-crustal structures beneath sedimentary basins is often complicated by limitations in the depth of conventional seismic imaging, the commonly acoustically transparent nature of basement, limited well penetrations, and complex overprinting of multiple tectonic events. Yet, a detailed knowledge of the structural and lithological complexity of crystalline basement rocks is crucial to improve our understanding of how rifts evolve. Potential field methods are a powerful but perhaps underutilised regional tool that can decrease interpretational uncertainty based solely on seismic reflection data. We use petrophysical data, high-resolution 3D reflection seismic volumes, gridded gravity and magnetic data, and 2D gravity and magnetic modelling to constrain the structure of crystalline basement offshore western Norway. Intra-basement structures are well-imaged on seismic data due to relatively shallow burial of the basement beneath a thin (bodies and structural lineaments at different scales and depth levels which correlate with our seismic data interpretation and can be linked to their onshore counterparts exposed on mainland Norway. 2D forward models of gravity and magnetic data further support our interpretation and quantitatively constrain variations in magnetic and density properties of principal basement units. We conclude that: i) enhanced gravity and magnetic data are a powerful tool to constrain the geometry of individual intra-basement bodies and to detect structural lineaments not imaged in seismic data; ii) insights from this study can be used to evaluate the role of pre-existing basement structures on the evolution of rift basins; and iii) the

  5. Deposition of nucleosomal antigens (histones and DNA) in the epidermal basement membrane in human lupus nephritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootscholten, C.; Bruggen, M.C.J. van; Pijl, J.W. van der; Jong, E.M.G.J. de; Ligtenberg, G.; Derksen, R.H.W.M.; Berden, J.H.M.


    OBJECTIVE: Antinuclear autoantibodies complexed to nucleosomes can bind to heparan sulfate (HS) in the glomerular basement membrane. This binding is due to the binding of the positively charged histones to the strongly anionic HS. Nucleosomes and histones have been identified in glomerular deposits

  6. Impact of climate changes during the last 5 million years on groundwater in basement aquifers (United States)

    Aquilina, Luc; Vergnaud-Ayraud, Virginie; Les Landes, Antoine Armandine; Pauwels, Hélène; Davy, Philippe; Pételet-Giraud, Emmanuelle; Labasque, Thierry; Roques, Clément; Chatton, Eliot; Bour, Olivier; Ben Maamar, Sarah; Dufresne, Alexis; Khaska, Mahmoud; La Salle, Corinne Le Gal; Barbecot, Florent


    Climate change is thought to have major effects on groundwater resources. There is however a limited knowledge of the impacts of past climate changes such as warm or glacial periods on groundwater although marine or glacial fluids may have circulated in basements during these periods. Geochemical investigations of groundwater at shallow depth (80–400 m) in the Armorican basement (western France) revealed three major phases of evolution: (1) Mio-Pliocene transgressions led to marine water introduction in the whole rock porosity through density and then diffusion processes, (2) intensive and rapid recharge after the glacial maximum down to several hundred meters depths, (3) a present-day regime of groundwater circulation limited to shallow depth. This work identifies important constraints regarding the mechanisms responsible for both marine and glacial fluid migrations and their preservation within a basement. It defines the first clear time scales of these processes and thus provides a unique case for understanding the effects of climate changes on hydrogeology in basements. It reveals that glacial water is supplied in significant amounts to deep aquifers even in permafrosted zones. It also emphasizes the vulnerability of modern groundwater hydrosystems to climate change as groundwater active aquifers is restricted to shallow depths. PMID:26392383

  7. Possible options for reducing occupational dose from the TMI-2 basement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major sources of exposure in the basement include the enclosed stairwell/elevator shaft structure, water and sludge in the elevator shaft, cast concrete walls, concrete floor slab, water and sludge on the floor, and activity in the paint and loose surface contamination. The sources were identified using data obtained by the utility from water processing, water and solid samples, remote video inspections and radiation monitoring with a robot, and strings of thermoluminescent dosimeters lowered from upper elevations. The area dose rates in the basement range from approximately 4 R/hr (in the NE quadrant) to over 1100 R/hr (near the enclosed stairwell/elevator shaft structure). It is estimated that the basement contains between 11,000 and 21,000 curies of 137Cs. Specific decontamination and cleanup techniques are discussed. These techniques include flushing with water, high-pressure water blasting, leaching, scabbling and chemical cleaning. The applicability of these techniques to the major sources of radiation are discussed, and possible approaches and work sequences for basement cleanup are given

  8. Regional trends in radiogenic heat generation in the Precambrian basement of the Western Canadian Basin (United States)

    Jones, F. W.; Majorowicz, J. A.

    Radiogenic heat generation values for 381 basement samples from 229 sites in the western Canadian basin exhibit a lognormal frequency distribution. The mean value = 2.06 (S.D. = 1.22) µWm-3 is larger than the radiogenic heat generation values reported for the shield in the Superior (ca. 1.2 µWm-3, Jessop and Lewis, 1978) and Churchill (ca. 0.7 µWm-3, Drury, 1985) provinces. When equal Log A contour intervals are used to map the basement heat generation, three large zones of relatively high heat generation are found. One coincides with the Peace River Arch basement structure and one with the Athabasca axis (Darnley, 1981). There is no apparent indication of increased heat flow through the Paleozoic formations associated with these two zones. The third zone, in southwestern Saskatchewan, coincides with a high heat flow zone in the Swift Current area. The lack of correlation between heat flow and heat generation in Alberta may be due to the disturbance to the heat flow in the Paleozoic formations by water motion, or may indicate that the heat is from uranium, thorium and potassium isotope enrichment near the basement surface rather than enrichment throughout the entire upper crust.

  9. Experimental orchitis induced in rats by passive transfer of an antiserum to seminiferous tubule basement membrane. (United States)

    Lustig, L; Denduchis, B; González, N N; Puig, R P


    A multifocal damage of the testis was obtained when rats were injected intravenously or under the tunica albuginea of the testis with a rabbit antiseminiferous tubule basement membrane serum. The damage was characterized by foci of perivascular and peritubular infiltrates of mononuclear round cells, infolding, thickening, and rupture of the seminiferous tubular wall and different degrees of injury of the germinal epithelium such as, cell disorganization, cell sloughing, and atrophy. Delamination and thickening of seminiferous tubule basement membrane and vacuolization of the Sertoli cell cytoplasm was often observed by electron microscopy. A linear deposit of rabbit gamma-globulin was detected by immunohistochemical techniques along the basement membranes of the seminiferous tubules and vessels. Testicular damage was not detected in rats injected with normal rabbit serum, used as control. In the kidneys of rats injected intravenously with the immune serum, a deposit of rabbit gamma-globulin was detected along glomerular basement membrane. Focal areas of mononuclear cell infiltrates, hypercellularity of glomeruli and thickening of glomerular capillary walls and Bowman's capsule were also observed. PMID:367304

  10. Possible options for reducing occupational dose from the TMI-2 basement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, L. F. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Harty, R. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)


    The major sources of exposure in the basement include the enclosed stairwell/elevator shaft structure, water and sludge in the elevator shaft, cast concrete walls, concrete floor slab, water and sludge on the floor, and activity in the paint and loose surface contamination. The sources were identified using data obtained by the utility from water processing, water and solid samples, remote video inspections and radiation monitoring with a robot, and strings of thermoluminescent dosimeters lowered from upper elevations. The area dose rates in the basement range from approximately 4 R/hr (in the NE quadrant) to over 1100 R/hr (near the enclosed stairwell/elevator shaft structure). It is estimated that the basement contains between 11,000 and 21,000 curies of /sup 137/Cs. Specific decontamination and cleanup techniques are discussed. These techniques include flushing with water, high-pressure water blasting, leaching, scabbling and chemical cleaning. The applicability of these techniques to the major sources of radiation are discussed, and possible approaches and work sequences for basement cleanup are given.

  11. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans made by different basement-membrane-producing tumors have immunological and structural similarities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, U M; Albrechtsen, R; Hassell, J R


    Using immunological assays, we determined the relationship between the heparan sulfate proteoglycans produced by two different murine basement-membrane-producing tumors, i.e., the mouse Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm (EHS) tumor and the L2 rat yolk-sac tumor. Antibodies prepared against the heparan sulfat...

  12. Delineation of Piceance Basin basement structures using multiple source data: Implications for fractured reservoir exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoak, T.E.; Klawitter, A.L.


    Fractured production trends in Piceance Basin Cretaceous-age Mesaverde Group gas reservoirs are controlled by subsurface structures. Because many of the subsurface structures are controlled by basement fault trends, a new interpretation of basement structure was performed using an integrated interpretation of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM), side-looking airborne radar (SLAR), high altitude, false color aerial photography, gas and water production data, high-resolution aeromagnetic data, subsurface geologic information, and surficial fracture maps. This new interpretation demonstrates the importance of basement structures on the nucleation and development of overlying structures and associated natural fractures in the hydrocarbon-bearing section. Grand Valley, Parachute, Rulison, Plateau, Shire Gulch, White River Dome, Divide Creek and Wolf Creek fields all produce gas from fractured tight gas sand and coal reservoirs within the Mesaverde Group. Tectonic fracturing involving basement structures is responsible for development of permeability allowing economic production from the reservoirs. In this context, the significance of detecting natural fractures using the intergrated fracture detection technique is critical to developing tight gas resources. Integration of data from widely-available, relatively inexpensive sources such as high-resolution aeromagnetics, remote sensing imagery analysis and regional geologic syntheses provide diagnostic data sets to incorporate into an overall methodology for targeting fractured reservoirs. The ultimate application of this methodology is the development and calibration of a potent exploration tool to predict subsurface fractured reservoirs, and target areas for exploration drilling, and infill and step-out development programs.

  13. Anti-DNA autoantibodies initiate experimental lupus nephritis by binding directly to the glomerular basement membrane in mice. (United States)

    Krishnan, Meera R; Wang, Congmiao; Marion, Tony N


    The strongest serological correlate for lupus nephritis is antibody to double-stranded DNA, although the mechanism by which anti-DNA antibodies initiate lupus nephritis is unresolved. Most recent reports indicate that anti-DNA must bind chromatin in the glomerular basement membrane or mesangial matrix to form glomerular deposits. Here we determined whether direct binding of anti-DNA antibody to glomerular basement membrane is critical to initiate glomerular binding of anti-DNA in experimental lupus nephritis. Mice were co-injected with IgG monoclonal antibodies or hybridomas with similar specificity for DNA and chromatin but different IgG subclass and different relative affinity for basement membrane. Only anti-DNA antibodies that bound basement membrane bound to glomeruli, activated complement, and induced proteinuria whether injected alone or co-injected with a non-basement-membrane-binding anti-DNA antibody. Basement membrane-binding anti-DNA antibodies co-localized with heparan sulfate proteoglycan in glomerular basement membrane and mesangial matrix but not with chromatin. Thus, direct binding of anti-DNA antibody to antigens in the glomerular basement membrane or mesangial matrix may be critical to initiate glomerular inflammation. This may accelerate and exacerbate glomerular immune complex formation in human and murine lupus nephritis.

  14. Uranium deposits in the metamorphic basement of the Rouergue massif. Genesis and extension of related albitization processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albitization processes in the Rouergue metamorphic basement, probably Permian aged is evidenced. Late development of uranium orebodies occured within albitized zones. The detection of the latter serves as a highly valuable indirect guide for prospecting this type of deposits in a metamorphic basement

  15. Pressure-Temperature-Time Relationships of Allochthons to Basement, Western Gneiss Region, Norway (United States)

    Walsh, E. O.; Hacker, B. R.


    The Western Gneiss region of Norway contains one of the largest expanses of ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) rocks in the world. Our new findings of coesite pseudomorphs increase the known width of the UHP terrane to 100 km. In this same area, continental and oceanic allochthons are folded into the Baltica basement in complex patterns. To determine the role that the allochthons played in the UHP metamorphism, it is essential to understand the relationship of the allochthons to the Baltica basement. To this purpose, we have studied the temperature-pressure-time histories of the rocks along a 160 x 100 km E-W transect from orogen core to foreland. Allochthon pelites (garnet + biotite +/- kyanite +/- staurolite) and garnet amphibolites record consistent pressures of ~1.1 GPa across the entire transect; this contends earlier studies that implied a westward increasing P-T gradient. Temperatures are high, ranging from 650-800 °C. Basement rocks record similar temperatures but lower pressures (0.6-0.7 GPa). In situ eclogites in both allochthons and basement yield minimum pressures of ~1.5 GPa, and a basement orthopyroxene eclogite yields about 3 GPa and 825 °C. While basement garnets are homogeneous, allochthon garnets display prograde zoning. All garnets show retrograde resorption, the effects of which were removed by recalculation using the Mn peak at garnet rims. The Gibbs method of Spear was used to model P-T paths for the rocks. Although the presence of in situ eclogites requires at least 0.4 GPa decompression of the allochthons, modeling of garnets across the area reveals only uniform heating and mild compression. We tentatively attribute the lack of decompression recorded in garnet zoning to resorption of garnets during decompression. In summary, our observations suggest that: i) the eclogites formed in a relatively warm subduction zone; ii) the allochthon recrystallized as a subhorizontal sheet that stalled at lower crustal conditions (1.1 GPa) after exhumation from the

  16. On the issue of the Precambrian basement of the Arctic shelf (United States)

    Vernikovsky, Valery A.; Korago, Evgeny A.; Proskurnin, Vasily F.; Sobolev, Nikolay N.


    Many researchers of the geological structures of the Russian Arctic concluded that the basements of the terranes composing the Arctic shelf and continental slopes have a Precambrian age. It is assumed that these terranes are actually fragments of the ancient Arctida paleocontinent [Zonenshain, Natapov, 1987] that broke up as a result of rifting and its separate plates and terranes either were overlain by continental margins sediments or included in the fold belts in the periphery of the ocean. In the western part of the Russian Arctic, a Grenvillian and Mesoproterozoic basement was demonstrated for Svalbard, Novaya Zemlya and Taimyr Peninsula, and at least a Neoproterozoic basement was established for structures in the basement of Severnaya Zemlya archipelago. In the eastern part of the Russian Arctic, such proofs were almost nonexistent. In recent years, new information was obtained concerning the continental nature and Precambrian age of the basement crust of the New Siberian Islands and De Long archipelagos as well as probably the Mendeleev Ridge. For the New Siberian Islands and De Long archipelagos, a whole series of geochronological evidence was obtained in addition to geological data (horizontally bedding Early Paleozoic passive continental margin sediments (Cambrian, Ordovician) at Bennett Island). In magmatic and tuffaceous-sedimentary rocks of Henrietta and Zhokhov islands we discovered zircons that had formed from magmatic crystallization in the Late Neoproterozoic. New U-Pb data for zircons from rocks of these islands do not contradict isotopic dating obtained earlier by other methods - Ar/Ar and Sm/Nd in different laboratories. Considering different closure temperatures for isotopic systems, these new results complement each other. On the islands of the eastern sector of the Russian Arctic, a Neoproterozoic complex of rocks is most certainly established in the basement of the mesozoides of Vrangel Island. Here were discovered metamorphosed volcanics

  17. Hypoplastic basement membrane of the lens anlage in the inheritable lens aplastic mouse (lap mouse). (United States)

    Aso, S; Baba, R; Noda, S; Ikuno, S; Fujita, M


    Adult homozygous lap mice show various eye abnormalities such as aphakia, retinal disorganization, and dysplasia of the cornea and anterior chamber. In the fetal eye of a homozygous lap mouse, the lens placode appears to develop normally. However, the lens vesicle develops abnormally to form a mass of cells without a cavity, and the mass vanishes soon afterward. Apoptotic cell death is associated with the disappearance of the lens anlage. We examined the basement membranes of the lens anlage of this mutant by immunohistochemical methods under light microscopy using antibodies against basement membrane components of the lens anlage, type IV collagen, fibronectin, laminin, heparan sulfate proteoglycan, and entactin and by transmission electron microscopy. Immunohistochemistry showed the distribution and intensity of antibody binding to the lens anlage to be almost the same for each these antibodies regardless of the stage of gestation or whether the anlagen were from normal BALB/c or lap mice. Thus, positive continuous reactions were observed around the exterior region of the lens anlage from day 10 of gestation for type IV collagen, fibronectin, laminin, heparan sulfate proteoglycan antibodies, and at least from day 11of gestation for entactin antibody. The basement membrane lamina densa of both normal and lap mice was shown by electron microscopy to be discontinuous at days 10 and 10.5 of gestation. However, by day 11 the lamina densa was continuous in the lens anlagen of normal mice but still discontinuous in the lap mice. By day 12 of gestation, the lamina densa had thickened markedly in normal mice, whereas in lap mice it remained discontinuous and its thinness indicated hypoplasia. These results indicate that, while all basement components examined are produced and deposited in the normal region of the lens anlage in the lap mouse, the basement membrane is, for some reason, imperfectly formed. The time at which hypoplasia of the basement membrane was observed

  18. Stress inversion and basement-cover stress transmission across weak layers in the Paris basin, France (United States)

    Gunzburger, Yann; Magnenet, Vincent


    We investigate the source of non-purely gravitational horizontal stresses in the Paris basin, a nowadays tectonically quiet intracratonic basin, in its eastern border of which outstandingly dense stress measurements are available. Based on a synthesis of published data, the stress state in the basin is first shown to be very close to the one that may be extrapolated for the underlying basement, in terms of principal stress orientations and horizontal to vertical stress ratios. This is in favour of a mechanical coupling between the basement and its sedimentary cover, which may seem contradictory to the presence of several weak rock layers in the basin fill, e.g. an argillite layer that was shown to bear low deviatoric stresses, and salt layers that are implicated in a major décollement elsewhere. To unravel this apparent contradiction, a 3D-numerical modelling is performed, following a rigorous inverse problem approach, to determine the long-term elastic properties of both the basement and the basin rocks. The objective is to find the set of elastic constants that provides the best fit between the calculated stress state in the basin and the in situ data, by assuming that the stress state in the basement is known. This methodology provides a realistic set of mechanical parameters, in agreement with previous studies, which leads to the conclusion that the horizontal stresses in the basin constitute its mechanical response to the stresses that developed in the underlying basement during and since the last tectonic event (Alpine phase). The fact that horizontal stresses could be transmitted across the weak horizons, contrary to what may be expected at first glance, is explained both by the geometry of the basin and the fact that, over the long term, the stiffnesses of the various sedimentary rocks are only slightly different from each other.

  19. Ultrastructure of basement membranes in monkey and shark teeth at an early stage of development. (United States)

    Sawada, Takashi


    The basement membrane, which separates the inner enamel epithelium from the dental papilla in the early stages of tooth development, is known to play a significant role in odontogenesis. In this review article, this basement membrane was described in detail based on our recent findings with the use of high-resolution electron microscopy. Tooth germs of a monkey (Macaca fuscata) and a shark (Cephaloscyllium umbratile) were processed for thin-section observations. During the early stage of development, the basement membrane of the inner enamel (dental) epithelium was composed of a lamina lucida, lamina densa, and much wider lamina fibroreticularis. At higher magnification, the lamina densa in both species was made up of a fine network of cords, which are generally the main constituents of the basement membranes. In the monkey tooth, the lamina fibroreticularis was rich in fibrils, which were now characterized as basotubules, 10-nm-wide microfibril-like structures. The space between the basotubules was filled with a cord network that extended from the lamina densa. Dental papilla cell processes were inserted into the lamina fibroreticularis, and their surface was closely associated with numerous parallel basotubules via 1.5- to 3-nm-wide filaments. In the shark tooth during its early stage of development, the basotubules were absent in the lamina fibroreticularis and only narrow extensions, 60-90 nm wide and 1-2 microm long, of the cord network of the lamina densa were present. The dental papilla cells were immobilized by means of the binding of their processes to the extensions. These results indicate that basement membranes in both monkey and shark teeth at early stage of development are specialized for functions as anchoring and firm binding, which are essential for the successful differentiation of the odontoblasts.

  20. Percolation of diagenetic fluids in the Archaean basement of the Franceville basin (United States)

    Mouélé, Idalina Moubiya; Dudoignon, Patrick; Albani, Abderrazak El; Cuney, Michel; Boiron, Marie-Christine; Gauthier-Lafaye, François


    The Palaeoproterozoic Franceville basin, Gabon, is mainly known for its high-grade uranium deposits, which are the only ones known to act as natural nuclear fission reactors. Previous work in the Kiéné region investigated the nature of the fluids responsible for these natural nuclear reactors. The present work focuses on the top of the Archaean granitic basement, specifically, to identify and date the successive alteration events that affected this basement just below the unconformity separating it from the Palaeoproterozoic basin. Core from four drill holes crosscutting the basin-basement unconformity have been studied. Dating is based on U-Pb isotopic analyses performed on monazite. The origin of fluids is discussed from the study of fluid inclusion planes (FIP) in quartz from basement granitoids. From the deepest part of the drill holes to the unconformable boundary with the basin, propylitic alteration assemblages are progressively replaced by illite and locally by a phengite + Fe chlorite ± Fe oxide assemblage. Illitic alteration is particularly strong along the sediment-granitoid contact and is associated with quartz dissolution. It was followed by calcite and anhydrite precipitation as fracture fillings. U-Pb isotopic dating outlines three successive events: a 3.0-2.9-Ga primary magmatic event, a 2.6-Ga propylitic alteration and a late 1.9-Ga diagenetic event. Fluid inclusion microthermometry suggests the circulation of three types of fluids: (1) a Na-Ca-rich diagenetic brine, (2) a moderately saline (diagenetic + meteoric) fluid, and (3) a low-salinity fluid of probable meteoric origin. These fluids are similar to those previously identified within the overlying sedimentary rocks of the Franceville basin. Overall, the data collected in this study show that the Proterozoic-Archaean unconformity has operated as a major flow corridor for fluids circulation, around 1.9 Ga. highly saline diagenetic brines; hydrocarbon-rich fluids derived from organic matter

  1. Zircon U-Pb geochronology of basement metamorphic rocks in the Songliao Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PEI FuPing; XU WenLiang; YANG DeBin; ZHAO QuanGuo; LIU XiaoMing; HU ZhaoChu


    Zircon LA-ICP MS U-Pb dating of six metamorphic rocks and a metagranite (breccia) from southern basement of the Songliao Basin are reported in order to constrain the formation ages of basement. The basement metamorphic rocks in the Songliao Basin mainly consist of metagabbro (L45-1), amphibolite (SN117), metarhyolitical tuff (G190), sericite (Ser) schist (N103), chlorite (Chi) schist (T5-1), biotite (Bi)-actinolite (Act)-quartz (Q) schist (Y205), and metagranite (L44-1). The cathodoluminesence (CL)images of the zircons from metagabbro (L45-1) and metagranite (L44-1) indicate that they have cores of magmatic origin and rims of metamorphic overgrowths. Their U-Pb isotopic ages are 1808±21 Ma and 1873±13 Ma, respectively. The zircons with oscillatory zoning from amphibolite (SN117) and Chi schist (T5-1), being similar to those of mafic igneous rocks, yield ages of 274 ± 3.4 Ma and 264 ± 3.2 Ma, respectively. The zircons from metarhyolitical tuff (G190) and Ser schist (N103) display typical magmatic growth zoning and yield ages of 424 ± 4.5 Ma and 287 ± 5.1Ma, respectively. Most of zircons from Bi-Act-Q schist (Y2O5) are round in shape and different in absorption degree in the CL images, implying their sedimentary detritals. U-Pb dating yield concordant ages of 427 ± 3.1Ma, 455 ± 12 Ma, 696 ± 13 Ma,1384±62 Ma, 1649±36 Ma, 1778±18 Ma, 2450±9 Ma, 2579±10 Ma, 2793±4 Ma and 2953±14 Ma. The above-mentioned results indicate that the Precambrian crystalline basement (1808-1873 Ma) exists in the southern Songliao Basin and could be related to tectonic thrust, and that the Early Paleozoic (424-490 Ma) and Late Paleozoic magmatisms (264-292 Ma) also occur in the basin basement, which are consistent with the ages of the detrital zircons from Bi-Act-Q schist in the basement.

  2. Ultrastructural appearance of renal and other basement membranes in the Bull terrier model of autosomal dominant hereditary nephritis. (United States)

    Hood, J C; Savige, J; Seymour, A E; Dowling, J; Martinello, P; Colville, D; Sinclair, R; Naito, I; Jennings, G; Huxtable, C


    Bull terrier hereditary nephritis may represent a model for autosomal dominant Alport's syndrome because affected dogs have the typically lamellated glomerular basement membrane (GBM) and father-to-son disease transmission occurs. This study examined the ultrastructural appearance of the renal and extrarenal basement membranes and their composition in affected Bull terriers. Affected stillborn animals and puppies had subepithelial frilling and vacuolation of the GBM. In adult dogs, lamellation was common, and subepithelial frilling and vacuolation were less prominent. Foot-process effacement and mesangial matrix expansion occurred frequently. Basement membranes in the glomeruli, tubules, and Bowman's capsule were significantly thickened and often mineralized. Immunohistochemical examination showed alpha 1(IV) and alpha 2(IV) collagen chains in all renal basement membranes; alpha 3(IV), alpha 4(IV), and alpha 5(IV) chains in the GBM, distal tubular basement membrane, and Bowman's capsule; and the alpha 6(IV) chain in Bowman's capsule. Conversely, the basement membranes from the affected Bull terrier cornea, lens capsule, retina, skin, lung, and muscle had a normal ultrastructural appearance and were not thickened compared with membranes in normal age-matched dogs. The distribution of basement membrane abnormalities in Bull terrier hereditary nephritis may occur because the defective protein is present exclusively or more abundantly in the kidney and is structurally more important in the kidney or because of local intrarenal stresses. PMID:10922317

  3. Isotropic Versus Bipolar Functionalized Biomimetic Artificial Basement Membranes and Their Evaluation in Long-Term Human Cell Co-Culture. (United States)

    Rossi, Angela; Wistlich, Laura; Heffels, Karl-Heinz; Walles, Heike; Groll, Jürgen


    In addition to dividing tissues into compartments, basement membranes are crucial as cell substrates and to regulate cellular behavior. The development of artificial basement membranes is indispensable for the ultimate formation of functional engineered tissues; however, pose a challenge due to their complex structure. Herein, biodegradable electrospun polyester meshes are presented, exhibiting isotropic or bipolar bioactivation as a biomimetic and biofunctional model of the natural basement membrane. In a one-step preparation process, reactive star-shaped prepolymer additives, which generate a hydrophilic fiber surface, are electrospun with cell-adhesion-mediating peptides, derived from major components of the basement membrane. Human skin cells adhere to the functionalized meshes, and long-term co-culture experiments confirm that the artificial basement membranes recapitulate and preserve tissue specific functions. Several layers of immortalized human keratinocytes grow on the membranes, differentiating toward the surface and expressing typical epithelial markers. Fibroblasts migrate into the reticular lamina mimicking part of the mesh. Both cells types begin to produce extracellular matrix proteins and to remodel the initial membrane. It is shown at the example of skin that the artificial basement membrane design provokes biomimetic responses of different cell types and can thus be used as basis for the future development of basement membrane containing tissues. PMID:27283510

  4. Garzon Massif basement tectonics: A geopyhysical study, Upper Magdalena Valley, Colombia (United States)

    Bakioglu, Kadir Baris

    The mechanics and kinematics of basement tectonic uplifts, such as the Laramide Rocky Mountain orogeny, remain poorly understood and controversial. The debate continues in part because of the limited number of well-documented present day analogs. The Garzon Massif rising between the Upper Magdalena Valley and the Llanos Basin of Colombia is an active basement uplift with well, seismic, gravity, and magnetic data available. In the past 10 Ma, PreCambrian age granitic rocks of the Garzon Massif have been uplifted and displaced against Cretaceous and Tertiary sediments of the Upper Magdalena Valley along the Garzon fault. Aerogravimetric data calibrated by well data and 2D seismic data were used to model the geometry of the Garzon fault and the top of basement (Saldana Fm) in 2 dimensions. The density models provide an independent estimate of fault orientation. A high density airborne gravity and magnetic survey were flown over the Garzon fault in 2000, including 2,663 line km along 1 x 5 and 1 x 4 km flight lines at elevations of 2564 and 4589 m above mean sea level. An initial depth model was derived from the well logs, seismic reflection profile, and down-hole velocity surveys. Airborne gravity data was used to produce a Bouguer anomaly gravity map. Average rock densities were estimated from density logs, seismic velocities, and formation rock types. The regional gravity field was estimated and 2-dimensional forward models were constructed with average densities from the wells, seismic velocities, and rock types, and the initial depth model. Since the model fit is dependent on the density assumed for the Garzon Massif rocks, multiple densities and dip angles were tested. The gravity analysis indicates that the Garzon fault is a basement thrust fault dipping at a shallow angle under the Massif. Best-fit models show a true dip of 12 to 17 degrees to the southeast. A regional density and magnetic susceptibility model of the entire Massif is consistent with dense

  5. Accelerating repaired basement membrane after bevacizumab treatment on alkali-burned mouse cornea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koon-Ja Lee


    Full Text Available To understand the corneal regeneration induced by bevacizumab,we investigated the structure changes of stroma andbasement membrane regeneration. A Stick soaked in 0.5 NNaOH onto the mouse cornea and 2.5 mg/ml of bevacizumabwas delivered into an alkali-burned cornea (2 μl by subconjunctivalinjections at 1 hour and 4 days after injury. At 7 daysafter injury, basement membrane regeneration was observedby transmission electron microscope. Uneven and thin epithelialbasement membrane, light density of hemidesmosomes,and edematous collagen fibril bundles are shown in thealkali-burned cornea. Injured epithelial basement membraneand hemidesmosomes and edematous collagen fibril bundlesresulting from alkali-burned mouse cornea was repaired bybevacizumab treatment. This study demonstrates that bevacizumabcan play an important role in wound healing in thecornea by accelerating the reestablishment of basementmembrane integrity that leads to barriers for scar formation.[BMB Reports 2013; 46(4: 195-200

  6. The basement membrane constituents in the mouse embryo's tooth. An autoradiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enamel organs isolated from the lower first teeth of 18-days old white mouse embryo by trypsin treatment were used in this study. The organs were cultured during periods of increasing time on a semi-solid medium containing cock serum. In another chase experiments, the organs were cultured on a liquid medium containing proline-3H, leucine-3H, and glucosamine-3H, were studied by autoradiography using both light and electron microscopes. It has been shown that the nature of the culture medium does not apparently interfere with the ability of the enamel to reconstitute the basement membrane. On the other hand, it have been found obvious differences concerning the kinetic of the used isotopes. The results indicate that the turn-over of the basement membrane constituents represents a continuous and homogenous process which continues to take place during, before and after reconstitution. 42 refs. (author)

  7. Characteristics of basement granitoids and their role on uranium mineralisation in and around southwestern margin of Cuddapah Basin, Andhra Pradesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different types of uranium mineralisation in the environs of Cuddapah Basin show temporal and spatial association with uraniferous basement granitoids (Closepet Equivalent) exposed in its southern and southwestern margin. Geochemical studies of these granitoids show that these are generally peraluminous and strongly differentiated with uranium concentration from 10 to 90 ppm. Uranium mineralisation (in terms of grade and thickness) in the granite-hosted, fracture- controlled type and in the Cuddapah sediments is pronounced in areas where basement rocks have more volume of these strongly differentiated uraniferous granitoids. In contrast, uranium mineralisation is of low grade and thickness where basement is represented by Peninsular gneisses. (author)

  8. Apparatus for centrifuge modelling of top down basement construction with heave reducing piles


    McNamara, A M; Goodey, R J; Taylor, R.N.


    The construction of deep basements in urban areas is associated with many risks and problems among which is the possible damage to existing structures and services resulting from settlements near the excavation. A number of methods are routinely employed to attempt to control these movements (e.g. top-down construction, use of stiff diaphragm walls). This paper discusses the methodology and practicalities of a series of centrifuge model tests designed to investigate the effect of deep basemen...

  9. Autoantibodies against basement membrane collagen type IV are associated with myocardial infarction


    Olga McLeod; Pontus Dunér; Ann Samnegård; Per Tornvall; Jan Nilsson; Anders Hamsten; Eva Bengtsson


    Background: Collagen type IV is the major constituent of basement membranes underlying endothelial cells and is important for endothelial cell attachment and function. Autoantibodies against native collagen type IV have been found in various autoimmune diseases. Oxidation of LDL in the vascular wall results in the formation of reactive aldehydes, which could modify surrounding matrix proteins. Like oxidized LDL, these modified matrix proteins are likely to induce immune responses. We examined...

  10. Reticular basement membrane in asthma and COPD: Similar thickness, yet different composition


    Jeroen JW Liesker; Ten Hacken, Nick H.; Mieke Zeinstra-Smith; Rutgers, Steven R; Dirkje S Postma; et al.


    Jeroen JW Liesker1, Nick H Ten Hacken1, Mieke Zeinstra-Smith2, Steven R Rutgers1, Dirkje S Postma1, Wim Timens21Department of Pulmonology; 2Department of Pathology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands Background: Reticular basement membrane (RBM) thickening has been variably associated with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Even if RBM thickness is similar in both diseases, its composition might still differ. Objectiv...

  11. Basement Kind Effects on Air Temperature of a Solar Chimney in Baghdad - Iraq Weather


    Miqdam Tariq Chaichan


    A solar updraft tower power plant (solar tower) is a solar thermal power plant that utilizes a combination of solar air collector and central updraft tube to generate an induced convective flow which drives pressure staged turbines to generate electricity. This paper presents practical results of a prototype of a solar chimney with thermal mass, where the glass surface is replaced by transparence plastic cover. The study focused on chimney's basements kind effect on collected air temperatur...

  12. Groundwater recharge estimation and water resources assessment in a tropical crystalline basement aquifer


    Nyagwambo, N.L.


    While most groundwater recharge estimation methods give reasonable long-term annual average estimates very few if any methods offer guidance on monthly recharge. In crystalline basement aquifers (CBAs) the problem is compounded by the high seasonal, intra-annual and inter-annual variability. The chloride mass balance (CMB), the daily catchment water balance (WB) and the water table fluctuation (WTF) groundwater recharge estimation methods have been used to estimate groundwater recharge in a s...

  13. Permselectivity Replication of Artificial Glomerular Basement Membranes in Nanoporous Collagen Multilayers


    Pullela, Srinivasa R.; Andres, Christine; Chen, Wei; Xu, Chuanlai; Wang, Libing; Kotov, Nicholas A.


    Basement membranes (BMs) play important roles in many biological functions such as tissue regeneration, cancer proliferation, nutrient/drug delivery, breathing, and many others. While there are many theoretical models, adequate experimental analogs of BMs describing basic physicochemical properties of BM, such as diffusion and permselectivity are not available. Taking BMs found in glomerulus of kidneys as an example, adequate reproduction of their permselectivity requires biomimetic membranes...

  14. Volcanic conduit migration over a basement landslide at Mount Etna (Italy) (United States)

    Nicolosi, I.; Caracciolo, F. D'ajello; Branca, S.; Ventura, G.; Chiappini, M.


    The flanks of volcanoes may slide in response to the loading of the edifice on a weak basement, magma push, and/or to tectonic stress. However, examples of stratovolcanoes emplaced on active landslides are lacking and the possible effects on the volcano dynamics unknown. Here, we use aeromagnetic data to construct a three-dimensional model of the clay-rich basement of Etna volcano (Italy). We provide evidence for a large stratovolcano growing on a pre-existing basement landslide and show that the eastern Etna flank, which slides toward the sea irrespective of volcanic activity, moves coherently with the underlying landslide. The filling of the landslide depression by lava flows through time allows the formation of a stiffness barrier, which is responsible for the long-term migration of the magma pathways from the coast to the present-day Etna summit. These unexpected results provide a new interpretation clue on the causes of the volcanic instability processes and of the mechanisms of deflection and migration of volcanic conduits.

  15. Antigens of the basement membranes of the seminiferous tubules induce autoimmunity in Wistar rats. (United States)

    Lustig, L; Satz, M L; Sztein, M B; Denduchis, B


    A preparation enriched in basement membranes from seminiferous tubules was isolated from rat testes (STBM) and injected with complete Freund's adjuvant into Wistar rats. In 60% of animals a mild multifocal orchitis was observed. In damaged areas, perivascular and peritubular mononuclear cell infiltrates and different degrees of cell sloughing of some seminiferous tubules were observed. Electron microscopy revealed focal thickenings and delamination of the basement membrane of the seminiferous tubules as well as vacuolization of Sertoli cell cytoplasm. Using immunofluorescence discontinuous linear deposits of IgG were detected along the seminiferous tubular wall. Moreover, the same pattern of immunofluorescence was observed when the IgG eluted from the testes of the immunized rats was layered on sections of normal rat testis. Circulating antibodies to STBM were detected using passive haemagglutination in approximately 45% of the immunized rats, with titers ranging from 1:20 to 1:80. Leukocyte migration was inhibited when the spleen cells of the immunized rats were incubated with antigens from the basement membrane of seminiferous tubules, whilst a negative reaction was obtained when the soluble fraction of testis homogenate was used. PMID:7050376

  16. Tissue fibrocytes in patients with mild asthma: A possible link to thickness of reticular basement membrane?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjermer Leif


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myofibroblasts, proposed as being derived from circulating fibrocytes, are considered to be important cells in thickening of the basement membrane in patients with asthma. We have studied the correlation of tissue fibrocyte levels to basement membrane thickness and the presence of fibrocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF in steroid-naive patients with mild asthma and controls. Methods Patients with mild asthma (n = 9 were recruited and divided into two categories based on whether or not fibroblast-like cells could be established from BALF. Non-asthmatic healthy subjects (n = 5 were used as controls. Colocalization of the fibrocyte markers CD34, CD45RO, procollagen I, and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA were identified in bronchial biopsies from patients and controls by confocal microscopy. Kruskall-Wallis method was used to calculate statistical significance and Spearman coefficient of rank correlation was used to assess the degree of association. Results In patients with BALF fibroblasts, a 14-fold increase of tissue cells expressing CD34/CD45RO/α-SMA and a 16-fold increase of tissue cells expressing CD34/procollagen I was observed when compared to controls (p Conclusion These findings indicate a correlation between recruited fibrocytes in tissue and thickness of basement membrane. Fibroblast progenitor cells may therefore be important in airway remodeling in steroid-naive patients with mild asthma.

  17. Late Riphean age of the crystalline basement of the carbonate cover of the Dzabkhan microcontinent (United States)

    Kozakov, I. K.; Kirnozova, T. I.; Kovach, V. P.; Terent'eva, L. B.; Tolmacheva, E. V.; Fugzan, M. M.; Erdenezhargal, Ch.


    The Dzabkhan microcontinent was earlier considered as a fragment of an ancient craton in the structure of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. Deposits of the Tsagaan Oloom Formation were included in the shelf zone, under the assumption that they were related to the regional unconformity between the Early-Late Precambrian crystal formations. The carbonate sequence of the Tsagaan Oloom Formation overlaps crystalline rocks only in the eastern part of the Dzabkhan microcontinent, where dolomites lie unconformably on high-grade metamorphic rocks intruded by granitoids of the Bogdyngol massif. The latter were included in the composition of both the Early Precambrian basement and the Middle Riphean intrusive complex. We have determined the U-Pb zircon age of these granitoids at 717 ± 5 Ma and the Nd model ages of granitoids and gneisses of the basement of the Tsagaan Oloom Formation at 2.0-1.9 Ga at ɛNd = -10.0...-6.6. Recent geochronological and Nd and Pb-Pb isotopic and geochemical data indicate that intrusive and high-grade metamorphic complexes are absent in the crystalline basement of the Dzabkhan microcontinent, similar to those in ancient cratons. One can assume that the Late Riphean carbonate cover (Tsagaan Oloom Formation) deposited on the Late Precambrian continental block.

  18. Alpine tectonics of granites in basement of Ysyk-Köl Basin, northern Tien Shan (United States)

    Leonov, M. G.; Przhiyalgovsky, E. S.; Lavrushina, E. V.; Poleshchuk, A. V.; Rybin, A. K.


    The Ysyk-Köl Basin filled with Lower Jurassic-Quaternary sedimentary rocks is the largest intermontane negative structural unit of the northern Tien Shan. The basement of this basin is composed of Precambrian-Paleozoic rocks, largely of Ordovician and Silurian granitoids exposed in mountain ranges of the basin framework and as separate anticlinal domes situated in areas occupied by the Mesozoic-Cenozoic sedimentary cover. The postmagmatic tectonic internalstructure of the Chonkurchak (Chunkurchak), Kyzyl-Choku, Kyzyl-Bulak, and Prishib massifs emplaced in the basement, as well as their relationships to the sedimentary cover, are described in the paper. The study was carried out using the morphostructural method, detailed geological mapping, structural kinematic analysis, and petrographic examination of rocks. The internalstructure of Paleozoic granites in the basement and indications of their 3D tectonic flow are characterized. It is shown that granites underwent 3D deformation after their emplacement in the consolidated crust, and this process had a substantial influence on tectonic processes at the plate and orogenic stages of regional evolution.

  19. Structural model of the pre-Tertiary basement in the Krško basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijan Poljak


    Full Text Available Based on seismic reflection profiles recorded in the last ten years in the frame of the investigations for assessment of earthquake hazard at the location of the Krško nuclear power plant, and taking into account relevant geological and gravimetric data as well asresults of deep boreholes, two structural model of the pre-Tertiary basement in the Eastern part of the Kr{ko basin were constructed. In the first model the depth contours of the pre- Tertiary basement were drawn by hand, and in the second model the radial based functioninterpolation method was applied. In the Eastern part of the Kr{ko basin two depressions were distinguished. The Western one – Raka depression is smaller and shallower (max. depth of 1600 m, meanwhile the Eastern one – Globoko depression is larger and deeper(max. depth of 2050 m. In-between is a saddle at Drnovo where the pre-Tertiary basement lies at the depth of approx. 1000 m. Three-dimensional model will be used in further studies as is seismological modelling of the influence of the shape of the sedimentary basinon the seismic ground motion in case of an earthquake.

  20. Stable isotopes as tracers of the subsurface biosphere in oceanic basement (United States)

    Alt, J.; Shanks, W. C.; Ono, S.; Rouxel, O.; Smith-Duque, C. E.; Blake, R.


    Stable isotopes are useful tools to document the existence, geochemical effects, and extent of the subsurface biosphere in oceanic basement. The earliest results for sulfur in subseafloor basalts were not initially accepted as microbial in origin, but later analyses of isotopes of carbon, oxygen, and sulfur, as well as genetic data and trace fossils, all fit with a subsurface microbial biosphere throughout cool oceanic basement, including basalts, gabbros, and peridotites. Sulfur is lost during low-T oxidation of basalts, but sulfur is also gained locally by the rocks, and mass balance shows that more sulfur is gained than is lost by the basalts. δ34S values of sulfide-S in the rocks vary from basaltic (~0‰) down to -45‰ as the result of microbial reduction of seawater sulfate. High δ34S values of anhydrite (up to +30‰) in subseafloor basalts compared to seawater sulfate (+21‰) result from sulfate reduction, and elevated δ18O values (up to +29‰) compared to seawater sulfate (9.8‰), indicate low temperature reactions and microbial activity. Carbon isotope compositions of altered basalts are also consistent with microbial activity, with δ13C values of -21 to -34‰ for 0.017-0.039 wt% organic carbon in bulk rocks. Mass balance shows that the basaltic section of IODP Hole 1256D has δ34S shifted to-6.0‰ from the mantle value (0‰). The annual flux of microbial sulfur into oceanic basement based on Hole 1256D is 3-4 x 10^10 mol S yr-1, within an order of magnitude of the riverine sulfate source and the sedimentary pyrite sink. Results indicate a flux of bacterially derived sulfur that is fixed in upper ocean basement of 7-8 x 10^-8 mol cm-2 yr-1 over 15 m.y. This is comparable to that in open ocean sediment sites, but is one to two orders of magnitude less than for ocean margin sediments. These data are all for warm, sediment covered ridge flanks, however, and current work is examining cold ridge flank basement. Similar effects on sulfur are observed

  1. Microbial diversity within Juan de Fuca ridge basement fluids sampled from oceanic borehole observatories (United States)

    Jungbluth, S.; Bowers, R.; Lin, H.; Hsieh, C.; Cowen, J. P.; Rappé, M.


    Three generations of sampling and instrumentation platforms known as Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kit (CORK) observatories affixed to Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) and Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) boreholes are providing unrivaled access to fluids originating from 1.2-3.5 million-years (Myr) old basaltic crust of the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca ridge. Borehole fluid samples obtained via a custom seafloor fluid pumping and sampling system coupled to CORK continuous fluid delivery lines are yielding critical insights into the biogeochemistry and nature of microbial life inhabiting the sediment-covered basement environment. Direct microscopic enumeration revealed microbial cell abundances that are 2-41% of overlying bottom seawater. Snapshots of basement fluid microbial diversity and community structure have been obtained through small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene cloning and sequencing from five boreholes that access a range of basement ages and temperatures at the sediment-basement interface. SSU rRNA gene clones were derived from four different CORK installations (1026B, 1301A, 1362A, and 1362B) accessing relatively warmer (65°C) and older (3.5 Myr) ridge flank, and one location (1025C) accessing relatively cooler (39°C) and younger (1.2 Myr) ridge flank, revealing that warmer basement fluids had higher microbial diversity. A sampling time-series collected from borehole 1301A has revealed a microbial community that is temporally variable, with the dominant lineages changing between years. Each of the five boreholes sampled contained a unique microbial assemblage, however, common members are found from both cultivated and uncultivated lineages within the archaeal and bacterial domains, including meso- and thermophilic microbial lineages involved with sulfur cycling (e.g Thiomicrospira, Sulfurimonas, Desulfocapsa, Desulfobulbus). In addition, borehole fluid environmental gene clones were also closely related to uncultivated lineages

  2. Geochemical variability of the Yucatan basement: Constraints from crystalline clasts in Chicxulub impactites (United States)

    Kettrup, B.; Deutsch, A.


    The 65 Ma old Chicxulub impact structure with a diameter of about 180 km is again in the focus of the geosciences because of the recently commenced drilling of the scientific well Yaxcopoil- 1. Chicxulub is buried beneath thick post-impact sediments, yet samples of basement lithologies in the drill cores provide a unique insight into age and composition of the crust beneath Yucatan. This study presents major element, Sr, and Nd isotope data for Chicxulub impact melt lithologies and clasts of basement lithologies in impact breccias from the PEMEX drill cores C-1 and Y-6, as well as data for ejecta material from the K/T boundaries at La Lajilla, Mexico, and Furlo, Italy. The impact melt lithologies have an andesitic composition with significantly varying contents of Al, Ca, and alkali elements. Their present day 87Sr/86Sr ratios cluster at about 0.7085, and 143Nd/144Nd ratios range from 0.5123 to 0.5125. Compared to the melt lithologies that stayed inside the crater, data for ejecta material show larger variations. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios range from 0.7081 for chloritized spherules from La Lajilla to 0.7151 for sanidine spherules from Furlo. The 143Nd/144Nd ratio is 0.5126 for La Lajilla and 0.5120 for the Furlo spherules. In an tCHUR(Nd)-tUR(Sr) diagram, the melt lithologies plot in a field delimited by Cretaceous platform sediments, various felsic lithic clasts and a newly found mafic fragment from a suevite. Granite, gneiss, and amphibolite have been identified among the fragments from crystalline basement gneiss. Their 87Sr/86Sr ratios range from 0.7084 to 0.7141, and their 143Nd/144Nd ratios range from 0.5121 to 0.5126. The TNdDM model ages vary from 0.7 to 1.4 Ga, pointing to different source terranes for these rocks. This leads us to believe that the geological evolution and the lithological composition of the Yucatàn basement is probably more complex than generally assumed, and Gondwanan as well as Laurentian crust may be present in the Yucatàn basement.

  3. C3d fragment of complement interacts with laminin and binds to basement membranes of glomerulus and trophoblast



    Two mouse monoclonal antibodies generated against human placental homogenate were found to react specifically with human complement component C3. In immunofluorescence of human tissues, these antibodies gave a bright linear staining outlining the glomerular basement membrane of the adult kidney and the trophoblast basement membrane of placenta. An identical staining pattern was observed with a rabbit C3d antiserum which also prevented binding of the monoclonal antibodies to tissue sections. O...

  4. Identification of the cutaneous basement membrane zone antigen and isolation of antibody in linear immunoglobulin A bullous dermatosis.


    Zone, J J; Taylor, T B; Kadunce, D P; Meyer, L J


    Linear IgA bullous dermatosis (LABD) is a rare blistering skin disease characterized by basement membrane zone deposition of IgA. This study identifies a tissue antigen detected by patient serum and then isolates the autoantibody using epidermis and protein bands blotted on nitrocellulose as immunoabsorbents. Sera from 10 patients (9 with cutaneous disease and 1 with cicatrizing conjunctivitis) were evaluated. Indirect immunofluorescence revealed an IgA anti-basement membrane antibody in 6 of...

  5. Using the IODP Expedition 312 Vertical Seismic Profile to Investigate Sub-basement Reflections in Multi-Channel Profiles (United States)

    Nag, S.; Swift, S. A.; Stephen, R. A.


    The Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) initiated drilling at Site 1256D in the Guatemala Basin, about 1000km off the East Pacific Rise to penetrate plutonic rocks, anticipated to be relatively shallow in this region formed at an ultra- fast spreading rate. IODP Expedition E312 successfully drilled into gabbros at ~ 1150m in basement. Multi- channel seismic traces, although not processed for the purpose, show weak laterally-coherent sub-basement reflections at borehole depths (Hallenborg et. al., Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol 108 No. B11, 2532, 2003). Synthetic reflectivity seismograms were computed using a Ricker wavelet and impedance profiles from borehole sonic logs. They strongly suggest the presence of significant sub-basement amplitude peaks - although attenuation has not been modeled. Zero-offset vertical seismic profiles were processed to investigate the authenticity of these reflections and interpret the geological features that caused them. A dual scheme of the median filtering and F-K dip filtering was used. Down-going energy is clearly identified but negligible up-going energy is visible over random noise. The absence of geophones above the basement prevents comparison of basement reflections with sub-basement ones, so that a critical energy level above the noise could be established to identify up-going energy. The negative results are consistent with the topography of geological horizons on horizontal scales less than the Fresnel Zone (~ 300m). This expedition is the first penetration through volcanic extrusives and dikes into plutonic basement. In such a setting, sub-basement reflections, if present, would have been accurately measured. Absence of such clear and comprehensible observations in this area strongly suggests that lava flows and igneous contacts in upper ocean crust have significant topography on lateral scales < 300 m due to igneous and tectonic processes.

  6. Anti-glomerular basement membrane disease superimposed on membranous nephropathy: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivera Noel


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Anti-glomerular basement membrane disease is a rare autoimmune disorder characterized by pulmonary hemorrhage, crescentic glomerulonephritis and the presence of circulating anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies. The simultaneous occurrence of both anti-glomerular basement membrane disease and membranous nephropathy is rare. Case presentation A 59-year-old Hispanic man presented with acute onset of nausea and vomiting and was found to have renal insufficiency. Work-up included a kidney biopsy, which revealed anti-glomerular basement membrane disease with underlying membranous nephropathy. He was treated with emergent hemodialysis, intravenous corticosteroids, plasmapheresis, and cyclophosphamide without improvement in his renal function. Conclusion Simultaneous anti-glomerular basement membrane disease and membranous nephropathy is very rare. There have been 16 previous case reports in the English language literature that have been associated with a high mortality and morbidity, and a very high rate of renal failure resulting in hemodialysis. Co-existence of membranous nephropathy and anti-glomerular basement membrane disease may be immune-mediated, although the exact mechanism is not clear.

  7. Basement configuration of the northwestern South America - Caribbean margin from recent geophysical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oceanic nature of the crust in northern Colombia (underlying the lower Magdalena basins) has been postulated by different authors as a northern extension of the cretaceous, mafic and ultramafic rocks accreted to the western margin of northwest Colombia (in the western cordillera and Baudo range). Localized, small outcrops of oceanic affinity rocks seem to support this hypothesis. However, geophysical data do not support this northern extension, but clearly mark the boundary between the collision panama terrane with northern south America and the over thrusting of the latter on top of the obliquely convergent Caribbean plate. We produced maps to basement and Moho topography by integrated modeling of gravity, magnetic, seismic reflection surveys and well data from northwest Colombia and the southwestern Caribbean in areas with good seismic coverage, the basement under the lower Magdalena basins (LMB) is represented by o clear reflector. in areas where seismic data shows poor imaging or is absent, we use a bock stripping methodology to model first the sedimentary section, with known densities, composition and geometry controlled by oil wells and high quality seismic data, and then the deeper section. 2,50 gravity and magnetic modeling results in on initial Moho that con be extended to the entire region based on the control of available seismic refraction points. This controlled Moho provides the basis for basement modeling for the whole area and this sequence is iterated for several sections across the region. Our results indicate that the crust under northern Colombia is continental to thinned continental (transitional) in nature, with densities between 2,6 and 2,7 g/cm3. our model also requires a dense wedge of sediments (density 2,5 g/cm3) of the base of the modern fold belt, which may represent a fossil sedimentary wedge attachment to the continental margin. This wedge may have served as a backstop for the modern fold belt. The gravity modeling does not

  8. Dwellings with cellars and basements. A BRE guide to radon remedial measures in existing dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This guide is one of a series giving practical advice on methods of reducing radon levels in existing dwellings. It is intended to help surveyors, builders and householders who are trying to reduce indoor radon levels in houses with cellars or basements. The guide is based on a large body of remedial work carried out to advice given by BRE, and on discussions with others working in the field. The measures it describes are applicable, in principle, to all dwellings and other buildings of a similar scale and construction which have cellars or basements. Contact details of other organisations referred to are listed at the back of this guide. Basements and cellars are relatively uncommon in the United Kingdom, but where they do occur they are likely to be major contributors to the radon problem within a building. Experience shows that most houses with high indoor radon levels can be remedied through the use of straightforward building works. These can be carried out by a builder or householder competent in DIY. The cost should not be excessive. Before reading this guide, for background information on radon, consult Radon: a householder's guide and Radon: a guide to reducing levels M your home, obtainable from local Environmental Health Officers or from the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions. The Government recommends that, if the average radon concentration in a dwelling exceeds 200 Bq/m3 (the 'action' level), measures should be taken to reduce it. This guide assumes that radon measurements have been made in the building and that the annual average indoor radon level was shown to exceed the action level

  9. The role of mechanical heterogeneities in evaporite sequence during deformation initiated by basement fault activity (United States)

    Adamuszek, Marta; Dabrowski, Marcin; Burliga, Stanisław


    Kłodawa Salt Structure (KSS) situated in the centre of the Polish Zechstein Basin started to rise above a basement fault in the Early Triassic. Geological studies of the KSS revealed significant differences in the deformation patterns between the PZ1-PZ2 (intensely deformed) and PZ3-PZ4 (less deformed) cycle evaporites. These two older and two younger cycle evaporite complexes are separated by the thick Main Anhydrite (A3) bed. We use numerical simulations to assess the impact of a thick anhydrite bed on intrasalt deformation. In our models, the overburden consists of clastic sediments. A normal fault located in the rigid basement beneath the salt is activated due to model extension. At the same time, the sedimentation process takes place. The evaporites consist of a salt bed intercalated with a thick anhydrite layer of varying position and geometry. To understand the role of anhydrite layer, we run comparative simulations, in which no anhydrite layer is present. In the study, we use our own numerical codes implemented in MATLAB combined with the MILAMIN and MUTILS numerical packages. Our investigations revealed a significant influence of the anhydrite on deformation style in the evaporate series. The supra-anhydrite domain is characterized by weaker deformation and lower rates of salt flow in comparison to the sub-anhydrite domain. The highest contrast in the rate of salt flow between the two domains is observed in the case of the anhydrite layer situated close to the bottom of the salt complex. The thick anhydrite layer additionally diminishes the deformation rate in the supra-anhydrite domain and can lead to detachment of the basement deformation from its overlay. Our numerical simulations showed that the presence of the A3 Main Anhydrite bed could be the dominant factor responsible for the decoupling of deformation in the KSS salt complex.

  10. Thermochronology and geochemistry of the Pan-African basement below the Sab'atayn Basin, Yemen (United States)

    Veeningen, Resi; Rice, A. Hugh N.; Schneider, David A.; Grasemann, Bernhard


    Three important lithologies occur in two drill wells from the Pan-African basement underlying the Mesozoic Sab'atayn Basin, in a previously undocumented area of the Pan-African, 83 and 90 km NE of known exposures in Yemen. Cores from well 1 include amphibolite, with basaltic to andesitic compositions, affected by crustal contamination during emplacement into a thickened crust. Deeper in the well, an unfoliated dark red monzogranite has a U-Pb zircon age of 628.8 ± 3.1 Ma and a Rb-Sr biotite cooling age of 591.6 ± 5.8 Ma (∼300 °C). Regional constraints suggest emplacement in a transitional tectonic setting with compressional terrane amalgamation followed by extensional collapse. Sm-Nd isotope analysis yields a TDM model age of 1.24 Ga with negative εNd values, suggesting the monzogranite is part of the Al Bayda island arc terrane. Cores from well 2 contains a weakly deformed, massive (unbedded) medium grey meta-arkose exhibiting essentially no geochemical signature of weathering and with an almost pure dacitic composition. This rock may have been directly derived from an (extrusive) granitoid that was emplaced prior to, or during terrane amalgamation. A (U-Th-Sm)/He zircon age of 156 ± 14 Ma constrains the time of basement cooling to ∼180 °C, synchronous with basin formation. These lithologies provide new insights in the development of the Pan-African basement of Yemen, extending our knowledge of the nearby surface geology to the subsurface.

  11. Structure of Charnockitic basement in a part of the Krishna–Godavari basin, Andhra Pradesh

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I V Radhakrishna Murthy; S Bangaru Babu


    A regional magnetic survey was carried out over an area of 8000 km2 in Godavari districts of Andhra Pradesh,India,which is covered by the rocks of Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt (EGMB) viz., the Khondalitic series and Charnockites in the northern half and Permian to Mesozoic and Cenozoic sediments in the southern half,and forms a part of the Krishna –Godavari (K –G)basin. The survey brought out a strong NE –SW trending anomaly in the area covered by the rocks of Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt (EGMB),and a mild ENE –WSW trending anomaly in the area covered by the sediments of the Krishna –Godavari (K –G)basin.The NE –SW trending anomaly in the northern half could be attributed to the exposed/near surface Charnockite basement that has come closer to the surface as a result of Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt (EGMB)tectonics.Explanation of the mild ENE –WSW trending anomaly over the sediments of the Krishna –Godavari (K –G)basin required a faulted magnetic basement at depth downthrown towards the south.It is therefore concluded that the Charnockitic basement together with the Khondalite group of rocks which are folded and faulted during the different phases of tectonics of Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt (EGMB) extend into the Krishna –Godavari (K –G)basin and further,were involved in faulting during the phases of formation and sedimentation in the Krishna –Godavari (K –G)basin.

  12. The nature of the acoustic basement on Mendeleev and northwestern Alpha ridges, Arctic Ocean (United States)

    Bruvoll, Vibeke; Kristoffersen, Yngve; Coakley, Bernard J.; Hopper, John R.; Planke, Sverre; Kandilarov, Aleksandre


    The Alpha-Mendeleev ridge complex, over 1500 km long and 250-400 km wide, is the largest submarine structure in the Arctic Ocean basin. Its origin is unknown, but often inferred to represent a large igneous province where domains of continental crust may also be a possibility. We investigate the basement geology of part of this large scale feature using 1100 km of multichannel seismic reflection data, sonobuoy recordings and marine gravity data acquired in 2005 from USCG icebreaker Healy. The sonobuoy results show top and intra-acoustic basement velocities in the range of 2.3-4.0 km/s and the seismic reflection attributes define three main acoustic facies: 1) continuous high amplitude reflections often with abrupt breaks, 3) weak wedge geometry and 3) segmented, disrupted to chaotic reflections. The acoustic characteristics and seismic velocities compare more closely with basement on Ontong Java Plateau than normal ocean crust or wedges of seaward dipping reflections at volcanic margins. The acoustic facies are interpreted to represent basalt flows and sills capping voluminous tuff deposits and possible sediments. At least two volcanic centres are identified. The upper volcanic carapace on the surveyed part of Mendeleev and northwestern Alpha ridges was emplaced during a brief igneous episode no later than Campanian (80 Ma) and most likely part of wider Late Cretaceous circum Arctic volcanism. The horst and graben morphology on Mendeleev Ridge is largely a result of post-emplacement faulting where a number of the major extensional faults remained active until a late Miocene intrusive event.

  13. Reticular basement membrane in asthma and COPD: Similar thickness, yet different composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen JW Liesker


    Full Text Available Jeroen JW Liesker1, Nick H Ten Hacken1, Mieke Zeinstra-Smith2, Steven R Rutgers1, Dirkje S Postma1, Wim Timens21Department of Pulmonology; 2Department of Pathology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands Background: Reticular basement membrane (RBM thickening has been variably associated with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Even if RBM thickness is similar in both diseases, its composition might still differ. Objective: To assess whether RBM thickness and composition differ between asthma and COPD. Methods: We investigated 24 allergic asthmatics (forced expiratory volume in one second [FEV1] 92% predicted, and 17 nonallergic COPD patients (FEV1 60% predicted, and for each group a control group of similar age and smoking habits (12 and 10 persons, respectively. Snap-frozen sections of bronchial biopsies were stained with hematoxylin/eosin and for collagen I, III, IV, V, laminin and tenascin. RBM thickening was assessed by digital image analysis. Relative staining intensity of each matrix component was determined.Results: Mean (SD RBM thickness was not significantly different between asthma and COPD 5.5 (1.3 vs 6.0 (1.8 μm, but significantly larger than in their healthy counterparts, ie, 4.7 (0.9 and 4.8 (1.2 μm, respectively. Collagen I and laminin stained significantly stronger in asthma than in COPD. Tenascin stained stronger in asthma than in healthy controls of similar age, and stronger in COPD controls than in asthma controls (p 0.05.Conclusion: RBM thickening occurs both in asthma and COPD. We provide supportive evidence that its composition differs in asthma and COPD. Keywords: reticular basement membrane thickness, reticular basement membrane composition, asthma, biopsy, COPD, remodeling

  14. Immunochemical and ultrastructural assessment of the nature of the pericellular basement membrane of human decidual cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, U M; Faber, M; Liotta, L A;


    Human decidual cells of early and late pregnancy were studied immunochemically and ultrastructurally with respect to the presence and nature of pericellular basement membrane material. The most prominent cell type in decidual tissue of both early and late pregnancy were large, mature epithelioid...... of stromal cells into decidual cells of the pregnant endometrium. Predecidualization of the human endometrium, which is seen in the late secretory phase of the normal menstrual cycle and in some states of hyperplasia, was also shown to be accompanied by the presence of deposits of laminin-positive material...

  15. IODP Expeditions 309 and 312 Drill an Intact Section of Upper Oceanic Basement into Gabbros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas S. Wilson


    Full Text Available The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program’s (IODP Expeditions 309 and 312 successfully completed the first sampling of an intact section of upper oceanic crust, through lavas and the sheeted dikes into the uppermost gabbros. Hole 1256D, which was initiated on the Ocean Drilling Program’s (ODP Leg 206, now penetrates to >1500 mbsf and >1250 m sub-basement. The first gabbroic rocks were encountered at 1407 mbsf. Below this, the hole penetrates ~100 m into a complex zone of fractionated gabbros intruded into contact metamorphosed dikes.

  16. Roter Kamm impact crater, Namibia: Geochemistry of basement rocks and breccias (United States)

    Reimold, Wolf Uwe; Koeberl, Christian; Bishop, Janice


    The Roter Kamm crater in the southern Namib Desert has previously been identified as an impact structure on the basis of crater morphology and the presence of impact melt breccias which contain shock metamorphosed quartz and lithic clasts. To better define the variety of target rocks and breccias, we studied the petrography and chemical composition of a new suite of twenty-eight basement and breccia samples from the Roter Kamm crater. Based on chemical data for target lithologies and breccias we suggest that the crater was formed in a two-layer target region: an upper layer of Gariep metasediments (schist, marble, ± quartzite and sandstone) overlying the crystalline basement of the Namaqualand Metamorphic Complex. The basement was also heavily intruded by coarse-grained quartz veins and quartz- and quartz-feldspar pegmatites. The clast population in the melt breccias indicates that impact-induced melting involved mainly metasedimentary target rocks, with rarely detected contributions from pegmatite and granite/granodiorite. Three varieties of melt breccias can be defined: (1) "schistose," (2) quartzitic melt breccias, (3) "true" impact melt breccias. These melt breccia types are chemically heterogeneous, and even the impact melt breccias may have been produced in situ and not from a coherent melt body. The shapes of the schistose melt breccias, previously thought to be ejected impact breccias, are most likely caused by erosion, and these breccias are now interpreted to be locally derived. The crater basement as exposed at the rim was structurally severely affected and, at least locally, considerable thermal energy was generated during formation of large volumes of cataclastic, mylonitic, and pseudotachylitic breccias. Analyses of mylonite and pseudotachylites from the crater rim, as well as their respective host rocks, show that these breccias were mainly formed from local material. Analyses of pseudotachylite-like breccias indicate that these possible friction

  17. Basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan from the L2 rat yolk sac carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, M; Wewer, U; Albrechtsen, R


    Heparan sulfate proteoglycan from the L2 rat yolk sac carcinoma has been purified and partially characterized. The proteoglycan has an apparent Mr of 750 000, 35% of which represents the core protein. The core protein seems to be homogeneous, whereas the heparan sulfate chains are heterogeneous w...... with an Mr of about 50 000-70 000, with 30% of the glucosamine being N-sulfated. Antibodies raised against the core protein of the heparan sulfate proteoglycan reacted with basement membranes of various rat and human tissue....

  18. Nature of basement highs in ultra-distal ocean-continent transitions: on- and off-shore examples (United States)

    Epin, Marie-Eva; Manatschal, Gianreto


    Despite the fact that many studies investigated magma-poor rifted margins, there are still questions that are related to the nature and the origin of basement highs in ultra-distal Ocean-Continent Transitions (OCT). Indeed it has been observed that the morphology of the OCT of magma-poor rifted margins is structured and complex. The aim of this study is to determine the nature of these basement highs, their 3D morphology, the processes associated to their creation, and the timing related to their formation. To do this, we focused on distal seismic lines with well data from the Iberia and Newfoundland margins and on field observations of the Platta nappe, which exposes an about 300 km² large, little overprinted remnant of a fossil OCT belonging to the Alpine Tethys, exposed in the area of Bivio in SE Switzerland. The first results are the establishment of criteria allowing the identification of the different types of basement highs or groups of basement highs using offshore and onshore data. The main criteria are: the top-basement morphology, seismic reflectivity patterns, rooting depth of basement highs, the size, the related sedimentary architecture, the relative location in the margin, and if possible to determine, the magmatic budget. These criteria allow us to define 4 different types of highs that are: 1) footwall crustal wedges, 2) hanging wall extensional allochthon blocks, 3) peridotite ridges, and 4) outer highs. The overall observations provide important information on the temporal and spatial organization of the structural and magmatic systems. These systems are at the origin of the creation of ultra-distal OCTs which are important for the understanding of the processes controlling the final rifting stage. The goal of this study is to use an observation driven approach and to create identification criteria that can be used to describe the nature of basement highs at not yet drilled distal magma-poor rifted margins.

  19. Seismicity on Basement Faults Induced by Simultaneous Fluid Injection-Extraction (United States)

    Chang, Kyung Won; Segall, Paul


    Large-scale carbon dioxide (CO2) injection into geological formations increases pore pressure, potentially inducing seismicity on critically stressed faults by reducing the effective normal stress. In addition, poroelastic expansion of the reservoir alters stresses, both within and around the formation, which may trigger earthquakes without direct pore-pressure diffusion. One possible solution to mitigate injection-induced earthquakes is to simultaneously extract pre-existing pore fluids from the target reservoir. To examine the feasibility of the injection-extraction strategy, we compute the spatiotemporal change in Coulomb stress on basement normal faults, including: (1) the change in poroelastic stresses Δ τ _s+fΔ σ _n, where Δ τ _s and Δ σ _n are changes in shear and normal stress. respectively, and (2) the change in pore-pressure fΔ p. Using the model of (J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth 99(B2):2601-2618, 1994), we estimate the seismicity rate on basement fault zones. Fluid extraction reduces direct pore-pressure diffusion into conductive faults, generally reducing the risk of induced seismicity. Limited diffusion into/from sealing faults results in negligible pore pressure changes within them. However, fluid extraction can cause enhanced seismicity rates on deep normal faults near the injector as well as shallow normal faults near the producer by poroelastic stressing. Changes in seismicity rate driven by poroelastic response to fluid injection-extraction depends on fault geometry, well operations, and the background stressing rate.

