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Sample records for basement membrane serves

  1. Basement membrane proteoglycans and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; Abrahamson, D R; McCarthy, K J

    1993-01-01

    -CSPG was only strongly expressed in the vasculature invading late comma stage glomeruli, and later in presumptive and mature Bowman's capsule. Over the first six to eight weeks, the capillary basement membranes contained BM-CSPG, but in gradually decreasing amounts until it became completely undetectable...

  2. ROCK1-directed basement membrane positioning coordinates epithelial tissue polarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, William P; Gervais, Elise M; Centanni, Samuel W; Gulfo, Kathryn M; Nelson, Deirdre A; Larsen, Melinda

    2012-01-01

    The basement membrane is crucial for epithelial tissue organization and function. However, the mechanisms by which basement membrane is restricted to the basal periphery of epithelial tissues and the basement membrane-mediated signals that regulate coordinated tissue organization are not well defined. Here, we report that Rho kinase (ROCK) controls coordinated tissue organization by restricting basement membrane to the epithelial basal periphery in developing mouse submandibular salivary glands, and that ROCK inhibition results in accumulation of ectopic basement membrane throughout the epithelial compartment. ROCK-regulated restriction of PAR-1b (MARK2) localization in the outer basal epithelial cell layer is required for basement membrane positioning at the tissue periphery. PAR-1b is specifically required for basement membrane deposition, as inhibition of PAR-1b kinase activity prevents basement membrane deposition and disrupts overall tissue organization, and suppression of PAR-1b together with ROCK inhibition prevents interior accumulations of basement membrane. Conversely, ectopic overexpression of wild-type PAR-1b results in ectopic interior basement membrane deposition. Significantly, culture of salivary epithelial cells on exogenous basement membrane rescues epithelial organization in the presence of ROCK1 or PAR-1b inhibition, and this basement membrane-mediated rescue requires functional integrin β1 to maintain epithelial cell-cell adhesions. Taken together, these studies indicate that ROCK1/PAR-1b-dependent regulation of basement membrane placement is required for the coordination of tissue polarity and the elaboration of tissue structure in the developing submandibular salivary gland.

  3. Coarctation induces alterations in basement membranes in the cardiovascular system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipke, D W; McCarthy, K J; Elton, T S

    1993-01-01

    ventricular hypertrophy was maximal within 5 days. In immunohistochemical studies, fibronectin and laminin were increased and the basement membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan decreased in both the subendothelial space and smooth muscle cell basement membranes of the aorta above the clip compared...... membrane components in the heart and vasculature peaked before maximal cardiac hypertrophy (5 days). These studies indicate that alterations in basement membrane component deposition in the hypertrophied vasculature occur at both transcriptional and translational levels and suggest that the cell attachment...

  4. Mouse endometrial stromal cells produce basement-membrane components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, U M; Damjanov, A; Weiss, J

    1986-01-01

    During mouse pregnancy, uterine stromal cells transform into morphologically distinct decidual cells under the influence of the implanting embryo and a proper hormonal environment. Mechanical stimulation of hormonally primed uterine stromal cells leads to the same morphologic alterations. The dec......During mouse pregnancy, uterine stromal cells transform into morphologically distinct decidual cells under the influence of the implanting embryo and a proper hormonal environment. Mechanical stimulation of hormonally primed uterine stromal cells leads to the same morphologic alterations....... Mouse decidual cells isolated from 6- to 7-day pregnant uteri explanted in vitro continue to synthesize basement-membrane-like extracellular matrix. Using immunohistochemistry and metabolic labeling followed by immunoprecipitation, SDS-PAGE, and fluorography, it was shown that the decidual cells...... to undergo pseudodecidualization. We thus showed that stromal cells from pregnant and nonpregnant mouse uteri synthesize significant amounts of basement-membrane components in vitro, and hence could serve as a good model for the study of normal basement-membrane components....

  5. The vascular basement membrane in the healthy and pathological brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Maj S; Routhe, Lisa J; Moos, Torben

    2017-10-01

    The vascular basement membrane contributes to the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which is formed by brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs). The BCECs receive support from pericytes embedded in the vascular basement membrane and from astrocyte endfeet. The vascular basement membrane forms a three-dimensional protein network predominantly composed of laminin, collagen IV, nidogen, and heparan sulfate proteoglycans that mutually support interactions between BCECs, pericytes, and astrocytes. Major changes in the molecular composition of the vascular basement membrane are observed in acute and chronic neuropathological settings. In the present review, we cover the significance of the vascular basement membrane in the healthy and pathological brain. In stroke, loss of BBB integrity is accompanied by upregulation of proteolytic enzymes and degradation of vascular basement membrane proteins. There is yet no causal relationship between expression or activity of matrix proteases and the degradation of vascular matrix proteins in vivo. In Alzheimer's disease, changes in the vascular basement membrane include accumulation of Aβ, composite changes, and thickening. The physical properties of the vascular basement membrane carry the potential of obstructing drug delivery to the brain, e.g. thickening of the basement membrane can affect drug delivery to the brain, especially the delivery of nanoparticles.

  6. Basement Membrane Defects in Genetic Kidney Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Chew

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The glomerular basement membrane (GBM is a specialized structure with a significant role in maintaining the glomerular filtration barrier. This GBM is formed from the fusion of two basement membranes during development and its function in the filtration barrier is achieved by key extracellular matrix components including type IV collagen, laminins, nidogens, and heparan sulfate proteoglycans. The characteristics of specific matrix isoforms such as laminin-521 (α5β2γ1 and the α3α4α5 chain of type IV collagen are essential for the formation of a mature GBM and the restricted tissue distribution of these isoforms makes the GBM a unique structure. Detailed investigation of the GBM has been driven by the identification of inherited abnormalities in matrix proteins and the need to understand pathogenic mechanisms causing severe glomerular disease. A well-described hereditary GBM disease is Alport syndrome, associated with a progressive glomerular disease, hearing loss, and lens defects due to mutations in the genes COL4A3, COL4A4, or COL4A5. Other proteins associated with inherited diseases of the GBM include laminin β2 in Pierson syndrome and LMX1B in nail patella syndrome. The knowledge of these genetic mutations associated with GBM defects has enhanced our understanding of cell–matrix signaling pathways affected in glomerular disease. This review will address current knowledge of GBM-associated abnormalities and related signaling pathways, as well as discussing the advances toward disease-targeted therapies for patients with glomerular disease.

  7. Basement membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans: localization in adult rat tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, K J; Couchman, J R

    1990-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans have been described as the major proteoglycan component of basement membranes. However, previous investigators have also provided evidence for the presence of chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan in these structures. Recently we described the production...... and characterization of core protein-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAb) against a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) present in Reichert's membrane, a transient extra-embryonic structure of rodents. This CSPG was also demonstrated to be present in adult rat kidney. We report here the tissue distribution...... of epitopes recognized by these MAb. The ubiquitous presence of these epitopes in the basement membranes of nearly all adult rat tissues demonstrates that at least one CSPG is a constituent of most basement membranes, and by virtue of its unique distribution is distinct from other chondroitin and dermatan...

  8. Force-dependent breaching of the basement membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tammy T; Thakar, Dhruv; Weaver, Valerie M

    2017-01-01

    Clinically, non-invasive carcinomas are confined to the epithelial side of the basement membrane and are classified as benign, whereas invasive cancers invade through the basement membrane and thereby acquire the potential to metastasize. Recent findings suggest that, in addition to protease-mediated degradation and chemotaxis-stimulated migration, basement membrane invasion by malignant cells is significantly influenced by the stiffness of the associated interstitial extracellular matrix and the contractility of the tumor cells that is dictated in part by their oncogenic genotype. In this review, we highlight recent findings that illustrate unifying molecular mechanisms whereby these physical cues contribute to tissue fibrosis and malignancy in three epithelial organs: breast, pancreas, and liver. We also discuss the clinical implications of these findings and the biological properties and clinical challenges linked to the unique biology of each of these organs. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Matrix Biology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The major basement membrane components localize to the chondrocyte pericellular matrix--a cartilage basement membrane equivalent?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Alexander J.; Nyström, Alexander; Hultenby, Kjell

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate that articular cartilage chondrocytes are surrounded by the defining basement membrane proteins laminin, collagen type IV, nidogen and perlecan, and suggest that these form the functional equivalent of a basement membrane. We found by real-time PCR that mouse...... chondrocytes express these four cardinal components of basement membranes and demonstrated by immunohistochemistry that the proteins are present in bovine and mouse cartilage tissues and are deposited in a thin pericellular structure. Immunoelectron microscopy confirmed high laminin concentration...... becomes less distinct, especially in areas of obvious mechanical attrition. Interestingly, individual laminin subunits were located in different zones of the cartilage, with laminin alpha1 showing preferential localization around a select population of superficial layer chondrocytes. We propose...

  10. Basement membrane proteoglycans are of epithelial origin in rodent skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamane, Y; Yaoita, H; Couchman, J R

    1996-01-01

    . For in vivo experiments, pieces of newborn rat epidermis obtained by dispase treatment were grafted onto athymic nude mice. Three and six weeks after grafting, immunofluorescence analysis of the grafted skin was carried out, using monoclonal antibodies specific for rat basement membrane chondroitin sulfate...

  11. Basement Membrane Type IV Collagen and Laminin: An Overview of Their Biology and Value as Fibrosis Biomarkers of Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Ki M; Mei, Rena

    2017-08-01

    Basement membranes provide structural support to epithelium, endothelium, muscles, fat cells, Schwann cells, and axons. Basement membranes are multifunctional: they modulate cellular behavior, regulate organogenesis, promote tissue repair, form a barrier to filtration and tumor metastasis, bind growth factors, and mediate angiogenesis. All basement membranes contain type IV collagen (Col IV), laminin, nidogen, and perlecan. Col IV and laminin self-assemble into two independent supramolecular networks that are linked to nidogen and perlecan to form a morphological discernable basement membrane/basal lamina. The triple helical region, 7S domain and NCI domain of Col IV, laminin and laminin fragment P1 have been evaluated as noninvasive fibrosis biomarkers of alcoholic liver disease, viral hepatitis, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Elevated serum Col IV and laminin are related to degrees of fibrosis and severity of hepatitis, and may reflect hepatic basement membrane metabolism. But the serum assays have not been linked to disclosing the anatomical sites and lobular distribution of perisinusoidal basement membrane formation in the liver. Hepatic sinusoids normally lack a basement membrane, although Col IV is a normal matrix component of the space of Disse. In liver disease, laminin deposits in the space of Disse and codistributes with Col IV, forming a perisinusoidal basement membrane. Concomitantly, the sinusoidal endothelium loses its fenestrae and is transformed into vascular type endothelium. These changes lead to capillarization of hepatic sinusoids, a significant pathology that impairs hepatic function. Accordingly, codistribution of Col IV and laminin serves as histochemical marker of perisinusoidal basement membrane formation in liver disease. Anat Rec, 300:1371-1390, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Regulation of the basement membrane by epithelia generated forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Kandice

    2012-12-01

    Tumor metastasis involves a progressive loss of tissue architecture and dissolution of structural boundaries between the epithelium and connective tissue. The basement membrane (BM), a specialized network of extracellular matrix proteins forms a barrier that physically restricts pre-invasive lesions such that they remain as local insults. The BM is not a static structure, but one that is constantly regenerated and remodeled in the adult organism. Matrix organization also regulates cell function. Thus alterations in the balance of synthesis, remodeling and proteolytic degradation of the extracellular matrix proteins may contribute to a loss of structural integrity. However, the de novo assembly and maintenance of the complex structural properties of in vivo basement membranes remain elusive. Here, this paper highlights the current understanding on the structural properties and the establishment of the BM, and discusses the potential role of self-generated forces in adult tissue remodeling and the maintenance of the BM as a malignancy suppressor.

  13. Regulation of the basement membrane by epithelia generated forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanner, Kandice

    2012-01-01

    Tumor metastasis involves a progressive loss of tissue architecture and dissolution of structural boundaries between the epithelium and connective tissue. The basement membrane (BM), a specialized network of extracellular matrix proteins forms a barrier that physically restricts pre-invasive lesions such that they remain as local insults. The BM is not a static structure, but one that is constantly regenerated and remodeled in the adult organism. Matrix organization also regulates cell function. Thus alterations in the balance of synthesis, remodeling and proteolytic degradation of the extracellular matrix proteins may contribute to a loss of structural integrity. However, the de novo assembly and maintenance of the complex structural properties of in vivo basement membranes remain elusive. Here, this paper highlights the current understanding on the structural properties and the establishment of the BM, and discusses the potential role of self-generated forces in adult tissue remodeling and the maintenance of the BM as a malignancy suppressor. (paper)

  14. Perlecan and basement membrane-chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (bamacan) are two basement membrane chondroitin/dermatan sulfate proteoglycans in the Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm tumor matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; Kapoor, R; Sthanam, M

    1996-01-01

    heparan sulfate proteoglycan, widespread in many basement membranes and connective tissues. We now identify two distinct proteoglycan species from this tumor source, which are substituted with galactosaminoglycans and which show basement membrane localization by immunohistochemistry. One species......The presence of proteoglycans bearing galactosaminoglycan chains has been reported, but none has been identified previously in the matrix of the Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm tumor, which is a source of several basement membrane components. This tumor matrix contains perlecan, a large, low buoyant density......-CSPG are distinct in core protein structure. Both are, however, basement membrane components, although there are tissue-specific differences in their distribution....

  15. Collective cell behavior on basement membranes floating in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Sarah; Bhattacharjee, Tapomoy; Morley, Cameron; Sawyer, W.; Angelini, Thomas

    The basement membrane is an essential part of the polarity of endothelial and epithelial tissues. In tissue culture and organ-on-chip devices, monolayer polarity can be established by coating flat surfaces with extracellular matrix proteins and tuning the trans-substrate permeability. In epithelial 3D culture, spheroids spontaneously establish inside-out polarity, morphing into hollow shell-like structures called acini, generating their own basement membrane on the inner radius of the shell. However, 3D culture approaches generally lack the high degree of control provided by the 2D culture plate or organ-on-chip devices, making it difficult to create more faithful in vitro tissue models with complex surface curvature and morphology. Here we present a method for 3D printing complex basement membranes covered in cells. We 3D print collagen-I and Matrigel into a 3D growth medium made from jammed microgels. This soft, yielding material allows extracellular matrix to be formed as complex surfaces and shapes, floating in space. We then distribute MCF10A epithelial cells across the polymerized surface. We envision employing this strategy to study 3D collective cell behavior in numerous model tissue layers, beyond this simple epithelial model.

  16. Removal of the basement membrane enhances corneal wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal-Ghosh, Sonali; Pajoohesh-Ganji, Ahdeah; Tadvalkar, Gauri; Stepp, Mary Ann

    2011-12-01

    Recurrent corneal erosions are painful and put patients' vision at risk. Treatment typically begins with debridement of the area around the erosion site followed by more aggressive treatments. An in vivo mouse model has been developed that reproducibly induces recurrent epithelial erosions in wild-type mice spontaneously within two weeks after a single 1.5 mm corneal debridement wound created using a dulled-blade. This study was conducted to determine whether 1) inhibiting MMP9 function during healing after dulled-blade wounding impacts erosion development and 2) wounds made with a rotating-burr heal without erosions. Oral or topical inhibition of MMPs after dulled-blade wounding does not improve healing. Wounds made by rotating-burr heal with significantly fewer erosions than dulled-blade wounds. The localization of MMP9, β4 integrin and basement membrane proteins (LN332 and type VII collagen), immune cell influx, and reinnervation of the corneal nerves were compared after both wound types. Rotating-burr wounds remove the anterior basement membrane centrally but not at the periphery near the wound margin, induce more apoptosis of corneal stromal cells, and damage more stromal nerve fibers. Despite the fact that rotating-burr wounds do more damage to the cornea, fewer immune cells are recruited and significantly more wounds resolve completely. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Immunohistochemical localization of basement membrane components during hair follicle morphogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westgate, G E; Shaw, D A; Harrap, G J

    1984-01-01

    Specific antisera were used to investigate the distributions of several basement membrane zone (BMZ) components, namely, bullous pemphigoid antigen (BPA), heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG), laminin, and type IV collagen, during the development of hair follicles in late embryo rats. BPA was not ......Specific antisera were used to investigate the distributions of several basement membrane zone (BMZ) components, namely, bullous pemphigoid antigen (BPA), heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG), laminin, and type IV collagen, during the development of hair follicles in late embryo rats. BPA...... of the elongating follicle. HSPG was associated with the basal cell layer prior to the appearance of hair follicle primordia and became BMZ-associated before birth but after follicle buds were first observed. HSPG was also found to be associated with the basal cell surfaces in the epidermis, but not in the hair...... follicle. Laminin and type IV collagen were continually present in epidermal and follicular BMZ both before and during development of hair follicles and were later present in the dermal papilla matrix. From these observations we conclude that (1) laminin and type IV collagen are functionally important...

  18. Basement membrane abnormalities in human eyes with diabetic retinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljubimov, A V; Burgeson, R E; Butkowski, R J

    1996-01-01

    Vascular and parenchymal basement membranes (BMs) are thickened in diabetes, but alterations in individual BM components in diabetic eyes, especially in diabetic retinopathy (DR), are obscure. To identify abnormalities in the distribution of specific constituents, we analyzed cryostat sections...... of human eyes obtained at autopsy (seven normal, five diabetic without DR, and 13 diabetic with DR) by immunofluorescence with antibodies to 30 BM and extracellular matrix components. In non-DR eyes, no qualitative changes of ocular BM components were seen. In some DR corneas, epithelial BM was stained...... discontinuously for laminin-1, entactin/nidogen, and alpha3-alpha4 Type IV collagen, in contrast to non-DR corneas. Major BM alterations were found in DR retinas compared to normals and non-DR diabetics. The inner limiting membrane (retinal BM) of DR eyes had accumulations of fibronectin (including cellular...