  20. Nephritogenic Lupus Antibodies Recognize Glomerular Basement Membrane-Associated Chromatin Fragments Released from Apoptotic Intraglomerular Cells (United States)

    Kalaaji, Manar; Mortensen, Elin; Jørgensen, Leif; Olsen, Randi; Rekvig, Ole Petter


    Antibodies to dsDNA represent a classification criterion for systemic lupus erythematosus. Subpopulations of these antibodies are involved in lupus nephritis. No known marker separates nephritogenic from non-nephritogenic anti-dsDNA antibodies. It is not clear whether specificity for glomerular target antigens or intrinsic antibody-affinity for dsDNA or nucleosomes is a critical parameter. Furthermore, it is still controversial whether glomerular target antigen(s) is constituted by nucleosomes or by non-nucleosomal glomerular structures. Previously, we have demonstrated that antibodies eluted from murine nephritic kidneys recognize nucleosomes, but not other glomerular antigens. In this study, we determined the structures that bind nephritogenic autoantibodies in vivo by transmission electron microscopy, immune electron microscopy, and colocalization immune electron microscopy using experimental antibodies to dsDNA, to histones and transcription factors, or to laminin. The data obtained are consistent and point at glomerular basement membrane-associated nucleosomes as target structures for the nephritogenic autoantibodies. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl-transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling or caspase-3 assays demonstrate that lupus nephritis is linked to intraglomerular cell apoptosis. The data suggest that nucleosomes are released by apoptosis and associate with glomerulus basement membranes, which may then be targeted by pathogenic anti-nucleosome antibodies. Thus, apoptotic nucleosomes may represent both inducer and target structures for nephritogenic autoantibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus. PMID:16723695

  1. Study On Method For Simulation Of Partitioning Tracers In Double Porosity Model Of Fractured Basement Formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single well tracer test (SWTT) has been widely used and accepted as a standard method for residual oil saturation (SOR) measurement in the field. The test involves injecting of the partitioning tracers into the reservoir, producing them back and matching their profiles using a suitable simulation program. Most of simulation programs were first developed for sandstone reservoir using single porosity model cannot be applied for highly heterogeneous reservoirs such as fractured basement and carbonate reservoirs. Therefore a simulation code in double porosity model is needed to simulate tracer flow in our fractured basement reservoirs. In this project, a finite-difference simulation code has been developed by following the Tang mathematical model to simulate the partitioning tracers in double porosity medium. The code was matched with several field tracer data and compare with results of the University of Texas chemical simulator showing an acceptable agreement between our program and the famous UTChem simulator. Besides, several experiments were conducted to measure residual oil saturation in 1D column and a 2D sandpad model. Results of the experiments show that the partitioning tracers can measure residual oil saturation in glass bead models with a relatively high accuracy when the flow velocity of tracer is sufficiently low. (author)

  2. Development Of The Dipole Model For Investigating Of Tracer Flow In Fractured Basement Reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the aim of extracting more reservoir information from tracer test, numerous analytical models have been developed since 1960 decade. However its applications are only suitable for sedimentary or layering reservoirs and hard to apply for Fractured Basement Reservoirs (FBRs) due to difference in flow geometry and heterogeneity structures. This paper has developed a semi-analytical model by streamtube method of Abbaszadeh-Brigham for characterizing of tracer flow in the dipole flow geometry in FBRs. Dipole model is a 2-D fractured plane in which water is injected at the bottom and produced at the upper part of the plane. The study consists of an analytical solution for predicting of tracer breakthrough and verification of this solution by mean of physical experiments and numerical simulations. Firstly an analytical solution for tracer breakthrough was derived by succeeding the direct-line solution of Abbaszadeh then the physical model was built in form of a glass bead filled box with the size of 117.5 x 47 x 2 cm on which 6 valves were placed equidistantly for playing role of injection and production wells. Verifications showed a good match between analytical solutions and physical experiments as well as the results of numerical simulations running by UTChem - a reservoir simulator developed by University of Texas that indicates the solution can be used in the next development steps of dipole model for investigating of tracer in Fractured Basement Reservoirs. (author)

  3. Fractured-basement reservoir modeling using continuous fracture modeling (CFM) method (United States)

    Isniarny, Nadya; Haris, Abdul; Nurdin, Safrizal


    The challenge in oil and gas exploration has now shifted due to increasingly difficult to get back up economic value in a conventional reservoir. Explorationist are developing various drilling technology, optimizing conventional reserves and unconventional reserve in reservoirs. One of the unconventional reservoir that has been developed is the basement reservoir. This rock type has no primary porosity and the permeability of the rocks of this type are generally influenced by the naturally fracture networks. The purpose of this study is to map the fracture intensity distribution in the basement reservoir using Continuous Fracture Modeling (CFM) method. CFM method applies the basic concepts of neural network in finding a relationship between well data with seismic data in order to build a model of fracture intensity. The Formation Micro Imager (FMI) interpretation data is used to identify the presence of fracture along the well as dip angle and dip azimuth. This indicator will be laterally populated in 3D grid model. Several seismic attribute which are generated from seismic data is used as a guidance to populate fracture intensity in the model. The results from the model were validated with Drill Stem Test (DST) data. Zones of high fracture intensity on the model correlates positively with the presence of fluid in accordance with DST data.

  4. TMI-2 Reactor Building source term measurements: surfaces and basement water and sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presented in this report are the results of radiochemical and elemental analyses performed on samples collected from the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Reactor Building from August 1979 to December 1983. The quantities of fission products and core materials that were measured on the external surfaces in the Reactor Building or in the water and sediment in its basement are summarized. Recent analysis results for access panels removed from the air cooling assembly and for liquid and particulate samples collected from the Reactor Building sump and reactor coolant drain tank are included in the report. Measurements show that 59% of the 3H, 2.7% of the 90Sr, 15% of the 129I, 20% of the 131I, and 42% of the 137Cs originally in the core at the time of the accident could be accounted for outside the core in the Reactor Building. With the exceptions of 90Sr and 144Ce, the vast majority of each radionuclide released was found dispersed in the water and sediment in the basement

  5. TMI-2 Reactor Building source term measurements: surfaces and basement water and sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIsaac, C V; Keefer, D G


    Presented in this report are the results of radiochemical and elemental analyses performed on samples collected from the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Reactor Building from August 1979 to December 1983. The quantities of fission products and core materials that were measured on the external surfaces in the Reactor Building or in the water and sediment in its basement are summarized. Recent analysis results for access panels removed from the air cooling assembly and for liquid and particulate samples collected from the Reactor Building sump and reactor coolant drain tank are included in the report. Measurements show that 59% of the /sup 3/H, 2.7% of the /sup 90/Sr, 15% of the /sup 129/I, 20% of the /sup 131/I, and 42% of the /sup 137/Cs originally in the core at the time of the accident could be accounted for outside the core in the Reactor Building. With the exceptions of /sup 90/Sr and /sup 144/Ce, the vast majority of each radionuclide released was found dispersed in the water and sediment in the basement.

  6. Anti-glomerular basement membrane glomerulonephritis and thrombotic microangiopathy in first degree relatives; a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idorn Thomas


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anti-glomerular basement membrane glomerulonephritis and thrombotic microangiopathy are rare diseases with no known coherence. Case Presentation A daughter and her biological mother were diagnosed with pregnancy-induced thrombotic microangiopathy and anti-glomerular basement membrane glomerulonephritis, respectively. Both developed end-stage renal disease. Exploration of a common aetiology included analyses of HLA genotypes, functional and genetic aspects of the complement system, ADAMTS13 activity and screening for autoantibodies. The daughter was heterozygous carrier of the complement factor I G261D mutation, previously described in patients with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis and atypical haemolytic uremic syndrome. The mother was non-carrier of this mutation. They shared the disease associated complement factor H silent polymorphism Q672Q (79602A>G. Conclusion An unequivocal functional or molecular association between these two family cases was not found suggesting that the patients probably share another, so far undiagnosed and unknown, predisposing factor. It seems highly unlikely that two infrequent immunologic diseases would occur by unrelated pathophysiological mechanisms within first degree relatives.

  7. Mechanical Stretch on Human Skin Equivalents Increases the Epidermal Thickness and Develops the Basement Membrane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eijiro Tokuyama

    Full Text Available All previous reports concerning the effect of stretch on cultured skin cells dealt with experiments on epidermal keratinocytes or dermal fibroblasts alone. The aim of the present study was to develop a system that allows application of stretch stimuli to human skin equivalents (HSEs, prepared by coculturing of these two types of cells. In addition, this study aimed to analyze the effect of a stretch on keratinization of the epidermis and on the basement membrane. HSEs were prepared in a gutter-like structure created with a porous silicone sheet in a silicone chamber. After 5-day stimulation with stretching, HSEs were analyzed histologically and immunohistologically. Stretch-stimulated HSEs had a thicker epidermal layer and expressed significantly greater levels of laminin 5 and collagen IV/VII in the basal layer compared with HSEs not subjected to stretch stimulation. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the structure of the basement membrane was more developed in HSEs subjected to stretching. Our model may be relevant for extrapolating the effect of a stretch on the skin in a state similar to an in vivo system. This experimental system may be useful for analysis of the effects of stretch stimuli on skin properties and wound healing and is also expected to be applicable to an in vitro model of a hypertrophic scar in the future.

  8. Pericytes regulate vascular basement membrane remodeling and govern neutrophil extravasation during inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijun Wang

    Full Text Available During inflammation polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs traverse venular walls, composed of the endothelium, pericyte sheath and vascular basement membrane. Compared to PMN transendothelial migration, little is known about how PMNs penetrate the latter barriers. Using mouse models and intravital microscopy, we show that migrating PMNs expand and use the low expression regions (LERs of matrix proteins in the vascular basement membrane (BM for their transmigration. Importantly, we demonstrate that this remodeling of LERs is accompanied by the opening of gaps between pericytes, a response that depends on PMN engagement with pericytes. Exploring how PMNs modulate pericyte behavior, we discovered that direct PMN-pericyte contacts induce relaxation rather than contraction of pericyte cytoskeletons, an unexpected response that is mediated by inhibition of the RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway in pericytes. Taking our in vitro results back into mouse models, we present evidence that pericyte relaxation contributes to the opening of the gaps between pericytes and to the enlargement of the LERs in the vascular BM, facilitating PMN extravasation. Our study demonstrates that pericytes can regulate PMN extravasation by controlling the size of pericyte gaps and thickness of LERs in venular walls. This raises the possibility that pericytes may be targeted in therapies aimed at regulating inflammation.

  9. Groundwater supply and demand from southern Africa's crystalline basement aquifer: evidence from Malawi (United States)

    Robins, Nick; Davies, Jeffrey; Farr, John


    Failure of borehole sources in weathered and fractured crystalline basement aquifers in Malawi in southern Africa has been linked with poor borehole design, mechanical failure and badly sited boreholes. However, recent work in Malawi indicates that demand may now exceed long-term resource potential in some places and that this is also a cause of water point failure. An 11-year climate cycle (including a wet and dry period) necessitates overdraft from groundwater storage during the dry-cycle years before episodic rainfall events in the wetter part of the cycle again recharge the aquifers. Data, particularly groundwater hydrograph data, are sparse, but sufficient to evaluate the long-term renewable groundwater potential for both fractured and weathered basement-aquifer types in each of the 15 management areas in Malawi. The groundwater potential or long-term renewable resource (recharge) is given by the sum of Darcian throughflow and dry-season depletion of storage. Estimated rural demand exceeds the renewable resource in the fractured-rock aquifer in two management units and in the weathered-rock aquifer in two other units. Although there is inherent uncertainty in the water-balance estimates, the likelihood that rural demand is exceeding long-term average recharge in some areas is cause for concern.

  10. Nephritogenic lupus antibodies recognize glomerular basement membrane-associated chromatin fragments released from apoptotic intraglomerular cells. (United States)

    Kalaaji, Manar; Mortensen, Elin; Jørgensen, Leif; Olsen, Randi; Rekvig, Ole Petter


    Antibodies to dsDNA represent a classification criterion for systemic lupus erythematosus. Subpopulations of these antibodies are involved in lupus nephritis. No known marker separates nephritogenic from non-nephritogenic anti-dsDNA antibodies. It is not clear whether specificity for glomerular target antigens or intrinsic antibody-affinity for dsDNA or nucleosomes is a critical parameter. Furthermore, it is still controversial whether glomerular target antigen(s) is constituted by nucleosomes or by non-nucleosomal glomerular structures. Previously, we have demonstrated that antibodies eluted from murine nephritic kidneys recognize nucleosomes, but not other glomerular antigens. In this study, we determined the structures that bind nephritogenic autoantibodies in vivo by transmission electron microscopy, immune electron microscopy, and colocalization immune electron microscopy using experimental antibodies to dsDNA, to histones and transcription factors, or to laminin. The data obtained are consistent and point at glomerular basement membrane-associated nucleosomes as target structures for the nephritogenic autoantibodies. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl-transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling or caspase-3 assays demonstrate that lupus nephritis is linked to intraglomerular cell apoptosis. The data suggest that nucleosomes are released by apoptosis and associate with glomerulus basement membranes, which may then be targeted by pathogenic anti-nucleosome antibodies. Thus, apoptotic nucleosomes may represent both inducer and target structures for nephritogenic autoantibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus.

  11. Real-Time Detection of Redox Species in Basement Fluids Accessed Through IODP CORK Observatories (United States)

    Glazer, B. T.; Cowen, J. P.; Rappe, M. S.; Matzinger, M.; Ricardo, A.


    Growing evidence suggests that a substantial subseafloor biosphere extends throughout the immense volume of sediment-buried basement that underlies the global system of mid-ocean ridge (MOR) flanks and ocean basins. CORK (Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kit) observatories affixed to Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) boreholes offer an unprecedented opportunity to study intriguing questions regarding biogeochemical properties and microbial diversity in circulating fluids from buried ocean basement. Here, we describe voltammetric measurements collected from DSV Alvin using an in situ electrochemical analyzer (ISEA) coupled to CORK Observatory Fluid Delivery Lines in Cascadia Basin on the Juan de Fuca Ridge Flanks. The ISEA allows for deployment of up to four solid-state gold amalgam working electrodes, capable of providing simultaneous detection of oxygen, iron, sulfur, and other species in real time or continuous data logging modes. We also present traditional and electrochemical on-deck measurements taken on discrete samples collected during voltammetric seafloor scanning to illustrate changes in speciation and oxidation rates that occur between sample collection and on-deck analyses.

  12. Comparison among GPR measurements and ultrasonic tomographies with different inversion strategies applied to the basement of an ancient egyptian sculpture. (United States)

    Sambuelli, Luigi; Bohm, Gualtiero; Capizzi, Patrizia; Cardarelli, Ettore; Cosentino, Pietro; D'Onofrio, Laurent; Marchisio, Mario


    By the late 2008 one of the most important pieces of the "Museo delle Antichità Egizie" in Turin, the sculpture of the Pharaoh with god Amun, was planned to be one of the masterpieces of a travelling exhibition in Japan. The "Fondazione Museo delle Antichità Egizie di Torino", managing the museum, was concerned with the integrity of the basement of the statue which actually presents visible signs of restorations dating back to the early IXX century. The questions put by the museum managers were to estimate the internal extension of some visible fractures, to search for unknown internal ones and to provide information about the overall mechanical strength of the basement. In order to tackle the first and second questions a GPR reflection survey of the basement along three sides was performed and the results were assembled in a 3D rendering. As far as the third question is concerned, two parallel, horizontal ultrasonic 2D tomographies across the basement were made with a source-receiver layout able to acquire, for each section, 723 ultrasonic signals correspondent to different transmitter and receiver positions. The ultrasonic tomographic data were inverted using different software based upon different algorithms. The obtained velocity images were then compared with the GPR results and with the visible joints on the basement. A critical analysis of the comparisons is finally presented.

  13. Ultrastructural localization of the core protein of a basement membrane-specific chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan in adult rat skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, K J; Horiguchi, Y; Couchman, J R;


    Basement membranes are complex extracellular matrices present at epithelial/mesenchymal interfaces of tissues. The dermal-epidermal junction has been shown to contain numerous components, some of the most well known being laminin, types IV and VII collagens, heparan sulfate proteoglycan, fibronec......Basement membranes are complex extracellular matrices present at epithelial/mesenchymal interfaces of tissues. The dermal-epidermal junction has been shown to contain numerous components, some of the most well known being laminin, types IV and VII collagens, heparan sulfate proteoglycan......, fibronectin, and entactin/nidogen. IN this paper we show, using core protein-specific antibodies, the presence of a newly described basement membrane-specific chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan at the epithelial/mesenchymal interface of adult rat skin. Ultrastructurally, this antigen was proven to reside...... primarily within the basal lamina, apparently concentrated in the lamina densa. In addition, some of the proteoglycan was also present beneath the lamina densa, associated with the reticular lamina collagen fibrils....

  14. Few remarks on some factors in maintaining temperature of basement; Chikashitsu no hoonsei ni oyobosu shoyoin ni kansuru nisan no chiken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inada, Y. [Ehime University, Ehime (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Shimasaki, O. [Ehime University, Ehime (Japan); Ueda, T. [Takenaka Corp., Osaka (Japan); Matsumoto, T. [Nissan Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Sugi, G.


    Noticing on temperature maintaining effect of a basement, three types of full scale model basements were used to measure temperature change in the surrounding ground and rooms in the basement and discuss effects of ground temperature variation on the basement. Thermal property values were derived on the surrounding ground affecting the temperature maintainability of the basement, and temperature analysis was performed on a model assuming the basement to discuss effects of difference in size occupying under the ground on change in room temperatures. Then, assuming a case of using heat insulating materials in the basement, discussions were given on the consumed energy required for air conditioning. Underground temperature has its change to decrease as the ground depth increases throughout a year, and particularly at depths greater than 50 cm, no daily temperature change can be seen. Because of this effect, the greater the underground occupying size in the basement, the smaller the temperature change. Distributions of heat diffusion rate, heat capacity, and heat conductivity can be estimated by deriving water content ratio distribution. When air conditioning is carried out in the basement, applying the heat insulating materials on the inner side of a room is more effective. Energy conservation may be expected because the room temperature is stabilized. 9 refs., 27 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. The offshore basement of Perú: Evidence for different igneous and metamorphic domains in the forearc (United States)

    Romero, Darwin; Valencia, Kiko; Alarcón, Pedro; Peña, Daniel; Ramos, Victor A.


    As a result of new studies carried out in the offshore of Perú during the exploration and hydrocarbon evaluation of the forearc basins, new U-Pb SHRIMP and TIMS in zircons and some Ar-Ar data were obtained in the metamorphic and igneous basement. The understanding of this basement was critical to evaluate different hypotheses that have been proposed for the tectonic evolution of pre-Andean crust of Perú. Recent research performed in the basement rocks of the Marañón Massif in northern Perú, claimed that west of this area was a basement-free region in the Paleozoic, where the arc and forearc were developed in a mafic quasi-oceanic crust. However, petrographic studies and new preliminary ages indicate, for the first time, the nature and age of this sialic basement. Reconnaissance studies were performed in several offshore islands, as the Las Hormigas de Afuera Island west of Lima, and Macabí and Lobera islands along the edge of the continental platform. These data were complemented with the studies of some cutting samples obtained in recent exploration wells in northern Perú. The results of the present work show two large crustal domains in the Peruvian offshore forearc. A northern domain contains late Paleozoic igneous rocks that appear to be the southern offshore continuation of the Amotape-Tahuin block, which is interpreted as the southernmost remnant of the Laurentia Alleghenian orogen. The central offshore domain, known as the Paracas High, corresponds to the outer shelf high of previous studies. It contains orthogneisses of Grenville-age, probably recrystallized during an Ordovician magmatic episode. The new results show that the central offshore of Perú is an extension of the Grenville-age basement affected by Famatinian, early Paleozoic magmatism, well exposed in the southern domain in the Arequipa Massif along the coast of southern Perú.

  16. Sulfur isotope evidence for penetration of MVT fluids into igneous basement rocks, southeast Missouri, USA (United States)

    Shelton, K. L.; Burstein, I. B.; Hagni, R. D.; Vierrether, C. B.; Grant, S. K.; Hennigh, Q. T.; Bradley, M. F.; Brandom, R. T.


    Previous studies of galena and sphalerite from Paleozoic MVT deposits in the Viburnum Trend, southeast Missouri documented large variations in δ34S values throughout the ore-forming event. The present study of Cu-Fe-sulfides reveals a similar δ34S variation that reflects two end-member sulfur reservoirs whose relative importance varied both temporally and spatially. More 34S-enriched sulfides (δ34S approaching 25‰) indicate introduction of sulfur from basinal sedimentary sources, whereas more 32S-enriched sulfides (δ34S Precambrian, igneous-hosted FeCu mineralization in southeast Missouri (West and Central Domes of Boss-Bixby) were investigated to elucidate their relationship to Cu-rich MVT orebodies hosted nearby within the overlying Cambrian Bonneterre Dolomite. Mineralization at Boss-Bixby is composed of an early phase of iron oxide deposition followed by Cu-Fe-sulfides. The Central Dome is faulted and its mineralization is more fracture-controlled than the typically podiform ores of the West Dome. The δ34S values of West Dome sulfides are 0.9 to 6.5‰ and pyrite-chalcopyrite indicate a temperature of 525° ± 50 °C. These data indicate an igneous source of sulfur during Precambrian ore deposition. In contrast, δ34S values of Central Dome sulfides are 9.4 to 20.0‰ and pyrite-chalcopyrite indicate temperatures of 275° ± 50 °C. Similar δ34S values are obtained for chalcopyrite from the overlying MVT deposits. We speculate that deeply circulating, basin-derived MVT fluids mobilized sulfur and copper from the underlying igneous basement and redeposited them in overlying Curich MVT orebodies, as well as overprinting earlier Precambrian sulfides of the Central Dome with a later, Paleozoic MVT sulfur isotope signature. Many models for MVT fluid circulation in the Midcontinent region of North America assume that igneous basement rocks are an impermeable boundary, but in southeast Missouri, evidence exists for structurally controlled MVT fluid movement

  17. Nephritogenic antigen determinants in epidermal and renal basement membranes of kindreds with Alport-type familial nephritis.


    Kashtan, C; Fish, A. J.; Kleppel, M; Yoshioka, K; Michael, A. F.


    We probed epidermal basement membranes (EBM) of acid-urea denatured skin from members of kindreds with Alport-type familial nephritis (FN) for the presence of antigens reactive with Goodpasture sera (GPS) and serum (FNS) from an Alport patient who developed anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) nephritis in a renal allograft. By immunoblotting, GPS reacted primarily with the 28,000 molecular weight (mol wt) monomer but also the 24,000 mol wt and 26,000 mol wt monomers of the noncollagenous ...

  18. Basement membrane changes in breast cancer detected by immunohistochemical staining for laminin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, R; Nielsen, M; Wewer, U;


    The distribution of the basement membrane glycoprotein laminin was studied by the immunoperoxidase technique in benign and malignant human breast tissue and in axillary lymph nodes from patients with breast cancer. An antiserum prepared against rat laminin was used. The specificity...... with molecular weights of 400,000 and 200,000 of rat laminin in sodium dodecyl sulfate:polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The neoplastic cells in malignant breast tissues showed strong cytoplasmic staining for laminin, and a positive reaction was aslo found in lymph node metastases. In some cases in which only...... micrometastases were present, these cells also stained strongly for laminin. In nonmalignant breast tissues, the epithelial cells of the duct were positive for laminin, but the staining was weaker than in the carcinomas. Pretreatment of the fixed tissue sections with trypsin markedly enhanced the staining...

  19. Changes in the molecular sieve of glomerular basement membrane in rats with aminonucleoside nephrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Isolated and purified glomerular basement membranes (GBM of normal and aminonucleoside (PAN nephrosis rats were observed by electron microscopy after negative staining. Although GBM of normal rats appeared as a molecular sieve with uniform pores, GBM of nephrotic rats showed enlargement and elongation of the pores. For an average of fifty pores, the long dimension was 40.4+/-10.7 A and the short dimension 13.8+/-3.6 A in nephrosis whereas the long dimension was 12.3+/-2.5 A and the short dimension 8.4+/-1.0 A in normal rats. Changes in the pores in GBM were thought to result in increased permeability of serum protein and hence proteinuria.

  20. Laminin, a noncollagenous component of epithelial basement membranes synthesized by a rat yolk sac tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, U; Albrechtsen, R; Ruoslahti, E


    Laminin, a glycoprotein antigenically similar or identical to a component of epithelial basement membranes, was identified as a major component of the abundant extracellular matrix synthesized by an experimentally induced rat yolk sac tumor. Immunocytochemical staining revealed laminin in cultured...... polypeptides with molecular weights of approximately 200,000 and 400,000. These comigrated with the polypeptides of mouse laminin isolated previously. The yolk sac tumor tissue grown in vivo contained laminin in the tumor cells and in the extracellular material as evidenced by immunofluorescence and...... membranes in rat tissues in a manner indistinguishable from antilaminin. The presence of laminin in rat yolk sac cells, the presumed origin of our yolk sac tumor, was studied in some detail. Laminin was found to be present in normal cells of the visceral as well as the parietal yolk sac layer and in their...

  1. Thermal history of the Pan-African basement under the Jurassic Marib-Shabwa Basin, Yemen (United States)

    Rice, A. Hugh N.; Schneider, David; Veeningen, Resi; Grasemann, Bernhard; Decker, Kurt


    Pan-African tectonism within the Arabian Nubian Shield in Yemen is very poorly known. New drill-cores from the Marib-Shabwa Basin (Habban oil field) from central Yemen penetrated 600 m into the pre-Jurassic crystalline basement, providing a unique opportunity to extend our understanding of Pan-African events in Yemen. The cores were obtained some 80 km NE of the exposure limit of the Al Bayda Terrane, which lies SE of Sana'a. This terrane, which has no direct correlative in the ANS further north in Saudi Arabia, comprises deformed greenschist facies acid to basic volcanic rocks later witnessing acid to basic magmatism and has been previously interpreted as a Pan-African island arc complex with a basement component. Ophiolite fragments are common, both within the terrane and at its margins (sutures). To the north lies the Abas Gneiss Terrane and to the south the Al Mahfid Gneiss Terrane; both consist of older pre-Pan-African crystalline basement rocks. Geochemistry of a red, undeformed granite from the drill core indicates an A-type composition. LA-ICPMS U-Pb analysis of granite zircons gave two concordant age populations: 628.3 ± 3.1 Ma (large & small zircons) and 604.9 ± 2.0 Ma (intermediate sized zircons). The former age is interpreted as the time of crystallization, within the range of other A-type Younger Granites in the ANS, and the latter age as constraining lower temperature dissolution-reprecipitation of zircon, due to hydrothermal fluids or melt remobilization. Nd Tdm model ages for two granite samples from the drill core both gave ages of 1.24 Ga, within the range of the Al Bayda Terrane (1.2-2.5 Ga) and outside the range of the adjacent Palaeoproterozoic gneissic terranes (1.7-2.3 Ga, Abas Gneiss Terrane; 1.8-3.0 Ga, Al Mahfid Gneiss Terrane). Thus it seems certain that the Al Bayda Terrane extends at least 80 km to the NE of its present surface exposure. Rb-Sr biotite ages from the granite indicate closure through ~300°C at 593 Ma, indicating fast

  2. Radon concentration in basements of old town buildings in the Lublin region, Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon concentration in basements of old buildings in the oldest towns of Lublin region (Zamosc, Chelm and Sandomierz) was determined. Two techniques were applied: passive (Pico-rad) and alpha-spectrometry for radon progeny concentration measurement (SILENA). It was found that only 7% of results exceeded a dose limit of 400 Bq x m-3, established for old buildings. Radon concentration levels ranged from 0.2 to 5150 Bq x m-3. Distribution of the results satisfied a log-normal relationship. Applying these two methods at the same time, the radioactive equilibrium factor of radon and its progeny was determined. In the underground ways, open for visitors, no higher radon concentration was observed. (author)

  3. Assessment of Pollutant Spread from a Building Basement with three Ventilation Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Koffi, Juslin


    Ventilation aims at providing a sufficient air renewal for ensuring a good indoor air quality (IAQ), yet building energy policies are leading to adapting various ventilation strategies minimising energy losses through air renewal. A recent IAQ evaluation campaign in French dwellings shows important pollution of living spaces by VOCs such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde or hexanal, particularly in buildings equipped with a garage. Besides, radon emission from soil is a subject of concern in many countries. Several studies are done to understand its release mode and deal with the spread of this carcinogen gas. This paper aims to experimentally assess a contaminant spread from a house basement using mechanical exhaust and balanced ventilation systems, and natural ventilation.

  4. Can the Metamorphic Basement of Northwestern Guatemala be Correlated with the Chuacús Complex? (United States)

    Cacao, N.; Martens, U.


    The Chuacús complex constitutes a northward concave metamorphic belt that stretches ca. 150 km south of the Cuilco-Chixoy-Polochic (CCP) fault system in central and central-eastern Guatemala. It represents the basement of the southern edge of the Maya block, being well exposed in the sierra de Chuacús and the sierra de Las Minas. It is composed of high-Al metapelites, amphibolites, quartzofeldspathic gneisses, and migmatites. In central Guatemala the Chuacús complex contains ubiquitous epidote-amphibolite mineral associations, and local relics of eclogite reveal a previous high-pressure metamorphic event. North of the CCP, in the Sierra de Los Cuchumatanes area of western Guatemala, metamorphic rocks have been considered the equivalent of the Chuacús complex and hence been given the name Western Chuacús group, These rocks, which were intruded by granitic rocks and later mylonitized, include chloritic schist and gneiss, biotite-garnet schist, migmatites, and amphibolites. No eclogitic relics have been found within metamorphic rocks in northwestern Guatemala. Petrographic analyses of garnet-biotite schist reveal abundant retrogression and the formation of abundant zeolite-bearing veins associated with intrusion. Although metamorphic conditions in the greenschist and amphibolite facies are similar to those in the sierra de Chuacús, the association with deformed intrusive granites is unique for western Guatemala. Hence a correlation with metasediments intruded by the Rabinal granite in the San Gabriel area of Baja Verapaz seems more feasible than a correlation with the Chuacús complex. This idea is supported by reintegration of the Cenozoic left-lateral displacement along the CCP, which would place the metamorphic basement of western Guatemala north of Baja Verapaz, adjacent to metasediments intruded by granites in the San Gabriel-Rabinal area.

  5. Structural Controls on Groundwater Flow in Basement Terrains: Geophysical, Remote Sensing, and Field Investigations in Sinai

    KAUST Repository

    Mohamed, Lamees


    An integrated [very low frequency (VLF) electromagnetic, magnetic, remote sensing, field, and geographic information system (GIS)] study was conducted over the basement complex in southern Sinai (Feiran watershed) for a better understanding of the structural controls on the groundwater flow. The increase in satellite-based radar backscattering values following a large precipitation event (34 mm on 17–18 January 2010) was used to identify water-bearing features, here interpreted as preferred pathways for surface water infiltration. Findings include: (1) spatial analysis in a GIS environment revealed that the distribution of the water-bearing features (conductive features) corresponds to that of fractures, faults, shear zones, dike swarms, and wadi networks; (2) using VLF (43 profiles), magnetic (7 profiles) techniques, and field observations, the majority (85 %) of the investigated conductive features were determined to be preferred pathways for groundwater flow; (3) northwest–southeast- to north–south-trending conductive features that intersect the groundwater flow (southeast to northwest) at low angles capture groundwater flow, whereas northeast–southwest to east–west features that intersect the flow at high angles impound groundwater upstream and could provide potential productive well locations; and (4) similar findings are observed in central Sinai: east–west-trending dextral shear zones (Themed and Sinai Hinge Belt) impede south to north groundwater flow as evidenced by the significant drop in hydraulic head (from 467 to 248 m above mean sea level) across shear zones and by reorientation of regional flow (south–north to southwest–northeast). The adopted integrated methodologies could be readily applied to similar highly fractured basement arid terrains elsewhere. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht

  6. Preliminary low-T thermochronology of basement rocks and cover sequences in NE Australia (United States)

    Verdel, C.; Stockli, D. F.


    We measured apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He ages from basement rocks of the Thomson Orogen and overlying Paleozoic strata in the back-arc of the New England Orogen in NE Australia. Zircon (U-Th)/He ages from cover sequences and most basement samples (including those recovered from boreholes at depths of up to 1.1 km) are characterized by large inter- and intra-sample variability and range from approximately 200 to 350 Ma. Our interpretation is that this large range results from protracted residence of these rocks in the zircon (U-Th)/He partial retention zone (temperatures of roughly 130-200 °C) during a ~100 My period that encompassed late Carboniferous-early Permian extensional exhumation, Triassic burial beneath thick sedimentary basins, and Late Triassic tectonic denudation related to retroarc shortening during the Hunter-Bowen Orogeny. Relatively tightly-clustered Paleogene zircon (U-Th)/He ages from an exposure of Ordovician granitic rocks in the core of a structural dome in east-central Queensland are exceptions to this pattern. These granitoids also have Paleogene apatite (U-Th)/He ages, suggesting either rapid Eocene-Oligocene exhumation of the dome or resetting of both apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He ages by nearby Paleogene magmas. Apatite (U-Th)/He data from late Permian sandstone in the Bowen Basin also suggest cooling to near-surface conditions during the Paleogene. Overall, these data refine the timing of major extensional and contractional events that have affected the back-arc of the northern New England Orogen over approximately the last 300 My.

  7. An Overlapping Case of Alport Syndrome and Thin Basement Membrane Disease (United States)

    Alganabi, Mashriq; Eter, Ahmad


    We report a case of a 48-year-old male who presented with hematuria of at least 10 years, and has a daughter with hematuria as well. The patient has a history of degenerative hearing loss, decreased vision and cataract formation, but no diabetes, hypertension or proteinuria. A full serology and urology workup was negative for any abnormality. A kidney biopsy for the patient revealed a diagnosis of Alport syndrome but was unable to rule out thin basement membrane disease. The biopsy was inconclusive in making the diagnosis but the patient’s clinical presentation led to the diagnosis of Alport syndrome. The patient’s 10-year-old daughter also has hematuria with no clear etiology but now can subsequently be anticipatorily managed for Alport syndrome progression. Due to the rarity of the disease, diagnosis is often missed or delayed by primary care providers especially when no associated proteinuria has yet developed. This can lead to confusion and misdiagnosis with thin basement membrane disease, a generally benign hematuria without kidney failure progression. Additionally, biopsy can be inconclusive in these patients, relying on the physician’s history and physical examination findings to diagnose. It is important to appropriately diagnose Alport syndrome not only to manage the patient’s rate of kidney failure progression but also allow for a higher degree of suspicion, screening and intervention in the patient’s family members. Both the inconclusive nature of kidney biopsies and the usefulness of diagnosis for family member screening are often overlooked in medical literature but are explored in this case.

  8. Comparison of radon levels in building basements and above- ground floors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazula, C.; Campos, M.; Mazzilli, B. [IPEN/CNEN-SP, Sao Paulo (Brazil)


    Radon-222, a decay product of Ra-226, is a natural radioactive noble gas that can be found in soil, water and air. Radon and its short-lived decay products in the atmosphere are the most important contributors to human exposure from natural sources. Radon is recognized as the second most significant risk for lung cancer after tobacco smoking. The World Health Organization established a concentration of 100 Bq m{sup -3} for radon in air, in order to limit its hazards. The main source of radon exposition indoors comes from Ra-226, a decay product of the U-238 natural series, present in rocks and soils underneath the building and, to a lesser extent, in the building materials. The dynamics of radon production in rocks and soil and its subsequent indoors emanation is quite complex. It is controlled by factors such as soil permeability and water content, meteorological variability, building foundation characteristics and the usual positive differential pressure between the soil and the indoor environment. This is normally sufficient to bring soil gas from the ground into the building. Radon gas can enter a building by several mechanisms, but the most significant ones are diffusion and pressure-driven flow from the ground. Usually, cracks and holes in the floor and walls and gaps around service pipes are the main entrance for the radon gas. Studies indicated that indoor radon concentration present significant variation on the basement, ground floor and upper floors. The aim of this study is to determine the radon levels in building basements and above- ground floors in the city of Sao Paulo. Radon measurements were carried out through the passive method with solid-state nuclear- track detectors (CR-39), because of their simplicity and long-term integrated read-out. The exposure period was, at least, three months, covering one year minimum, in order to determine the seasonal variation of indoor radon concentration. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  9. Basement membrane and interstitial proteoglycans produced by MDCK cells correspond to those expressed in the kidney cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erickson, A C; Couchman, J R


    Multiple proteoglycans (PGs) are present in all basement membranes (BM) and may contribute to their structure and function, but their effects on cell behavior are not well understood. Their postulated functions include: a structural role in maintaining tissue histoarchitecture, or aid in selectiv...

  10. Basement evolution in the Northern Hesperian Massif. A preliminary survey of results obtained by the Leiden research group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tex, den E.


    Historical notes on Galician geology, and on the work of the Leiden University petrology team in particular, are first provided. This is followed by an introduction to the geology of Galicia with emphasis on its crystalline basement and upper mantle inliers. Six lithotectonic units are distinguished

  11. Intercellular deposits of basement membrane material in active human pituitary adenomas detected by immunostaining for laminin and electron microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, S; Wewer, U M; Albrechtsen, R


    and one patient with Cushing's syndrome). Concurrently, at the ultrastructural level, bunches of basement membrane-like material intermingled between the adenoma cells were demonstrated in seven of these ten active adenomas. Furthermore, secretory granules were entrapped occasionally in this intercellular...

  12. Electron microscopic study of the myelinated nerve fibres and the perineurial cell basement membrane in the diabetic human peripheral nerves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the quantitative and ultrastructural changes in myelinated nerve fibers and the basement membranes of the perineurial cells in diabetic nerves. The study was performed at the Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdul-Aziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia from 2003 to 2005. Human sural nerves were obtained from 15 lower limbs and 5 diabetic nerve biopsies. The total mean and density of myelinated nerve fibers per fascicle were calculated, with density of microtubules and mitochondria in the axoplasm. The number of the perineurial cell basement membrane layers was counted, and thickness of the basement membrane was measured. Among the 15 diabetic and 5 normal human sural nerves, the average diameters, number and surface area of myelinated nerve fibers and axonal microtubules density were found to be less in diabetic nerves. Mitochondrial density was higher in diabetic axons. Thickness of the perineurial cell basement membrane had a greater mean, but the number of perineurial cell layers was less than that of the diabetic group. The inner cellular layer of the perineurium of the diabetic nerves contained large vacuoles containing electron-dense degenerated myelin. A few specimens showed degenerated myelinated nerve fibers, while others showed recovering ones. Retracted axoplasms were encountered with albumin extravasation. Diabetes caused an increase in perineurial permeability. The diabetic sural nerve showed marked decrease in the myelinated nerve fibres, increase degenerated mitochondria, and decreased microtubules. (author)

  13. Simulation of the steady-state transport of radon from soil into houses with basements under constant negative pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Oliveira Loureiro, C.


    A theoretical model was developed to simulate this phenomenon, under some specific assumptions. The model simulates: the generation and decay of radon within the soil; its transport throughout the soil due to diffusion and convection induced by the pressure disturbance applied at a crack in the basement; its entrance into the house through the crack; and the resultant indoor radon concentration. The most important assumptions adopted in the model were: a steady-state condition; a house with a basement; a geometrically well-defined crack at the wall-floor joint in the basement; and a constant negative pressure applied at the crack in relation to the outside atmospheric pressure. Two three-dimensional finite-difference computer programs were written to solve the mathematical equations of the model. The first program, called PRESSU, was used to calculate: the pressure distribution within the soil as a result of the applied disturbance pressure at the crack; and the resultant velocity distribution of the soil gas throughout the soil matrix. The second program, called MASTRA, was used to: solve the radon mass-transport equation, and to calculate the concentration distribution of radon in the soil gas within the whole soil; and to calculate the entry rate of radon through the crack into the basement, and the final indoor radon concentration. A parametric sensitivity analysis performed on the model, revealed several features of the mechanisms involved in the transport of radon into the house. 84 refs., 66 figs., 16 tabs.

  14. Role of 17 beta-estradiol on type IV collagen fibers volumetric density in the basement membrane of bladder wall. (United States)

    de Fraga, Rogerio; Dambros, Miriam; Miyaoka, Ricardo; Riccetto, Cássio Luís Zanettini; Palma, Paulo César Rodrigues


    The authors quantified the type IV collagen fibers volumetric density in the basement membrane of bladder wall of ovariectomized rats with and without estradiol replacement. This study was conducted on 40 Wistar rats (3 months old) randomly divided in 4 groups: group 1, remained intact (control); group 2, submitted to bilateral oophorectomy and daily replacement 4 weeks later of 17 beta-estradiol for 12 weeks; group 3, sham operated and daily replacement 4 weeks later of sesame oil for 12 weeks; and group 4, submitted to bilateral oophorectomy and killed after 12 weeks. It was used in immunohistochemistry evaluation using type IV collagen polyclonal antibody to stain the fibers on paraffin rat bladder sections. The M-42 stereological grid system was used to analyze the fibers. Ovariectomy had an increase effect on the volumetric density of the type IV collagen fibers in the basement membrane of rat bladder wall. Estradiol replacement in castrated animals demonstrated a significative difference in the stereological parameters when compared to the castrated group without hormonal replacement. Surgical castration performed on rats induced an increasing volumetric density of type IV collagen fibers in the basement membrane of rats bladder wall and the estradiol treatment had a significant effect in keeping a low volumetric density of type IV collagen fibers in the basement membrane of rats bladder wall.

  15. Simulation of the steady-state transport of radon from soil into houses with basements under constant negative pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A theoretical model was developed to simulate this phenomenon, under some specific assumptions. The model simulates: the generation and decay of radon within the soil; its transport throughout the soil due to diffusion and convection induced by the pressure disturbance applied at a crack in the basement; its entrance into the house through the crack; and the resultant indoor radon concentration. The most important assumptions adopted in the model were: a steady-state condition; a house with a basement; a geometrically well-defined crack at the wall-floor joint in the basement; and a constant negative pressure applied at the crack in relation to the outside atmospheric pressure. Two three-dimensional finite-difference computer programs were written to solve the mathematical equations of the model. The first program, called PRESSU, was used to calculate: the pressure distribution within the soil as a result of the applied disturbance pressure at the crack; and the resultant velocity distribution of the soil gas throughout the soil matrix. The second program, called MASTRA, was used to: solve the radon mass-transport equation, and to calculate the concentration distribution of radon in the soil gas within the whole soil; and to calculate the entry rate of radon through the crack into the basement, and the final indoor radon concentration. A parametric sensitivity analysis performed on the model, revealed several features of the mechanisms involved in the transport of radon into the house. 84 refs., 66 figs., 16 tabs

  16. Heterogeneity of groundwater storage properties in the critical zone of Irish metamorphic basement from geophysical surveys and petrographic analyses (United States)

    Comte, Jean-Christophe; Cassidy, Rachel; Caulfield, John; Nitsche, Janka; Ofterdinger, Ulrich; Wilson, Christopher


    Weathered/fractured bedrock aquifers contain groundwater resources that are crucial in hard rock basement regions for rural water supply and maintaining river flow and ecosystem resilience. Groundwater storage in metamorphic rocks is subject to high spatial variations due to the large degree of heterogeneity in fracture occurrence and weathering patterns. Point measurements such as borehole testing are, in most cases, insufficient to characterise and quantify those storage variations because borehole sampling density is usually much lower than the scale of heterogeneities. A suite of geophysical and petrographic investigations was implemented in the weathered/fractured micaschist basement of Donegal, NW Ireland. Electrical Resistivity Tomography provided a high resolution 2D distribution of subsurface resistivities. Resistivity variations were transferred into storage properties (i.e. porosities) in the saturated critical zone of the aquifer through application of a petrophysical model derived from Archie's Law. The petrophysical model was calibrated using complementary borehole gamma logging and clay petrographic analysis at multi-depth well clusters distributed along a hillslope transect at the site. The resulting distribution of porosities shows large spatial variations along the studied transect. With depth, porosities rapidly decrease from about a few % in the uppermost, highly weathered basement to less than 0.5% in the deep unweathered basement, which is encountered at depths of between 10 and 50m below the ground surface. Along the hillslope, porosities decrease with distance from the river in the valley floor, ranging between 5% at the river to less than 1% at the top of the hill. Local traces of regional fault zones that intersect the transect are responsible for local increases in porosity in relation to deeper fracturing and weathering. Such degrees of spatial variation in porosity are expected to have a major impact on the modality of the response of

  17. Gravity analysis of the Precambrian basement topography associated with the northern boundary of Ghadames Basin (southern Tunisia) (United States)

    Dhaoui, Mohamed; Gabtni, Hakim; Jallouli, Chokri; Jleilia, Ali; Mickus, Kevin Lee; Turki, Mohamed Moncef


    Gravity data were analyzed to determine the structural development of the northern boundary of the Ghadames Basin in southern Tunisia. The Ghadames Basin which also occurs in eastern Algeria and northwestern Libya is one of the most prolific hydrocarbon producers in North Africa with several of the largest oil fields occurring along its northern boundary. The Ghadames Basin was formed during a series of tectonic events ranging from the Early Paleozoic to the Early Cenozoic. These tectonic events produced a basin in southern Tunisia that has a complex basement configuration which is not completely known. A residual gravity anomaly map constructed using polynomial trend surfaces, and vertical and horizontal gravity derivative maps indicate that the northern boundary contains a series of maxima and minima anomalies that trend in two prominent directions: northeast-southwest and east-west. The horizontal and vertical derivative gravity anomaly maps indicate that the width of the basement structures range between 10 and 20 km in width. Three-dimensional (3D) Euler deconvolution and 3D forward modeling constrained by well data, one seismic reflection profile and remote sensing data confirm the width of the basement structures and indicates that the depth of basin varies between 1.5 and 5 km, with deeper sections in general more numerous in the southern sections of the boundary. The gravity analysis constrained by the seismic reflection profile and well data implies that the basement topography may have been formed during the Pan African and/or late Mesozoic rifting. However, additional seismic reflection and well data are needed to confirm this conclusion. The discovery of the numerous basement structures suggests that there may exist additional hydrocarbon traps within the northern boundary of the Ghadames Basin.

  18. Basement nappes on the NE boundary the Ossa-Morena Zone (SW Iberian Variscides) (United States)

    Romao, Jose Manuel; Ribeiro, Antonio; Munha, Jose; Ribeiro, Luisa


    basement nappe is considerable, at least 5 to 10 km, considering the presence of mafic granulites included in intermediate granulites, both retrograded into the amphibolite facies, in the SW Bioucas and in the NE Olalhas klippe, resting on top of the lower-grade poly-metamorphic Cadomian assemblages. Geological data summarized above confirm the presence of Cadomian basement nappes that were reactivated under a thick-skinned thrust regime during the Variscan cycle; therefore, implying a poly-orogenic evolution for the studied tectonic units. TBCSZ represents a Cadomian suture that was initially reactivated during Lower Paleozoic intercontinental rifting, later evolving to transpressive intra-plate flower structure during the Upper Paleozoic Variscan convergence phase. It is concluded that thick-skinned tectonic regime by Variscan reactivation of Cadomian basement is a major element in the geodynamic evolution in the internal zones of SW European Variscides and of the Variscan Orogen in general terms.

  19. Plumbotectonic aspects of polymetallic vein mineralization in Paleozoic sediments and Proterozoic basement of Moravia (Czech Republic) (United States)

    Slobodník, Marek; Jacher-Śliwczyńska, Katarzyna; Taylor, Matthew C.; Schneider, Jens; Dolníček, Zdeněk


    A regional isotopic study of Pb and S in hydrothermal galenas and U-Pb and S in potential source rocks was carried out for part of Moravia, Czech Republic. Two major generations of veins, (syn-) Variscan and post-Variscan, are defined based on the Pb-isotope system together with structural constraints (local structures and regional trends). The Pb-isotopic compositions of galena plot in two distinct populations with outliers in 206Pb/204Pb-207Pb/204Pb space. Galena from veins hosted in greywackes provides a cluster with the lowest Pb-Pb ratios: 206Pb/204Pb = 18.15-18.27, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.59-15.61, 208Pb/204Pb = 38.11-38.23. Those hosted in both limestones and greywackes provide the second cluster: 206Pb/204Pb = 18.37-18.44, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.60-15.63, 208Pb/204Pb = 38.14-38.32. These clusters suggest model Pb ages as Early Carboniferous and Triassic-Jurassic, the latter associated with MVT-like deposits. Two samples from veins hosted in Proterozoic rocks lie outside the two clusters: in metagranitoid (206Pb/204Pb = 18.55, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.64, 208Pb/204Pb = 38.29) and in orthogneiss (206Pb/204Pb = 18.79, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.73, 208Pb/204Pb = 38.54). The results from these two samples suggest an interaction of mineralizing fluids with the radiogenic Pb-rich source (basement?). The values of δ34S suggest the Paleozoic host rocks (mostly -6.7 to +5.2‰ CDT) as the source of S for hydrothermal sulfides (mostly -4.8 to +2.5‰ CDT). U-Pb data and Pb isotope evolutionary curves indicate that Late Devonian and Early Carboniferous sediments, especially siliciclastics, are the general dominant contributor of Pb for galena mineralization developed in sedimentary rocks. Plumbotectonic mixing occurred, it is deduced, only between the lower and the upper crust (the latter involving Proterozoic basement containing heterogeneous radiogenic Pb), without any significant input from the mantle. It is concluded that in the Moravo-Silesian and Rhenohercynian zones (including proximal

  20. U-Pb (SIMS) Zircon Ages of Granitoids from the Basement of Pechora Basin (United States)

    Soboleva, A. A.; Andreichev, V. L.; Dovzhikova, E. G.; Coble, M. A.; Sergeev, S. A.; Miller, E. L.; Ronkin, Y. L.


    SIMS dating (SHRIMP-RG, SHRIMP-II) of zircons from granitoids penetrated by boreholes in the basement of Pechora Basin yield mostly ages of 544-565 Ma similar to Pb-Pb ages by Gee et al. (2000). Intrusive rocks studied in 8 boreholes are subduction-related mainly I-type granitoids within the Pripechora-Ilych-Chikshino fault zone, an assumed Neoproterozoic suture (Olovyanishnikov et al., 1995, Kostiuchenko, 1994). Older granites and plagiogranites in the 1-Prilukskaya borehole (595 ± 14 Ma) and 1-Nizhnyaya Omra borehole (602 ± 2 Ma) also have geochemical characteristics of subduction-related rocks. Their origin is probably related to the long-term development of active margin magmatism within the Arctida paleocontinent. The most ancient of the granitoids studied are sub-alkaline A-type granites from the 50-West Hilchuyu borehole (625 ± 25 Ma) and granosyenites and granodiorites of the 2-Veyak borehole (607 ± 6 Ma). Their within plate geochemical characteristics (high alkalinity, relatively high content of HREE, HFSE, and crustal ISr = 0.70622 (2-Veyak borehole) indicate that granite melts were generated in thick continental crust and indirectly support the hypothesis of existence of Pre-Neoproterozoic blocks of continental crust in the basement of the NE part of the Pechora Basin. These granites were formed prior to the proposed Timanide collision or accretion. They are comparable to 613-617 Ma syenites and subalkaline granites which intruded the NE passive margin of Baltica and are exposed at the surface in the Northern Timan (Larionov et al., 2004). This magmatic stage marks Late Neoproterozoic rifting on the NE edge of Baltica during which rifting apart of continental crustal blocks could have occurred. As suggested by geophysical data, one of these, the Khoreyver microcontinent (Olovyanishnikov et al., 1995) currently lies at a depth of more than 4 km beneath the Pechora Basin. At the end of Vendian to the beginning of Cambrian time, these terranes, which

  1. Barents Sea Paleozoic basement and basin configurations: Crustal structure from deep seismic and potential field data (United States)

    Aarseth, Iselin; Mjelde, Rolf; Breivik, Asbjørn Johan; Huismans, Ritske; Faleide, Jan Inge


    The Barents Sea is underlain by at least two different basement domains; the Caledonian in the west and the Timanian in the east. The transition between these two domains is not well constrained and contrasting interpretations have been published recently. Interpretations of new high-quality magnetic data covering most of the SW Barents Sea has challenged the Late Paleozoic basin configurations in the western and central Barents Sea as outlined in previous studies. Two regional ocean bottom seismic (OBS) profiles were acquired in 2014. This new dataset crosses the two major directions of Caledonian deformation proposed by different authors: N-S direction and SW-NE direction. Of particular importance are the high velocity anomalies related to Caledonian eclogites, revealing the location of Caledonian suture zones in the northern Barents Sea. One of the main objectives with this project is to locate the main Caledonian suture in the western Barents Sea, as well as the possible Barentsia-Baltica suture postulated further eastwards. The collapse of the Caledonian mountain range predominantly along these suture zones is expected to be tightly linked to the deposition of large thicknesses of Devonian erosional products, and later rifting is expected to be influenced by inheritance of Caledonian trends. The P-wave travel-time modelling is done by use of a combined ray-tracing and inversion scheme, and gravity- and magnetic modelling will be used to augment the seismic model. The preliminary results indicate high P-wave velocities (mostly over 4 km/s) close to the seafloor as well as high velocity (around 6 km/s) zones at shallow depths which are interpreted as volcanic sills. The crustal transects reveal areas of complex geology and velocity inversions. A low seismic impedance contrast between the sedimentary section and top crystalline basement makes identification of this interface uncertain. Depth to Moho mostly lies around 30 km, except in an area of rapid change in

  2. The Basement of the Andes: the Gondwana-Laurentia Connections Revisited (United States)

    Ramos, V. A.


    The research performed in the last decade in the basement of the Andes have shown that the Precambrian and Paleozoic rocks have recorded a series of igneous and metamorphic events through time. These episodes can be grouped in discrete orogenic events, which have different paleogeographic distribution and intensity. The first and most important orogenic event is widely distributed along the margin and correspond to the Sunsas-Grenville orogen. Evidence of metamorphism and associated magmatic rocks are found from Colombia to the southernmost Patagonia. This episode produced the amalgamation of Amazonia, Pampia and Patagonia, among other cratonic blocks, to form Rodinia. The Rodinia break-up leaved several cratonic blocks accreted in the Gondwana side, such as Marañón, Arequipa, and Antofalla, although the generalized extension of this period produced crustal attenuation, rifted basins, and limited oceanic realms during late Proterozoic times. The Brasiliano-Pampean orogeny reamalgamated these blocks against the Gondwana margin. A new episode of break-up produced the dispersal of several Gondwanian blocks, separation along some previous sutures, crustal attenuation and magmatism in Late Cambrian times, until the new amalgamation occurred in Middle Late Ordovician times. These processes led to the Famatinian orogeny when metamorphism and arc magmatism was widely spread along the continental margin, as seen in Chibcha, Marañón, Arequipa and Sierras Pampeanas. Besides the re-accretion of some parautochthonous terranes, new exotic blocks were derived from Laurentia, such as the Cuyania terrane, which finally collided against the Andean proto-margin at ~ 460 Ma to form the Argentine Precordillera and surrounding regions. Late accretion in Early to Middle Devonian times of Chilenia and related terranes formed most of the basement of Central Andes. Final collision between Laurentia and Gondwana in the Late Carboniferous - Early Permian times to form the Alleghanides

  3. Deletion of PPAR-γ in immune cells enhances susceptibility to antiglomerular basement membrane disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristen Chafin


    Full Text Available Cristen Chafin2, Sarah Muse2, Raquel Hontecillas5, Josep Bassaganya-Riera5, David L Caudell2, Samuel K Shimp III4, M Nichole Rylander4, John Zhang6, Liwu Li3, Christopher M Reilly1,21Virginia College of Osteopathic Medicine, 2Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology, Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, USA; 3Department of Biological Sciences, 4Department of Mechanical Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, USA; 5Nutritional Immunology and Molecular Medicine Laboratory, Virginia Bioinformatics Institute, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, USA; 6Medical University of SC, Charleston, SC, USAAbstract: Activation of the nuclear hormone receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ has been shown to be immunoregulatory in autoimmune diseases by inhibiting production of a number of inflammatory mediators. We investigated whether PPAR-γ gene deletion in hematopoietic cells would alter disease pathogenesis in the antiglomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM mouse model. PPAR-γ+/+ and PPAR-γ-/- mice were immunized with rabbit antimouse GBM antibodies and lipopolysaccharide and evaluated for two weeks. Although both the PPAR-γ+/+ and PPAR-γ-/- mice had IgG deposition in the glomerulus and showed proteinuria two weeks after injection, glomerular and tubulointerstitial disease in PPAR-γ-/- mice were significantly more severe compared with the PPAR-γ+/+ animals. We observed that the PPAR-γ-/- mice had decreased CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells and an increased CD8+:CD4+ ratio as compared with the PPAR-γ+/+ mice, suggesting that PPAR-γ has a role in the regulation of T cells. Furthermore, plasma interleukin-6 levels were significantly increased in the PPAR-γ-/- mice at two weeks as compared with the PPAR-γ+/+ animals. Taken together, these studies show that

  4. Low-accommodation detrital apron alongside a basement uplift, Pennsylvanian of Midcontinent North America (United States)

    Joeckel, R. M.; Nicklen, B. L.; Carlson, M. P.


    North America and correlation of possible tectonic effects. In: Dennison, J.M., Ettensohn, F.R. (Eds.), Tectonic and Eustatic Controls on Sedimentary Cycles, SEPM Concepts in Sedimentology and Paleontology No. 4, pp. 5-87) as marker beds, we speculate that the BPC exist in backstepping sequences and/or parasequences alongside the flanks of the Nemaha Uplift. The BPC are lithologically comparable to contemporaneous deposits alongside the Ancestral Rockies, Amarillo-Wichita Uplift, and other buried basement highs in North America. Nonetheless, the BPC are an order of magnitude thinner, are dominantly retrogradational, rather than progradational, and their occurrence was not associated with major displacements along basin-bounding faults. In this manner, the BPC are a useful example of low-accommodation, eustasy-dominated, coarse-grained terrigenous clastic deposition around an uplifted basement block.

  5. 2.9-1.9 Ga paleoalterations of Archean granitic basement of the Franceville basin (Gabon) (United States)

    Mouélé, Idalina Moubiya; Dudoignon, Patrick; El Albani, Abderrazak; Meunier, Alain; Boulvais, Philippe; Gauthier-Lafaye, François; Paquette, Jean-Louis; Martin, Hervé; Cuney, Michel


    The Archean granitoids in the Kiéné area, Gabon, are overlained by the Paleoproterozoic sediments of the Franceville basin (2.1 Ga). The basin is known for its high-grade uranium deposits among which some have been forming natural nuclear fission reactors. Most of the studies were dedicated to the FA-FB Paleoproterozoic sediments hosting these uranium deposits. Little is known on the Archean basement itself and specifically on the hydrous alteration events it experienced before and after the sediment deposition. The present work is focused on their petrographical, mineralogical and geochemical characterization. Dating the successive alteration events has been attempted on altered monazite crystals. Rocks in different alteration states have been sampled from eight drill cores crosscutting the Archean - Paleoproterozoic unconformity. The Archean granitoids observed in the deepest levels exhibit typical petrographical features of a propylitic alteration while they are intensely illitized up to the unconformity. The propylitic alteration is mainly pervasive but the original texture of the granitoïds is conserved in spite of the formation of new minerals: Mg-chlorite, allanite and epidote forming a typical paragenesis. The illitic alteration is much more invasive near the unconformity. The illitization process leads to the replacement of feldspars and the corrosion of quartz crysals by an illitic matrix while the ferromagnesian minerals are pseudomorphosed by a Fe-chlorite + phengite + hematite assemblage. The final fluid-rock interaction step is marked by fissural deposits of calcite and anhydrite. The δ13C isotopic data show that the fissural carbonates precipitated from diagenetic fluids enriched carbon products deriving from the maturation of organic matter. The U-Pb isotopic analyzes performed on monazite crystals have dated three distinct events: 3.0-2.9 Ga (magmatic), 2.6 Ga (propylitic alteration) and 1.9 Ga (diagenetic illitization). The calculation of

  6. Functional differentiation and alveolar morphogenesis of primary mammary cultures on reconstituted basement membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    An essential feature of mammary gland differentiation during pregnancy is the formation of alveoli composed of polarized epithelial cells, which, under the influence of lactogenic hormones, secrete vectorially and sequester milk proteins. Previous culture studies have described either organization of cells polarized towards lumina containing little or no demonstrable tissue-specific protein, or establishment of functional secretory cells exhibiting little or no glandular architecture. In this paper, we report that tissue-specific vectorial secretion coincides with the formation of functional alveoli-like structures by primary mammary epithelial cells cultured on a reconstituted basement membrane matrix (derived from Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm murine tumour). Morphogenesis of these unique three-dimensional structures was initiated by cell-directed remodelling of the exogenous matrix leading to reorganization of cells into matrixensheathed aggregates by 24 h after plating. The aggregates subsequently cavitated, so that by day 6 the cells were organized into hollow spheres in which apical cell surfaces faced lumina sealed by tight junctions and basal surfaces were surrounded by a distinct basal lamina. The profiles of proteins secreted into the apical (luminal) and basal (medium) compartments indicated that these alveoli-like structures were capable of an appreciable amount of vectorial secretion. Immunoprecipitation with a broad spectrum milk antiserum showed that more than 80% of caseins were secreted into the lumina, whereas iron-binding proteins (both lactoferrin and transferrin) were present in comparable amounts in each compartment. Thus, these mammary cells established protein targeting pathways directing milk-specific proteins to the luminal compartment. A time course monitoring secretory activity demonstrated that establishment of tissue-specific vectorial secretion and increased total and milk protein secretion coincided with functional alveolar

  7. Vascular Basement Membrane-derived Multifunctional Peptide, a Novel Inhibitor of Angiogenesis and Tumor Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Guo CAO; Shu-Ping PENG; Li SUN; Hui LI; Li WANG; Han-Wu DENG


    Vascular basement membrane-derived multifunctional peptide (VBMDMP) gene (fusion gene of the human immunoglobulin G3 upper hinge region and two tumstatin-derived fragments) obtained by chemical synthesis was cloned into vector pUC 19, and introduced into the expression vector pGEX-4T-1 to construct a prokaryotic expression vector pGEX-4T-1-VBMDMP. Recombinant VBMDMP produced in Escherichia coli has been shown to have significant activity of antitumor growth and antimetastasis in Lewis lung carcinoma transplanted into mouse C57B1/6. In the present study, we have studied the ability of rVBMDMP to inhibit endothelial cell tube formation and proliferation, to induce apoptosis in vitro, and to suppress tumor growth in vivo. The experimental results showed that rVBMDMP potently inhibited proliferation of human endothelial (HUVEC-12) cells and human colon cancer (SW480) cells in vitro, with no inhibition of proliferation in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells. rVBMDMP also significantly inhibited human endothelial cell tube formation and suppressed tumor growth of SW480 cells in a mouse xenograft model. These results suggest that rVBMDMP is a powerful therapeutic agent for suppressing angiogenesis and tumor growth.

  8. Imaging Quaternary glacial deposits and basement topography using the transient electromagnetic method for modeling aquifer environments (United States)

    Simard, Patrick Tremblay; Chesnaux, Romain; Rouleau, Alain; Daigneault, Réal; Cousineau, Pierre A.; Roy, Denis W.; Lambert, Mélanie; Poirier, Brigitte; Poignant-Molina, Léo


    Aquifer formations along the northern shore of the Saint-Lawrence River in Quebec (Canada) mainly consist of glacial and coastal deposits of variable thickness overlying Precambrian bedrock. These deposits are important because they provide the main water supply for many communities. As part of a continuing project aimed at developing an inventory of the groundwater resources in the Charlevoix and Haute-Côte-Nord (CHCN) regions of the province of Quebec in Canada, the central loop transient electromagnetic (TEM) method was used to map the principal hydrogeological environments in these regions. One-dimensional smooth inversion models of the TEM soundings have been used to construct two-dimensional electrical resistivity sections, which provided images for hydrogeological validation. Electrical contour lines of aquifer environments were compared against available well logs and Quaternary surface maps in order to interpret TEM soundings. A calibration table was achieved to represent common deposits and basements. The calibration table was then exported throughout the CHCN region. This paper presents three case studies; one in the Forestville site, another in the Les Escoumins site and the other in the Saint-Urbain site. These sites were selected as targets for geophysical surveys because of the general lack of local direct hydrogeological data related to them.

  9. Age determinations in the Precambrian basement of the Wadi Araba area, southwest Jordan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarrar, G. (Jordan Univ., Amman. Dept of Geology); Baumann, A. (Muenster Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Mineralogie, Mineralogisches Museum); Wachendorf, H. (Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Geologie und Palaeontologie)


    The Precambrian basement of Jordan belongs to the northern margin of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. Age determinations by U-Pb isotopic analyses on sized and magnetic zircon fractions, a monazite and an apatite sample and by Rb-Sr isotopic studies on whole-rocks and minerals of metasedimentary rocks, granodiorites, granites and dykes have elucidated the following events: (1) A major regional high-grade metamorphism accompanied by magmatization and synkinematic plutonism occurred at about 800 Ma according to U-Pb zircon ages of metasediments and granites. (2) During a postkinematic plutonic event between 615 and 600 Ma extensive masses of granodioritic to granitic composition and dykes were emplaced. The U-Pb data of zircons of the rocks yielded upper intercept ages with the concordia consistent with RbSr biotite ages. The Rb-Sr mineral ages of the older metasedimentary rocks document the resetting of the Rb-Sr system due to the thermal pulse at this time. (3) A younger plutonic event produced diorites and dykes at about 570 Ma. The plutonic events are related to the Pan-African orogenic phase. The low initial /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratios of the plutonic rocks (0.7032-0.7046) correspond to values reported from equivalent rocks throughout the Arabian-Nubian Shield and suggest that no significant portions of ancient sialic crustal material contributed to the generation of the granitic to granodioritic magmas.

  10. Age determinations in the Precambrian basement of the Wadi Araba area, southwest Jordan (United States)

    Jarrar, Ghaleb; Baumann, Albrecht; Wachendorf, Horst


    The Precambrian basement of Jordan belongs to the northern margin of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. Age determinations by U-Pb isotopic analyses on sized and magnetic zircon fractions, a monazite and an apatite sample and by Rb-Sr isotopic studies on whole-rocks and minerals of metasedimentary rocks, granodiorites, granites and dykes have elucidated the following events: (1)A major regional high-grade metamorphism accompanied by migmatization and synkinematic plutonism occurred at about 800 Ma according to U-Pb zircon ages of metasediments and granites. (2)During a postkinematic plutonic event between 615 and 600 Ma extensive masses of granodioritic to granitic composition and dykes were emplaced. The U-Pb data of zircons of the rocks yielded upper intercept ages with the concordia consistent with Rb-Sr biotite ages. The Rb-Sr mineral ages of the older metasedimentary rocks document the resetting of the Rb-Sr system due to the thermal pulse at this time. (3)A younger plutonic event produced diorites and dykes at about 570 Ma. The plutonic events are related to the Pan-African orogenic phase. The low initial 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios of the plutonic rocks (0.7032-0.7046) correspond to values reported from equivalent rocks throughout the Arabian-Nubian Shield and suggest that no significant portions of ancient sialic crustal material contributed to the generation of the granitic to granodioritic magmas.

  11. Binding of Streptococcus mutans antigens to heart and kidney basement membranes. (United States)

    Stinson, M W; Barua, P K; Bergey, E J; Nisengard, R J; Neiders, M E; Albini, B


    Using indirect immunofluorescence, alkali-extracted components of Streptococcus mutans were found to bind in vitro to capillary walls and sarcolemmal sheaths of monkey cardiac muscle and to glomerular and tubular basement membranes of monkey kidney. Adsorption of S. mutans components to tissue fragments was also detected by indirect radioimmunoassay and immunoblotting on nitrocellulose paper. Antibodies did not bind to untreated, control tissues in these experiments, proving that antigens shared by S. mutans and tissue components were not involved. Rabbit and monkey heart and kidney components bound S. mutans antigens of 24,000, 35,000, and 65,000 Mr. Monkey heart also bound molecules of 90,000 and 120,000 Mr. Rabbits immunized by intravenous injection of disrupted S. mutans cells developed severe nephritis that was characterized by the deposition of immunoglobulins, complement component C3, and S. mutans antigens in the glomeruli. Immunoglobulin G eluted from nephritic kidneys reacted in immunoblots with the 24,000, 35,000, and 65,000 Mr components of S. mutans extract, indicating that the antigens that bound to tissue in vitro also bound in vivo and reacted with antibodies in situ. Antibodies to other S. mutans antigens were not detected in the kidney eluate, although they were present in the serum of the same rabbit. Images PMID:6384042

  12. Anti-glomerular basement membrane glomerulonephritis in an HIV positive patient: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo José Bellotto Monteiro


    Full Text Available We report on a case of a patient with HIV infection, diagnosed 18 months prior to the development of an anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis; this is probably the first report of such an association. A 30-year-old white man presented with elevation of serum creatinine (1.3 - 13.5 mg/dL within one month. At admission, the urinalysis showed proteinuria of 7.2 g/L and 8,000,000 erythrocytes/mL. Renal biopsy corresponded to a crescentic diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis mediated by anti-GBM, and serum testing for anti-GBM antibodies was positive; antinuclear antibodies (ANA and anti-neutrophilic cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA were also positive. The patient underwent hemodyalisis and was treated with plasmapheresis, cyclophosphamide and prednisone. The association described here is not casual, as crescentic glomerulonephritis is not common in HIV-positive patients, anti-GBM glomerulonephritis is rare and anti-GBM antibodies are frequently observed in HIV-positive subjects when compared to the overall population. Based on the current case and on the elevated frequency of the positivity for such antibodies in this group of patients, it is advisable to be aware of the eventual association between these two conditions and to promote an active search for anti-GBM antibodies and early diagnosis of eventual urinary abnormalities in HIV-positive subjects, considering the severity of anti-GBM glomerulonephritis.

  13. Impact of climate on groundwater recharge in the crystalline basement rocks aquifer of Northern Ghana (United States)

    Koffi, K. V.


    Water is the cornerstone of human life and for all economic developments. West Africa and specifically Ghana are no exception to this reality.Northern Ghana is characterized by a semi-arid climate, with prolonged dry season (7 months of very few rainfall) leading to the drying up of many rivers and streams. In addition, rainfall is highly variable in space and time. Therefore, surface water is unreliable and insufficient to meet the water demands for socio-economic development in this area. As a result, the area is heavily dependent on groundwater for domestic water supply as well as for dry season irrigation of vegetables (cash crops).However, aquifers in northern Ghana are dominantly the hard rock type (Crystalline basement rock). This aquifer has no primary porosity and may not be able to sustain the increasing demand on the resource. Further, climate change may worsen the situation as recharge is dependent on rainfall in northern Ghana. Therefore, it is important to understand exactly how climate change will impact on recharge to the groundwater for sustainable development and management of the resource.Previous groundwater studies in Northern Ghana barely analyzed the combined impacts of Climate change on the recharge to the groundwater. This research is aimed at determining the current relationship between groundwater recharge and rainfall and to use the relationships to determine the impacts of changes in climate on the groundwater recharge. The results will inform plans and strategies for sustainably managing groundwater resources in Ghana and the Volta basin.

  14. Aeromagnetic anomalies uncover the Precambrian basement in the Chhattisgarh basin area, Central India (United States)

    Ram, Bahadur; Singh, Nagendra; Murthy, A.


    This paper presents aeromagnetic images for the Chhattisgarh basin region, in Central India, to provide a new window on Precambrian basement geology and structure. On the basis of aeromagnetic patterns, the Chhattisgarh basin is sub-divided into a northern low (negative) anomaly zone and a southern high (positive) anomaly zone. The northern portion of the main Chhattisgarh basin has been further divided into two subbasins, the Hirri sub-basin in the west, and Baradwar sub-basin in the east. A prominent negative anomaly delineates a NW-SE trending greenstone belt separating these sub-basins. Positive magnetic anomalies delineate the extent of the Dongargarh granite and equivalents, while the weak magnetic anomaly in the southeast of the Dongargarh granite and equivalents reflect granulite gneisses of the Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt. By applying the reduced-to-the-equator filter we enhanced the possible magnetic sources and structural lineaments within the Chhattisgarh basin. A new sketch map of structural elements was then compiled from aeromagnetic interpretation over the Chhattisgarh basin area. It includes possible faults, folds and an inferred lithological boundary.

  15. Immunohistochemical expression of basement membrane proteins of verrucous carcinoma of the oral mucosa. (United States)

    Arduino, Paolo G; Carrozzo, Marco; Pagano, Marco; Broccoletti, Roberto; Scully, Crispian; Gandolfo, Sergio


    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral cavity is an extremely invasive tumour of stratified squamous epithelium that spreads throughout degradation of the basement membrane (BM) and extra-cellular matrix. Oral verrucous carcinoma (VC) is a rare low-grade variant of oral SCC that penetrates into the subepithelial connective tissue. It also has a different clinical behaviour from classical oral SCC. We investigated the immunohistochemical expression of laminin, laminin-5, collagen IV and fibronectin in VC, severe epithelial dysplasia (SED) and SCC in order to analyse if the pattern of these molecules expression contributes to the differences in the biological behaviour of these diseases. The staining pattern of laminin was less intensive in SCC compared with SED and VC, and collagen IV expression was increased in VC compared with SED. Discontinuities of laminin, collagen IV and fibronectin were more evident in SED than in VC. This study indicates that VC has a biological behaviour different from SED or SCC, observable by immunohistochemistry in the BM zone.

  16. The Basement of the Central Andes: The Arequipa and Related Terranes (United States)

    Ramos, Victor A.


    The basement of the Central Andes provides insights for the dispersal of Rodinia, the reconstruction of Gondwana, and the dynamics of terrane accretion along the Pacific. The Paleoproterozoic Arequipa terrane was trapped during collision between Laurentia and Amazonia in the Mesoproterozoic. Ultrahigh-temperature metamorphism correlates with the collapse of the Sunsás-Grenville orogen after 1000 Ma and is related to slab break-off and dispersal of Rodinia. The Antofalla terrane separated in the Neoproterozoic, forming the Puncoviscana basin. Its closure was coeval with the collision of the eastern Sierras Pampeanas. The rift-drift transitions of the early Paleozoic clastic platform showed a gradual younging to the north, in agreement with counterclockwise rotation based on paleomagnetic data of Antofalla. North of Arequipa arc magmatism and high-grade metamorphism are linked to collision of the Paracas terrane in the Ordovician, during the Famatinian orogeny in the Sierras Pampeanas. The early Paleozoic history of the Arequipa massif is explained by a backarc, which further south changed to open oceanic conditions and subsequent collision. The Antofalla terrane reaccreted to the continental margin by the late Ordovician. These accretions and subsequent separations during the Mesoproterozoic, Neoproterozoic early Cambrian, and late Cambrian middle Ordovician are explained by changes in absolute motion of the Gondwana supercontinent during plate global reorganization.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The map of reflecting horizon A, plotted on the basis of regional geophysical materials, yieldsinformation about the bottom topography of sedimentary cover of the West-Siberian Basin within Nadym-Taz interfluve. Through morphotectonic analysis about this surface, the authors are able tounderstand the distribution characteristics of the main topographic irregularities, with the blockstructure of the lower cover floors and underlying complexes as the focus.The largest irregularities are caused by the presence of three regional altitude steps, which show a regional tendency of basement being submerged in the north-north-east direction. Within these irregularities, the authors have distinguished some regions, which can be divided, based on the characteristics of morphostructural distribution, into two groups, i.e., areal (Nadym, Tol'ka, Urengoy)and belt (Tarko-Sale, Russko-Chasel'ka and Messoyakha). The first ones represent quasihomogeneous blocks, whose surfaces are complicated by irregular low-amplitude elevations and troughs and low-gradient zones with gradient values being up to 0.03, or they submerge stepwise, with the leveled areas being separated by zones with high gradients (0.07-0.15). The morphostructure of the other group of regions is characterized by the en-echelon distribution of contrastingly positive and negative elements with high values of slope gradients (higher than 0.1-0.2).

  18. Window into Sediment-Buried Basement Biosphere: Fluid Sampling from CORK Observatory Seafloor Platforms, Juan de Fuca Ridge Flanks (United States)

    Cowen, J. P.; Lin, H.; Rappe, M.; Jungbluth, S.; Glazer, B. T.; Matzinger, M.; Amend, J. P.; Boettger, J.


    Studies of the deep basement biosphere are technologically challenging, requiring complementary approaches to provide sufficient access to allow precision analyses and experimentation. Our NSF-funded ‘Microbial Observatory’ has focused on IODP Circulation Obviating Retrofit Kit (CORK) observatories to obtain pristine samples of fluids from sediment-buried basement environments. We have developed instruments and samplers to interface with CORK fluid delivery lines, including a ROV/HOV-borne Mobile Pumping System and autonomous (e.g., GeoMICROBE) instrument sensor/sampler systems. These systems are providing high quality (e.g., depleted Mg++, Ridge, for geochemical and microbial studies. Relative to bottom seawater, these fluids are also depleted in O2, SO42-, PO43-, NO3- and NO2-, while enriched in NH4+, H2S, Mn and Fe. In situ voltammetric analyses obtained during sample collection, revealed the presence of micromolar levels of sulfide (0.5 µm) in the fluids. Dissolved organic carbon in basement fluids is about half that of local bottom seawater, low molecular weight organic acids are below detection limits, while total amino acids are also low in concentration, but the relative abundance of specific amino acids varies from that of bottom seawater. Overall, the sediment-buried basement environments appears to be organic-carbon depleted and low energy, yet still dynamic. The microbial communities from CORK 1301A (47deg 45N, 127deg 45W) in consecutive years are heterogeneous, but share common groups. Different CORKs sampled a decade apart share major lineages, consistent with hydrogeologic connectivity. Samples collected from a new CORK installation at borehole 1026B contain a subset of members found a decade previously from an older style CORK at the same site. Communities retrieved from the CORK at 1025C (47deg 53N, 128deg 39W), in 1.4 My ridge flank basement, possessed groups in common with fluids from 3.5 My ridge flanks (1301A). Microbial biomass is low

  19. 3D seismic analysis of gravity-driven and basement influenced normal fault growth in the deepwater Otway Basin, Australia (United States)

    Robson, A. G.; King, R. C.; Holford, S. P.


    We use three-dimensional (3D) seismic reflection data to analyse the structural style and growth of a normal fault array located at the present-day shelf-edge break and into the deepwater province of the Otway Basin, southern Australia. The Otway Basin is a Late Jurassic to Cenozoic, rift-to-passive margin basin. The seismic reflection data images a NW-SE (128-308) striking, normal fault array, located within Upper Cretaceous clastic sediments and which consists of ten fault segments. The fault array contains two hard-linked fault assemblages, separated by only 2 km in the dip direction. The gravity-driven, down-dip fault assemblage is entirely contained within the 3D seismic survey, is located over a basement plateau and displays growth commencing and terminating during the Campanian-Maastrichtian, with up to 1.45 km of accumulated throw (vertical displacement). The up-dip normal fault assemblage penetrates deeper than the base of the seismic survey, but is interpreted to be partially linked along strike at depth to major basement-involved normal faults that can be observed on regional 2D seismic lines. This fault assemblage displays growth initiating in the Turonian-Santonian and has accumulated up to 1.74 km of throw. Our detailed analysis of the 3D seismic data constraints post-Cenomanian fault growth of both fault assemblages into four evolutionary stages: [1] Turonian-Santonian basement reactivation during crustal extension between Australia and Antarctica. This either caused the upward propagation of basement-involved normal faults or the nucleation of a vertically isolated normal fault array in shallow cover sediments directly above the reactivated basement-involved faults; [2] continued Campanian-Maastrichtian crustal extension and sediment loading eventually created gravitational instability on the basement plateau, nucleating a second, vertically isolated normal fault array in the cover sediments; [3] eventual hard-linkage of fault segments in both fault

  20. Distribution of two basement membrane proteoglycans through hair follicle development and the hair growth cycle in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; King, J L; McCarthy, K J


    The distribution of two distinct populations of basement membrane proteoglycans has been monitored through hair growth development in the rat embryo and subsequent hair growth cycle. An antiserum against a small heparan sulfate proteoglycan uniformly stained the dermal-epidermal junction...... of embryonic rats throughout the period of hair follicle formation. On the other hand, monoclonal antibodies recognizing a basement membrane-specific chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan only weakly stained 16-d embryo dermal-epidermal junction, but strong staining was associated with hair follicle buds...... as they developed. Through the hair growth cycle, it was found that the heparan sulfate proteoglycan persisted around the follicles, while the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan decreased in amount through catagen until it was undetectable at the base and dermal papilla of the telogen follicle. As anagen commenced...

  1. Lysyl Hydroxylase 3 Localizes to Epidermal Basement Membrane and Is Reduced in Patients with Recessive Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa


    Watt, Stephen A; Dayal, Jasbani H.S; Wright, Sheila; Riddle, Megan; Pourreyron, Celine; McMillan, James R.; Kimble, Roy M; Prisco, Marco; Gartner, Ulrike; Warbrick, Emma; McLean, W H Irwin; Leigh, Irene M.; McGrath, John A.; Salas-Alanis, Julio C; Tolar, Jakub


    Recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB) is caused by mutations in COL7A1 resulting in reduced or absent type VII collagen, aberrant anchoring fibril formation and subsequent dermal-epidermal fragility. Here, we identify a significant decrease in PLOD3 expression and its encoded protein, the collagen modifying enzyme lysyl hydroxylase 3 (LH3), in RDEB. We show abundant LH3 localising to the basement membrane in normal skin which is severely depleted in RDEB patient skin. We demonstra...

  2. Mapping of a buried basement combining aeromagnetic, gravity and petrophysical data: The substratum of southwest Paris Basin, France


    Baptiste, Julien; Martelet, Guillaume; Faure, Michel; Beccaletto, Laurent; Reninger, Pierre-Alexandre; Perrin, José; Chen, Yan


    International audience Aeromagnetic and gravity data have proven to be among the most effective methods for mapping deeply buried basin/basement interfaces. However, the data interpretation generally suffers from ambiguities, due to the non-uniqueness of the gravity and magnetic signatures. Here, we tie the gravity and magnetic signatures with a petrophysical characterization of the lithologies outcropping around the French Paris Basin. Our methodology investigates the lithology and struct...

  3. Basement evolution in the Northern Hesperian Massif. A preliminary survey of results obtained by the Leiden research group


    Tex, den, E.


    Historical notes on Galician geology, and on the work of the Leiden University petrology team in particular, are first provided. This is followed by an introduction to the geology of Galicia with emphasis on its crystalline basement and upper mantle inliers. Six lithotectonic units are distinguished: 1) the Variscan granitic rocks and migmatites. 2) the Palaeozoic supracrustal rocks and dismembered meta-ophiolites, 3) the blastomylonitic graben between Malpica and Tuy, 4) the Lalin and Forcar...

  4. Alport familial nephritis. Absence of 28 kilodalton non-collagenous monomers of type IV collagen in glomerular basement membrane.


    Kleppel, M M; Kashtan, C. E.; Butkowski, R J; Fish, A. J.; Michael, A. F.


    Alport-type familial nephritis (FN), a genetic disorder, results in progressive renal insufficiency and sensorineural hearing loss. Immunochemical and biochemical analyses of the non-collagenous (NC1) domain of type IV collagen isolated from the glomerular basement membranes (GBM) of three males with this disease demonstrate absence of the normally occurring 28-kilodalton (kD) NC1 monomers, but persistence of the 26- and 24-kD monomeric subunits derived from alpha 1 and 2 (both type IV) colla...

  5. 64 Effect of Formoterol on Eosinophil Trans-Basement Migration Induced by Interleukin-8-Stimulated Neutrophils


    KAWASHIMA, Akiko; Nishihara, Fuyumi; Kobayashi, Takehito; Nakagome, Kazuyuki; Nagata, Makoto


    Background Neutrophils are often increased in the airways of either chronic severe disease or acute exacerbation of asthma. Neutrophils migrated in response to interleukin-8 (IL-8) may lead eosinophils to accumulate in the airways of asthma and possibly aggravate this disease. In this study, we investigated whether formoterol modify the trans-basement membrane migration (TBM) of eosinophils stimulated with neutrophils and IL-8. Methods Neutrophils and eosinophils were isolated from peripheral...

  6. Lysyl Hydroxylase 3 Localizes to Epidermal Basement Membrane and Is Reduced in Patients with Recessive Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A Watt

    Full Text Available Recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB is caused by mutations in COL7A1 resulting in reduced or absent type VII collagen, aberrant anchoring fibril formation and subsequent dermal-epidermal fragility. Here, we identify a significant decrease in PLOD3 expression and its encoded protein, the collagen modifying enzyme lysyl hydroxylase 3 (LH3, in RDEB. We show abundant LH3 localising to the basement membrane in normal skin which is severely depleted in RDEB patient skin. We demonstrate expression is in-part regulated by endogenous type VII collagen and that, in agreement with previous studies, even small reductions in LH3 expression lead to significantly less secreted LH3 protein. Exogenous type VII collagen did not alter LH3 expression in cultured RDEB keratinocytes and we show that RDEB patients receiving bone marrow transplantation who demonstrate significant increase in type VII collagen do not show increased levels of LH3 at the basement membrane. Our data report a direct link between LH3 and endogenous type VII collagen expression concluding that reduction of LH3 at the basement membrane in patients with RDEB will likely have significant implications for disease progression and therapeutic intervention.

  7. Lysyl Hydroxylase 3 Localizes to Epidermal Basement Membrane and Is Reduced in Patients with Recessive Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa. (United States)

    Watt, Stephen A; Dayal, Jasbani H S; Wright, Sheila; Riddle, Megan; Pourreyron, Celine; McMillan, James R; Kimble, Roy M; Prisco, Marco; Gartner, Ulrike; Warbrick, Emma; McLean, W H Irwin; Leigh, Irene M; McGrath, John A; Salas-Alanis, Julio C; Tolar, Jakub; South, Andrew P


    Recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB) is caused by mutations in COL7A1 resulting in reduced or absent type VII collagen, aberrant anchoring fibril formation and subsequent dermal-epidermal fragility. Here, we identify a significant decrease in PLOD3 expression and its encoded protein, the collagen modifying enzyme lysyl hydroxylase 3 (LH3), in RDEB. We show abundant LH3 localising to the basement membrane in normal skin which is severely depleted in RDEB patient skin. We demonstrate expression is in-part regulated by endogenous type VII collagen and that, in agreement with previous studies, even small reductions in LH3 expression lead to significantly less secreted LH3 protein. Exogenous type VII collagen did not alter LH3 expression in cultured RDEB keratinocytes and we show that RDEB patients receiving bone marrow transplantation who demonstrate significant increase in type VII collagen do not show increased levels of LH3 at the basement membrane. Our data report a direct link between LH3 and endogenous type VII collagen expression concluding that reduction of LH3 at the basement membrane in patients with RDEB will likely have significant implications for disease progression and therapeutic intervention. PMID:26380979

  8. Scaling and geometric properties of extensional fracture systems in the proterozoic basement of Yemen. Tectonic interpretation and fluid flow implications (United States)

    Le Garzic, Edouard; de L'Hamaide, Thibaut; Diraison, Marc; Géraud, Yves; Sausse, Judith; de Urreiztieta, Marc; Hauville, Benoît; Champanhet, Jean-Michel


    Multi-scale mappings of fracture systems in the crystalline basement of Yemen are presented. Fracture datasets are described through statistical analyses of direction, length, spacing, density, and spatial distribution. Results are combined with field observations and can be directly used to model the geometry of the fracture networks in analog basement rocks, from multi-kilometric to decametric scales. The fractured reservoir analog is defined with a dual porosity model in which tectonic and joint systems correspond to the basement reservoir "backbone" and "matrix" respectively. These two end-members reveal contrasting geometrical, reservoir, and scaling properties. In tectonic systems, multi-scale geometries are "self-similar", the fracture network shows fractal behavior (power-law length distribution and clustered spacing), and fault zones show hierarchical organization of geometrical parameters such as length, thickness, and spacing. In joint systems, the fracture network is scale dependent with exponential length distribution, and shows anti-clustered spacing. However, these two end-members have both well-connected properties, with fault zones acting as main drain and joint systems acting as the fluid supply.

  9. Ages and Compositions of the Precambrian High-grade Basement of the Qilian Terrane and Its Adjacent Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Based on geological, chronological, geochemical and Nd isotopicstudies of the high-grade basement of the Qilian terrane, the authors have drawn the following main conclusions: (1) the high-grade basement of the Qilian terrane consists mainly of meta-argillo-arenaceous rocks and granites and its bulk part was formed in the period of 0.8-1.0 Ga (the Jinningian period); (2) most of the meta-argillo-arenaceous rocks and granitic rocks have strong negative Eu and Ba anomalies (Eu/Eu*= 0.47-0.71 and Ba/Ba*= 0.16-0.64), with tDM and εNd (1.0 Ga) ranging from 1.87 to 2.26 Ga and from -8.54 to -4.06 respectively, showing relatively high maturity; and (3) the Jinningian granitic rocks are a typical product of continent-continent collision, being probably related to the formation of the supercontinent Rodinia. These studies, com bined with the study of high-grade basement rocks near the Qilian terrane, suggest that before the Jinningian period, the Qilian-Qaidam northern-margin terrane and Dunhuang-Alxa terrane were separated from each other, belonging to differ ent plate systems of the North China craton and Yangtze platform respectively. The Qilian orogenic belt was the same as or similar to the Qiling orogenic belt in terms of the geological evolution history at least before the Jinningian period.

  10. Lateral continuity of basement seismic reflections in 15 Ma ultrafast-spreading crust at ODP Site 1256 (United States)

    Nag, Sreeja; Swift, Stephen A.


    The Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) initiated drilling at Site 1256D in the Guatemala Basin, about 1,000 km off the East Pacific Rise to penetrate plutonic rocks, anticipated to be relatively shallow in this region, formed at an ultra-fast spreading rate. IODP Expedition E312 successfully drilled into gabbros at ~1,150 m in basement. Multi-channel seismic traces show weak laterally coherent sub-basement reflections at borehole depths. Synthetic reflectivity seismograms were computed using a Ricker wavelet and impedance profiles from borehole sonic logs. These seismograms show significant sub-basement amplitude peaks. A zero-offset vertical seismic profile, shot on E312, was processed to investigate the authenticity of these reflections and their relationship to borehole geology. A dual scheme of the median filtering and F-K dip filtering was used. Tests with synthetic seismograms indicate the approach is effective at reasonable SNR levels. Downgoing energy is clearly identified but negligible upgoing energy is visible over random noise. These results indicate that lava flows and igneous contacts in upper ocean crust have significant topography on lateral scales less than the Fresnel Zone (~300 m) due to igneous and tectonic processes.

  11. Metamorphism of the Basement of the Qilian Fold Belt in the Minhe-Ledu Area, Qinghai Province, NW China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡金郎; 魏光华; 王庆树


    The basement of the central Qilian fold belt exposed along the Minhe-Ledu highway consists of psammiticschists, metabasitic rocks, and crystalline limestone. Migmatitic rocks occur sporadically among psammitic schist andmetabasitic rocks. The mineral assemblage of psammitic schist is muscovite + biotite + feldspar + quartz + tourmaline ±titanite ± sillimanite and that of metabasitic rocks is amphibole + plagioclase + biotite ± apatite ± magnetite ± pyroxene ±garnet ± quartz. The migmatitic rock consists of leucosome and restite of various volume proportions; the former consistsof muscovite + alkaline feldspar + quartz ± garnet ± plagioclase while the latter is either fragments of psammitic schist orthose of metabasitic rock. The crystalline limestone consists of calcite that has been partly replaced by olivine. The olivinewas subsequently altered to serpentine. Weak deformations as indicated by cleavages and fractures were imposed promi-nently on the psammitic schists, occasionally on metabasitic rocks, but not on migmatitic rocks. The basement experiencedmetamorphism up to temperature 606-778C and pressure 4.8-6.1 kbar (0.48-0.61 GPa), equivalent to amphibolite-granulite facies. The peak of the metamorphism is marked by a migmatization which occurred at several localities alongthe studied route 587-535 Ma ago. The basement also recorded a retrograde metamorphism of greenschist facies, duringwhich biotite, garnet, amphibole, and pyroxene were partly altered to chlorite.

  12. Interactions between bar dynamics and herbaceous vegetation in gravel bed rivers: numerical simulations using BASEMENT (United States)

    Siviglia, Annunziato; Tettamanti, Stefano; Bertoldi, Walter; Toffolon, Marco; Vetsch, David; Francalanci, Simona


    A new 2D morphodynamic model for gravel bed rivers have been used to investigate the interaction between alternate bar dynamics and herbaceous vegetation. In particular, bed topography evolution has been coupled with the growth of vegetation, included as a function of the access to ground water. Numerical simulations were performed using the code BASEMENT (Vetsch et al., 2013), with the addition of a new submodel, dealing with the numerical description of the vegetation. The vegetation was allowed to grow during the dry season on exposed areas, and the vertical distribution of peak biomass was modeled as a function of the bed elevation, using a simple analytical formulation, following Marani et al. (2013). Flow resistance was divided into a component exerted by the bed and a component exerted by vegetation (Crosato and Saleh, 2010; Li and Millar, 2011); in this way we reproduced both the decrease in bed shear stress, reducing the sediment transport capacity of the flow within the plants, and the increase in hydraulic resistance, reducing flow velocity. The model was applied to a hypothetical case study, with grain size, longitudinal slope, and hydrological regime similar to that of the Magra River (Italy). A straight river reach, 125 m wide and 20 km long was simulated. Starting from an initially flat configuration, the river developed its own bar morphology, under steady formative conditions. After reaching a dynamic equilibrium, we allowed the vegetation to grow and interact with the morphodynamic evolution, reproducing a sequence of floods and growing seasons at low flow. We assumed that vegetation can be uprooted only if the bed shear stress exceeds a fixed threshold. Different scenarios were examined, varying the effect of vegetation in terms of increased resistance and threshold for uprooting (i.e. added sediment cohesion). Preliminary results confirmed that the herbaceous vegetation has a stabilizing effect on river morphology. As the density and strength of

  13. The first deep heat flow determination in crystalline basement rocks beneath the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin (United States)

    Majorowicz, Jacek; Chan, Judith; Crowell, James; Gosnold, Will; Heaman, Larry M.; Kück, Jochem; Nieuwenhuis, Greg; Schmitt, Douglas R.; Unsworth, Martyn; Walsh, Nathaniel; Weides, Simon


    Heat flow (Q) determined from bottom-hole temperatures measured in oil and gas wells in Alberta show a large scatter with values ranging from 40 to 90 mW m-2. Only two precise measurements of heat flow were previously reported in Alberta, and were made more than half a century ago. These were made in wells located near Edmonton, Alberta, and penetrated the upper kilometre of clastic sedimentary rocks yielding heat flows values of 61 and 67 mW m-2 (Garland & Lennox). Here, we report a new precise heat flow determination from a 2363-m deep well drilled into basement granite rocks just west of Fort McMurray, Alberta (the Hunt Well). Temperature logs acquired in 2010-2011 show a significant increase in the thermal gradient in the granite due to palaeoclimatic effects. In the case of the Hunt Well, heat flow at depths >2200 m is beyond the influence of the glacial-interglacial surface temperatures. Thermal conductivity and temperature measurements in the Hunt Well have shown that the heat flow below 2.2 km is 51 mW m-2 (±3 mW m-2), thermal conductivity measured by the divided bar method under bottom of the well in situ like condition is 2.5 W m-1 K-1, and 2.7 W m-1 K-1 in ambient conditions), and the geothermal gradient was measured as 20.4 mK m-1. The palaeoclimatic effect causes an underestimate of heat flow derived from measurements collected at depths shallower than 2200 m, meaning other heat flow estimates calculated from basin measurements have likely been underestimated. Heat production (A) was calculated from spectral gamma recorded in the Hunt Well granites to a depth of 1880 m and give an average A of 3.4 and 2.9 μW m-3 for the whole depth range of granites down to 2263 m, based on both gamma and spectral logs. This high A explains the relatively high heat flow measured within the Precambrian basement intersected by the Hunt Well; the Taltson Magmatic Zone. Heat flow and related heat generation from the Hunt Well fits the heat flow-heat generation

  14. Rift architecture and evolution: The Sirt Basin, Libya: The influence of basement fabrics and oblique tectonics (United States)

    Abdunaser, K. M.; McCaffrey, K. J. W.


    The Cretaceous-Tertiary northwest-trending Sirt Basin system, Libya, is a rift/sag basin formed on Pan-African to Paleozoic-aged basement of North Africa. In this study, we investigate the rift-basin architecture and tectonic framework of the western Sirt Basin. Using remote sensed data, supported by borehole data from about 300 deep wells and surface geologic maps, we constructed geological cross sections and surface geology maps. Indication of the relative timing of structures and movement along faults has been determined where possible. Direction statistics for all the interpreted linear features acquired in the study area were calculated and given as a total distribution and then the totals are broken down by the major basin elements of the area. Hundreds of lineaments were recognized. Their lengths, range between a hundred meters up to hundreds of kilometers and the longest of the dominant trends are between N35W-N55W and between N55E-N65E which coincides with Sirt Basin structures. The produced rose diagrams reveal that the majority of the surface linear features in the region have four preferred orientations: N40-50W in the Zallah Trough, N45-55W in the Dur al Abd Trough, N35-55W in the Az Zahrah-Al Hufrah Platform, and in contrast in the Waddan Uplift a N55-65E trend. We recognize six lithostratigraphic sequences (phases) in the area's stratigraphic framework. A Pre-graben (Pre-rift) initiation stage involved the Pre-Cretaceous sediments formed before the main Sirt Basin subsidence. Then followed a Cretaceous to Eocene graben-fill stage that can divided into four structurally-active and structurally-inactive periods, and finally a terminal continental siliciclastics-rich package representing the post-rift stage of the development in post-Eocene time. In general five major fault systems dissect and divide the study area into geomorphological elevated blocks and depressions. Most of the oil fields present in the study area are associated with structural hinge

  15. A study on the seismic AVO signatures of deep fractured geothermal reservoirs in an intrusive basement. (United States)

    Aleardi, M.; Mazzotti, A.


    Amplitude-variation-with-offset (AVO) analysis of reflected waves has become an important tool for hydrocarbon prospecting. However, while the AVO responses of reservoirs in clastic lithologies (oil or gas bearing sands) are well known, the AVO behaviour of reservoirs hosted in the interconnected fractures of massive rocks are almost unknown due to the rarity of this type of reservoirs and the consequent lack of seismic and well log data. Thanks to the availability of the data of boreholes that ENEL GreenPower drilled in the deep intrusive basement of the Larderello-Travale geothermal field, we have derived the expected AVO responses of the vapour reservoirs found in some intensely, but very localized, fractured volumes within the massive rocks. Therefore we wish to determine what are the expected AVO responses of geothermal reservoirs inside fractured igneous rocks and we seek to find one or more AVO attributes that may help identifying fracture locations. To this end, we have analysed the velocity (P-wave and S-wave) and the density logs pertaining to three wells which reached five deep fractured zones in the basement. However, comparing well log data with surface seismic data the known issues of the different scales and thus different resolutions arise. Therefore, making use of the Backus theory of the equivalent layer, we have downscaled the well logs, acquired at a decimetric scale, to a decametric scale typical of the wavelengths of seismic waves, producing a blocky model of the original logs. Subsequently, we have followed two different approaches to estimate the expected responses. First, on the basis of the P and S velocities and densities of the fractured level and of the encasing rock, we have computed the analytical AVO response of each fractured zone. To this end we have made use of the linear Shuey equation that well describes the AVO response up to incident angles of 30 degrees. This would be the theoretical, noise free, response that perfectly

  16. A Case of Fibrillary Glomerulonephritis Associated with Thrombotic Microangiopathy and Anti-Glomerular Basement Membrane Antibody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akishi Momose


    Full Text Available We present the first report of a case of fibrillary glomerulonephritis (FGN associated with thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA and anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody (anti-GBM antibody. A 54-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for high fever and anuria. On the first hospital day, we initiated hemodialysis for renal dysfunction. Laboratory data revealed normocytic-normochromic anemia with schistocytes in the peripheral smear, thrombocytopenia, increased serum lactate dehydrogenase, decreased serum haptoglobin, and negative results for both direct and indirect Coombs tests. Based on these results, we diagnosed TMA. Assays conducted several days later indicated a disintegrin-like and metalloprotease with a thrombospondin motif 13 (ADAMTS13 activity of 31.6%, and ADAMTS13 inhibitors were negative. We started plasma exchange using fresh frozen plasma and steroid pulse therapy. Anti-GBM antibody was found to be positive. Renal biopsy showed FGN. Blood pressure rose on the 46th hospital day, and mild convulsions developed. Based on magnetic resonance imaging of the head, the patient was diagnosed with reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome. Hypertension persisted despite administration of multiple antihypertensive agents, and the patient experienced a sudden generalized seizure. Computed tomography of the head showed multiple cerebral hemorrhages. However, his blood pressure subsequently decreased and the platelet count increased. TMA remitted following 36 plasma exchange sessions, but renal function was not restored, and maintenance hemodialysis was continued. The patient was discharged on the 119th day of hospitalization. In conclusion, it was shown that TMA, FGN and anti-GBM antibody were closely related.

  17. Ultrastructural morphometry of capillary basement membrane thickness in normal and transgenic diabetic mice. (United States)

    Carlson, Edward C; Audette, Janice L; Veitenheimer, Nicole J; Risan, Jessica A; Laturnus, Donna I; Epstein, Paul N


    Capillary basement membrane (CBM) thickening is an ultrastructural hallmark in diabetic patients and in animal models of diabetes. However, the wide variety of tissues sampled and diverse methods employed have made the interpretation of thickness data difficult. We showed previously that acellular glomerular BMs in OVE26 transgenic diabetic mice were thickened beyond normal age-related thickening, and in the current study we hypothesized that other microvascular BMs likewise would show increased widths relative to age-matched controls. Accordingly, a series of tissues, including skeletal and cardiac muscle, ocular retina and choriod, peripheral nerve, lung, pancreas, and renal glomerulus was collected from 300-350-day-old normal and transgenic mice. Transmission electron micrographs of cross sections through capillary walls were prepared, and CBM thickness (CBMT) was determined by the "orthogonal intercept" method. Morphometric analyses showed highly variable transgene-related BMT increases in the sampled tissues, with glomerular BM showing by far the greatest increase (+87%). Significant thickness increases were also seen in the retina, pulmonary alveolus, and thoracoabdominal diaphragm. BMT increases were not universal; however, most were modestly widened, and those that were thickest in controls generally showed the greatest increase. Although the pathogenesis of diabetes-related increases in CBM is poorly understood, data in the current study showed that in OVE26 transgenic mice increased BMT was a frequent concomitant of hyperglycemia. Accordingly, it seems likely that hyperglycemia-induced microvascular damage may be a contributing factor in diabetic BM disease, and that microvessel cellular and extracellular heterogeneity may limit the extent of CBM thickening in diverse tissues. PMID:12629676

  18. Post-orogenic exhumation history of a Variscan mid-crustal basement in Galicia (NW Spain) (United States)

    Grobe, Rene; Alvarez-Marrón, Joaquina; Glasmacher, Ulrich A.; Stuart, Finlay; Castañeda-Zarauz, A.


    The present study aims to quantify the complex post-orogenic history of cooling, denudation, and long-term landscape evolution of a mid-crustal section of Variscan basement in Galicia (NW Spain). We use apatite fission-track and apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronological techniques combined with time-temperature (t-T) path modelling using the software code HeFTy©. The topography is characterized by an extensive, low relief area at ~500 m elevation in central Galicia, and a WNW-ESE ridge that reaches up to 1000 m to the North. The area experienced two major tectonic events since the end of the Variscan orogeny in the Late Palaeozoic: 1) continental break-up and Mesozoic rifting leading to the opening of the Atlantic Ocean and the Bay of Biscay, and 2) limited convergence between Iberia and Eurasia since Middle Eocene times. Apatite fission-track ages range from 68.1 ± 5.0 Ma to 174.5 ± 7.7 Ma and apatite (U-Th)/He ages range from 73.6 ± 5.4 to 147.1 ± 16.6 Ma. Age-elevation plots and t-T path modelling suggest a tectonothermal evolution with faster exhumation associated to faulting during Mesozoic rifting. In particular, two major fault systems trending WNW-ESE and NNE-SSW, the As Pontes and the Lugo faults respectively separate areas with the fastest exhumation around 115 Ma from areas with overall slow exhumation since 200-150 Ma. A landscape of subdued topography in central Galicia was acquired prior to Eocene convergence. The higher elevation areas along the northern ridge formed since Middle Eocene times due to fault reactivation and minor exhumation occurred along the fault escarpment.

  19. The effect of asthma on the perimeter of the airway basement membrane. (United States)

    Elliot, John G; Budgeon, Charley A; Harji, Salima; Jones, Robyn L; James, Alan L; Green, Francis H


    When comparing the pathology of airways in individuals with and without asthma, the perimeter of the basement membrane (Pbm) is used as a marker of airway size, as it is independent of airway smooth muscle shortening or airway collapse. The extent to which the Pbm is itself altered in asthma has not been quantified. The aim of this study was to compare the Pbm from the same anatomical sites in postmortem lungs from subjects with (n = 55) and without (n = 30) asthma (nonfatal or fatal). Large and small airways were systematically sampled at equidistant "levels" from the apical segment of the left upper lobes and anterior and basal segments of the left lower lobes of lungs fixed in inflation. The length of the Pbm was estimated from cross sections of airway at each relative level. Linear mixed models were used to investigate the relationships between Pbm and sex, age, height, smoking status, airway level, and asthma group. The final model showed significant interactions between Pbm and airway level in small (<3 mm) airways, in subjects having asthma (P < 0.0001), and by sex (P < 0.0001). No significant interactions for Pbm between asthma groups were observed for larger airways (equivalent to a diameter of ∼3 mm and greater) or smoking status. Asthma is not associated with remodeling of the Pbm in large airways. In medium and small airways, the decrease in Pbm in asthma (≤20%) would not account for the published differences in wall area or area of smooth muscle observed in cases of severe asthma.

  20. Evolution of Pre-Jurassic basement beneath northern Gulf of Mexico coastal plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Siclen, D.C.


    Data from the northern Gulf Coast region reveal a late Paleozoic wrench fault system along which North America (NA) moved southeast (present directions) alongside the northeastern edge of future South America (SA), to where collision with that continent converted a broad continental embankment off the Southern Oklahoma aulacogen into the Ouachita thrust belt. At the same time, Africa farther east, to which protruding SA was firmly joined, was continuing to advance the Appalachian thrusts on the opposite side of these faults. This relationship left no space between the American continents for the conventional remnant ocean or microcontinents. By Late Triassic time, however, extension south of the Ouachita Mountains was forming the series of Interior rift basins, at both ends of which new wrench faults transferred the extension southward to the DeSoto Canyon and South Texas rift basins. Genetically, the Ouachita thrusts are part of the subduction zone along the front of a former SA forearc basin, which continued to receive marine sediments into middle Permian. The Wiggins arch southeast of it is a sliver of that continent, left with NA when the Interior basin rifting jumped from that forearc basin southward across bordering outer basement highs to begin opening the deep Gulf of Mexico (GOM) basin. The Late Triassic crustal extension resulted from right-lateral translation of NA around the bulge of northwestern Africa. About 200 mi of this placed Cape Hatteras against Africa's Cap Blanc, in the configuration from which the magnetic data indicate spreading began in the Central North Atlantic Ocean. The reality of this translation is confirmed by widespread rifting at the same time in western North Africa and between all three northern Atlantic continents; this drew the tip of the Tethys sea southward to Cape Hatteras and led to deposition of voluminous Late Triassic red beds and evaporites along it.

  1. Long-term outcome of anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody disease treated with immunoadsorption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Biesenbach

    Full Text Available Anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM antibody disease may lead to acute crescentic glomerulonephritis with poor renal prognosis. Current therapy favours plasma exchange (PE for removal of pathogenic antibodies. Immunoadsorption (IAS is superior to PE regarding efficiency of antibody-removal and safety. Apart from anecdotal data, there is no systemic analysis of the long-term effects of IAS on anti-GBM-disease and antibody kinetics.To examine the long-term effect of high-frequency IAS combined with standard immunosuppression on patient and renal survival in patients with anti-GBM-disease and to quantify antibody removal and kinetics through IAS.Retrospective review of patients treated with IAS for anti-GBM-antibody disease confirmed by biopsy and/or anti-GBM-antibodies.University Hospital of Vienna, Austria.10 patients with anti-GBM-disease treated with IAS.Patient and renal survival, renal histology, anti-GBM-antibodies.Anti-GBM-antibodies were reduced by the first 9 IAS treatments (mean number of 23 to negative levels in all patients. Renal survival was 40% at diagnosis, 70% after the end of IAS, 63% after one year and 50% at the end of observation (mean 84 months, range 9 to 186. Dialysis dependency was successfully reversed in three of six patients. Patient survival was 90% at the end of observation.IAS efficiently eliminates anti-GBM-antibodies suggesting non-inferiority to PE with regard to renal and patient survival. Hence IAS should be considered as a valuable treatment option for anti-GBM-disease, especially in patients presenting with a high percentage of crescents and dialysis dependency due to an unusual high proportion of responders.

  2. Two-stage formation model of the Junggar basin basement: Constraints to the growth style of Central Asian Orogenic Belt (United States)

    He, Dengfa


    Junggar Basin is located in the central part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). Its basement nature is a highly controversial scientific topic, involving the basic style and processes of crustal growth. Some researchers considered the basement of the Junggar Basin as a Precambrian continental crust, which is not consistent with the petrological compositions of the adjacent orogenic belts and the crust isotopic compositions revealed by the volcanic rocks in the basin. Others, on the contrary, proposed an oceanic crust basement model that does not match with the crustal thickness and geophysical characteristics of the Junggar area. Additionally, there are several viewponits, such as the duplex basement with the underlying Precambrian crystalline rocks and the overlying pre-Carboniferous folded basement, and the collaged basement by the Precambrian micro-continent block in the central part and the Hercynian accretionary folded belts circling it. Anyway, it is necessary to explain the property of basement rock, its strong inhomogeneous compositions as well as the geophysical features. In this paper, based on the borehole data from more than 300 industry wells drilled into the Carboniferous System, together with the high-resolution gravity and magnetic data (in a scale of 1:50,000), we made a detailed analysis of the basement structure, formation timing and processes and its later evolution on a basis of core geochemical and isotopic analysis. Firstly, we defined the Mahu Pre-Cambrian micro-continental block in the juvenile crust of Junggar Basin according to the Hf isotopic analysis of the Carboniferous volcanic rocks. Secondly, the results of the tectonic setting and basin analysis suggest that the Junggar area incorporates three approximately E-W trending island arc belts (from north to south: Yemaquan- Wulungu-Chingiz, Jiangjunmiao-Luliang-Darbut and Zhongguai-Mosuowan- Baijiahai-Qitai island arcs respectively) and intervened three approximately E-W trending

  3. High-angle faults in the basement of Yucca Flats, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, based on the analysis of a constrained gravity inversion surface (United States)

    Phelps, Geoffrey A.; McKee, Edwin H.


    Using a model of the topographic subsurface derived from drill hole and gravity inversion analysis of the basement rocks in Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, a fault map and digital fault dataset were constructed based on offsets of the basement surface. Because these faults are, in large part, not present at the surface, they are interpreted to be inactive faults, older than the alluvial basin fill.

  4. Insufficient Folding of Type IV Collagen and Formation of Abnormal Basement Membrane-like Structure in Embryoid Bodies Derived from Hsp47-Null Embryonic Stem CellsD⃞


    Matsuoka, Yasuhiro; Kubota, Hiroshi; Adachi, Eijiro; Nagai, Naoko; Marutani, Toshihiro; Hosokawa, Nobuko; Nagata, Kazuhiro


    Hsp47 is a molecular chaperone that specifically recognizes procollagen in the endoplasmic reticulum. Hsp47-null mouse embryos produce immature type I collagen and form discontinuous basement membranes. We established Hsp47-/- embryonic stem cell lines and examined formation of basement membrane and production of type IV collagen in embryoid bodies, a model for postimplantation egg-cylinder stage embryos. The visceral endodermal cell layers surrounding Hsp47-/- embryoid bodies were often diso...

  5. Decrypting the Formation Conditions of the Basement Carbonate-Bearing Rocks at Nili Fossae (United States)

    Brown, A. J.


    The Nili Fossae region is the site of a number of proposed Landing Sites for the Mars 2020 Rover. A distinguishing feature of many of these sites is the access to large exposures of carbonate (Ehlmann et al. 2008). Serpentinization has been proposed as a formation mechanism of these carbonates, including carbonated (Brown et al. 2010, Viviano, et al. 2013) and low temperature, near surface serpentinization. The potential for carbonated serpentization at Nili Fossae links the region to Earth analogs in terrestrial greenstone belts such as the Pilbara in Western Australia, where talc-carbonate bearing komatiite cumulate units of the Dresser Formation overlie the siliceous, stromatolite-bearing Strelley Pool Chert unit (Van Kranendonk and Pirajno, 2004). If a similar relationship exists on Mars, investigations of rocks stratigraphically beneath the carbonate-bearing units at Nili Fossae ("the basement rocks") may provide the best chance to examine well preserved organic material from the Noachian. This hypothesis is testable by Mars 2020. In preparation for the the Mars 2020 landing site, we are examining the thermodynamic relationships that favor formation of serpentine and talc-carbonate and different pressures and temperatures in the crust (Barnes 2007). This will allow us to constrain the low grade metamorphism required to replicate the proposed models of serpentinisation and help us understand the regional metamophic gradient that is critical to furthering our knowledge of the ancient rocks of Nili Fossae. Refs:Barnes, S. J. "Komatiites: Petrology, Volcanology, Metamorphism, and Geochemistry." S.E.G. 13 (2007): 13. Brown, A. J., et al.. "Hydrothermal Formation of Clay-Carbonate Alteration Assemblages in the Nili Fossae Region of Mars." EPSL 297 (2010): 174-82. Ehlmann, B. L. et al. "Orbital Identification of Carbonate-Bearing Rocks on Mars." Science 322, no. 5909 1828-32. Van Kranendonk, M.J., and F. Pirajno. "Geochemistry of Metabasalts and Hydrothermal

  6. Scaled 3D modeling of poly-phase tectonic deformation: A new analogue material for basement rock, with controlled variable strength. (United States)

    Nieuwland, D. A.; Koekoek, G.; van Mechelen, D.; Papo, M.


    A common process in tectonic faulting is that of poly-phase deformation. A majority of neo-tectonic structures is controlled by reactivated pre-existing faults in the underlying basement. A reliable interpretation of such neo-tectonic structures is only possible if the process of the poly-phase deformation can be described and understood in terms of the geomechanics. We have developed an analogue modelling approach to poly-phase deformation. The aim of the project was to construct analogue models with reliable scaling of strength, length, geometry and kinematics of poly-phase tectonic deformation in 3D. The natural process generally involves a faulted basement sequence of relatively strong rocks and a younger cover sequence of weaker rocks. The main problem here has always been to find a material to model the strong basement rocks. A good basement analogue needs to be strong enough to support fault reactivation without braking itself, however, it should brake when the stress conditions require. For example, compression perpendicular to a steep basement fault should break the basement. The weak cover can be modelled with dry sand, which is essentially cohesionless, but for the stronger basement a good analogue was not available (wooden blocks often used in analogue models are too strong). The orientation and geometry of faults and fault patterns is controlled by the internal friction angle (f) of the deformed rock. For the majority of brittle rocks f is of the order of 30o, for the sand that is used for analogue modelling f=32o. In order to model the basement rock a brittle material was needed that must be stronger that dry sand, strong enough to remain intact during fault reactivation, but weak enough to break when a fault is too steep to be reactivated in horizontal compression conditions. In the analogue modelling lab of the VU (TecLab) we have recently succeeded in forming such a basement material. The material can be made at any required strength to make

  7. Geochemical, microtextural and petrological studies of the Samba prospect in the Zambian Copperbelt basement: a metamorphosed Palaeoproterozoic porphyry Cu deposit. (United States)

    Master, Sharad; Mirrander Ndhlovu, N.


    Ever since Wakefield (1978, IMM Trans., B87, 43-52) described a porphyry-type meta-morphosed Cu prospect, the ca 50 Mt, 0.5% Cu Samba deposit (12.717°S, 27.833°E), hosted by porphyry-associated quartz-sericite-biotite schists in northern Zambia, there has been controversy about its origin and significance. This is because it is situated in the basement to the world's largest stratabound sediment-hosted copper province, the Central African Copperbelt, which is hosted by rocks of the Neoproterozoic Katanga Supergroup. Mineralization in the pre-Katangan basement has long played a prominent role in ore genetic models, with some authors suggesting that basement Cu mineralization may have been recycled into the Katangan basin through erosion and redeposition, while others have suggested that the circulation of fluids through Cu-rich basement may have leached out the metals which are found concentrated in the Katangan orebodies. On the basis of ca 490-460 Ma Ar-Ar ages, Hitzman et al. (2012, Sillitoe Vol., SEG Spec. Publ., 16, 487-514) suggested that Samba represents late-stage impregnation of copper mineralization into the basement, and that it was one of the youngest copper deposits known in the Central African Copperbelt. If the Samba deposit really is that young, then it would have post-dated regional deformation and metamorphism (560-510 Ma), and it ought to be undeformed and unmetamorphosed. The Samba mineralization consists of chalcopyrite and bornite, occurring as disseminations, stringers and veinlets, found in a zone >1 km along strike, in steeply-dipping lenses up to 10m thick and >150m deep. Our new major and trace element XRF geochemical data (14 samples) show that the host rocks are mainly calc-alkaline metadacites. Cu is correlated with Ag (Cu/Ag ~10,000:1) with no Au or Mo. Our study focused on the microtextures and petrology of the Samba ores. We confirm that there is alteration of similar style to that accompanying classical porphyry Cu mineralization

  8. In vivo laser confocal microscopy findings in patients with map-dot-fingerprint (epithelial basement membrane dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobayashi A


    Full Text Available Akira Kobayashi, Hideaki Yokogawa, Kazuhisa SugiyamaDepartment of Ophthalmology, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa, JapanBackground: The purpose of this study was to investigate pathological changes of the corneal cell layer in patients with map-dot-fingerprint (epithelial basement membrane dystrophy by in vivo laser corneal confocal microscopy.Methods: Two patients were evaluated using a cornea-specific in vivo laser scanning confocal microscope (Heidelberg Retina Tomograph 2 Rostock Cornea Module, HRT 2-RCM. The affected corneal areas of both patients were examined. Image analysis was performed to identify corneal epithelial and stromal deposits correlated with this dystrophy.Results: Variously shaped (linear, multilaminar, curvilinear, ring-shape, geographic highly reflective materials were observed in the “map” area, mainly in the basal epithelial cell layer. In “fingerprint” lesions, multiple linear and curvilinear hyporeflective lines were observed. Additionally, in the affected corneas, infiltration of possible Langerhans cells and other inflammatory cells was observed as highly reflective Langerhans cell-like or dot images. Finally, needle-shaped materials were observed in one patient.Conclusion: HRT 2-RCM laser confocal microscopy is capable of identifying corneal microstructural changes related to map-dot-fingerprint corneal dystrophy in vivo. The technique may be useful in elucidating the pathogenesis and natural course of map-dot-fingerprint corneal dystrophy and other similar basement membrane abnormalities.Keywords: cornea, confocal microscopy, map-dot-fingerprint dystrophy, epithelial basement membrane dystrophy, Heidelberg Retina Tomograph 2 Rostock Cornea Module (HRT 2-RCM

  9. Structural interpretation of the Erzurum Basin, eastern Turkey, using curvature gravity gradient tensor and gravity inversion of basement relief (United States)

    Oruç, B.; Sertçelik, İ.; Kafadar, Ö.; Selim, H. H.


    The Erzurum Basin has received more attention in petroleum potential research because of its particularity in geographic and tectonic position. There remains debate on the basement structure of the basin since igneous rocks and faults make the structure and stratigraphy more complicated. We utilize gravity data to understand the structure of the Erzurum Basin. This study describes an edge enhancement technique based on the eigenvalues and determinant obtained from the curvature gravity gradient tensor (CGGT). The main goal of this technique is to delineate structural boundaries in complex geology and tectonic environment using CGGT. The results obtained from theoretical data, with and without Gaussian random noise, have been analyzed in determining the locations of the edges of the vertical-sided prism models. The zero contours of the smallest eigenvalue delineate the spatial location of the edges of the anomalous sources. In addition, 3-D gravity inversion of Bouguer anomalies has been used with purpose to estimate the structure of the substrata to allow modeling of the basement undulation in the Erzurum basin. For this reason, the Parker-Oldenburg algorithm helped to investigate this undulation and to evidence the main linear features. This algorithm reveals presence of basement depths between 3.45 and 9.06 km in the region bounded by NE-SW and E-W trending lineaments. We have also compared the smallest eigenvalue zero contours with the HGM images and Tilt derivative (TDR) of Bouguer anomaly map of the study area. All techniques have agreed closely in detecting the horizontal locations of geological features in the subsurface with good precision.

  10. Overexpression of β1-chain-containing laminins in capillary basement membranes of human breast cancer and its metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laminins are the major components of vascular and parenchymal basement membranes. We previously documented a switch in the expression of vascular laminins containing the α4 chain from predominantly laminin-9 (α4β2γ1) to predominantly laminin-8 (α4β1γ1) during progression of human brain gliomas to high-grade glioblastoma multiforme. Here, differential expression of laminins was studied in blood vessels and ductal epithelium of the breast. In the present study the expressions of laminin isoforms α1–α5, β1–β3, γ1, and γ2 were examined during progression of breast cancer. Forty-five clinical samples of breast tissues including normal breast, ductal carcinomas in situ, invasive ductal carcinomas, and their metastases to the brain were compared using Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry for various chains of laminin, in particular laminin-8 and laminin-9. Laminin α4 chain was observed in vascular basement membranes of most studied tissues, with the highest expression in metastases. At the same time, the expression of laminin β2 chain (a constituent of laminin-9) was mostly seen in normal breast and carcinomas in situ but not in invasive carcinomas or metastases. In contrast, laminin β1 chain (a constituent of laminin-8) was typically found in vessel walls of carcinomas and their metastases but not in those of normal breast. The expression of laminin-8 increased in a progression-dependent manner. A similar change was observed from laminin-11 (α5β2γ1) to laminin-10 (α5β1γ1) during breast tumor progression. Additionally, laminin-2 (α2β1γ1) appeared in vascular basement membranes of invasive carcinomas and metastases. Chains of laminin-5 (α3β3γ2) were expressed in the ductal epithelium basement membranes of the breast and diminished with tumor progression. These results suggest that laminin-2, laminin-8, and laminin-10 are important components of tumor microvessels and may associate with breast tumor progression. Angiogenic switch

  11. Geochemical and geochronologic analysis of the plutonic basement of the Tacaná Volcano Complex, Chiapas México. (United States)

    Paul William, L.


    The Tacana Volcano Complex (TVC) is located on the border between the State of Chiapas, southern Mexico, and Guatemala. This volcanic complex has been described as the last volcano in the northwest part of the Central American Volcanic Arc (CAVA). The region where the TVC was emplaced is influenced by the transpressional boundary formed by the shear movement between the North American and Caribbean Plates and the compressive stress by the subduction of the Cocos Plate under the North American Plate. The most recently study about TVC was by García-Palomo et al. (2004), who summarized the chronology of the TVC from basement formation to its recent activity and report that the active TVC lies on igneous basement rocks that were formed by two magmatic processes during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic. In this work, we present the results of detailed petrographic, geochemical and geochronologic analyses obtained from plutonic rocks in the basement of the TVC zone. The results show that t this basement (granites: SiO2 of 64.64 to 65.29 wt%, granodiorites: SiO2 of 60.18 wt%, and gabbros: SiO2 of 51.67 wt%) belongs to the suite of plutonic rocks of an orogenic environment. The granites are classified as both S-type peraluminosus granites derived form partial melting of continental crust, characterized by minerals such as quartz, k-feldspar, biotite, hornblende and some Fe-Ti oxides and I-type metaluminous granites derived from subduction processes with the main mineral phases being quartz, k-feldspar, hornblende, biotite and Fe-Ti oxides. The ages thus far obtained (K- Ma to 12.65 +/- 0.08 Ma) suggest that there were at least nine periods of magmatic activity that produced granitic and mafic magmas. Reference: Garcia-Palomo, A., Macias, J.L., Arce, J.L., Mora, J.C., Hughes, S., Saucedo, R., Espindola, J.M., Escobar, R., and Layer, P., (2004). GSA Special Paper 412, p 39-57.

  12. Composition and timing of carbonate vein precipitation within the igneous basement of the Early Cretaceous Shatsky Rise, NW Pacific (United States)

    Geldmacher, J.; Li, S.; Hauff, F. F.; Garbe-Schoenberg, C.; Yu, S.; Zhao, S.; Rausch, S.


    Shatsky Rise is an Early Cretaceous large igneous province located in the NW Pacific ca. 1500 km east of Japan and is the third-largest oceanic plateau on Earth (after Ontong Java and Kerguelen). Numerous calcium carbonate veins were recovered from the igneous basement of Shatsky Rise during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 324 (Sager et al., 2010). The chemical (Sr/Ca, Mg/Ca) and isotopic (87Sr/86Sr, 143Nd/144Nd, δ18O, δ13C) compositions of these veins were determined to constrain the timing of vein formation and to provide valuable data for the reconstruction of past seawater composition. A dominant control of seawater chemistry on calcite composition is evident for most investigated vein samples with varying compositional contribution from the basaltic basement. The Sr/Ca ratio of the vein calcite is positively correlated with Mg/Ca and with δ18O, indicating warmer/colder precipitation temperatures with decreasing/increasing Sr/Ca (and Mg/Ca) ratios, respectively. Distinctly higher formation temperatures (as inferred from oxygen isotope ratios) indicative of hydrothermal vein formation are only observed at one site (Site U1350, drilled into the central part of Shatsky Rise). The highest 87Sr/86Sr ratios (least basement influence) of vein samples at each drill site range form 0.707264 to 0.707550 and are believed to best reflect contemporaneous Early Cretaceous seawater composition. In principle, age information can be deduced by correlating these ratios with the global seawater Sr isotope evolution. Since the Sr isotopic composition of seawater has fluctuated three times between the early and mid Cretaceous (McArthur et al., 2001) no unambiguous precipitation ages can be constrained by this method and vein precipitation could have occurred at any time between ˜80 and 140 Ma. However, based on combined chemical and isotopic data and correlations of vein composition with formation depth and inferred temperature, we argue for a rather early

  13. Peninsular terrane basement ages recorded by Paleozoic and Paleoproterozoic zircon in gabbro xenoliths and andesite from Redoubt volcano, Alaska (United States)

    Bacon, Charles R.; Vazquez, Jorge A.; Wooden, Joseph L.


    Historically Sactive Redoubt volcano is an Aleutian arc basalt-to-dacite cone constructed upon the Jurassic–Early Tertiary Alaska–Aleutian Range batholith. The batholith intrudes the Peninsular tectonostratigraphic terrane, which is considered to have developed on oceanic basement and to have accreted to North America, possibly in Late Jurassic time. Xenoliths in Redoubt magmas have been thought to be modern cumulate gabbros and fragments of the batholith. However, new sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) U-Pb ages for zircon from gabbro xenoliths from a late Pleistocene pyroclastic deposit are dominated by much older, ca. 310 Ma Pennsylvanian and ca. 1865 Ma Paleoproterozoic grains. Zircon age distributions and trace-element concentrations indicate that the ca. 310 Ma zircons date gabbroic intrusive rocks, and the ca. 1865 Ma zircons also are likely from igneous rocks in or beneath Peninsular terrane basement. The trace-element data imply that four of five Cretaceous–Paleocene zircons, and Pennsylvanian low-U, low-Th zircons in one sample, grew from metamorphic or hydrothermal fluids. Textural evidence of xenocrysts and a dominant population of ca. 1865 Ma zircon in juvenile crystal-rich andesite from the same pyroclastic deposit show that this basement has been assimilated by Redoubt magma. Equilibration temperatures and oxygen fugacities indicated by Fe-Ti–oxide minerals in the gabbros and crystal-rich andesite suggest sources near the margins of the Redoubt magmatic system, most likely in the magma accumulation and storage region currently outlined by seismicity and magma petrology at ∼4–10 km below sea level. Additionally, a partially melted gabbro from the 1990 eruption contains zircon with U-Pb ages between ca. 620 Ma and ca. 1705 Ma, as well as one zircon with a U-Th disequilibrium model age of 0 ka. The zircon ages demonstrate that Pennsylvanian, and probably Paleoproterozoic, igneous rocks exist in, or possibly beneath, Peninsular

  14. Research Concerning the Water Seepage in the Basement of the Orthodox Cathedral of Bacău

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Rotaru


    Full Text Available Most basement water problems appear and it is always necessary to prevent and to eliminate them. If these problems occur at a new and very important building, the solutions must appear immediately. The paper describes the research made at the Orthodox Cathedral of Bacau, Romania, from the point of view of the water appeared in the basement and in the Civil Defense Shelter in the early 2007. The research used the results of two geotechnical profiles, which show bedding consisting of a packing layer of 2.00 m thick, a fine sedimentary horizon of 6.00 m thickness and a coarse sedimentary horizon at -8.00 m depth. Groundwater is quartered in the coarse sedimentary horizon, the latter ranging from 10.00 m to 11.00 m below the Natural Ground Elevation. After the presentation of sources from where water could come, the paper presents some water leak mitigation methods to be used at the Orthodox Cathedral of Bacău

  15. Deletion of the basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan type XVIII collagen causes hypertriglyceridemia in mice and humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph R Bishop

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lipoprotein lipase (Lpl acts on triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in the peripheral circulation, liberating free fatty acids for energy metabolism or storage. This essential enzyme is synthesized in parenchymal cells of adipose tissue, heart, and skeletal muscle and migrates to the luminal side of the vascular endothelium where it acts upon circulating lipoproteins. Prior studies suggested that Lpl is immobilized by way of heparan sulfate proteoglycans on the endothelium, but genetically altering endothelial cell heparan sulfate had no effect on Lpl localization or lipolysis. The objective of this study was to determine if extracellular matrix proteoglycans affect Lpl distribution and triglyceride metabolism. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We examined mutant mice defective in collagen XVIII (Col18, a heparan sulfate proteoglycan present in vascular basement membranes. Loss of Col18 reduces plasma levels of Lpl enzyme and activity, which results in mild fasting hypertriglyceridemia and diet-induced hyperchylomicronemia. Humans with Knobloch Syndrome caused by a null mutation in the vascular form of Col18 also present lower than normal plasma Lpl mass and activity and exhibit fasting hypertriglyceridemia. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report demonstrating that Lpl presentation on the lumenal side of the endothelium depends on a basement membrane proteoglycan and demonstrates a previously unrecognized phenotype in patients lacking Col18.

  16. Using micro-isotopic approaches to evaluate the origin and emplacement mechanism of the Basement Sill, Dry Valleys, Antarctica (United States)

    Davidson, J. P.; Jerram, D.; Petford, N.; Marsh, B.


    Isotopic fingerprinting of mineral phases in volcanic rocks has been successfully employed recently to track magma evolution and to identify populations from different sources. Integration of this approach with textural characterisation allows chemical evolution to be integrated with physical changes (growth, nucleation, mixing). In plutonic rocks this approach has been shown to be valid, despite the potential for isotopic re-equilibration during more protracted cooling than volcanic rocks. In fact, the degree of isotopic reequilibration can be used to constrain the cooling rate of the rock, which, in turn, relates to the emplacement history. At the Rum layered mafic intrusion, NW Scotland, isotopically distinct plagioclase cores and rims suggest relatively rapid cooling (at the scale of an individual layer) of the order 0.1°C per year, consistent with sill-like emplacement. The origin of isotopic variation is consistent with growth from a progressively contaminated magma prior to transport and deposition. The Basement Sill of the Dry Valleys Complex, Antarctica, contains an opx-rich tongue claimed to be emplaced as a crystal mush into a crystal-poor magmatic envelope. Given the broadly similar dimensions and compositions of the Rum Intrusion and Basement Sill we expect to be able to use micro-isotopic analyses of cumulus plagioclase crystals in the opx tongue to a) determine whether the magmatic source is the same as the rest of the sill, b) constrain the effects of contamination during crystal growth and emplacement and c) constrain cooling pathways

  17. Proterozoic basement and Palaeozoic sediments in the Ringkøbing–Fyn High characterized by zircon U–Pb ages and heavy minerals from Danish onshore wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivarius, Mette; Friis, Henrik; Kokfelt, Thomas F.;


    –Fyn High is a WNW–ESE trending structural high including subcropping basement rocks, and the results indicate that it is a southerly extension of the Fennoscandian Shield. The zircon data show matching age distribution patterns in crystalline basement rocks obtained from two drill sites, the Glamsbjerg-1......New data from the Proterozoic basement and scattered Palaeozoic sediments in the Ringkøbing–Fyn High including zircon U–Pb geochronometry, heavy mineral compositions and whole rock geochemistry is presented here to provide a frame of reference for detrital provenance studies. The Ringkøbing...... and Grindsted-1 wells. They both record a characteristic Telemarkian accretionary event at 1.51 and 1.48 Ga and a Sveconorwegian metamorphic overprinting at 1.08 Ga. Furthermore, the dominant age intervals in the Glamsbjerg High (1.55–1.48 Ga) and the Grindsted High (1.51–1.44 Ga) suggest that rocks...

  18. Zircon SHRIMP U-Pb dating of meta-diorite from the basement of the Songliao Basin and its geological significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ying; ZHANG Fuqin; ZHANG Dawei; MIAO Laicheng; LI Tiesheng; XIE Hangqiang; MENG Qingren; LIU Dunyi


    The basement of the Songliao Basin mainly contains low-grade metamorphic rocks and granites. It has been long disputed whether the basin has Precambrian metamorphic basement. This is a report of zircon SHRIMP U-Pb dating results of a meta-diorite sample, which was taken from the Si-5 drilling hole in the southern portion of the Songliao Basin. The SHRIMP analyses indicate that the meta-diorite with a weighted mean 207Pb/206Pb age of 1839±7 Ma (2σ, n = 8) was emplaced during Paleo-Proterozoic time. Additionally, the meta-diorite has old Nd model ages (TDM1:2999Ma; TDM2:2849Ma). These data suggest that the southern part of the Songliao Basin do possess Precambrian basement.

  19. Geophysically inferred structural and lithologic map of the precambrian basement in the Joplin 1 degree by 2 degrees Quadrangle, Kansas and Missouri (United States)

    McCafferty, Anne E.; Cordell, Lindrith E.


    This report is an analysis of regional gravity and aeromagnetic data that was carried out as part of a Conterminuous United States Mineral Assessment Program (CUSMAP) study of the Joplin 1° X 2° quadrangle, Kansas and Missouri. It is one in a series of reports representing a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey, Kansas Geological Survey, and Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geology and Land Survey. The work presented here is part of a larger project whose goal is to assess the mineral resource potential of the Paleozoic sedimentary section and crystalline basement within the quadrangle. Reports discussing geochemical, geological, and various other aspects of the study area are included in this Miscellaneous Field Studies Map series as MF-2125-A through MF-2125-E. Geophysical interpretation of Precambrian crystalline basement lithology and structure is the focus of this report. The study of the crystalline basement is complicated by the lack of exposures due to the presence of a thick sequence of Phanerozoic sedimentary cover. In areas where there are no outcrops, the geologist must turn to other indirect methods to assist in an understanding of the basement. Previous investigations of the buried basement in this region used available drill hole data, isotope age information, and regional geophysical data (Sims, 1990; Denison and others, 1984; Bickford and others, 1986). These studies were regional in scope and were presented at state and multistate scales. The work documented here used recently collected detailed gravity and aeromagnetic data to enhance the regional geologic knowledge of the area. Terrace-density and terrace-magnetization maps were calculated from the gravity and aeromagnetic data, leading directly to inferred physical-property (density and magnetization) maps. Once these maps were produced, the known geology and drill-hole data were reconciled with the physical-property maps to form a refined structural and

  20. Mapping Precambrian Basement Fabric with Magnetic Data in the Karonga Basin Area and its Control on the Development of the Malawi Rift. (United States)

    Johnson, T.; Abdelsalam, M. G.; Atekwana, E. A.; Chindandali, P. R. N.; Clappe, B.; Laó-Dávila, D. A.; Dawson, S.; Hull, C. D.; Nyalugwe, V.; Salima, J.


    The Malawi Rift forms the southern termination of the western branch of the East African Rift System. It is suggested that it propagates from the Rungwe Volcanic Province in the north for ~700 km into Mozambique in the south. The northern portion of the Malawi Rift is dominated by the Mesoproterozoic basement rocks of the Ubendian-Usagaran belts to the north and west and the Irumide Belt in the south. The Mugese shear zone (MSZ) forms the boundary between the Ubendian-Usagaran and Irumide Belts. We used magnetic data to determine the relationship between the geology of the nascent Malawi Rift and the strong magnetic fabric observed in the Mugese shear zone from aeromagnetic maps. We integrated the aeromagnetic data with ground magnetic data acquired along two W-E transects using a cesium vapor magnetometer at a nominal station spacing of 500 m. We also acquired kinematic data (strike and dip) on exposed basement geology and Karoo sediments. Both transects extend from the uplifted basement areas cutting across the MSZ into the rift floor sediments. Our results show that the MSZ is characterized by a prominent WNW-ESE magnetic anomaly that is parallel to the basement fabric north of the town of Karonga but changes orientation to NNW-SSE south of Karonga. This shear zone is composed of gneisses in amphibolite to granulite facies that are steeply dipping (50-80°) to the west. The strong magnetization and magnetic lineation of the MSZ results from alternating light and dark colored gneissic bands. This magnetization is strongest in unweathered basement rocks and lowest in weathered basement rocks and Karoo sediments. The orientation of the strong magnetic fabric of the Mugese shear zone may play an important role on the accommodation of strain within the rift basin. Detailed mapping of the magnetic fabric can improve our understanding of the formation of faults in the nascent Malawi Rift.