  19. The Acinar Cage: Basement Membranes Determine Molecule Exchange and Mechanical Stability of Human Breast Cell Acini.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aljona Gaiko-Shcherbak

    Full Text Available The biophysical properties of the basement membrane that surrounds human breast glands are poorly understood, but are thought to be decisive for normal organ function and malignancy. Here, we characterize the breast gland basement membrane with a focus on molecule permeation and mechanical stability, both crucial for organ function. We used well-established and nature-mimicking MCF10A acini as 3D cell model for human breast glands, with ether low- or highly-developed basement membrane scaffolds. Semi-quantitative dextran tracer (3 to 40 kDa experiments allowed us to investigate the basement membrane scaffold as a molecule diffusion barrier in human breast acini in vitro. We demonstrated that molecule permeation correlated positively with macromolecule size and intriguingly also with basement membrane development state, revealing a pore size of at least 9 nm. Notably, an intact collagen IV mesh proved to be essential for this permeation function. Furthermore, we performed ultra-sensitive atomic force microscopy to quantify the response of native breast acini and of decellularized basement membrane shells against mechanical indentation. We found a clear correlation between increasing acinar force resistance and basement membrane formation stage. Most important native acini with highly-developed basement membranes as well as cell-free basement membrane shells could both withstand physiologically relevant loads (≤ 20 nN without loss of structural integrity. In contrast, low-developed basement membranes were significantly softer and more fragile. In conclusion, our study emphasizes the key role of the basement membrane as conductor of acinar molecule influx and mechanical stability of human breast glands, which are fundamental for normal organ function.

  20. Basement membrane-specific chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan is abnormally associated with the glomerular capillary basement membrane of diabetic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, K J; Abrahamson, D R; Bynum, K R

    1994-01-01

    exception being the normal glomerular capillary basement membrane (GBM), where it is absent. In the present study of mature kidneys we examined the distribution of BM-CSPG in streptozocin-induced diabetes mellitus in rats. We found BM-CSPG atypically associated with the GBM of diabetic animals as early as 1...... month after induction of diabetes mellitus. Immunoelectron microscopy (IEM) of affected capillary loops showed BM-CSPG present in the subendothelial matrix in areas of GBM thickening and absent in areas where the GBM appears to be of normal thickness. Moreover, the association of BM-CSPG with regions...... of the pericapillary GBM affects the morphology of the capillary endothelial cells within these areas, directly displacing the cell body from the GBM proper and causing loss of fenestrae. These new data on BM-CSPG distribution reflect abnormal glomerular extracellular matrix protein biosynthesis/turnover in diabetes...

  1. Effects of pressure and electrical charge on macromolecular transport across bovine lens basement membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, Nicholas; Cameron, Kathleen O; Groszek, Joseph J; Hofmann, Christina L; Li, Lingyan; Smith, Ross A; Bian, Aihua; Shintani, Ayumi; Zydney, Andrew L; Fissell, William H

    2013-04-02

    Molecular transport through the basement membrane is important for a number of physiological functions, and dysregulation of basement membrane architecture can have serious pathological consequences. The structure-function relationships that govern molecular transport in basement membranes are not fully understood. The basement membrane from the lens capsule of the eye is a collagen IV-rich matrix that can easily be extracted and manipulated in vitro. As such, it provides a convenient model for studying the functional relationships that govern molecular transport in basement membranes. Here we investigate the effects of increased transmembrane pressure and solute electrical charge on the transport properties of the lens basement membrane (LBM) from the bovine eye. Pressure-permeability relationships in LBM transport were governed primarily by changes in diffusive and convective contributions to solute flux and not by pressure-dependent changes in intrinsic membrane properties. The solute electrical charge had a minimal but statistically significant effect on solute transport through the LBM that was opposite of the expected electrokinetic behavior. The observed transport characteristics of the LBM are discussed in the context of established membrane transport modeling and previous work on the effects of pressure and electrical charge in other basement membrane systems. Copyright © 2013 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The vascular basement membrane as "soil" in brain metastasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Shawn Carbonell

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Brain-specific homing and direct interactions with the neural substance are prominent hypotheses for brain metastasis formation and a modern manifestation of Paget's "seed and soil" concept. However, there is little direct evidence for this "neurotropic" growth in vivo. In contrast, many experimental studies have anecdotally noted the propensity of metastatic cells to grow along the exterior of pre-existing vessels of the CNS, a process termed vascular cooption. These observations suggest the "soil" for malignant cells in the CNS may well be vascular, rather than neuronal. We used in vivo experimental models of brain metastasis and analysis of human clinical specimens to test this hypothesis. Indeed, over 95% of early micrometastases examined demonstrated vascular cooption with little evidence for isolated neurotropic growth. This vessel interaction was adhesive in nature implicating the vascular basement membrane (VBM as the active substrate for tumor cell growth in the brain. Accordingly, VBM promoted adhesion and invasion of malignant cells and was sufficient for tumor growth prior to any evidence of angiogenesis. Blockade or loss of the beta1 integrin subunit in tumor cells prevented adhesion to VBM and attenuated metastasis establishment and growth in vivo. Our data establishes a new understanding of CNS metastasis formation and identifies the neurovasculature as the critical partner for such growth. Further, we have elucidated the mechanism of vascular cooption for the first time. These findings may help inform the design of effective molecular therapies for patients with fatal CNS malignancies.

  3. Nanoscale protein architecture of the kidney glomerular basement membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleiman, Hani; Zhang, Lei; Roth, Robyn; Heuser, John E; Miner, Jeffrey H; Shaw, Andrey S; Dani, Adish

    2013-01-01

    In multicellular organisms, proteins of the extracellular matrix (ECM) play structural and functional roles in essentially all organs, so understanding ECM protein organization in health and disease remains an important goal. Here, we used sub-diffraction resolution stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) to resolve the in situ molecular organization of proteins within the kidney glomerular basement membrane (GBM), an essential mediator of glomerular ultrafiltration. Using multichannel STORM and STORM-electron microscopy correlation, we constructed a molecular reference frame that revealed a laminar organization of ECM proteins within the GBM. Separate analyses of domains near the N- and C-termini of agrin, laminin, and collagen IV in mouse and human GBM revealed a highly oriented macromolecular organization. Our analysis also revealed disruptions in this GBM architecture in a mouse model of Alport syndrome. These results provide the first nanoscopic glimpse into the organization of a complex ECM. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01149.001 PMID:24137544

  4. Fluid Mechanics of the Vascular Basement Membrane in the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coloma, Mikhail; Hui, Jonathan; Chiarot, Paul; Huang, Peter; Carare, Roxana; McLeod, Kenneth; Schaffer, David

    2013-11-01

    Beta-amyloid is a normal product of brain metabolic function and is found within the interstitial fluid of the brain. Failure of the clearance of beta-amyloid from the aging brain leads to its accumulation within the walls of arteries and to Alzheimer's disease. The vascular basement membrane (VBM) within the walls of cerebral arteries surrounds the spirally arranged smooth muscle cells and represents an essential pathway for removal of beta-amyloid from the brain. This process fails with the stiffening of arterial walls associated with aging. In this study we hypothesize that the deformation of the VBM associated with arterial pulsations drives the interstitial fluid to drain in the direction opposite of the arterial blood flow. This hypothesis is theoretically investigated by modeling the VBM as a thin, coaxial, fluid-filled porous medium surrounding a periodically deforming cylindrical tube. Flow and boundary conditions required to achieve such a backward clearance are derived through a control volume analysis of mass, momentum, and energy.

  5. Cdc42 expression in keratinocytes is required for the maintenance of the basement membrane in skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xunwei; Quondamatteo, Fabio; Brakebusch, Cord

    2006-01-01

    , structure and number of hemidesomosomes were not significantly changed in the Cdc42 mutant skin compared with the control mice and no blister formation was observed in mutant skin. These data indicate that Cdc42 in keratinocytes is important for maintenance of the basement membrane of skin....... process, which requires directed secretion, deposition and organization of basement membrane components at the basal side of epithelial cells. In the current study, we analyzed the maintenance of skin basement membrane in mice with a keratinocyte-restricted deletion of the Cdc42 gene. In the absence...

  6. Basement membrane proteoglycans in glomerular morphogenesis: chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan is temporally and spatially restricted during development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, K J; Bynum, K; St John, P L

    1993-01-01

    We previously reported the presence of a basement membrane-specific chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (BM-CSPG) in basement membranes of almost all adult tissues. However, an exception to this ubiquitous distribution was found in the kidney, where BM-CSPG was absent from the glomerular capillary......, the present study used light and electron microscopic immunohistochemistry to examine the distribution of BM-CSPG and basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan (BM-HSPG) during prenatal and postnatal renal development in the rat. Our results show that the temporal and spatial pattern of expression of BM...

  7. Anti-glomerular basement membrane disease superimposed on membranous nephropathy: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivera Noel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Anti-glomerular basement membrane disease is a rare autoimmune disorder characterized by pulmonary hemorrhage, crescentic glomerulonephritis and the presence of circulating anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies. The simultaneous occurrence of both anti-glomerular basement membrane disease and membranous nephropathy is rare. Case presentation A 59-year-old Hispanic man presented with acute onset of nausea and vomiting and was found to have renal insufficiency. Work-up included a kidney biopsy, which revealed anti-glomerular basement membrane disease with underlying membranous nephropathy. He was treated with emergent hemodialysis, intravenous corticosteroids, plasmapheresis, and cyclophosphamide without improvement in his renal function. Conclusion Simultaneous anti-glomerular basement membrane disease and membranous nephropathy is very rare. There have been 16 previous case reports in the English language literature that have been associated with a high mortality and morbidity, and a very high rate of renal failure resulting in hemodialysis. Co-existence of membranous nephropathy and anti-glomerular basement membrane disease may be immune-mediated, although the exact mechanism is not clear.

  8. Coexistence of anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies and myeloperoxidase-ANCAs in crescentic glomerulonephritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgers, Abraham; Slot, Marjan; van Paassen, Pieter; van Breda Vriesman, Peter; Heeringa, Peter; Tervaert, Jan Willem Cohen

    BACKGROUND: In a substantial proportion of patients with crescentic glomerulonephritis (CGN), both anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibodies and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) with specificity for myeloperoxidase (MPO-ANCA) are detected. In the present study, we questioned

  9. Co-deposition of basement membrane components during the induction of murine splenic AA amyloid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyon, A W; Narindrasorasak, S; Young, I D

    1991-01-01

    Past studies have demonstrated that during murine AA amyloid induction there is co-deposition of the AA amyloid peptide and the basement membrane form of heparan sulfate proteoglycan. The synthesis and accumulation of heparan sulfate proteoglycan does not usually occur in the absence of other...... basement membrane components, such as type IV collagen, laminin, and fibronectin. Using immunohistochemical techniques, the present experiments have demonstrated that in addition to the heparan sulfate proteoglycan, there are other basement membrane components present in splenic AA amyloid deposits...... and these are present as soon as AA amyloid deposits are detectable. The results indicate that within the time constraints imposed by the experiments, the basement membrane components, fibronectin, laminin, type IV collagen, and heparan sulfate proteoglycan are co-deposited 36 to 48 hours after the AgNO3 and amyloid...

  10. Basement membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan alterations in a rat model of polycystic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehara, T; Carone, F A; McCarthy, K J

    1994-01-01

    of distal tubules and collecting ducts was observed by 4 days with phenol II treatment, but the morphology returned to normal after 7 days of subsequent normal diet. Staining of tissue sections with two mouse monoclonal antibodies to a recently described basement membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan...... to chondroitin sulfate chains confirmed these changes in cystic tubule basement membranes. During the recovery stage, interstitial chondroitin sulfate (representing a CSPG other than BM-CSPG) was greatly increased around these tubules, along with the glycoprotein fibronectin. Staining with antibody to a basement...... membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan core protein related to perlecan did not diminish but rather stained affected tubules intensely, whereas laminin, on the other hand, was apparently diminished in the basement membranes of the cystic tubules. Type IV collagen staining did not change through disease...

  11. Expression of basement membrane components through morphological changes in the hair growth cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; Gibson, W T

    1985-01-01

    The amount and distribution of fibronectin associated with hair follicles was found to vary during the hair growth cycle in the rat. Immunocytochemical staining of follicles in mid-late anagen (the growth stage) revealed the presence of fibronectin in the dermal papilla matrix, in the basement...... membrane separating this from the epithelial cells of the hair bulb, and in the basement membrane and connective tissue sheath which underly the cells of the outer root sheath. Early in catagen, the transitional stage, staining of the dermal papilla matrix disappeared. Fibronectin persisted in the basement...

  12. Vascular basement membranes as pathways for the passage of fluid into and out of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Alan W J; Sharp, Matthew MacGregor; Albargothy, Nazira J; Fernandes, Rute; Hawkes, Cheryl A; Verma, Ajay; Weller, Roy O; Carare, Roxana O

    2016-05-01

    In the absence of conventional lymphatics, drainage of interstitial fluid and solutes from the brain parenchyma to cervical lymph nodes is along basement membranes in the walls of cerebral capillaries and tunica media of arteries. Perivascular pathways are also involved in the entry of CSF into the brain by the convective influx/glymphatic system. The objective of this study is to differentiate the cerebral vascular basement membrane pathways by which fluid passes out of the brain from the pathway by which CSF enters the brain. Experiment 1: 0.5 µl of soluble biotinylated or fluorescent Aβ, or 1 µl 15 nm gold nanoparticles was injected into the mouse hippocampus and their distributions determined at 5 min by transmission electron microscopy. Aβ was distributed within the extracellular spaces of the hippocampus and within basement membranes of capillaries and tunica media of arteries. Nanoparticles did not enter capillary basement membranes from the extracellular spaces. Experiment 2: 2 µl of 15 nm nanoparticles were injected into mouse CSF. Within 5 min, groups of nanoparticles were present in the pial-glial basement membrane on the outer aspect of cortical arteries between the investing layer of pia mater and the glia limitans. The results of this study and previous research suggest that cerebral vascular basement membranes form the pathways by which fluid passes into and out of the brain but that different basement membrane layers are involved. The significance of these findings for neuroimmunology, Alzheimer's disease, drug delivery to the brain and the concept of the Virchow-Robin space are discussed.

  13. Accelerating repaired basement membrane after bevacizumab treatment on alkali-burned mouse cornea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Koon-Ja; Lee, Ji-Young; Lee, Sung Ho; Choi, Tae Hoon

    2013-01-01

    To understand the corneal regeneration induced by bevacizumab, we investigated the structure changes of stroma and basement membrane regeneration. A Stick soaked in 0.5 N NaOH onto the mouse cornea and 2.5 mg/ml of bevacizumab was delivered into an alkali-burned cornea (2 μl) by subconjunctival injections at 1 hour and 4 days after injury. At 7 days after injury, basement membrane regeneration was observed by transmission electron microscope. Uneven and thin epithelial basement membrane, light density of hemidesmosomes, and edematous collagen fibril bundles are shown in the alkali-burned cornea. Injured epithelial basement membrane and hemidesmosomes and edematous collagen fibril bundles resulting from alkali-burned mouse cornea was repaired by bevacizumab treatment. This study demonstrates that bevacizumab can play an important role in wound healing in the cornea by accelerating the reestablishment of basement membrane integrity that leads to barriers for scar formation. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(4): 195-200] PMID:23615260

  14. Rat hair follicle dermal papillae have an extracellular matrix containing basement membrane components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R

    1986-01-01

    , to be replaced by synthesis of other components including type I and III collagens. It seems likely therefore that the dermal papilla cells in vivo synthesize a basement membrane type of extracellular matrix, although a contribution from epithelial, and in some cases capillary endothelial, cells cannot be ruled......Dermal papillae are small mesenchymally derived zones at the bases of hair follicles which have an important role in hair morphogenesis in the embryo and control of the hair growth cycle in postnatal mammals. The cells of the papilla are enmeshed in a dense extracellular matrix which undergoes...... extensive changes in concert with the hair cycle. Here it is shown that this matrix in anagen pelage follicles of postnatal rats contains an abundance of basement membrane components rather than dermal components such as interstitial collagens. In particular, type IV collagen, laminin, and basement membrane...

  15. Experimental autoimmune glomerulonephritis induced by anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody. II. Effects of injecting heterologous, homologous, or autologous glomerular basement membranes and complete Freund's adjuvant into sheep.

    OpenAIRE

    Steblay, R. W.; Rudofsky, U. H.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of injecting human, rabbit, rat, or single-kidney homologous glomerular basement membrane (GBM) or autologous GBM, each in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA), into 15- to 18-month-old sheep are compared. All sheep receiving heterologous GBM and 3 of 6 sheep receiving homologous GBM had anti-GBM nephritis, but such sheep did not bind autoantibodies or have Goodpasturelike lesions in their lungs. Sheep given injections of human GBM had autoantibodies to antigenic determinants shared b...

  16. A Case of Alport Syndrome with Posttransplant Antiglomerular Basement Membrane Disease despite Negative Antiglomerular Basement Membrane Antibodies by EIA Treated with Plasmapheresis and Intravenous Immunoglobulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumiko I. Armstead

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Posttransplant antiglomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM disease occurs in approximately 5% of Alport patients and usually ends in irreversible graft failure. Recent research has focused on characterizing the structure of the anti-GBM alloepitope. Here we present a case of a 22-year-old male with end-stage renal disease secondary to Alport syndrome, with a previously failed renal allograft, who received a second deceased-donor kidney transplant. Six days after transplantation, he developed acute kidney injury. The serum anti-GBM IgG was negative by enzyme immunoassay (EIA. On biopsy, he had crescentic glomerulonephritis with linear GBM fixation of IgG. With further analysis by western blotting, we were able to detect antibodies to an unidentified protein from the basement membrane. This patient was treated with plasmapheresis twice per week and monthly intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG for a total of five months. At the end of treatment, these unknown antibodies were no longer detected. His renal function improved, and he has not required dialysis. We conclude that anti-GBM disease in patients with Alport Syndrome may be caused by circulating antibodies to other components of the basement membrane that are undetectable by routine anti-GBM EIA and may respond to treatment with plasmapheresis and IVIG.