  1. Low-temperature thermochronology of the northern Thomson Orogen: Implications for exhumation of basement rocks in NE Australia (United States)

    Verdel, Charles; Stockli, Daniel; Purdy, David


    The Tasmanides of eastern Australia record much of the Phanerozoic tectonic development of the retreating Pacific-Australia plate boundary and are an oft-cited example of an orogen that has undergone "tectonic mode switching." To begin to constrain the timing of exhumation of basement rocks that are now exposed in portions of the NE Tasmanides, we measured apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He ages from the Thomson Orogen and overlying Paleozoic strata in the back-arc of the New England Orogen in NE Australia. Zircon (U-Th)/He ages from basement samples (including those recovered from boreholes at depths of up to 1.1 km) are characterized by large inter- and intra-sample variability and range from approximately 180 Ma (Early Jurassic) to 375 Ma (Late Devonian). (U-Th)/He zircon ages from several individual samples are negatively correlated with effective uranium (eU), a pattern that is also true of the dataset as a whole, suggesting that variations in U and Th zoning and radiation damage are partially responsible for the age variability. The oldest zircon (U-Th)/He cooling ages coincide with the formation of regionally extensive Late Devonian-early Carboniferous back-arc basins, suggesting that Late Devonian extension played a significant role in exhumation of parts of the northern Thomson Orogen. Apatite (U-Th)/He ages from a basement sample and a late Permian sandstone in the overlying Bowen Basin, which are also marked by intra-sample variability and age-eU correlations, span from the Early Cretaceous through Oligocene, in general agreement with previous apatite fission track data. In conjunction with observations of key geologic relationships and prior K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar data, our results suggest four overall phases in the thermal history of the northern Thomson Orogen: (1) Cambrian-early Silurian metamorphism during the Delamerian and Benambran Orogenies; (2) protracted cooling during the Late Devonian through mid-Permian that likely resulted from extensional

  2. Ductile flow in sub-volcanic carbonate basement as the main control for edifice stability: New experimental insights (United States)

    Bakker, Richard R.; Violay, Marie E. S.; Benson, Philip M.; Vinciguerra, Sergio C.


    Limestone in volcanic basements has been identified as a hazard in terms of edifice stability due to the propensity of calcite to decompose into lime and CO2 at high temperatures (>600 °C), causing a decrease in mechanical strength. To date, such hypotheses have been tested by experiments performed at ambient pressure. The present work determines the mechanical strength of limestone under sub-volcanic conditions of pressure and temperature and evaluates the effect of calcite decomposition. To this end, we use Mt. Etna as a case study, deforming sub-Etnean carbonate samples under triaxial compression using a Paterson deformation apparatus. We evaluate the effect of thermal decomposition of calcite on sample strength by comparing closed and open systems and measuring the permeability evolution under static conditions. Mechanical and micro-structural observations at a constant strain rate of 10-5 s-1 and at a confining pressure of 50 MPa indicate that the rocks are brittle up to and including 300 °C. At higher temperatures the deformation becomes macroscopically ductile, i.e., deformation is distributed throughout the sample. The brittle to ductile transition is accompanied by an irreversible permeability decrease from ∼10-17 to ∼10-19 m2 between 200 and 600 °C. We present new evidence that permanent change in permeability is due to ductile processes closing the initial pore space. Samples deformed at temperatures up to 900 °C do not contain any decarbonation products. At these temperatures, permeability is sufficiently low to permit CO2 pore pressures to increase, thereby increasing local CO2 fugacity, which in turn strongly limits the decarbonation reaction. We note that, for non-pure calcite rocks, permeability might be sufficient to allow decarbonation reactions to occur. As such, variability in lithologies may slightly influence the efficiency of decarbonation reactions. We conclude that, in a closed system, the instability of Mt. Etna is related to high

  3. Correlated remote sensing and subsurface geoscience datasets in southeastern Saskatchewan: mounting evidence for basement controlled structural lineaments influencing deep petroleum targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penner, L.; Mollard, J.


    The correlation of surface lineaments in southeastern Saskatchewan with subsurface lineaments and their relationship to the distribution of oil pools and fields was discussed. The mapping, compilation and synthesis of lineament datasets from the Williston Basin have shown good matching detail in both trend and areal distribution. Careful analysis and interpretation of the superimposed datasets is required to identify the trends and locations that would be of economic significance in oil and gas exploration. Examples of inferred basement control in the Red River Basin illustrate how basement-to-surface lineament mapping can aid petroleum exploration and development in the Williston Basin of southeastern Saskatchewan.

  4. Structural and geochemical mapping of a Fe-mineralized quartz-mica rich unit in the Ringvassøya Greenstone Belt, West Troms Basement Complex


    Elvenes, Hallgeir


    Ringvassøy is one of a chain of large coastal islands representing the Archaean to Paleoproterozoic West Troms Basement Complex (WTBC), west of the Caledonides. On Ringvassøy, a basement of mainly tonalitic gneiss is overlain by the Ringvassøy Greenstone Belt (RGB), which is metamorphosed up to middle amphibolite facies. Tonalitic gneiss in the west and southeast of the island has U–Pb zircon ages of 2.84–2.82 Ga, similar to U–Pb zircon ages of 2.85–2.83 Ga for metavolcanics in the RGB. Mafic...

  5. Soluble salt removal from MSWI fly ash and its stabilization for safer disposal and recovery as road basement material. (United States)

    Colangelo, F; Cioffi, R; Montagnaro, F; Santoro, L


    Fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWI) is classified as hazardous in the European Waste Catalogue. Proper stabilization processes should be required before any management option is put into practice. Due to the inorganic nature of MSWI fly ash, cementitious stabilization processes are worthy of consideration. However, the effectiveness of such processes can be severely compromised by the high content of soluble chlorides and sulphates. In this paper, a preliminary washing treatment has been optimized to remove as much as possible soluble salts by employing as little as possible water. Two different operating conditions (single-step and two-step) have been developed to this scope. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that stabilized systems containing 20% of binder are suitable for safer disposal as well as for material recovery in the field of road basement (cement bound granular material layer). Three commercially available cements (pozzolanic, limestone and slag) have been employed as binders.

  6. A role for PDGF-C/PDGFRα signaling in the formation of the meningeal basement membranes surrounding the cerebral cortex. (United States)

    Andrae, Johanna; Gouveia, Leonor; Gallini, Radiosa; He, Liqun; Fredriksson, Linda; Nilsson, Ingrid; Johansson, Bengt R; Eriksson, Ulf; Betsholtz, Christer


    Platelet-derived growth factor-C (PDGF-C) is one of three known ligands for the tyrosine kinase receptor PDGFRα. Analysis ofPdgfcnull mice has demonstrated roles for PDGF-C in palate closure and the formation of cerebral ventricles, but redundancy with other PDGFRα ligands might obscure additional functions. In search of further developmental roles for PDGF-C, we generated mice that were double mutants forPdgfc(-/-)andPdgfra(GFP/+) These mice display a range of severe phenotypes including spina bifida, lung emphysema, abnormal meninges and neuronal over-migration in the cerebral cortex. We focused our analysis on the central nervous system (CNS), where PDGF-C was identified as a critical factor for the formation of meninges and assembly of the glia limitans basement membrane. We also present expression data onPdgfa,PdgfcandPdgfrain the cerebral cortex and microarray data on cerebral meninges. PMID:26988758

  7. Pre-rift basement structure and syn-rift faulting at the eastern onshore Gulf of Corinth Rift (United States)

    Kranis, Haralambos; Skourtsos, Emmanuel; Gawthorpe, Robert; Leeder, Mike; Stamatakis, Michael


    %B We present results of recent field-based research with a view to providing information about and constraints on the initiation and evolution of the Gulf of Corinth (GoC) Rift. The onshore geology and structure of the GoC rift has been studied intensively and extensively; however most research efforts have focused on the western and partly the central parts. The last few years, efforts are being made to extend the scope of research in less-studied areas, such as the eastern southern onshore part of the GoC rift, trying to address two major issues in rift initiation and evolution, namely syn-rift faulting and pre-rift basement structure. While fault spacing and length appears to be well-constrained for the western and central parts of the GoC Rift, further east -and especially in the uplifted onshore southern part- this is thought to increase dramatically, as there are practically no mapped faults. We argue, however, that this may be a false image, owing to (i) the difficulty in identifying fault structures within a thick, fairly monotonous syn-rift sequence; (ii) the lesser attention this part has drawn; and (ii) the fact that the published summary geological and tectonic maps of the GoC area are based on the dated geological maps that cover the eastern and northern onshore shoulders of the Rift. Moreover, new field data provide new information on pre-rift structure: while only the topmost thrust sheet of the Hellenide nappe stack (Pindos Unit) was thought to crop out at the eastern southern onshore part, we mapped the underlying, non-metamorphic carbonate Unit (Tripolis Unit), which crops out within the footwall of a key intra-basin block (Xylokastro block). A minor outcrop further east, may also belong to this Unit, providing basement control, in connection with recently published offshore fault data. The mapping of these outcrops, combined with a revised stratigraphical framework for the early syn-rift deposits, allows the identification and mapping of faults

  8. Defective muscle basement membrane and lack of M-laminin in the dystrophic dy/dy mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, H; Christmas, P; Wu, X R;


    -linked Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies. We have examined M-laminin expression in mice with autosomal recessive muscular dystrophy caused by the mutation dy. The heavy chain of M-laminin was undetectable in skeletal muscle, heart muscle, and peripheral nerve by immunofluorescence and immunoblotting......M-laminin is a major member of the laminin family of basement membrane proteins. It is prominently expressed in striated muscle and peripheral nerve. M-laminin is deficient in patients with the autosomal recessive Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy but is normal in patients with the sex...... tissue from dy/dy mice, suggesting that M-laminin heavy-chain mRNA may be produced at very low levels or is unstable. Information about the chromosomal localization of the M heavy-chain in human and mouse suggests that a mutation in the M-chain gene causes the muscular dystrophy in dy/dy mice. The dy...

  9. Creatinine clearance, urinary excretion of glomerular basement membrane antigens and renal histology in congenital nephrotic syndrome of Finnish type. (United States)

    Huttunen, N P


    The endogenous creatinine clearance and urinary excretion rate of glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antigens were followed from 2 to 19 months in fifteen patients with congenital nephrotic syndrome (CNF). The quantitative examination of renal morphology was made on fourteen of these patients. Creatinine clearance increased during the first few months of life and thereafter gradually decreased. The urinary excretion rate of GBM antigens rose during the course of the disease. The creatinine clearance did not correlate significantly with glomerular fibrosis but it did correlate with tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis. The urinary excretion of GBM antigens correlated significantly with glomerular and interstitial fibrosis and with tubular atrophy. It is concluded that there is a clear progress in the disease and the renal histological changes probably are caused by accumulation of GBM material in glomeruli.

  10. 人防地下室楼盖选型%Selection on Civil Air Defense Basement Floor System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Through the selection and comprehensive analysis of civil air defense basement floor system, it can be found that the occupancy floor height, construction cost, concrete and steel bar cost of beam and slab of Girderless floor are less than those of other floor systems.Girderless floor has huge comprehensive benefits.%进行人防地下室楼盖选型,综合分析比较可以得到:无梁楼盖相对于其他形式楼盖占用层高最少,施工费用最低,梁和板混凝土和钢筋材料费最少,综合效益最好。

  11. Histones have high affinity for the glomerular basement membrane. Relevance for immune complex formation in lupus nephritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmiedeke, T.M.; Stoeckl, F.W.W.; Weber, R.; Sugisaki, Y.; Batsford, S.R.; Vogt, A.


    An effort has been made to integrate insights on charge-based interactions in immune complex glomerulonephritis with nuclear antigen involvement in lupus nephritis. Attention was focussed on the histones, a group of highly cationic nuclear constituents, which could be expected to bind to fixed anionic sites present in the glomerular basement membrane (GBM). We demonstrated that all histone subfractions, prepared according to Johns, have a high affinity for GBM and the basement membrane of peritubular capillaries. Tissue uptake of /sup 125/I-labeled histones was measured by injecting 200 micrograms of each fraction into the left kidney via the aorta and measuring organ uptake after 15 min. In glomeruli isolated from the left kidneys, the following quantities of histones were found: f1, 13 micrograms; f2a (f2al + f2a2), 17 micrograms; f2b, 17 micrograms; and f3, 32 micrograms. Kinetic studies of glomerular binding showed that f1 disappeared much more rapidly than f2a. The high affinity of histones (pI between 10.5 and 11.0; mol wt 10,000-22,000) for the GBM correlates well with their ability to form aggregates (mol wt greater than 100,000) for comparison lysozyme (pI 11, mol wt 14,000), which does not aggregate spontaneously bound poorly (0.4 micrograms in isolated glomeruli). The quantity of histones and lysozyme found in the isolated glomeruli paralleled their in vitro affinity for a Heparin-Sepharose column (gradient elution studies). This gel matrix contains the sulfated, highly anionic polysaccharide heparin, which is similar to the negatively charged heparan sulfate present in the GBM. Lysozyme eluted with 0.15 M NaCl, f1 with 1 M NaCl, and f2a, f2b, and f3 could not be fully desorbed even with 2 M NaCl; 6 M guanidine-HCl was necessary.

  12. Identifying the dominant metabolic strategies used by microorganisms within basalt-hosted, anoxic deep subsurface basement fluids via environmental genomics (United States)

    Rappe, M. S.; Jungbluth, S.; Carr, S. A.; Lin, H. T.; Hsieh, C. C.; Nigro, O. D.; Steward, G. F.; Orcutt, B.


    A microbial ecosystem distinct from both overlying sediments and bottom seawater lies within the basaltic crust of the Juan de Fuca Ridge flank. The metabolic potential and genomic characteristics of microbes residing in fluids of this remote, anoxic region of the subsurface ocean were investigated using environmental DNA extracted from large-volume fluid samples obtained from advanced borehole observatories installed at two recently drilled IODP Boreholes, U1362A and U1362B. Fluids were collected from the deep (204 meters sub-basement) horizon of Borehole U1362A and shallow (40 meters sub-basement) horizon of Borehole U1362B and used to generate 503 and 705 million base-pairs of genomic DNA sequence data, respectively. Phylogenetically informative genes revealed that the community structure recovered via metagenomics was generally consistent with that obtained previously by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and was dominated by uncultivated bacterial lineages of Proteobacteria, Nitrospirae, Candidate Division OP8 (Aminicenantes), Thermotoga and archaeal groups THSCG, MCG (Bathyarchaeota), MBGE, and Archaeoglobus. Genes involved in phage integration, chemotaxis, nitrate reduction, methanogenesis, and amino acid degradation were all detected, revealing potentially dynamic microbial communities. Putative sulfate reduction genes were discovered within previously identified Firmicutes lineage Candidatus Desulforudis, along with other groups (e.g. Archaeoglobus). Significant metagenome assembly resulted in 72 and 105 contigs of >100 Kbp from U1362B and U1362A, respectively, including 1137, 977 and 356 Kbp-long contigs from Candidate Division OP8 residing in U1362B. These assemblies have revealed novel metabolic potential within abundant members of the deep subsurface microbial community, which can be directly related to their survival in the deep oceanic crust.

  13. Geochemical characteristics of pyrolysis gas from epimetamorphic rocks in the northern basement of Songliao Basin,Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Xushen gas field,located in the north of Songliao Basin,is a potential giant gas area for China in the future.Its proved reserves have exceeded 1000×10 8 m 3 by the end of 2005.But,the origin of natural gases from the deep strata is still in debating.Epimetamorphic rocks as a potential gas source are widely spreading in the northern basement of Songliao Basin.According to pyrolysis experiments for these rocks in the semi-confined system,gas production and geochemistry of alkane gases are discussed in this paper.The Carboniferous-Permian epimetamorphic rocks were heated from 300℃to 550℃,with temperature interval of 50℃.The gas production was quantified and measured for chemical and carbon isotopic compositions.Results show thatδ13C 1 is less than?20‰,carbon isotope trend of alkane gas isδ13C 1 <δ13C 2 <δ13C 3 orδ13C 1 <δ13C 2 >δ13C 3 ,these features suggest that the gas would be coal-type gas at high-over maturity,not be inorganic gas with reversal trend of gaseous alkanes (δ13C 1 >δ13C 2 >δ13C 3 ).These characteristics of carbon isotopes are similar with the natural gas from the basin basement,but disagree with gas from the Xingcheng reservoir.Thus,the mixing gases from the pyrolysis gas with coal-typed gases at high-over maturity or oil-typed gases do not cause the reversal trend of carbon isotopes.The gas generation intensity for epimetamorphic rocks is 3.0×10 8 ―23.8×10 8 m 3 /km 2 ,corresponding to Ro from 2.0%to 3.5%for organic matter.

  14. Chemical Speciation and Oxidation Kinetics of Iron and Sulfur in Subseafloor Basement Fluids on the Juan de Fuca Ridge Flanks (United States)

    Glazer, B. T.; Matzinger, M.; Cowen, J. P.


    Redox reactive chemical species circulate throughout the upper oceanic crust, and are involved in a variety of abiotic and microbially-mediated reactions. Through exchange with bottom seawater, fluids circulating in the upper basement have the potential to influence scales ranging from global-scale biogeochemical cycling to micro-scale microbe-mineral interactions. Understanding fundamental chemical speciation, distribution, bioavailability, and rates of transformations for key chemical redox species is crucial to understanding processes in the subsurface. In-situ electrochemical analyses were conducted in real-time at CORK (Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kit) observatories affixed to Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) boreholes in Cascadia Basin on the Juan de Fuca Ridge Flanks. Voltammetric electrodes were mounted into a flow cell to allow for simultaneous detection of redox species (O2, H_{2}O2, HS^{-}, S(0), Sx^{2-}, S2O_{3}2-, S_{4}O6^{2-}, Fe(II), Fe(III), FeS$_{(aq)}) concurrent to sample filtering or fluid collection. During real-time voltammetric scanning, qualitative assessment of the integrity of fluids delivered through the Fluid Delivery Lines could be made, allowing for comparisons between CORK sites and various sampling strategies. Newly installed CORKs at IODP sites 1362A and 1362B are producing the highest-integrity basement fluids collected to date, deplete in oxygen (1uM). Here, we report results of in situ electrochemical measurements at multiple borehole observatories, including the newly installed 1362A & 1362B sites, and present results of speciation analyses and kinetics of oxidation for iron and sulfur in discrete samples.

  15. A feasibility study on the expected seismic AVA signatures of deep fractured geothermal reservoirs in an intrusive basement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The deep geothermal reservoirs in the Larderello-Travale field (southern Tuscany) are found in intensively fractured portions of intrusive/metamorphic rocks. Therefore, the geothermal exploration has been in search of possible fracture signatures that could be retrieved from the analysis of geophysical data. In the present work we assess the feasibility of finding seismic markers in the pre-stack domain which may pinpoint fractured levels. Thanks to the availability of data from boreholes that ENEL GreenPower drilled in the deep intrusive basement of this geothermal field, we derived the expected amplitude versus angle (AVA) responses of the vapour reservoirs found in some intensely, but very localized, fractured volumes within the massive rocks. The information we have available limit us to build 1D elastic and isotropic models only and thus anisotropy effects related to the presence of fractures cannot be properly modelled. We analysed the velocities and the density logs pertaining to three wells which reached five deep fractured zones in the basement. The AVA response of the fractured intervals is modelled downscaling the log data to seismic scale and comparing the analytical AVA response (computed with the Aki and Richards approximation) and the AVA extracted from a synthetic common mid point (calculated making use of a reflectivity algorithm). The results show that the amplitude of the reflections from the fractured level is characterized by negative values at vertical incidence and by decreasing absolute amplitudes with the increase of the source to receiver offset. This contrasts with many observations from hydrocarbon exploration in clastic reservoirs where gas-sand reflections often exhibit negative amplitudes at short offsets but increasing absolute amplitudes for increasing source to receiver offsets. Thereby, some common AVA attributes considered in silicoclastic lithologies would lead to erroneous fracture localization. For this reason we propose a


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Histones can mediate the binding of DNA and anti-DNA to the glomerular basement membrane (GBM). Zn ELISA histone/DNA/anti-DNA complexes are able to bind to heparan sulfate (HS), an intrinsic constituent of the GBM. We questioned whether histone containing immune complexes are able to bind to the GBM

  17. Elastase, but not proteinase 3 (PR3), induces proteinuria associated with loss of glomerular basement membrane heparan sulphate after in vivo renal perfusion in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeringa, P; VanDenBorn, J; Brouwer, E; Dolman, KM; Klok, PA; Huitema, MG; Limburg, PC; Bakker, MAH; Berden, JHM; Daha, MR; Kallenberg, CGM


    Elastase, but not PR3, induces proteinuria associated with loss of glomerular basement membrane (GEM) heparan sulphate after in vivo renal perfusion in rats. PR3 and elastase are cationic neutral serine proteinases present in the azurophilic granules of polymorphonuclear leucocytes. Release of these

  18. Analytical and numerical models for estimating the effect of exhaust ventilation on radon entry in houses with basements or crawl spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechanical exhaust ventilation systems are being installed in newer, energy-efficient houses and their operation can increase the indoor-outdoor pressure differences that drive soil gas and thus radon entry. This thesis presents simplified models for estimating the pressure driven flow of radon into houses with basements or crawl spaces, due to underpressures induced by indoor-outdoor temperature differences, wind, or exhaust ventilation. A two-dimensional finite difference model is presented and used to calculate the pressure field and soil gas flow rate into a basement situated in soil of uniform permeability. A simplified analytical model is compared to the finite difference model with generally very good agreement. Another simplified model is presented for houses with a crawl space. Literature on radon research is also reviewed to show why pressure driven flow of soil gas is considered to be the major source of radon entry in houses with higher-than-average indoor radon concentrations. Comparisons of measured vs. calculated indoor radon concentrations for a house with a basement showed the simplified basement model underpredicting on average by 25%. For a house with a crawl space the simplified crawl space model overpredicted by 23% when the crawl space vents are open and 48% when the crawl space vents are sealed

  19. Geo-electrical investigation of near surface conductive structures suitable for groundwater accumulation in a resistive crystalline basement environment: A case study of Isuada, southwestern Nigeria (United States)

    Kayode, J. S.; Adelusi, A. O.; Nawawi, M. N. M.; Bawallah, M.; Olowolafe, T. S.


    This paper presents a geophysical surveying for groundwater identification in a resistive crystalline basement hard rock in Isuada area, Southwestern Nigeria. Very low frequency (VLF) electromagnetic and electrical resistivity geophysical techniques combined with well log were used to characterize the concealed near surface conductive structures suitable for groundwater accumulation. Prior to this work; little was known about the groundwater potential of this area. Qualitative and semi-quantitative interpretations of the data collected along eight traverses at 20 m spacing discovered conductive zones suspected to be fractures, faults, and cracks which were further mapped using Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) technique. Forty VES stations were utilized using Schlumberger configurations with AB/2 varying from 1 to 100 m. Four layers i.e. the top soil, the weathered layer, the partially weathered/fractured basement and the fresh basement were delineated from the interpreted resistivity curves. The weathered layers constitute the major aquifer unit in the area and are characterized by moderately low resistivity values which ranged between about 52 Ωm and 270 Ωm while the thickness varied from 1 to 35 m. The depth to the basement and the permeable nature of the weathered layer obtained from both the borehole and the hand-dug wells was used to categorize the groundwater potential of the study area into high, medium and low ratings. The groundwater potential map revealed that about 45% of the study area falls within the low groundwater potential rating while about 10% constitutes the medium groundwater potential and the remaining 45% constitutes high groundwater potential. The low resistivity, thick overburden, and fractured bedrock constitute the aquifer units and the series of basement depressions identified from the geoelectric sections as potential conductive zones appropriate for groundwater development.

  20. Investigating the Influence of Pre-Existing Basement Structures on the Propagation of the Malawi Rift using SRTM, RADARSAT, and Aeromagnetic Data (United States)

    Robertson, K.; Atekwana, E. A.; Abdelsalam, M. G.; Laó-Dávila, D. A.


    The Malawi rift is a Neogene, amagmatic rift located where the Western Branch of the East Africa Rift System (EARS) terminates. In more mature rifts, magmatism is frequently recognized as a driving factor in rift propagation; however, the amagmatic nature of the Malawi rift permits investigation into the relationship between pre-existing structures and current rift propagation, without the influence of magmatism. To map surface structures, we used Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and RADARSAT imagery over southern Malawi. To process the SRTM data, we applied edge enhancing filters and derivatives, and extracted topographic profiles to examine scarp height and minimum vertical exposed displacement. We mapped morphologically-defined structures by filtering the RADARSAT imagery using an enhanced lee filter to reduce noise and a Laplacian filter for edge enhancement. To examine Precambrian basement structures, we filtered aeromagnetic data using vertical and horizontal derivatives, tilt derivative, and analytic signal to create magnetic anomaly maps. Surface mapping indicated three primary trends in the southern Malawi rift: NW-SE (dominant), NE-SW, both of which are most likely the remnants of Mesozoic Karoo rifting, and a NNE-SSW trend seen in Neogene rifting. The Precambrian basement structural mapping also reveals three primary trends: WNW-ESE, NE-SW, and NW-SE. Ductile deformation causes the dominant basement fabric to change, switching polarity as the rift propagated southward from NE-SW orientation to NW-SE and WNW-ESE orientations, and back to a NE-SW orientation. In general, the surficial structures follow this trend. In some areas, however, the more recent rifting cut across pre-existing basement structures, possibly due to rheological heterogeneities or selective strain partitioning. Nonetheless, pre-existing basement structures played a critical role in strain localization and fault propagation in Malawi. However


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In the past three decades numerous researches have been published containing maps describing basement morphology. The first basement interpretations were based on the correlation of borehole data, then in the ’80s further seismic surveys offered the possibility to refine the outcomes. We collected and compared these data – by following a geoinformatical approach - and integrated them during the preparation stage of the measurement obtained in the 2012 field trip of Eötvös Loránd University, Department of Geophysics and Space Science. By summing up all the data we are able to create a more accurate Pre-Cenozioc basemap of the studied area. The map covers approx. 300 km2 area in the west of Hungary, between the national border and Szombathely, in the eastern foreground of Vas-hegy. We compared five basemaps (KILENYI & RUMPLER 1984, FLÜGEL 1988, KILÉNYI & ŠEFARA 1989, DANK & FÜLÖP 1990, HASS et al. 2010, two magnetic (HOFFER 1960, FANCSIK et al. 2006, a Bouguer-anomaly map (FANCSIK et al. 2005 and torsion balance anomaly map (VAJK 1938. Apparently, by this comparison we can see that the depth of Pre-Cenozoic basement is interpreted in different ways in each article. In contradictory and information deficient areas an attempt was made to produce supplement data with seismic and magnetic measurements. Eventually, a refined Pre-Cenozoic basemap of the area has been created with the help of our complementing measurements, the old maps and more than twenty boreholes reaching basement. Our results revealed an eastern foothill buried under the surface, although the saddle morphology is unlikely. The model contains a basement with fairly steady slope based on industrial sesmic surveys, our results doubt its hole-like feature.

  2. Estimation of velocity boundaries in basement - sedimentary layer system of Yokohama region by means of nonstationary ray decomposition method (United States)

    Takagishi, M.; Kinoshita, S.


    We estimated the velocity boundaries in a sedimentary layer-basement system in Yokohama by applying nonstationary ray decomposition method (NRDM) to the strong motion data recorded at the Yokohama dense strong motion array (YKH array). NRDM is a method to estimate the velocity boundaries of real layered structure from surface recordings by decomposing power of an SH-wave into instantaneous power of wave associated with rays in a homogeneous half space. The estimated results obtained by applying this method to seismograms are represented as a function of lapse time and depth time, which is travel time from surface toward depth-direction. A total of 10080 surface seismograms obtained at the YKH array for the 128 earthquakes that occurred in the Kanto area from 2000 to 2010 were used. The recordings were measured by acceleration seismometers. The data were obtained for the events having JMA magnitudes in the range of from 2.8 to 6.5. NRDM was applied to the transverse component data of velocity seismogram. Since the seismograms obtained at the YKH array predominate in high frequencies due to the weak subsurface structure, we applied bandpass filtering to the seismograms by using several intrinsic mode functions that are narrowband signals with different center frequencies. After such a processing, the data were converted to analytic signals, and then, the signals were used to estimate the instantaneous power by means of Wigner-Ville distribution. We have estimated the velocity boundaries in sediment in Yokohama region using 37 sites which were located in a rectangular area with a width of 4 km and a length of 40 km south-southeast of the FCH array. We were able to estimate two velocity boundaries, one in sediment (K-M) and the other being the upper boundary of the pre-Tertiary basement (M-B). On the whole, the upper boundary of the pre-Tertiary basement is dipping toward the south-southeast. The estimated depth times at K-M and M-B were from 1.5 to 2.2 s and from 2

  3. Unraveling an antique subduction process from metamorphic basement around Medellín city, Central Cordillera of Colombian Andes (United States)

    Bustamante, Andres; Juliani, Caetano


    In the surroundings of Caldas and El Retiro cities (Colombia) metamorphic rocks derived from basic and pelitic protoliths comprise the Caldas amphibole schist and the Ancón schist respectively. Subordinated metamorphosed granite bodies (La Miel gneiss) are associated to these units, and The El Retiro amphibolites, migmatites and granulites crops out eastwards of these units, separated by shear zones. The Caldas amphibole schist and the Ancón schist protoliths could have been formed in a distal marine reduced environment and amalgamated to the South American continent in an apparent Triassic subduction event. The El Retiro rocks are akin to a continental basement and possible include impure metasediments of continental margin, whose metamorphism originated granulite facies rocks and migmatites as a result of the anatexis of quartz-feldspathic rocks. The metamorphism was accompanied by intense deformation, which has juxtaposed both migmatites and granulite blocks. Afterward, heat and fluid circulation associated with the emplacement of minor igneous intrusions resulted in intense fluid-rock interaction, variations in the grain size of the minerals and, especially, intense retrograde metamorphic re-equilibrium. Thermobarometric estimations for the Caldas amphibole schist indicate metamorphism in the Barrovian amphibolite facies. The metamorphic path is counter-clockwise, but retrograde evolution could not be precisely defined. The pressures of the metamorphism in these rocks range from 6.3 to 13.5 kbar, with narrow temperature ranging from 550 to 630 °C. For the Ancón schist metapelites the P- T path is also counter-clockwise, with a temperature increase evidenced by the occurrence of sillimanite and the cooling by later kyanite. The progressive metamorphism event occurred at pressures of 7.6-7.2 kbar and temperatures of 645-635 °C for one sample and temperature between 500 and 600 °C under constant pressure of 6 kbar. The temperature estimated for these rocks

  4. A three-dimensional geophysical model of the crust in the Barents Sea region: Model construction and basement characterization (United States)

    Ritzmann, O.; Maercklin, N.; Inge, Faleide J.; Bungum, H.; Mooney, W.D.; Detweiler, S.T.


    BARENTS50, a new 3-D geophysical model of the crust in the Barents Sea Region has been developed by the University of Oslo, NORSAR and the U.S. Geological Survey. The target region comprises northern Norway and Finland, parts of the Kola Peninsula and the East European lowlands. Novaya Zemlya, the Kara Sea and Franz-Josef Land terminate the region to the east, while the Norwegian-Greenland Sea marks the western boundary. In total, 680 1-D seismic velocity profiles were compiled, mostly by sampling 2-D seismic velocity transects, from seismic refraction profiles. Seismic reflection data in the western Barents Sea were further used for density modelling and subsequent density-to-velocity conversion. Velocities from these profiles were binned into two sedimentary and three crystalline crustal layers. The first step of the compilation comprised the layer-wise interpolation of the velocities and thicknesses. Within the different geological provinces of the study region, linear relationships between the thickness of the sedimentary rocks and the thickness of the remaining crystalline crust are observed. We therefore, used the separately compiled (area-wide) sediment thickness data to adjust the total crystalline crustal thickness according to the total sedimentary thickness where no constraints from 1-D velocity profiles existed. The BARENTS50 model is based on an equidistant hexagonal grid with a node spacing of 50 km. The P-wave velocity model was used for gravity modelling to obtain 3-D density structure. A better fit to the observed gravity was achieved using a grid search algorithm which focussed on the density contrast of the sediment-basement interface. An improvement compared to older geophysical models is the high resolution of 50 km. Velocity transects through the 3-D model illustrate geological features of the European Arctic. The possible petrology of the crystalline basement in western and eastern Barents Sea is discussed on the basis of the observed seismic

  5. Pre-Quaternary basement of Bratislava (part 1: genetic vs. geotechnical characteristics of the Neogene foundation soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Šujan


    Full Text Available The foundation soils of the majority of complicated buildings (or high-rise structures in the Bratislava urban area are formed by the Neogene sediments, situated below the Quaternary cover. These are prevailingly high-rise buildings founded in the deep foundation pits. This contribution is focused on the analysis of the possible relations between the sediments origin and their geotechnical parameters (properties. The introductory part of the analysis was carried out on the model profile situated at the left bank of the Danube River, where the construction of high-rise buildings containing underground part was concentrated recently. The analysis was oriented on the characteristic of the pre-Quaternary basement surface morphology, geologic structure up to the reach of the exploration works and substantial geotechnical characteristics of the foundation soils. The analysis comprised comparison of geotechnical properties of the Neogene cohesive subsoils of the pre-Quaternary basement on the localities with predicted occurrence of genetically different lithostratigraphic formations. The sedimentological and geotechnical characteristics of foundation soils of the Neogene complex formed the baseline data of the analysis. The geotechnical data were taken from the engineering geological tasks realized by the authors of this study. The results of the analysis point out on the mutual affinity of the foundation soil properties, belonging to the Beladice Fm. (deltaic sequence and Volkovce Fm. (alluvial sequence. The geostatic pressure (pressure of the superposed layers existing during the entire period of their burial in the profile have had the dominant influence on the actual geotechnical parameters (geological pre-consolidation. This effect overwhelms the differences in the subsoils properties, which could be determined by the facies character related to their origin. Studied sedimentary formations differ in lateral stability: the Volkovce Fm. exhibits

  6. Integrated Geophysical and Geotechnical Investigation of the Failed Portion of a Road in Basement Complex Terrain, Southwest Nigeria. (United States)

    Osinowo, O. O.; Oladunjoye, M. A.; Olayinka, A. I.


    Several efforts by the local authority to fix the bad portion of the Ijebu Ode - Erunwon road, southwest Nigeria have over the years yielded no meaningful result as the road often gets deteriorated shortly after repair. Motorists and other road users have abandoned this road that is meant to link a commercial center with several farming communities, thus making the cost of transportation of farm produce very high. Geophysical methods of investigation integrated with geotechnical studies of the road, especially the failed portion were undertaken with the object of finding causes of the road failure as well as determine the most appropriate design method. Very Low Frequency Electromagnetic (VLF-EM) and electrical resistivity methods were employed to determine sections of the road with anomalous electrical responses that could be interpreted in terms of structures, lithology, water saturation etc. Geotechnical studies such as California Bearing ratio (CBR), grain size analysis, liquid limit, linear shrinkage, plastic limit, etc of samples obtained from sections identified as having high electrical anomaly were also carried out to determine geotechnical properties. Plots of inverted VLF-EM real and filtered real data identified bad sections of the road show peaks with positive filtered real amplitudes greater than 30% and lower amplitudes less than 30% and were interpreted to indicate major and minor linear features of faults and fractured zones, which in addition also display very high conductivity values. Vertical Electrical Soundings (VES) probe of the failed portions gave three to four layered earth interpreted to contain clayey-sand and loose saturated sand units at the upper portion, highly saturated weathered/fractured basement and fresh basement at the lower portion. Soaked and unsoaked CBR result range from 70.3 - 83.9%, and 12.9 - 31.6% respectively, indicating percentage reduction in strength with wetness of 55.7% - 83.8%. Liquid limit, linear shrinkage and

  7. Emplacement, offset history, and recent uplift of basement within the San Andreas Fault System, northeast San Gabriel Mountains, California (United States)

    Kenney, Miles Douglas


    Mapping, petrography, cross-sections, structure contours, earthquake locations, and focal mechanism analogues of summed moment tensors have provided insights into the reconstruction and deformation associated with the San Andreas Fault System in the San Gabriel and Western San Bernardino Mountains (WSBM) of the Central Transverse Ranges. The San Gabriel Mountains (SGM) represent a Quaternary 'arch' that extends across the northwest trending San Andreas Fault (SAF). Mechanisms to explain the relatively large magnitudes of uplift on both sides of this relatively straight strike slip fault have been problematical. The uplift results from the interactions between the right lateral San Jacinto Fault (SJF) and SAF, and the thrust Cucamonga-Sierra Madre Faults (CF-SMF). Uplift south of the SAF occurs as the SGM Block propagates through the restraining bend at the intersection of the SJF and SAF at the surface, which has produced an antiform in the topography of the range and in the Vincent Thrust. Uplift is also due to motion on the CF-SMF. Uplift north of the SAF is attributed to an upper-crustal north-dipping subsurface restraining bend in the SAF due to the projected intersection of the CF-SMF and SJF, with the SAF. Northwest migration of the restraining bend in the Quaternary has produced a ˜1.5 km high, northeast dipping monocline in crystalline basement which is adjacent and parallel to the SAF. Reverse faults and deformation of alluvial terraces document a northwest migrating locus of compression and uplift. Toward the southeast, the subsurface restraining bend becomes a subsurface lateral ramp where the SJF intersects the SAF at depth. Crystalline basement of the Holcomb Ridge-Table Mountain 'slice' consists of a syntectonically emplaced, intercalated, north-dipping, igneous and metamorphic suite. Cretaceous igneous rocks were emplaced as tabular bodies, which now strike eastwest, and are concordant with a relatively older metasedimentary screen and para

  8. Characterising fracture systems within fractured crystalline reservoirs: the Lewisian Gneiss Complex, Scotland as an onshore analogue for the Clair Field basement (United States)

    Franklin, B.; Martin, J. C.; Holdsworth, R. E.; McCaffrey, K.; Krabbendam, M.; Conway, A.; Jones, R.


    Exotic hydrocarbon reservoirs, such as crystalline basement, are increasingly a target for hydrocarbon exploration in the development of new and existing fields. The Clair field lies in the Faroe-Shetland Basin, with reservoirs in Devonian- Carboniferous clastics overlying and onlapping a basement high that was upfaulted in the Mesozoic. This basement is known to control fluid flow and the structural development of the field due to its highly fractured nature. Consequently, it is important to characterise fault networks to assess the connected volume within the basement rocks. Fault-fracture systems in the regional basement complex of NW Scotland, the Leiwsian Gneiss Complex, and in overlying Mesozoic cover sequences have been characterised as an analogue for the Clair Field. Variations in lithology, metamorphic grade and tectonic setting all influence the fault network characteristics in the Scottish mainland and Hebridean islands. This study included analysis of regional NEXTMap° digital elevation models of surface outcrops together with studies of seismic attribute maps of the Clair top basement horizon in the subsurface. The aim here was to characterise and compare the large scale fault patterns, including orientation, density and spacing attributes. Fieldwork has been undertaken onshore in order to characterise fault systems and the tectonic history within Lewisian Gneiss and sedimentary cover sequences at meso- to micro-scales. This involves 1-D line sample analysis, photomosaic analysis and terrestrial laser scanning (LIDAR) to allow analysis of the fault networks in different dimensions. 1-dimensional and 2-dimensional analyses of regional and outcrop scale data show that NE-SW is a predominant fault trend within the Lewisian in both the onshore and offshore datasets. Spacing data onshore show mainly power-law distributions. These distributions allow us to infer that the outcrop data show scale-invariance for spacing and can therefore be used as an

  9. Landsat TM images filtering to support lithological discrimination: a case study in the Precambrian basement of Southwest Angola (United States)

    Alberti, Antonio; Alessandro, Valeria; Pieruccini, Umberto; Pranzini, Enzo


    Directional and gradient filters have been applied in Landsat TM image to help rock discrimination in a study area of SW Angola, where Precambrian basement rocks are well exposed. A well defined limit has been drawn on filtered images, primarily on the basis of lineation pattern, between the two main rock groups outcropping in the area, namely the Schistose Mainly Metasedimentary Complex and the Gneissic-migmatitic-granitoid Complex. Various lithological units have been mapped within the two complexes on the basis of other features still related to texture, such as lineation density which, at this level, can be associated to bedding planes, foliation and/or schistosity. Discrimination of the recent continental cover took benefit from this technique as the lineation-free lithologies stand out as smooth patches in all the products. By displaying at least 5 major textural patterns in the whole area, directional and gradient filters highlight rock properties and structure which must be related not only to lithology but also to geological history. Although less powerful than a multispectral approach, the present one can support traditional analysis and integrate a spectrally-based study when, as in the present case, texture enters as Intensity in an IHS transformation.

  10. Localization of type IV collagen a 1 to a 6 chains in basement membrane during mouse molar germ development. (United States)

    Nagai, N; Nakano, K; Sado, Y; Naito, I; Gunduz, M; Tsujigiwa, H; Nagatsuka, H; Ninomiya, Y; Siar, C H


    The dental basement membrane (BM) putatively mediates epithelial-mesenchymal interactions during tooth morphogenesis and cytodifferentiation. Type IV collagen alpha chains, a major network-forming protein of the dental BM, was studied and results disclosed distinct expression patterns at different stages of mouse molar germ development. At the dental placode and bud stage, the BM of the oral epithelium expressed alpha 1, alpha 2, alpha 5 and alpha 6 chains while the gubernaculum dentis, in addition to the above four chains, also expressed a 4 chain. An asymmetrical expression for alpha 4, alpha 5 and alpha 6 chains was observed at the bud stage. At the early bell stage, the BM associated with the inner enamel epithelium (IEE) of molar germ expressed alpha 1, alpha 2 and alpha 4 chains while the BM of the outer enamel epithelium (OEE) expressed only alpha 1 and a 2 chains. With the onset of dentinogenesis, the collagen a chain profile of the IEE BM gradually disappeared. Howeverfrom the early to late bell stage, the gubernaculum dentis consistently expressed alpha 1, alpha 2, alpha 5 and a 6 chains resembling fetal oral mucosa. These findings suggest that stage- and position-specific distribution of type IV collagen alpha subunits occur during molar germ development and that these changes are essential for molar morphogenesis and cytodifferentiation. PMID:11732842

  11. On the lag time between internal strain and basement involved thrust induced exhumation: The case of the Colombian Eastern Cordillera (United States)

    Mora, Andrès; Blanco, Vladimir; Naranjo, Julian; Sanchez, Nelson; Ketcham, Richard A.; Rubiano, Jorge; Stockli, Daniel F.; Quintero, Isaid; Nemčok, Michal; Horton, Brian K.; Davila, Hamblet


    Thrust sheets accumulate internal strain before they start moving along discrete fault planes. However, there are no previous studies evaluating the time difference between initiation of strain and fault displacement. In this paper we use observations from the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia to evaluate this interval. We utilize multiple thermochronometers and paleothermometers to refine the timing of deformation. Based on these new data we build time-temperature path estimates that together with geometric outcrop-based structural analysis and fluid inclusions allow us to assign relative timing to features associated with strain, such as cleavage, veins and certain types of fractures, and compare that with the timing of thrusting. We find that cleavage was only formed close to maximum paleotemperatures, almost coeval with the onset of thrust-induced denudation by the Late Oligocene. The corresponding structural level of fold-related veins suggest that they were formed later but still when the country rocks were at temperatures higher than 160 °C, mostly during the Early Miocene and still coexisted with the latest stages of cleavage formation. Our data show that the main period of strain hardening was short (probably a few million years) and occurred before first-order basement thrusting was dominant, but was associated with second-order folding.

  12. Reinforcement of epithelial cell adhesion to basement membrane by a bacterial pathogen as a new infectious stratagem. (United States)

    Kim, Minsoo; Ogawa, Michinaga; Mimuro, Hitomi; Sasakawa, Chihiro


    The intestinal epithelium undergoes a rapid turnover in addition to rapid exfoliation in response to bacterial infection, thus acting as an intrinsic defense against microbial intruders. It has long been questioned how mucosal pathogens can circumvent the intestinal defense systems. Our recent discovery of a bacterial ploy used by Shigella provided us with fresh insight. Shigella delivers OspE via the type III secretion system during multiplication within epithelial cells. This effector protein reinforces epithelial adherence to the basement membrane by interacting with integrin-linked kinase (ILK), a unique intracellular Ser/Thr kinase that links the cell-adhesion receptors, integrin, and growth factors to the actin cytoskeleton. The interaction between OspE and ILK increased formation of focal adhesions (FAs) and surface levels of b1-integrin, while suppressing phosphorylation of FAK and paxillin, thus suppressing rapid turnover of FAs, reducing cell motility and promoting cell adhesion to extracellular matrix. The impact of this OspE-ILK interplay was demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo by infecting polarized epithelial cell monolayers and guinea pig colons with Shigella possessing or lacking the ospE gene. The findings thus establish a new class of virulence-associated factors, and provide new insight into the functioning of the intestinal barrier and bacterial strategies for circumventing it. PMID:21178415

  13. Proteomic analysis of urinary exosomes from patients of early IgA nephropathy and thin basement membrane nephropathy. (United States)

    Moon, Pyong-Gon; Lee, Jeong-Eun; You, Sungyong; Kim, Taek-Kyun; Cho, Ji-Hoon; Kim, In-San; Kwon, Tae-Hwan; Kim, Chan-Duck; Park, Sun-Hee; Hwang, Daehee; Kim, Yong-Lim; Baek, Moon-Chang


    To identify biomarker candidates associated with early IgA nephropathy (IgAN) and thin basement membrane nephropathy (TBMN), the most common causes presenting isolated hematuria in childhood, a proteomic approach of urinary exosomes from early IgAN and TBMN patients was introduced. The proteomic results from the patients were compared with a normal group to understand the pathophysiological processes associated with these diseases at the protein level. The urinary exosomes, which reflect pathophysiological processes, collected from three groups of young adults (early IgAN, TBMN, and normal) were trypsin-digested using a gel-assisted protocol, and quantified by label-free LC-MS/MS, using an MS(E) mode. A total of 1877 urinary exosome proteins, including cytoplasmic, membrane, and vesicle trafficking proteins, were identified. Among the differentially expressed proteins, four proteins (aminopeptidase N, vasorin precursor, α-1-antitrypsin, and ceruloplasmin) were selected as biomarker candidates to differentiate early IgAN from TBMN. We confirmed the protein levels of the four biomarker candidates by semi-quantitative immunoblot analysis in urinary exosomes independently prepared from other patients, including older adult groups. Further clinical studies are needed to investigate the diagnostic and prognostic value of these urinary markers for early IgAN and TBMN. Taken together, this study showed the possibility of identifying biomarker candidates for human urinary diseases using urinary exosomes and might help to understand the pathophysiology of early IgAN and TBMN at the protein level.

  14. 40Ar/ 39Ar mineral ages from basement rocks in the Eastern Kunlun Mountains, NW China, and their tectonic implications (United States)

    Liu, Yongjiang; Genser, Johann; Neubauer, Franz; Jin, Wei; Ge, Xiaohong; Handler, Robert; Takasu, Akira


    40Ar/ 39Ar dating and estimates of regional metamorphic P- T conditions were carried out on the basement rocks of the Eastern Kunlun Mountains, Western China. Samples from the Jinshuikou, Xiaomiao, Kuhai, Wanbaogou, and Nachitai groups revealed distinct metamorphic events and four age groups. The age group in the range from 363 to 439 Ma is interpreted to represent cooling after Middle Silurian-Late Devonian granulite(?) and amphibolite facies metamorphism, which is dominated by low-middle pressure/high temperature conditions. This tectono-thermal event is related to the closure of an oceanic basin or marginal sea. An age group of 212-242 Ma represents cooling after Triassic metamorphic overprint, which is probably associated with magmatic intrusions. This thermal event, together with the Permo-Triassic ophiolite zone along the South Kunlun Fault, relates to the closure of a major ocean (between India and Eurasia) and the eventual N-ward accretion of the Qiangtang block in Permo-Triassic times. The significance of the age group of 104-172 Ma may be related to the ductile deformation along the Xidatan fault due to the northward-directed accretion of the Lhasa block. Biotites from Nachitai record a partial isotopic resetting at ca. 32 Ma that is interpreted to represent a late-stage exhumation caused by further crustal shortening.

  15. Efficient differentiation of embryonic stem cells into hepatic cells in vitro using a feeder-free basement membrane substratum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuaki Shiraki

    Full Text Available The endoderm-inducing effect of the mesoderm-derived supportive cell line M15 on embryonic stem (ES cells is partly mediated through the extracellular matrix, of which laminin α5 is a crucial component. Mouse ES or induced pluripotent stem cells cultured on a synthesized basement membrane (sBM substratum, using an HEK293 cell line (rLN10-293 cell stably expressing laminin-511, could differentiate into definitive endoderm and subsequently into pancreatic lineages. In this study, we investigated the differentiation on sBM of mouse and human ES cells into hepatic lineages. The results indicated that the BM components played an important role in supporting the regional-specific differentiation of ES cells into hepatic endoderm. We show here that knockdown of integrin β1 (Itgb1 in ES cells reduced their differentiation into hepatic lineages and that this is mediated through Akt signaling activation. Moreover, under optimal conditions, human ES cells differentiated to express mature hepatocyte markers and secreted high levels of albumin. This novel procedure for inducing hepatic differentiation will be useful for elucidating the molecular mechanisms controlling lineage-specific fates during gut regionalization. It could also represent an attractive approach to providing a surrogate cell source, not only for regenerative medicine, but also for pharmaceutical and toxicologic studies.

  16. Exhumation of the Panama basement complex and basins: Implications for the closure of the Central American seaway (United States)

    Ramírez, Diego A.; Foster, David A.; Min, Kyoungwon; Montes, Camilo; Cardona, Agustín.; Sadove, Gephen


    The emergence of the Central American isthmus occurred episodically from Eocene to Pliocene time and was caused by a series of tectonic and volcanic processes. Results from zircon U-Pb geochronology, zircon (U-Th)/He (ZHe) and apatite (U-Th)/He (AHe) thermochronology, and zircon Lu-Hf isotopic data from sedimentary (sandstones and recent river sands) and plutonic rocks from the Azuero Peninsula and Central Panama document the exhumation and uplift history of the Panamanian basement complex. Our data support previous paleobotanical and thermochronological studies that suggest that by middle Eocene time some areas of Central Panama and Azuero Peninsula were exposed above sea level as a series of islands surrounded by shallow open marine waters. The Gatuncillo, Cobachón and Tonosí formations were deposited during this partial emergence. Transtension in the Oligocene-early Miocene produced various pull-apart basins (e.g., the Canal Basin) and local uplift that exhumed the Eocene strata (Gatuncillo and Cobachón formations). This event probably reduced circulation between the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea. The Tonosí Formation records late Miocene to Pleistocene cooling and exhumation, which may be related to uplift above the subducting Coiba Ridge. These results suggest that the emergence of the Isthmus of Panama followed a series of diachronous events that led to the final closure of the Central American seaway.

  17. Basement membrane and vascular remodelling in smokers and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muller H Konrad


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about airway remodelling in bronchial biopsies (BB in smokers and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. We conducted an initial pilot study comparing BB from COPD patients with nonsmoking controls. This pilot study suggested the presence of reticular basement membrane (Rbm fragmentation and altered vessel distribution in COPD. Methods To determine whether Rbm fragmentation and altered vessel distribution in BB were specific for COPD we designed a cross-sectional study and stained BB from 19 current smokers and 14 ex-smokers with mild to moderate COPD and compared these to 15 current smokers with normal lung function and 17 healthy and nonsmoking subjects. Results Thickness of the Rbm was not significantly different between groups; although in COPD this parameter was quite variable. The Rbm showed fragmentation and splitting in both current smoking groups and ex-smoker COPD compared with healthy nonsmokers (p Conclusions Airway remodelling in smokers and mild to moderate COPD is associated with fragmentation of the Rbm and altered distribution of vessels in the airway wall. Rbm fragmentation was also present to as great an extent in ex-smokers with COPD. These characteristics may have potential physiological consequences.

  18. Magnetic constraints of basement structure offshore of western Kyushu, Japan; Kyushu seiho kaiiki ni okeru jiki ijo no kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuma, S.; Nakatsuka, T. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Ishihara, T. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper describes the results from the qualitative analysis of magnetic anomalies offshore of western Kyushu and from an analysis by a three-dimensional two-layer model inversion. The analysis ranged from Kyushu on the east to Jeju Island on the west and from the southern part of the Korean Peninsula on the north to Tanegashima and Yakushima Islands on the south, namely, the area of 580km from east to west and 580km from south to north. The analytical data used was Magnetic Anomaly Map of Asia (GSJ and CCOP, 1994). In the qualitative analysis, a pseudogravity anomaly map and a pole gravity anomaly map were prepared from the total magnetic force anomaly map by means of a frequency filter operation. As a result, it was noted that two distinctive magnetic high belts existed in the margin of the Tunghai Shelf, extending from the sea area to the west of the Nansei Islands continuously to NNE, and being distributed transversely through the Goto sedimentary basin. Additionally, in the inversion analysis, it was demonstrated that the magnetic basement became shallow at the margin of the Tunghai Shelf north of latitude 31 degrees north, extending nearly in the NNE direction through west of the Goto Islands, west of Tsushima Island, and continuing to the southern coast of the Korean Peninsula. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Complement and Humoral Adaptive Immunity in the Human Choroid Plexus: Roles for Stromal Concretions, Basement Membranes, and Epithelium. (United States)

    Moore, G R Wayne; Laule, Cornelia; Leung, Esther; Pavlova, Vladimira; Morgan, B Paul; Esiri, Margaret M


    The choroid plexus (CP) provides a barrier to entry of toxic molecules from the blood into the brain and transports vital molecules into the cerebrospinal fluid. While a great deal is known about CP physiology, relatively little is known about its immunology. Here, we show immunohistochemical data that help define the role of the CP in innate and adaptive humoral immunity. The results show that complement, in the form of C1q, C3d, C9, or C9neo, is preferentially deposited in stromal concretions. In contrast, immunoglobulin (Ig) G (IgG) and IgA are more often found in CP epithelial cells, and IgM is found in either locale. C4d, IgD, and IgE are rarely, if ever, seen in the CP. In multiple sclerosis CP, basement membrane C9 or stromal IgA patterns were common but were not specific for the disease. These findings indicate that the CP may orchestrate the clearance of complement, particularly by deposition in its concretions, IgA and IgG preferentially via its epithelium, and IgM by either mechanism.

  20. An in vitro model of the glomerular capillary wall using electrospun collagen nanofibres in a bioartificial composite basement membrane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadie C Slater

    Full Text Available The filtering unit of the kidney, the glomerulus, contains capillaries whose walls function as a biological sieve, the glomerular filtration barrier. This comprises layers of two specialised cells, glomerular endothelial cells (GEnC and podocytes, separated by a basement membrane. Glomerular filtration barrier function, and dysfunction in disease, remains incompletely understood, partly due to difficulties in studying the relevant cell types in vitro. We have addressed this by generation of unique conditionally immortalised human GEnC and podocytes. However, because the glomerular filtration barrier functions as a whole, it is necessary to develop three dimensional co-culture models to maximise the benefit of the availability of these cells. Here we have developed the first two tri-layer models of the glomerular capillary wall. The first is based on tissue culture inserts and provides evidence of cell-cell interaction via soluble mediators. In the second model the synthetic support of the tissue culture insert is replaced with a novel composite bioartificial membrane. This consists of a nanofibre membrane containing collagen I, electrospun directly onto a micro-photoelectroformed fine nickel supporting mesh. GEnC and podocytes grew in monolayers on either side of the insert support or the novel membrane to form a tri-layer model recapitulating the human glomerular capillary in vitro. These models will advance the study of both the physiology of normal glomerular filtration and of its disruption in glomerular disease.

  1. Crustal thickening and attenuation as revealed by regional fold interference patterns: Ciudad Rodrigo basement area (Salamanca, Spain) (United States)

    Díez Fernández, Rubén; Gómez Barreiro, Juan; Martínez Catalán, José R.; Ayarza, Puy


    The structure of the Ciudad Rodrigo area (Iberian Massif, Central Iberian Zone) has been revisited in order to integrate new geological data with recent models of the evolution of the Iberian Massif. Detailed mapping of fold structures along with a compilation of field data have been used to constrain the geometry and relative timing of ductile deformation events in this section of the hinterland of the Variscan belt. The structural evolution shows, in the first place, the development of a regional train of overturned folds with associated axial planar foliation (D1). Towards the lower structural levels, the deflection of the fold limbs and a subhorizontal crenulation cleavage depict the upper structural boundary of a superimposed low angle shear zone (D2), which extends at least to the deepest parts of the basement exposed in the study area. The amplification and rotation of D1 folds about a horizontal axis also occurred within this shear zone. The flat-lying character of the D2 structures accounts for the attenuation of the previously thickened crust, which developed following gravity gradients during thermal re-equilibration. Subsequent deformation led to the formation of two orthogonal sets of upright folds (D3), representing a new shift between crustal thinning and crustal thickening in the region.

  2. Skin Basement Membrane: The Foundation of Epidermal Integrity—BM Functions and Diverse Roles of Bridging Molecules Nidogen and Perlecan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Breitkreutz


    Full Text Available The epidermis functions in skin as first defense line or barrier against environmental impacts, resting on extracellular matrix (ECM of the dermis underneath. Both compartments are connected by the basement membrane (BM, composed of a set of distinct glycoproteins and proteoglycans. Herein we are reviewing molecular aspects of BM structure, composition, and function regarding not only (i the dermoepidermal interface but also (ii the resident microvasculature, primarily focusing on the per se nonscaffold forming components perlecan and nidogen-1 and nidogen-2. Depletion or functional deficiencies of any BM component are lethal at some stage of development or around birth, though BM defects vary between organs and tissues. Lethality problems were overcome by developmental stage- and skin-specific gene targeting or by cell grafting and organotypic (3D cocultures of normal or defective cells, which allows recapitulating BM formation de novo. Thus, evidence is accumulating that BM assembly and turnover rely on mechanical properties and composition of the adjacent ECM and the dynamics of molecular assembly, including further “minor” local components, nidogens largely functioning as catalysts or molecular adaptors and perlecan as bridging stabilizer. Collectively, orchestration of BM assembly, remodeling, and the role of individual players herein are determined by the developmental, tissue-specific, or functional context.

  3. Tectonic interpretation of an inverse gradient of zircon fission-track ages with respect to altitude: Alpine thermal history of the Gran Paradiso basement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extensive sampling along vertical and north-south cross-sections in the Gran Paradiso basement (internal crystalline massif, Western Alps) reveals an inverse gradient of zircon fission-track ages with respect to altitude, which is explained by an ''inverted metamorphism'' during Eocene time. Subsequent to the obduction of the Schistes Lustres nappe (high pressure Eoalpine phase), the Gran Paradiso massif cooled down 90-80 Myrs ago. The Austro-Alpine nappe of Monte Emilius - Dent Blanche overthrust the Gran Paradiso massif 38-40 Myrs ago, inducing in its basement an inverted metamorphism or, more precisely, a ''nappe emplacement metamorphism'' (greenschist facies). The last cooling below 1000C occurred as early as 35-40 Myrs ago in the southern Gran Paradiso massif; in the northern part, this last cooling occurred 20 Myrs ago, accompanied by an important uplift phase (2 mm/year). (orig.)

  4. Synthesis and deposition of basement membrane proteins by primary brain capillary endothelial cells in a murine model of the blood-brain barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Maj Schneider; Birkelund, Svend; Burkhart, Annette;


    The brain vascular basement membrane is important for both blood-brain barrier (BBB) development, stability, and barrier integrity and the contribution hereto from brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs), pericytes, and astrocytes of the BBB is probably significant. The aim of the present study......-culture, in co-culture with pericytes or mixed glial cells, or as a triple-culture with both pericytes and mixed glial cells. The integrity of the BBB models was validated by measures of transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) and passive permeability to mannitol. The expression of basement membrane...... proteins was analysed using RT-qPCR, mass spectrometry, and immunocytochemistry. Co-culturing mBCECs with pericytes, mixed glial cells, or both significantly increased the TEER compared to the mono-culture, and a low passive permeability was correlated with high TEER. The mBCECs expressed all major...

  5. Basement Characteristics and Crustal Evolution of the Copper-Gold Metallogenic Belt in the Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River: Some Isotope Constraints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Studies of the Pb, Sr and Nd isotopic composition of Mesozoic intrusive rocks indicate that the basement of the copper-gold metallogenic belt of the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River has "two-layer structure" and partly has "multi-layered structure", and is inhomogeneous and shows the distinct feature of E-W provincialism. The calculated model lead ages (t1) are mostly greater than 2600 Ma, and the model neodymium ages (TDM) vary from 953 to 2276 Ma and concentrate in two time intervals: 1800- 2000 Ma and 1200- 1600 Ma. It is concluded that the basement of the MBYR is composed of the Late Archaeozoic to Middle Proterozoic metamorphic series and that the crust was initiated in the Archaean and continued to grow in the Early and Middle Proterozoic, and the proportion of new crust formed by mantle differentiation during the Late Proterozoic is low.

  6. Preliminary model of the pre-Tertiary basement rocks beneath Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, based on analysis of gravity and magnetic data (United States)

    Phelps, Geoffrey A.; McKee, Edwin H.; Sweetkind, D.; Langenheim, V.E.


    The Environmental Restoration Program of the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, was developed to investigate the possible consequences to the environment of 40 years of nuclear testing on the Nevada Test Site. The majority of the tests were detonated underground, introducing contaminants into the ground-water system (Laczniak and others, 1996). An understanding of the ground-water flow paths is necessary to evaluate the extent of ground-water contamination. This report provides information specific to Yucca Flat on the Nevada Test Site. Critical to understanding the ground-water flow beneath Yucca Flat is an understanding of the subsurface geology, particularly the structure and distribution of the pre-Tertiary rocks, which comprise both the major regional aquifer and aquitard sequences (Winograd and Thordarson, 1975; Laczniak and others, 1996). Because the pre-Tertiary rocks are not exposed at the surface of Yucca Flat their distribution must be determined through well logs and less direct geophysical methods such as potential field studies. In previous studies (Phelps and others, 1999; Phelps and Mckee, 1999) developed a model of the basement surface of the Paleozoic rocks beneath Yucca Flat and a series of normal faults that create topographic relief on the basement surface. In this study the basement rocks and structure of Yucca Flat are examined in more detail using the basement gravity anomaly derived from the isostatic gravity inversion model of Phelps and others (1999) and high-resolution magnetic data, as part of an effort to gain a better understanding of the Paleozoic rocks beneath Yucca Flat in support of groundwater modeling.

  7. VP08R from Infectious Spleen and Kidney Necrosis Virus Is a Novel Component of the Virus-Mock Basement Membrane


    Xu, Xiaopeng; Yan, Muting; Wang, Rui; Lin, Ting; Tang, Junliang; Li, Chaozheng; Weng, Shaoping; He, Jian-Guo


    Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV), the type species of the genus Megalocytivirus, family Iridoviridae, brings great harm to fish farming. In infected tissues, ISKNV infection is characterized by a unique phenomenon, in that the infected cells are attached by lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs), which are speculated to wall off the infected cells from host immune attack. A viral membrane protein, VP23R, binds and recruits the host nidogen-1 protein to construct a basement memb...

  8. Layer-block tectonics of Cenozoic basements and formation of intra-plate basins in Nansha micro-plate,southern South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hailing; XIE Guofa; LIN Qiujin; ZHENG Hongbo; LIU Yingchun


    Layer-block tectonics (LBT) concept, with the core of pluralistic geodynamic outlook and multi-layer-sliding tectonic outlook, is one of new keys to study 3-dimensional solid and its 4-dimensional evolution history of global tectonic system controlled by global geodynamics system. The LBT concept is applied to study the lithospheric tectonics of the southern South China Sea (SCS). Based on the analysis of about 30 000 km of geophysical and geological data, some layer-blocks in the Nansha micro-plate can be divided as Nansha ultra-crustal layer-block, Zengmu crustal layer-block, Nanwei (Rifleman bank)-Andu (Ardasier bank) and Liyue (Reed bank)-North Palawan crustal layer-blocks, Andu-Bisheng and Liyue-Banyue basemental layer-blocks. The basic characteristics of the basemental layer-blocks have been dicussed, and three intra-plate basin groups are identified. The intra-plate basins within Nansha micro-plate can be divided into three basin groups of Nanwei-Andu, Feixin-Nanhua, and Liyue-North Palawan based on the different geodynamics. In the light of pluralistic geodynamic concept, the upheaving force induced by the mid-crust plastic layer is proposed as the main dynamical force which causes the formation of the intra-plate basins within the Nansha micro-plate. Finally, models of a face-to-face dip-slip-detachment of basemental layer-block and a unilateral dip-slip-detachment of basemental layer-block are put forward for the forming mechanisms of the Nanwei-Andu and Liyue-North Palawan intra-plate basin groups, respectively.

  9. Designation of mix proportion of basement mass concrete%地下室大体积混凝土底板配合比设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴桃英; 林生峰


    This article insroduces the designation of mix proportion of basement mass concrete based on the practice construction and it mainly includs the demands on materials and optimization design of mix proportion.%以一实际工程为例,介绍了地下室大体积混凝土底板的配合比设计,重点是对配合比原材料选择、配合比优化进行了叙述.

  10. Deep Groundwater Circulation within Crystalline Basement Rocks and the Role of Hydrologic Windows in the Formation of the Truth or Consequences, New Mexico Low-Temperature Geothermal System (United States)

    Pepin, J.; Person, M. A.; Phillips, F. M.; Kelley, S.; Timmons, S.; Owens, L.; Witcher, J. C.; Gable, C. W.


    Hot Springs are common in amagmatic settings, but the mechanisms of heating are often obscure. We have investigated the origin of the Truth or Consequences, New Mexico low-temperature (~ 41 °C) hot springs in the southern Rio Grande rift. We tested two mechanisms that could account for the geothermal anomaly. The first scenario is that the anomaly is the result of lateral forced convection associated with a gently-dipping carbonate aquifer. The second scenario is that high permeability of crystalline basement rocks permits circulation of groundwater down to depths of 8 km prior to discharging in Truth or Consequences. To test these hypotheses, we constructed a two-dimensional hydrothermal model of the region using FEMOC. Model parameters were constrained by calibrating to measured temperatures, specific discharge rates and groundwater residence times. We collected 16 temperature profiles, 11 geochemistry samples and 6 carbon-14 samples within the study area. The geothermal waters are Na+/Cl- dominated and have apparent groundwater ages ranging from 5,500 to 11,500 years. Hot Springs geochemistry is consistent with water/rock interaction in a silicate geothermal reservoir, rather than a carbonate system. Peclet-number analysis of temperature profiles suggests specific discharge rates beneath Truth or Consequences range from 2 to 4 m/year. Geothermometry indicates maximum reservoir temperatures are around 167 °C. We were able to reasonably reproduce observed measurements using the permeable-basement scenario (10-12 m2). The carbonate-aquifer scenario failed to match observations. Our findings imply that the Truth or Consequences geothermal system formed as a result of deep groundwater circulation within permeable crystalline basement rocks. Focused geothermal discharge is the result of localized faulting, which has created a hydrologic window through a regional confining unit. In tectonically active areas, deep groundwater circulation within fractured crystalline

  11. Assessment of proteolytic degradation of the basement membrane: a fragment of type IV collagen as a biochemical marker for liver fibrosis


    Veidal Sanne S; Karsdal Morten A; Nawrocki Arkadiusz; Larsen Martin R; Dai Yueqin; Zheng Qinlong; Hägglund Per; Vainer Ben; Skjøt-Arkil Helene; Leeming Diana J


    Abstract Background Collagen deposition and an altered matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression profile are hallmarks of fibrosis. Type IV collagen is the most abundant structural basement membrane component of tissue, which increases 14-fold during fibrogenesis in the liver. Proteolytic degradation of collagens by proteases produces small fragments, so-called neoepitopes, which are released systemically. Technologies investigating MMP-generated fragments of collagens may provide more useful...

  12. Structural control of the basement in the central portion of the Santos Basin-Brazil; Controle estrutural do embasamento na porcao central da Bacia de Santos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izeli, Maira G.B.; Morales, Norberto; Souza, Iata A. de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas


    New discoveries of oil in deep water and ultra-deep water in Santos Basin suggest that it needs to be studied to better understanding of basement structures and their role in the basin control and configuration. This study characterizes the main tectonic structures of a portion at the central area of this basin, looking for their relation to the geological basement framework. The study is based on the integration of the geological and geophysical data from subsurface (offshore) and surface of the adjacent continent. These analyses include the continental structures that continue in direction of this basin (Guapiara Lineament and Ponta Grossa Arc), checking their possible influence on the basin evolution and deformation. To achieve the proposed goals, the Precambrian basement lineaments were extracted from the offshore area using remote sensing, as result was obtained strong NW-SE structural trend. According to the interpretation of seismic sections, it is possible to observe that this portion of the basin presents main NE-SW structural trend, and most of the structures are typical of passive margin and halokintics process. It is possible to see that some recognized faults in the rift deposits may be coinciding with the main continental guidelines which are projected into the basin. (author)

  13. SHRIMP zircon dating and LA-ICPMS Hf analysis of early Precambrian rocks from drill holes into the basement beneath the Central Hebei Basin, North China Craton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yusheng Wan; Runlong Fan; Huiyi Sun; Xianzheng Zhao; Zejiu Wang; Dunyi Liu; Alfred Kröner; Chunyan Dong; Hangqian Xie; Yuansheng Geng; Yuhai Zhang


    The Central Hebei Basin (CHB) is one of the largest sedimentary basins in the North China Craton, extending in a northeastesouthwest direction with an area of>350 km2. We carried out SHRIMP zircon dating, Hf-in-zircon isotopic analysis and a whole-rock geochemical study on igneous and metasedi-mentary rocks recovered from drill holes that penetrated into the basement of the CHB. Two samples of gneissic granodiorite (XG1-1) and gneissic quartz diorite (J48-1) have magmatic ages of 2500 and 2496 Ma, respectively. Their zircons also record metamorphic ages of 2.41e2.51 and w2.5 Ga, respec-tively. Compared with the gneissic granodiorite, the gneissic quartz diorite has higher SREE contents and lower Eu/Eu* and (La/Yb)n values. Two metasedimentary samples (MG1, H5) mainly contain w2.5 Ga detrital zircons as well as late Paleoproterozoic metamorphic grains. The zircons of different origins haveεHf (2.5 Ga) values and Hf crustal model ages ranging from 0 to 5 and 2.7 to 2.9 Ga, respectively. Therefore, w2.5 Ga magmatic and Paleoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks and late Neoarchean to early Paleoproterozoic and late Paleoproterozoic tectono-thermal events have been identified in the basement beneath the CHB. Based on regional comparisons, we conclude that the early Precambrian basement beneath the CHB is part of the North China Craton.

  14. 如何控制钢筋混凝土地下室裂缝%how to Control the Cracks in Reinforced Concrete Basement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    As the reinforced concrete basement long time in moist environment, so people pay more attention to whether it is durable, its function is damaged. Among the factors that affect the durability and the use of the reinforced concrete, the crack is the most influential. this paper introduces the control of cracks in reinforced concrete basement and measures on cracks in the determination of the gPS, ensure accurate positioning, in order to improve the firmness of the basement, ensure people living safety.%由于钢筋混凝土地下室长时间处在潮湿环境中,因而人们越来越重视其是否经久耐用,其功能是否受损。在影响钢筋混凝土耐久性与使用功能的因素中,裂缝是影响最大的。论文详细介绍了几种可以控制钢筋混凝土地下室裂缝的措施,并利用gPS对裂缝进行测定,保障定位准确,旨在提高地下室牢固性,保障人们居住安全。

  15. First Identification of a Triple Corneal Dystrophy Association: Keratoconus, Epithelial Basement Membrane Corneal Dystrophy and Fuchs' Endothelial Corneal Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosimo Mazzotta


    Full Text Available Purpose: To report the observation of a triple corneal dystrophy association consisting of keratoconus (KC, epithelial basement membrane corneal dystrophy (EBMCD and Fuchs' endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD. Methods: A 55-year-old male patient was referred to our cornea service for blurred vision and recurrent foreign body sensation. He reported bilateral recurrent corneal erosions with diurnal visual fluctuations. He underwent corneal biomicroscopy, Scheimpflug tomography, in vivo HRT confocal laser scanning microscopy and genetic testing for TGFBI and ZEB1 mutations using direct DNA sequencing. Results: Biomicroscopic examination revealed the presence of subepithelial central and paracentral corneal opacities. The endothelium showed a bilateral flecked appearance, and the posterior corneal curvature suggested a possible concomitant ectatic disorder. Corneal tomography confirmed the presence of a stage II KC in both eyes. In vivo confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed a concomitant bilateral EBMCD with hyperreflective deposits in basal epithelial cells, subbasal Bowman's layer microfolds and ridges with truncated subbasal nerves as pseudodendritic elements. Stromal analysis revealed honeycomb edematous areas, and the endothelium showed a strawberry surface configuration typical of FECD. The genetic analysis resulted negative for TGFBI mutations and positive for a heterozygous mutation in exon 7 of the gene ZEB1. Conclusion: This is the first case reported in the literature in which KC, EBMCD and FECD are present in the same patient and associated with ZEB1 gene mutation. The triple association was previously established by means of morphological analysis of the cornea using corneal Scheimpflug tomography and in vivo HRT II confocal laser scanning microscopy.

  16. Characterization and mechanisms of photoageing-related changes in skin. Damages of basement membrane and dermal structures. (United States)

    Amano, Satoshi


    Sun-exposed skin is characterized by superficial changes such as wrinkles, sagging and pigmentary changes, and also many internal changes in the structure and function of epidermis, basement membrane (BM) and dermis. These changes (so-called photoageing) are predominantly induced by the ultraviolet (UV) component of sunlight. Epidermis of UV-irradiated skin produced several enzymes such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), urinary plasminogen activator (uPA)/plasmin and heparanase, which degrade dermal collagen fibres and elastic fibres in the dermis, and components of epidermal BM. The BM at the dermal-epidermal junction (DEJ) controls dermal-epidermal signalling and plays an important role in the maintenance of a healthy epidermis and dermis. BM is repetitively damaged in sun-exposed skin compared with unexposed skin, leading to epidermal and dermal deterioration and accelerated skin ageing. UV exposure also induces an increase in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), an angiogenic factor, while thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), an anti-angiogenic factor, is decreased; these changes induce angiogenesis in papillary dermis with increased migration of elastase-positive leucocytes, leading to dermal elastic fibre damage. Elastic fibres, such as oxytalan fibres in papillary dermis, are associated with not only skin resilience, but also skin surface texture, and elastic fibre formation by fibroblasts is facilitated by increased expression of fibulin-5. Thus, induction of fibulin-5 expression is a damage-repair mechanism, and fibulin-5 is an early marker of photoaged skin. UV-induced skin damage is cumulative and leads to premature ageing of skin. However, appropriate daily skincare may ameliorate photoageing by inhibiting processes causing damage and enhancing repair processes. PMID:27539897

  17. Genome wide analysis indicates genes for basement membrane and cartilage matrix proteins as candidates for hip dysplasia in Labrador Retrievers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ineke C M Lavrijsen

    Full Text Available Hip dysplasia, an abnormal laxity of the hip joint, is seen in humans as well as dogs and is one of the most common skeletal disorders in dogs. Canine hip dysplasia is considered multifactorial and polygenic, and a variety of chromosomal regions have been associated with the disorder. We performed a genome-wide association study in Dutch Labrador Retrievers, comparing data of nearly 18,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in 48 cases and 30 controls using two different statistical methods. An individual SNP analysis based on comparison of allele frequencies with a χ(2 statistic was used, as well as a simultaneous SNP analysis based on Bayesian variable selection. Significant association with canine hip dysplasia was observed on chromosome 8, as well as suggestive association on chromosomes 1, 5, 15, 20, 25 and 32. Next-generation DNA sequencing of the exons of genes of seven regions identified multiple associated alleles on chromosome 1, 5, 8, 20, 25 and 32 (p<0.001. Candidate genes located in the associated regions on chromosomes 1, 8 and 25 included LAMA2, LRR1 and COL6A3, respectively. The associated region on CFA20 contained candidate genes GDF15, COMP and CILP2. In conclusion, our study identified candidate genes that might affect susceptibility to canine hip dysplasia. These genes are involved in hypertrophic differentiation of chondrocytes and extracellular matrix integrity of basement membrane and cartilage. The functions of the genes are in agreement with the notion that disruptions in endochondral bone formation in combination with soft tissue defects are involved in the etiology of hip dysplasia.

  18. Subepithelial basement membrane thickness in patients with normal colonic mucosal appearance in colonoscopy:Results from southern Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fazilet Kayaselcuk; Ender Serin; Yǖksel Gumurdulu; Birol Ozer; Ilhan Tuncer; Sedat Boyacioglu


    AIM: Our aims were to determine the normal limits of subepithelial basement membrane (SEBM) thickness in order to more accurately diagnose collagenous colitis in the population from southern Turkey and to investigate into links between SEBM thickness and age, and sex.METHODS: The study included 100 patients (mean age 50.0±13.3 years; male, 34; female, 66) with miscellaneous gastrointestinal symptoms, and normal colonic mucosal appearance in colonoscopic evaluation. Biopsies were taken from five different regions of the colon. SEBM was measured with a calibrated eyepiece on specimens prepared with specific stains for collagen. Intensity of inflammatory cells was graded semiquantitatively. Differences in SEBM thickness among the different colon regions, and relationships between SEBM thickness and age, sex, and density of inflammatory cells were statistically evaluated.RESULTS: The cecum and rectum showed the largest amounts of infiltrate. None of the specimens showed histologic findings of collagenous colitis. The SEBM thicknesses measured for each case ranged from 3-20 μm. The biggest thickness was observed in rectal mucosa (median value: 10 μm).Cecum and ascending colon showed similar SEBM thickness (median value: 5 μm). SEBM thickness was not correlated with patient age or sex, but was positively correlated with the intensity of inflammatory cells in each colon segment.CONCLUSION: In this patient group from southern Turkey,SEBM was thickest in the rectum. Our results indicate that,in this population, SEBM thickness is not correlated with age or sex, but is positively correlated with severity of inflammation. The findings also support the concept that measuring SEBM thickness at one segment in the colon is inadequate and may be misleading.

  19. Towards new Integrated Uses of Potential Fields: Estimating the Heat Generation Potential of the Basement Underlying the Barents Sea Sedimentary Basins, North Norway, and its Importance for Hydrocarbon Maturation. (United States)

    Skilbrei, J.; Barrere, C.; Ebbing, J.; Gernigon, L.; Olesen, O.; Pascal, C.; Wienecke, S.


    We estimate the composition of main basement complexes underlying the Barents Sea continental shelf off North Norway, in order to provide input to thermal modelling; radiogenic heat production varies as a function of lithology and constitutes about half of the total heat flow in a typical sedimentary basin. Basement characterization in the coastal areas of Norway will provide ground truth for estimated basement types in the Barents Sea region. Where possible, we also try to project major tectonic units and basement terranes from North Norway and Svalbard into the Barents Sea. The aim is to characterise the basement composition in the offshore areas, to estimate the mean content of radiogenic elements, as well as heat flow estimations. This has been done on land by a series of techniques including heat flow measurements, geochemical analysis and geophysical techniques. In addition thermal measurements have been made in boreholes. Thermal conductivity measurments have been carried out on samples. We use a series of geophysical techniques: Potential field modelling, depth-to-source techniques, isostatic modelling, thermal modelling and interpretation of reflection seismic data, OBS data and velocity data. Integration of the different data sets is a key to the understanding of the deep geology of the area. Moho depths, basement depths, major fault zones and extensional detachments zones, have been interpreted. Preliminary results will be presented from a 5-year research project sponsored by the Norwegian Research Council and Statoil.

  20. Thermo-physical rock properties of greywacke basement rock and intrusive lavas from the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand (United States)

    Mielke, P.; Weinert, S.; Bignall, G.; Sass, I.


    Greywacke of the Waipapa and Torlesse (Composite) Terrane form the basement of the Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ), New Zealand. Together with inferred buried lavas, domes and igneous complexes they are likely to be the dominant rock type prevailing at depths > 4 km beneath the TVZ. A fundamental understanding of the rock properties of the deep formations is of utmost importance for the exploration of deep unconventional geothermal resources. An outcrop analogue study was conducted to improve the understanding of the thermo-physical rock properties of likely deep buried rock formations beneath the TVZ. A total of 145 core samples were taken at 10 locations inside and outside the TVZ and their grain and bulk density, porosity, matrix permeability, bulk thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity, and the compressional and shear wave velocities measured on oven-dry samples. Additional tests of the unconfined compressive strength were conducted for selected greywacke samples to quantify their mechanical rock strength. The obtained data indicates that the thermo-physical rock properties are mainly controlled by porosity, and minor by mineralogy, texture and grain size. Samples from Waipapa-type and Torlesse-type greywacke exhibit minor rheological differences, with Waipapa-type greywacke having lowest porosity (about 1% vs. 3%) and highest bulk thermal conductivity (2.5 W m- 1 K- 1 vs. 1.7 W m- 1 K- 1) and specific heat capacity (0.8 kJ kg- 1 K- 1 vs. 0.7 kJ kg- 1 K- 1). Matrix permeability is rock properties due to their wide range of porosity (rock properties were tested at laboratory conditions (ambient temperature and pressure), which do not reflect the in situ conditions at greater depth. With depth, thermal conductivity and acoustic wave velocity are likely to decrease caused by micro fractures resulting from thermal cracking of the rock, while specific heat capacity increases. The data presented in this paper are expected to improve the statistical confidence on

  1. Ion Probe U-Pb dating of the Central Sakarya basement: a peri-Gondwana terrane cut by late Lower Carboniferous subduction/collision related granitic magmatism (United States)

    Ayda Ustaömer, P.; Ustaömer, Timur; Robertson, Alastair. H. F.


    Our aim here is to better understand the age and tectonic history of crystalline basement units in the Sakarya Zone of N Turkey, north of the Neotethyan İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan Suture Zone, utilising field, petrographic and ion probe dating, the latter carried out at the University of Edinburgh. One of the largest basement units, Central Sakarya, is dominated by paragneisses and schists that are best exposed between Bilecik and Sarıcakaya, forming a belt ~15 km wide x 100 km long. Smaller outcrops of this basement are exposed further north, for instance in the Geyve area. High-grade metamorphic basement is unconformably overlain by Lower Jurassic-Upper Cretaceous cover sediments of the Sakarya Zone and is in tectonic contact with the Late Palaeozoic-Early Mesozoic Karakaya Complex to the south. Ion-probe U-Pb dating of 89 detrital zircons, separated from one garnet micaschist sample, range from 551 Ma (Ediacaran) to 2738 Ma (Neoarchean). 85% of the ages are > 90 % concordant. Zircon populations cluster at ~550-750 Ma (28 grains), ~950-1050 Ma (27 grains) and ~2000 Ma (5 grains), with smaller groupings at ~800 Ma and ~1850 Ma. The first, prominent population (Neoproterozoic) reflects derivation from a source area related to a Cadomian-Avalonian magmatic arc, likely to be associated with a Cadomian/NE African terrane rather than Baltica (Baltica is known to be magmatically inactive during this period), or Avalonia/Amazonia (in view of the absence of Mesoproterozoic ages in Avalonian-Amazonian terranes). The early Neoproterozoic ages (0.9-1 Ga) deviate significantly from the known age spectra of Cadomian terranes (i.e. Armorican Terrane Assemblage) and instead suggest derivation from an original part of NE Africa. The detrital zircon age spectrum of Cambrian-Ordovician sandstones deposited at the northern periphery of the Arabian-Nubian Shield (i.e. the Elat sandstone) is notably similar to that of the Sakarya basement. The Central Sakarya terrane may have rifted in

  2. Analysis on the basement constitution of the southern Okinawa Trough%冲绳海槽南段基底组成探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建华; 高金耀; 方银霞; 吴水根


    Based on the data of seismic reflection, seismic refraction and magnetism collected in the research area and geology obtained from adjacent areas, this paper deals with the issue of basement constitution of the southern part of the Okinawa Trough. In the shelf basin of the East China Sea, Taiwan folded belt and Ryukyu Islands folded belt which surround the trough, outcrop Later Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Eogene strata. In the southern trough, multichannel seismic reflection data indicate that the overlying strata are composed of Neogene and Quaternary deposits, and the acoustic basement consists of Eogent and even older strata. Seismic refraction profiles show that there are Eogene and Mesozoic velocity layers with longitudinal velocities of 4.7 - 5.3 km/s and 6.3 km/s respectively beneath the Quaternary-Miocene Layers. Qualitative analysis and forward and reversed calculation of magnetic data show that the magnetic basement is mainly formed by metamorphic rocks, the Yanshanian neutral-acid magmatic rocks and the Himalayan neutral-basic magmatic rocks being the next components, and the magnetic basement is mostly corresponding to the acoustic basement. Comprehensive analyses demonstrate that the basement of the southern Okinawa Trough is mainly formed by Eogene system and Mesozoic and Upper Paleozoic groups metamorphosed in varying degrees, and the basic magmatic rocks of Himalayan epoch have been formed in some parts of the basin.%本文根据反射地震、折射地震、磁力等资料,结合周边地质,探讨冲绳海槽南段基底组成.在海槽周边的东海陆架盆地、台湾褶皱带和琉球岛弧褶皱带,均出露不同程度变质的晚古生代、中生代和早第三纪地层.多道反射地震表明,海槽南段沉积盖层由上第三系和第四系组成,声学基底由下第三系及更老地层构成.邻近海槽的折射地震揭示,除第四系-中新统速度层之外,还存在纵波速度分别为4.7 ~ 5.3 km/s和6.3 km/s的下第三系

  3. Electrical Resistivity Imaging of a Thin Clayey Aquitard Developed on Basement Rocks in Parts of Adekunle Ajasin University Campus, Akungba-Akoko, South-western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muslim B Aminu


    Full Text Available In this study, 2-dimensional electrical resistivity surveying has been used to reveal the nature and development of a thin clayey aquitard on basement complex rocks of the Adekunle Ajasin University campus, Akungba-Akoko south-western Nigeria. The aim was to evaluate the occurrence, geometry and groundwater viability of this clayey aquitard as an alternative source of water supply on the Campus. Prior, a hand-dug well, which supplied moderate volumes of water all year round, had been abstracting water from this aquitard. Three east-west geo-electric traverses were surveyed using the dipole-dipole array configuration with an electrode separation of 5 m and a maximum dipole length of 45 m. Each of the three traverses was 60 m long. The observed field data were inverted for subsurface 2D resistivity structure using a commercially available 2.5D finite element modelling inversion software. The clayey aquitard is imaged to exist as low resistivity response patterns which have developed in elongated trough-like depressions created as a result of deep weathering of the feldspar and amphibolite-rich sections of the basement rocks of the area. This clayey layer reaches a thickness of 10 m at the southern end of the survey and in some sections is compartmentalised into segments by basement rocks which have better resisted weathering. Where the topographic slope of the ground surface is low enough as to allow the accumulation of run-off, the clayey aquitard develops into visible marshy swamps. Although, clayey aquitards of this nature supply water at low rates, their capacity to store high volumes and to be available all-year-round could prove essential to ameliorating acute water shortages experienced in the area during the dry season.DOI:

  4. Immunohistochemical localization of chondroitin sulfate, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, heparan sulfate proteoglycan, entactin, and laminin in basement membranes of postnatal developing and adult rat lungs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannes, P L; Burch, K K; Khosla, J;


    , and laminin. A monoclonal antibody specific for the glycosaminoglycan portion (CS) of CSPG and a monoclonal antibody against the core protein of CSPG were used in an immunoperoxidase sequence to stain extracellular matrix (ECM) components of pulmonary basement membranes (BMs). Anti-CS stained airway BM...... with CSPG, except that entactin showed particular affinity for EL. These results offer a more detailed perspective on previous survey observations of CSPG, HSPG, and entactin in the rat lung, and describe the immunoreactivity of CS for the first time.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)...

  5. Isotopic, geochemical, and temporal characterization of Proterozoic basement rocks in the Quitovac region, northwestern Sonora, Mexico: Implications for the reconstruction of the southwestern margin of Laurentia (United States)

    Iriondo, A.; Premo, W.R.; Martinez-Torres, L. M.; Budahn, J.R.; Atkinson, W.W.; Siems, D.F.; Guaras-Gonzalez, B.


    A detailed geochemical characterization of 19 representative Proterozoic basement rocks in the Quitovac region in northwestern Sonora, Mexico, has identified two distinct Paleoproterozoic basement blocks that coincide spatially with the previously proposed Caborca and "North America" blocks. New U-Pb zircon geochronology revises their age ranges, the Caborca (1.78-1.69 Ga) and "North America" (1.71-1.66 Ga) blocks at Quitovac, and precludes a simple age differentiation between them. In addition, Grenvillian-age granitoids (ca. 1.1 Ga), spatially associated with the Caborca block have been identified at Quitovac. Nd isotopes and major- and trace-element geochemistry support the distinction of these Paleoproterozoic blocks. Granitoids of the "North America" block are characterized by depleted ??Nd values (3.4-3.9) and younger Nd model ages (1800-1740 Ma) and have lower K2O, Y, Rb, Ba, Th, REE, and Fe/Mg values than coeval rocks of the Caborca block. The Caborca block granitoids are likewise characterized by slightly less depleted ??Nd (0.6-2.6) and older Nd model ages (2070-1880 Ma). Despite the subtle differences, granitoids from both the Caborca and "North America" blocks exhibit island arc-like affinities. We propose that the Proterozoic basement rocks from the Quitovac region are an extension of the Proterozoic crustal provinces in the southwestern United States. Specifically, rocks of the Caborca block exhibit an affinity to rocks of either the Yavapai province or the Mojave-Yavapai transition zone, whereas rocks of the "North America" block have signatures similar to those of the Mazatzal province or possibly the Yavapai province of Arizona. The new isotopic ages and geochemical data do not support the existence of the Late Jurassic Mojave-Sonora megashear at Quitovac, as originally proposed. However, the Quitovac region accounts only for a small fraction of the Proterozoic basement in Sonora, so these findings do not eliminate the possibility of a megashear

  6. Normal and tumor-derived myoepithelial cells differ in their ability to interact with luminal breast epithelial cells for polarity and basement membrane deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudjonsson, Thorarinn; Ronnov-Jessen, Lone; Villadsen, Rene; Rank, Fritz; Bissell, Mina J.; Petersen, Ole William


    The signals that determine the correct polarity of breast epithelial structures in vivo are not understood. We have shown previously that luminal epithelial cells can be polarized when cultured within a reconstituted basement membrane gel. We reasoned that such cues in vivo may be given by myoepithelial cells. Accordingly, we used an assay where luminal epithelial cells are incorrectly polarized to test this hypothesis. We show that culturing human primary luminal epithelial cells within collagen-I gels leads to formation of structures with no lumina and with reverse polarity as judged by dual stainings for sialomucin, epithelial specific antigen or occludin. No basement membrane is deposited, and {beta}4-integrin staining is negative. Addition of purified human myoepithelial cells isolated from normal glands corrects the inverse polarity, and leads to formation of double-layered acini with central lumina. Among the laminins present in the human breast basement membrane (laminin-1, -5 and -10/11), laminin-1 was unique in its ability to substitute for myoepithelial cells in polarity reversal. Myoepithelial cells were purified also from four different breast cancer sources including a biphasic cell line. Three out of four samples either totally lacked the ability to interact with luminal epithelial cells, or conveyed only correction of polarity in a fraction of acini. This behavior was directly related to the ability of the tumor myoepithelial cells to produce {alpha}-1 chain of laminin. In vivo, breast carcinomas were either negative for laminin-1 (7/12 biopsies) or showed a focal, fragmented deposition of a less intensely stained basement membrane (5/12 biopsies). Dual staining with myoepithelial markers revealed that tumorassociated myoepithelial cells were either negative or weakly positive for expression of laminin-1, establishing a strong correlation between loss of laminin-1 and breast cancer. We conclude that the double-layered breast acinus may be

  7. MMP Mediated Degradation of Type IV Collagen Alpha 1 and Alpha 3 Chains Reflects Basement Membrane Remodeling in Experimental and Clinical Fibrosis - Validation of Two Novel Biomarker Assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand, Jannie Marie; Larsen, Lise Skakkebæk; Hogaboam, Cory;


    Fibrosis is characterized by excessive tissue remodeling resulting from altered expression of various growth factors, cytokines and proteases. We hypothesized that matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) mediated degradation of type IV collagen, a main component of the basement membrane, will release...... peptide fragments (neo-epitopes) into the circulation. Here we present the development of two competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for assessing the levels of specific fragments of type IV collagen α1 (C4M12a1) and α3 (C4M12a3) chains in serum as indicators of fibrosis....

  8. Palaeoproterozoic Volcanic Massive Sulphides (VMS) in the Lithuanian crystalline basement: evidences for a back-arc tectonic setting (United States)

    Skridlaite, Grazina; Siliauskas, Laurynas


    In the southwestern part of the East European Craton (EEC), several events of Palaeoproterozoic volcanic arc magmatic activity were recognized in the concealed crystalline basement. In Lithuania, the TTG suites of 1.89 Ga and 1.86-1.84 Ga were later metamorphosed in amphibolite and granulite facies conditions. Remnants of a volcano-sedimentary sequence metamorphosed in green schist and amphibolite facies conditions were discovered in central and southern Lithuania. In southern Lithuania, the upper part of the Lazdijai 13 (Lz13) drilling (at c. 493 m depth) consists of exhalitic quartz chlorite cherts mixed with andesitic rocks. The rocks are impregnated with magnetite in some places replacing calcite. Most of the magnetite grains are overgrown by a dendritic kovelite, which may have formed while magnetite was still in aqueous surrounding. Other accessory minerals are xenotime, zircon, apatite, Sr-Ba sulphates etc. The cherts are underlain by a metaandesite which volcanic structures were obscured by hydrothermal alteration, i.e. the idiomorphic magnetite crystals and porphyritic plagioclase grains were replaced by clay minerals and quartz or muscovite in many places. Thin metamorphosed mudstone layers turned into garnet, biotite (+/-staurolite) and chlorite schists. The rocks were affected by silicification, chloritization, argilitization and carbonatization. Taking into account the rock composition, micro and macro scale alteration zones and absence of breccia, the whole package resembles an outer part of the VMS stockwork. The lower boundary at 526 m is sharp, marked by a quartz vein, below which lies quartz, biotite (+/- chlorite) bearing schist with minor tremolite (former sandstone). It was intensely affected by silicification, and was enriched in Na, K and Ca. Accessory minerals are monazite, xenotime, apatite and detrital zircon. The schist exhibits fine mineral foliation, and is fine-grained. A 4 m thick granitic vein cuts the rock at 654 m depth, below

  9. Microstructural analysis of calcite-filled fractures inherited from basement structures, southern Ontario, Canada: long term instability of the craton? (United States)

    Spalding, Jennifer; Schneider, David


    Intra-cratonic regions are generally characterized by tectonic stability and low seismicity. In southern Ontario, Canada, moderate levels of seismicity have been recorded over the last few decades reaching magnitudes of 5 MN, indicating that the geosphere is not as stable as predicted. The stratigraphy of the region consists of Ordovician limestone with a thickness of ~200 m that unconformably overlays the Mesoproterozoic crystalline Grenville Province. Subsequent tectonism including repeated Paleozoic orogenies and rifting along the east coast of North America has reactivated Proterozoic structures that have propagated into the overlying carbonate platform forming mesoscopic-scale brittle structures. Exposed along the shores of Lake Ontario are decameter-scale fracture zones, with a fracture spacing of 0.5 to 10 meters. The dominant fracture set trends E-W, and often forms conjugate sets with less prominent NNE-oriented fractures. More locally, an older NW-oriented fracture set is cross cut by the E-W and NNE oriented fractures. Regionally, there have been six directions of maximum horizontal stress in southern Ontario since the Precambrian, with the current orientation of maximum stress oriented ENE as a consequence of far field Atlantic ridge-push forces generated at distant plate boundaries. Calcite mineralization along fractured surfaces locally form sub-horizontal slickenside fabrics which are covered by a layer of euhedral calcite crystals, suggesting that fracture dilation (and fluid flow) occurred after fracture slip to allow the growth of calcite crystals. Due to the proximity of the carbonate units to the crystalline basement, we expect the calcitic veins to be enriched in rare earth elements and are presently conducting geochemical analyses. The calcite veins and surfaces vary from 2.5 cm to 1 mm thicknesses, often with larger calcite crystals in the center of the vein and smaller crystals at the vein boundaries, likely representing nucleation on small

  10. Mineralogical and geochemical characterization of a rare ultramafic lamprophyre in the Tandilia belt basement, Río de la Plata Craton, Argentina (United States)

    Dristas, Jorge A.; Martínez, Juan Cruz; Massonne, Hans-Joachim; Pimentel, Marcio M.


    A metre-thick ultramafic lamprophyre dyke intrudes the basement of the Tandilia belt at the Sierra Alta de Vela, Argentina. A petrological and geochemical study of this rock and associated small dykes indicates a predominantly calc-alkaline trend. Phlogopite K-Ar dating of the ultramafic lamprophyre gave a minimum age of 1928 ± 54 Ma as a late event of the Transamazonian Orogeny, which is well represented in the basement of the Tandilia belt. An electron microprobe study indicates the presence of phlogopite, albite, chromite and Cr-rich phenocrysts and Cr-free microphenocrysts of diopside as primary minerals. Subsequent to deformation at the contacts with the wall rock, metasomatism generated strongly zoned amphibole (edenite, pargasite, Mg-hastingite and tremolite compositions) and andradite as well as chlorite, sericite, albite, apatite and calcite. The central zone of the lamprophyre is almost undeformed and exhibits some ocellar texture. Geochemical and isotopic signatures of the lamprophyre suggest that its magma source may have previously undergone incompatible element enrichment of the mantle source, representing the original precursor magma for the calc-alkaline dyke series of the Sierra Alta de Vela.

  11. Geochemical evidence for contribution of ore-forming materials from peraluminous granite basement-- Taking Fucheng pluton and No. 6722 uranium deposit in southern Jiangxi Province as examples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Bangtong(章邦桐); CHEN; Peirong(陈培荣); YANG; Dongsheng(杨东生); KONG; Xinggong(孔兴功)


    Using the induced fission-track method, mobile uranium leaching and lead isotope analysis, this work obtianed geochemical features of the peraluminous Fucheng granite basement and the host rock (shoshonite) of the No. 6722 uranium deposit in southern Jiangxi Province. (i) Uranium contents of the leucocratic rock-forming minerals (0.18 ?g/g for quartz, 0.36 ?g/g for feldspar) are lower than the uranium content of the whole rock (4.6 ?g/g). Biotite and some accessory mineral inclusions (zircon, monazite and uraninite) are the main uranium carriers of the Fucheng granite pluton. The fissure uranium in altered minerals (hydromica and chlorite) increased evidently. (ii) Leachable rate of mobile uranium in the biotite granite is 10.4%, while that in the altered granite increased to 31%. (iii) Caculation based on lead isotopes shows that during alteration the Fucheng granite lost uranium (?U = ?37% - ?65%), whereas the Caotaobei shoshonite gained uranium (?U = +37%- +58%). These features suggest that the ore-forming material of the No. 6722 uranium deposit was mainly derived from the altered peraluminous granite basement of Fucheng pluton.

  12. High resolution heliborne magnetic data - an aid to delineate favorable basement structures for uranium exploration in parts of Palnad and Srisailam sub-basins, Cuddapah Basin, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High resolution heliborne magnetic survey carried out by Atomic Minerals Directorate for Exploration and Research over an area of 2500 sq km covering parts of Srisailam and Palnad Sub-basins along the northern part of the Cuddapah Basin has brought out number of important magnetic domains, structures and basement configuration hitherto unknown. N-S to NNE-SSW and ENE-WSW basement faults/fractures were delineated in parts of Srisailam and Palnad Sub-basins respectively. These fractures are also associated with mafic intrusives and exhibit lithostructural setup similar to Peddagattu, Lambapur and Koppunuru uranium deposits. In central part, N-S trending magnetic anomalies associated with gravity gradient deciphered as a regional fault passing through Damarcherla, Pondugala and Gurajala. Macherla gravity high associated with NW-SE trending intense magnetic anomalies is interpreted as Banded Iron Formation (BIF). Present study led to the delineation of structural features transecting the sediments which may form important locale for unconformity related uranium mineralization. (author)

  13. Detection of the basement membrane-degrading proteolytic activity of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis after SDS-PAGE using agarose overlays containing Abz-MKALTLQ-EDDnp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Puccia


    Full Text Available We have characterized, in the Paracoccidioides brasiliensis yeast phase, an exocellular SH-dependent serine proteinase activity against Abz-MKRLTL-EDDnp and analogous fluorescent-quenched peptides, and showed that it is also active against constituents of the basement membrane in vitro. In the present study, we separated the components of P. brasiliensis culture filtrates by electrophoresis and demonstrated that the serine-thiol exocellular proteinase has a diffuse and heterogeneous migration by SDS-PAGE, localizing in a region between 69 and 43 kDa. The hydrolytic activity was demonstrable after SDS-PAGE using buffered agarose overlays of Abz-MKALTLQ-EDDnp, following incubation at 37oC, and detection of fluorescent bands with a UV transilluminator. Hydrolysis was more intense when incubation was carried out at basic pH, and was completely inhibited with 2.5 mM PMSF and partially with sodium 7-hydroxymercuribenzoate (2.5 mM p-HMB, suggesting its serine-thiol nature. A proteolytic band with similar characteristics was observed in conventional gelatin zymograms, but could not be correlated with a silver-stained component. Detection of the serine-thiol proteinase in substrate gels after SDS-PAGE provides a useful way of monitoring purification of the basement membrane degrading enzyme.

  14. The central role of vascular extracellular matrix and basement membrane remodeling in metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes: the matrix preloaded

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyagi Suresh C


    Full Text Available Abstract The vascular endothelial basement membrane and extra cellular matrix is a compilation of different macromolecules organized by physical entanglements, opposing ionic charges, chemical covalent bonding, and cross-linking into a biomechanically active polymer. These matrices provide a gel-like form and scaffolding structure with regional tensile strength provided by collagens, elasticity by elastins, adhesiveness by structural glycoproteins, compressibility by proteoglycans – hyaluronans, and communicability by a family of integrins, which exchanges information between cells and between cells and the extracellular matrix of vascular tissues. Each component of the extracellular matrix and specifically the capillary basement membrane possesses unique structural properties and interactions with one another, which determine the separate and combined roles in the multiple diabetic complications or diabetic opathies. Metabolic syndrome, prediabetes, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and their parallel companion (atheroscleropathy are associated with multiple metabolic toxicities and chronic injurious stimuli. The adaptable quality of a matrix or form genetically preloaded with the necessary information to communicate and respond to an ever-changing environment, which supports the interstitium, capillary and arterial vessel wall is individually examined.

  15. Analysis of the Waterproofing Construction Weight Control of a Building Basement%某大厦地下室防水工程施工重量控制探讨分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



      地下室墙板砼的浇筑质量优劣直接影响地下室的抗渗能力。超大超长地下室工程一旦产生渗漏,补修工作较困难。本文以某大厦地下室防水工程为例,详细阐述了如何做好地下室防水施工质量控制,希望能够给类似项目提供一些参考和建议。%The basement wal concrete pouring quality direct-ly affects the basement impermeability. Super-long oversized basement project once produced leakage, repair work is more difficult. This paper taking waterproof engineering in the base-ment of a building as the example, elaborates how to do qualit-y control of basement waterproof construction, hoping to be able to provide some reference and suggestions for similar pro-jects.

  16. Lithosphere, crust and basement ridges across Ganga and Indus basins and seismicity along the Himalayan front, India and Western Fold Belt, Pakistan (United States)

    Ravi Kumar, M.; Mishra, D. C.; Singh, B.


    Spectral analysis of the digital data of the Bouguer anomaly of North India including Ganga basin suggest a four layer model with approximate depths of 140, 38, 16 and 7 km. They apparently represent lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB), Moho, lower crust, and maximum depth to the basement in foredeeps, respectively. The Airy's root model of Moho from the topographic data and modeling of Bouguer anomaly constrained from the available seismic information suggest changes in the lithospheric and crustal thicknesses from ˜126-134 and ˜32-35 km under the Central Ganga basin to ˜132 and ˜38 km towards the south and 163 and ˜40 km towards the north, respectively. It has clearly brought out the lithospheric flexure and related crustal bulge under the Ganga basin due to the Himalaya. Airy's root model and modeling along a profile (SE-NW) across the Indus basin and the Western Fold Belt (WFB), (Sibi Syntaxis, Pakistan) also suggest similar crustal bulge related to lithospheric flexure due to the WFB with crustal thickness of 33 km in the central part and 38 and 56 km towards the SE and the NW, respectively. It has also shown the high density lower crust and Bela ophiolite along the Chamman fault. The two flexures interact along the Western Syntaxis and Hazara seismic zone where several large/great earthquakes including 2005 Kashmir earthquake was reported. The residual Bouguer anomaly maps of the Indus and the Ganga basins have delineated several basement ridges whose interaction with the Himalaya and the WFB, respectively have caused seismic activity including some large/great earthquakes. Some significant ridges across the Indus basin are (i) Delhi-Lahore-Sargodha, (ii) Jaisalmer-Sibi Syntaxis which is highly seismogenic. and (iii) Kachchh-Karachi arc-Kirthar thrust leading to Sibi Syntaxis. Most of the basement ridges of the Ganga basin are oriented NE-SW that are as follows (i) Jaisalmer-Ganganagar and Jodhpur-Chandigarh ridges across the Ganga basin intersect

  17. Petrographic and geochemical comparisons between the lower crystalline basement-derived section and the granite megablock and amphibolite megablock of the Eyreville-B core, Chesapeake Bay impact structure (United States)

    Townsend, Gabrielle N.; Gibson, Roger L.; Horton, J. Wright; Reimold, Wolf Uwe; Schmitt, Ralf T.; Bartosova, Katerina


    The Eyreville B core from the Chesapeake Bay impact structure, Virginia, USA, contains a lower basement-derived section (1551.19 m to 1766.32 m deep) and two megablocks of dominantly (1) amphibolite (1376.38 m to 1389.35 m deep) and (2) granite (1095.74 m to 1371.11 m deep), which are separated by an impactite succession. Metasedimentary rocks (muscovite-quartz-plagioclase-biotite-graphite ± fibrolite ± garnet ± tourmaline ± pyrite ± rutile ± pyrrhotite mica schist, hornblende-plagioclase-epidote-biotite-K-feldspar-quartz-titanite-calcite amphibolite, and vesuvianite-plagioclase-quartz-epidote calc-silicate rock) are dominant in the upper part of the lower basement-derived section, and they are intruded by pegmatitic to coarse-grained granite (K-feldspar-plagioclase-quartz-muscovite ± biotite ± garnet) that increases in volume proportion downward. The granite megablock contains both gneissic and weakly or nonfoliated biotite granite varieties (K-feldspar-quartz-plagioclase-biotite ± muscovite ± pyrite), with small schist xenoliths consisting of biotite-plagioclase-quartz ± epidote ± amphibole. The lower basement-derived section and both megablocks exhibit similar middle- to upper-amphibolite-facies metamorphic grades that suggest they might represent parts of a single terrane. However, the mica schists in the lower basement-derived sequence and in the megablock xenoliths show differences in both mineralogy and whole-rock chemistry that suggest a more mafic source for the xenoliths. Similarly, the mineralogy of the amphibolite in the lower basement-derived section and its association with calc-silicate rock suggest a sedimentary protolith, whereas the bulk-rock and mineral chemistry of the megablock amphibolite indicate an igneous protolith. The lower basement-derived granite also shows bulk chemical and mineralogical differences from the megablock gneissic and biotite granites.

  18. U-Pb SHRIMP-RG zircon ages and Nd signature of lower Paleozoic rifting-related magmatism in the Variscan basement of the Eastern Pyrenees (United States)

    Martinez, F.J.; Iriondo, A.; Dietsch, C.; Aleinikoff, J.N.; Peucat, J.J.; Cires, J.; Reche, J.; Capdevila, R.


    The ages of orthogneisses exposed in massifs of the Variscan chain can determine whether they are part of a pre-Neoproterozoic basement, a Neoproterozoic, Panafrican arc, or are, in fact, lower Paleozoic, and their isotopic compositions can be used to probe the nature of their source rocks, adding to the understanding of the types, distribution, and tectonic evolution of peri-Gondwanan crystalline basement. Using SHRIMP U-Pb zircon geochronology and Nd isotopic analysis, pre-Variscan metaigneous rocks from the N??ria massif in the Eastern Pyrenean axial zone and the Guilleries massif, 70km to the south, have been dated and their Nd signatures characterized. All dated orthogneisses from the N??ria massif have the same age within error, ~457Ma, including the Ribes granophyre, interpreted as a subvolcanic unit within Caradocian sediments contemporaneous with granitic magmas intruded into Cambro-Ordovician sediments at deeper levels. Orthogneisses in the Guilleries massif record essentially continuous magmatic activity during the Ordovician, beginning at the Cambro-Ordovician boundary (488??3Ma) and reaching a peak in the volume of magma in the early Late Ordovician (~460Ma). Metavolcanic rocks in the Guilleries massif were extruded at 452??4Ma and appear to have their intrusive equivalent in thin, deformed veins of granitic gneiss (451??7Ma) within metasedimentary rocks. In orthogneisses from both massifs, the cores of some zircons yield Neoproterozoic ages between ~520 and 900Ma. The age of deposition of a pre-Late Ordovician metapelite in the Guilleries massif is bracketed by the weighted average age of the youngest detrital zircon population, 582??11Ma, and the age of cross-cutting granitic veins, 451??7Ma. Older detrital zircons populations in this metapelite include Neoproterozoic (749-610Ma; n=10), Neo- to Mesoproterozoic (1.04-0.86Ga; n=7), Paleoproterozoic (2.02-1.59Ga; n=5), and Neoarchean (2.74-2.58Ga; n=3). Nd isotopic analyses of the N??ria and Guilleries

  19. On prevention technique of inner surface condensed water of basement walls%地下室外墙内表面冷凝水的防治技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Combining with the engineering example,the paper indicates the differences of the inner surface condensed water of basement walls and leakage,analyzes the reasons for the condensed water of the lateral walls at underground garage and its influence on the functions,and points out the prevention measures and treatment for the condensed water,so as to ensure the functions of the underground garage.%结合工程实例,说明了地下室外墙内表面冷凝水与渗漏的区别,详细分析了地下车库外侧壁冷凝水产生原因及对使用功能的影响,同时提出了冷凝水的防治措施和处理方法,以确保地下车库的使用功能。

  20. Basement anti-floating design methods and measures%地下室抗浮设计方法与措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This article discusses groundwater level valuing and groundwater functioning calculation in basement anti-floating design. According to relevant norms, it proposes several effective anti-floating measures and methods of reducing anti-floating groundwater level. Thus, it guarantees the security, saves as the investment as much as possible, and shortens construction duration.%就地下室抗浮设计中地下水位的取值、地下水作用的计算作了论述,并根据相关规范,提出了几种有效的抗浮措施和降低抗浮设计水位的方法,从而在保证安全的同时尽量节省投资,缩短工期。

  1. 地下室人防建筑设计要点探究%Explore the Design Points of Civil Air Defense Architectural of Basement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    With the rapid development of the construction in-dustry, the function of basement has a strong comprehensiven-ess, in addition to air defense requirements, as wel as the need for normal use, such as parking, and equipment. In this article, the author gives a detailed and in-depth discussion of the rel-evant points of civil air defense architectural design of basem-ent.%  随着建筑行业的快速发展,地下室的功能有着较强的综合性。除了防空要求,还有平时使用的需要,如停车,设备等。本文就地下室人防建筑设计的相关要点进行了细致、深入的探讨。

  2. Geophysical and geochronological constraints on the extent and age of mafic intrusions in the basement of west Texas and eastern New Mexico (United States)

    Keller, G. Randy; Hills, John M.; Baker, Mark R.; Wallin, E. Timothy


    A deep drill hole recently completed on the Central basin platform of west Texas provides a rare look at almost 5 km of basement rocks. Most of the crystalline rocks encountered were basic and ultrabasic in composition. A variety of geophysical data is available from the bore hole and vicinity. The petrographic and geophysical data suggest that a large, layered, basic intrusion was penetrated by the well. Geochronologic (U-Pb) data indicate an age of about 1.1 Ga for this intrusion. This date has significant tectonic implications because it indicates that commonly accepted analogies with the southern Oklahoma aulacogen (550 Ma rifting) are not valid. However, it is interesting to note that this feature formed during another widespread period of rifting (Keweenawan).

  3. Geophysical and geochronological constraints on the extent and age of mafic intrusions in the basement of west Texas and eastern New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, G.R.; Hills, J.M.; Baker, M.R. (Univ. of Texas, El Paso (USA)); Wallin, E.T. (Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence (USA))


    A deep drill hole recently completed on the Central basin platform of west Texas provides a rare look at almost 5km of basement rocks. Most of the cystalline rocks encountered were basic and ultrabasic in composition. A variety of geophysical data is available from the borehole and vicinity. The petrographic and geophysical data suggest that a large, layered, basic intrusion was penetrated by the well. Geochronologic (U-Pb) data indicate an age of about 1.1 Ga for this intrusion. This date has significant tectonic implications because it indicates that commonly accepted analogies with the southern Oklahoma aulacogen (550 Ma rifting) are not valid. However, it is interesting to note that this feature formed formed during another widespread period of rifting (Keweenawan).

  4. 超长地下室的设计与施工探讨%Discussion on Design and Construction of Super-long Basement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In this paper, the author introduces some effective practices in not setting settlement joint, expan- sion joints, structural measures on a large block of the main building and underground garage and long base- ment concrete structural cracks control (for example, Changzhou Wujin District Galaxy 4 #, 6 # block long basement structure design) to provide a reference for similar projects in the design.%文章结合常州武进区星河国际4#、6#地块超长地下室结构的设计,介绍了大型地块主楼与地下车库间不设置沉降缝、伸缩缝的构造措施以及超长地下室混凝土结构裂缝控制的有效做法。

  5. The age and composition of the pre-Cenozoic basement of the Jalisco Block: implications for and relation to the Guerrero composite terrane (United States)

    Valencia, Victor A.; Righter, Kevin; Rosas-Elguera, Jose; López-Martínez, Margarita; Grove, Marty


    The Jalisco Block is thought to be part of the Guerrero terrane, but the nature and age of the underlying crystalline basement are largely unknown. We have collected a suite of schists, granitoids, and weakly metamorphosed marine sediments from various parts of the Jalisco Block including Atenguillo and Ameca, Mascota and San Sebastián, Cuale, Puerto Vallarta, Punta Mita, Yelapa, and Tomatlán. The schists range in age from 135 to 161 Ma, with many exhibiting Proterozoic and Phanerozoic zircon ages. The granitoids range in age from 65 to 90 Ma, and are calc-alkaline compositionally—similar to granitoids from the Puerto Vallarta and Los Cabos batholiths. The Jalisco granitoids also experienced similar uplift rates to granitoids from the regions to the north and south of the Jalisco Block. The marine sediments yield a maximum depositional age of 131 Ma, and also contain a significant zircon population with ages extending back to the Archean. Granitoids from this study define two age groups, even after the effects of thermal resetting and different closure temperatures are considered. The 66.8-Ma silicic ash flow tuff near Union de Tula significantly expands the extent of this Cretaceous-Paleocene age ash flow tuff unit within the Jalisco Block, and we propose calling the unit "Carmichael silicic ash flow tuff volcanic succession" in honor of Ian Carmichael. The ages of the basement schists in the Jalisco Block fully overlap with the ages of terranes of continental Mexico, and other parts of the Guerrero terrane in the south, confirming the autochthonous origin of the Jalisco Block rather than exotic arc or allochthonous origin. Geologic data, in combination with geochronologic and oxygen isotopic data, suggest the evolution of SW Mexico with an early 200-1,200-Ma passive margin, followed by steep subduction in a continental arc setting at 160-165 Ma, then shallower subduction by 135 Ma, and finally, emplacement of granitoids at 65-90 Ma.

  6. Heparanase expression,degradation of basement membrane and low degree of infiltration by immunocytes correlate with invasion and progression of human gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zun-Jiang Xie; Ying Liu; Li-Min Jia; Ye-Chun He


    AIM: To disclose the mechanisms that accelerate or limit tumor invasion and metastasis in gastric cancer patients.METHODS: The heparanase expression,continuity of basement,degree of infiltration by dendritic cells and lymphocytes in gastric cancer tissues from 33 the early and late stage patients were examined by immunohistochemistry,in situ hybridization and transmission electron microscopy.RESULTS: Heparanase mRNA expression in the late stage patients with gastric cancer was stronger than that in the early stage gastric cancer patients.In the early stage gastric cancer tissues,basement membrane (BlVl) appeared intact,whereas in the late stage,discontinuous BM was often present.The density of $100 protein positive tumor infiltrating dendritic cells (TIDC) in the early stage gastric cancer tissues was higher than that in the late stage.The infiltrating degree of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) in the early stage patients whose tumor tissues contained a high density of TIDC was significantly higher than that in the late stage gastric cancer tissues patients with a low density of TIDC.There were few cancer cells penetrated through the continuous BM of cancer nests in the early stage gastric cancers,but many cancer cells were found outside of the defective BM of cancer nests in the late stage.CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that strong heparanase expression is related with the degradation of BM which allows or accelerates tumor invasion and metastasis.However,high density of TIDC and degree of infiltration by TIL are associated with tumor progression in human gastric cancers.

  7. Provenance through the limit: integrated provenance from the Devonian sedimentary and basement rocks from the northern segment of the Eastern Cordillera of the Colombian Andes (United States)

    Cardona, Agustin; Valencia, Victor; Lotero, Andrea; Villafañez, Yohana; Augustsson, Carita; Bayona, German; Ibañez, Mauricio


    The provenance record of sedimentary rocks is sometimes the only available archive of the geological evolution in continuously active continental margins where continuous exhumation, erosion and along strike fragmentation of continental margins destroy geological evidences. New integrated provenance constraints from segmented exposures of Devonian rocks of the northern segment of the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia are used to reconstruct overimposed Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic paleogeographic scenarios of the northern Andes. Sandstones from deltaic to platform environments are characterized by very high quartz contents, stable to ultrastable heavy minerals and mostly angular fragments. U-Pb detrital zircon geochronology reveals prominent Silurian to Ordovician and Mesoproterozoic (Grenvillian) age populations with minor Devonian zircons. Tourmaline geochemistry and detrital quarz characterization suggest prominent low grade metamorphic sources. These provenance fingerprints can be related to the erosion of the older metasedimentary basement exposed in the same region and record the transition from a terrane collisional event to the formation of a new subduction zone before the final Late Paleozoic events that end in the agglutination of Pangea. The U-Pb detrital record of the Devonian and basement rocks of the Eastern Cordillera are also comparable with Early to Middle Paleozic Paleozoic rocks form the Northern segment of the eastern Peruvian Andes re-inforcing the view of along strike terrane thousand of kilometer transport along the Mesozoic proto-Andean margin. Petrographic and heavy mineral petrofacies and stratigraphic correlation between Devonian localities are also used as piercing points to document Cenozoic ten of kilometers strike slip displacements along the northern termination of the Eastern Cordillera.

  8. Reciprocal interactions between Beta1-integrin and epidermal growth factor in three-dimensional basement membrane breast cultures: A different perspective in epithelial biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, F.; Weaver, V.M.; Petersen, O.W.; Larabell, C.A.; Dedhar, S.; Briand, P.; Lupu, R.; Bissell, M.J.


    Anchorage and growth factor independence are cardinal features of the transformed phenotype. Although it is logical that the two pathways must be coregulated in normal tissues to maintain homeostasis, this has not been demonstrated directly. We showed previously that down-modulation of {beta}1-integrin signaling reverted the malignant behavior of a human breast tumor cell line (T4-2) derived from phenotypically normal cells (HMT-3522) and led to growth arrest in a threedimensional (3D) basement membrane assay in which the cells formed tissue-like acini (14). Here, we show that there is a bidirectional cross-modulation of {beta}1-integrin and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling via the mitogenactivated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. The reciprocal modulation does not occur in monolayer (2D) cultures. Antibodymediated inhibition of either of these receptors in the tumor cells, or inhibition of MAPK kinase, induced a concomitant downregulation of both receptors, followed by growth-arrest and restoration of normal breast tissue morphogenesis. Crossmodulation and tissue morphogenesis were associated with attenuation of EGF-induced transient MAPK activation. To specifically test EGFR and {beta}1-integrin interdependency, EGFR was overexpressed in nonmalignant cells, leading to disruption of morphogenesis and a compensatory up-regulation of {beta}1-integrin expression, again only in 3D. Our results indicate that when breast cells are spatially organized as a result of contact with basement membrane, the signaling pathways become coupled and bidirectional. They further explain why breast cells fail to differentiate in monolayer cultures in which these events are mostly uncoupled. Moreover, in a subset of tumor cells in which these pathways are misregulated but functional, the cells could be 'normalized' by manipulating either pathway.

  9. Fluid-driven destabilization of REE-bearing accessory minerals in the granitic orthogneisses of North Veporic basement (Western Carpathians, Slovakia) (United States)

    Ondrejka, M.; Putiš, M.; Uher, P.; Schmiedt, I.; Pukančík, L.; Konečný, P.


    A variety of rare earth elements-bearing (REE) accessory mineral breakdowns were identified in granitic orthogneisses from the pre-Alpine basement in the Veporic Unit, Central Western Carpathians, Slovakia. The Ordovician granitic rocks were subjected to Variscan metamorphic-anatectic overprint in amphibolite facies. Chemical U-Th-Pb dating of monazite-(Ce) and xenotime-(Y) reveal their primary magmatic Lower to Middle Ordovician age (monazite: 472 ± 4 to 468 ± 6 Ma and xenotime: 471 ± 13 Ma) and/or metamorphic-anatectic Variscan (Carboniferous, Visean) age (monazite: 345 ± 3 Ma). Younger fluid-rock interactions caused breakdown of primary magmatic and/or metamorphic-anatectic monazite-(Ce), xenotime-(Y), fluorapatite and allanite-(Ce). Fluid-induced breakdown of xenotime-(Y) produced numerous tiny uraninite inclusions within the altered xenotime-(Y) domains. The monazite-(Ce) breakdown produced secondary egg-shaped coronal structures of different stages with well-developed concentric mineral zones. Secondary sulphatian monazite-(Ce) (up to 0.15 apfu S) occasionally formed along fluorapatite fissures. Localized fluorapatite and monazite-(Ce) recrystallization resulted in a very fine-grained, non-stoichiometric mixture of REE-Y-Fe-Th-Ca-P-Si phases. Finally, allanite-(Ce) decomposed to secondary REE carbonate minerals (members of the bastnäsite and synchysite groups) and calcite in some places. Although the xenotime alteration and formation of uraninite inclusions is believed to be the result of dissolution-reprecipitation between early magmatic xenotime and late-magmatic granitic fluids, the monazite, apatite and allanite breakdowns were driven by metamorphic hydrothermal fluids. While earlier impact of post-magmatic fluids originated probably from Permian acidic volcanic and microgranitic veins crosscutting the orthogneisses, another fluid-rock interaction event most likely occurred during Late Cretaceous metamorphism in the Veporic basement and covering

  10. Glycosylation of human glomerular basement membrane collagen: increased content of hexose in ketoamine linkage and unaltered hydroxylysine-O-glycosides in patients with diabetes. (United States)

    Uitto, J; Perejda, A J; Grant, G A; Rowold, E A; Kilo, C; Williamson, J R


    To study the glycosylation of glomerular basement membrane collagen (GBMC) in diabetes, kidneys were obtained at autopsy from 5 patients with insulin-requiring diabetes of long duration and diabetic complications, and from 5 control subjects. Glomeruli were prepared by sieving and collagen was isolated by limited pepsin proteolysis followed by salt precipitations. Amino acid analyses of the collagen preparations, after acid hydrolysis, indicated a composition consistent with that of type IV collagen. No differences in the relative contents of various amino acids, and in particular, 3-hydroxyproline, 4-hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine, were noted between diabetic and control samples. Non-enzymatic glucosylation was assessed by measuring hexose in ketoamine linkage with thiobarbituric acid after conversion to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural. In 4 of the 5 patients studied, glucosylation values exceeded the mean +2 S.D. of the controls; in the fifth subject glucosylation was in the high normal range. No correlation between the severity of diabetes and hexose content of GBMC was noted, however. In further studies, enzymatic glycosylation of GBMC was assayed after alkaline hydrolysis by separation of glucosylgalactosyl-O-hydroxylysine, galactosyl-O-hydroxylysine, and unsubstituted hydroxylysine in an amino acid analyzer. No differences in the relative contents of hydroxylysine-O-glycosides were evident between diabetic and control GBMC. The results suggest that non-enzymatic glucosylation, but not glycosylation catalyzed by collagen glucosyl and galactosyl transferases, is increased in diabetes. The increased carbohydrate content of collagen may lead to decreased turnover and/or excessive accumulations of basement membrane collagen thus contributing to the vascular complications of diabetes. PMID:6218960

  11. Variscan terrane boundaries in the Odenwald-Spessart basement, Mid-German Crystalline Zone: New evidence from ocean ridge, intraplate and arc-derived metabasaltic rocks (United States)

    Will, T. M.; Lee, S.-H.; Schmädicke, E.; Frimmel, H. E.; Okrusch, M.


    The Mid-German Crystalline Zone is part of a large Variscan suture and consists of various basement complexes that are exposed in central Germany. New lithogeochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope data obtained on various amphibolites from the Odenwald-Spessart basement show that their protoliths formed in different tectonic settings and were subsequently incorporated into a subduction zone prior to Variscan continental collision. Metabasic rocks from the northernmost Spessart and the western Odenwald are geochemically almost identical and their protoliths are interpreted to have formed in an extensional, possibly, a back-arc setting. The tholeiitic and calc-alkaline rocks have intermediate TiO2 concentrations and high Th/Nb ratios, typical of volcanic arc-type and/or subduction-fluid modified rocks. The Nd initial ratios are depleted (εNd330 Ma = 5.0-5.8) and Nd model ages range from 660 to 610 Ma, which points at juvenile crustal addition towards the end of the Neoproterozoic. The samples define a linear array in 206Pb/204Pb versus 207Pb/204Pb space. In contrast, the protoliths of the metabasic rocks from the southern and central Spessart formed either in an intraplate oceanic island or a continental arc setting. The alkaline intraplate rocks from the southern Spessart basement are very TiO2-rich and have very low Th/Nb ratios. The rocks have weakly depleted Nd initals (εNd330 Ma = 2.6-3.3) and Nd model ages between 870 and 810 Ma. In contrast, the central Spessart within-plate rocks have considerably lower TiO2 concentrations but higher Th/Nb ratios. In addition, these rocks are isotopically enriched (εNd330 Ma = - 13.1 to - 9.5) and have Palaeoproterozoic Nd model ages. The continental arc rocks from the central and southern Spessart basement have low TiO2 concentrations and variable Th/Nb ratios. Mostly negative Nd initials (εNd330 Ma = - 2.6 to + 0.9) and late Mesoproterozoic Nd model ages indicate that recycling of older crust or mixing of crustal components of

  12. Study of the activity concentration of natural radionuclides in the basement of an old nuclear facility; Estudio de la concentracion de actividad de radionucleidos naturales en el suelo de una antigua instalacion nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yague, L.; Alvarez, A.; Navarro, N.; Noguerales, C.


    We present the results of the radiological characterization performed in the basement of a small piece of land for the location of a decommissioned nuclear facility. The operational history of the Installation and radiological data obtained during the various stages of decommissioning radiological indicate that the inventory to consider is that of uranium isotopes and their immediate descendants.

  13. 人防地下室建筑设计风格的演变趋势分析与探讨%Analysis and Discussion on Evolution Trend of Civil Air Defense Basement's Architectural Design Style

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    人防地下室建筑是空袭和战争状态下人员与物资隐蔽、医疗救护的保障建筑。从人防地下室的自然通风设计、抗震设计、采光设计等方面出发,分析人防工程的建筑设计风格的演变趋势,指导未来人防地下室建筑设计面向提高抗力等级、优化建筑通风采光效果和提高安全性能方向发展。%Civil air defense basement construction is a kind of protective construction to guarantee the concealment of per⁃sonnel and supplies and the implementation of medical aid in case of air raid or state of war. From the perspectives of civil air defense basement's natural ventilation design, seismic design, daylighting design, etc., the article makes analysis of the evolution trend of civil air defense basement's architectural design style, so as to guide the future development direc⁃tion of civil air defense basement design by managing to realize the improvement of its resistance level, the optimization of its ventilation and lighting effects, and the enhancement of its safety performance.

  14. The structure of basement highs at deep-water, hyper-extended rifted margins: the example of the Briançonnais domain in the Alps and present-day examples from the Atlantic and Indian oceans (United States)

    Haupert, Isabelle; Manatschal, Gianreto; Decarlis, Alessandro; Mohn, Geoffroy; Unternehr, Patrick


    The increasing number of high quality refraction and reflection seismic surveys enables to image the crustal structure of hyperextended rift domains buried underneath thick sediments. Of particular interest are basement highs that lie oceanwards of the necking zones, referred to as "residual H Blocks" or "outer highs". The fact that these blocks are often at deep-water and sealed by thick post-rift sediments makes the study of these highs difficult. As a consequence, only few have been drilled and at present it is not clear how and when these basement highs form and what is the thermal and isostatic evolution of these highs. That's why we chose to study the Briançonnais domain in the Alps that may be considered as a field analogue of such a basement high and to compare it with examples from the Atlantic and Indian oceans. A prerequisite to study the Briançonnais domain in the Alps is to understand the Alpine tectonic overprint. Numerous previous studies investigated the Alpine overprint of the Briançonnais domain during its emplacement in the Alpine orogen. However few studies investigated the pre-Alpine structures and the possible inter-relationship of inherited rift structures and Alpine structures? In our study we mapped Alpine and pre-Alpine structures and studied their relationship to the stratigraphic units. The first results show that the major Alpine structures in the Briançonnais domain reactivated mainly pre-Alpine rift-related structures. The structural evolution and the change in vergence across the Briançonnais domain are likely controlled by the crustal architecture of the former rifted margin. The stratigraphic architecture and its relation to basement structures within the Pre-Piemontais/Briançonnais domains suggest the abrupt juxtaposition of crustal domains of different crustal thickness with strong lateral changes of the top basement architecture. The results of these studies will enable to propose restorations of the Briançonnais domain

  15. U-Th-PbT Monazite Gechronology in the South Carpathian Basement: Variscan Syn-Metamorphic Tectonic Stacking and Long-Lasting Post-Peak Decompressional Overprints (United States)

    Săbău, G.; Negulescu, E.


    Dating metamorphic events appears to be unsatisfactorily addressed by most of the widely-employed and otherwise accurate and productive isotopic techniques, because the phases and systems investigated do not directly relate to the metamorphic events themselves. An adequate answer to this challenge is instead provided by microprobe-assisted chemical U-Th-PbT monazite geochronology, by its spatial resolution, truly in situ character and the possibility to reference analyses against well-defined textural environments and features, as well as a qualitative timeframe derived therefrom. Though chemical U-Th-PbT monazite geochronology is increasingly applied to seek answers ranging form a general characterization to fine details of the thermotectonic evolution of magmatic and metamorphic rocks, there are so far, unlike in the case of isotopic geochronological methods, no clearly defined standard analytical and data processing protocols. Two main reasons for this have to be mentioned, namely that chemical U-Th-PbT chronology is actually a proxy for isotopic geochronology, and the quantification of the errors and their propagation cannot be directly assessed because apparent ages are related to the measured element concentrations by an implicit function, the law of radioactive decay. Current approaches rely on treating calculated individual age values as primary data, a priori grouping of analyses supposed (and subsequently tested) to be coeval, and their statistical processing in order to obtain age values. An alternative approach we applied in basement units of the South Carpathians consists in an explicit approximation of the age formula and associated errors propagated from element concentrations to age values, and individual treatment of each age datum. The separation of the age clusters from the overall age spectrum of each sample was operated by tracing the variations of the normalized age gradient on the age spectrum sorted by increasing age values, and fine

  16. Integrated Approach (Geophysics and Remote Sensing) to identify Water-bearing Dyke Swarms and Fractured Basement in the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt (United States)

    Mohamed, L.; Sultan, M.; Ahmed, M. E.; Sauck, W.; Abouelmagd, A. A.; Chouinard, K.


    An integrated approach utilizing Very Low Frequency (VLF) and magnetic field surveying and temporal remote sensing data including: (1) Advanced Space Borne Thermal Emission and Reflection (ASTER) data, (2) European Remote Sensing (ERS-1 and ERS-2) radar imagery, and (3) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) was used to delineate water-bearing sub-vertical shear zones within the basement complex of the Sinai Peninsula. The following steps were undertaken: (1) the shear zones and dyke swarms within the basement complex were delineated using false color ASTER band and band ratio images; (2) the spatial and temporal precipitation events over the basement complex were then identified from TRMM data, and (3) finally, observations extracted from temporal radar and thermal ASTER bands were used to identify the water-bearing shear zones and dyke swarms. A fracture or dyke was deemed to be water bearing if: (1) it witnessed a large increase in its reflectivity and emissivity compared to its surroundings following a precipitation event, and maintained such differences for periods ranging from days to months. Field observations and VLF investigations were then applied to test the validity of our satellite-based methodologies for locating targeted aquifer types and for refining the satellite-based selections. The VLF detects conductive water-saturated subvertical breccia zones in bedrock. Thirty two VLF transects were collected in September of 2011 and July of 2012 along with 10 magnetic profiles at the same VLF locations. Both VLF and magnetic transects were acquired along a traverse perpendicular to the dike orientations with station separations ranging from 10 to 25 m. The VLF receiver (T-VLF) measures the distortion of the normally horizontal electromagnetic flux lines by local electrical conductors. At each VLF station, and for each frequency used, the following were measured: the tilt of the electromagnetic field, from the horizontal (given in percentage), the

  17. Origin of the Gargia Nappe in the northernmost Scandinavian Caledonides: Pre-Caledonian hyperextension or a traditional basement-cover nappe? (United States)

    Corfu, Fernando; Andersen, Torgeir B.