  17. A Case of Alport Syndrome with Posttransplant Antiglomerular Basement Membrane Disease despite Negative Antiglomerular Basement Membrane Antibodies by EIA Treated with Plasmapheresis and Intravenous Immunoglobulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstead, Sumiko I; Hellmark, Thomas; Wieslander, Jorgen; Zhou, Xin J; Saxena, Ramesh; Rajora, Nilum

    2013-01-01

    Posttransplant antiglomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) disease occurs in approximately 5% of Alport patients and usually ends in irreversible graft failure. Recent research has focused on characterizing the structure of the anti-GBM alloepitope. Here we present a case of a 22-year-old male with end-stage renal disease secondary to Alport syndrome, with a previously failed renal allograft, who received a second deceased-donor kidney transplant. Six days after transplantation, he developed acute kidney injury. The serum anti-GBM IgG was negative by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). On biopsy, he had crescentic glomerulonephritis with linear GBM fixation of IgG. With further analysis by western blotting, we were able to detect antibodies to an unidentified protein from the basement membrane. This patient was treated with plasmapheresis twice per week and monthly intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) for a total of five months. At the end of treatment, these unknown antibodies were no longer detected. His renal function improved, and he has not required dialysis. We conclude that anti-GBM disease in patients with Alport Syndrome may be caused by circulating antibodies to other components of the basement membrane that are undetectable by routine anti-GBM EIA and may respond to treatment with plasmapheresis and IVIG.

  18. Evidence for the existence of multiple heparan sulfate proteoglycans in the human glomerular basement membrane and mesangial matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groffen, Alexander J A; Hop, Frank W H; Tryggvason, Karl; Dijkman, Henri; Assmann, Karel J M; Veerkamp, Jacques H.; Monnens, Leo A H; Van Den Heuvel, Lambert P W J

    1997-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are essential components of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) carrying a strong anionic charge. A well- characterized extracellular HSPG is perlecan, ubiquitously expressed in basement membranes. A cDNA construct encoding domains I and II of human perlecan

  19. Agrin is a major heparan sulfate proteoglycan in the human glomerular basement membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groffen, Alexander J.; Ruegg, Markus A.; Dijkman, Henri; Van De Velden, Thea J.; Buskens, Carin A.; Van Den Born, Jacob; Assmann, Karel J.; Monnens, Leo A.; Veerkamp, Jacques H.; Van Den Heuvel, Lambert P.

    Agrin is a heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) that is highly concentrated in the synaptic basal lamina at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Agrin-like immunoreactivity is also detected outside the NMJ. Here we show that agrin is a major HSPG component of the human glomerular basement membrane

  20. Rac1 is essential for basement membrane-dependent epiblast survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Xiaowen; Liu, Jie; Qi, Yanmei

    2010-01-01

    During murine peri-implantation development, the egg cylinder forms from a solid cell mass by the apoptotic removal of inner cells that do not contact the basement membrane (BM) and the selective survival of the epiblast epithelium, which does. The signaling pathways that mediate this fundamental...

  1. ULTRASTRUCTURAL-CHANGES OF THE BASEMENT-MEMBRANE ZONE IN BENIGN LESIONS OF THE VOCAL FOLDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DIKKERS, FG; HULSTAERT, CE; OOSTERBAAN, JA; CERVERAPAZ, FJ

    The basement membrane zone (BMZ) of the epithelium of the vocal folds was investigated electron microscopically in 10 patients suffering from various benign lesions and in 3 controls. Various defects were observed: a thickening by deposition of electron dense material, a loss of normal architecture,

  2. Basement membrane changes in breast cancer detected by immunohistochemical staining for laminin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, R; Nielsen, M; Wewer, U

    1981-01-01

    The distribution of the basement membrane glycoprotein laminin was studied by the immunoperoxidase technique in benign and malignant human breast tissue and in axillary lymph nodes from patients with breast cancer. An antiserum prepared against rat laminin was used. The specificity...

  3. Antibody response against the glomerular basement membrane protein agrin in patients with transplant glomerulopathy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, S.A.; Sijpkens, Y.W.; Ham, V. van; Trouw, L.A.; Vlag, J. van der; Heuvel, L.P.W.J. van den; Kooten, C. van; Paul, L.C.

    2005-01-01

    Chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN) of renal allografts is still the most important cause of graft loss. A subset of these patients have transplant glomerulopathy (TGP), characterized by glomerular basement membrane (GBM) duplications, but of unknown etiology. Recently, a role for the immune system

  4. Deposition of nucleosomal antigens (histones and DNA) in the epidermal basement membrane in human lupus nephritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootscholten, C.; Bruggen, M.C.J. van; Pijl, J.W. van der; Jong, E.M.G.J. de; Ligtenberg, G.; Derksen, R.H.W.M.; Berden, J.H.M.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Antinuclear autoantibodies complexed to nucleosomes can bind to heparan sulfate (HS) in the glomerular basement membrane. This binding is due to the binding of the positively charged histones to the strongly anionic HS. Nucleosomes and histones have been identified in glomerular deposits

  5. Accelerating repaired basement membrane after bevacizumab treatment on alkali-burned mouse cornea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koon-Ja Lee

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available To understand the corneal regeneration induced by bevacizumab,we investigated the structure changes of stroma andbasement membrane regeneration. A Stick soaked in 0.5 NNaOH onto the mouse cornea and 2.5 mg/ml of bevacizumabwas delivered into an alkali-burned cornea (2 μl by subconjunctivalinjections at 1 hour and 4 days after injury. At 7 daysafter injury, basement membrane regeneration was observedby transmission electron microscope. Uneven and thin epithelialbasement membrane, light density of hemidesmosomes,and edematous collagen fibril bundles are shown in thealkali-burned cornea. Injured epithelial basement membraneand hemidesmosomes and edematous collagen fibril bundlesresulting from alkali-burned mouse cornea was repaired bybevacizumab treatment. This study demonstrates that bevacizumabcan play an important role in wound healing in thecornea by accelerating the reestablishment of basementmembrane integrity that leads to barriers for scar formation.[BMB Reports 2013; 46(4: 195-200

  6. Concerted regulation of retinal pigment epithelium basement membrane and barrier function by angiocrine factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedicto, Ignacio; Lehmann, Guillermo L; Ginsberg, Michael; Nolan, Daniel J; Bareja, Rohan; Elemento, Olivier; Salfati, Zelda; Alam, Nazia M; Prusky, Glen T; Llanos, Pierre; Rabbany, Sina Y; Maminishkis, Arvydas; Miller, Sheldon S; Rafii, Shahin; Rodriguez-Boulan, Enrique

    2017-05-19

    The outer blood-retina barrier is established through the coordinated terminal maturation of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), fenestrated choroid endothelial cells (ECs) and Bruch's membrane, a highly organized basement membrane that lies between both cell types. Here we study the contribution of choroid ECs to this process by comparing their gene expression profile before (P5) and after (P30) the critical postnatal period when mice acquire mature visual function. Transcriptome analyses show that expression of extracellular matrix-related genes changes dramatically over this period. Co-culture experiments support the existence of a novel regulatory pathway: ECs secrete factors that remodel RPE basement membrane, and integrin receptors sense these changes triggering Rho GTPase signals that modulate RPE tight junctions and enhance RPE barrier function. We anticipate our results will spawn a search for additional roles of choroid ECs in RPE physiology and disease.

  7. Characterizing nanoscale topography of the aortic heart valve basement membrane for tissue engineering heart valve scaffold design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Sarah; Anilkumar, Thapasimuthu; Liliensiek, Sara; Last, Julie A; Murphy, Christopher J; Pandit, Abhay

    2006-02-01

    A fully effective prosthetic heart valve has not yet been developed. A successful tissue-engineered valve prosthetic must contain a scaffold that fully supports valve endothelial cell function. Recently, topographic features of scaffolds have been shown to influence the behavior of a variety of cell types and should be considered in rational scaffold design and fabrication. The basement membrane of the aortic valve endothelium provides important parameters for tissue engineering scaffold design. This study presents a quantitative characterization of the topographic features of the native aortic valve endothelial basement membrane; topographical features were measured, and quantitative data were generated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and light microscopy. Optimal conditions for basement membrane isolation were established. Histological, immunohistochemical, and TEM analyses following decellularization confirmed basement membrane integrity. SEM and AFM photomicrographs of isolated basement membrane were captured and quantitatively analyzed. The basement membrane of the aortic valve has a rich, felt-like, 3-D nanoscale topography, consisting of pores, fibers, and elevations. All features measured were in the sub-100 nm range. No statistical difference was found between the fibrosal and ventricular surfaces of the cusp. These data provide a rational starting point for the design of extracellular scaffolds with nanoscale topographic features that mimic those found in the native aortic heart valve basement membrane.

  8. Immunochemical and autoantigenic properties of the globular domain of basement membrane collagen (type IV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Mark, H; Oberbäumer, I; Timpl, R; Kemler, R; Wick, G

    1985-02-01

    Polyclonal rabbit antibodies raised against the globular domain NC1 of collagen IV from human placenta and a mouse tumor react with conformational antigenic determinants present on the NC1 hexamers and also with the three major subunits obtained after dissociation. The antibodies recognized unique structures within basement membranes and showed a broad tissue reactivity but only limited species cross-reactivity. Using these antibodies, it was possible to detect small amounts of collagen IV antigens from cell cultures and in serum. Monoclonal rat antibodies against mouse NC1 revealed a similar reaction potential. Autoantibodies could be produced in mice against mouse NC1 which react with kidney and lung basement membranes in a pathological manner, mimicking Goodpasture syndrome.

  9. The basement membrane constituents in the mouse embryo's tooth. An autoradiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, M.

    1987-01-01

    Enamel organs isolated from the lower first teeth of 18-days old white mouse embryo by trypsin treatment were used in this study. The organs were cultured during periods of increasing time on a semi-solid medium containing cock serum. In another chase experiments, the organs were cultured on a liquid medium containing proline- 3 H, leucine- 3 H, and glucosamine- 3 H, were studied by autoradiography using both light and electron microscopes. It has been shown that the nature of the culture medium does not apparently interfere with the ability of the enamel to reconstitute the basement membrane. On the other hand, it have been found obvious differences concerning the kinetic of the used isotopes. The results indicate that the turn-over of the basement membrane constituents represents a continuous and homogenous process which continues to take place during, before and after reconstitution. 42 refs. (author)

  10. Immunochemical and ultrastructural assessment of the nature of the pericellular basement membrane of human decidual cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, U M; Faber, M; Liotta, L A

    1985-01-01

    Human decidual cells of early and late pregnancy were studied immunochemically and ultrastructurally with respect to the presence and nature of pericellular basement membrane material. The most prominent cell type in decidual tissue of both early and late pregnancy were large, mature epithelioid......-linked immunosorbent assay. Biosynthesis of laminin was shown by [35S]methionine labeling of short term organ cultures of decidual tissue followed by immunoprecipation, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and fluorography. The laminin chains migrated with the apparent molecular weights of 300...... and 200 kilodaltons under reducing conditions. Two other separate populations of cells were apparent in the decidual tissue of early pregnancy. A smaller group of rounded intermediate sized (15 to 25 micron) decidual cells had focal deposits basement membrane immunoreactive material scattered at the cell...

  11. VEGF-A/Notch-Induced Podosomes Proteolyse Basement Membrane Collagen-IV during Retinal Sprouting Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirjo Spuul

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available During angiogenic sprouting, endothelial tip cells emerge from existing vessels in a process that requires vascular basement membrane degradation. Here, we show that F-actin/cortactin/P-Src-based matrix-degrading microdomains called podosomes contribute to this step. In vitro, VEGF-A/Notch signaling regulates the formation of functional podosomes in endothelial cells. Using a retinal neovascularization model, we demonstrate that tip cells assemble podosomes during physiological angiogenesis in vivo. In the retina, podosomes are also part of an interconnected network that surrounds large microvessels and impinges on the underlying basement membrane. Consistently, collagen-IV is scarce in podosome areas. Moreover, Notch inhibition exacerbates podosome formation and collagen-IV loss. We propose that the localized proteolytic action of podosomes on basement membrane collagen-IV facilitates endothelial cell sprouting and anastomosis within the developing vasculature. The identification of podosomes as key components of the sprouting machinery provides another opportunity to target angiogenesis therapeutically.

  12. Regeneration of the epidermis and basement membrane of the planarian Dugesia japonica after total-body x irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hori, I.

    1979-03-01

    Fresh-water planarians were studied to examine effects of x rays on regeneration of the epidermis and basement membrane. During early stages of regeneration, free rhabdite-forming cells were associated with the wound epidermis and recruited it. In later stages, however, a gradual degeneration occurred in the epidermis and cells undergoing epithelization decreased in number. Eventually epidermal cells on the wound surface appeared necrotic as evidenced by pyknotic nuclei and vacuolized dense cytoplasm. The entire basement membrane could not be reconstituted in any stage after wounding though its precursor-like material was secreted in the interspace between epidermis and parenchyma. Morphological changes in extracellular products and in the cells surrounding the products suggest that epidermal cells which have covered the wound surface synthesize precursors of the basement membrane. Possible factors of a characteristic perturbation in epithelization and basement membrane formation after total-body irradiation are discussed.

  13. Human skin basement membrane-associated heparan sulphate proteoglycan: distinctive differences in ultrastructural localization as a function of developmental age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horiguchi, Y; Fine, J D; Couchman, J R

    1991-01-01

    was identical to that observed in neonatal and adult human skin. These findings demonstrate that active remodelling of the dermo-epidermal junction occurs during at least the first two trimesters, and affects not only basement membrane-associated structures but also specific antigens.......Recent studies have demonstrated that skin basement membrane components are expressed within the dermo-epidermal junction in an orderly sequence during human foetal development. We have investigated the ultrastructural localization of basement membrane-related antigens in human foetal skin...... at different developmental ages using two monoclonal antibodies to a well-characterized basement membrane-associated heparan sulphate proteoglycan. A series of foetal skin specimens (range, 54-142 gestational days) were examined using an immunoperoxidase immunoelectron microscopic technique. In specimens...

  14. Regeneration of the epidermis and basement membrane of the planarian Dugesia japonica after total-body x irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, I.

    1979-01-01

    Fresh-water planarians were studied to examine effects of x rays on regeneration of the epidermis and basement membrane. During early stages of regeneration, free rhabdite-forming cells were associated with the wound epidermis and recruited it. In later stages, however, a gradual degeneration occurred in the epidermis and cells undergoing epithelization decreased in number. Eventually epidermal cells on the wound surface appeared necrotic as evidenced by pyknotic nuclei and vacuolized dense cytoplasm. The entire basement membrane could not be reconstituted in any stage after wounding though its precursor-like material was secreted in the interspace between epidermis and parenchyma. Morphological changes in extracellular products and in the cells surrounding the products suggest that epidermal cells which have covered the wound surface synthesize precursors of the basement membrane. Possible factors of a characteristic perturbation in epithelization and basement membrane formation after total-body irradiation are discussed

  15. Regeneration of defective epithelial basement membrane and restoration of corneal transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Gustavo K.; Santhiago, Marcony R.; Santhanam, Abirami; Torricelli, Andre A. M.; Wilson, Steven E.

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE To study regeneration of the normal ultrastructure of the epithelial basement membrane (EBM) in rabbit corneas that had -9D photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and developed late haze (fibrosis) with restoration of transparency over one to four months after surgery and in corneas that had incisional wounds. METHODS Twenty-four rabbits had one of their eyes included into one of the two procedure groups (-9D PRK or nearly full-thickness incisional wounds), while the opposite eye serving as unwounded controls. All corneas were evaluated with slit lamp photos, transmission electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry for the myofibroblast marker alpha-smooth muscle actin and collagen type III. RESULTS In the ‘-9D PRK group’, corneas at one month after surgery had dense corneal haze and no evidence of regenerated EBM ultrastructure. By two months after surgery, however, small areas of stromal clearing began to appear within the confluent opacity (lacunae), and these corresponded to small islands of normally-regenerated EBM detected within larger area of the excimer laser-ablated zone with no evidence of normal EBM. By four months after surgery, the EBM was fully-regenerated and the corneal transparency was completely restored to the ablated zone. In the ‘Incisional wound group’, the two dense, linear corneal opacities were observed at one month after surgery and progressively faded by two and three months after surgery. The EBM ultrastructure was fully regenerated at the site of the incisions, including around epithelial plugs that extended into the stroma, by one month after surgery in all eyes. CONCLUSIONS In the rabbit model, spontaneous resolution of corneal fibrosis (haze) after high correction PRK is triggered by regeneration of EBM with normal ultrastructure in the excimer laser- ablated zone. Conversely, incisional wounds heal in rabbit corneas without the development of myofibroblasts because the EBM regenerates normally by one month after surgery

  16. Rituximab for the treatment of refractory simultaneous anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) and membranous nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandak, Ghassan; Jones, Bruce A; Li, Jian; Yee, Jerry; Umanath, Kausik

    2014-02-01

    Antibody-mediated anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) disease occurs rarely in the presence of another B-cell disorder, membranous nephropathy. The coexistence of these two autoimmune disorders would be anticipated to require differing, specific therapies targeted to each disease process. We describe a case of concomitant membranous nephropathy and anti-GBM disease in which conventional therapy, including steroids, plasmapheresis and cyclophosphamide, failed to attenuate the anti-GBM disease, yet responded to an alternative treatment of rituximab. This B-cell directed, monoclonal, chimeric antibody treatment substantially reduced anti-GBM antibody titers and led to discontinuation of plasmapheresis, while maintaining the remission of membranous nephropathy and anti-GBM disease.

  17. Basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan from the L2 rat yolk sac carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, M; Wewer, U; Albrechtsen, R

    1984-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycan from the L2 rat yolk sac carcinoma has been purified and partially characterized. The proteoglycan has an apparent Mr of 750 000, 35% of which represents the core protein. The core protein seems to be homogeneous, whereas the heparan sulfate chains are heterogeneous...... with an Mr of about 50 000-70 000, with 30% of the glucosamine being N-sulfated. Antibodies raised against the core protein of the heparan sulfate proteoglycan reacted with basement membranes of various rat and human tissue....

  18. Anti-glomerular basement membrane: A rare cause of renal failure in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indira Agarwal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM disease is a rare cause of acute renal failure and known to have bad prognosis regarding renal functions recovery and patient survival specially when diagnosed late and presents with severe renal failure that requires dialysis. We report a case of 11-year-old child with acute renal failure secondary to anti-GBM disease and associated with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-positive vasculitis. He was treated with plasmapheresis, steroids, and cyclophosphamide with recovery of his kidney functions.