    In western Finnmark of northern Norway, a melange-type assemblage with km-size serpentinite bodies embedded in various metasedimentary rocks, schists and mylonitic gneissic units occurs in the Gargia Nappe. The nappe overlies an autochthonous basement suite of Early Paleoproterozoic (ca. 2150 Ma) basalts and associated sedimentary rocks and its Neoproterozic sedimentary cover, including an Ediacaran (?) tillite. The Gargia Nappe is itself overlain by the Kalak Nappe Complex (KNC), which in this region is composed mainly of metasandstones, likely deposited around 1000 Ma. The KNC contains the record of a multistage tectonic evolution with several episodes of magmatism and metamorphism between 900 and 550 Ma that paleogeographically do not fit the Archean to Palaeoproterozoic evolution of the underlying autochthon of the Baltic Shield. Because of this new information, the postulation, in the past decades, of an origin of the KNC from the Baltic margin is considered problematic. The presence of serpentinised exhumed mantle peridotite bodies in the underlying Gargia Nappe, however, provides potential evidence for a truly allochthonous nature of the overlying nappes. The serpentinite mega-boudins of the Gargia Nappe are embedded in mica- and hornblende schists and rare marbles. They are structurally overlain by ancient felsic gneisses. New U-Pb geochronology on these mylonitic gneisses indicates that their protoliths in the nappe are ~2830 Ma. They were thus derived from a basement terrane of Archean age similar to the local Baltic shield of northernmost Scandinavia. The time of extension exhuming the mantle peridotites is still uncertain and is presently under investigation. We note, however, that the Gargia Nappe lies in the apparent extension of the Corrovarre Nappe, which is characterized by 610 Ma dykes, akin to those in the Sarek segment of the Seve Nappe further south. The two events may be related. We propose that the structural and lithological architecture of

  18. Disclosing the Paleoarchean to Ediacaran history of the São Francisco craton basement: The Porteirinha domain (northern Araçuaí orogen, Brazil) (United States)

    Silva, Luiz Carlos da; Pedrosa-Soares, Antonio Carlos; Armstrong, Richard; Pinto, Claiton Piva; Magalhães, Joana Tiago Reis; Pinheiro, Marco Aurélio Piacentini; Santos, Gabriella Galliac


    This geochronological and isotopic study focuses on one of the Archean-Paleoproterozoic basement domains of the São Francisco craton reworked in the Araçuaí orogen, the Porteirinha domain, Brazil. It also includes a thorough compilation of the U-Pb geochronological data related to the adjacent Archean and Rhyacian terranes from the São Francisco craton and Araçuaí orogen. The main target of this study is the TTG gneisses of the Porteirinha complex (Sample 1). The gneiss dated at 3371 ± 6 Ma unraveled a polycyclic evolution characterized by two metamorphic overprinting episodes, dated at 3146 ± 24 Ma (M1) and ca. 600 Ma (M2). The former (M1) is so far the most reliable evidence of the oldest metamorphic episode ever dated in Brazil. The latter (M2), in turn, is endemic in most of the exposed eastern cratonic margin within the Araçuaí orogen. Whole-rock Sm-Nd analysis from the gneiss provided a slightly negative εNd(t3370) = - 0.78 value, and a depleted mantle model (TDM) age of 3.5 Ga, indicating derivation mainly from the melting of a ca. 3.5 Ga tholeiitic source. Sample 2, a K-rich leuco-orthogneiss from the Rio Itacambiriçu Complex, was dated at 2657 ± 25 Ma and also presents a ca. 600 Ma M2 overprinting M2 age. The other two analyses were obtained from Rhyacian granitoids. Sample 3 is syn-collisional, peraluminous leucogranite from the Tingui granitic complex, showing a crystallization age of 2140 ± 14 Ma and strong post-crystallization Pb*-loss, also ascribed to the Ediacaran overprinting. Accordingly, it is interpreted as a correlative of the late Rhyacian (ca. 2150-2050 Ma) collisional stage of the Mantiqueira orogenic system/belt (ca. 2220-2000 Ma), overprinted by the Ediacaran collage. Sample 4 is a Rhyacian post-orogenic (post-collisional), mixed-source, peralkaline, A1-type suite, with a crystallization age of 2050 ± 10 Ma, presenting an important post-crystallization Pb*-loss related to Ediacaran collision. The focused region records some

  19. Impacts and limits of the use of isotope techniques in the determination of the origin of groundwater salinity in the southern crystalline basement of Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The origin of groundwater salinity in the Southern Crystalline Socle of Madagascar is examined by means of chemical and isotope signatures. These isotopes include water isotopes 18O,2H,3H and solute isotopes 87Sr/86Sr, 13C, 14C. Chemical signatures are characterized by the major ion compositions (Na, Ca, K, Mg, SO4, Cl, HCO3, NO3) and race elements (Br, Sr, F). About one hundred samples have been collected to date of the 150 boreholes of the study area, in which the basement rock has been regionally altered by highly saline brines. Results for stable isotopes show that the socle area groundwater composition clusters relatively tightly. Most samples lie somewhat beneath the global meteoric water line, reflecting a certain degree of evaporation, but this is not the major source of the high salinity, primarily sodium chloride. Actually, on the one hand chloride content does not show positive correlation with δ18O, on the other hand, the negative correlation between tritium content and chloride indicates that groundwater acquires salinity progressively as its residence time in the aquifer increases suggesting that gradual dissolution or reaction with aquifer materials is the dominant mechanism . Such hypothesis is likely to be confirmed by: (1) the progressive evolution of the water type with increased salinity, which moves from the exchange type to the saline type and finally ends to the stagnant type. The latter might occur in confined aquifer, such as in the case of deep fractures, and thus may help preserve salinity, (2) the increase of the sodium concentration with salinity at the calcium expense, (3) the average Cl/Br ratio in the saline boreholes, which is about 1.2 times the Cl/Br in sea water. Lower ratio values might be linked to deep seated magmatic source of acidic volatiles whereas higher ones show that the formation brines might have a halite dissolution component, (4) the trend of the correlation curves between δ87 Sr and major ratios, which might

  20. A direct contact between astrocyte and vitreous body is possible in the rabbit eye due to discontinuities in the basement membrane of the retinal inner limiting membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Haddad


    Full Text Available Different from most mammalian species, the optic nerve of the rabbit eye is initially formed inside the retina where myelination of the axons of the ganglion cells starts and vascularization occurs. Astrocytes are confined to these regions. The aforementioned nerve fibers known as medullated nerve fibers form two bundles that may be identified with the naked eye. The blood vessels run on the inner surface of these nerve fiber bundles (epivascularization and, accordingly, the accompanying astrocytes lie mostly facing the vitreous body from which they are separated only by the inner limiting membrane of the retina. The arrangement of the astrocytes around blood vessels leads to the formation of structures known as glial tufts. Fragments (N = 3 or whole pieces (N = 3 of the medullated nerve fiber region of three-month-old male rabbits (Orictolagus cuniculus were fixed in glutaraldehyde followed by osmium tetroxide, and their thin sections were examined with a transmission electron microscope. Randomly located discontinuities (up to a few micrometers long of the basement membrane of the inner limiting membrane of the retina were observed in the glial tufts. As a consequence, a direct contact between the astrocyte plasma membrane and vitreous elements was demonstrated, making possible functional interactions such as macromolecular exchanges between this glial cell type and the components of the vitreous body.

  1. Evidence of a large deep conductive body within the basement of the Guadalquivir foreland Basin (Betic Cordillera, S-Spain) from tipper vector modelling: Tectonic implications (United States)

    González-Castillo, L.; Galindo-Zaldívar, J.; Junge, A.; Martínez-Moreno, F. J.; Löwer, A.; Sanz de Galdeano, C.; Pedrera, A.; López-Garrido, A. C.; Ruiz-Constán, A.; Ruano, P.; Martínez-Martos, M.


    The Betic Cordillera is an Alpine belt formed by the interaction of the Eurasian and African plates and the westward motion of the Alboran Domain. Long Period Magnetotelluric observations at 26 sites in its westernmost part provide induction arrows that have been compared with 3D forward models including bathymetry and major geological bodies. The results highlight the presence of a major conductive body (0.05 Ω m) unknown to date and located within the basement of the Guadalquivir foreland basin. Aeromagnetic and field magnetic measurements further support the occurrence of magnetic anomalies related to the top of this anomalous body. This major structure is interpreted as an intermediate or basic igneous rock, with a high proportion of metallic mineralization. Its origin is discussed in the framework of the regional geological setting, possibly produced in the southern Iberian Variscan Massif by a huge concentration of volcanogenic massive sulphide (VMS) in the prolongation of the Iberian Pyrite Belt during Devonian-early Carboniferous times. Another possibility is that the conductive anomaly is due to magmatic intrusions associated with the Mesozoic fragmentation of Southern Iberia and the opening of the Tethys.

  2. The activity concentrations of 222Rn and corresponding health risk in groundwater samples from basement and sandstone aquifer; the correlation to physicochemical parameters (United States)

    Abdurabu, Wedad Ali; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi; Saleh, Muneer Aziz; Heryansyah, Arien


    This study aims to evaluate the activity concentrations of 222Rn and to assess the corresponding health risk in groundwater samples obtained in Juban District, Ad Dali' Governorate, Yemen. The measurements were performed by RAD 7 radon detector manufactured by DURRIDGE COMPANY Inc. The activity concentrations of 222Rn ranged from 1.0±0.2 Bq l-1 to 896.0±0.8 Bq l-1. 57% of the groundwater samples were above the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) recommended value for Rn in water. Induced coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to determine the concentrations of uranium in groundwater samples. The measured concentration of U ranged from 0.33±0.01 μg l-1 to 24.6±0.6 μg l-1. The results were comparable to internationally recommended values. The highest concentration of U and 222Rn were found to be in the basement aquifer, while the lowest concentrations of both radionuclides were in the sandstone aquifer. High concentrations of Rn are found along fault zones. The relationship between the activity concentration of 222Rn, concentration of U and physicochemical parameters were investigated. The results showed a very strong relationship between activity concentrations of 222Rn with concentrations of U and the salinity of water.

  3. Grenvillian orogeny in the Southern Cathaysia Block: Constraints from U-Pb ages and Lu-Hf isotopes in zircon from metamorphic basement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG LiJuan; YU JinHai; S.Y. O'REILLY; W.L. GRIFFIN; SUN Tao; WEI ZhenYang; JIANG ShaoYong; SHU LiangShu


    Metamorphic basement rocks in the Cathaysia Block are composed mainly of meta-sediments with different ages. New zircon U-Pb geochronological results from the meta-sedimentary rocks exposed in the Zengcheng and Hezi areas, southern Cathaysia Block, show that they consist dominantly of early Neoproterozoic (1.0-0.9 Ga) materials with minor Paleo- to Mesoproterozoic and late Neoproterozoic (0.8-0.6 Ga) components, suggesting that the detritus mostly come from a Grenvillian orogen. The youngest detrital zircon ages place a constraint on the deposition time of these sediments in Late Neoproterozoic. Zircon Hf isotopic compositions indicate that the Grenvillian zircons were derived from the reworking of Mesoproterozoic arc magmatic rocks and Paleoproterozoic continental crust, implying an arc-continent collisional setting. Single-peak age spectra and the presence of abundant euhedral Grenvillian zircons suggest that the sedimentary provenance is not far away from the sample location. Thus, the Grenvillian orogen probably preexisted along the southern margin of the Cathaysia Block, or very close to the south. Similarity in the ages of Grenvillian orogeny and the influence of the assembly of Gondwana in South China with India and East Antarctic are discussed, with suggestion that South China was more likely linked with the India-East Antarctica continents in Early Neoproterozoic rather than between western Laurentia and eastern Australia.

  4. Upconing of saline water from the crystalline basement into the Cambrian–Vendian aquifer system on the Kopli Peninsula, northern Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Vallner


    Full Text Available The Cambrian–Vendian aquifer system is the most exploited groundwater resource in northern Estonia. As a result, the extensive use of groundwater has caused changes in the direction and velocity of groundwater flow in the Tallinn area. A ground­water flow and transport model of the Kopli Peninsula was built to investigate the upconing of saline water from an underlying layer, due to overexploitation of groundwater. A transient flow model was run in different flow regimes, using the pumping and water head data from the years 1946–2007. The vertical conductivity of crystalline rocks and the lower portion of Cambrian–Vendian rocks was found to be of the greatest importance for the range and shape of upconing phenomena. The results of the current study show that the range of the upconing process is dependent on the depth of the well screen interval. Therefore the results of many previous studies can be biased by the leaking of water from the underlying crystalline basement. The results also suggest that leakage from an underlying layer can be minimized by changing the screen depth of production wells.

  5. Poor understanding of the hydrogeological structure is a main cause of hand-dug wells failure in developing countries: A case study of a Precambrian basement aquifer in Bugesera region (Burundi) (United States)

    Bakundukize, Charles; Mtoni, Yohana; Martens, Kristine; Van Camp, Marc; Walraevens, Kristine


    This study investigates a Precambrian basement aquifer in Bugesera region, a typical African rural area in northeastern Burundi. Domestic water supply relies on groundwater which is tapped through hand-dug wells. Despite several attempts to increase the number of water points in the area, the water demand is still far from being met as a result of the high rate of well failure. This paper seeks to understand whether the hydrogeological structure and the spatial distribution of hydraulic parameters can explain the low productivity and the high failure rate of hand-dug wells. The hydrogeological structure inferred from the interpretation of a large number of vertical electrical soundings (VES) reveals a typical sequence of geoelectrical layers, which is characterized by an overall upwards fining from the fresh basement, over the fractured/weathered basement, to the overburden or saprolite with a clay-rich layer on top. Whereas the overall aquifer potential mainly depends on the thickness of the weathered overburden, the aquifer potential for shallow hand-dug wells is determined by the hydraulic conductivity of the upper few meters of the saturated zone. This upper zone was investigated in the pumping tests. The spatial distribution of the specific capacity reveals a wide variation of hydraulic parameters, depending on the well's position in the depth profile of the aquifer's hydraulic conductivity. The thickness of the potential aquifer is highest in the central part of the study area (pegmatitic and granitic intrusions) which has the highest overall aquifer potential compared to the surrounding metasedimentary formations. However, a thick weathered overburden will increase the groundwater potential of an aquifer for deep boreholes, whereas for hand-dug wells, the productivity can only be high if the thickness of the weathered overburden is small enough, or the water table is deep enough, to allow to tap the coarse part at the base of the overburden and/or part of

  6. Update of the basement model of the Cerro Prieto, B. C., geothermal field, Mexico; Actualizacion del modelo del basamento en el campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, B.C., Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Lopez, Macario [Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, Comision Federal de Electricidad, Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico)


    With the aim to actualize the basement model of the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field, a gravity interpretation has been held. We modeled in 2.5 D, nine profiles traced over the Bouguer anomaly map. Well data concerning lithology and density changes were used to fit the gravity models. Results of this work confirm that the geometry of the basement of Cerro Prieto, corresponds to a structural sequence. From west to east it starts as a big depression, continues with a strong uplift of the basement in the middle sector and finally deepens eastward in steps. The basement model proposed in the present work, defines a similar trend to that established by Fonseca y Razo (1980), but there are differences in basement depth in some areas. In the present model we interpret basement depths between 200 and 400 m deeper than in previous models to the south and northwest of the actual exploitation zone. [Spanish] Con el fin de actualizar el modelo del basamento en el Campo Geotermico de Cerro Prieto, se realizo una reinterpretacion gravimetrica, modelando en 2.5 D, 9 perfiles trazados sobre el mapa de anomalia de Bouguer. Utilizando la informacion litologica obtenida a traves de numerosas perforaciones profundas, se hicieron coincidir, dentro de los mofelos gravimetricos, las principales variaciones litologicas con cambios en la densidad. Los resultados de este trabajo reiteran que la geometria del basamento del Campo de Cerro Prieto, vista de W a E, corresponde con una secuencia estructural que se inicia con una gran depresion en el W, continua con un fuerte levantamiento y finalmente se extiende con una tendencia a profundizarse hacia el E de forma escalonada. El modelo de basamento derivado del presente trabajo, define una tendencia muy similar al modelo de basamento establecido (Fonseca y Razo, 1980), pero difiere en cuanto a la profundidad en algunos sectores del campo. En el actual trabajo se interpreta una profundidad entre 200 y 400 m mayor hacia el sur y noroeste de la

  7. The tectonothermal events, architecture and evolution of Tarim craton basement palaeo-uplifts%塔里木克拉通基底古隆起构造-热事件及其结构与演化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邬光辉; 李浩武; 徐彦龙; 苏文; 陈志勇; 张宝收


    Based on the U-Pb zircon dating analysis within Tarim basin, it is indicated that there were 9 stages of tectonothermal events of the Precambrian basement with the peak age of 2950 ~ 3100Ma, 2100 ~ 2400Ma, 1900 ~2000Ma, 1300 - 1600Ma, 900 ~ 950Ma, 700 ~800Ma, 540 ~560Ma, 400 ~ 500Ma and 270 ~ 290Ma. The SHRIMP U-Pb zircon dating of the central aeromagnetic anomaly zone yields the age of 1908. 2 ±8. 6Ma, which revealed that there was granitoid basement by Palaeoproterozoic tectonothermal event. By the dating data with new geology and geophysics data, there are different age and type of Precambrian crystalline basements in Tarim basin, which divided into the northern basement with Meso-Neoproterozoic low-to medium-grade metamorphic rocks, the middle basement of Palaeoproterozoic granite, the southern basement with Early-Middle Neoproterozoic magmatite and metamorphite, the southeastern metamorphite basement undergone reformation in Early Silurian epimetamorphism. It is found that there is a wide range unconformity between Cambrian and Precambrian by well and seismic date, which developed the northern and southern basement palaeo-uplifts as the result of the potential influence of Pan-African orogenic occurred about 550Ma. The basement palaeo-uplifts undergone 5 stages evolution; the cratonization miniature basement in Archean-Middle Palaeoproterozoic, the united metamorphic crystalline basement in Early Neoproterozoic, the two basement palaeo-uplifts formative stage before Precambrian, the five basement palaeo-uplifts complete period in the late of Caledonian and local regulation since Hercynian.%通过盆地内部锆石U-Pb测年分析表明,塔里木克拉通基底存在2950~ 3100Ma、2100 ~ 2400Ma、1900~2000Ma、1300~1600Ma、900 ~ 950Ma、700~800Ma、540 ~ 560Ma、400~ 500Ma和270~290Ma等9期构造-热事件.中央航磁异常带井下花岗岩锆石SHRIMP U-Pb年龄测定发现1908.2±8.6Ma前寒武纪基底,表明盆地内部可能存在

  8. 预应力无梁空心楼盖技术在大型超长地下车库中的应用%Technology of Prestressed Concrete Hollow Floor without Beam used in Ultra Long Basement Parking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金高强; 朱江; 崔天霞; 栾文彬


    The paper mainly introduces the technolgy of prestressed concrete hollow floor without beam used in top plate of ultra long basement,the no beam floor was made of hollow BDF inorganic fire-resistant box , the prestress was used to resist concrete shrink and temperature stress of the ultra long basement structure.%文章主要介绍了在地下车库顸板中采用BDF无机阻燃型复合箱体成孔的无梁空心楼盖技术,以及采取后张法预应力技术解决超长地下室结构的混凝土收缩及温度应力问题。

  9. Discussion on application of cast-in-situ hollow floor in top-floor of basement%浅谈现浇有梁空心楼板在地下室顶板中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    本文以河南新乡某工程地下室顶板为例,阐述了有关现浇空心楼板受力特点、配筋计算、施工工艺及经济比较分析,可为类似工程结构地下室顶板设计提供参考。%Based on an engineering example of top-floor of basement in Xinxiang,Henan,Cast-in-situ hollow concrete floor is introduced about its mechanical property,reinforcement computing,construction technologies and economic analysis,and they can be referred to structural design of top-floor of basement.

  10. Basement Charateristics of Junggar Basin and Its Effect on Sandstone-type Uranium metallogenesis%准噶尔盆地基底结构特征及其对砂岩型铀矿成矿的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋继叶; 秦明宽; 蔡煜琦; 何中波


    Based on the comprehensive analysis of acquired geophysical,geological and paleontological and isotope research data,authors suggest that the basement of Junggar basin is of continental crust property composed of Precambrian crystalline basement and Hercynian fold basement.Such “double”layer basement structure might be more practical and is comparable to that of those in U-producing basins such as Yili,Turpan—Hami and Erdos typical uranium-producing basin.It indicates that the Junggar basin posseses basic conditions for the metallogenesis of sandstone type uranium deposits to some extent.%本文通过对已取得的地球物理、航空磁测、同位素地质年代及古生物等方面研究成果的进一步整理分析,认为准噶尔盆地基底为陆壳性质、存在前寒武纪结晶基底,且与其上的海西期褶皱基底构成了“双层基底”的认识更为接近实际;准噶尔盆地这种由前寒武纪结晶基底与海西期褶皱基底组成的“双层”基底结构,与伊犁、吐哈、鄂尔多斯等典型产铀盆地的基底相似,具备了砂岩型铀矿成矿的基底条件。

  11. Relation between peak period of microtremor spectral ratio (horizontal and vertical components) and basement depth; Bido no suiheido/jogedo supekutoru hi no peak to kiso shindo tono kankei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, H.; Mizutani, K.; Saito, T. [Iwate University, Iwate (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    The peak period of the horizontal/vertical spectral ratio of microtremors was referred to the underground structure for the purpose of finding out if it was possible to estimate the ground structure by use of the peak period of the spectral ratio. The observation was carried in the areas of Morioka City and Hachinohe City using seismographs for measuring east-west, north-south, and up-down motions. As for the relationship between the peak period of the spectral ratio distribution involving 490 observation sites and the known gravity anomalies in the Morioka City area, it was found that the peak period of the spectral ratio tended to be shorter from west toward east while the gravity anomalies were greater from west toward east. Again, as for the relations with the underground geology, the period was longer when the distance to the granite basement was greater, and shorter when smaller. In the Hachinohe City area, relations not only of the first period peak but also of the second period peak to the basement were disclosed, which indicates the possibility that the peak period of the spectral ratio will be used as a means for estimating the basement structure. 2 refs., 8 figs.

  12. Managed aquifer recharge in weathered crystalline basement aquifers in India: Monitoring of the effect of tank infiltration on water quality over several monsoon events (United States)

    Alazard, Marina; Boisson, Alexandre; Maréchal, Jean-Christophe; Dewandel, Benoît; Perrin, Jérôme; Pettenati, Marie; Picot-Colbeaux, Géraldine; Ahmed, Shakeel; Thiéry, Dominique; Kloppmann, Wolfram


    Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) structures like percolation tanks are considered by the Indian national and regional governments as major option for tackling declining groundwater levels due to overexploitation for irrigation purposes (Boisson et al., 2014). Their main purpose is to restore groundwater availability under strong climatic and anthropogenic pressure. Furthermore, MAR-induced dilution with fresh surface water is generally expected to improve groundwater quality with respect to both anthropogenic and geogenic contaminants (total mineralisation, nitrates, chlorides, sulphates and fluoride contents). The impact of a percolation tank on groundwater quality was investigated in a context that is typical for hydro-climatic and geological settings in southern and eastern India: fractured crystalline basement aquifers overlain by a weathering zone under semi-arid climate. Water level data and geochemical indicators (stable isotopes and major ions) were monitored for both groundwater and surface water, over several successive monsoon events. In case of high to very high water levels, the groundwater quality is globally improved. However, in a few cases, the quality of the groundwater can be negatively impacted due to leaching of salts under the tank, particularly during the first rain events of the monsoon. Geogenic fluoride contents in groundwater, induced by water-rock interaction and enhanced by recycling of agricultural return flow under paddy fields, is found to be relatively stable over the year. This finding points out that the underlying processes, mainly dissolution of F-bearing phases like fluorapatites combined with Ca/Na cation exchange and calcite precipitation, both limiting the possibility of F-removal via fluorite precipitation (Pettenati et al., 2013, 2014), are not impacted by the hydrological conditions. This work highlights the complexity of the recharge processes in crystalline aquifers, enhanced by the variability of hydrological conditions

  13. Genesis of Daba arcuate structural belt related to adjacent basement upheavals:Constraints from Fission-track and (U-Th)/He thermochronology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUILLOT; Franois


    Fission-track, (U-Th)/He thermochronology, and cooling properties indicate that the southern Daba arcuate zone (SDBAZ) underwent a distinctive phase of rapid cooling in 153-100 Ma at a rate of 1.44-1.90°C/Ma. This rapid uplifting strongly contrasts with (1) the previous, rapid foreland subsidence during Early to Middle Jurassic in response to late-orogenic compression from the Qinling belt, (2) the succeeding long, slow cooling phase and relative thermal stability that occurred during the 100-45 Ma period. This rapid cooling event in the SDBAZ parallels those experienced by two adjacent upheavals of Huangling (HLUZ) and Hannan-Micang (HMUZ), with cooling rates of 2.22-3.17°C/Ma for the HLUZ in 160-126 Ma, 4.91°C/Ma for the southern HMUZ in 150-125 Ma, as well as 2.11°C/Ma for the northern HMUZ in 150-105 Ma. Comparing thermal histories among the SDBAZ, the HLUZ, the HMUZ, and the Wudang metamorphic zone (WDMZ), we infer that the Daba arcuate structural belt formed in 153-100 Ma. The combined dating data support a correlation with a low-angle arcuate south-thrusting of the Qinling orogen triggered by northward convergence of the Yangtze Craton, contemporaneously encountering rigid basement obstructions from the HLUZ and the HMUZ, respectively. Both the SDBAZ and neighboring domains additionally underwent a comparatively fast cooling and uplift since about 45 Ma.

  14. A two-dimensional model of the colonic crypt accounting for the role of the basement membrane and pericryptal fibroblast sheath.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara-Jane Dunn

    Full Text Available The role of the basement membrane is vital in maintaining the integrity and structure of an epithelial layer, acting as both a mechanical support and forming the physical interface between epithelial cells and the surrounding connective tissue. The function of this membrane is explored here in the context of the epithelial monolayer that lines the colonic crypt, test-tube shaped invaginations that punctuate the lining of the intestine and coordinate a regular turnover of cells to replenish the epithelial layer every few days. To investigate the consequence of genetic mutations that perturb the system dynamics and can lead to colorectal cancer, it must be possible to track the emerging tissue level changes that arise in the crypt. To that end, a theoretical crypt model with a realistic, deformable geometry is required. A new discrete crypt model is presented, which focuses on the interaction between cell- and tissue-level behaviour, while incorporating key subcellular components. The model contains a novel description of the role of the surrounding tissue and musculature, based upon experimental observations of the tissue structure of the crypt, which are also reported. A two-dimensional (2D cross-sectional geometry is considered, and the shape of the crypt is allowed to evolve and deform. Simulation results reveal how the shape of the crypt may contribute mechanically to the asymmetric division events typically associated with the stem cells at the base. The model predicts that epithelial cell migration may arise due to feedback between cell loss at the crypt collar and density-dependent cell division, an hypothesis which can be investigated in a wet lab. This work forms the basis for investigation of the deformation of the crypt structure that can occur due to proliferation of cells exhibiting mutant phenotypes, experiments that would not be possible in vivo or in vitro.

  15. Basement influences on dolomite-hosted vertical sedimentary intrusions in marine erg-margin deposits from the Pennsylvanian of Northern Wyoming (USA) (United States)

    Blanchard, Sébastien; Frank, Tracy D.; Fielding, Christopher R.


    Understanding soft-sediment deformation structures and their triggers can help in assessing the influence of tectonics, climate, and diagenesis on the stratigraphic record. Such features commonly record processes that would not otherwise be preserved. The description of soft-sediment deformation in Pennsylvanian deposits of the western United States, characterized by orbitally driven alternations between eolian sandstones, marine dolomites, and shales, has been limited to contorted cross-beds. We document discordant, sheet-like sedimentary intrusions in three marine intervals over a 45-km-wide area. Intrusions consist of very well to moderately cemented, very fine to fine-grained quartz sandstone. Body widths range from 5 to 50 cm, and heights up to 2 m. The orientations of 103 vertical bodies were measured. Based on upward- and downward-tapering, and the presence of deformed, microfractured fragments of host rocks, these intrusions are interpreted to result from seismically induced fluidization of water-saturated sands. Their sheet-like morphology indicates injection through fractures. Two predominant directions (WNW-ESE and N-S) were recognized and interpreted as pre-injection fracture sets. Folding of surrounding layers around the intrusions suggests negligible compaction prior to injection, indicating penecontemporaneous or shallow burial fluidization. The intraplate location of Wyoming implies that seismicity did not originate at a plate boundary. The area within which intrusions are found is crossed by a zone characterized by localized development of thick eolian stories at the top of the formation, interpreted to reflect the rejuvenation of a basement lineament. The seismically active character of lineaments may explain overpressure and fluidization, substantiating the notion that Precambrian structures repeatedly affected Phanerozoic sedimentation. Similar intrusive features may be wrongly identified or overlooked in deposits of arid environments, but their

  16. Reinforcement of Floated Basement in An Incomplete Building%某“烂尾楼”上浮地下室结构加固处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建中; 胡晨强


    There were many problems in an incomplete building, such as floated damaged basement, cracking and aging. The prestress anchor cable is adopted to anti-float permanently, and the construction sequences that reinforce beams and columns separately, earth-up in batches and tension twice by calculating and analyzing are proposed. The anchor cable construction is full of difficulties, which are solved by special techniques and measures. According to the different members and problems, the cracks are grouted with epoxy resin or polyurethane, strengthened with FRP, externally boned steel plate or reinforced concrete. The treatment is successful in this project, which offers a useful case study for future reference.%某“烂尾楼”地下室由于上浮受损以及开裂和老化等问题需要加固,而且顶板覆土1.2m.设计以预应力锚索永久抗浮,并通过计算分析确定先加固梁后加固柱、分批覆土加载以及反复锁定锚索的施工思路.地下室锚索施工难度很大,需采取特殊工艺和措施.针对结构的不同部位和不同问题采取了环氧树脂或聚氨酯修复裂缝、粘贴纤维或钢板和加大截面等多种方法进行修复和加固.本工程最终取得良好的效果,为同类工程提供了良好的借鉴经验.

  17. Type VII collagen associated with the basement membrane of amniotic epithelium forms giant anchoring rivets which penetrate a massive lamina reticularis. (United States)

    Ockleford, C D; McCracken, S A; Rimmington, L A; Hubbard, A R D; Bright, N A; Cockcroft, N; Jefferson, T B; Waldron, E; d'Lacey, C


    In human amnion a simple cuboidal epithelium and underlying fibroblast layer are separated by an almost acellular compact layer rich in collagen types I and III. This (>10 μm) layer, which may be a thick lamina reticularis, apparently presents an unusual set of conditions. Integration of the multilaminous tissue across it is apparently achieved by waisted structures which we have observed with the light microscope in frozen, paraffin-wax and semi-thin resin sections. We have also captured transmission and scanning electron micrographs of the structures. These structures which cross the compact layer we call "rivets". The composition of these "rivets" has been examined immunocytochemically and in three dimensions using the confocal laser scanning epi-fluorescence microscope. The rivets contain type VII collagen and an α6 integrin. They associate with type IV collagen containing structures (basement membrane lamina densa and spongy coils) and a special population of fibroblasts which may generate, maintain or anchor rivets to the underlying mesenchymal layer. Although type VII collagen is well known to anchor basal lamina to underlying mesodermal collagen fibres these "rivets" are an order of magnitude larger than any previously described type VII collagen containing anchoring structures. Intriguing possible functions of these features include nodes for growth of fibrous collagen sheets and sites of possible enzymatic degradation during regulated amnion weakening approaching term. If these sites are confirmed to be involved in amnion degradation and growth they may represent important targets for therapeutic agents that are designed to delay preterm premature rupture of the membranes a major cause of fetal morbidity and mortality.

  18. Poliomyelitis in MuLV-infected ICR-SCID mice after injection of basement membrane matrix contaminated with lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus. (United States)

    Carlson Scholz, Jodi A; Garg, Rohit; Compton, Susan R; Allore, Heather G; Zeiss, Caroline J; Uchio, Edward M


    The arterivirus lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV) causes life-long viremia in mice. Although LDV infection generally does not cause disease, infected mice that are homozygous for the Fv1(n) allele are prone to develop poliomyelitis when immunosuppressed, a condition known as age-dependent poliomyelitis. The development of age-dependent poliomyelitis requires coinfection with endogenous murine leukemia virus. Even though LDV is a common contaminant of transplantable tumors, clinical signs of poliomyelitis after inadvertent exposure to LDV have not been described in recent literature. In addition, LDV-induced poliomyelitis has not been reported in SCID or ICR mice. Here we describe the occurrence of poliomyelitis in ICR-SCID mice resulting from injection of LDV-contaminated basement membrane matrix. After exposure to LDV, a subset of mice presented with clinical signs including paresis, which was associated with atrophy of the hindlimb musculature, and tachypnea; in addition, some mice died suddenly with or without premonitory signs. Mice presenting within the first 6 mo after infection had regions of spongiosis, neuronal necrosis and astrocytosis of the ventral spinal cord, and less commonly, brainstem. Axonal degeneration of ventral roots prevailed in more chronically infected mice. LDV was identified by RT-PCR in 12 of 15 mice with typical neuropathology; positive antiLDV immunolabeling was identified in all PCR-positive animals (n = 7) tested. Three of 8 mice with neuropathology but no clinical signs were LDV negative by RT-PCR. RT-PCR yielded murine leukemia virus in spinal cords of all mice tested, regardless of clinical presentation or neuropathology.

  19. Symposium: Role of the extracellular matrix in mammary development. Regulation of milk protein and basement membrane gene expression: The influence of the extracellular matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aggeler, J.; Park, C.S.; Bissell, M.J.


    Synthesis and secretion of milk proteins ({alpha}-casein, {beta}-casein, {gamma}-casein, and transferrin) by cultured primary mouse mammary epithelial cells is modulated by the extracellular matrix. In cells grown on released or floating type I collagen gels, mRNA for {beta}-casein and transferrin is increased as much as 30-fold over cells grown on plastic. Induction of {beta}-casein expression depends strongly on the presence of lactogenic hormones, especially prolactin, in the culture. When cells are plated onto partially purified reconstituted basement membrane, dramatic changes in morphology and milk protein gene expression are observed. Cells cultured on the matrix for 6 to 8 d in the presence of prolactin, insulin, and hydrocortisone form hollow spheres and duct-like structures that are completely surrounded by matrix. The cells lining these spheres appear actively secretory and are oriented with their apices facing the lumen. Hybridization experiments indicate that mRNA for {beta}-casein can be increased as much as 70-fold in these cultures. Because > 90% of the cultured cells synthesize immunoreactive {beta}-casein, as compared with only 40% of cells in the late pregnant gland, the matrix appears to be able to induce protein expression in previously silent cells. Synthesis of laminin and assembly of a mammary-specific basal lamina by cells cultured on different extracellular matrices also appears to depend on the presence of lactogenic hormones. These studies provide support for the concept of dynamic reciprocity in which complex interactions between extracellular matrix and the cellular cytoskeleton contribute to the induction and maintenance of tissue-specific gene expression in the mammary gland.

  20. Nonautonomous Roles of MAB-5/Hox and the Secreted Basement Membrane Molecule SPON-1/F-Spondin in Caenorhabditis elegans Neuronal Migration. (United States)

    Josephson, Matthew P; Miltner, Adam M; Lundquist, Erik A


    Nervous system development and circuit formation requires neurons to migrate from their birthplaces to specific destinations.Migrating neurons detect extracellular cues that provide guidance information. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the Q right (QR) and Q left (QL) neuroblast descendants migrate long distances in opposite directions. The Hox gene lin-39 cell autonomously promotes anterior QR descendant migration, and mab-5/Hox cell autonomously promotes posterior QL descendant migration. Here we describe a nonautonomous role of mab-5 in regulating both QR and QL descendant migrations, a role masked by redundancy with lin-39 A third Hox gene, egl-5/Abdominal-B, also likely nonautonomously regulates Q descendant migrations. In the lin-39 mab-5 egl-5 triple mutant, little if any QR and QL descendant migration occurs. In addition to well-described roles of lin-39 and mab-5 in the Q descendants, our results suggest that lin-39, mab-5, and egl-5 might also pattern the posterior region of the animal for Q descendant migration. Previous studies showed that the spon-1 gene might be a target of MAB-5 in Q descendant migration. spon-1 encodes a secreted basement membrane molecule similar to vertebrate F-spondin. Here we show that spon-1 acts nonautonomously to control Q descendant migration, and might function as a permissive rather than instructive signal for cell migration. We find that increased levels of MAB-5 in body wall muscle (BWM) can drive the spon-1 promoter adjacent to the Q cells, and loss of spon-1 suppresses mab-5 gain of function. Thus, MAB-5 might nonautonomously control Q descendant migrations by patterning the posterior region of the animal to which Q cells respond. spon-1 expression from BWMs might be part of the posterior patterning necessary for directed Q descendant migration.

  1. Zircon U-Pb ages and O-Nd isotopic composition of basement rocks in the North Qinling Terrain, central China: evidence for provenance and evolution (United States)

    Liu, Bing-Xiang; Qi, Yue; Wang, Wei; Siebel, Wolfgang; Zhu, Xi-Yan; Nie, Hu; He, Jian-Feng; Chen, Fukun


    The Qinling Group was previously interpreted as the oldest Precambrian basement unit of the North Qinling Terrain, recording its formation and early crustal evolution. The Qinling Group consists predominantly of gneisses, amphibolites, and marbles, which underwent multi-phase deformation and metamorphism. In order to better constrain the provenance and tectonic setting of this group and the evolution of the North Qinling orogenic belt, in situ U-Pb dating and oxygen isotopic analysis of zircons in combination with whole-rock geochemistry and Sr-Nd isotope analysis was performed on the two dominant rock types, amphibolite and felsic gneiss. Felsic gneisses exhibit enrichment of LREEs and LILEs (Rb, Ba, Th, K, Pb), negative Eu anomalies and depletion of HFSEs (Nb, Ta, P, Ti). The rocks have slightly elevated δ18O values (6.5-9.3 ‰) and initial ɛ Nd values of -4.6 corresponding to two-stage Nd model age of 1.99 Ga. Amphibolites are also enriched in LILEs and LREEs and depleted in Nb and Ta and have homogeneous δ18O values (5.0-6.0 ‰), but higher initial ɛ Nd values (2.8-3.3) and younger two-stage Nd model ages (1.29-1.24 Ga) compared to the gneisses. The zircon age record indicates that the gneisses and amphibolites were formed in a ~960 Ma volcanic arc environment rather than in a rift setting as previously suggested. A major metamorphic event took place during the Early Paleozoic. Based on the age spectrum of detrital zircons, the Qinling Group is interpreted as an autonomous geological unit, which was mainly derived mostly from 1,000 to 900 Ma old granitoid rocks. The North Qinling Terrain can be regarded as a remnant of the Grenville orogenic belt with an early Neoproterozoic evolution different from that of the North and South China blocks.

  2. Primary uranium sources for sedimentary-hosted uranium deposits in NE China: insight from basement igneous rocks of the Erlian Basin (United States)

    Bonnetti, Christophe; Cuney, Michel; Bourlange, Sylvain; Deloule, Etienne; Poujol, Marc; Liu, Xiaodong; Peng, Yunbiao; Yang, Jianxing


    Carboniferous-Permian, Triassic and Jurassic igneous basement rocks around the Erlian Basin in northeast China have been investigated through detailed mineralogical, whole-rock geochemistry, geochronological data and Sm-Nd isotope studies. Carboniferous-Permian biotite granites and volcanic rocks belong to a calc-alkaline association and were emplaced during the Late Carboniferous-Early Permian (313 ± 1-286 ± 2 Ma). These rocks are characterised by positive ɛNd(t) (3.3-5.3) and fairly young T DM model ages (485-726 Ma), suggesting a dominant derivation from partial melting of earlier emplaced juvenile source rocks. Triassic biotite granites belong to a high-K calc-alkaline association and were emplaced during the Middle Triassic (243 ± 3-233 ± 2 Ma). Their negative ɛNd(t) (-2 to -0.1) and higher T DM model ages (703-893 Ma) suggest a contribution from Precambrian crust during the magma generation processes, leading to a strong enrichment in K and incompatible elements such as Th and U. Highly fractionated magmas crystallised in U-rich biotite (up to 21 ppm U) and two-mica granites. In biotite granite, the major U-bearing minerals are uranothorite and allanite. They are strongly metamict and the major part of their uranium (90 %) has been released from the mineral structure and was available for leaching. Mass balance calculations show that the Triassic biotite granites may have, at least, liberated ˜14,000 t U/km3 and thus correspond to a major primary uranium source for the U deposits hosted in the Erlian Basin.

  3. Methods used to identify seafloor spreading magnetic anomalies and to establish their relationship with the top of the basement topography in the Argentine continental margin between 35° S and 48° S (United States)

    Abraham, D. A.; Ghidella, M. E.; Tassone, A.; Paterlini, M.; Ancarola, M.


    This paper discusses some methods for better identification of the spreading seafloor magnetic anomalies in the region between 35° S and 48° S at the outer edge of the continental margin of Argentina. In the area of Rio de la Plata craton and Patagonia Argentina, there is an extensional volcanic passive margin. This segment of the Atlantic continental margin is characterized by the existence of seismic reflectors sequences that lean toward the sea (seaward dipping reflectors - SDRs). These sequences of seismic reflectors, located in the transitional-continental basement wedge, are portrayed in seismic profiles as an interference pattern interpreted as basalt flows intercalated with sedimentary layers, and its origin is ascribed to volcanism occurred during the Early Cretaceous. The magnetic response of SDRs is in the area of the magnetic anomaly G (Rabinowitz and LaBrecque, 1979). Magnetic alignments are highlighted on a map by superimposing total field anomaly semitransparent layer of calculated numerical curvature. This method allows a regional identification of the most prominent alignments. It is convenient to calculate the curvature in the direction perpendicular to the magnetic alignments. The identification of seafloor spreading magnetic anomalies located in the eastern margin helps in the knowledge of the history of the Atlantic Ocean opening. M series magnetic alignments: M5n, M3n M0r (between 132 and 120 Ma) were identified in the analyzed area. The roughness of the top of the oceanic basement presents a contrast of amplitudes, in a wavelength range between about 4 km and 6 km, with the corresponding amplitudes in the area of the transitional crust. This contrast of amplitudes can be detected using spectral methods, especially short Fourier transform. The quantitative evaluation of the spectral energy density allowed the identification of wave numbers characterizing oceanic basement area and thus perform subsequent filtering of the signal with

  4. Insulation Design of the Basement Exterior Wall in the Controlled of the Calculations of theD ew Point Temperature%计算露点温度控制下的地下室外墙保温设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡海华; 王孟孟; 潘镇镇; 赵宝月


    Abts ract:This paper introduces the characteristics of the basement infernal heat wet environment and further defines soil moisture penetration and indoor water vapor condensation are the two causes of the damp basement wall .From a professional point of HVAC, according to the exterior wall heat load calculation methods and related knowedge ,this paper deduceds a calculation met-hood of the minimum insualtion thermal of exterior wall of the basement which is required to ensure that the damp phenomenon will not occure because of the indoor water vapor anderisation .Taking the basement wall insulation in Zhuzhou where it is hot in summer and cold in winter for example , combining the factors such as the geographical and climatic characters of the region , the thermal performance of alternative materials and wall insulation market price situation , the design draws a conclusion that the EPS insulation board is the best .The conclusion provides theoretical and technical reference forthe basement wall insulation design .%简单介绍了地下室内热湿环境的特点,进一步明确了土壤水分渗透和室内水蒸气结露是地下室外墙出现返潮现象的两个引发因素。从暖通专业的角度思考,针对室内水蒸气结露问题,依据外墙负荷计算方法及相关传热学知识,推出一种保证地下室外墙不因室内水蒸气结露而发生返潮现象所需最小保温层热阻计算方法。以夏热冬冷的株洲地区地下室外墙保温设计为例,综合该地区的地理气候特点、备选外墙保温材料的热工性能及市场价格情况,得出EPS板为最佳保温材料,为地下室外墙保温设计提供理论与技术参考。

  5. The use of multifractal modelling for targeting resources from soil and stream geochemistry data: the case of the Variscan basement of the Iberian Peninsula (United States)

    Gonçalves, Mario; Mateus, Antonio


    The safeguarding of access/use of many critical raw materials for Society requires that much of previously dismissed areas for exploration must be re-evaluated with new criteria in which the significance of "anomaly" should not be treated independently of the geochemical signals of the ore-forming processes and how the different chemical elements are interrelated. For much of the previous decade, several multifractal methods were methodically being refined as automatic tools to analyze and detect geochemical anomalies. These included the early concentration-area method (Cheng et al., 1994), singularity mapping (Cheng, 2007), and spectrum-area (Cheng et al., 2000), which has been recently combined with the bi-dimensional empirical mode decomposition (Xu et al., 2016) as a tool to separate different contributing sources of an otherwise complex geochemical pattern. We propose yet another approach, the use of geochemical indexes, which links to the geological and ore-forming processes known to define a given region in order to assess much of these numerical approaches. Therefore, we picked several areas from the Variscan basement in Portugal, with different geologic and metallogentic contexts, some of them previously analyzed with multifractal methods (Gonçalves et al., 2001; Jesus et al., 2013) and a multi-element geochemical campaign on which to test the different multifractal methods combined with the geochemical indexes, as an advantageous alternative to principal component mapping, for example. Some preliminary essays with stochastic models similar to those reported in Gonçalves (2001) and Agterberg (2007), with different overprinted pulses are presented as well. Acknowledgments: This is a contribution from UID/GEO/50019/2013 - Instituto Dom Luiz, supported by FCT. Agterberg, 2007, Math. Geol., 39, 1. Cheng et al, 1994, J. Geochem. Explor., 51, 109. Cheng et al., 2000, Nat. Resour. Res, 9, 43. Cheng, 2007, Ore Geol. Rev., 32, 314. Gonçalves, 2001, Math. Geol

  6. Organic matter in the Soultz HDR granitic thermal exchanger (France): natural tracer of fluid circulations between the basement and its sedimentary cover (United States)

    Ledésert, Béatrice; Joffre, Janie; Amblès, André; Sardini, Paul; Genter, Albert; Meunier, Alain


    Organic matter has been observed in cores of the Soultz-sous-Forêts granite (Alsace, France) at depths between 2158 and 2160 m, in a highly fractured and altered zone. The granite is overlain by a 1400-m-thick sedimentary cover containing petroleum (Pechelbronn oil field). The Soultz area is devoted to Hot Dry Rock geothermics thanks to a high geothermal gradient (up to 100 °C/km). During drilling operations, an artesian source produced oil in a fractured zone of the sedimentary cover (Buntsandstein). Its gas-chromatography and mass-spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed the presence of normal alkanes (n-alkanes, i.e. linear hydrocarbons) centered on C 17, branched alkanes with a major C 19 peak, and few unsaturated hydrocarbons. The aromatic fraction is present in small amounts. In the Soultz granite, where it is altered, organic matter is exclusively associated with tosudite (interstratified clay mineral) which crystallized in plagioclase sites during a hydrothermal alteration episode. Organic matter has been later displaced and concentrated along veinlets in which illite and carbonates have crystallized during another hydrothermal alteration stage. The soluble organic matter analyzed by GC-MS is composed of aliphatic acids, n-alkanes with a bimodal C 18 and C 24-C 25 centered distribution, alkylbenzenes and aromatic acids. Organic compounds in the granite would either originate from a single source (immature sediments) or from two sources (immature sediments and migration of the Pechelbronn oil). No real evidence was found to prove which hypothesis is the best one. The presence of organic matter in the granite shows the importance of fluid flows between the sedimentary cover and the granitic basement through major fractures. In addition, the impregnation of plagioclase pseudomorphs with organic matter is made possible due to their high interconnection degree and to the intergranular microfracturation of the granite. The succession of several hydrothermal

  7. Divergent mechanisms underlie Smad4-mediated positive regulation of the three genes encoding the basement membrane component laminin-332 (laminin-5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hahn Stephan A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional inactivation of the tumor suppressor Smad4 in colorectal and pancreatic carcinogenesis occurs coincident with the transition to invasive growth. Breaking the basement membrane (BM barrier, a prerequisite for invasive growth, can be due to tumor induced proteolytic tissue remodeling or to reduced synthesis of BM molecules by incipient tumor cells. Laminin-332 (laminin-5, a heterotrimeric BM component composed of α3-, β3- and γ2-chains, has recently been identified as a target structure of Smad4 and represents the first example for expression control of an essential BM component by a tumor and invasion suppressor. Biochemically Smad4 is a transmitter of signals of the TGFβ superfamily of cytokines. We have reported previously, that Smad4 functions as a positive transcriptional regulator of constitutive and of TGFβ-induced transcription of all three genes encoding Laminin-332, LAMA3, LAMB3 and LAMC2. Methods Promoter-reporter constructs harboring 4 kb upstream regions, each of the three genes encoding Laminin-322 as well as deletion and mutations constructs were established. Promoter activities and TGFβ induction were assayed through transient transfections in Smad4-negative human cancer cells and their stable Smad4-positive derivatives. Functionally relevant binding sites were subsequently confirmed through chromatin immunoprecipitation. Results Herein, we report that Smad4 mediates transcriptional regulation through three different mechanisms, namely through Smad4 binding to a functional SBE site exclusively in the LAMA3 promoter, Smad4 binding to AP1 (and Sp1 sites presumably via interaction with AP1 family components and lastly a Smad4 impact on transcription of AP1 factors. Whereas Smad4 is essential for positive regulation of all three genes, the molecular mechanisms are significantly divergent between the LAMA3 promoter as compared to the LAMB3 and LAMC2 promoters. Conclusion We hypothesize that this

  8. Transient Fluid Flow Along Basement Faults and Rupture Mechanics: Can We Expect Injection-Induced Earthquake Behavior to Correspond Directly With Injection Operations? (United States)

    Norbeck, J. H.; Horne, R. N.


    We explored injection-induced earthquake behavior in geologic settings where basement faults are connected hydraulically to overlying saline aquifers targeted for wastewater disposal. Understanding how the interaction between natural geology and injection well operations affects the behavior of injection-induced earthquake sequences has important implications for characterizing seismic hazard risk. Numerical experiments were performed to investigate the extent to which seismicity is influenced by the migration of pressure perturbations along fault zones. Two distinct behaviors were observed: a) earthquake ruptures that were confined to the pressurized region of the fault and b) sustained earthquake ruptures that propagated far beyond the pressure front. These two faulting mechanisms have important implications for assessing the manner in which seismicity can be expected respond to injection well operations.Based upon observations from the numerical experiments, we developed a criterion that can be used to classify the expected faulting behavior near wastewater disposal sites. The faulting criterion depends on the state of stress, the initial fluid pressure, the orientation of the fault, and the dynamic friction coefficient of the fault. If the initial ratio of shear to effective normal stress resolved on the fault (the prestress ratio) is less than the fault's dynamic friction coefficient, then earthquake ruptures will tend to be limited by the distance of the pressure front. In this case, parameters that affect seismic hazard assessment, like the maximum earthquake magnitude or earthquake recurrence interval, could correlate with injection well operational parameters. For example, the maximum earthquake magnitude might be expected to grow over time in a systematic manner as larger patches of the fault are exposed to significant pressure changes. In contrast, if the prestress ratio is greater than dynamic friction, a stress drop can occur outside of the pressurized

  9. Syn-orogenic high-temperature crustal melting: Geochronological and Nd-Sr-Pb isotope constraints from basement-derived granites (Central Damara Orogen, Namibia) (United States)

    Ostendorf, Jörg; Jung, Stefan; Berndt-Gerdes, Jasper; Hauff, Folkmar


    Major and trace element and Nd, Sr and Pb isotope data from c. 550 Ma-old gray granites and c. 510 Ma-old red leucogranites of the high-grade central part of the Damara orogen (Namibia) indicate a dominantly deep crustal origin. Moderately peraluminous gray granites are isotopically evolved (initial ɛNd: c. - 17) and were likely derived from meta-igneous sources with late Archean to Paleoproterozoic crustal residence ages. Based on a comparison with experimental results, the granites were derived by partial melting of a granodioritic biotite gneiss at c. 900-950 °C and less than 10 kbar. Slightly peraluminous red leucogranites are also isotopically evolved (initial ɛNd: - 15 to - 18) but have undergone extensive crystal fractionation coupled with minor contamination of mid crustal meta-pelitic material. Major and trace element data do not support closed-system fractional crystallization processes for all samples, however, some chemical features underline the importance of crystal fractionation processes especially for the leucogranites. Isotope data do not support mixing of different crust-derived melts or assimilation of crustal rocks by a mafic magma on a large scale. For the gray granites, unradiogenic Pb isotope compositions with substantial variation in 207Pb/204Pb at almost constant 206Pb/204Pb, strongly negative ɛNd values and moderately radiogenic Sr isotope compositions argue for an undepleted nature of the source. High Rb/Sr ratios of the red leucogranites permit a comparison with the gray granites but similar initial ɛNd values indicate that the source of these granites is not fundamentally different to the source of the gray granites. The most acceptable model for both granite types involves partial melting of meta-igneous basement rocks of Archean to Proterozoic age. The consistency of the chemical data with a crustal anatectic origin and the observation that the gray granites intruded before the first peak of high-grade regional metamorphism

  10. SHRIMP U-Pb zircon dates from igneous rocks from the Fontana Lake region, Patagonia: Implications for the age of magmatism, Mesozoic geological evolution and age of basement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Rolando


    Full Text Available In the eastern margin of the Patagonian Andes and between 44° 30´S and 45° 30´S (Fontana Lake region, Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous volcanic and sedimentary rocks were intruded by granitic bodies during the Cretaceous. The reconstruction of the Jurassic-Cretaceous magmatic evolution in the Fontana Lake region and in the adjacent Patagonian Batholith was made possible by the consideration of the following characteristics: distribution in time and space of several intrusive bodies, retro-arc basin formation and volcanic intensity. U-Pb SHRIMP dating of zircon crystals from an ignimbrite, a dacitic porphyry and two granitoid rocks yielded dates of 148.7 ± 2.3, 144.5 ± 1.6, 117 ± 1.7 and 99.6 ± 2.8 Ma, respectively. The Cerro Bayo Ignimbrite (148.7 ± 2.3 Ma, Late Jurassic was included in the Lago La Plata Formation; this unit hosts an epithermal ore deposit. The Laguna Escondida dacitic porphyry (144.5 ± 1.6 Ma, Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary intruded metasedimentary rocks of the Lago La Plata Formation; this sub-volcanic body can chronologically be linked to the Patagonian Batholith. After the Jurassic volcanic events, a retro-arc basin formed in the eastern sector of the Patagonian Range at about 140-115 Ma (Late Berriasian-Barremian and magmatism ceased during this event. The dating of granitoids (117 ± 1.7 and 99.6 ± 2.8 Ma in the Fontana Lake region confirms a temporal magmatic continuity with the Patagonian Batholith. These dates also are in agreement with the volcanic rocks of the Divisadero Group and epithermal deposits in the region (La Ferrocarrilera deposit. One of the analyzed granitoids (Dedo Chico, 99.6 ± 2.8 Ma has inherited zircon crystals of about 2,100 and 3,410 Ma, in agreement with other previous isotopic evidence for the occurrence of an underlying Precambrian basement in the region.

  11. An integrated approach (remote sensing, geophysics, field) to assess the structural control of groundwater flow in Wadi Feiran basement complex, Sinai, Egypt (United States)

    Mohamed, L.; Sultan, M.; Ahmed, M.; Zaki, A.


    The groundwater flow and potentiality for groundwater accumulation in the fractured basement rocks and the overlaying alluvial deposits were examined in Wadi Feiran basin using remote sensing (Landsat ETM, Ikonos, and Envisat, TRMM, and SIR-C radar images), field (well location, depth to water table), and geophysical (Very Low Frequency [VLF], magnetic) datasets. Our approach encompassed the following steps: (1) head data from 52 wells was utilized to build an approximate potentiometric surface map for the basin; (2) Landsat ETM, 3D, hill shade, Ikonos and SIR-C radar images were used to delineate structures in the study area including faults and dikes; (3) major precipitation events were identified from three-hourly TRMM data; and (4) false color composite images were generated from pairs of multi-temporal Envisat images acquired before and after a precipitation event (17th and 18th of January 2010) to identify structures (faults and dykes) that show an increase in moisture content and radar reflectivity following precipitation events and persisting for periods of days to months. Examination of the radar images revealed: (1) a network of highly reflective interconnected structures and channels (wadis) that are here interpreted to indicate preferred groundwater flow direction in the study area; and (2) many of the identified highly persistent reflective structures were found to be sub-parallel (hereafter referred to as low angle) to groundwater flow directions indicating that they are exceptionally conducive to groundwater flow. We suspect that groundwater flow occurs along low angle faults and dykes within the fault damaged zones and the weathered borders of mafic dykes. These suggestions are further corroborated by: (1) VLF results that showed significant dip angles (up to 60%) indicative of presence of shallow sub-vertical, sheet-like conductors across the identified low angle faults and dykes, (2) the presence of groundwater accumulation down gradient, along

  12. Biogeochemistry of dissolved methane and hydrogen within basement fluids of the sediment-buried Juan de Fuca Ridge flank at Borehole (CORKs) 1301A, 1362A and 1362B (United States)

    Lin, H.; Cowen, J. P.; Olson, E. J.; Lilley, M. D.; Jungbluth, S.; Rappé, M.; Bowers, R.


    Hydrogen and methane are important electron donors in chemosynthesis-based ecosystmes. Within the deeply buried Juan de Fuca Ridge flank crustal biosphere, while oxygen and nitrate are exhausted, sulfate is still abundant. Coupled with sulfate, hydrogen and methane can yield energy to support life. In this work, we will present and discuss the hydrogen and methane concentrations of fluids collected via fluid delivery line that run exterior to the Integrated Ocean Drilling Project (IODP) Circulation Observatory Retrofit Kit (CORK) casing from basement depths to the seafloor outlet ports at sites 1301A, 1362A and 1362B. Carbon isotope values of methane will also be presented and discussed for 1301A samples. The three CORKs were installed to study horizontal and vertical circulation/mixing patterns. CORK 1362 is ~800 m north-northwest of CORK 1301B. CORK 1362 A and 1362B are ~200m apart. The fluid intake is ~50 m below sediment-basement interface (mbs) at CORK 1301A, 200 mbs at CORK 1362A and ~40 mbs at CORK 1362B. Despite their close proximities, the basement fluids from the three CORKs show some differences in their biogeochemical compositions, including their hydrogen and methane concentrations. Higher hydrogen (0.3-2 μM) and lower methane (1.5±0.2μM) concentrations are observed at CORK 1301A than at the other two sites. CORKs 1362A and 1362B have similar hydrogen concentrations (0.05±0.02 μM and 0.08±0.03 μM, respectively) but their methane concentrations differ significantly (6±0.4 μM and 13±1 μM, respectively) and are much higher than the methane concentrations (2-3 μM) in the sediment porewater collected near the sediment-basement interface, suggesting methane sources in situ within the basement environment. Abiotic production of hydrogen from basalt-seawater interaction has been observed in both field and lab studies (Stevens and McKinley, 2000). Thermodynamic calculations also show that the reaction of methane production from hydrogen is favorable


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪四新; 屈娜


    This paper introduces the importance of sloping building basement anti -uplift design with practical project. Analysing the engineering geological properties of Sloping building and using Archimedes principle to discharge water & reduction float with water professional close union, it solves the problem of sloping building basement's anti-uplift design shortage skillfully. Not reducing the construction whole-life , it can solve the problems of material saving, water saving and can make the rational use of water resources; It shows some green design approaches for Sloping building basement anti-uplift design and reflects the systematic of Green building techniques; it can be helpful for the Structure professionals to improve their comprehensive abilities to solve problems.%结合工程事故案例,体现了坡地建筑地下室抗浮设计的重要性;并通过对坡地建筑场地工程地质性质,运用阿基米德原理,与水专业紧密结合做到“泄水减浮”,巧妙处理了地下室抗浮设计不足的问题.在不降低建筑全寿命周期的情况下,做到了节材、节水与水资源的合理利用;提出了坡地建筑地下室抗浮设计的绿色处理方法;体现了绿色建筑技术应用的系统性;有助于提高结构专业人员综合解决问题的能力.

  14. Effects of vegetation of radon transport processes in soil: The origins and pathways of {sup 222}Rn entering into basement structures. Final report, March 15, 1987--May 15, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borak, T.B.


    The entry rate of {sup 22}Rn into a basement structure was measured continuously. These measurements demonstrated that radon entry did not vanish even when the structure was slightly pressurized. This persistent entry has been determined to be dominated by diffusion through the floor and walls and a combination of diffusion and convection through the floor-wall joint. The highest indoor radon concentrations occurred during calm periods when the pressure differentials between the inside and outside of the structure were small. The objectives of this work were to identify the origins of the radon and investigate the entry pathways. The radon could originate either in the concrete or in the soil surrounding the structure. Entry pathways into the basement were through the concrete floor and walls as well as through the floor-wall joint. The contributions of the origins and entry pathways were determined by continuously measuring the radon entry rate into the basement, using a trace gas system, and the flux density through portions of the floor and walls. Radon entry through the floor-wall joint could be controlled using a baseboard barrier system. Results indicated that, during calm conditions with wind speeds less than 1 m s{sup {minus}1}, 25 % of the radon enters through the floor-wall joint and 75 % enters through the concrete. About 30 % of the radon originated in the concrete floor and walls. A method for in-situ determination of the diffusion length and emanation fraction of radon in concrete was developed. For the concrete used in the structure, the average diffusion length and emanation fraction were 27{plus_minus}4 cm and 0.19{plus_minus}0.02 respectively.

  15. Targeted Expression of Stromelysin-1 in Mammary Gland Provides Evidence for a Role of Proteinases in Branching Morphogenesis and the Requirement for an Intact Basement Membrane for Tissue-specific Gene Expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sympson, Carolyn J; Talhouk, Rabih S; Alexander, Caroline M; Chin, Jennie R; Cliff, Shirley M; Bissell, Mina J; Werb, Zena


    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is an important regulator of the differentiated phenotype of mammary epithelial cells in culture. Despite the fact that ECM-degrading enzymes have been implicated in morphogenesis and tissue remodeling, there is little evidence for a direct role for such regulation in vivo. We generated transgenic mice that express autoactivated isoforms of the matrix metalloproteinase stromelysin-1, under the control of the whey acidic protein gene promoter, to examine the effect of inappropriate expression of this enzyme. Stromelysin-1 is implicated as the primary player in the loss of basement membrane and loss of function in the mammary gland during involution. The transgene was expressed at low levels in mammary glands of virgin female mice, leading to an unexpected phenotype: The primary ducts had supernumerary branches and showed precocious development of alveoli that expressed beta-casein at levels similar to that of an early- to mid-pregnant gland. Lactating glands showed high levels of transgene expression, with accumulation at the basement membrane, and a decrease in laminin and collagen IV, resulting in a loss of basement membrane integrity; this was accompanied by a dramatic alteration of alveolar morphology, with decreased size and shrunken lumina containing little beta-casein. During pregnancy, expression of endogenous whey acidic protein and beta-casein was reduced in transgenic glands, confirming the observed dependence of milk protein transcription of ECM in mammary epithelial cells in culture. These data provide direct evidence that stromelysin-1 activity can be morphogenic for mammary epithelial cells, inducing hyperproliferation and differentiation in virgin animals, and that its lytic activity can, indeed, disrupt membrane integrity and reduce mammary-specific function. We conclude that the balance of ECM-degrading enzymes with their inhibitors, and the associated regulation of ECM structure, is crucial for tissue-specific gene

  16. PECAM-1 (CD31) Homophilic Interaction Up-Regulates α6β1 on Transmigrated Neutrophils In Vivo and Plays a Functional Role in the Ability of α6 Integrins to Mediate Leukocyte Migration through the Perivascular Basement Membrane


    Dangerfield, John; Larbi, Karen Y.; Huang, Miao-Tzu; Dewar, Ann; Nourshargh, Sussan


    Platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM)-1 has been implicated in leukocyte migration through the perivascular basement membrane (PBM) though the mechanisms involved are unclear. The present results demonstrate that the ability of α6 integrins to mediate neutrophil migration through the PBM is PECAM-1 dependent, a response associated with PECAM-1–mediated increased expression of α6β1 on transmigrating neutrophils in vivo. An anti-α6 integrins mAb (GoH3) inhibited (78%, P < 0.001) n...

  17. Li-bearing, disordered Mg-rich tourmaline from a pegmatite-marble contact in the Austroalpine basement units (Styria, Austria) (United States)

    Ertl, Andreas; Mali, Heinrich; Schuster, Ralf; Körner, Wilfried; Hughes, John M.; Brandstätter, Franz; Tillmanns, Ekkehart


    Pale-blue to pale-green tourmalines from the contact zone of Permian pegmatites to mica schists and marbles from different localities of the Austroalpine basement units (Rappold Complex) in Styria, Austria, are characterized. All these Mg-rich tourmalines have small but significant Li contents, up to 0.29 wt% Li2O, and can be characterized as dravite, with FeO contents of ~ 0.9-2.7 wt%. Their chemical composition varies from X (Na0.67Ca0.19 K0.02☐0.12) Y (Mg1.26Al0.97Fe2+ 0.36Li0.19Ti4+ 0.06Zn0.01☐0.15) Z (Al5.31 Mg0.69) (BO3)3 Si6O18 V (OH)3 W [F0.66(OH)0.34], with a = 15.9220(3), c = 7.1732(2) Å to X (Na0.67Ca0.24 K0.02☐0.07) Y (Mg1.83Al0.88Fe2+ 0.20Li0.08Zn0.01Ti4+ 0.01☐0.09) Z (Al5.25 Mg0.75) (BO3)3 Si6O18 V (OH)3 W [F0.87(OH)0.13], with a = 15.9354(4), c = 7.1934(4) Å, and they show a significant Al-Mg disorder between the Y and the Z sites ( R1 = 0.013-0.015). There is a positive correlation between the Ca content and distance for all investigated tourmalines ( r ≈ 1.00), which may reflect short-range order configurations including Ca and Fe2+, Mg, and Li. The tourmalines have XMg (XMg = Mg/Mg + Fetotal) values in the range 0.84-0.95. The REE patterns show more or less pronounced negative Eu and positive Yb anomalies. In comparison to tourmalines from highly-evolved pegmatites, the tourmaline samples from the border zone of the pegmatites of the Rappold Complex contain relatively low amounts of total REE (~8-36 ppm) and Th (0.1-1.8 ppm) and have low LaN/YbN ratios. There is a positive correlation ( r ≈ 0.91) between MgO of the tourmalines and the MgO contents of the surrounding mica schists. We conclude that the pegmatites formed by anatectic melting of mica schists and paragneisses in Permian time. The tourmalines crystallized from the pegmatitic melt, influenced by the metacarbonate and metapelitic host rocks.

  18. The leading edge of basement logging science: The detailed in situ volcanic architecture, crustal construction processes, vacancy for water, minerals, and microbes, and beyond (United States)

    Tominaga, M.


    Understanding the detailed architecture of the upper ocean crust is one of the key components to advance our knowledge on numerous events occurring in the oceanic lithosphere from spreading ridges to subduction zones. Studies on crustal characterization are limited to either the crustal or hand-specimen scales so far, and little has been done at centimeter - meter scale, which potentially ties those two end-member prospects. The lack of this scale is due mainly to the difficulties in direct sampling and the limited resolution of geophysical experiments; as a consequence, critical questions remain unanswered, e.g., what does the cross-section of actual ocean crust look like and what does it tell us?; where exactly in the lithosphere does fluid exist and promote the deep hydration and biosphere?; to what extent do we average out the heterogeneity in the crustal properties depending on the scale? Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Hole 1256D is located at the 15 Ma super-fast spreading Cocos Plate and the first drilled hole that successfully penetrate through the intact upper ocean crust. Coring in the Hole 1256D basement is suffered from the low core recovery rates (~ 32 %) and the origins of recovered cores are mostly biased toward formations with minimal fractures. Wire-line logging in this hole becomes, thus, extremely useful for both the physical and chemical characterization of the crust. In particular, Formation MicroScanner (FMS) data acquired from multiple paths during three drilling expeditions have unprecedented lateral coverage of the borehole wall. The FMS images are the first realization of the cross-section of in situ architecture of the intact upper ocean crust with a centimeter-meter scale resolution. A lithostratigraphy model is reconstructed by integrating the analyses on FMS electrofacies, other physical property logs, and recovered cores. The new lithostratigraphy reveals that nearly 50 % of the in situ lithofacies in the Hole 1256D crust consists of

  19. 选择性激光熔化基底冠与铸造基底冠适合性的比较研究%Comparative study of the compatibility of selective laser melting basement crown and the casting basement crown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志清; 孙艳华


    Objective Making the cobalt- chromium alloy basement crowns using the selective laser melting method and casting method respectively,and studying the compatibility of the complete coronal restoration body by means of the slice cut method to provide a basic theory for the clinical application. Methods Selected one healthy maxillary premolar which was extracted for orthodontic treatment,then made the regular tooth preparation.Getting the mould by means of the combined impression method, copying the mould and pouring resin into them, then using the selective laser melting method and casting method to make 9 basement crowns respectively.The 9 crowns were bonded into die seat one by one and were invested in self- curing resin, and were cut along the buccolingual direction. We used the CCD to image, and used an image measurement software to measure the gap width after observed the compatibility between the crowns and die seats under the stereomicroscope.Calculating the average of each sample groups,and using SPSS 20.0 software package to analyze the data statistically. Results The mean value (49.50±4.72 )μm of the compatibility of cobalt- chromium alloy crowns which made by the selective laser melting method was significantly smaller than that (81.10±7.36 )μm of the casting method group, and the difference was significant ( P<0.01). Conclusion The gap width of the sample made by selective laser melting method is smaller than the casting method one, and the gap width of the cobalt- chromium alloy crowns made by these two methods are all clinical acceptable(within 100um).%目的:采用选择性激光熔化法与铸造法制作钴铬合金基底冠,利用片切法来研究全冠修复体适合性,为临床应用提供理论基础。方法:选取临床上因正畸拔除健康上颌前磨牙1颗。按常规牙体预备。采用双重印模法取模,复制并灌注树脂模型后,选择性激光熔化法与铸造法制作基底冠各9个。依次粘结就位

  20. 沥青路面水泥改性级配碎石力学性能研究%The mechanical performance of cement modified graded crushed rock applied in the basement of asphalt pavement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周志刚; 曾勇; 孙绪康


    Graded crushed rock was mixed with a proper amount* of inorganic binder (such as cement, lime, and so on) to form modified graded crused rock. The results show that this method could enhance the shear strength and resistance to deformation for the crushed rock. When this kind of crushed rocks was used as the basement of asphalt pavement, the primary function of the crack and drainage could still be maintained, thus the loading capacity of asphalt pavement can be enhanced, the life of asphalt pavement can be extended. Field testing shows good effects when modified graded crushed rock is applied as the flexible basement of asphalt pavement.%在级配碎石中,掺入适量的无机结合料(如:水泥和石灰等),形成改性级配碎石.研究结果表明:该改性措施可以提高级配碎石的抗剪强度和抗变形能力,用作沥青路面基层时,可继续保持级配碎石基层的抗裂与排水作用,从而增强沥青路面承载能力,延长沥青路面的使用寿命.现场检测证明,应用改性级配碎石柔性基层的沥青路面使用效果良好.