  19. In vivo turnover of the basement membrane and other heparan sulfate proteoglycans of rat glomerulus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beavan, L A; Davies, M; Couchman, J R

    1989-01-01

    The metabolic turnover of rat glomerular proteoglycans in vivo was investigated. Newly synthesized proteoglycans were labeled during a 7-h period after injecting sodium [35S]sulfate intraperitoneally. At the end of the labeling period a chase dose of sodium sulfate was given. Subsequently......-propanesulfonate-4 M guanidine hydrochloride, a procedure which solubilized greater than 95% of the 35S-labeled macromolecules. Of these 11-13% was immunoprecipitated by an antiserum against heparan sulfate proteoglycan which, in immunolocalization experiments, showed specificity for staining the basement membrane...

  20. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans made by different basement-membrane-producing tumors have immunological and structural similarities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, U M; Albrechtsen, R; Hassell, J R

    1985-01-01

    in the native basement membrane of surrounding normal murine tissues. Blocking and ELISA assays demonstrated that the antibodies recognized both antigens. Using techniques involving the chemical and enzymatic degradation of 35S-sulfate-labeled glycosaminoglycans, the mouse EHS tumor cells were found to produce...... proteoglycans obtained from these two sources immunoprecipitated the same precursor protein with a molecular mass of 400,000 daltons from 35S-methionine pulse-labeled cells of both tumors. Immunohistochemistry showed the heparan sulfate proteoglycan to be distributed in the extracellular matrix and also...

  1. Perlecan (basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan and its role in oral malignancies: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mithilesh Mishra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Perlecan means pearl-like structures. Perlecan is a large proteoglycan (400-500 kDa present in virtually all vascularized tissues with a distribution that is primarily confined to basement membranes including those of oral mucosa. It is a basement membrane-type heparan sulfate proteoglycan. Perlecan is synthesized by basal cells and fibroblasts adjacent to the basal lamina . Perlecan is also synthesized by vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells present in the extracellular matrix. It has been demonstrated in recent years that perlecan is distributed in the stromal space of various pathophysiological conditions. The complex pleiotropy of perlecan suggests that this gene product is involved in several developmental processes, at both early and late stages of embryogenesis, as well as in cancer and diabetes. In the oral cavity, perlecan expression is reported to basal cells in normal mucosa and its expression increases in precancer and cancerous conditions. It is also expressed in various odontogenic tumors such as ameloblastoma, keratocyst odontogenic tumor, and also salivary gland tumors such as adenoid cystic carcinoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma, etc.

  2. Agrin is a major heparan sulfate proteoglycan in the human glomerular basement membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groffen, A J; Ruegg, M A; Dijkman, H; van de Velden, T J; Buskens, C A; van den Born, J; Assmann, K J; Monnens, L A; Veerkamp, J H; van den Heuvel, L P

    1998-01-01

    Agrin is a heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) that is highly concentrated in the synaptic basal lamina at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Agrin-like immunoreactivity is also detected outside the NMJ. Here we show that agrin is a major HSPG component of the human glomerular basement membrane (GBM). This is in addition to perlecan, a previously characterized HSPG of basement membranes. Antibodies against agrin and against an unidentified GBM HSPG produced a strong staining of the GBM and the NMJ, different from that observed with anti-perlecan antibodies. In addition, anti-agrin antisera recognized purified GBM HSPG and competed with an anti-GBM HSPG monoclonal antibody in ELISA. Furthermore, both antibodies recognized a molecule that migrated in SDS-PAGE as a smear and had a molecular mass of approximately 200-210 kD after deglycosylation. In immunoelectron microscopy, agrin showed a linear distribution along the GBM and was present throughout the width of the GBM. This was again different from perlecan, which was exclusively present on the endothelial side of the GBM and was distributed in a nonlinear manner. Quantitative ELISA showed that, compared with perlecan, the agrin-like GBM HSPG showed a sixfold higher molarity in crude glomerular extract. These results show that agrin is a major component of the GBM, indicating that it may play a role in renal ultrafiltration and cell matrix interaction. (J Histochem Cytochem 46:19-27, 1998)

  3. The chest X-ray in antiglomerular basement membrane antibody disease (Goodpasture's syndrome)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowley, N.B.; Steiner, R.E.; Chin, W.S.

    1979-01-01

    The chest radiographs of 25 patients with proven antiglomerular basement membrane antibody disease (Goodpasture's syndrome) were analysed. All except two of the patients had pulmonary haemorrhage at some stage of their disease. Altogether there were 39 episodes of pulmonary haemorrhage, 25 being relapses. During seven episodes the chest radiograph was normal. Relapses of pulmonary haemorrhage never occurred in isolation but were usually associated with infection (not necessarily a chest infection) or occasionally fluid overload. Conversely fluid overload or infection were always associated with pulmonary haemorrhage provided there were high or rising titres of circulating antibodies at the time. Therefore in a patient with antiglomerular basement membrane antibody disease, the presence of shadowing in the lung fields on the chest radiograph almost invariably means the patient has pulmonary haemorrhage whether or not pulmonary oedema or a chest infection are present. Limitation of shadowing by a fissure, loss of major portions of the diaphragmatic or cardiac silhouette, involvement of the lung apex or costophrenic angles suggest an underlying chest infection. Septal lines suggest fluid overload. Pleural effusions are seen with chest infections and fluid overload. The carbon monoxide uptake (KCO) was invariably high in the presence of pulmonary haemorrhage even if the chest radiograph was normal. A combined use of KCO and chest radiographs is the best method of monitoring lung disease in these patients. (author)

  4. Pentoxifylline Ameliorates Glomerular Basement Membrane Ultrastructural Changes Caused by Gentamicin Administration in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Stojiljković

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Gentamicin is commonly used for the treatment of severe gram negative bacterial infections but inevi-tably cause renal failure during prolonged use. The aim of our study was to emphasize protective effects of pentoxifylline on glomerular basement membrane (GBM alterations induced by gentamicin in rats. Experiments were done on 40 male Wistar rats divided in three experimental groups. GM-group was treated daily with gentamicin in dose of 100 mg/kg during 8 days. PTX-group was treated daily with pentoxifylline in dose of 45 mg/kg and the same dose of gentamicin as in GM-group during 8 days. The control group received 1 ml/day saline intraperitoneally. Morphometric parameter measured during the analysis was glomerular basement membrane thickness. In GM-group of animals glomeruli were en-larged and GMB was diffusely and unequally thickened with neutrophil cells infiltration. In proximal tu-bules epithelial cells, vacuolization of cytoplasm with coagulation-type necrosis were observed. In PTX-group of animals glomeruli were somewhat enlarged and GBM was thickened only in some segments. Coagulation-type necrosis was not found. Blood urea and serum creatinine concentration in GM-group were significantly elevated in comparison with PTX-group while potassium level was decreased. Our results suggest that PTX has protective effects on GBM and proximal tubules in GM-treated rats.

  5. Effect of diabetes on in vivo metabolism of [35S]-labeled glomerular basement membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, M.P.; Surma, M.L.

    1984-01-01

    Glomerular basement membrane (GBM) was labeled in vivo by the injection of tracer amounts of [ 35 S]-sulfate into normal and streptozotocin-diabetic rats. The biosynthesis and turnover of sulfated glycosaminoglycans in the GBM was determined from the specific activity of [ 35 S] after pronase digestion of basement membranes purified from glomeruli isolated 1-7 days after injection. Peak radiolabeling of both normal and diabetic GBM occurred 24 h after injection and, when corrected for differences in serum sulfate specific activities, was less in diabetic than in normal samples. The specific activity of GBM sulfate, expressed as cpm/microgram uronic acid, progressively diminished over the ensuing period of study in both normal and diabetic samples. The rate of decrease in specific activity of [ 35 S]-labeled GBM was not significantly different in diabetic preparations compared with that in normal controls. The findings are compatible with diminished sulfation and/or production but normal turnover of glycosaminoglycans in the renal GBM in experimental diabetes

  6. Laminin, a noncollagenous component of epithelial basement membranes synthesized by a rat yolk sac tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, U; Albrechtsen, R; Ruoslahti, E

    1981-01-01

    Laminin, a glycoprotein antigenically similar or identical to a component of epithelial basement membranes, was identified as a major component of the abundant extracellular matrix synthesized by an experimentally induced rat yolk sac tumor. Immunocytochemical staining revealed laminin in cultured...... polypeptides with molecular weights of approximately 200,000 and 400,000. These comigrated with the polypeptides of mouse laminin isolated previously. The yolk sac tumor tissue grown in vivo contained laminin in the tumor cells and in the extracellular material as evidenced by immunofluorescence...... membranes in rat tissues in a manner indistinguishable from antilaminin. The presence of laminin in rat yolk sac cells, the presumed origin of our yolk sac tumor, was studied in some detail. Laminin was found to be present in normal cells of the visceral as well as the parietal yolk sac layer...

  7. Nephritogenic antigen determinants in epidermal and renal basement membranes of kindreds with Alport-type familial nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashtan, C; Fish, A J; Kleppel, M; Yoshioka, K; Michael, A F

    1986-10-01

    We probed epidermal basement membranes (EBM) of acid-urea denatured skin from members of kindreds with Alport-type familial nephritis (FN) for the presence of antigens reactive with Goodpasture sera (GPS) and serum (FNS) from an Alport patient who developed anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) nephritis in a renal allograft. By immunoblotting, GPS reacted primarily with the 28,000 molecular weight (mol wt) monomer but also the 24,000 mol wt and 26,000 mol wt monomers of the noncollagenous globular domain (NC1) of type IV collagen from normal human GBM, while FNS identified only the 26,000-mol wt monomer. FNS reacted with EBM of 12 controls and nine unaffected male kindred members but not EBM of eight affected males. Five affected females exhibited interrupted reactivity of FNS with EBM. GPS showed variable reactivity with EBM and was not discriminating with respect to Alport-type FN. FNS did not stain renal basement members of five affected males. However, the EBM, tubular basement membrane, and Bowman's capsules of affected males contained antigens reactive with GPS. These immunochemical studies suggest that the FNS antigen is distinct from Goodpasture antigen(s). The expression of FNS antigen located on the NC1 domain of type IV collagen is altered in basement membranes of patients with Alport-type FN, and the distribution of this antigenic anomaly within kindreds suggests X-linked dominant transmission of a defective gene.

  8. Nephritogenic antigen determinants in epidermal and renal basement membranes of kindreds with Alport-type familial nephritis.

    OpenAIRE

    Kashtan, C; Fish, A J; Kleppel, M; Yoshioka, K; Michael, A F

    1986-01-01

    We probed epidermal basement membranes (EBM) of acid-urea denatured skin from members of kindreds with Alport-type familial nephritis (FN) for the presence of antigens reactive with Goodpasture sera (GPS) and serum (FNS) from an Alport patient who developed anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) nephritis in a renal allograft. By immunoblotting, GPS reacted primarily with the 28,000 molecular weight (mol wt) monomer but also the 24,000 mol wt and 26,000 mol wt monomers of the noncollagenous ...

  9. [Relationship between the changes in ischemia/reperfusion cerebro-microvessel basement membrane injury and gelatinase system in senile rat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-sheng; Liu, Ke; Liu, Jing-xia; Wang, Ming-hang; Zhao, Yue-wu; Liu, Zheng-guo

    2008-11-01

    To study the relationship of cerebro-microvessel basement membrane injury and gelatinase system after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in aged rats. Cerebral I/R injury model was reproduced by intraluminal silk ligature thrombosis of the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Rats were divided randomly into sham control and I/R groups in young rats [ischemia 3 hours (I 3 h) and reperfusion 6 hours (I/R 6 h), 12 hours (I/R 12 h), 24 hours (I/R 24 h), 3 days (I/R 3 d), 6 days (I/R 6 d)], and sham control group and I/R group in aged rats (I 3 h and I/R 6 h, I/R 12 h, I/R 24 h , I/R 3 d, I/R 6 d). The change in cerebro-cortex microvessel basement membrane structure, basement membrane type IV collagen (Col IV) and laminin (LN) contents, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) expression in every group were determined with immunohistochemical method and zymogram analysis. With the increase in age, Col IV and LN contents of the microvessel basement membrane were increased, and MMP-2 and MMP-9 expressions were stronger. With prolongation of I/R, the degradation of microvessel basement membrane components (Col IV and LN) was positively correlated with the duration of cerebral I/R. MMP-2 expression was increased gradually, and MMP-9 and TIMP-1 expression increased at the beginning and decreased subsequently. Col IV(I 3 h, I/R 6 h , I/R 12 h), LN (I 3 h, I/R 6-24 h), MMP-2 (I 3 h, I/R 6 h-6 d) and MMP-9 (I 3 h, I/R 6-24 h) expression level in aged rats with I/R injury were higher, and TIMP-1 (I/R 24 h) expression was lower than those in young rats (Pcerebro-microvessel basement membrane in rats is related with MMPs and TIMP. Cerebro-microvessel basement membrane injury is more serious in aged rats than that of young rats. Changes in cerebro-microvessel basement membrane injury in aged rats is related with gelatinase system change.

  10. Immunological characterization of a basement membrane-specific chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, K J; Accavitti, M A; Couchman, J R

    1989-01-01

    with the proteoglycan preparation and four mAbs recognizing the core protein of a high-density, buoyant chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan were raised. Confirmation of antibody specificity was carried out by the preparation of affinity columns made from each of the mAbs. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) were...... (Mr = 5-6 x 10(5)), with a core protein of Mr = approximately 1.5-1.6 x 10(5) and composed exclusively of chondroitin sulfate chains with an average Mr = 1.6-1.8 x 10(4). In addition, a CSPG was purified from adult rat kidney, whose core protein was also Mr = 1.6 x 10(5). The proteoglycan and its core...... sulfate proteoglycans, it therefore appears that at least one CSPG is a widespread basement membrane component....

  11. In vivo turnover of the basement membrane and other heparan sulfate proteoglycans of rat glomerulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beavan, L.A.; Davies, M.; Couchman, J.R.; Williams, M.A.; Mason, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    The metabolic turnover of rat glomerular proteoglycans in vivo was investigated. Newly synthesized proteoglycans were labeled during a 7-h period after injecting sodium [35S]sulfate intraperitoneally. At the end of the labeling period a chase dose of sodium sulfate was given. Subsequently at defined times (0-163 h) the kidneys were perfused in situ with 0.01% cetylpyridinium chloride in phosphate-buffered saline to maximize the recovery of 35S-proteoglycans. Glomeruli were isolated from the renal cortex and analyzed for 35S-proteoglycans by autoradiographic, biochemical, and immunochemical methods. Grain counting of autoradiographs revealed a complex turnover pattern of 35S-labeled macromolecules, commencing with a rapid phase followed by a slower phase. Biochemical analysis confirmed the biphasic pattern and showed that the total population of [35S]heparan sulfate proteoglycans had a metabolic half-life (t1/2) of 20 and 60 h in the early and late phases, respectively. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans accounted for 80% of total 35S-proteoglycans, the remainder being chondroitin/dermatan sulfate proteoglycans. Whole glomeruli were extracted with 4% 3-[(cholamidopropyl)dimethy-lammonio]-1-propanesulfonate-4 M guanidine hydrochloride, a procedure which solubilized greater than 95% of the 35S-labeled macromolecules. Of these 11-13% was immunoprecipitated by an antiserum against heparan sulfate proteoglycan which, in immunolocalization experiments, showed specificity for staining the basement membrane of rat glomeruli. Autoradiographic analysis showed that 18% of total radioactivity present at the end of the labeling period was associated with the glomerular basement membrane

  12. [Morphology of basement membrane and associated matrix proteins in normal and pathological tissues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerlich, A

    1995-01-01

    Basement membranes (BM) are specialized structures of the extracellular matrix. Their composition is of particular importance for the maintenance of normal morphological and functional properties of a multitude of organs and tissue systems and it is thus required for regular homeostasis of body function. Generally, they possess three main functions, i.e. participation in the maintenance of tissue structure, control of fluid and substrate exchange, and regulation of cell growth and differentiation. BMs are made up by various components which are in part specifically localized within the BM zone, or which represent ubiquitous matrix constituents with specific quantitative and/or qualitative differences in their localization. On the basis of a thorough immunohistochemical analysis of normal and diseased tissues, we provide here a concept of "functional morphology/pathomorphology" of the different BM components analyzed: 1.) The ubiquitous BM-constituent collagen IV primarily stabilizes the BM-zone and thus represents the "backbone" of the BM providing mechanical strength. Its loss leads to cystic tissue transformation as it is evidenced from the analysis of polycystic nephropathies. Thus, in other cystic tissue transformations a similar formal pathogenesis may be present. 2.) The specific localization of collagen VII as the main structural component of anchoring fibrils underlines the mechanical anchoring function of this collagenous protein. Defects in this protein lead to hereditary epidermolysis. The rapid re-occurrence of epidermal collagen VII during normal human wound healing indicates a quick reconstitution of the mechanical tensile strength of healing wounds. 3.) The BM-specific heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG, Perlecan) with its highly negative anionic charge can be assumed to exert filter control. This assumption is corroborated by the localizatory findings of a preferential deposition of HSPG in endothelial and particularly in glomerular BM. Similarly

  13. Expression of periglandular tenascin-C and basement membrane laminin in normal prostate, benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xue, Y.; Li, J.; Latijnhouwers, M. A.; Smedts, F.; Umbas, R.; Aalders, T. W.; Debruyne, F. M.; de la Rosette, J. J.; Schalken, J. A.

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate the structural relationship of the distribution between tenascin (tenascin-C, an extra-cellular matrix glycoprotein involved in stromal-epithelial interactions in both normal and pathological conditions) and laminin, an important component of the basement membrane, in normal and

  14. Rat mesangial cells in vitro synthesize a spectrum of proteoglycan species including those of the basement membrane and interstitium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, G J; Shewring, L; McCarthy, K J

    1995-01-01

    is localized in the mesangium but is not found in the pericapillary glomerular basement membrane (GBM). Further characterization of the proteoglycans synthesized by RMC in vitro revealed: (i) a second large CSPG, identified as versican; (ii) two small dermatan sulphate proteoglycans identified as biglycan...

  15. Electron microscopic study of the myelinated nerve fibres and the perineurial cell basement membrane in the diabetic human peripheral nerves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBarrany, Wagih G.; Hamdy, Raid M.; AlHayani, Abdulmonem A.; Jalalah, Sawsan M.

    2009-01-01

    To study the quantitative and ultrastructural changes in myelinated nerve fibers and the basement membranes of the perineurial cells in diabetic nerves. The study was performed at the Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdul-Aziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia from 2003 to 2005. Human sural nerves were obtained from 15 lower limbs and 5 diabetic nerve biopsies. The total mean and density of myelinated nerve fibers per fascicle were calculated, with density of microtubules and mitochondria in the axoplasm. The number of the perineurial cell basement membrane layers was counted, and thickness of the basement membrane was measured. Among the 15 diabetic and 5 normal human sural nerves, the average diameters, number and surface area of myelinated nerve fibers and axonal microtubules density were found to be less in diabetic nerves. Mitochondrial density was higher in diabetic axons. Thickness of the perineurial cell basement membrane had a greater mean, but the number of perineurial cell layers was less than that of the diabetic group. The inner cellular layer of the perineurium of the diabetic nerves contained large vacuoles containing electron-dense degenerated myelin. A few specimens showed degenerated myelinated nerve fibers, while others showed recovering ones. Retracted axoplasms were encountered with albumin extravasation. Diabetes caused an increase in perineurial permeability. The diabetic sural nerve showed marked decrease in the myelinated nerve fibres, increase degenerated mitochondria, and decreased microtubules. (author)

  16. Ultrastructural localization of the core protein of a basement membrane-specific chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan in adult rat skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, K J; Horiguchi, Y; Couchman, J R

    1990-01-01

    Basement membranes are complex extracellular matrices present at epithelial/mesenchymal interfaces of tissues. The dermal-epidermal junction has been shown to contain numerous components, some of the most well known being laminin, types IV and VII collagens, heparan sulfate proteoglycan, fibronec...

  17. Intercellular deposits of basement membrane material in active human pituitary adenomas detected by immunostaining for laminin and electron microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, S; Wewer, U M; Albrechtsen, R

    1986-01-01

    and one patient with Cushing's syndrome). Concurrently, at the ultrastructural level, bunches of basement membrane-like material intermingled between the adenoma cells were demonstrated in seven of these ten active adenomas. Furthermore, secretory granules were entrapped occasionally in this intercellular...

  18. Role of 17 beta-estradiol on type IV collagen fibers volumetric density in the basement membrane of bladder wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fraga, Rogerio; Dambros, Miriam; Miyaoka, Ricardo; Riccetto, Cássio Luís Zanettini; Palma, Paulo César Rodrigues

    2007-10-01

    The authors quantified the type IV collagen fibers volumetric density in the basement membrane of bladder wall of ovariectomized rats with and without estradiol replacement. This study was conducted on 40 Wistar rats (3 months old) randomly divided in 4 groups: group 1, remained intact (control); group 2, submitted to bilateral oophorectomy and daily replacement 4 weeks later of 17 beta-estradiol for 12 weeks; group 3, sham operated and daily replacement 4 weeks later of sesame oil for 12 weeks; and group 4, submitted to bilateral oophorectomy and killed after 12 weeks. It was used in immunohistochemistry evaluation using type IV collagen polyclonal antibody to stain the fibers on paraffin rat bladder sections. The M-42 stereological grid system was used to analyze the fibers. Ovariectomy had an increase effect on the volumetric density of the type IV collagen fibers in the basement membrane of rat bladder wall. Estradiol replacement in castrated animals demonstrated a significative difference in the stereological parameters when compared to the castrated group without hormonal replacement. Surgical castration performed on rats induced an increasing volumetric density of type IV collagen fibers in the basement membrane of rats bladder wall and the estradiol treatment had a significant effect in keeping a low volumetric density of type IV collagen fibers in the basement membrane of rats bladder wall.

  19. Spumiform basement membrane aberrations in the microvasculature of the midbrain periaqueductal gray region in hamster : Rostro-caudal pathogenesis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, P.O.; Kortekaas, R.; de Weerd, Heleen; Luiten, P.G.M.; van der Want, J.J.L.; Veening, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Spumiform basement membrane degeneration (sbmd) is a specific kind of aberration present in the capillaries of the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) region of the senescent hamster. These capillaries, separated by the ependymal cell layer, are bordering the Sylvian cerebral aqueduct. The aqueduct,

  20. Spumiform basement membrane aberrations in the microvasculature of the midbrain periaqueductal gray region in hamster: rostro-caudal pathogenesis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, P.O.; Kortekaas, R.; Weerd, H. de; Luiten, P.G.M.; Want, J.J. van der; Veening, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    Spumiform basement membrane degeneration (sbmd) is a specific kind of aberration present in the capillaries of the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) region of the senescent hamster. These capillaries, separated by the ependymal cell layer, are bordering the Sylvian cerebral aqueduct. The aqueduct,

  1. MT1-MMP-mediated basement membrane remodeling modulates renal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riggins, Karen S.; Mernaugh, Glenda; Su, Yan; Quaranta, Vito; Koshikawa, Naohiko; Seiki, Motoharu; Pozzi, Ambra; Zent, Roy

    2010-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling regulates multiple cellular functions required for normal development and tissue repair. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are key mediators of this process and membrane targeted MMPs (MT-MMPs) in particular have been shown to be important in normal development of specific organs. In this study we investigated the role of MT1-MMP in kidney development. We demonstrate that loss of MT1-MMP leads to a renal phenotype characterized by a moderate decrease in ureteric bud branching morphogenesis and a severe proliferation defect. The kidneys of MT1-MMP-null mice have increased deposition of collagen IV, laminins, perlecan, and nidogen and the phenotype is independent of the MT-1MMP target, MMP-2. Utilizing in vitro systems we demonstrated that MTI-MMP proteolytic activity is required for renal tubule cells to proliferate in three dimensional matrices and to migrate on collagen IV and laminins. Together these data suggest an important role for MT1-MMP in kidney development, which is mediated by its ability to regulate cell proliferation and migration by proteolytically cleaving kidney basement membrane components.

  2. Deletion of PPAR-γ in immune cells enhances susceptibility to antiglomerular basement membrane disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristen Chafin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Cristen Chafin2, Sarah Muse2, Raquel Hontecillas5, Josep Bassaganya-Riera5, David L Caudell2, Samuel K Shimp III4, M Nichole Rylander4, John Zhang6, Liwu Li3, Christopher M Reilly1,21Virginia College of Osteopathic Medicine, 2Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology, Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, USA; 3Department of Biological Sciences, 4Department of Mechanical Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, USA; 5Nutritional Immunology and Molecular Medicine Laboratory, Virginia Bioinformatics Institute, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, USA; 6Medical University of SC, Charleston, SC, USAAbstract: Activation of the nuclear hormone receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ has been shown to be immunoregulatory in autoimmune diseases by inhibiting production of a number of inflammatory mediators. We investigated whether PPAR-γ gene deletion in hematopoietic cells would alter disease pathogenesis in the antiglomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM mouse model. PPAR-γ+/+ and PPAR-γ-/- mice were immunized with rabbit antimouse GBM antibodies and lipopolysaccharide and evaluated for two weeks. Although both the PPAR-γ+/+ and PPAR-γ-/- mice had IgG deposition in the glomerulus and showed proteinuria two weeks after injection, glomerular and tubulointerstitial disease in PPAR-γ-/- mice were significantly more severe compared with the PPAR-γ+/+ animals. We observed that the PPAR-γ-/- mice had decreased CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells and an increased CD8+:CD4+ ratio as compared with the PPAR-γ+/+ mice, suggesting that PPAR-γ has a role in the regulation of T cells. Furthermore, plasma interleukin-6 levels were significantly increased in the PPAR-γ-/- mice at two weeks as compared with the PPAR-γ+/+ animals. Taken together, these studies show that

  3. Functional differentiation and alveolar morphogenesis of primary mammary cultures on reconstituted basement membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BARCELLOS-HOFF, M. H; AGGELER, J.; RAM, T. G; BISSELL, M. J

    1989-02-01

    An essential feature of mammary gland differentiation during pregnancy is the formation of alveoli composed of polarized epithelial cells, which, under the influence of lactogenic hormones, secrete vectorially and sequester milk proteins. Previous culture studies have described either organization of cells polarized towards lumina containing little or no demonstrable tissue-specific protein, or establishment of functional secretory cells exhibiting little or no glandular architecture. In this paper, we report that tissue-specific vectorial secretion coincides with the formation of functional alveoli-like structures by primary mammary epithelial cells cultured on a reconstituted basement membrane matrix (derived from Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm murine tumour). Morphogenesis of these unique three-dimensional structures was initiated by cell-directed remodelling of the exogenous matrix leading to reorganization of cells into matrixensheathed aggregates by 24 h after plating. The aggregates subsequently cavitated, so that by day 6 the cells were organized into hollow spheres in which apical cell surfaces faced lumina sealed by tight junctions and basal surfaces were surrounded by a distinct basal lamina. The profiles of proteins secreted into the apical (luminal) and basal (medium) compartments indicated that these alveoli-like structures were capable of an appreciable amount of vectorial secretion. Immunoprecipitation with a broad spectrum milk antiserum showed that more than 80% of caseins were secreted into the lumina, whereas iron-binding proteins (both lactoferrin and transferrin) were present in comparable amounts in each compartment. Thus, these mammary cells established protein targeting pathways directing milk-specific proteins to the luminal compartment. A time course monitoring secretory activity demonstrated that establishment of tissue-specific vectorial secretion and increased total and milk protein secretion coincided with functional alveolar

  4. Anti-glomerular basement membrane glomerulonephritis in an HIV positive patient: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo José Bellotto Monteiro

    Full Text Available We report on a case of a patient with HIV infection, diagnosed 18 months prior to the development of an anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis; this is probably the first report of such an association. A 30-year-old white man presented with elevation of serum creatinine (1.3 - 13.5 mg/dL within one month. At admission, the urinalysis showed proteinuria of 7.2 g/L and 8,000,000 erythrocytes/mL. Renal biopsy corresponded to a crescentic diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis mediated by anti-GBM, and serum testing for anti-GBM antibodies was positive; antinuclear antibodies (ANA and anti-neutrophilic cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA were also positive. The patient underwent hemodyalisis and was treated with plasmapheresis, cyclophosphamide and prednisone. The association described here is not casual, as crescentic glomerulonephritis is not common in HIV-positive patients, anti-GBM glomerulonephritis is rare and anti-GBM antibodies are frequently observed in HIV-positive subjects when compared to the overall population. Based on the current case and on the elevated frequency of the positivity for such antibodies in this group of patients, it is advisable to be aware of the eventual association between these two conditions and to promote an active search for anti-GBM antibodies and early diagnosis of eventual urinary abnormalities in HIV-positive subjects, considering the severity of anti-GBM glomerulonephritis.

  5. Retinoid inhibition of in vitro invasion of human amnion basement membrane by human tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazely, F.; Ledinko, N.; Smith, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    The biological activity of retinoids was assayed in an in vitro quantitative assay of human tumor cell invasion using human amnion basement membrane (BM). The effects measured were the inhibition of tumor cell migration through the BM and tumor cell degradative enzyme activity on 14 C-proline labeled collagenous and noncollagenous components of the BM. The human lung carcinoma A549 or the human Ewing's sarcoma TC-106 cell lines treated with retinoids for two days were incubated on the BM in the absence of retinoids. A dose-dependent inhibition of cell invasion was produced by retinoids. Among the retinoids tested, the most powerful was retinol acetate which inhibited invasion by 50% of A549 cells at a concentration of 0.009 μg/mL, and of TC-106 cells at 0.07 μg/mL. Retinol acetate inhibited A549 and TC-106 cell growth by approximately 50% at levels over 100-fold higher than those needed for antiinvasive activity. Retinol acetate was about 20 times more potent than retinoic acid and 30 times more potent than retinol palmitate. The model system will be useful for investigating antiinvasive activity of other retinoids as well as other compounds

  6. Immunohistochemical expression of basement membrane proteins of verrucous carcinoma of the oral mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arduino, Paolo G; Carrozzo, Marco; Pagano, Marco; Broccoletti, Roberto; Scully, Crispian; Gandolfo, Sergio

    2010-06-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral cavity is an extremely invasive tumour of stratified squamous epithelium that spreads throughout degradation of the basement membrane (BM) and extra-cellular matrix. Oral verrucous carcinoma (VC) is a rare low-grade variant of oral SCC that penetrates into the subepithelial connective tissue. It also has a different clinical behaviour from classical oral SCC. We investigated the immunohistochemical expression of laminin, laminin-5, collagen IV and fibronectin in VC, severe epithelial dysplasia (SED) and SCC in order to analyse if the pattern of these molecules expression contributes to the differences in the biological behaviour of these diseases. The staining pattern of laminin was less intensive in SCC compared with SED and VC, and collagen IV expression was increased in VC compared with SED. Discontinuities of laminin, collagen IV and fibronectin were more evident in SED than in VC. This study indicates that VC has a biological behaviour different from SED or SCC, observable by immunohistochemistry in the BM zone.

  7. Retinoid inhibition of in vitro invasion of human amnion basement membrane by human tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazely, F.

    1988-01-01

    The effects measured were the inhibition of tumor cell migration through the basement membrane (BM) and tumor cell degradative enzyme activity on 3 H-proline labeled collagenous and non collagenous components of the BM. The human lung carcinoma A549 or the human Ewing's sarcoma TC-106 cell lines treated with retinoids for two days were incubated on the BM in the absence of retinoids. A dose-dependent inhibition of cell invasion was produced by retinoids. Among the retinoids tested the most powerful was retinol acetate which inhibited invasion by 50% of A549 cells at a concentration of 0.09 μg/ml, and TC-106 cells at 0.08 μg/ml. Retinol acetate inhibited A549 and TC-106 cell growth by approximately 50% at levels almost 100-fold higher than those needed for antiinvasive activity. Retinol acetate was about 20 times more potent than retinoic acid and 30 times more than retinol palmitate. Furthermore, A549 cells treated with retinol acetate, under conditions whereby an anti-invasive state was induced,showed an increase in the number of cellular retinoic acid binding proteins (CRABP), a decrease in the activity of type IV collagenase and ectosialyltransferase, and no change in the activity of transglutaminase

  8. Crosslinked basement membrane-based coatings enhance glucose sensor function and continuous glucose monitoring in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klueh, Ulrike; Ludzinska, Izabela; Czajkowski, Caroline; Qiao, Yi; Kreutzer, Donald L

    2018-01-01

    Overcoming sensor-induced tissue reactions is an essential element of achieving successful continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in the management of diabetes, particularly when used in closed loop technology. Recently, we demonstrated that basement membrane (BM)-based glucose sensor coatings significantly reduced tissue reactions at sites of device implantation. However, the biocompatible BM-based biohydrogel sensor coating rapidly degraded over a less than a 3-week period, which effectively eliminated the protective sensor coating. In an effort to increase the stability and effectiveness of the BM coating, we evaluated the impact of crosslinking BM utilizing glutaraldehyde as a crosslinking agent, designated as X-Cultrex. Sensor performance (nonrecalibrated) was evaluated for the impact of these X-Cultrex coatings in vitro and in vivo. Sensor performance was assessed over a 28-day time period in a murine CGM model and expressed as mean absolute relative difference (MARD) values. Tissue reactivity of Cultrex-coated, X-Cultrex-coated, and uncoated glucose sensors was evaluated over a 28-day time period in vivo using standard histological techniques. These studies demonstrated that X-Cultrex-based sensor coatings had no effect on glucose sensor function in vitro. In vivo, glucose sensor performance was significantly enhanced following X-Cultrex coating throughout the 28-day study. Histological evaluations of X-Cultrex-treated sensors demonstrated significantly less tissue reactivity when compared to uncoated sensors. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 106A: 7-16, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Degradation of endothelial basement membrane by human breast cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yee, C.; Shiu, R.P.

    1986-01-01

    During metastasis, it is believed that tumor cells destroy the basement membrane (BM) of blood vessels in order to disseminate through the circulatory system. By radioactively labeling the extracellular matrix produced by primary endothelial cells in vitro, the ability of human breast cancer cells to degrade BM components was studied. We found that T-47D, a human breast cancer line, was able to degrade significant amounts of [35S]methionine-labeled and [3H]proline-labeled BM, but not 35SO4-labeled BM. Six other tumor cell lines of human breast origin were assayed in the same manner and were found to degrade BM to varying degrees. Several non-tumor cell lines tested showed relatively little degrading activity. The use of serum-free medium greatly enhanced degradation of the BM by tumor cells, suggesting a role for naturally occurring enzyme inhibitors in the serum. Direct cell contact with the BM was required for BM degradation, suggesting that the active enzymes are cell associated. The addition of hormones implicated in the etiology of breast cancer did not significantly alter the ability of T-47D cells to degrade the BM. The use of this assay affords future studies on the mechanism of invasion and metastasis of human breast cancer

  10. Basement membrane and interstitial proteoglycans produced by MDCK cells correspond to those expressed in the kidney cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erickson, A C; Couchman, J R

    2001-01-01

    Multiple proteoglycans (PGs) are present in all basement membranes (BM) and may contribute to their structure and function, but their effects on cell behavior are not well understood. Their postulated functions include: a structural role in maintaining tissue histoarchitecture, or aid in selective...... filtration processes; sequestration of growth factors; and regulation of cellular differentiation. Furthermore, expression PGs has been found to vary in several disease states. In order to elucidate the role of PGs in the BM, a well-characterized model of polarized epithelium, Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK...... core proteins or CS stubs generated by cABC treatment, revealed that both basement membrane and interstitial PGs are secreted by MDCK cells. HSPGs expressed by MDCK cells are perlecan, agrin, and collagen XVIII. Various CSPG core proteins are made by MDCK cells and have been identified as biglycan...