  1. U-Pb SHRIMP and Sm-Nd geochronology of the Silvânia Volcanics and Jurubatuba Granite: juvenile Paleoproterozoic crust in the basement of the Neoproterozoic Brasília Belt, Goiás, central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available U-Pb SHRIMP and Sm-Nd isotopic ages were determined for felsic metavolcanic rocks from the Silvânia Sequence and Jurubatuba Granite in the central part of the Brasília Belt. Zircon grains from a metavolcanic sample yielded 2115 ± 23 Ma and from the granite yielded 2089 ± 14 Ma, interpreted as crystallization ages of these rocks. Six metavolcanic samples of the Silvânia Sequence yielded a six-point whole-rock Sm-Nd isochron indicating a crystallization age of 2262 ± 110 Ma and positive epsilonNd(T = +3.0 interpreted as a juvenile magmatic event. Nd isotopic analyses on samples from the Jurubatuba Granite have Paleoproterozoic T DM model ages between 2.30 and 2.42 Ga and epsilonNd(T values vary between -0.22 and -0.58. The oldest T DM value refers to a sedimentary xenolith in the granite. These results suggest crystallization ages of Silvânia volcanics and Jurubatuba Granite are the first evidence of a ca. 2.14-2.08 juvenile magmatic event in the basement of the central part of the Brasília Belt that implies the presence of arc/suture hidden in reworked basement of the Brasília Belt.

  2. On the fault system and basement structure in and around the epicentral region of the 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake; 1995 nen Hyogoken nanbu jishin shingen shuhen no danso kiso kozo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokokura, T.; Kano, N.; Yamaguchi, K.; Miyazaki, T. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Ikawa, T.; Ota, Y.; Kawanaka, T. [Japex Jeoscience Institute, Tokyo (Japan)


    A reflection elastic wave seismic survey was carried out as part of the emergency survey of active faults in relation with the Hyogo-ken Nanbu Earthquake. This paper presents an interim report on the survey covering a wide area with deep structure as the survey object. The paper mentions that processing the survey data has been nearly completed, and is in the stage of making analyses and interpretations of the result of the processing, and that the survey was an attempt of making a unified survey over land areas, shallow sea areas, and seas by setting twelve traverse lines in and around the epicenter region. The paper also introduces briefly what has been found on hypocenters used, vibration receivers, vibration intervals, and CPD intervals, and on shapes of faults, particularly the continuity (the relationship of the Ashiya fault, Koyo fault and Osaka bay fault with the above two faults, branching of the Osaka bay fault, faults between the Wada promontory fault, Awaji Island and the Osaka bay fault, the fault off the east coast at the central part of Awaji Island, the Shichiku fault on the west coast of Awaji Island, and the basement fault). Mention is given also on the basement structure chart of the Osaka bay prepared preliminarily for the purpose of reference. 2 figs.

  3. U-Pb SHRIMP and Sm-Nd geochronology of the Silvania Volcanics and Jurubatuba Granite: juvenile paleoproterozoic crust in the basement of the Neo proterozoic Brasilia Belt, Goias, central Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischel, Danielle P.; Pimentel, Marcio M.; Fuck, Reinhardt A. [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias; Armstrong, Richard [Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia). Research School of Earth Sciences


    U-Pb SHRIMP and Sm-Nd isotopic ages were determined for felsic meta volcanic rocks from the Silvania Sequence and Jurubatuba Granite in the central part of the Brasilia Belt. Zircon grains from a meta volcanic sample yielded 2115 {+-} 23 Ma and from the granite yielded 2089 {+-}14 Ma, interpreted as crystallization ages of these rocks. Six meta volcanic samples of the Silvania Sequence yielded a six-point whole-rock Sm-Nd isochron indicating a crystallization age of 2262 {+-}110 Ma and positive {epsilon}{sub Nd} (T) = +3.0 interpreted as a juvenile magmatic event. Nd isotopic analyses on samples from the Jurubatuba Granite have Paleoproterozoic T{sub DM} model ages between 2.30 and 2.42 Ga and {epsilon}{sub Nd} (T) values vary between -0.22 and -0.58. The oldest T{sub DM} value refers to a sedimentary xenolith in the granite. These results suggest crystallization ages of Silvania volcanics and Jurubatuba Granite are the first evidence of a ca. 2.14-2.08 juvenile magmatic event in the basement of the central part of the Brasilia Belt that implies the presence of arc/suture hidden in reworked basement of the Brasilia Belt. (author)

  4. Potassium, uranium and thorium contents in the basement rocks of the Camamu and Almada sedimentary basins; Teores de uranio, torio e potassio nas rochas do embasamento das bacias sedimentares de Camamu e Almada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapucaia, Najara S.; Argollo, Roberto M. de; Barbosa, Johildo S.F. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Pos-graduacao em Geofisica


    The basement of the of Camamu and Almada basins is inserted in the granulitic region of the southeast Bahia. It is characterized, in bigger proportion, by the rocks of the Cinturao Itabuna represented by metatonalites calcium - alkaline of low potassium and matamonzonites with high-potassium geochemistry shoshonitics trend, associate to the basic granulites. In lesser proportion, one has: the rocks of the Jequie block, characterized by charnockites, charnoenderbites and enderbites with calcium-alkaline chemical and high-K contents and associated with amphibolites with low K-contents; the granite of Teolandia and the granodiorite of Moenda, representatives of the Ipiau Domain; and the neoproterozoics syenites and mafic dikes. On this context, the acid rocks of intermediate compositions, as the charnockites, the metamonzonites, the granitic rocks of the Ipiau band and the sienites, are the main lithologic units that show relevant concentrations of the U, Th and K elements. Already the metatonalites are more abundant in this basement ad show intermediate values of K, varying of 0,5 to 2.5 %, while the basic granulitos and the amphibolites show low K-contents as low as 0,02%. The Th concentrations in the basic metatonalites and ten granulite are below 10 ppm, arriving to below the determination limit of 0.4 ppm; the same thing occurs with U concentrations in these rocks. (author)

  5. 山西省安全生产应急救援长治基地设计实践%On design practice for Changzhi basement for safety production emergency rescue in Shanxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Taking Changzhi basement for safety production emergency rescue in Shanxi as the example,the paper indicates the planning layout, architectural design and combination of buildings and sites according to the functional features and sites of the program,and points out the base-ment construction improves the capacity of preventing and settling emergency issues,so as to meet the demands for the rescue in major and ex-traordinarily serious accidents.%以山西省安全生产应急救援长治基地为例,依据建设项目的功能特点及场地现状,论述了项目的规划布局、建筑设计及建筑与场地的结合,指出该基地的建成提高了本地区预防和处置突发公共事件的能力,满足了重特大事故灾难抢险救援的要求。

  6. Experimental models of 'Basement'-controlled salients - application to the proterozoic fold-thrust belt of the quadrilátero ferrífero (Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes Caroline J. S.


    Full Text Available Scaled sandbox models are used to simulate the development of ´basement´-controlled, salients. We investigate the controlling factors on the development of closed curvatures in map-view, considering constant both the sand pack thickness and the space between obstacles. These models are compared with the Fundão-Cambotas Fault System in the Proterozoic fold-thrust belt in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero region, along the southeastern margin of the São Francisco craton. In the experiments, a pronounced curvature resulted from the margin-controlled salient process in the presence (i of a basal ductile detachment, or (ii of pre-existing structures. The results suggest that the convex-to-the-foreland, west-vergent Fundão-Cambotas Fault System that borders the Archean basement highs and displaced older Transamazonian structures westward, is partly a consequence of interaction of propagating thrusts with obstacles in the foreland.

  7. The Concrete Construction Technology of Basement Floor in High-rise Building%高层建筑地下室底板混凝土施工技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The concrete pouring of high-rise building baseme-nt floor is important and difficult in construction, so the quality control is extremely important, which involves the control me-asures of large volume concrete construction and impervious concrete construction, and the technical measures of the behind pouring belt concrete. In this article, the author combines with work practice, and discusses the construction technology of basement floor to provide reference for future projects.%  高层建筑地下室底板混凝土浇筑是施工中的重点也是难点,做好质量控制极为重要。其中,涉及到大体积混凝土施工的控制措施、抗渗混凝士施工控制措施及后浇带混凝土施工技术措施等。本文结合笔者的工作实践,论述了地下室底板施工技术,为日后此类工程提供了参考。

  8. 平战结合的人防地下室通风系统优化设计%Optimum Design of Ventilation System in Civil Air Defense Basements in Times of Peace and War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    介绍了兼顾平时、战时功能的人防地下室通风系统工程优化设计思路,以及在设计中人防设备的选择与布设等问题,对减少人防地下室室内设备和平时、战时转换工作量,降低工程造价具有重要意义.%This article briefs on mentality of optimum designing of ventilation system in civil air defense basements in times of peace and war, the choice and layout of defense equipment, among other issues, which is of vital importance to re-duce the amount of indoor equipment and workload of the shift in times of peace and war and project cost.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓亚虹; 彭建兵; 李丽; 慕焕东


    渭河盆地是我国乃至世界上地裂缝最为发育,灾害最为严重的地区.本文以渭河盆地为原型,采用有限元数值分析方法,分析了基底伸展作用下盆地浅表层岩土介质和多级破裂系统的应力和变形响应特征,从而揭示基底伸展变形与该区域地裂缝之间的成因关系.结果表明,盆地基底的伸展作用可以引起近地表岩土介质的拉张变形,当这种拉张作用与盆地断裂的上盘正断倾滑式伸展拉张叠加时,必然形成或加剧地表土层的张剪性破裂,从而为地裂缝的发育奠定了构造基础.%The Weihe Basin can be the most developed area of ground fissures and the associated geo-hazard in China and even in the world. Taking the Weihe Basin as the prototype, a numerical analysis with finite element method is made to study the stress and strain response characteristics of superficial ground and multistage fracture system subjected to the action of basement stretching. The germination relationship between deep structure activities and ground fissures development is revealed. Results show that the basement stretching can cause the tensile deformation of superficial ground. When this kind of action is coupled with normal dip-slipping tension of faults, it can inevitably form or aggravate the tension-shear fracturing, and establish the tectonic foundation for the development of ground fissures.

  10. Viability of corneal epithelial cells and cleavage of corneal basement after ethanol effect%乙醇对角膜上皮瓣活性及基底膜分离定位研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈颖欣; 蓝平; 高明宏; 范忠义; 宋福林; 徐旭; 于静


    Objective To evaluate the viability of corneal epithelial cells and to determine the anatomic cleavage on the epithelial basement membrane after various exposure times to 20% ethanol during epithelial flap preparation in laser-assisted subepithelial keratectomy(LASEK)in cadaver eyes.Methods Six human cadaver eyes were exposed to 20% ethanol for 20,30 and 40 seconds(2 eyes for each group),and another one eye was used as the control.PCNA staining was performed to determine the viability of corneal epithelial cells.Immunofluorescence staining using monoclonal antibodies against collagen Ⅶ,and immunohistological staining using monoclonal antibodies against laminin were performed to detect the anatomic location of the cleavage plane on the corneal epithelial flaps created by 20 seconds exposure to 20% ethanol in cadaver eyes.Results Hematoxylin and eosin staining of epithelial flaps revealed a coherent stratified epithelium.The PCNA positive rates of the epithelial cells in the flap decreased in the 20-second group,30-seconcl group and 40-second group successively.Immunohistological staining to laminin was patchy in the lifted flap and the remaining corneal basement membrane.Immunofluorescence to collagen Ⅶ,the main component of anchoring fibrils remained exclusively in the corneal bed.Conclusions Viability of the epithelial flap decreased with longer time exposure to ethanol.The cleavage plane of the ethanol-treated corneal epithelial flap is located between the lamina lucida and the lamina densa of the basement membrane where laminin forms hemidesmesome.%目的 探讨不同乙醇作用时间对角膜上皮瓣活性的影响,并确定角膜上皮瓣的解剖分离层面.方法 按标准准分子激光角膜上皮瓣下磨镶术(LASEK)方法制备7只尸体眼角膜上皮瓣,其中对照组1只眼,其余6只分为A、B、C 3个组,每组2只眼,乙醇浸润时间分别为20、30和40 S.对7只眼进行HE、增殖细胞核抗原(PCNA)、层黏连蛋白免疫组化

  11. The use of subsurface thermal data, isotopic tracers and earthquake hypocenter locations to unravel deep regional flow systems within the crystalline basement beneath the Rio Grande rift, New Mexico. (Invited) (United States)

    Person, M. A.; Woolsey, E.; Pepin, J.; Crossey, L. J.; Karlstrom, K. E.; Phillips, F. M.; Kelley, S.; Timmons, S.


    The Rio Grande rift in New Mexico hosts a number of low-temperature geothermal systems as well as the 19 km deep Socorro Magma Body. The presence of a mantle helium anomaly measured at San Acacia spring (3He/4He = 0.295 RA) and in an adjacent shallow well (50m system. Temperatures recorded at the base of the San Acacia well is elevated (29 oC). Published estimates of uplift rates and heat flow suggest that the magma body was emplaced about 1-3 ka and reflects a long-lived (several Ma) magmatic system. Further south near the southern terminus of the Engle Basin, much warmer temperatures (42 oC) occur at shallow depths within the spa district in the town of Truth or Consequences at shallow depths also suggesting deep-fluid circulation. 14C constrained apparent groundwater residence times in the spa district range between 6-10 ka. We have developed two 6-19 km deep crustal-scale, cross-sectional models that simulate subsurface fluid flow, heat and isotope (3He/4He) transport as well as groundwater residence times along the Rio Grande rift. The North-South oriented model of the Albuquerque Basin incorporates a high-permeability conduit 100 m wide having hydrologic properties differing from surrounding crystalline basement units. We use these models to constrain the crustal permeability structure and fluid circulation patterns beneath the Albuquerque and Engle Basins. Model results are compared to measurements of groundwater temperatures, residence times (14C), and 3He/4He data. We also use the distribution of earthquake hypocenters to constrain likely fault-crystalline basement hydraulic interactions in the seismogenic crust above the Socorro Magma Body. For the case of the southern Albuquerque Basin, conduit permeability associated with the Indian Hill conduit/fault zone must range between about 1.0E-13 to 1.0E-15 m2 in order for simulated 3He/4He, solute concentrations, and temperatures to match observed conditions. Basement permeability outside of the fault damage

  12. Experimental study of application of anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies neutralizing monoclonal antibody on anti-glomerular basement membrane nephritis rats%应用抗肾小球基底膜抗体的中和性单克隆抗体治疗抗肾小球基底膜肾炎大鼠的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖静; 刘章锁; 聂志勇; 王雅楠; 赵国强


    目的 应用抗肾小球基底膜(GBM)抗体的中和性单克隆抗体注射抗GBM肾炎大鼠,观察各种生化指标及肾脏病理学的变化.方法 将Wistar大鼠随机分为5组,每组9只:(1)肾炎模型组:经尾静脉注入人抗GBM抗体;(2)正常对照Ⅰ组:经尾静脉注入非抗体性的健康人IgG;(3)对照Ⅱ组:经尾静脉注入抗GBM抗体的中和性单克降抗体;(4)干预Ⅰ组:经尾静脉注入人抗GBM抗体,第7天后再经尾静脉注入抗GBM抗体的中和性单克隆抗体(1.5ml/100 g);(5)干预Ⅱ组:经尾静脉注入人抗GBM抗体,第14天后再经尾静脉注入抗GBM抗体的中和性单克隆抗体.分别在实验后第7、14、21天观察大鼠24 h尿蛋白量、BUN、Scr和肾组织病理学的变化.结果 第21天干预Ⅰ组尿蛋白量为(16.62±5.53)g/d、BUN为(11.53±2.26)mmol/L、Scr为(102.46±16.86)μmol/L,均显著低于肾炎模型组(P<0.05);干预Ⅱ组较肾炎模型组也有所降低,但差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).干预Ⅰ组和干预Ⅱ组肾脏细胞增生、新月体的形成及免疫复合物的沉积均少于肾炎模型组,但干预Ⅰ组更为明显.对照Ⅰ组和对照Ⅱ组之间无明显变化.结论 早期应用抗GBM抗体的中和性单克隆抗体能够有效改善抗GBM肾炎大鼠的肾脏病变.%Objective To observe the effect of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies to antiglomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibody on anti-GBM nephritis rats. Methods Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: control group Ⅰ was a negative control and was injected with healthy human IgG via the caudal vein. Control group Ⅱ was injected with neutralizing monoclonal antibodies to anti-GBM antibody only. Anti- GBM nephritis group was injected with human anti-GBM antibody via the caudal vein only. Intervention group Ⅰ was injected with human anti-GBM antibody via the caudal vein and then with neutralizing monoclonal antibodies to anti-GBM antibody at day 7. Intervention group Ⅱ was

  13. 高层建筑地下室顶板后浇带处电梯基础施工工法%Elevator foundation construction methods of the high-rise building basement roof post-casting belt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Combining with engineering examples,the paper analyzes elevator foundation construction features and application of high-rise building basement roof post-casting belt. According to its construction technology principles,it describes post-casting belt concrete grouting,scaffold erec-tion,pre-embedded parts installation and other operation points,and summarizes its quality,safety and environment protecting measures,and fi-nally achieves good economic and social benefits.%结合工程实例,分析了高层建筑地下室顶板后浇带处电梯基础施工工法的特点及适用范围,依据其施工工艺原理,对后浇带混凝土浇筑、满堂支撑架搭设、顶埋件安装等操作要点进行了阐述,并总结了质量、安全、环保措施,取得了良好的经济社会效益。

  14. Distribution of radon activity in the atmosphere above Wzgórza Niemczansko-Strzelinskie (South-WestPoland and its dependence on uranium and thorium content in the underlying rock and indirect ground basement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Ochmann


    Full Text Available Radon activity in the atmosphere and its behavior in the environment have been investigated using LR-115 nuclear track detector. The complex geological structure of Wzgórza Niemczansko-Strzelinskie (south-west Poland enabled this problem to be studied in various geological conditions. The eU and eTh content in rocks and soil was measured by gamma-spectrometer GR-320. Uranium content of bedrock reached its maximum value of 15 ppm in the case of quartz-graphite schist. Thorium reached its maximum value of 35 ppm in the case of granodiorite. Radon activity was measured by means of long-term exposure of LR-115. The mean value of atmospheric radon activity was 21 Bqm-3 in the air 2 m above the ground surface. The highest radon activities were measured in the area of granite and quartz-graphite schist outcrops and in the area of mylonitic rocks of the Niemcza Zone. Radon activity in close to ground cup detectors varies from 25 to 300 Bqm-3, these values depend on uranium and thorium content in indirect ground basement (soil and weathered rocks. Not only uranium and thorium content but also rock disintegration due to tectonic events (shear zones influenced atmospheric radon activity. Seasonal variation is not strong, although higher values were measured in the autumn- winter period.

  15. Application of Safe to Design of a Super High-riseBuilding Basement of Cast-in-situ Hollow Concrete Floor System%地下室现浇空心楼盖结构SAFE有限元分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The Cast-in-situ hollow concrete floor system has been widely applied in recent years. SAFE is the ultimate tool for concrete floor and founda-tion system design. The application of SAFE in the basement of Cast-in-situ hollow concrete floor system is mainly introduced. Based on the specialty of this project, issues that should be noted and corresponding measures in the design are presented.%近年来现浇空心楼盖的应用越来越广泛。SAFE是设计混凝土楼板和基础的国际通用结构分析软件。该文主要介绍SAFE程序在某超高层项目地下室现浇空心楼盖设计中的应用情况。针对工程的特点,提出了应注意的问题及设计中相应的措施。

  16. Applicability of the spatial autocorrection method for estimation of basement structure in Kanto plain. Array measurements of microtremors close to the Iwatsuki and Shimosa deep borehole observatory; Kanto heiya no kiban kozo suitei no tame no kukan jiko sokanho no tekiyosei. Iwatsuki Shimosa jiban katsudo kansokusei ni okeru array bido kansoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuoka, T.; Umezawa, N.; Shiraishi, H. [Saitama Institute of Environmental Pollution, Saitama (Japan)


    To investigate applicability of the spatial autocorrection method which is a microtremors exploration method for the estimation of basement structure, array measurements of microtremors were performed using the Iwatsuki and Shimosa deep borehole observatory where detailed structures were clarified as well as the Fuchu and Koto deep borehole observatory. In this study, estimated velocity structures of S-wave were compared with the geological sequence and results of acoustic velocity logging. The phase velocity was estimated by the spatial autocorrection method using FFT. The phase velocity with a smooth normal dispersion was observed in the periodic range from 0.5 to 5 sec in Iwatsuki, and from 0.5 to 4 sec in Shimosa by the combination of four-point circular arrays with radii of 100, 300, and 600 m. The underground structures estimated from the phase velocities coincided well with the geological sequence, and results of acoustic velocity logging and velocity logging for each borehole. For the Iwatsuki borehole, the basement velocity was also estimated properly in the periodic range of observation. While, for the Shimosa borehole, measurements with the period around 6 sec were required to estimate the basement velocity more accurately. 13 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Determination of the Antarctic region active margin basement by using integration of the information coming from the multichannel seismic analysis and the magnetometry; Determinacao do embasamento da margen ativa da regiao Antartica pela integracao de informacoes provenientes da sismica multicanal e da magnetometria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Luiz Carlos [Diretoria de Hidrografia e Navegacao, XX (Brazil); Gomes, Benedito Souza [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Gamboa, Luiz Antonio P. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)


    Geophysical measurements were carried out in the Western Margin of the Antarctic Peninsula and Bransfield Strait by the Brazilian Antarctic Program during the summers of 1987 and 1988. The present work, using a continued seismic multi channel and magnetometry data profile crossing the area, intends to present a two-dimensional model of the interface sediment/basement and contribute to the understanding of the complex geology verified in the studying area. By this model, the main provinces of the are (Deep Ocean, South Shetland Trench, Accretionary Prism, Volcanic Arc South Shetland Islands and Bransfield Basin) could be determined. The seismic and magnetic measurements information when superposed can attribute more consistencies to the interpreted basement; although each method has its particular resolution. This way, when the seismic interpretation was not possible due to complex structures disposition, magnetic measurements could offer good estimation about basement depth. The fit between both methods (seismic and magnetic measurements) was reasonable both on the oceanic basin and in the region of Bransfield Strait. The magnetometry, as as well seismic, was sensible to the dip of Drake Plate at South Shetland Trench and the Intrusive occurrence at Bransfield Basin axis. (author)

  18. 高脂高糖家兔脑梗死模型基底膜损伤机制的探讨%Mechanism of basement membrane injury in cerebral infarction model in rabbit with hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐娉; 庄强


    Objective To discuss the mechanism of microvascular endothelial basement membrane injury following cerebral ischemla. Methods Twenty-four New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into two groups (n=12): normal control group and model group. The latter were fed high-fat, high-sucrose diet, but the former was fed with normal diet. They all were made into the models of cerebral infarction. The change of Laminin (LN) in blood and the expression of LN in brain tissue were observed simultaneously. All groups received pathological examination. Results The levels of blood lipids and blood glucose of rabbit and the content of LN were significantly increased after fed with high fat and high sucrose about 1-2 times in 10 d. The plasma concentration of LN was decreased significantly after the operation of cerebral infarction (P<0.05). Pathological observation revealed that LN was mainly located in cytoplasm of microvascular matrix, and its positive reaction was yellow to brown. Conclusions Injury of the microvascular endothelial basement membrane exists in the early phase of rabbit cerebral ischemia, leading to decrease of LN in extracellular matrix. The early intervention of blood lipids and blood glucose, accompanied by the brain protection with agents and the application of inhibitors of MMPs, will be able to effectively improve the cerebral infarction.%目的 探讨脑缺血后微血管内皮细胞基底膜的损伤机制.方法 24只新西兰家兔采用随机数字表法分为非高脂高糖脑梗死模型对照组(简称空白对照组),高脂高糖脑梗死模型对照组(简称模型对照组),每组12只.空白对照组给予普通饲料,模型对照组给予高脂高糖饲料,均制作成脑梗死模型.监测造模前后血浆中层粘连蛋白(LN)的表达,并观察腩组织中LN表达情况.结果模型对照组高脂高糖模型制作后,家兔血脂血糖增高,与造模前比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).脑梗死模型制作后两组血浆中LN表达

  19. El basamento de la sierra de San Luis: Nuevas evidencias magnéticas y sus implicancias tectónicas The basement of Sierra de San Luis: New magnetic evidence and tectonic implication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CJ Chernicoff


    Full Text Available Los mapas aeromagnéticos disponibles de las sierras de San Luis y Comechingones en el sector sudoriental de las Sierras Pampeanas de Argentina, permiten examinar las características geológicas y estructurales de las unidades metamórficas e intrusivas del basamento de la región. A través de la aplicación del filtro de continuación ascendente a los datos del campo magnético total reducido al polo, se ha podido observar la configuración profunda de las distintas unidades. Entre ellas se destaca la secuencia supracortical, en parte correspondiente a la Formación San Luis, que permite reconstruir en varios sectores de la región, en algunos casos subaflorante, una importante sucesión de rocas metasedimentarias de hasta 3 km de espesor, que es interpretada como perteneciente a depósitos de una cuenca de antepaís formada con posterioridad a la orogenia pampeana, alrededor de los 530 Ma. Se caracterizan las distintas unidades metamórficas e ígneas a partir de su señal magnética, y sobre esta base se presenta una sección estructural profunda, que sirve de base para proponer la evolución tectónica del basamento de este sector de las Sierras Pampeanas. Éste registra a partir de la orogenia pampeana la instalación de un arco magmático con su respectiva cuenca de trasarco durante el Cámbrico tardío y el Ordovícico temprano, los que son cerrados y deformados durante la colisión del terreno de Cuyania en el Ordovícico medio.The available aeromagnetic maps of the Sierras de San Luis and Comechingones in the south-eastern sector of the Sierras Pampeanas of Argentina, show the geologic and structural characteristics of the metamorphic and intrusive units of the basement of the region. Through the upward continuation filter applied to the magnetic data, it is possible to view the depth to the different units. Among them it stands out the supracrustal sequence partly equivalent to the San Luis Formation, interpreted as foreland basin

  20. Results of an experiment in a Zion-like geometry to investigate the effect of water on the containment basement floor on direct containment heating (DCH) in the Surtsey Test Facility: The IET-4 test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document discusses the fourth experiment of the Integral Effects Test (IET-4) series which was conducted to investigate the effects of high pressure melt ejection on direct containment heating. Scale models (1:10) of the Zion reactor pressure vessel (RPV), cavity, instrument tunnel, and subcompartment structures were constructed in the Surtsey Test Facility at Sandia National Laboratories. ne RPV was modeled with a melt generator that consisted of a steel pressure barrier, a cast MgO crucible, and a thin steel inner liner. The melt generator/crucible had a hemispherical bottom head containing a graphite limitor plate with a 3.5-cm exit hole to simulate the ablated hole in the RPV bottom head that would be tonned by tube ejection in a severe nuclear power plant accident. The reactor cavity model contained 3.48 kg of water with a depth of 0.9 cm that corresponded to condensate levels in the Zion plant. A 43-kg initial charge of iron oxide/aluminum/chromium thermite was used to simulate corium debris on the bottom head of the RPV. Molten thermite was ejected into the scaled reactor cavity by 6.7 MPa steam. IET-4 replicated the third experiment in the IET series (IET-3), except the Surtsey vessel contained slightly more preexisting oxygen (9.6 mol.% vs. 9.0 mol.%), and water was placed on the basement floor inside the crane wall. The cavity pressure measurements showed that a small steam explosion occurred in the cavity at about the same time as the steam explosion in IET-1. The oxygen in the Surtsey vessel in IET-4 resulted in a vigorous hydrogen bum, which caused a significant increase in the peak pressure, 262 kPa compared to 98 kPa in the IET-1 test. EET-3, with similar pre-existing oxygen concentrations, also had a large peak pressure of 246 kPa

  1. Calculation of thawing of the soil foundations with the surface basements of a low-rise buildings in permafrost%多年冻土区低层建筑地下室土基的解冻计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Terenty A.Kornilov; Igor I.Rozhin; Ekaterina A.Kononova; Dmitry A.Grigoriev; Ayyna N.Danilova


    Thawing of permafrost soil foundations of low-rise buildings with surface basements has been studied by the methods of mathematical modeling .The model takes into account air temperature changes , total solar radiation , surface albedo , thickness of snow cover and changes of coefficient of heat transfer between atmosphere and the Earth surface during a year .The influence of building dimensions , thermal resistance of plinth panel and thermal conditions of soil on dynamics of thawed bowl have been investiga -ted in the computational experiment .Comparative assessment of the results of calculation of the depth of thawing revealed that the depth of thaw calculated by existing standards , is considerably underestimated and does not depend on the thermal resistance of plinth panel .Moreover the standards do not take into account initial thermal conditions of soil and annual changes of atmospheric temperature .%对多年冻土区低层建筑地下室的解冻可通过数学建模的方法研究。该模型考虑了空气温度的变化、太阳总辐射、地表反照率以及一年中大气和地球表面之间的热传递系数的变化。建筑尺寸影响的研究,是基于基座面板的热阻和热条件土壤解冻动力学计算实验进行的。比较评估的计算融化深度结果显示,现有的解冻深度的标准,大大低估了和不依赖于基座面板的热阻。此外,该标准不考虑初始土壤热状况和大气温度的年际变化。

  2. Titanite and apatite fission track analyses on basement rocks of central-southern Madagascar: constraints on exhumation and denudation rates along the eastern rift shoulder of the Morondava basin (United States)

    Emmel, B.; Jacobs, J.; Razakamanana, T.


    Titanite and apatite fission-track (FT) thermochronology from basement rocks in central-southern Madagascar reveals a protracted post Late Neoproterozoic/Early Cambrian history of extensional tectonism, denudation and sedimentation. Titanite FT ages range between 379 ± 38 and 276 ± 17 Ma and apatite FT ages vary between 379 ± 19 and 150 ± 8 Ma. Combined titanite and apatite FT data from the western palaeo margin of Madagascar suggest denudation rates of ˜200-100 mMa -1 during Carboniferous times. The Late Neoproterozoic/Early Cambrian Ejeda shear zone was probably reactivated during this time. In contrast, for the same period denudation rates inland are ˜110-25 mMa -1. During Permo-Triassic rifting, areas that previously underwent fast denudation were buried by sedimentary cover up to ˜4.5 km. At this time, a graben developed along the transcontinental Bongolava-Ranotsara shear zone (BRSZ). Graben faults are exposed at the northeastern graben shoulder. Identical titanite and apatite FT ages close to the BRSZ indicate rapid cooling associated with fluid circulation during Early Permian times. The initial Gondwana break-up during Middle Jurassic times and the drift of Madagascar along the Davie transform fault did not significantly influence the FT data and had only minor geomorphic impact in the study area. Only the far southwestern part of the island is characterised by a higher degree of denudation (max. ˜3.5 km) during Early Jurassic times. Early Cretaceous and Cenozoic volcanic activity affected the apatite FT data from southern Madagascar. Modelled time-temperature ( T- t) paths argue for a reheating of samples from southern Madagascar to temperatures of ˜60-80 °C during the times of magmatism, before final cooling to surface temperatures.

  3. Workshop on hydrology of crystalline basement rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.N. (comp.)


    This workshop covered the following subjects: measurements in relatively shallow boreholes; measurement and interpretation of data from deep boreholes; hydrologic properties of crystalline rocks as interpreted by geophysics and field geology; rock mechanics related to hydrology of crystalline rocks; the possible contributions of modeling to the understanding of the hydrology of crystalline rocks; and geochemical interpretations of the hydrology of crystalline rocks. (MHR)

  4. TDIP imaging of watershed over crystalline basement


    Camerlynck, C.; L. Longuevergne; Roques, C


    International audience Aquifers located in Brittany (Western France) are set over crystalline geology. Water is generally flowing through highly permeable fractures. We show the TDIP potentiality in picturing hydro-geophysical contexts. Those preliminary results need now to be confirmed by both sample measurement and in-situ characterizations. Saint-Brice-en-Cogles (Northern Brittany, N48.422°, W1.377°) The geological context comprises fractured schists with granite inclusions, located on ...

  5. Nevada Isostatic Residual Gravity Over Basement (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study of gravity data from Nevada is part of a statewide analysis of mineral resources. The main objective of the gravity study were: 1) to infer the structure...

  6. Source Rock Generation Hydrocarbon Character of Caotai Basement Rock Buried Hill Pool, Liaohe Basin%基岩潜山油藏烃源岩的成烃特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅强; 姜亮; 吴征


    The sedimentary basin is a giant epithermal alterator. The Caotai basement rock buried hill pool in Damintun sag, Liaohe basins is taken as an example in this paper. The maturation and hydrocarbon formation of its source rock's dynamic processes are studied with dynamic theory, just as sedimentation, compaction, thermomaturation, etc. The high pour point oil's origination and the location of the source rock are researched. The sedimentary history of source rock is identified by back stripping, and the palco - geothermal is recalled by fission tracks in apatite. The result is that the high pour point oil is primary mature petrolem, and the oil came from Paleocene (E4s) source rock of the west deep sag. The oil generation window was 75 ~ 125℃.%沉积盆地是一个巨大的低温热化学反应发生器.以辽河盆地大民屯凹陷曹台基岩潜山油藏为例,以其烃 源岩在埋藏、压实、热力等因素作用下,达到成熟、生烃的动力学思路和方法为指导,探讨了曹台潜山原油的成因、来源及烃源岩的生烃过程.回剥反演了烃源岩的沉积埋藏史,磷灰石裂变径迹恢复了古地温,得出该油藏的原油是未发生降解的成熟型原油,潜山烃来源于西侧深凹陷的沙四段(Es4)暗色泥岩.目前烃源岩还处于生烃高峰期,油藏尚处于油气充注阶段,由此解释了该油藏上部与下部原油物性不同的原因,同时预示出在油藏深部尚有勘探价值.

  7. Whole-rock Nd-Hf isotopic study of I-type and peraluminous granitic rocks from the Chinese Altai: constraints on the nature of basement and tectonic setting (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Sun, Min; Long, Xiaoping; Li, Pengfei; Zhao, Guochun; Kröner, Alfred; Broussolle, Arnaud; Yang, Jinhui


    Previously published whole-rock Nd isotopic data are often inconsistent with zircon Hf isotopic data for the early Paleozoic granitic rocks (380-478 Ma) in the Chinese Altai, which led to contradictory interpretations for their magma sources and tectonic setting. Nd and Hf isotopic analyses were conducted in this study on the same whole-rock samples of representative early to middle Paleozoic granitic rocks, and the data are used to reconcile the controversies and to discuss the complicated curst-mantle interaction in the accretionary orogenesis. Our samples include I-type granites (Hanasi batholith, Kurmutu pluton, Altay batholith and Kezgar pluton), strongly peraluminous granites (Hemu batholith, Kuwei batholith), and rhyolites (Jiadengyu). The I-type granites are metaluminous to weakly peraluminous and have ɛNd(t) and ɛHf(t) values ranging from -2.6 to 0.7 and from 4.0 to 13.0, respectively. The strongly peraluminous granites and rhyolites have similar ɛNd(t) and ɛHf(t) values ranging from -3.2 to 1.7 and from 2.1 to 15.7, respectively. All samples plot above the Terrestrial Array in a Nd-Hf isotopic diagram, indicating significant Nd-Hf isotopic decoupling in the magma sources. Our sample locations nearly cover the entire Chinese Altai, and their ages range from 445 Ma to 368 Ma, illustrating that the Nd-Hf isotopic decoupling prevailed in the region throughout the early and middle Paleozoic. All samples show flat HREE pattern and have Lu/Hf ratios similar to the average crust, suggesting that isotopic decoupling was not originated from an ancient basement with elevated Lu/Hf ratios. The high ɛHf(t) values and poor correlation between ɛHf(t) and ɛNd(t) values suggest that these rocks represent an early Paleozoic magmatic arc built on a late Neoproterozoic crustal block such as the Lake Zone in western Mongolia. The observed isotopic decoupling is similar to that for those modern island arcs, such as the Lesser Antilles and Sunda, where Nd selectively

  8. pre-Mesozoic evolution of the basement of the Catalan Coastal Ranges: implications from geochemical and Sm-Nd isotope data of the Palaeozoic succession of the Collserola Range (United States)

    Vilà, Miquel; Pin, Christian


    In the whole of the Western Europe and neighbouring areas numerous studies have addressed the provenance of pre-Mesozoic sedimentary rocks and the Palaeozoic geodynamic evolution using the Sm-Nd systematics. However, at present, there are still large areas of the Variscan mountain chain without systematic determinations of their whole - rock Sm-Nd isotope signatures. This is the case of the Palaeozoic blocks of the Catalan Coastal Ranges (NE Iberia). In the context of the Variscan belt many authors interpret the Palaeozoic basement of the Catalan Coastal Ranges as part of the southern foreland basin of the mountain belt. The pre-Mesozoic rocks in the Catalan Coastal Ranges exhibit important stratigraphical affinities with those outcropping in the Eastern Pyrenees, Montagne Noire, Sardinia and Iberian Range. Paleogeographic reconstructions predict that the Catalan Coastal Ranges were located in a transitional area between the northern branch of the Ibero-Armorican arc and the core of the arc. The Collserola Range, located in the metropolitan area of Barcelona, includes a representative Palaeozoic stratigraphic section, from Cambro-Ordovician to Carboniferous, of the central part of the Catalan Coastal Ranges. In this presentation we present an up-to-date review of the stratigraphy and structure of the Palaeozoic of the Collserola Range, and provide geochemical and Sm-Nd isotope data to constrain the Pre-Mesozoic crustal evolution of this sector of the Variscan belt. Geochemical compositions indicate that the Palaeozoic siliciclastic rocks of the Collserola Range were fed by a relative mature heterogeneous source of sediment, comprising from quartz-rich sediments to intermediate igneous rocks. The siliciclastic rocks of the Collserola Range show great geochemical affinity with the turbidites of passive margins. The Sm-Nd signature of the siliciclastic rocks is compatible with those of the Palaeozoic and Late Proterozoic fine grained siliciclastic rocks of the

  9. Screening and identification of neutralizated single-chain antibody of anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody%中和抗肾小球基底膜抗体的单链抗体的筛选与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖静; 刘章锁; 王沛; 黄留玉; 宋宏彬; 赵明辉


    Objective To screen a human single-chain variable fragments(scFv)against antiGBM antibody.Methods Using phage display technique,the phage antibody library was panned by antiglomerular basement membrane(GBM)antibody which was coated in a micro-titer plate,one clone was found to have high affinity to anti-GBM antibody.The DNA sequence of the positive clone was determined.Results Along with the increase of rounds anti-GBM antibody specific phage antibody was highly enriched and screening efficiency was increased 137 folds than the firest round.ELISA and competition inhibition assay showed that the scFv had a specific combination character with anti-GBM antibody.DNA sequencing confirmed that the whole gene of scFv was 750 bp,and in accordance with humanized single-chain variable region antibody sequence structure.Conclusion The results suggested that the scFv fragment to anti-GBM antibody could be successfully selected by recombinant phage antibody technique,which will laid an experimental foundation for further research of the therapy of Goodpasture syndrome.%目的 制备人抗肾小球基底膜(GBM)抗体的特异性人源化单链可变区抗体.方法 采用噬菌体表面展示技术,获得一个与人抗GBM抗体结合活性较强的单链可变区抗体片段的阳性克隆,并对该克隆进行DNA序列测定分析.结果 对噬菌体单链可变区抗体库经过3轮筛选后,与第1轮相比富集了137倍.噬菌体抗体与人抗GBM抗体的结合活性其中有35株克隆ELISA的吸光度较高.对这些噬菌体抗体进行交叉反应后,确定其中有10株交叉反应较弱.确定1株(C31)阳性克隆提取质粒,进行DNA序列测定,大小为750 bp,并符合人源化单链可变区抗体的序列结构.结论 应用噬菌体展示技术成功获得人-抗GBM抗体的单链可变区抗体基因,为临床上治疗Goodpasture综合征奠定实验基础.

  10. Characteristics of dynamic and accumulative damage of soft rock-mass for the basement of high speed railway’s tunnel%高速铁路隧道基底软岩动力累积损伤特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王祥秋; 蔡斌; Jiang Ruinian


    The similar materials is used to simulate the soft rock-mass on the basement of tunnel in the high speed railway.Based on the method of loading control and the cyclic loadings of non-symmetrical sine wave,the dynamic fatigue test of three axial and the damage detection test are carried on for soft rock-mass specimens.With analysis of the results of tests,the polynomial model with three parameters to calculate the fatigue life and the polynomial model with four parameters to calculate the cumulative damage are established for soft rock-masses.And then,some characteristics of fatigue damage has been obtained about the soft rock-mass,such as the fatigue failure of soft rock-mass mainly shows two composite modes those are the tension-shear on the end and the compression-shear on the central of specimen.The whole process of fatigue damage is shown three stages those are the compaction of initial micro-pore,the occurrence and stable propagation of new cracks,and the accelerating development of crack damage.The fatigue life of soft rock-mass mainly depends on itself strength and the level of dynamic stress.The higher strength of itself and the lower level of dynamic stress,the longer fatigue life of rock-mass will be.If the level of dynamic stress has not been changed,the fatigue life of soft rock-mass will be increased linearly with its elastic model.%利用相似材料模拟高速铁路隧道基底软岩,采用荷载控制和非对称正弦波循环加载方式对软岩试件进行动三轴疲劳与损伤检测综合试验。通过试验结果分析,建立了软岩3参数多项式疲劳寿命计算模型和4参数多项式累积损伤参量计算模型,获得了软岩疲劳损伤特性,即:软岩疲劳破坏表现为端部拉-剪复合破坏和中部压-剪复合破坏两种模式;疲劳破坏全过程表现为初始微孔隙压密、裂纹发生与稳定扩展以及损伤裂纹加速发展3个发展阶段;软岩疲劳寿命主要取决于本身强度和

  11. 北苏鲁超高压变质带前寒武纪基底研究新进展%Main Progresses in the Study of Precambrian Basement of the North Sulu Ultra-high Pressure Metamorphic Belt, Eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐扬; 杨坤光; 李日辉; 侯方辉; 秦亚超


    The north Sulu ultra-high pressure (UHP) metamorphic belt which is located at the eastern Muping-Jimo fault in eastern Shandong Peninsula is mainly characterized by Neoproterozoic bimodal igneous rocks. And its assemblages include a large number of granitic gneiss and a small amount of ultra basic/basic metamorphic rocks and metasedimentary rocks. The previous research of geochemical, zircon U-Pb, Lu-Hf isotope data revealed the geologic succession of the north Sulu UHP terrane. The Neoarchean-Paleoproterozoic ancient crust was remained and its initial crust evolution might start from Neoarchean or even earlier, then it undergone a series of magma-volcano-metamorphic events during 1.8-2.2 Ga. The bimodal magmatism, which caused by the rifting of the Rodinia Supercontinent at mid-Neoproterozoic (0. 7 -0. 8 Ga) reworked the ancient and juvenile crust. As the same to the Sulu-Dabie orogen terrane, some characteristics of the Precambrian basement of the north Sulu UHP terrane are corresponding to Yangtze Block, and its northwestern boundary to the North China Block may be located along the Wulian-Yantai fault.%北苏鲁超高压变质带位于胶东牟平—即墨断裂以东的地区,其前寒武纪基底以出露新元古代的双峰式火成岩为主要特征,其主要岩石组合包括大量花岗片麻岩以及少量变(超)基性岩(榴辉岩)、变沉积岩.对花岗片麻岩、变质(超)基性岩的岩石组合、地球化学、锆石U-Pb和Lu-Hf同位素的研究表明,北苏鲁存在新太古代—古元古代的残留地壳,经历了1.8~2.2 Ga期间的岩浆-火山-变质事件;新元古代中期(0.72 ~0.80 Ga)与Rodinia超大陆的裂解相关的岩浆活动促使地壳的生长和再造,形成了北苏鲁的前寒武纪基底的主体;北苏鲁和苏鲁—大别造山带一样,其前寒武纪基底是扬子板块北缘的一部分,苏鲁造山带的西北边界是五莲—烟台断裂带.

  12. Age and provenance of basement metasediments from the Kubor and Bena Bena Blocks, central Highlands, Papua New Guinea: constraints on the tectonic evolution of the northern Australian cratonic margin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detrital zircon from two basement blocks (Kubor and Bena Bena) in the central Highlands of Papua New Guinea has an age signature that strongly suggests a northern Australian provenance. Samples of the Omung Metamorphics, southeastern Kubor Block, together yield principal zircon populations with ages of ca 1.8 Ga (∼10 of the total), ca 1.55 Ga (∼10), 470-440 Ma (∼15), ca 340 Ma (∼ 10) and 290-260 Ma (∼40). Two tonalite stocks of the Kubor Intrusive Complex, which intrude the Omung Metamorphics, yield indistinguishable ages of 244.8 ± 4.9 Ma and 239.1 ± 4.2 Ma. Therefore, the deposition and subsequent deformation of the Omung Metamorphics is Late Permian to Early Triassic. A sample of Goroka Formation (Bena Bena Block) contains detrital zircon of similar ages to the Omung Metamorphics, ca 1.8 Ga (5), ca 1.55 Ga (∼45), ca 430 Ma (∼5) and ca 310 Ma (∼40), suggesting that the Goroka Formation has a similar provenance and might be correlative. In contrast, a metapsammite from the Bena Bena Formation yielded only ages of 290-280 Ma (85) and ca 240 Ma (15). A tuff interbedded in the Bena Bena Formation yielded only igneous zircon with a Late Triassic age of 221 ± 3 Ma. Contrary to previous interpretations, the Bena Bena Formation is probably younger than the Goroka Formation. Ages of New Guinea detrital zircon closely match those of igneous and detrital zircon from the Coen Inlier, northeastern Queensland, but contrast with the ages of zircon from terranes further south, east and west. The Kubor and Bena Bena Blocks are not suspect terranes, but rather form part of the Australian craton. The craton margin, modified by rifting during the Mesozoic, was re-inverted during Cenozoic compression. The Australian craton, in the eastern Highlands of Papua New Guinea, extends at least as far north as the Markham Valley, the northern edge of the Bena Bena terrane. All analyses were made on the SHRIMP II sensitive high resolution ion microprobe at the Australian

  13. Exploration of underground basement structures in Kanto plain using the spatial autocorrelation method. 1. S-wave velocity structure along the line from Hatoyama, Saitama to Noda, Chiba; Kukan jiko sokanho ni yoru Kanto heiya no kiban kozo tansa. 1. Saitamaken Hatoyama machi - Chibaken Nodashi kan no S ha sokudo kozo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuoka, T.; Umezawa, N.; Shiraishi, H. [Saitama Institute of Environmental Pollution, Saitama (Japan)


    The Saitama prefectural government has been conducting basement structure exploration using the spatial autocorrelation method by dividing the entire plain area into meshes, for the purpose of improving the accuracy of estimating large-scale seismic damages. This paper reports the result of explorations on meshes in the east-west direction in the central part of Saitama Prefecture. The present exploration was intended on ten meshes in the east-west direction along the north latitude 36-degree line. The number of exploration points is 13 comprising three points on the hilly area bordering on the eastern edge of the Kanto mountainous area and ten points on the plain area. The arrangement constitutes a traverse line with a total distance of about 33 km from the west edge (Hatoyama-machi in Saitama Prefecture) to the east edge (Noda City in Chiba Prefecture). The phase velocities were estimated from the result of the array microtremor observations using the spatial autocorrelation method applied with the FET. The phase velocities were used to estimate underground structures by using an inverse analysis. As a result, detailed two-dimensional S-wave velocity structures were revealed on the traverse line. The velocity cross section expresses change in the basement structures with sufficient resolution, and at the same time the information is judged highly harmonious with existing deep boring data and the result of artificial earthquake exploration. 15 refs., 6 figs.

  14. Relationship between the changes in ischemia/reperfusion cerebro-microvessel basement membrane injury and gelatinase system in senile rat%老龄大鼠脑缺血/再灌注致脑微血管基底膜损伤的变化及与明胶酶系的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建生; 刘轲; 刘敬霞; 王明航; 赵跃武; 刘正国


    Objective To study the relationship of cerebro-microvessel basement membrane injury and gelatinase system after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion(I/R)in aged rats.Methods Cerebral I/R injury model was reproduced by intraluminal silk ligature thrombosis of the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO).Rats were divided randomly into sham control and I/R groups in young rats Cischemia 3 hours (13 h)and reperfusion 6 hours(I/R 6 h),12 hours(1/R 12 h),24 hours(I/R 24 h),3 days(1/R 3 d),6 days(I/R 6 d)],and sham control group and I/R group in aged rats(1 3 h and I/R 6 h,I/R 12 h,I/R 24 h,1/R 3 d,1/R 6 d).The change in cerebro-cortex microvessel basement membrane structure,basement membrane type Ⅳ collagen(Col Ⅳ)and laminin(LN)contents,matrix metalloproteinases(MMPs)and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases(TIMPs)expression in every group were determined with immunohis tochemical method and zymogram analysis.Results With the inerease in age,Col Ⅳ and LN contents of the microvessel basement membrane were increased,and MMP-2 and MMP-9 expressions were stronger.With prolongation of I/R.the degradation of microvessel basement membrane components(Col Ⅳ and LN)was positively correlated with the duration of cerebral I/R.MMP-2 expression was increased gradually,and MMP-9 and TIMP-1 expression increased at the beginning and decreased subsequently.Col Ⅳ(I 3 h,I/R 6 h,I/R 12 h),LN(1 3 h,I/R 6-24 h),MMP-2(I 3 h,1/R 6 h-6 d)and MMP-9(1 3 h,I/R 6-24 h)expression level in aged rats with I/R injury were higher,and TIMP-1(I/R 24 h)expression was lower than those in young rats(P<0.05 or P<0.01).In addition,changes in MMP-2 and MMP-9 contents as determined by zymogram analysis method coincided with their immunoexpression.Conclusion With the increase of age,alteration in membrane components of eerebro-microvessel basement membrane in rats is related with MMPs and TlMP.Cerebro-mierovesseI basement membrane injury is more serious in aged rats than that of young rats.Changes in

  15. 松辽盆地基底石炭-二叠系热演化史%Restoration of thermal history of the Permo-Carboniferous basement in the Songliao Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任战利; 萧德铭; 迟元林; 任延广; 梁宇


    松辽盆地北部石炭-二叠系镜质体反射率值普遍较高,普遍大干3.0%,不同构造单元石炭-二叠系镜质体反射率值差异较大.松辽盆地深层石炭-二叠系基底镜质体反射率-深度关系曲线分为两种类型,表明松辽盆地深层石炭-二叠系基底有不同的热演化过程.一种是两段型,镜质体反射率-深度曲线在石炭-二叠系顶部不整合面上、下镜质体反射率值发生突变,不整合面之下石炭-二叠系镜质体反射率值及古地温明显高于上覆地层,表明石炭-二叠系最大古地温是在早白垩世登娄库组沉积之前达到的,白垩纪以来沉积地层厚度对石炭-二叠系古地温提高及热演化程度没有影响.另一种为似线型,石炭-二叠系顶部不整合面上、下镜质体反射率值及古地温连续变化,表明石炭-二叠系最大古地温是在晚白垩世—渐新世之前达到的,白垩纪以来沉积的地层厚度对石炭-二叠系古地温及热演化程度的提高有贡献.在综合分析有机质镜质体反射率、包裹体测温、裂变径迹年龄等多种参数的基础上,对松辽盆地基底石炭-二叠系热演化史进行了恢复,并分析了热演化史与油气生成的关系.%Vitrinite reflectance of the Permo-Carboniferous in the north of Songliao Basin is generally high, usually more than 3. 0%,and varies greatly in different tectonic units. The curve of vitrinite reflectance (RO) -depth (H) of the Permo-Carboniferous basement in Songliao Basin has two types, which means that they have different thermal history. One is a two-section type. Vitrinite reflectance values change abruptly across the unconformity on top of the Permo-Carboniferous. The Ro values and paleotemperature of the Permo-Carboniferous strata under the unconformity are obviously higher than that of the overlying strata, indicating that the maximum paleotemperature of Permo-Carboniferous strata had been reached before the deposition of the


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡霭琴; 张国新; 陈义兵; 张前锋


    在同位素年代学和地球化学研究的基础上,概括了1982~2000年间的同位素年代学和地球化学研究成果,特别是1987~2000年"305"项目的研究成果。展现了近年来对新疆大陆前寒武纪基底同位素年代学研究的新成果:塔里木北缘灰色片麻岩锆石U-Pb年龄为2600Ma,西昆仑基底石榴黑云母片麻岩中的锆石U-Pb一致年龄则为(2048±20)Ma,阿尔金灰色片麻岩锆石U-Pb上交点年龄为(1820±277)Ma,测定了东天山星星峡群片麻岩的锆石U-Pb上交点年龄为(1404±18)Ma,与1986年的结果一致(1400±42)Ma,获得西天山温泉群、那拉提群和木扎尔特群混合岩化片麻岩中锆石U-Pb年龄分别为(821±11)~(798±8)Ma,(882±83)Ma和(707±7)Ma;基于Sm-Nd模式年龄统计结果,将新疆大陆基底分为5个区域,即:塔里木大陆太古宙-古元古代(3.2~2.2)Ga基底区,昆仑-阿尔金造山带古元古代基底区(2.0~1.8)Ga,天山古中元古代基底区(2.1~1.7)Ga,准噶尔为年轻地壳基底区(1.4~0.7)Ga和阿尔泰古元古代、中新元古代复合基底区(≤2.6~2.4Ga,1.5~0.9Ga);基于多年研究的积累,并综合了国内外一些可以应用的同位素年代学研究结果,提出以塔里木太古宙大陆地核向南、北逐步增生的新疆大陆地壳基底演化模式;确定了新疆大陆地壳构造演化中15次主要地质事件的时限为(3000~3200)Ma;2800Ma;2600~2500Ma;2200Ma;2000~1700Ma;1400Ma;1000Ma;;800Ma;700~>500Ma;520~480Ma;450Ma;360~300Ma;300~250Ma;210~135Ma;65~5Ma。这些同位素年代学和Nd同位素示踪研究结果无疑将成为进一步探讨新疆大陆地壳构造演化的一些重要依据。%All results of radiometric isotopic dating, geochemical and Ndisotopic characterization for basement rocks and granitoids in the major tectonic terranes gained by the

  17. Structure sismique du socle paléozoïque du bassin des Doukkala, Môle côtier, Maroc occidental. Indication en faveur de l'existence d'une phase éo-varisqueSeismic structure of the Doukkala basin, Palaeozoic basement, western Morocco: a hint for an Eovariscan fold-and-thrust belt (United States)

    Echarfaoui, Hassan; Hafid, Mohamed; Salem, Abdallah Aı̈t


    Seismic profiles and well data from the Doukkala basin unravel the structure of the Palaeozoic basement and suggest that this coastal zone of western Morocco was affected by a compressive phase during the Frasnian. This resulted in the formation of upright, plurikilometric folds associated with reverse faults (North Doukkala), and of asymmetrical folds associated with mostly west verging ramps (South Doukkala). Folding involved all pre-Upper Frasnian formations and caused partial or total hiatus of Upper Frasnian-Strunian strata. This event can be correlated with the orogenic phase reported from more internal domains of the Morocco Hercynian belt, where it is referred to as the 'Bretonne' or 'Eovariscan' phase. To cite this article: H. Echarfaoui et al., C. R. Geoscience 334 (2002) 13-20

  18. Inversión y reactivación tectónicas cretácicocenozoicas en el Noroeste Argentino: influencia de las heterogeneidades del basamento neoproterozoico-paleozoico inferior Cretaceous-Cenozoic tectonic inversion and reactivation in Northwestern Argentina: Influence of Neoproterozoic-Lower Paleozoic basement heterogeneities

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    Fernando Hongn


    basement structural features have influenced in different ways the development of later both extensional Cretaceous and contractional Cenozoic structures. Tectonic inversion of normal faults related to the Cretaceous rift has been frequently addressed as the main mechanism for explaining double-vergent and retrovergent structures in the hinterland of the Andean orogen in northwestern Argentina. This paper proposes that basement structures played a primary role in the nucleation of both Cretaceous normal faults showing Cenozoic tectonic inversion and Cenozoic reverse faults. A regional section between the Domeyko Cordillera (Chile and the Santa Bárbara System (nearly at 24º-25ºSL shows portions with opposite Cenozoic vergence, each one related to different controls made by previous structures. The inversion of Mesozoic rift-related faults mainly influenced the geometry and vergence of the Cenozoic structures linked to Andean shortening in the Domeyko Cordillera, in the Calchaquí Valleys region and in the Santa Bárbara System. Reactivation of structures and heterogeneities formed during the Neoproterozoic-lower Paleozoic tectonic evolution of the basement controlled the Andean contractional structures in the Puna. Reactivation of Neoproterozoic-lower Paleozoic basement heterogeneities not only contributes to changes in attitude and vergence but also to the irregular time distribution showed by the Andean shortening since many of the reactivated or inverted (positive and negative inversion structures record superposed movements from the Cretaceous up to the Quaternary.

  19. 鄂东南地区存在古元古代-太古宙基底--来自铜鼓山岩体锆石U-Pb-Hf同位素的证据%Paleoproterozoic-Archean Basement Beneath Southeast Hubei Province:Evidence from U-Pb-Hf Isotopes in Zircons from the Tonggushan Pluton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏金龙; 黄圭成; 丁丽雪; 吴昌雄; 祝敬明; 金尚刚


    This paper has reported the integrated study of zircon U-Pb age and Lu-Hf isotope composition in zircons from the Tonggushan pluton, southeast Hubei Province. Tonggushan pluton is composed of quartz diorite porphyry. The 206Pb/238U mean age of magmatic zircon is (147±2.6) Ma, indicating that Tonggushan pluton was formed in the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous, which is consistent with the formation time of other plutons in this area. A large number of inherited zircons, formed in 1798~2888 Ma, exist in Tonggushan pluton. The Paleoproterozoic zircons are of magmatic origin and have similar 176Hf/177Hf and 176Lu/177Hf ratios, suggesting that they were probably derived from the same igneous basement rock. The Paleoproterozoic zircons have low Hf-isotope compositions and characteristics of crustal source. Hf model ages of these zircons and the presence of older inherited cores within them suggest that the source of Paleoproterozoic magma was Neoarchaean crust, implying the existence of an unexposed old basement beneath southeast Hubei Province and the whole Yangtze block. These data supply new clue to the study of the Precambrian basement evolution of Yangtze block. The Paleoproterozoic-Archean basement of the Yangtze Block most likely spreads from the Sichuan Basin through western Huebei Province to southeastern Hubei Province.%对鄂东南地区位于毛铺-两剑桥断裂带上的铜鼓山岩体进行了野外地质及镜下显微研究及岩石化学分析,重点分析了其中锆石U-Pb年龄和Hf同位素组成。结果表明铜鼓山岩体为石英闪长玢岩,岩体形成于(147±2.6) Ma,属晚侏罗世-早白垩世,与鄂东南地区其它岩体年龄具有一致性。铜鼓山岩体中存在的大量继承锆石。分析的4个继承锆石形成于古元古代晚期1798~1888 Ma。继承锆石具有高的Th/U比值和极其相似的Lu-Hf同位素组成,表明它们捕获于同一火成岩。这表明鄂东南地区存在古元古代基底。这些古元古代

  20. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating of zircon from basement igneous rocks in Yitong Basin and its significance%伊通盆地基底火成岩的LA-ICP-MS锆石U-Pb定年及其地质意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹瑜; 陈振林; 苗洪波; 农军年


    In order to determine the formation period of Yitong basement accurately, six zircon samples are selected to carry out the study on LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating of zircon. Zircons from the basement igneous rock are euhedral in shape and show the typical oscillatory zoning with magmatic origin. The dating results indicate that the biotite-monzonitic granite at the depth of 2 484.2 m in C24 well in Chaluhe fault depression formed in (176.8±1.7)Ma, the crack lithification perthitr monzonite at the depth of 3 153.0 m in C17 well formed in (171.8±3.2)Ma, the basement igneous rocks in X5 and L2 wells in Luxiang fault depression respectively formed in (170.3±3.4)Ma and (169.1±4.5)Ma, and the basement igneous rocks in Y53 and Y3 wells in Moliqing fault depression respectively formed in(247.2±3.4)Ma and(186.6±2.5)Ma. In combination with other U-Pb dating, it is considered that the age of basement igneous rocks in Yitong Basin is mainly of 170~336 Ma, and the most formed in Yanshanian, and a little formed in Hercynian. The distribution of granite in each fault depression is different. The most of granites in Chaluhe and Luxiang fault depression formed in Yanshanian, while in Moliqing fault depression the granites formed in Hercynian, Indosinian and Yanshanian.%为了确定伊通盆地基底的形成时期,对伊通盆地6个基底火成岩样品进行了LA-ICP-MS锆石U-Pb定年研究。锆石的阴极发光(CL)图像显示,6个基底火成岩岩心的锆石自形程度较好,且具有典型的岩浆生长震荡环带。定年结果表明:岔路河断陷的C24井2484.2m处的黑云母二长花岗岩形成于(176.8±1.7)Ma,C17井3153.0m处的碎裂岩化条纹长石二长岩形成于(171.8±3.2)Ma;鹿乡断陷的X5井、L2井以及莫里青断陷的Y3井和Y53井基底火成岩分别形成于(170.3±3.4)Ma,(169.1±4.5)Ma,(247.2±3.4)Ma和(186.6±2.5)Ma。伊通盆地基底火成岩其他锆石定年结果表明,伊通盆

  1. 鄂尔多斯盆地变质基底中碎屑锆石的 LA-ICP-MS U-Pb 年龄及其构造意义%LA-ICP-MS U-Pb Dating of Detrital Zircons of the Ordos Basin Metamorphic Basement and Its Tectonic Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴素娟; 张永生; 邢恩袁


    根据鄂尔多斯盆地东北部钻孔的资料显示,鄂尔多斯盆地基底主要由一套变质沉积岩组成,对其中的二云母斜长片麻岩和矽线石片麻岩样品进行 LA-ICP-MS 锆石 U-Pb 年代学研究,两件样品单颗粒碎屑锆石共获得96个具有地质意义的年龄资料。二云母斜长片麻岩的部分锆石显示清晰的韵律环带,具有岩浆锆石的特征,其获得的207 Pb/206 Pb 年龄介于1898.2~2047.2Ma 之间,综合前人的研究数据,显示鄂尔多斯盆地基底东北部在古元古代2.0~2.1Ga 左右曾有岩浆活动。二云母斜长片麻岩的部分锆石和矽线石片麻岩的锆石具有变质锆石特征,获得的变质锆石年龄数据支持鄂尔多斯盆地东北部在古元古代发生过两期变质作用,早期的变质作用峰值年龄约为1.83Ga,代表着东部陆块和西部陆块碰撞拼合这期构造事件;晚期变质作用发生在约1.78Ga,可能记录了这一阶段的拉张抬升事件。%Basement rocks from drill cores at the northeastern margin of the Ordos Basin are mainly composed of meta-sedimentary rocks.LA-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon dating was conducted on two basement metamorphic rocks and yielded 96 valid data.A two-mica plagiogneiss yielded a restricted range of the magmatic zircon ages from 1898.2 Ma to 2047.2 Ma,which suggest the possible existences of a Paleoproterozoic intensive magmatic episode.A two-mica plagiogneiss and a sillimanite gneiss were overprited by two metamorphic events at ca.1.83Ga and ca.1.78Ga.The ages and characters of the zircons indicate that the basement of the northeastern Ordos Basin had undergone two metamorphic events at Late Paleoproterozoic.The ca. 1.83Ga metamorphic event indicates the northeastern Ordos Basin joined the final amalgamation of the NCC,while the ca.1.78Ga was probably a result of terrane uplift or regional extension.

  2. Refolding of thin-skinned thrust sheets by active basement-involved thrust faults in the Eastern Precordillera of western Argentina Replegamiento de láminas de corrimiento epidérmicas mediante fallas inversas de basamento activas en la Precordillera Oriental del oeste de Argentina

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    A. Meigs


    Full Text Available Devastating earthquakes like the 1944 San Juan earthquake reflect active deformation in western Argentina. Although the earthquake caused considerable damage to San Juan, the source of the earthquake remains uncertain. Potential source faults occur in the thin-skinned fold-and-thrust belt Precordillera province and in the thick-skinned Sierras Pampeanas province, to the west and east, respectively of Sierra de Villicum, a thrust sheet in the eastern Precordillera northwest of San Juan. Sierra de Villicum is a west-vergent thrust sheet bound on the northwest by the Villicum thrust, which juxtaposes a southeast dipping panel of Cambro-Ordovician and Neogene strata in the hanging wall with Neogene red beds in the footwall. A series of Late Pleistocene fluvial terraces developed across the Villicum thrust show no evidence of active fold or fault deformation. Terraces are deformed by active folds and faults in the middle of the southeastern flank of the Sierra de Villicum thrust sheet. A southeast-facing, southwest-plunging monocline characterizes the Neogene red beds in the region of active folding. Co- and post-seismic surface rupture along roughly 6 km of the La Laja fault in 1944 occurred in the limb of the monocline. Evidence that surface deformation in the 1944 earthquake was dominated by folding includes terrace´s fold geometry, which is consistent with kink-band models for fold growth, and bedding-fault relationships that indicate that the La Laja fault is a flexural slip fault. A blind basement reverse fault model for the earthquake source and for active deformation reconciles the zone of terrace deformation, coseismic surface rupture on the La Laja fault, refolding of the Villicum thrust sheet, a basement arch between the Precordillera and eastern Precordillera, and microseismicity that extends northwestward from a depth of ~5 km beneath Sierra de Villicum to ~35 km depth. Maximum horizontal shortening rate is estimated to be ~3.0 mmyr-1

  3. 宿马二期安置房地下室超长混凝土结构裂缝控制技术%Control Technology of Extra-long Concrete Structure Crack in Basement of Prefabricated Houses at the Second Stage of Suma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭登平; 石黎明; 陈芝标


    在现今的地下工程中,如何对混凝土结构裂缝进行有效控制成为了难题。文章以宿马二期安置房项目超长结构的处理措施为实例,在阐述了地下室超长混凝土结构的同时,又采用多重裂缝控制方法,以达到结构的安全性及经济性。%How to ef ectively control the concrete structure crack has become the difficult problem in today’s underground engineering. Based on super-long concrete structure crack in basement of prefabricated houses at the second stage of Suma, the paper expounds the extra-long concrete structures, at the same time uses multiple crack control methods, so that achi-eving the goal of safety and economy.