  11. De novo deposition of laminin-positive basement membrane in vitro by normal hepatocytes and during hepatocarcinogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, R; Wewer, U M; Thorgeirsson, S S

    1988-01-01

    De novo formation of laminin-positive basement membranes was found to be a distinct morphologic feature of diethylnitrosamine/phenobarbital-induced hepatocellular carcinomas of the rat. The first appearance of extracellularly located laminin occurred in the preneoplastic liver lesions...... (corresponding to neoplastic nodules), and this feature became successively more prominent during the course of hepatocellular carcinoma development. Most groups of tumor cells were surrounded by laminin-positive basement membrane material. The laminin-positive material was also deposited along the sinusoids......, a location where no laminin was seen in normal rat liver. The amount of extractable laminin from hepatocellular carcinomas was significantly higher (approximately 100 ng per mg tissue) than that of normal liver tissue (less than 20 ng per mg). In vitro experiments demonstrated that normal and preneoplastic...

  12. Aluminum-containing dense deposits of the glomerular basement membrane: identification by energy dispersive X-ray analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.M. Jr.; Pitcock, J.A.; Murphy, W.M.

    1982-01-01

    Heavy metals, including gold, mercury, lead, bismuth, and cadmium, have the potential to cause renal disease. With the development of X-ray microanalysis, these heavy metals can now be identified in tissue deposits. This report describes a case of renal failure, probably related to dysproteinemia, in which granular, electron-opaque dense deposits were present in the glomerular basement membranes. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis demonstrated that these dense deposits contained aluminum. An analysis of this patient's history in relation to the current knowledge of aluminum metabolism suggests that the aluminum deposition occurred secondary to previous glomerular injury. This case emphasizes the need to utilize heavy metal identification technology whenever granular, electron-opaque dense deposits are identified and represents, to our knowledge, the first study to document aluminum deposits within the glomerular basement membrane of humans

  13. Distribution of two basement membrane proteoglycans through hair follicle development and the hair growth cycle in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; King, J L; McCarthy, K J

    1990-01-01

    The distribution of two distinct populations of basement membrane proteoglycans has been monitored through hair growth development in the rat embryo and subsequent hair growth cycle. An antiserum against a small heparan sulfate proteoglycan uniformly stained the dermal-epidermal junction...... of embryonic rats throughout the period of hair follicle formation. On the other hand, monoclonal antibodies recognizing a basement membrane-specific chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan only weakly stained 16-d embryo dermal-epidermal junction, but strong staining was associated with hair follicle buds...... as they developed. Through the hair growth cycle, it was found that the heparan sulfate proteoglycan persisted around the follicles, while the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan decreased in amount through catagen until it was undetectable at the base and dermal papilla of the telogen follicle. As anagen commenced...

  14. Frequently relapsing anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody disease with changing clinical phenotype and antibody characteristics over time

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Bobby; Magil, Alex B.; Barbour, Sean J.

    2016-01-01

    Anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibody disease is a typically monophasic autoimmune disease with severe pulmonary and renal involvement. We report an atypical case of frequently relapsing anti-GBM antibody disease with both anti-GBM antibody?positive flares with pulmonary and renal involvement, and anti-GBM antibody?negative flares that were pulmonary limited with no histologic renal disease. This is the first report of alternating disease phenotype and anti-GBM antibody status over...

  15. Distribution of Basement Membrane Molecules, Laminin and Collagen Type IV, in Normal and Degenerated Cartilage Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foldager, Casper Bindzus; Toh, Wei Seong; Gomoll, Andreas H; Olsen, Bjørn Reino; Spector, Myron

    2014-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the presence and distribution of 2 basement membrane (BM) molecules, laminin and collagen type IV, in healthy and degenerative cartilage tissues. Normal and degenerated tissues were obtained from goats and humans, including articular knee cartilage, the intervertebral disc, and meniscus. Normal tissue was also obtained from patella-tibial enthesis in goats. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed using anti-laminin and anti-collagen type IV antibodies. Human and goat skin were used as positive controls. The percentage of cells displaying the pericellular presence of the protein was graded semiquantitatively. When present, laminin and collagen type IV were exclusively found in the pericellular matrix, and in a discrete layer on the articulating surface of normal articular cartilage. In normal articular (hyaline) cartilage in the human and goat, the proteins were found co-localized pericellularly. In contrast, in human osteoarthritic articular cartilage, collagen type IV but not laminin was found in the pericellular region. Nonpathological fibrocartilaginous tissues from the goat, including the menisci and the enthesis, were also positive for both laminin and collagen type IV pericellularly. In degenerated fibrocartilage, including intervertebral disc, as in degenerated hyaline cartilage only collagen type IV was found pericellularly around chondrocytes but with less intense staining than in non-degenerated tissue. In calcified cartilage, some cells were positive for laminin but not type IV collagen. We report differences in expression of the BM molecules, laminin and collagen type IV, in normal and degenerative cartilaginous tissues from adult humans and goats. In degenerative tissues laminin is depleted from the pericellular matrix before collagen type IV. The findings may inform future studies of the processes underlying cartilage degeneration and the functional roles of these 2 extracellular matrix proteins

  16. Permeation of macromolecules into the renal glomerular basement membrane and capture by the tubules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Marlon G.; Altenburg, Michael K.; Sanford, Ryan; Willett, Julian D.; Bleasdale, Benjamin; Ballou, Byron; Wilder, Jennifer; Li, Feng; Miner, Jeffrey H.; Berg, Ulla B.; Smithies, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    How the kidney prevents urinary excretion of plasma proteins continues to be debated. Here, using unfixed whole-mount mouse kidneys, we show that fluorescent-tagged proteins and neutral dextrans permeate into the glomerular basement membrane (GBM), in general agreement with Ogston's 1958 equation describing how permeation into gels is related to molecular size. Electron-microscopic analyses of kidneys fixed seconds to hours after injecting gold-tagged albumin, negatively charged gold nanoparticles, and stable oligoclusters of gold nanoparticles show that permeation into the lamina densa of the GBM is size-sensitive. Nanoparticles comparable in size with IgG dimers do not permeate into it. IgG monomer-sized particles permeate to some extent. Albumin-sized particles permeate extensively into the lamina densa. Particles traversing the lamina densa tend to accumulate upstream of the podocyte glycocalyx that spans the slit, but none are observed upstream of the slit diaphragm. At low concentrations, ovalbumin-sized nanoparticles reach the primary filtrate, are captured by proximal tubule cells, and are endocytosed. At higher concentrations, tubular capture is saturated, and they reach the urine. In mouse models of Pierson’s or Alport’s proteinuric syndromes resulting from defects in GBM structural proteins (laminin β2 or collagen α3 IV), the GBM is irregularly swollen, the lamina densa is absent, and permeation is increased. Our observations indicate that size-dependent permeation into the lamina densa of the GBM and the podocyte glycocalyx, together with saturable tubular capture, determines which macromolecules reach the urine without the need to invoke direct size selection by the slit diaphragm. PMID:28246329

  17. WY14,643, a PPARα ligand, attenuates expression of anti-glomerular basement membrane disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, D C; Frkanec, J T; Cromwell, J; Clopton, P; Cunard, R

    2007-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) ligands are medications used to treat hyperlipidaemia and atherosclerosis. Increasing evidence suggests that these agents are immunosuppressive. In the following studies we demonstrate that WY14,643, a PPARα ligand, attenuates expression of anti-glomerular basement membrane disease (AGBMD). C57BL/6 mice were fed 0·05% WY14,643 or control food and immunized with the non-collagenous domain of the α3 chain of Type IV collagen [α3(IV) NC1] in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). WY14,643 reduced proteinuria and greatly improved glomerular and tubulo-interstitial lesions. However, the PPARα ligand did not alter the extent of IgG-binding to the GBM. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that the prominent tubulo-interstitial infiltrates in the control-fed mice consisted predominately of F4/80+ macrophages and WY14,643-feeding decreased significantly the number of renal macrophages. The synthetic PPARα ligand also reduced significantly expression of the chemokine, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1/CCL2. Sera from mice immunized with AGBMD were also evaluated for antigen-specific IgGs. There was a significant increase in the IgG1 : IgG2c ratio and a decline in the intrarenal and splenocyte interferon (IFN)-γ mRNA expression in the WY14,643-fed mice, suggesting that the PPARα ligand could skew the immune response to a less inflammatory T helper 2-type of response. These studies suggest that PPARα ligands may be a novel treatment for inflammatory renal disease. PMID:17888025

  18. WY14,643, a PPARalpha ligand, attenuates expression of anti-glomerular basement membrane disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, D C; Frkanec, J T; Cromwell, J; Clopton, P; Cunard, R

    2007-11-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) ligands are medications used to treat hyperlipidaemia and atherosclerosis. Increasing evidence suggests that these agents are immunosuppressive. In the following studies we demonstrate that WY14,643, a PPARalpha ligand, attenuates expression of anti-glomerular basement membrane disease (AGBMD). C57BL/6 mice were fed 0.05% WY14,643 or control food and immunized with the non-collagenous domain of the alpha3 chain of Type IV collagen [alpha3(IV) NC1] in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). WY14,643 reduced proteinuria and greatly improved glomerular and tubulo-interstitial lesions. However, the PPARalpha ligand did not alter the extent of IgG-binding to the GBM. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that the prominent tubulo-interstitial infiltrates in the control-fed mice consisted predominately of F4/80(+) macrophages and WY14,643-feeding decreased significantly the number of renal macrophages. The synthetic PPARalpha ligand also reduced significantly expression of the chemokine, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1/CCL2. Sera from mice immunized with AGBMD were also evaluated for antigen-specific IgGs. There was a significant increase in the IgG1 : IgG2c ratio and a decline in the intrarenal and splenocyte interferon (IFN)-gamma mRNA expression in the WY14,643-fed mice, suggesting that the PPARalpha ligand could skew the immune response to a less inflammatory T helper 2-type of response. These studies suggest that PPARalpha ligands may be a novel treatment for inflammatory renal disease.

  19. Modulation of interferon-induced genes by lipoxin analogue in anti-glomerular basement membrane nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohse, Takamoto; Ota, Tatsuru; Kieran, Niamh; Godson, Catherine; Yamada, Koei; Tanaka, Tetsuhiro; Fujita, Toshiro; Nangaku, Masaomi

    2004-04-01

    Immune complex deposition is associated with the accumulation of neutrophils, which play an important role in the various immune-mediated diseases. A novel anti-inflammatory agent, the lipoxin A (LXA) analogue (15-epi-16-(FPhO)-LXA-Me)), a stable synthetic analogue of aspirin-triggered 15-epi-lipoxin A4 (ATLa), was used in experimental anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibody nephritis in mice. ATLa was administered before the induction of the disease, and 2 h later, the animals were killed. ATLa reduced the infiltrating neutrophils and nitrotyrosine staining in glomeruli. Subsequent changes of gene expression in the early phase were evaluated, and 5674 genes were present under the basal conditions in kidneys from normal mice; 54 upregulated genes and 25 downregulated genes were detected in anti-GBM nephritis. Eighteen of these upregulated genes were those induced by IFN-gamma. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis confirmed the results of the microarrays. To investigate a role of IFN-gamma in neutrophil infiltration, anti-GBM nephritis was induced in IFN-gamma knockout mice. The number of infiltrating neutrophils in these mice did not differ from those in wild-type mice. Also examined were CD11b expression on neutrophils from mice treated with ATLa by flow cytometry, but suppression of this adhesion molecule was not observed. Neutrophil infiltration was successfully inhibited by ATLa in the early phase of murine anti-GBM nephritis. Microarray analysis detected the change of mRNA expression in anti-GBM nephritis and demonstrated amelioration of various genes by ATLa, which may provide a clue to the development of novel therapeutic approaches in immune renal injury.

  20. A Case of Fibrillary Glomerulonephritis Associated with Thrombotic Microangiopathy and Anti-Glomerular Basement Membrane Antibody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akishi Momose

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We present the first report of a case of fibrillary glomerulonephritis (FGN associated with thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA and anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody (anti-GBM antibody. A 54-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for high fever and anuria. On the first hospital day, we initiated hemodialysis for renal dysfunction. Laboratory data revealed normocytic-normochromic anemia with schistocytes in the peripheral smear, thrombocytopenia, increased serum lactate dehydrogenase, decreased serum haptoglobin, and negative results for both direct and indirect Coombs tests. Based on these results, we diagnosed TMA. Assays conducted several days later indicated a disintegrin-like and metalloprotease with a thrombospondin motif 13 (ADAMTS13 activity of 31.6%, and ADAMTS13 inhibitors were negative. We started plasma exchange using fresh frozen plasma and steroid pulse therapy. Anti-GBM antibody was found to be positive. Renal biopsy showed FGN. Blood pressure rose on the 46th hospital day, and mild convulsions developed. Based on magnetic resonance imaging of the head, the patient was diagnosed with reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome. Hypertension persisted despite administration of multiple antihypertensive agents, and the patient experienced a sudden generalized seizure. Computed tomography of the head showed multiple cerebral hemorrhages. However, his blood pressure subsequently decreased and the platelet count increased. TMA remitted following 36 plasma exchange sessions, but renal function was not restored, and maintenance hemodialysis was continued. The patient was discharged on the 119th day of hospitalization. In conclusion, it was shown that TMA, FGN and anti-GBM antibody were closely related.

  1. Distribution of Basement Membrane Molecules, Laminin and Collagen Type IV, in Normal and Degenerated Cartilage Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Wei Seong; Gomoll, Andreas H.; Olsen, Bjørn Reino; Spector, Myron

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present study was to investigate the presence and distribution of 2 basement membrane (BM) molecules, laminin and collagen type IV, in healthy and degenerative cartilage tissues. Design: Normal and degenerated tissues were obtained from goats and humans, including articular knee cartilage, the intervertebral disc, and meniscus. Normal tissue was also obtained from patella-tibial enthesis in goats. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed using anti-laminin and anti–collagen type IV antibodies. Human and goat skin were used as positive controls. The percentage of cells displaying the pericellular presence of the protein was graded semiquantitatively. Results: When present, laminin and collagen type IV were exclusively found in the pericellular matrix, and in a discrete layer on the articulating surface of normal articular cartilage. In normal articular (hyaline) cartilage in the human and goat, the proteins were found co-localized pericellularly. In contrast, in human osteoarthritic articular cartilage, collagen type IV but not laminin was found in the pericellular region. Nonpathological fibrocartilaginous tissues from the goat, including the menisci and the enthesis, were also positive for both laminin and collagen type IV pericellularly. In degenerated fibrocartilage, including intervertebral disc, as in degenerated hyaline cartilage only collagen type IV was found pericellularly around chondrocytes but with less intense staining than in non-degenerated tissue. In calcified cartilage, some cells were positive for laminin but not type IV collagen. Conclusions: We report differences in expression of the BM molecules, laminin and collagen type IV, in normal and degenerative cartilaginous tissues from adult humans and goats. In degenerative tissues laminin is depleted from the pericellular matrix before collagen type IV. The findings may inform future studies of the processes underlying cartilage degeneration and the functional

  2. Long-term outcome of anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody disease treated with immunoadsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesenbach, Peter; Kain, Renate; Derfler, Kurt; Perkmann, Thomas; Soleiman, Afschin; Benharkou, Alexandra; Druml, Wilfred; Rees, Andrew; Säemann, Marcus D

    2014-01-01

    Anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibody disease may lead to acute crescentic glomerulonephritis with poor renal prognosis. Current therapy favours plasma exchange (PE) for removal of pathogenic antibodies. Immunoadsorption (IAS) is superior to PE regarding efficiency of antibody-removal and safety. Apart from anecdotal data, there is no systemic analysis of the long-term effects of IAS on anti-GBM-disease and antibody kinetics. To examine the long-term effect of high-frequency IAS combined with standard immunosuppression on patient and renal survival in patients with anti-GBM-disease and to quantify antibody removal and kinetics through IAS. Retrospective review of patients treated with IAS for anti-GBM-antibody disease confirmed by biopsy and/or anti-GBM-antibodies. University Hospital of Vienna, Austria. 10 patients with anti-GBM-disease treated with IAS. Patient and renal survival, renal histology, anti-GBM-antibodies. Anti-GBM-antibodies were reduced by the first 9 IAS treatments (mean number of 23) to negative levels in all patients. Renal survival was 40% at diagnosis, 70% after the end of IAS, 63% after one year and 50% at the end of observation (mean 84 months, range 9 to 186). Dialysis dependency was successfully reversed in three of six patients. Patient survival was 90% at the end of observation. IAS efficiently eliminates anti-GBM-antibodies suggesting non-inferiority to PE with regard to renal and patient survival. Hence IAS should be considered as a valuable treatment option for anti-GBM-disease, especially in patients presenting with a high percentage of crescents and dialysis dependency due to an unusual high proportion of responders.

  3. Long-term outcome of anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody disease treated with immunoadsorption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Biesenbach

    Full Text Available Anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM antibody disease may lead to acute crescentic glomerulonephritis with poor renal prognosis. Current therapy favours plasma exchange (PE for removal of pathogenic antibodies. Immunoadsorption (IAS is superior to PE regarding efficiency of antibody-removal and safety. Apart from anecdotal data, there is no systemic analysis of the long-term effects of IAS on anti-GBM-disease and antibody kinetics.To examine the long-term effect of high-frequency IAS combined with standard immunosuppression on patient and renal survival in patients with anti-GBM-disease and to quantify antibody removal and kinetics through IAS.Retrospective review of patients treated with IAS for anti-GBM-antibody disease confirmed by biopsy and/or anti-GBM-antibodies.University Hospital of Vienna, Austria.10 patients with anti-GBM-disease treated with IAS.Patient and renal survival, renal histology, anti-GBM-antibodies.Anti-GBM-antibodies were reduced by the first 9 IAS treatments (mean number of 23 to negative levels in all patients. Renal survival was 40% at diagnosis, 70% after the end of IAS, 63% after one year and 50% at the end of observation (mean 84 months, range 9 to 186. Dialysis dependency was successfully reversed in three of six patients. Patient survival was 90% at the end of observation.IAS efficiently eliminates anti-GBM-antibodies suggesting non-inferiority to PE with regard to renal and patient survival. Hence IAS should be considered as a valuable treatment option for anti-GBM-disease, especially in patients presenting with a high percentage of crescents and dialysis dependency due to an unusual high proportion of responders.

  4. Expression of matrix metalloproteinase genes during basement membrane degradation in the metamorphosis of Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Hideki; Manickam, Asaithambi; Shahin, Rima; Ote, Manabu; Iwanaga, Masashi

    2018-01-05

    The present study was conducted to clarify the involvement of the basement membrane (BM) in insect metamorphosis through analysis of the expression profile of two types of metalloproteinase (MMP and ADAMTS) genes in several organs, their ecdysone involvement, and the histological change of BM. BM was observed around wing sac and in the wing cavity and around fat bodies at the W0 stage but disappeared after the W3 stage, and wing discs evaginated and fat body cells scattered after the W3 stage. The disappearance of the BM of midgut and silk glands was not observed after the W3 stage, but degenerated epithelium cells in the midgut and shrunken cells in the silk gland were observed after the W3 stage. BmMMP1 showed a peak at P0 in the wing discs, fat bodies, midgut, and silk gland. BmMMP2 showed a broad peak around pupation in the wing discs, fat bodies, midgut, and silk gland. BmADAMTS-1 showed enhanced expression at W2 in the wing discs, fat bodies, midgut, and hemocyte, while BmADAMTS-L showed enhanced expression at W3 in the fat bodies, midgut, silk gland, and hemocyte. After pupation, they showed a different expression in different organs. All of four genes were induced by 20-hydroxyecdysone in wing discs in vitro. The present results suggested the involvement of MMPs and ADAMTS in the BM digestion and the morphogenesis of organs during Bombyx metamorphosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A “Mini-Epidemic” of anti-glomerular basement membrane disease: Clinical and epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh Lingaraj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute glomerulonephritis due to anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM antibody disease is rare, estimated to occur in fewer than one case per million population and accounts for less than 20% of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. The prevalence among patients evaluated for potential glomerular disease is lower. It accounts for fewer than 3% of all kidney biopsies done with crescentic glomerulonephritis. Cases of anti-GBM disease occurring in a cluster have rarely been reported. All biopsy proven anti-GBM disease cases were collected from January 2015 to March 2015 at our Institute. All cases were analyzed for demographic and clinical profile, pathological findings, treatment received and for any common environmental antigenic source. A total of 11 new biopsy proven anti-GBM cases were seen within a span of three months. Age group varied from 17–80 years. Seven were males and four were females. All were dialysis dependent at presentation. Seven had active cellular crescents, and four had fibrocellular. Only one patient was a smoker and none had a history of exposure to any forms of hydrocarbons. The peak seen from January 2015 to March 2015 does not correlate with any of seasonal occurrence of infections in southern India. Although there was clustering of cases to southern territories of Karnataka state, no common etiological agents could be identified. No patient had any previous urological surgeries. All patients received methylprednisolone with plasmapheresis 5–7 sessions and cyclophosphamide. All 11 patients were dialysis dependent at the end of three months. We conclude anti-GBM disease cannot be regarded as a rare cause of renal failure and lung hemorrhage. The occurrence of such epidemic within a short period suggests a possible unidentified environmental factor like infection or occupational agents as inciting agents. Identification of such inciting agents could help us in instituting appropriate preventing measures.

  6. Assessment of proteolytic degradation of the basement membrane: a fragment of type IV collagen as a biochemical marker for liver fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veidal, Sanne S.; Karsdal, Morten A.; Nawrocki, Arkadiusz

    2011-01-01

    Collagen deposition and an altered matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression profile are hallmarks of fibrosis. Type IV collagen is the most abundant structural basement membrane component of tissue, which increases 14-fold during fibrogenesis in the liver. Proteolytic degradation of collagens...

  7. Overexpression of β1-chain-containing laminins in capillary basement membranes of human breast cancer and its metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Manabu; Khazenzon, Natalya M; Bose, Shikha; Sekiguchi, Kiyotoshi; Sasaki, Takako; Carter, William G; Ljubimov, Alexander V; Black, Keith L; Ljubimova, Julia Y

    2005-01-01

    Laminins are the major components of vascular and parenchymal basement membranes. We previously documented a switch in the expression of vascular laminins containing the α4 chain from predominantly laminin-9 (α4β2γ1) to predominantly laminin-8 (α4β1γ1) during progression of human brain gliomas to high-grade glioblastoma multiforme. Here, differential expression of laminins was studied in blood vessels and ductal epithelium of the breast. In the present study the expressions of laminin isoforms α1–α5, β1–β3, γ1, and γ2 were examined during progression of breast cancer. Forty-five clinical samples of breast tissues including normal breast, ductal carcinomas in situ, invasive ductal carcinomas, and their metastases to the brain were compared using Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry for various chains of laminin, in particular laminin-8 and laminin-9. Laminin α4 chain was observed in vascular basement membranes of most studied tissues, with the highest expression in metastases. At the same time, the expression of laminin β2 chain (a constituent of laminin-9) was mostly seen in normal breast and carcinomas in situ but not in invasive carcinomas or metastases. In contrast, laminin β1 chain (a constituent of laminin-8) was typically found in vessel walls of carcinomas and their metastases but not in those of normal breast. The expression of laminin-8 increased in a progression-dependent manner. A similar change was observed from laminin-11 (α5β2γ1) to laminin-10 (α5β1γ1) during breast tumor progression. Additionally, laminin-2 (α2β1γ1) appeared in vascular basement membranes of invasive carcinomas and metastases. Chains of laminin-5 (α3β3γ2) were expressed in the ductal epithelium basement membranes of the breast and diminished with tumor progression. These results suggest that laminin-2, laminin-8, and laminin-10 are important components of tumor microvessels and may associate with breast tumor progression. Angiogenic switch

  8. Multiple recurrences of anti-glomerular basement membrane disease with variable antibody detection: can the laboratory be trusted?

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Patricia; Waheed, Sana; Boujelbane, Lamya; Maursetter, Laura J.

    2016-01-01

    Anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) disease is commonly a monophasic illness. We present the case of multiple recurrences of anti-GBM disease with varying serum anti-GBM antibody findings. A 33-year-old female tobacco user presenting with hematuria was diagnosed with anti-GBM disease by renal biopsy. Five years later, she presented with alveolar hemorrhage and positive anti-GBM antibody. She presented a third time with alveolar hemorrhage but undetectable anti-GBM antibody. With each occu...

  9. Ultrastructural study of electron dense deposits in renal tubular basement membrane: prevalence and relationship to epithelial atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Jim L C; Killingsworth, Murray C

    2014-08-01

    This study reports the prevalence of immune deposits associated with the proximal and distal tubules in a series of routine renal biopsies received in our department during a single calendar year. From 87 cases, 65 (74%) were found to have glomerular immune deposits by immunofluorescence. Tubular immune deposits were found in 12 cases (18%), 3 of which had no glomerular deposits. By transmission electron microscopy (EM), 58 cases (66%) were found to have deposits of granular or vesicular material associated with the tubular basement membranes (TBM). Finely granular electron dense deposits appeared to correspond to the immune deposits seen by immunofluorescence microscopy (IF) and may be a sensitive marker of immune deposition.

  10. Overexpression of β1-chain-containing laminins in capillary basement membranes of human breast cancer and its metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Manabu; Khazenzon, Natalya M; Bose, Shikha; Sekiguchi, Kiyotoshi; Sasaki, Takako; Carter, William G; Ljubimov, Alexander V; Black, Keith L; Ljubimova, Julia Y

    2005-01-01

    Introduction Laminins are the major components of vascular and parenchymal basement membranes. We previously documented a switch in the expression of vascular laminins containing the α4 chain from predominantly laminin-9 (α4β2γ1) to predominantly laminin-8 (α4β1γ1) during progression of human brain gliomas to high-grade glioblastoma multiforme. Here, differential expression of laminins was studied in blood vessels and ductal epithelium of the breast. Method In the present study the expressions of laminin isoforms α1–α5, β1–β3, γ1, and γ2 were examined during progression of breast cancer. Forty-five clinical samples of breast tissues including normal breast, ductal carcinomas in situ, invasive ductal carcinomas, and their metastases to the brain were compared using Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry for various chains of laminin, in particular laminin-8 and laminin-9. Results Laminin α4 chain was observed in vascular basement membranes of most studied tissues, with the highest expression in metastases. At the same time, the expression of laminin β2 chain (a constituent of laminin-9) was mostly seen in normal breast and carcinomas in situ but not in invasive carcinomas or metastases. In contrast, laminin β1 chain (a constituent of laminin-8) was typically found in vessel walls of carcinomas and their metastases but not in those of normal breast. The expression of laminin-8 increased in a progression-dependent manner. A similar change was observed from laminin-11 (α5β2γ1) to laminin-10 (α5β1γ1) during breast tumor progression. Additionally, laminin-2 (α2β1γ1) appeared in vascular basement membranes of invasive carcinomas and metastases. Chains of laminin-5 (α3β3γ2) were expressed in the ductal epithelium basement membranes of the breast and diminished with tumor progression. Conclusion These results suggest that laminin-2, laminin-8, and laminin-10 are important components of tumor microvessels and may associate with breast

  11. ER stress and basement membrane defects combine to cause glomerular and tubular renal disease resulting from Col4a1 mutations in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances E. Jones

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Collagen IV is a major component of basement membranes, and mutations in COL4A1, which encodes collagen IV alpha chain 1, cause a multisystemic disease encompassing cerebrovascular, eye and kidney defects. However, COL4A1 renal disease remains poorly characterized and its pathomolecular mechanisms are unknown. We show that Col4a1 mutations in mice cause hypotension and renal disease, including proteinuria and defects in Bowman's capsule and the glomerular basement membrane, indicating a role for Col4a1 in glomerular filtration. Impaired sodium reabsorption in the loop of Henle and distal nephron despite elevated aldosterone levels indicates that tubular defects contribute to the hypotension, highlighting a novel role for the basement membrane in vascular homeostasis by modulation of the tubular response to aldosterone. Col4a1 mutations also cause diabetes insipidus, whereby the tubular defects lead to polyuria associated with medullary atrophy and a subsequent reduction in the ability to upregulate aquaporin 2 and concentrate urine. Moreover, haematuria, haemorrhage and vascular basement membrane defects confirm an important vascular component. Interestingly, although structural and compositional basement membrane defects occurred in the glomerulus and Bowman's capsule, no tubular basement membrane defects were detected. By contrast, medullary atrophy was associated with chronic ER stress, providing evidence for cell-type-dependent molecular mechanisms of Col4a1 mutations. These data show that both basement membrane defects and ER stress contribute to Col4a1 renal disease, which has important implications for the development of treatment strategies for collagenopathies.

  12. Embryoid body attachment to reconstituted basement membrane induces a genetic program of epithelial differentiation via jun N-terminal kinase signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hoang-Yen; Moffat, Ryan C; Patel, Rupal V; Awah, Franklin N; Baloue, Kaitrin; Crowe, David L

    2010-09-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells are derived from early stage mammalian embryos and have broad developmental potential. These cells can be manipulated experimentally to generate cells of multiple tissue types which could be important in treating human diseases. The ability to produce relevant amounts of these differentiated cell populations creates the basis for clinical interventions in tissue regeneration and repair. Understanding how embryonic stem cells differentiate also can reveal important insights into cell biology. A previously reported mouse embryonic stem cell model demonstrated that differentiated epithelial cells migrated out of embryoid bodies attached to reconstituted basement membrane. We used genomic technology to profile ES cell populations in order to understand the molecular mechanisms leading to epithelial differentiation. Cells with characteristics of cultured epithelium migrated from embryoid bodies attached to reconstituted basement membrane. However, cells that comprised embryoid bodies also rapidly lost ES cell-specific gene expression and expressed proteins characteristic of stratified epithelia within hours of attachment to basement membrane. Gene expression profiling of sorted cell populations revealed upregulation of the BMP/TGFbeta signaling pathway, which was not sufficient for epithelial differentiation in the absence of basement membrane attachment. Activation of c-jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) and increased expression of Jun family transcription factors was observed during epithelial differentiation of ES cells. Inhibition of JNK signaling completely blocked epithelial differentiation in this model, revealing a key mechanism by which ES cells adopt epithelial characteristics via basement membrane attachment. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Deletion of the basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan type XVIII collagen causes hypertriglyceridemia in mice and humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph R Bishop

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Lipoprotein lipase (Lpl acts on triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in the peripheral circulation, liberating free fatty acids for energy metabolism or storage. This essential enzyme is synthesized in parenchymal cells of adipose tissue, heart, and skeletal muscle and migrates to the luminal side of the vascular endothelium where it acts upon circulating lipoproteins. Prior studies suggested that Lpl is immobilized by way of heparan sulfate proteoglycans on the endothelium, but genetically altering endothelial cell heparan sulfate had no effect on Lpl localization or lipolysis. The objective of this study was to determine if extracellular matrix proteoglycans affect Lpl distribution and triglyceride metabolism.We examined mutant mice defective in collagen XVIII (Col18, a heparan sulfate proteoglycan present in vascular basement membranes. Loss of Col18 reduces plasma levels of Lpl enzyme and activity, which results in mild fasting hypertriglyceridemia and diet-induced hyperchylomicronemia. Humans with Knobloch Syndrome caused by a null mutation in the vascular form of Col18 also present lower than normal plasma Lpl mass and activity and exhibit fasting hypertriglyceridemia.This is the first report demonstrating that Lpl presentation on the lumenal side of the endothelium depends on a basement membrane proteoglycan and demonstrates a previously unrecognized phenotype in patients lacking Col18.

  14. The Peri-islet Basement Membrane, a Barrier to Infiltrating Leukocytes in Type 1 Diabetes in Mouse and Human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korpos, Eva; Kadri, Nadir; Kappelhoff, Reinhild

    2013-01-01

    We provide the first comprehensive analysis of the extracellular matrix (ECM) composition of peri-islet capsules, composed of the peri-islet basement membrane (BM) and subjacent interstitial matrix (IM), in development of type 1 diabetes in NOD mice and in human type 1 diabetes. Our data demonstr...... IM are reconstituted once inflammation subsides, indicating that the peri-islet BM-producing cells are not lost due to the inflammation, which has important ramifications to islet transplantation studies.......We provide the first comprehensive analysis of the extracellular matrix (ECM) composition of peri-islet capsules, composed of the peri-islet basement membrane (BM) and subjacent interstitial matrix (IM), in development of type 1 diabetes in NOD mice and in human type 1 diabetes. Our data...... demonstrate global loss of peri-islet BM and IM components only at sites of leukocyte infiltration into the islet. Stereological analyses reveal a correlation between incidence of insulitis and the number of islets showing loss of peri-islet BM versus islets with intact BMs, suggesting that leukocyte...

  15. An in vitro model of the glomerular capillary wall using electrospun collagen nanofibres in a bioartificial composite basement membrane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadie C Slater

    Full Text Available The filtering unit of the kidney, the glomerulus, contains capillaries whose walls function as a biological sieve, the glomerular filtration barrier. This comprises layers of two specialised cells, glomerular endothelial cells (GEnC and podocytes, separated by a basement membrane. Glomerular filtration barrier function, and dysfunction in disease, remains incompletely understood, partly due to difficulties in studying the relevant cell types in vitro. We have addressed this by generation of unique conditionally immortalised human GEnC and podocytes. However, because the glomerular filtration barrier functions as a whole, it is necessary to develop three dimensional co-culture models to maximise the benefit of the availability of these cells. Here we have developed the first two tri-layer models of the glomerular capillary wall. The first is based on tissue culture inserts and provides evidence of cell-cell interaction via soluble mediators. In the second model the synthetic support of the tissue culture insert is replaced with a novel composite bioartificial membrane. This consists of a nanofibre membrane containing collagen I, electrospun directly onto a micro-photoelectroformed fine nickel supporting mesh. GEnC and podocytes grew in monolayers on either side of the insert support or the novel membrane to form a tri-layer model recapitulating the human glomerular capillary in vitro. These models will advance the study of both the physiology of normal glomerular filtration and of its disruption in glomerular disease.

  16. cDNA cloning of the basement membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan core protein, bamacan: a five domain structure including coiled-coil motifs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, R R; Couchman, J R

    1997-01-01

    Basement membranes contain several proteoglycans, and those bearing heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans such as perlecan and agrin usually predominate. Most mammalian basement membranes also contain chondroitin sulfate, and a core protein, bamacan, has been partially characterized. We have now....... The protein sequence has low overall homology, apart from very small NH2- and COOH-terminal motifs. At the junctions between the distal globular domains and the coiled-coil regions lie glycosylation sites, with up to three N-linked oligosaccharides and probably three chondroitin chains. Three other Ser...

  17. Defective muscle basement membrane and lack of M-laminin in the dystrophic dy/dy mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, H; Christmas, P; Wu, X R

    1994-01-01

    -linked Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies. We have examined M-laminin expression in mice with autosomal recessive muscular dystrophy caused by the mutation dy. The heavy chain of M-laminin was undetectable in skeletal muscle, heart muscle, and peripheral nerve by immunofluorescence and immunoblotting......M-laminin is a major member of the laminin family of basement membrane proteins. It is prominently expressed in striated muscle and peripheral nerve. M-laminin is deficient in patients with the autosomal recessive Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy but is normal in patients with the sex...... tissue from dy/dy mice, suggesting that M-laminin heavy-chain mRNA may be produced at very low levels or is unstable. Information about the chromosomal localization of the M heavy-chain in human and mouse suggests that a mutation in the M-chain gene causes the muscular dystrophy in dy/dy mice. The dy...

  18. Anti-glomerular basement membrane autoantibodies in the Brown Norway rat: detection by a solid-phase radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, C.; Peters, D.K.; Lockwood, C.M.

    1983-01-01

    A solid-phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) is described for the detection of IgG autoantibodies to glomerular basement membrane (GBM) induced in the Brown Norway rat by mercuric chloride. The assay involves the adsorption of a collagenase digest of GBM to plastic microtitre plates and detection of bound antibody with affinity purified radiolabelled rabbit anti-rat IgG. Comparison with existing immunofluorescence methods for detection of anti-GBM antibody showed that the solid-phase RIA is highly sensitive, allowing detection of antibody in solutions with as low as 0.5 ng protein/ml. The assay is suitable for detection of anti-GBM antibody both in serum and in eluates from nephritic kidneys. The assay proved to be specific in competitive studies of inhibition brought about by GBM, keyhole limpet antigen and ovalbumin. This solid-phase RIA is reproducible, robust and easy to perform. (Auth.)