  4. Interpretación de la distribución de elementos de las tierras raras en el basamento alterado de la zona de San Manuel, provincia de Buenos Aires Interpretation of rare earth elements distribution in the altered basement of the San Manuel zone, Buenos Aires province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl R Fernández


    Full Text Available En las canteras de arcilla ubicadas en las proximidades de la localidad de San Manuel, provincia de Buenos Aires, puede observarse el basamento ígneo-metamórfico (Complejo Buenos Aires notablemente alterado hasta unos 16 m de profundidad por debajo de la cubierta sedimentaria neoproterozoica-cámbrica? (Grupo Sierras Bayas. Los estudios al microscopio y la difracción de rayos X permitieron definir una zonación mineralógica de la alteración, que de arriba hacia abajo comprende: zona de pirofilita-caolinita (desde el nivel de cuarcitas con el que se inicia la serie sedimentaria suprayacente hasta ~5 m, zona de pirofilita-illita (de ~5 m hasta ~ 10 m y zona de cuarzo-illita/sericita en los niveles más profundos. La distribución de los elementos de las tierras taras (ETR normalizados, en el basamento alterado mostraron dos patrones: el patrón 1 con aumento relativo de los elementos de tierras raras pesadas (ETRP respecto a las livianas (ETRL y anomalía positiva en Ce y Eu y el patrón 2, con incremento de las tierras raras livianas respecto a las pesadas y anomalía negativa en Ce. Estos dos patrones se atribuyen a distintos procesos que produjeron los cambios en las rocas del basamento: el patrón 2 a una alteración hidrotermal y el patrón 1 a una alteración meteórica superpuesta que en parte es coincidente con la presencia de caolinita.Near the San Manuel town, in the province of Buenos Aires, it could be observed that the igneous-metamorphic basement (Buenos Aires Complex is notably altered in the clay quarries which had been excavated up to 16 m depth under the Neoproterozoic- Cambrian? sedimentary cover (Sierras Bayas Group. Microscopic and X-ray diffraction studies were used to characterize the mineralogical composition of the altered basement, which shows a vertical zonation that includes: pyrophyllite-kaolinite (up to ~5 m, pyrophyllite-illite (up to ~ 10 m and in the deepest levels of the quarry quartz-illite/sericite zone. In

  5. U-Pb zircon geochronology of intrusive and basement rocks in the Jacurici Valley region, Sao Francisco Craton, BA, Brazil; Geocronologia U-Pb em zircao de rochas intrusivas e de embasamento na regiao do Vale do Jacurici, Craton do Sao Francisco, BA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, Carlos Jose Sobrinho da; Frantz, Jose Carlos; Marques, Juliana Charao; Roos, Siegbert; Peixoto, Vinicius Medina, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Laboratorio de Geologia Isotopica; Queiroz, Waldemir Jose Alves de, E-mail: [Companhia de Ferro Ligas da Bahia (FERBASA), Pojuca, BA (Brazil)


    The Jacurici Complex, located in the NE of the Sao Francisco Craton, is constituted by several Cr-mineralized mafic-ultramafic N-S bodies, possible fragments of a single sill disrupted during deformation. Some works suggest it is intruded on the Serrinha Block while others consider it in the Salvador-Curaca Belt. The basement on this region is informally divided into paragneisses and orthogneisses; the latter is supposed to be younger considering it is less deformed. Petrography revealed that some of the paragneisses are alkali-feldspar granite strongly milonitized. The orthogneisses occur at the north and consist, at least in part, of monzogranites with heterogeneous deformation, locally of low temperature. U-Pb zircon dating were performed for five representative samples. Just three provided good concordia ages. A mafic rock produced a 2102 ± 5 Ma age and it is petrographically similar to the metanorites described in the Jacurici Complex, being interpreted as the record of the first pulses of the mafic magmatism. A monzogranite yielded a 2995 ± 15 Ma age, older than expected, related to the Serrinha Block. The alkali-feldspar granite yielded a 2081 ± 3 Ma age. The Itiuba Syenite and the pegmatites that crosscut the Jacurici Complex have similar ages. Considering the lack of information about the supracrustal sequence that hosts the intrusive alkaline and mafic-ultramafic rocks at the Ipueira and the Medrado areas, it is possible that part of the terrain belongs to the Salvador-Curaca Belt. We suggest that the Jacurici Complex could be intruded after the tectonic amalgamation between the Serrinha Block and the older part of the Salvador-Curaca Belt and, therefore, could be hosted by both terrains. (author)

  6. Zircon geochronology of Xingxingxia quartz dioritic gneisses:Implications for the tectonic evolution and Precambrian basement affinity of Chinese Tianshan orogenic belt%星星峡石英闪长质片麻岩的锆石年代学:对天山造山带构造演化及基底归属的意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺振宇; 张泽明; 宗克清; 王伟; 于飞


    天山造山带是中亚造山带(CAOB)的主要组成部分,对于其前寒武纪古老基底的起源、古生代构造单元划分和造山作用过程的认识还存在很大分歧.本文对分布在星星峡镇西的石英闪长质片麻岩开展了系统地岩相学观察和锆石U-Pb年龄、Hf同位素及全岩地球化学分析.根据矿物组成推测它们的原岩为石英闪长岩,两个样品中的锆石具有基本一致的内部结构特征,均发育黑色、均一的边部和具震荡环带的核部,部分保留有更早的继承锆石核.分析结果表明,它们的原岩形成于- 425 Ma,变质作用年龄为约320 ~ 360Ma,继承锆石的年龄为1381~ 1743Ma.原岩结晶锆石具有正的且变化较大的εHf (t)值(0.9~17.8),继承锆石的tDM2模式年龄变化于1.54~2.44Ga.在全岩地球化学组成上,石英闪长质片麻岩具有明显富集Rb、Ba、Th、K等大离子亲石元素和Pb、U元素,亏损Nb、Ta、Ti等高场强元素的特点.结合区域上已有的前寒武纪基底、高级变质岩、蛇绿混杂岩、岩浆岩的研究资料,获得以下认识:中天山地块的前寒武纪基底的起源与塔里木板块没有明显的相关性,可能是中元古代时期,由东欧板决边缘的弧增生造山作用形成;中天山地块东部在早古生代为大陆边缘弧的构造环境,可能形成于南天山洋向中天山板块的俯冲作用;南天山洋在天山造山带的东部和西部可能具有一致的闭合时间.%The Tianshan orogen is the major component of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). There has been a continued debate on the derivation of the old Precambrian crustal basements and Paleozoic tectonic divisions and evolutions of the orogen. In this paper we present pejjological characteristics, zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotope compositions as well as the whole rock geochemistry of the quartz dioritic gneisses from west of the Xingxingxia Town. Based on the mineral assemblies, their

  7. Optically Highlighting Basement Membrane Components in C. elegans




    Authors: Elliott Hagedorn & David Sherwood ### Abstract Green fluorescent protein (GFP) and other genetically encoded fluorescent proteins provide a means to study gene expression pattern and protein localization in living tissues. Recently discovered GFP-like fluorophores and engineered variants have further expanded the fluorescent protein toolkit for in vivo imaging. Here we describe a technique using transgenic C. elegans that contain laminin or type IV collagen fused to the g...

  8. Attachment of cells to basement membrane collagen type IV



    Of ten different cell lines examined, three showed distinct attachment and spreading on collagen IV substrates, and neither attachment nor spreading was enhanced by adding soluble laminin or fibronectin. This reaction was not inhibited by cycloheximide or antibodies to laminin, indicating a direct attachment to collagen IV without the need of mediator proteins. Cell-binding sites were localized to the major triple-helical domain of collagen IV and required an intact triple helical conformatio...

  9. Mouse endometrial stromal cells produce basement-membrane components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, U M; Damjanov, A; Weiss, J;


    During mouse pregnancy, uterine stromal cells transform into morphologically distinct decidual cells under the influence of the implanting embryo and a proper hormonal environment. Mechanical stimulation of hormonally primed uterine stromal cells leads to the same morphologic alterations. The dec...

  10. Subpublications from a Basement in Snaregade 6, Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kromann, Thomas Hvid


    Arena Sub-Pub, an initiative organized by the Arena publishing house, made printing devices available to (theoretically) everyone. This idea of autonomy, this do-it-yourself-philosophy, this institutional critique as well as the creation of autonomous spaces, grew directly out of the ideas of dem...

  11. Tectonics of Precambrian basement of the Tarim craton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO; Zhaojie; (


    [1]Jia Chengzao, Tectonic Characteristics and Petroleum, Tarim Basin, China (in Chinese), Beijing: Petroleum Industry Press, 1997, 29?/FONT>92.[2]Huang, T. K., Ren, J. S., Jiang, C. F. et al., The Geologic Evolution of China (in Chinese), Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1980.[3]Che, Z. C., Liu, L., Liu, H. F. et al., Discovery and occurrence of high-pressure meta-pelitic rocks from Altun Mountain areas, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Chinese Science Bulletin, 1995, 40(23): 1988.[4]An Yin, Nie Shangyou, A phanerozoic palinspastic reconstruction of China and its neighboring regions, in The Tectonic Evolution of Asia (eds. An Yin, Harrison, T. M.), London: Cambridge University Press, 1996, 442-485.[5]Sobel, E. R., Arnaud, N., A possible middle Paleozoic suture in the Altyn Tagh, NW China, Tectonics, 1999, 18(1): 67.[6]Xu, Z. Q., Yang, J. S., Zhang, J. X. et al., A comparison between the tectonic units on the two sides of the Altun sinistral strike-slip fault and the mechanism of lithospheric shearing, Acta Geologica Sinica (in Chinese with English abstract), 1999, 73(3): 193.[7]Guo, Z., J., Zhang, Z. C., Wang, J. J., Sm-Nd isochron age of ophiolite along northern margin of Altun Tagh Mountain and its significance, Chinese Science Bulletin, 1999, 44(5): 456.[8]Liu, L., Che, Z. C., Wang, Y. et al., The evidence of Sm-Nd isochron age for the early Paleozoic ophiolite in Mangya area, Altun Mountains, Chinese Science Bulletin, 1998, 43(15): 754.[9]Xinjiang Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources, Regional Geology of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (in Chinese with English abstract), Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1993, 555-557.[10]Gansu Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources, Regional Geology of Gansu Province (in Chinese with English abstract), Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1989.[11]Hu, A. Q., Rogers, G., Discovery of 3.3 Ga Archean rocks in North Tarim Block of Xinjiang, Western China, Chinese Science Bulletin, 1992, 37(18): 1546.[12]He, G. Q., Li, M. S., Liu, D. Q. et al., Paleozoic Crustal Evolution and Mineralization in Xinjiang of China (in Chinese), Urumqi: Xinjiang People’s Publishing House, 1994.[13]Qinghai Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources, Regional Geology of Qinghai Province (in Chinese with English abstract), Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1991.[14]Mao, J. W., Zhang, Z. C., Yang, J. M. et al., Single-zircon dating of Precambrian strata in the west sector of the northern Qilian Mountains and its geological significance, Chinese Science Bulletin, 1998, 43(15): 1289.

  12. Basement membrane-specific chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan is abnormally associated with the glomerular capillary basement membrane of diabetic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, K J; Abrahamson, D R; Bynum, K R;


    of the pericapillary GBM affects the morphology of the capillary endothelial cells within these areas, directly displacing the cell body from the GBM proper and causing loss of fenestrae. These new data on BM-CSPG distribution reflect abnormal glomerular extracellular matrix protein biosynthesis/turnover in diabetes...

  13. Les structures de la couverture Néoprotérozoïque terminal et Paléozoïque de la région de Tata, Anti-Atlas centre-occidental, Maroc: déformation polyphasée, ou interactions socle/couverture pendant l'orogenèse hercynienne?The structures of the Late Neoproterozoic and Early Palæozoic cover of the Tata area, western Anti-Atlas, Morocco: polyphased deformation or basement/cover interactions during the Variscan orogeny? (United States)

    Faik, F.; Belfoul, M. A.; Bouabdelli, M.; Hassenforder, B.


    The western Anti-Atlas was formed by a Precambrian basement in the core of anticlines, surrounded by a Neoproterozoic and Palæozoic cover. The structural study of the Tata regional rocks shows a heterogeneous deformation, characterised especially by two types of folds in two orthogonal directions: north-south to north-northeast-south-southwest-trending and east-west-trending. The north-south structures are present in all of the Palæozoic cover and belong to the major Variscan compression of Late Carboniferous age by a comparison of the other domains of the western Anti-Atlas. Alternatively, east-west folding is assigned only to the lower part of the cover and consists of a ductile heterogeneous deformation, especially marked at the basement-cover interface. These folds are associated with a subhorizontal cleavage, indicating a southern vergence of the structures. A discussion of the age and the tectonic style of these structures is proposed, as well as their significance within the Variscan belt along the northern margin of the West African Craton.

  14. SHRIMP U-Pb zircon dates from igneous rocks from the Fontana Lake region, Patagonia: Implications for the age of magmatism, Mesozoic geological evolution and age of basement Datación de circón por U-Pb SHRIMP en rocas ígneas de la región del lago Fontana, Patagonia: Implicancia para la edad del magmatismo, la evolución geológica mesozoica y edad del basamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Rolando


    Full Text Available In the eastern margin of the Patagonian Andes and between 44° 30´S and 45° 30´S (Fontana Lake region, Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous volcanic and sedimentary rocks were intruded by granitic bodies during the Cretaceous. The reconstruction of the Jurassic-Cretaceous magmatic evolution in the Fontana Lake region and in the adjacent Patagonian Batholith was made possible by the consideration of the following characteristics: distribution in time and space of several intrusive bodies, retro-arc basin formation and volcanic intensity. U-Pb SHRIMP dating of zircon crystals from an ignimbrite, a dacitic porphyry and two granitoid rocks yielded dates of 148.7 ± 2.3, 144.5 ± 1.6, 117 ± 1.7 and 99.6 ± 2.8 Ma, respectively. The Cerro Bayo Ignimbrite (148.7 ± 2.3 Ma, Late Jurassic was included in the Lago La Plata Formation; this unit hosts an epithermal ore deposit. The Laguna Escondida dacitic porphyry (144.5 ± 1.6 Ma, Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary intruded metasedimentary rocks of the Lago La Plata Formation; this sub-volcanic body can chronologically be linked to the Patagonian Batholith. After the Jurassic volcanic events, a retro-arc basin formed in the eastern sector of the Patagonian Range at about 140-115 Ma (Late Berriasian-Barremian and magmatism ceased during this event. The dating of granitoids (117 ± 1.7 and 99.6 ± 2.8 Ma in the Fontana Lake region confirms a temporal magmatic continuity with the Patagonian Batholith. These dates also are in agreement with the volcanic rocks of the Divisadero Group and epithermal deposits in the region (La Ferrocarrilera deposit. One of the analyzed granitoids (Dedo Chico, 99.6 ± 2.8 Ma has inherited zircon crystals of about 2,100 and 3,410 Ma, in agreement with other previous isotopic evidence for the occurrence of an underlying Precambrian basement in the region.En la margen oriental de la cordillera Patagónica, entre los 44° 30´ L.S. y 45° 30´ L.S. (región del lago Fontana, rocas volc

  15. Quality harvesting in the basement cut of sugarcane soil management systems

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    Gustavo Naves dos Reis


    Full Text Available The mechanized harvesting of sugarcane has relevance across the crop production process and can be influence the cutting quality base for soil management systems. This study aimed to assess the damage caused to the mechanical harvesting of ratoon sugarcane raw relative wear of the base shear knives and soil management. The experimental design was completely randomized, factorial divided into two schemes which are: 2 different soil tillage (moldboard plow + average grade and heavy harrow + average grade x 4 times of use of knives (0-2, 2-4 , 4-6 , 2-6(1 and 10 repetitions , and 2 soil tillage (moldboard plow + harrow heavy, and heavy harrow + average grade x 2 cutting discs (left and right x 20 repetitions, forming meshes regularly spaced 27 x 23 m, amounting to 100 repeats, or 50 replicates for each treatment in order to standardize the location of the samples taken. The variables evaluated were the mass loss of the knives of the base shear mechanism and the degree of damage to brass knuckles. The quality of mechanized harvesting of cane sugar is influenced by the soil management systems. Soil management with heavy grade + average grade has the highest quality of the harvesting operation in relation to the degree of damage to brass knuckles.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    To identify in tissue sections the relative positions of antigen distributions close to the resolving power of the microscope, we have developed the fluorescence overlay antigen mapping (FOAM) procedure. As this technique makes high demands on the geometric fidelity of the overlay image, it is essen

  17. Triassic beds in the basement of the Adriatic-Dinaric carbonate platform of Mt. Svilaja (Croatia

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    Vladimir Jelaska


    Full Text Available On the southwestern slope of Mt. Svilaja a Triassic sequence is exposed. It is composed of Lower Triassic carbonate siliciclastic shelf beds that are unconformably overlain by Anisian breccia. The overlying pelagic Anisian and Ladinian strata with pyroclastic rockscan be interpreted as a result of rift tectonics of Adria micro-plate. A 500 m thick sequence is capped by an emersion surface by karstification and terrigenous sediments including conglomerate as a result of Late Triassic transgression and marking the lower boundaryof a new, Late Mesozoic, megasequence of the External Dinarides.By means of conodont study, in the lowermost part of the studied Mesozoic sequence, a Lower Triassic shallow-water conodont fauna yielding Pachycladina obliqua apparatus was recorded. Pelagic limestone beds overlying the »Otarnik breccia« are marked byconodont elements of the Anisian constricta Zone. The Ladinian interval is characterized (from bottom to top: trammeri A. Z., hungaricus A. Z. and mungoensis A. Z. The uppermost part of the section below the emersion surface is identified by Pseudofurnishiusmurchianus, indicating the Upper Ladinian-Lower Carnian murchianus Zone.

  18. A tectonic window into the crystalline basement of Prins Karls Forland, Svalbard (United States)

    Faehnrich, Karol; Manecki, Maciej; Schneider, David; Czerny, Jerzy; Myhre, Per Inge; Majka, Jarosław; Kośmińska, Karolina; Barnes, Chris; Maraszewska, Maria


    Prins Karls Forland, Svalbard, comprises a fold-thrust belt as a result of the Eocene Eurekan orogeny. The northern part of the island (north of Selvågen) is dominated by Neoproterozoic siliciclastic metasediments regionally metamorphosed to greenschist facies conditions, probably in association with one distinct stage of Caledonian tectonism. Contrasting with these low grade sequences are rocks of the Pinkie Unit, which are locally exposed along east coast of Prins Karls Forland. Amphibolite facies metasediments show evidence for at least two distinct deformation stages (including mylonitization). All the borders of the Pinkie unit are tectonic: to the east, it is a sharp boundary with the truncation of the Pinkie foliation into a N-S fault, parallel to the coast, probably associated with the formation of the Neogene Forlandsundet Graben. A ~1 km wide ductile to brittle shear zone (the Bouréefjellet shear zone) separates the low and high grade sequences along the western margin, with the Grampian Formation (low metamorphic grade quartzites, conglomerates, siltstones and slates) as the upper structural unit. Moreover, the shear zone contains outcrops of metagabbro associated with magnetite ore (Maraszewska et al. 2016, EGU). The apparent tectonostratigraphy of the Pinkie unit consists of laminated fine-grained calc-silicate rocks, locally with scapolite, and a strong E-W lineation at lower structural levels. In these rocks primary layering is apparent (S0) and parallel to metamorphic foliation plane (S1). Interconnected elongated mica crystals within S1 are deformed by C'-type shear zones. They are overlain by garnet-bearing quartzite-mylonites and garnet-bearing mylonitic mica schists with N-S to NW-SE lineations at upper structural levels. Kośmińska et al. (2015a, Mineralogia - Special Papers, vol. 44, 61-62) determined P-T metamorphic conditions of garnet-mica schist of 7-9 kbar and 550-650°C. The dominant population of metamorphic monazite present in garnet-bearing schist yields total-Pb dates of 370-355 Ma (Kośmińska et al. 2015b, Mineralogia - Special Papers, vol. 44, 60). Quartz recrystallization associated with mylonitisation is evident, showing subgrain rotation and bulging of grains, indicated by lobate grain boundaries. Garnets, plagioclases and amphiboles form porphyroclasts within foliation planes. Garnets forms pre- or syntectonic subhedral crystals, with S-trails quartz inclusions oblique to the foliation plane. Pretectonic porpyroclasts of feldspar are slightly fractured, but otherwise not ductilely deformed. Mica-fish structures and syntectonic snowball muscovite were also noted. Thus, four stages of deformation can be distinguished in this region: D1 associated with formation of metamorphic foliation S1; D2 associated with mylonitization; D3 associated with the shear zone; D4 brittle deformations (faults, fractures and domino structures) These new findings on shearing and sequence of deformation phases shed new light on tectonic evolution of Prins Karls Forland, and therefore enables better understanding of its complex history. This work is partially funded by AGH research grant no and the NCN research project No 2013/11/N/ST10/00357.

  19. Geophysical studies for the evaluation of offshore placer deposits and basement configuration

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramana, M.V.; Rao, T.K.S.P.; Srinivas, K.

    The marine geophysical studies carried out on the inner continental shelf of the central west coast of India suggested the offshore extension of onshore placer deposits upto 12 m water depths, and beyond these depths sands are overlainEd. by recent...

  20. Fracture Determination Using Azimuthal Schlumberger and Offsetwenner Array in Basement Complex of Northwestern Nigeria

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    A.A. Masanawa


    Full Text Available Two surface azimuthal resistivity sounding measurements employing the Schlumberger and offset Wenner arrays were conducted at the Kaduna Polytechnic main campus, Northwestern Nigeria. The objectives were to compare the two electrode arrays in detecting and delineation of fracture systems as an aid in identifying suitable areas for groundwater exploration, siting sewage and waste disposal sites. Resistivities as functions of azimuths are presented as polygons of anisotropy and the computed coefficient of anisotropy (λ for the array varies between 1.12 to 1.29, 1.08 to 2.00 for the Schlumberger and offset Wenner arrays, respectively. These λ values are indicative of homogeneously anisotropic ground. However, analysis of the offset Wenner results was successfully used to differentiate between structures which have a 180° azimuthal symmetry (fracture anisotropy and those which have a 360° azimuthal symmetry (dipping layer and lateral change in resistivity. The results of the survey show that the Offset Wenner array is the best field azimuthal resistivity sounding technique to determine sources of electrical anisotropy.

  1. Magnetic studies of basement off the coast of Bombay, West of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, D.G.

    closely spaced profiles in 20-100 m of water totalling - 2400 line km were collected on the continental shelf off Bombay, west of India. Magnetic intensity anomaly maps were prepared. The anomalies show prominent trends in E-W, NNW-SSE and ENE... patches of the Bombay High and inner shelf where granites are interpreted; (2) the lateral extent of the two NNW-SSE-trending regional faults between longitudes 70 ‘50’E and 71°40’E; and (3) the outlines of the magnetic signatures associated...

  2. [Sociobiology and psychobiology: in the pantheon of science or in the basement of failures?]. (United States)

    Lattanzi, A


    The term sociobiology, coined by Wilson to describe the concept that human behaviour has a biological basis rooted in the genes, has aroused considerable controversy. The present report not only Wilson's hypothesis but takes it even further by putting forward the hypothesis that every human personality trait and resultant behavioural pattern is brought about by certain protein molecules, coded by the genes which activate special closed brain neuron circuits. The term "psychobiology" is suggested for this hypothesis, and "molecular personality code" for the whole complex of molecules mentioned above.

  3. Matrigel Basement Membrane Matrix influences expression of microRNAs in cancer cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Karina J. [Laboratory for Cancer Medicine, Western Australian Institute for Medical Research and University of Western Australia Centre for Medical Research, Perth, WA 6000 (Australia); School of Medicine and Pharmacology, University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA 6008 (Australia); Tsykin, Anna [Centre for Cancer Biology, SA Pathology, Adelaide, SA 5000 (Australia); School of Molecular and Biomedical Science, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Giles, Keith M. [Laboratory for Cancer Medicine, Western Australian Institute for Medical Research and University of Western Australia Centre for Medical Research, Perth, WA 6000 (Australia); Sladic, Rosemary T. [Centre for Cancer Biology, SA Pathology, Adelaide, SA 5000 (Australia); Epis, Michael R. [Laboratory for Cancer Medicine, Western Australian Institute for Medical Research and University of Western Australia Centre for Medical Research, Perth, WA 6000 (Australia); Ganss, Ruth [Laboratory for Cancer Medicine Angiogenesis Unit, Western Australian Institute for Medical Research and University of Western Australia Centre for Medical Research, Perth, WA 6000 (Australia); Goodall, Gregory J. [Centre for Cancer Biology, SA Pathology, Adelaide, SA 5000 (Australia); School of Molecular and Biomedical Science, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Department of Medicine, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Leedman, Peter J., E-mail: [Laboratory for Cancer Medicine, Western Australian Institute for Medical Research and University of Western Australia Centre for Medical Research, Perth, WA 6000 (Australia); School of Medicine and Pharmacology, University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA 6008 (Australia)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Matrigel alters cancer cell line miRNA expression relative to culture on plastic. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Many identified Matrigel-regulated miRNAs are implicated in cancer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-1290, -210, -32 and -29b represent a Matrigel-induced miRNA signature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-32 down-regulates Integrin alpha 5 (ITGA5) mRNA. -- Abstract: Matrigel is a medium rich in extracellular matrix (ECM) components used for three-dimensional cell culture and is known to alter cellular phenotypes and gene expression. microRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression and have roles in cancer. While miRNA profiles of numerous cell lines cultured on plastic have been reported, the influence of Matrigel-based culture on cancer cell miRNA expression is largely unknown. This study investigated the influence of Matrigel on the expression of miRNAs that might facilitate ECM-associated cancer cell growth. We performed miRNA profiling by microarray using two colon cancer cell lines (SW480 and SW620), identifying significant differential expression of miRNAs between cells cultured in Matrigel and on plastic. Many of these miRNAs have previously been implicated in cancer-related processes. A common Matrigel-induced miRNA signature comprised of up-regulated miR-1290 and miR-210 and down-regulated miR-29b and miR-32 was identified using RT-qPCR across five epithelial cancer cell lines (SW480, SW620, HT-29, A549 and MDA-MB-231). Experimental modulation of these miRNAs altered expression of their known target mRNAs involved in cell adhesion, proliferation and invasion, in colon cancer cell lines. Furthermore, ITGA5 was identified as a novel putative target of miR-32 that may facilitate cancer cell interactions with the ECM. We propose that culture of cancer cell lines in Matrigel more accurately recapitulates miRNA expression and function in cancer than culture on plastic and thus is a valuable approach to the in vitro study of miRNAs.

  4. In-Flight Self-Alignment Method Aided by Geomagnetism for Moving Basement of Guided Munitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang-biao Zhang


    Full Text Available Due to power-after-launch mode of guided munitions of high rolling speed, initial attitude of munitions cannot be determined accurately, and this makes it difficult for navigation and control system to work effectively and validly. An in-flight self-alignment method aided by geomagnetism that includes a fast in-flight coarse alignment method and an in-flight alignment model based on Kalman theory is proposed in this paper. Firstly a fast in-flight coarse alignment method is developed by using gyros, magnetic sensors, and trajectory angles. Then, an in-flight alignment model is derived by investigation of the measurement errors and attitude errors, which regards attitude errors as state variables and geomagnetic components in navigation frame as observed variables. Finally, fight data of a spinning projectile is used to verify the performance of the in-flight self-alignment method. The satisfying results show that (1 the precision of coarse alignment can attain below 5°; (2 the attitude errors by in-flight alignment model converge to 24′ at early of the latter half of the flight; (3 the in-flight alignment model based on Kalman theory has better adaptability, and show satisfying performance.

  5. Matrigel Basement Membrane Matrix influences expression of microRNAs in cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Matrigel alters cancer cell line miRNA expression relative to culture on plastic. ► Many identified Matrigel-regulated miRNAs are implicated in cancer. ► miR-1290, -210, -32 and -29b represent a Matrigel-induced miRNA signature. ► miR-32 down-regulates Integrin alpha 5 (ITGA5) mRNA. -- Abstract: Matrigel is a medium rich in extracellular matrix (ECM) components used for three-dimensional cell culture and is known to alter cellular phenotypes and gene expression. microRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression and have roles in cancer. While miRNA profiles of numerous cell lines cultured on plastic have been reported, the influence of Matrigel-based culture on cancer cell miRNA expression is largely unknown. This study investigated the influence of Matrigel on the expression of miRNAs that might facilitate ECM-associated cancer cell growth. We performed miRNA profiling by microarray using two colon cancer cell lines (SW480 and SW620), identifying significant differential expression of miRNAs between cells cultured in Matrigel and on plastic. Many of these miRNAs have previously been implicated in cancer-related processes. A common Matrigel-induced miRNA signature comprised of up-regulated miR-1290 and miR-210 and down-regulated miR-29b and miR-32 was identified using RT-qPCR across five epithelial cancer cell lines (SW480, SW620, HT-29, A549 and MDA-MB-231). Experimental modulation of these miRNAs altered expression of their known target mRNAs involved in cell adhesion, proliferation and invasion, in colon cancer cell lines. Furthermore, ITGA5 was identified as a novel putative target of miR-32 that may facilitate cancer cell interactions with the ECM. We propose that culture of cancer cell lines in Matrigel more accurately recapitulates miRNA expression and function in cancer than culture on plastic and thus is a valuable approach to the in vitro study of miRNAs.

  6. Water quality analysis of groundwater in crystalline basement rocks, Northern Ghana (United States)

    Anku, Y.S.; Banoeng-Yakubo, B.; Asiedu, D.K.; Yidana, S.M.


    Hydrochemical data are presented for groundwater samples, collected from fractured aquifers in parts of northern Ghana. The data was collected to assess the groundwater suitability for domestic and agricultural use. Results of the study reveal that the pH of the groundwater in the area is slightly acidic to slightly alkaline. The electrical conductivity values, total dissolved solids (TDS) values and calcium, magnesium and sodium concentrations in the groundwater are generally below the limit set by the WHO for potable water supply. On the basis of activity diagrams, groundwater from the fractured aquifers appears to be stable within the montmorillonite field, suggesting weathering of silicate minerals. An inverse distance weighting interpolator with a power of 2 was applied to the data points to produce prediction maps for nitrate and fluoride. The distribution maps show the presence of high nitrate concentrations (50-194??mg/l) in some of the boreholes in the western part of the study area indicating anthropogenic impact on the groundwater. Elevated fluoride level (1.5-4??mg/l), higher than the WHO allowable fluoride concentration of 1.5, is recorded in the groundwater underlying the northeastern part of the study area, more specifically Bongo and its surrounding communities of the Upper East region. Results of this study suggest that groundwater from the fractured aquifers in the area exhibit low sodicity-low salinity (S1-C1), low sodicity-medium salinity (S1-C2) characteristics [United States Salinity Laboratory (USSL) classification scheme]. All data points from this study plot within the 'Excellent to good' category on a Wilcox diagram. Groundwater in this area thus appears to provide irrigation water of excellent quality. The hydrochemical results indicate that, although nitrate and fluoride concentrations in some boreholes are high, the groundwater in the study area, based on the parameters analyzed, is chemically potable and suitable for domestic and agricultural purposes. ?? Springer-Verlag 2008.

  7. Pan-African Paleostresses and Reactivation of the Eburnean Basement Complex in Southeast Ghana (West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahaman Sani Tairou


    Full Text Available This faulting tectonics analysis concerns the southernmost segment of the Dahomeyide Orogen and the West-African craton eastern margin in southeast Ghana. The analysis of strike-slip faults in the frontal units of the Dahomeyide Belt indicates that four distinct compressive events (NE-SW, ENE-WSW to E-W, ESE-WNW to SE-NW and SE-NW to SSE-NNW originated the juxtaposition of the Pan-African Mobile Zone and the West-African craton. These paleostress systems define a clockwise rotation of the compressional axis during the structuring of the Dahomeyide Orogen (650–550 Ma. The SE-NW and SSE-NNW to N-S compressional axes in the cratonic domain and its cover (Volta Basin suggest that the reactivation of the eastern edge of the West African craton is coeval with the last stages of the Pan-African tectogenesis in southeast Ghana. An extensional episode expressed as late normal faulting is also recorded in this study. This E-W to SE-NW extension, which is particular to the southernmost part of the Dahomeyide Belt, appears to be post-Pan-African. This extension probably contributed to the formation of a major Jurassic rifting zone that originated the Central Atlantic and the Benue Trough.

  8. Analysis of wind energy potential and vibrations caused by wind turbine on its basement


    Kaláb, Zdeněk; Hanslian, David; Stolárik, Martin; Pinka, Miroslav


    This paper deals with study of wind energy potential and experimental measurement of vibrations caused by wind turbine. Study area was wind park Horní Loděnice – Lipina. To obtain frequency distribution of wind speed, two models were used for calculation. Experimental seismological measurement was performed in near surroundings of the wind turbine. At low wind speed without significant wind gust, only negligible vibrations were measured. Web of Science 19 3 159 151

  9. Seismic interpretation of basement block faults and associated deformation in Rocky Mountains foreland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacrison, W.R.


    The reflection seismic method is the most effective technique for the interpretation of buried block fault/forced fold structures. Recent advances in seismic acquisition and processing have improved the interpreter's ability to define fold and fault geometry but limitations still exist. Two major problems involve lateral velocity changes and complicated raypath geometry. It is, therefore, desirable to study surface exposures to use as a guide for mapping buried features. The block fault/forced fold concept has been used effectively to provide models for analyzing foreland structures as demonstrated by seismic lines from several Wyoming basins.

  10. Causes of Borehole Failure in Complex Basement Terrains: ABUAD Case Study, Southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1 Ogundana, A.K , 2 Aladesanmi A. O., 3 Okunade A., 4Olutomilola O.O


    Full Text Available A preliminary assessment of primary causes of borehole failure has being conducted using Afe Babalola University as a case study. A total of fourteen boreholes (namely borehole 1-14 were studied, vertical electrical soundings, depth sounding, flushing and pump testing were conducted on each of the boreholes to establish their status at the time of the study and possible evaluation of the groundwater potential of the wells. Four out of the fourteen boreholes (borehole 1-4 are productive and in-use, while the remaining ten (borehole 5-14 are out-of-use and abandoned for various. The productive holes were able to support continuous flow of water for over 3 hours without drop in volume of water flow. Seven of the holes (boreholes 5, 6, 8, 9, 11, 12 & 14 failed and were abandoned because of low yield (could not flow beyond 5 minutes, while the remaining three (boreholes 7, 10 & 13 failed and were abandoned due to wrong location and improper completion, caving/formation problems, and wrong installation/completion respectively. Proper well completion is essential in areas prone to caving and other formation related problems. Air drilling should be avoided in areas with thick and loose overburden. Right mixture of drilling mud should be applied to secure the hole wall while flushing should be continuous throughout drilling in such formation. Casing should be done immediately and such holes should be lined and grouted. Timers should be installed on low yield wells and regulated/programmed for 5 or 10 minutes flow depending on the recharge rate. Pump rating for installation should be strictly based on well recharge rate. Productive wells should be properly maintained and monitored for optimal performance.

  11. Basement membrane components secreted by mouse yolk sac carcinoma cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damjanov, A; Wewer, U M; Tuma, B;


    Three new cell lines (NE, ME, LRD) were cloned from mouse-embryo-derived teratocarcinomas and characterized on the basis of developmental, ultrastructural, and cytochemical criteria as nullipotent embryonal carcinoma (EC), pure parietal yolk sac (PYS) carcinoma and mixed parieto-visceral yolk sac...

  12. Arsenic in groundwater from mineralised Proterozoic basement rocks of Burkina Faso


    Smedley, P. L.; Knudsen, J.; Maiga, D.


    This study describes the hydrogeochemistry and distributions of As in groundwater from a newly investigated area of Burkina Faso. Groundwaters have been sampled from hand-pumped boreholes and dug wells close to the town of Ouahigouya in northern Burkina Faso. Although most analysed groundwaters have As concentrations of less than 10 μg L−1, they have a large range from

  13. Basement structure beneath the innershelf off Mahabalipuram to Palar River, east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murthy, K.S.R.; Venkateswarlu, K.; Rao, T.C.S.

    Magnetic data along three coastal parallel profiles over the innershelf (30-50 m water depth) off Mahabalipuram recorded short wavelength and high amplitude (peak to peak of the order of 200-700 nT) anomalies. Two linear NW-SE trends were delineated...

  14. In search of Archean basement from Rio Maria region, southeastern of Para State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Rio Maria Region, southeastern part of the Amazonian craton (Brazil), displays a typical Archaean granite-greenstone association intruded by Proterozoic granites. The greenstone is crosscut by Archaean granitoids, such as the Rio Maria granodiorite. Clear field contacts between the Xingu gneisses and the granodiorite are lacking, making it difficult to determine the stratigraphic sequence. U-Pb data for zircons from the Xingu gneiss and the Rio Maria granodiorite provide upper intercept ages of 2971 +30/ -28 Ma and 2874 +9/ -10 Ma respectively on the Concordia diagram. 2.97 Ga is the most ancient age ever obtained on zircons from gneisses of the Amazonian craton. It provides an upper limit for the beginning of the continental crust formation in this part of the craton. (author)

  15. Adipocyte-derived basement membrane extract with biological activity: applications in hepatocyte functional augmentation in vitro


    Sharma, Nripen S.; Nagrath, Deepak; Martin L Yarmush


    Natural and synthetic biomaterials utilized in tissue engineering applications require a dynamic interplay of complex macromolecular compositions of hydrated extracellular matrices (ECMs) and soluble growth factors. The challenges in utilizing synthetic ECMs is the effective control of temporal and spatial complexity of multiple signal presentation, as compared to natural ECMs that possess the inherent properties of biological recognition, including presentation of receptor-binding ligands, s...

  16. The mechanism of forearc basement subduction in eastern Taiwan: Insights from sandbox modeling: Insight from Sandbox (United States)

    Lu, Chia-Yu


    In Taiwan today, the subduction of the Chinese continental margin under the Philippine Sea plate results in the progressive growth of an active orogenic wedge. It is one of the best places to study the complex relationships that occur between the tectono-metamorphic processes controlling deformation (plate rheology and kinematics) and surface processes (erosion and sedimentation). In the Central Range of Taiwan, foliation and lineation traces outline the geometry and kinematics of deformation in both, the foreland and hinterland of the orogenic wedge. The foliation dip and the strain ellipsoids distribution show the fan shape of a large pop-up structure characterizing the effects of oblique plate convergence. On the eastern flank, regionally developed penetrative cleavage dips, isotope data and sedimentary structures demonstrating regional overturned structures. Two mélange units, the Kenting and Lichi mélange are exposed at the south and east of the Central Range respectively. Experiments allow the study of interactions between tectonics and surface processes. Accounting for various boundary conditions and parameters such as sedimentation, erosion, basal friction, and décollement level. We present the results of 2D and 3D sandbox models designed to investigate the complex deformation characterizing the active Taiwan orogenic wedge and to demonstrate the development of those mélanges, overturned structures and mountain frontal thrusts. Models are analyzed using pictures, movies and PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry software). We then characterize the exhumation patterns, the mode of fault propagation and displacement patterns by strain partitioning of those mélanges and overturned structures.

  17. Study of the dynamic transfer properties of the basement of a reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The base mat of a todays PWR is investigated with simple models for building and loading to test its dynamical transfer properties. The coupling of the base mat and surrounding soil is varied with some modifications of the mass and stiffness parameters simulating the vibrating soil. The eigenvibrations and the response are determined for the following structure model variations: 1. Base mat with soil parameters given by half space theory 2. Base mat with increased vertical stiffness parameter 3. Base mat with reduced mass parameter. Comparisons of the acceleration responses show for these three configurations, that the differencies between 1. and 3. are bigger than between 1. and 2., but it seems nevertheless that model 3 is the most appropriate, because: firstly, the model 3 may be improved by adjusting the reduction factor and secondly, the model 2 is not appropriate for stress calculations in the base mat. (orig./HP)

  18. Off Our Lawns and out of Our Basements: How We (Mis)Understand the Millennial Generation (United States)

    Mechler, Heather


    In this article, the author explores the existing research on the characteristics of Millennials within historical, social, and economic contexts. While many researchers have made claims about Millennials, they fail to consider how parenting styles, economic factors, historical events, and shifts in educational priorities may have created the…

  19. Histopathological and ultrastructural analysis of vestibular endorgans in Meniere's disease reveals basement membrane pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCall Andrew A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background We report the systematic analysis of the ultrastructural and cytological histopathology of vestibular endorgans acquired from labyrinthectomy in Meniere's disease. Methods 17 subjects with intractable Meniere's disease and ipsilateral non-serviceable hearing presenting to the Neurotology Clinic from 1997 to 2006 who chose ablative labyrinthectomy (average age = 62 years; range 29–83 years participated. The average duration of symptoms prior to surgery was 7 years (range 1–20 years. Results Nearly all vestibular endorgans demonstrated varying degrees of degeneration. A monolayer of epithelial cells occurred significantly more frequently in the horizontal cristae (12/13 = 92% (p Conclusion Systematic histopathological analysis of the vestibular endorgans from Meniere's disease demonstrated neuroepithelial degeneration which was highly correlated with an associated BM thickening. Other findings included hair cell and supporting cell microvessicles, increased intercellular clear spaces in the stroma, and endothelial cell vacuolization and stromal perivascular BM thickening.

  20. In vivo turnover of the basement membrane and other heparan sulfate proteoglycans of rat glomerulus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beavan, L A; Davies, M; Couchman, J R;


    The metabolic turnover of rat glomerular proteoglycans in vivo was investigated. Newly synthesized proteoglycans were labeled during a 7-h period after injecting sodium [35S]sulfate intraperitoneally. At the end of the labeling period a chase dose of sodium sulfate was given. Subsequently at...... methods. Grain counting of autoradiographs revealed a complex turnover pattern of 35S-labeled macromolecules, commencing with a rapid phase followed by a slower phase. Biochemical analysis confirmed the biphasic pattern and showed that the total population of [35S]heparan sulfate proteoglycans had a...... metabolic half-life (t1/2) of 20 and 60 h in the early and late phases, respectively. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans accounted for 80% of total 35S-proteoglycans, the remainder being chondroitin/dermatan sulfate proteoglycans. Whole glomeruli were extracted with 4% 3-[(cholamidopropyl)dimethy-lammonio]-1...

  1. Manganiferous minerals of the epidote group from the Archaean basement of West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katerinopoulou, Anna; Balic Zunic, Tonci; Kolb, Jochen;


    in the content of Al, Fe and Mn is on a very fine scale, but still allows for identification of a negative correlation between Mn and Fe. Textures indicate different stages of growth. Crystal chemical data are compared with literature data and illustrate the basic systematic differences between the influence...

  2. Assessment of Pollutant Spread from a Building Basement with three Ventilation Systems


    Koffi, Juslin


    International audience Ventilation aims at providing a sufficient air renewal for ensuring a good indoor air quality (IAQ), yet building energy policies are leading to adapting various ventilation strategies minimising energy losses through air renewal. A recent IAQ evaluation campaign in French dwellings shows important pollution of living spaces by VOCs such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde or hexanal, particularly in buildings equipped with a garage. Besides, radon emission from soil is a ...

  3. The influence of enhanced excavation base stiffness on prop loads and ground movements during basement construction


    McNamara, A M; Taylor, R.N.


    The use of piles installed beneath deep excavations as a means of enhancing the stiffness of the soil and so reducing the spread of movements to the surrounding ground has been investigated. Experimental data were obtained from a series of plane strain centrifuge model tests undertaken at 100g in which three different formation base stiffnesses were modelled. The tests were able to simulate the stress changes that result from the complex propping and excavation sequence associated with top do...

  4. The early life of a Salt Giant: syndepositional basement faulting in the Zechstein of NE Netherlands. (United States)

    Urai, Janos L.; Raith, Alexander F.; Michalón, Raúl


    The Zechstein of NE Netherlands is often thought to have been deposited in a tectonically quiet environment. In this study we attempted to test this hypothesis using very high quality 3D seismic and well data, mapping in detail the seismic reflections of the thick, anhydrite - dolomite Z III stringer, encased in thick layers of rock salt as a strain marker. We focused on the Friesland platform which was only weakly affected by later salt tectonics. First results show that the stringer contains (i) a regional network of thicker zones (TZ) which are interpreted to reflect the interaction of anhydrite dewatering pathways and localized dissolution of salt below fracture systems in the stringer, and (ii) a network of zones where the stringers are absent, interpreted as ruptures formed by salt flow. These ruptures in many cases mark a clear vertical shift of the sub-horizontal stringer. Mapping of the base salt and top salt reflectors shows that the ruptures often coincide with faults at base Zechstein level, and that the thickness of the post-stringer rock salt layers is thicker where the stringers are lower, while the total salt thickness is relatively constant. We interpret these structures as evidence for movement on the faults at base salt, during Zechstein times, suggesting that Zechstein deposition was syn-tectonic.

  5. Evaluation of Maximum Radionuclide Groundwater Concentrations for Basement Fill Model. Zion Station Restoration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Terry [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Biological, Environmental, and Climate Sciences Dept.


    ZionSolutions is in the process of decommissioning the Zion Nuclear Power Plant in order to establish a new water treatment plant. There is some residual radioactive particles from the plant which need to be brought down to levels so an individual who receives water from the new treatment plant does not receive a radioactive dose in excess of 25 mrem/y⁻¹. The objectives of this report are: (a) To present a simplified conceptual model for release from the buildings with residual subsurface structures that can be used to provide an upper bound on contaminant concentrations in the fill material; (b) Provide maximum water concentrations and the corresponding amount of mass sorbed to the solid fill material that could occur in each building for use in dose assessment calculations; (c) Estimate the maximum concentration in a well located outside of the fill material; and (d) Perform a sensitivity analysis of key parameters.

  6. Impact of gently dipping discontinuities on basement aquifer recharge: An example from Ploemeur (Brittany, France) (United States)

    Ruelleu, S.; Moreau, F.; Bour, O.; Gapais, D.; Martelet, G.


    Classically, geological surveys of water resources in hard-rock aquifers are made from aerial photographs or geophysical techniques that basically permit to detect vertical features. On the other hand, aquifers only linked to vertical structures are very limited in space and offer in most cases very poor water resources. In the present case, we do show that an outstanding aquifer in Brittany is linked to a geological context associated with low-angle faults possibly directly connected with vertical feeders. In particular, we show through a high-resolution gravimetric survey that the highly fractured contact between granite and micaschists, which constitutes the main path for groundwater flow, is a gently dipping structure. Combined gravimetric, magnetic and geological data allowed us to establish the overall aquifer geometry by running a three-dimensional forward model. In addition, details about the shape of the contact have been obtained using an iterative scheme based on the method of Oldenburg (1974). The gravimetric model confirms the presence of sub-vertical faults that may constitute important drains for the aquifer recharge. Thus, the geological context associated with exceptional water resources for this crystalline aquifer is characterized by a sub-horizontal to gently dipping contact between granite and micaschists. Only such a geological context can allow sufficient recharge to provide the main water supply for a town of 18,000 inhabitants at an average rate of about a billion of cubic meter per year since 1991. Thus, instead of looking for possible vertical structures like in classical hard-rock hydrogeology, it appears much more efficient to detect sub-horizontal permeable fractures and faults for providing consistent water resources.

  7. NewsMars: Express journey to Mars ASE 2003: Knocked out by meteorites Events: Sun-Earth Day ASE 2003: Fun Physics - popular as ever Appointments: Sykes to bring science to the people UK Science Education: The future's bright, the future's science ASE 2003: A grand finale for Catherine Teaching Resources: UK goes to the planets Cambridge Physics Update: Basement physics Conferences: Earth Science Teachers' Association Conference 2003 New Website: JESEI sets sail GIREP: Teacher education seminar Malaysia: Rewards for curriculum change Cambridge Physics Update: My boomerang will come back! Teaching Resources: Widening particiption through ideas and evidence with the University of Surrey Wales: First Ffiseg Events: Nuna: Solar car on tour Physics on Stage: Physics on Stage 3 embraces life Symposium: In what sense a nuclear 'debate'? Gifted and Talented: Able pupils experiencing challenging science Australia: ISS flies high Down Under (United States)


    Mars: Express journey to Mars ASE 2003: Knocked out by meteorites Events: Sun-Earth Day ASE 2003: Fun Physics - popular as ever Appointments: Sykes to bring science to the people UK Science Education: The future's bright, the future's science ASE 2003: A grand finale for Catherine Teaching Resources: UK goes to the planets Cambridge Physics Update: Basement physics Conferences: Earth Science Teachers' Association Conference 2003 New Website: JESEI sets sail GIREP: Teacher education seminar Malaysia: Rewards for curriculum change Cambridge Physics Update: My boomerang will come back! Teaching Resources: Widening particiption through ideas and evidence with the University of Surrey Wales: First Ffiseg Events: Nuna: Solar car on tour Physics on Stage: Physics on Stage 3 embraces life Symposium: In what sense a nuclear 'debate'? Gifted and Talented: Able pupils experiencing challenging science Australia: ISS flies high Down Under

  8. Geophysical images of basement rocks. Geophysical images in the Guianese basement. Airborne geophysical campaign in French Guiana - 1996; Images geophysiques de socles. Images geophysiques dans le socle guyanais. Campagne de geophysique aeroportee en Guyane francaise - 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delor, C.; Perrin, J.; Truffert, C.; Asfirane, F.; Rossi, Ph.; Bonjoly, D.; Dubreuihl, J. [Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres (BRGM), 45 - Orleans (France); Chardon, D


    The French Office for Geological and Mining Research (BRGM) has carried out a high sensitivity airborne geophysical survey of northern French Guiana during the second half of 1996. The aim was to realize a high resolution magnetic and gamma spectrometric mapping for future prospecting, land use and environment management. This paper describes in details the geophysical campaign, the material used, the navigation techniques, the processing of magnetic data, the gamma radiation sources used, the spectrometric calibrations and the geologic interpretation of the results. (J.S.)

  9. Carboniferous subduction complex in the South Portuguese zone Coeval with basement reactivation and uplift in the Iberian Massif

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vegas, Ramón


    The formation of thick piles of flysch-like sediments needs the existence of narrowed seas, active denouement of neighbouring continents, and generalized marginal subsidence. These conditions are present during the initial and final stages of Wilson’s perceptive cycle. In this context, the Late Prec

  10. Joint orientation and characteristics as observed in a trench excavated near TA-3 and a basement excavated at TA-55

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purtymun, W.D.; Koenig, E.; Morgan, T.; Sagon, E.


    Walls of excavations in the Bandelier Tuff for pipelines and foundations for structures provide excellent areas to determine the orientation (strike and dip) and characteristics of the joints (frequency, width, and type of material filling the joint). Joints or fractures are commonly associated with structural adjustments such as faulting; however, joints formed in the tuff mainly result from the shrinkage of the ash-flow tuff as it cools. The presence of faults can restrict the siting of buildings or structures. In waste disposal operations, open joints can be pathways for the transport of contaminants.

  11. Inferred basement control of pervasive structural lineaments in southeastern Saskatchewan and their significance in petroleum exploration and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penner, L.; Mollard, J.


    The correlation of surface lineaments in southeastern Saskatchewan with subsurface lineaments and their relationship to the distribution of oil pools and fields was discussed. The mapping, compilation and synthesis of lineament datasets from the Williston Basin have shown good matching detail in both trend and areal distribution. Careful analysis and interpretation of the superimposed datasets is required to identify those trends and locations significant in oil and gas exploration.

  12. Deciphering polymetamorphism by garnet growth modelling : an application to the Austroalpine crystalline basement east of the Tauern Window


    Gaidies, Fred


    This thesis is based upon studies conducted between June 2003 and June 2007 at the Institute of Mineralogy and Petrography at Basel University. It was developed under the supervision of Rainer Abart (FU Berlin) and Christian de Capitani (Basel University) and essentially benefited from the guidance of Ralf Schuster (Austrian Geological Survey) in terms of the regional geological framework. The thesis is divided into six chapters, four of which (Chapter 2 to 5) can be regarded a...

  13. The crystalline basement of Estonia: rock complexes of the Palaeoproterozoic Orosirian and Statherian and Mesoproterozoic Calymmian periods, and regional correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirs, Juho


    Full Text Available New data on the Fennoscandian Shield and the Baltic area suggest a need for reinterpretation of the stratigraphy of Estonian Precambrian rock complexes. The rocks of the Tallinn Zone formed in the framework of the Fennian orogeny at the margin of the Bergslagen microcontinent 1.90–1.88 Ga ago. The precise age of the Alutaguse Zone is not known. It may have formed either during the 1.93–1.91 Ga Lapland–Savo orogeny or as a rifted eastern part of the Tallinn Zone in the Fennian orogeny. The granulites of western and southern Estonia belong to the volcanic arcs inside the 1.84–1.80 Ga Svecobaltic orogenic belt and show peak metamorphic conditions of 1.78 Ga. Small shoshonitic plutons formed 1.83–1.63 Ga, the small granitic plutons of the Wiborg Rapakivi Subprovince 1.67–1.62 Ga, and the Riga pluton 1.59–1.54 Ga ago.

  14. Utilization of LANDSAT-8 Data for Lithological Mapping of Basement Rocks of Plateau State North Central Nigeria (United States)

    Amusuk, D. J.; Hashim, M.; Pour, A. B.; Musa, S. I.


    This paper utilized the Landsat-8 image data to map the lithology's of Plateau state north central Nigeria. This is includes the rocks, with particular emphasis on their description and classification. We are living in geologic times and sciences that provide adequate knowledge of the natures of what we live on so as to preserve and have means of sustaining human life. Plateau State is covered by four scenes of Landsat Data, and to describe the lithology's, each scene was processed to produce images. Two different false colour composite images of Landsat-8 (FCC 7, 5 and 3 and BR composites) in RGB were generated and used for the production of 1:100,000 geological map of the study area. The identification of predominant biotitic granitic rocks was revealed and that are distributed along the Jos-Bukuru complex and underlying almost half of the entire state. Moreover, the other rock complexes such as basalts and rhyolites volcanic rocks were also discriminated. This study indicates that Landsat-8 image data has great capability to discriminate lithological units and the production of up-to-date geological maps at regional scale and could be applicable in other regions of the African continent.

  15. Shortening Record in the Central Andean Plateau of Southern Peru: Basement Inversion, Thin-skinned Thrusting, and Geomorphic Response (United States)

    Perez, N.; Horton, B. K.; McQuarrie, N.; Stübner, K.; Ehlers, T. A.


    Variations in the inherited structural architecture along western South America influence the timing, magnitude, and style of Andean deformation and topographic evolution. New results from mapping, balanced cross-section construction, apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He thermochronology, and geomorphology spanning the Altiplano, Eastern Cordillera and Subandean zone of southern Peru define the role of Triassic rift inversion on Cenozoic deformation style, thrust belt kinematics, exhumation timing, and spatial variation of canyon incision. A minimum of 130 km (38%) shortening along a 200 km transect accommodated by thin- and thick-skinned structures involved selective reactivation of Triassic normal faults that fed slip to shallower detachments of thin-skinned fold-thrust systems. Map relationships define unique structural domains defined by inherited normal faults. In the Eastern Cordillera, new zircon (U-Th)/He results from a Triassic pluton reveal Oligocene-Miocene (~26-18 Ma) cooling, consistent with previously reported exhumation from ~40 km along strike to the NW. However, rapid ~15 Ma cooling revealed by new apatite (U-Th)/He data is ~11 Myr older than equivalent rocks in a similar structural setting ~40 km to the NW. This suggests a potential middle Miocene shift from synchronous to diachronous exhumation along strike. Modern fluvial profiles constructed along the Eastern Cordillera show a reduction in knickpoint elevations from SE to NW, suggesting more youthful uplift toward the NW, comparable to the spatial trend in apatite (U-Th)/He ages. The deformation front reached the Subandean zone by ~15 Ma, after the majority of reported deformation in the Eastern Cordillera and Altiplano. These variations in exhumation over such distances are consistent with multiple potential scenarios: a northward propagating wave of uplift, spatial variations in climatically driven incision, interactions with mantle dynamics, or complex structural geometries.

  16. A model of basement structure from magnetic anomalies of the Bombay High oil-field west of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, D.G.

    Bathymetric and magnetic data along 25 profiles covering the Bombay High and adjacent area on the mid-shelf and inner shelf off the Bombay Coast are studied. Except for the NW-SE and ENE-WSW trending anomaly closures in the east of the high...

  17. Geochemistry of basement rocks of incoming plate (Cocos Ridge) from Sites U1381 and 1414, IODP Expeditions 334 and 344 (United States)

    Yan, Q.; Shi, X.


    The drilling sites of IODP 334 and 344 lie in the being subducted part of Cocos Ridge, offshore Costa Rica. Some seamount clusters distributed in the northwest side of the sites. Most scientists accepted that the Cocos ridge is intimately related to the activity of Galapagos plume (e.g., Hoernle et al., 2000, 2004, 2008). In this study we have selected some basaltic samples from U1381A, U1381C and U1414A (IODP 334 and 344) (Harris et al., 2015a, b) to carry out petrogenetic study. Major element compositions show that these basaltic rocks belong to sub-alkaline rocks, which is consistent with previous study on basalts from northern side of Cocos ridge. The characteristics of trace element composition are similar to that of EMORB, and the compositional differences in trace elements among samples reflect the influence of fractional crystallization. Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions of these basaltic rocks show that there exist mantle heterogeneity beneath the Cocos ridge, and they may be the product of mixing between DMM/GSC and EMII. The new data show more enriched source feature than those from Galapagos hotspot (and its tracks) in previous study (Hoernle et al., 2000,2004), and slightly more enriched than those Miocene to Pliocene arc volcanics from Central America (Gazel et al., 2009). Partial melting model show that the parental basalts for these basaltic rocks may be produced by 13 to 28% partial melting of garnet pyroxenite. ReferencesGazel et al., 2009. G-cubed.10, Q02S11, doi:10.1029/2008GC002246.//Harris, R.N., Sakaguchi, A., Petronotis, K., and the Expedition 344 Scientists. 2015a. Input Site U1381. Proceedings of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program, Volume 344//Harris, R.N., Sakaguchi, A., Petronotis, K., and the Expedition 344 Scientists. 2015b. Input Site U1414.Proceedings of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program, Volume 344//Hoernle et al., 2000. Geology, 28(5),435-438//Hoernle et al., 2004. Geology, 32,697-700//Hoernle et al., 2008. Nature, 451,1094-1098 (This study was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC nos. 41296030 and 41322036, and IODP-China.)

  18. Evaluation of soil corrosivity and aquifer protective capacity using geoelectrical investigation in Bwari basement complex area, Abuja

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A E Adeniji; O V Omonona; D N Obiora; J U Chukudebelu


    Bwari is one of the six municipal area councils of the Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja with its attendant growing population and infrastructural developments. Groundwater is the main source of water supply in the area, and urbanization and industrialization are the predominant contributors of contaminants to the hydrological systems. In order to guarantee a continuous supply of potable water, there is a need to investigate the vulnerability of the aquifers to contaminants emanating from domestic and industrial wastes. A total of 20 vertical electrical soundings using Schlumberger electrode array with a maximum half current electrodes separation of 300 m was employed. The results show that the area is characterized by 3–6 geoelectric subsurface layers. The measured overburden thickness ranges from 1.0 to 24.3 m, with a mean value of 7.4 m. The resistivity and longitudinal conductance of the overburden units range from 18 to 11,908 m and 0.047 to 0.875 mhos, respectively. Areas considered as high corrosivity are the central parts with > 180 m. The characteristic longitudinal unit conductance was used to classify the area into zones of good (0.7–4.49 mhos), moderate (0.2–0.69 mhos), weak (0.1–0.19 mhos), and poor (> 0.1) aquifer protective capacity. Zones characterized by materials of moderate to good protective capacity serve as sealing potential for the underlying hydrogeological system in the area. This study is aimed at delineating zones that are very prone to groundwater contamination from surface contaminants and subsurface soils that are corrosive to utility pipes buried underground. Hence the findings of this work will constitute part of the tools for groundwater development and management and structural/infrastructural development planning of the area.

  19. Petrogenetic significance of rare-earth element behavior in the basement rocks of southern Obudu Plateau, Bamenda Massif, southeastern Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Rock samples representing various igneous and metamorphic rocks of southern Obudu Plateau were analyzed for rare-earth element (REE) behavior by ICP-MS. Results of the analyses indicate a range of REE abundances and distinctive patterns from highly fractionated patterns with negative Eu anomalies in granitic rocks to relatively low abundances and less REE fractionated flat patterns with little Eu anomaly in some paragneisses, schists, enderbites and dolerites to unfractionated patterns with positive Eu anomalies in some paragneisses and charnockites. Over all, there are low to high ∑REE contents with negative to positive Eu anomalies. The ratios of different parameters, especially La/Yb and Ce/Yb, show behaviors consistent with crustal to mantle derivation. The heterogeneity of REE abundances and REE patterns reflects mantle to crustal petrogenetic variations of different rock suites on the Plateau. The LREE content is higher than the HREE content in the highly differentiated rocks, as evidenced by their La/Yb, Ce/Yb and La/Sm ratios, which are normally higher in residual products than in primary melts. The dominantly intermediate nature of the source rock of the orthogneisses is suggested by the generally low ∑REE . The granites enriched in LREE and depleted in HREE and some of the charnockites with negative Eu anomalies were probably formed by partial melting and crystallization.

  20. Osteonectin/SPARC/BM-40 in human decidua and carcinoma, tissues characterized by de novo formation of basement membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, U M; Albrechtsen, R; Fisher, L W;


    decidua tissue in organ culture demonstrated significant osteonectin biosynthesis. Further, Northern analysis and in situ hybridization showed that the osteonectin mRNA level in human decidua is very high. Immunohistochemically, the large mature decidual cells exhibited faint cytoplasmic immunoreactivity...... immunoreactivity was found in poorly differentiated carcinomas. Stromal cells in the peritumoral tissue and some vessels were immunoreactive. Using in situ hybridization, it appeared that both the tumor cells and the stromal cells contained osteonectin transcripts. In normal steady state human nonosseus tissues......The identification and cDNA cloning of bone-enriched osteonectin and parietal endoderm-enriched SPARC indicated that these proteins share greater than 90% homology. The present study reports substantial expression of this Mr 43,000 protein in human decidua and carcinoma. Metabolic labeling of human...

  1. Petrographic and EMP study of metamorphic rocks from the Variscan basement of Dinarides (Vranica Mountains, Bosnia and Herzegovina)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Vranica Mountains are located in the middle part of Bosnia and Herzegovina or in the southeastern part of the Mid - Bosnian schist Mountains (MBSM). The Mid - Bosnian schist Mountains represent one of the largest allochtonous Paleozoic terranes in the Dinarides. This region is characterized by a multistage geodynamic evolution. The presented results concern Variscan metamorphism of the Silur-Devonian protolith formations that occurred mainly during the Early Carboniferous in LT/MP greenschist facies. Petrographical description of metamorphic rocks is completed by EMPA of muscovite, chlorite and chloritoid. The Early Alpine metamorphic overprint is related to the closure of a Tethyan Basin and Early Cretaceous collision of the Adria microplate with the Tissia-Moesia continental Blocks. The Neo-Alpine metamorphic overprint occurred due to the collision of the African and Euroasian Plates. (authors)

  2. Cross-reactivity of cell-mediated immunity between interstitial (type I) and basement membrane (type IV) collagens



    In the present study, we demonstrate delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) to homologous type I collagen that cross-reacts with type IV collagen. Mice immunized with native or denatured type I collagens and challenged with these same antigens or native type IV collagen develop a peak DTH response on day 7. Challenge with denatured type IV collagen or collagenase-treated type IV collagen failed to elicit DTH in type I collagen-sensitized mice. Type I collagen-sensitized spleen cells adoptively t...

  3. Anti-IL-5 treatment reduces deposition of ECM proteins in the bronchial subepithelial basement membrane of mild atopic asthmatics


    Flood-Page, Patrick; Menzies-Gow, Andrew; Phipps, Simon; Ying, Sun; Wangoo, Arun; Ludwig, Mara S.; Barnes, Neil; Robinson, Douglas; Kay, A. Barry


    Eosinophil-derived TGF-β has been implicated in remodeling events in asthma. We hypothesized that reduction of bronchial mucosal eosinophils with anti–IL-5 would reduce markers of airway remodeling. Bronchial biopsies were obtained before and after three infusions of a humanized, anti–IL-5 monoclonal antibody (mepolizumab) in 24 atopic asthmatics in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. The thickness and density of tenascin, lumican, and procollagen III in the reticular baseme...

  4. The Ordovician orogeny in the Alpine basement: constraints from geochronology and geochemistry in the Aar Massif (Central Alps)


    Schaltegger, Urs; Abrecht, Jürgen; Corfu, Fernando


    A sequence of magmatic and metasedimentary rocks from the Susten pass area (Aar Massif, Central Alps of Switzerland) provides evidence of an orogenic cycle of Ordovician age overprinted by the Variscan orogeny. Several stages of this evolution have been dated by U-Pb on zircon, titanite and monazite, complementing previously published U- Pb zircon data from the same area. A gabbro, with epsNd values of +4 to +7 was formed at 478 ± 5 Ma and was then affected by a HP metamorphic stage. A subseq...

  5. Charnockitic ortho gneisses and mafic granulites of Cerro Olivo complex, proterozoic basement of SE Uruguay, Part 1: Geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charnockitic ortho gneisses and mafic granulite s exposed in the Cerro Bori Block, in the center of Punta del Este terrain, were the first document occurrence of granulitic rocks from SE sector of the Uruguayan Shield. We present here their main geological features, with the purpose to suggest some petrologic and structural interesting problems for a future lithogeochemical, mineral chemistry, stable isotopes and fluid inclusion studies about these rocks. We propose some speculation form field-based studies considering a cognate magmatic origin of both kinds of rocks, previous to a homogeneous granulitic metamorphism. Some structural evidences indicate that after their uplift, these rocks were located on over thickened crust, at great to medium deepness. A cataclasis during anatexis and amphibolite-facies mineral association stabilization are common phenomena. Other evidences suggest a polycyclic character for the regional geologic evolution

  6. Deletion of the Basement Membrane Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycan Type XVIII Collagen Causes Hypertriglyceridemia in Mice and Humans


    Bishop, Joseph R.; Passos-Bueno, Maria Rita; Fong, Loren; Stanford, Kristin I.; Gonzales, Jon C.; Yeh, Erika; Young, Stephen G.; Bensadoun, Andre; Witztum, Joseph L.; Esko, Jeffrey D.; Moulton, Karen S.


    Background Lipoprotein lipase (Lpl) acts on triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in the peripheral circulation, liberating free fatty acids for energy metabolism or storage. This essential enzyme is synthesized in parenchymal cells of adipose tissue, heart, and skeletal muscle and migrates to the luminal side of the vascular endothelium where it acts upon circulating lipoproteins. Prior studies suggested that Lpl is immobilized by way of heparan sulfate proteoglycans on the endothelium, but genetic...

  7. Reduction of nitrogen compounds in oceanic basement and its implications for HCN formation and abiotic organic synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neubeck Anna


    Full Text Available Abstract Hydrogen cyanide is an excellent organic reagent and is central to most of the reaction pathways leading to abiotic formation of simple organic compounds containing nitrogen, such as amino acids, purines and pyrimidines. Reduced carbon and nitrogen precursor compounds for the synthesis of HCN may be formed under off-axis hydrothermal conditions in oceanic lithosphere in the presence of native Fe and Ni and are adsorbed on authigenic layer silicates and zeolites. The native metals as well as the molecular hydrogen reducing CO2 to CO/CH4 and NO3-/NO2- to NH3/NH4+ are a result of serpentinization of mafic rocks. Oceanic plates are conveyor belts of reduced carbon and nitrogen compounds from the off-axis hydrothermal environments to the subduction zones, where compaction, dehydration, desiccation and diagenetic reactions affect the organic precursors. CO/CH4 and NH3/NH4+ in fluids distilled out of layer silicates and zeolites in the subducting plate at an early stage of subduction will react upon heating and form HCN, which is then available for further organic reactions to, for instance, carbohydrates, nucleosides or even nucleotides, under alkaline conditions in hydrated mantle rocks of the overriding plate. Convergent margins in the initial phase of subduction must, therefore, be considered the most potent sites for prebiotic reactions on Earth. This means that origin of life processes are, perhaps, only possible on planets where some kind of plate tectonics occur.

  8. Genome wide analysis indicates genes for basement membrane and cartilage matrix proteins as candidates for hip dysplasia in Labrador Retrievers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lavrijsen, Ineke; Leegwater, Peter; Martin, AJ; Harris, SJ; Tryfonidou, Marianna; Heuven, Henri; Hazewinkel, Herman


    Hip dysplasia, an abnormal laxity of the hip joint, is seen in humans as well as dogs and is one of the most common skeletal disorders in dogs. Canine hip dysplasia is considered multifactorial and polygenic, and a variety of chromosomal regions have been associated with the disorder. We performed a

  9. AGE-modified basement membrane cooperates with Endo180 to promote epithelial cell invasiveness and decrease prostate cancer survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez-Teja, Mercedes; Gronau, Julian H; Breit, Claudia;


    Biomechanical strain imposed by age-related thickening of the basal lamina and augmented tissue stiffness in the prostate gland coincides with increased cancer risk. Here we hypothesized that the structural alterations in the basal lamina associated with age can induce mechanotransduction pathways...... in prostate epithelial cells (PECs) to promote invasiveness and cancer progression. To demonstrate this, we developed a 3D model of PEC acini in which thickening and stiffening of basal lamina matrix was induced by advanced glycation end-product (AGE)-dependent non-enzymatic crosslinking of its major...... [myosin-light chain-2 (MLC2) phosphorylation], loss of cell polarity, loss of cell-cell junctions, luminal infiltration and basal invasion induced by AGE-modified basal lamina matrix in PEC acini. Our in vitro results were concordant with luminal occlusion of acini in the prostate glands of adult Endo180...

  10. Methodological basement of individual regulation of a size of physical loading at pupil of middle class during basketball lessons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozina J.L.


    Full Text Available Addressed, theoretically and experimentally proved highly effective, and informative method of subjective control of physical exertion in basketball students. The study involved students 12-13 years old, pupils from different schools of Kharkov (girls. The experiment was conducted on the basis of Camp «Zirka» Krasnograd area during the summer. We simulated the physical education class with basketball, which were carried out 2 times a week, lasted 45 minutes. The total duration of the experiment - 6 weeks. The control group consisted of 12 students, the pilot - 12. The perceived value of the load was determined by the Borg scale, which is a series of numbers from 6 to 20, which correspond to qualitative (verbally the characteristics of the value carried the load. Heart rate was recorded at the end of each exercise palpation method. Adequacy of the subjective method of regulation of physical activity for the problems of the learning process associated with the development of special endurance in basketball.