  19. A role for PDGF-C/PDGFRα signaling in the formation of the meningeal basement membranes surrounding the cerebral cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrae, Johanna; Gouveia, Leonor; Gallini, Radiosa; He, Liqun; Fredriksson, Linda; Nilsson, Ingrid; Johansson, Bengt R.; Eriksson, Ulf; Betsholtz, Christer

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Platelet-derived growth factor-C (PDGF-C) is one of three known ligands for the tyrosine kinase receptor PDGFRα. Analysis of Pdgfc null mice has demonstrated roles for PDGF-C in palate closure and the formation of cerebral ventricles, but redundancy with other PDGFRα ligands might obscure additional functions. In search of further developmental roles for PDGF-C, we generated mice that were double mutants for Pdgfc−/− and PdgfraGFP/+. These mice display a range of severe phenotypes including spina bifida, lung emphysema, abnormal meninges and neuronal over-migration in the cerebral cortex. We focused our analysis on the central nervous system (CNS), where PDGF-C was identified as a critical factor for the formation of meninges and assembly of the glia limitans basement membrane. We also present expression data on Pdgfa, Pdgfc and Pdgfra in the cerebral cortex and microarray data on cerebral meninges. PMID:26988758

  20. Fluorescent and radiolabelling of pepsin-digested human glomerular basement membrane with a newly developed hydroxy-coumarin derivative (CASE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rand-Weaver, M.; Abuknesha, R.A.; Price, R.G.

    1985-01-01

    The labelling of pepsin-digested human glomerular basement membrane (pHGBM) with a newly developed fluorescent iodine acceptor 7-hydroxy-coumarin-3-acetic acid N-hydroxysucciniimydyl ester (CASE) is described. The binding of a monoclonal antibody to pHGBM was assessed by radiobinding assays, and when directly iodinated pHGBM was used there was no apparent binding. When CASE was conjugated to pHGBM prior to iodination 11% binding was achieved. CASE acting as an iodine acceptor may be useful for proteins containing few or inaccessible tyrosine residues or which are destroyed by introduction of 125 I. Since CASE is fluorescent, small amounts of material can be detected during isolation prior to iodination. (orig.)

  1. Smad4-dependent pathways control basement membrane deposition and endodermal cell migration at early stages of mouse development

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    Taylor Jennifer M

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smad4 mutant embryos arrest shortly after implantation and display a characteristic shortened proximodistal axis, a significantly reduced epiblast, as well as a thickened visceral endoderm layer. Conditional rescue experiments demonstrate that bypassing the primary requirement for Smad4 in the extra-embryonic endoderm allows the epiblast to gastrulate. Smad4-independent TGF-β signals are thus sufficient to promote mesoderm formation and patterning. To further analyse essential Smad4 activities contributed by the extra-embryonic tissues, and characterise Smad4 dependent pathways in the early embryo, here we performed transcriptional profiling of Smad4 null embryonic stem (ES cells and day 4 embryoid bodies (EBs. Results Transcripts from wild-type versus Smad4 null ES cells and day 4 EBs were analysed using Illumina arrays. In addition to several known TGF-β/BMP target genes, we identified numerous Smad4-dependent transcripts that are mis-expressed in the mutants. As expected, mesodermal cell markers were dramatically down-regulated. We also observed an increase in non-canonical potency markers (Pramel7, Tbx3, Zscan4, germ cell markers (Aire, Tuba3a, Dnmt3l as well as early endoderm markers (Dpp4, H19, Dcn. Additionally, expression of the extracellular matrix (ECM remodelling enzymes Mmp14 and Mmp9 was decreased in Smad4 mutant ES and EB populations. These changes, in combination with increased levels of laminin alpha1, cause excessive basement membrane deposition. Similarly, in the context of the Smad4 null E6.5 embryos we observed an expanded basement membrane (BM associated with the thickened endoderm layer. Conclusion Smad4 functional loss results in a dramatic shift in gene expression patterns and in the endodermal cell lineage causes an excess deposition of, or an inability to breakdown and remodel, the underlying BM layer. These structural abnormalities probably disrupt reciprocal signalling between the epiblast and

  2. Expression and organization of basement membranes and focal adhesion proteins in pregnant myometrium is regulated by uterine stretch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shynlova, Oksana; Chow, Michelle; Lye, Stephen J

    2009-10-01

    The mechanisms underlying the preparation of the uterus for labor are not fully understood. We have previously found a significant increase in the expression of messenger RNA (mRNAs) encoding extracellular basement membrane (BM) proteins of the smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in late pregnant rat myometrium. At term, the myometrium is stretched by growing fetuses and these mechanical signals are transmitted from extracellular matrix into SMCs through focal adhesions (FA). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of gravidity on the expression and spatiotemporal distribution of major BM proteins, laminin-gamma2 and collagen IV, as well as typical FA constituents, vinculin and paxillin, in the myometrium during gestation and parturition, using a unilaterally pregnant rat model. We found that the expression of laminin-gamma2 and collagen IV proteins increased significantly with gestational age (P proteins were not affected. Near term, BM proteins from gravid horn myometrium demonstrated increased extracellular immunostaining and major rearrangement from sporadic protein distribution to organized, continuous, and regular structures surrounding the plasma membrane of each myocyte. Examination of FA proteins revealed that paxillin was translocated from the cytoplasm to the cell periphery, while vinculin was sequestered specifically to FAs. At labor, BM and FA proteins, organized in similar bead-like structures, were localized on opposing sides of SMC plasma membrane into 2 different compartments. We suggest that these stretch-induced changes facilitate formation of stable cell-matrix adhesions and provide the molecular basis for optimal force transduction during labor contractions.

  3. Expression and deposition of basement membrane proteins by brain capillary endothelial cells in a primary murine model of the blood-brain barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Maj Schneider; Birkelund, Svend; Larsen, Annette Burkhart

    2016-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) represents the interface between the blood and the brain parenchyma and consists of endothelial cells which are tightly sealed together by tight junction proteins. The endothelial cells are in addition supported by pericytes, which are embedded in the vascular basement...... of the present study was to create four different in vitro constructs of the murine BBB to characterise if the expression and secretion of basement membrane proteins by the murine brain capillary endothelial cells (mBCECs) was affected by co-culturing with pericytes, mixed glial cells, or both. Primary m......BCECs and pericytes were isolated from brains of adult mice. Mixed glial cells were prepared from cerebral cortices of newborn mice. The mBCECs were grown as mono-culture, or co-cultured with pericytes, mixed glial cells, or both. To study the expression of basement membrane proteins RT-qPCR, mass spectrometry...

  4. Immunohistochemical localization of chondroitin sulfate, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, heparan sulfate proteoglycan, entactin, and laminin in basement membranes of postnatal developing and adult rat lungs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannes, P L; Burch, K K; Khosla, J

    1993-01-01

    Histologic preparations of lungs from 1-, 5-, 10-, 18-, and 25-day-old postnatal and adult rats were examined immunohistochemically with antibodies specific against chondroitin sulfate (CS), basement membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (BM-CSPG), heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG), entactin...

  5. 19-DEJ-1, a hemidesmosome-anchoring filament complex-associated monoclonal antibody. Definition of a new skin basement membrane antigenic defect in junctional and dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fine, J D; Horiguchi, Y; Couchman, J R

    1989-01-01

    A murine monoclonal antibody (19-DEJ-1) was recently produced that recognizes a unique antigenic epitope of human skin basement membrane localized to the midlamina lucida exclusively in those areas bordered by overlying hemidesmosomes. To determine whether the antigen defined by 19-DEJ-1 is norma...

  6. Study of the relationship between mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate and Ki-67 and basement membrane and extracellular matrix protein expression in radicular cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourão, R V C; Júnior, E C Pinheiro; Barros Silva, P G; Turatti, E; Mota, M R L; Alves, A P N N

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the relationship between mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate and the expression of a proliferative immunomarker (Ki-67) as well as to evaluate basement membrane and extracellular matrix proteins (laminin and collagen type IV) in radicular cysts and dentigerous cysts (DC). Immunohistochemical analyses were performed in heavily inflamed radicular cysts (HIRC), slightly inflamed radicular cysts (SIRC) and DC (n = 20) using Ki-67 (Dako(®) , 1 : 50), anticollagen type IV (DBS(®) , 1 : 40) and antilaminin (DBS(®) , 1 : 20). The data were analysed using anova/Tukey's test (Ki-67) and Kruskal-Wallis/Dunn's test (collagen type IV and laminin) (P collagen type IV in the basement membrane of the SIRC group was significantly more continuous (P = 0.0475) than in the HIRC group. DC had significantly less collagen type IV in extracellular matrix immunoexpression than HIRC and SIRC (P = 0.0246). Laminin was absent in the basement membrane in the SIRC and DC groups, and the extracellular matrix of the HIRC was weak and punctate. The presence of inflammatory factors in the radicular cyst wall modified the expression of proliferation factors in the epithelial lining and the expression of collagen type IV and laminin in the basement membrane, but did not modify extracellular matrix behaviour in radicular cysts. © 2015 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Synthesis and localization of two sulphated glycoproteins associated with basement membranes and the extracellular matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hogan, B L; Taylor, A; Kurkinen, M

    1982-01-01

    's membrane by mouse embryo parietal endoderm cells (Hogan, B. L.M., A. Taylor, and A.R. Cooper, 1982, Dev. Biol., 90:210-214). Both the Mr 180,000 and 150,000 sgps are deposited in the detergent-insoluble matrix of cultured cells, but they do not apparently undergo any disulphide-dependent intermolecular...... interactions and are not precursors or products of each other. They contain asparagine-linked oligosaccharides, but these are not the exclusive sites of sulphate labeling. Antiserum raised against the Mr 150,000 sgp C of Reichert's membranes has been used in an immunohistochemical analysis of rat skin...

  8. A bioartificial environment for kidney epithelial cells based on a supramolecular polymer basement membrane mimic and an organotypical culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollet, Björne B; Bogaerts, Iven L J; van Almen, Geert C; Dankers, Patricia Y W

    2017-06-01

    Renal applications in healthcare, such as renal replacement therapies and nephrotoxicity tests, could potentially benefit from bioartificial kidney membranes with fully differentiated and functional human tubular epithelial cells. A replacement of the natural environment of these cells is required to maintain and study cell functionality cell differentiation in vitro. Our approach was based on synthetic supramolecular biomaterials to mimic the natural basement membrane (BM) on which these cells grow and a bioreactor to provide the desired organotypical culture parameters. The BM mimics were constructed from ureidopyrimidinone (UPy)-functionalized polymer and bioactive peptides by electrospinning. The resultant membranes were shown to have a hierarchical fibrous BM-like structure consisting of self-assembled nanofibres within the electrospun microfibres. Human kidney-2 (HK-2) epithelial cells were cultured on the BM mimics under organotypical conditions in a custom-built bioreactor. The bioreactor facilitated in situ monitoring and functionality testing of the cultures. Cell viability and the integrity of the epithelial cell barrier were demonstrated inside the bioreactor by microscopy and transmembrane leakage of fluorescently labelled inulin, respectively. Furthermore, HK-2 cells maintained a polarized cell layer and showed modulation of both gene expression of membrane transporter proteins and metabolic activity of brush border enzymes when subjected to a continuous flow of culture medium inside the new bioreactor for 21 days. These results demonstrated that both the culture and study of renal epithelial cells was facilitated by the bioartificial in vitro environment that is formed by synthetic supramolecular BM mimics in our custom-built bioreactor. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Synthesis and deposition of basement membrane proteins by primary brain capillary endothelial cells in a murine model of the blood-brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Maj Schneider; Birkelund, Svend; Burkhart, Annette; Stensballe, Allan; Moos, Torben

    2017-03-01

    The brain vascular basement membrane is important for both blood-brain barrier (BBB) development, stability, and barrier integrity and the contribution hereto from brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs), pericytes, and astrocytes of the BBB is probably significant. The aim of this study was to analyse four different in vitro models of the murine BBB for expression and possible secretion of major basement membrane proteins from murine BCECs (mBCECs). mBCECs, pericytes and glial cells (mainly astrocytes and microglia) were prepared from brains of C57BL/6 mice. The mBCECs were grown as monoculture, in co-culture with pericytes or mixed glial cells, or as a triple-culture with both pericytes and mixed glial cells. The integrity of the BBB models was validated by measures of transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) and passive permeability to mannitol. The expression of basement membrane proteins was analysed using RT-qPCR, mass spectrometry and immunocytochemistry. Co-culturing mBCECs with pericytes, mixed glial cells, or both significantly increased the TEER compared to the monoculture, and a low passive permeability was correlated with high TEER. The mBCECs expressed all major basement membrane proteins such as laminin-411, laminin-511, collagen [α1(IV)] 2 α2(IV), agrin, perlecan, and nidogen 1 and 2 in vitro. Increased expression of the laminin α5 subunit correlated with the addition of BBB-inducing factors (hydrocortisone, Ro 20-1724, and pCPT-cAMP), whereas increased expression of collagen IV α1 primarily correlated with increased levels of cAMP. In conclusion, BCECs cultured in vitro coherently form a BBB and express basement membrane proteins as a feature of maturation. Cover Image for this issue: doi: 10.1111/jnc.13789. © 2016 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  10. Convective influx/glymphatic system: tracers injected into the CSF enter and leave the brain along separate periarterial basement membrane pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albargothy, Nazira J; Johnston, David A; MacGregor-Sharp, Matthew; Weller, Roy O; Verma, Ajay; Hawkes, Cheryl A; Carare, Roxana O

    2018-05-12

    Tracers injected into CSF pass into the brain alongside arteries and out again. This has been recently termed the "glymphatic system" that proposes tracers enter the brain along periarterial "spaces" and leave the brain along the walls of veins. The object of the present study is to test the hypothesis that: (1) tracers from the CSF enter the cerebral cortex along pial-glial basement membranes as there are no perivascular "spaces" around cortical arteries, (2) tracers leave the brain along smooth muscle cell basement membranes that form the Intramural Peri-Arterial Drainage (IPAD) pathways for the elimination of interstitial fluid and solutes from the brain. 2 μL of 100 μM soluble, fluorescent fixable amyloid β (Aβ) were injected into the CSF of the cisterna magna of 6-10 and 24-30 month-old male mice and their brains were examined 5 and 30 min later. At 5 min, immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy revealed Aβ on the outer aspects of cortical arteries colocalized with α-2 laminin in the pial-glial basement membranes. At 30 min, Aβ was colocalised with collagen IV in smooth muscle cell basement membranes in the walls of cortical arteries corresponding to the IPAD pathways. No evidence for drainage along the walls of veins was found. Measurements of the depth of penetration of tracer were taken from 11 regions of the brain. Maximum depths of penetration of tracer into the brain were achieved in the pons and caudoputamen. Conclusions drawn from the present study are that tracers injected into the CSF enter and leave the brain along separate periarterial basement membrane pathways. The exit route is along IPAD pathways in which Aβ accumulates in cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) in Alzheimer's disease. Results from this study suggest that CSF may be a suitable route for delivery of therapies for neurological diseases, including CAA.

  11. A direct contact between astrocyte and vitreous body is possible in the rabbit eye due to discontinuities in the basement membrane of the retinal inner limiting membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Haddad

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Different from most mammalian species, the optic nerve of the rabbit eye is initially formed inside the retina where myelination of the axons of the ganglion cells starts and vascularization occurs. Astrocytes are confined to these regions. The aforementioned nerve fibers known as medullated nerve fibers form two bundles that may be identified with the naked eye. The blood vessels run on the inner surface of these nerve fiber bundles (epivascularization and, accordingly, the accompanying astrocytes lie mostly facing the vitreous body from which they are separated only by the inner limiting membrane of the retina. The arrangement of the astrocytes around blood vessels leads to the formation of structures known as glial tufts. Fragments (N = 3 or whole pieces (N = 3 of the medullated nerve fiber region of three-month-old male rabbits (Orictolagus cuniculus were fixed in glutaraldehyde followed by osmium tetroxide, and their thin sections were examined with a transmission electron microscope. Randomly located discontinuities (up to a few micrometers long of the basement membrane of the inner limiting membrane of the retina were observed in the glial tufts. As a consequence, a direct contact between the astrocyte plasma membrane and vitreous elements was demonstrated, making possible functional interactions such as macromolecular exchanges between this glial cell type and the components of the vitreous body.

  12. Airway basement membrane perimeter in human airways is not a constant; potential implications for airway remodeling in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McParland, Brent E; Paré, Peter D; Johnson, Peter R A; Armour, Carol L; Black, Judith L

    2004-08-01

    Many studies that demonstrate an increase in airway smooth muscle in asthmatic patients rely on the assumption that bronchial internal perimeter (P(i)) or basement membrane perimeter (P(bm)) is a constant, i.e., not affected by fixation pressure or the degree of smooth muscle shortening. Because it is the basement membrane that has been purported to be the indistensible structure, this study examines the assumption that P(bm) is not affected by fixation pressure. P(bm) was determined for the same human airway segment (n = 12) fixed at distending pressures of 0 cmH(2)O and 21 cmH(2)O in the absence of smooth muscle tone. P(bm) for the segment fixed at 0 cmH(2)O was determined morphometrically, and the P(bm) for the same segment, had the segment been fixed at 21 cmH(2)O, was predicted from knowing the luminal volume and length of the airway when distended to 21 cmH(2)O (organ bath-derived P(i)). To ensure an accurate transformation of the organ bath-derived P(i) value to a morphometry-derived P(bm) value, had the segment been fixed at 21 cmH(2)O, the relationship between organ bath-derived P(i) and morphometry-derived P(bm) was determined for five different bronchial segments distended to 21 cmH(2)O and fixed at 21 cmH(2)O (r(2) = 0.99, P < 0.0001). Mean P(bm) for bronchial segments fixed at 0 cmH(2)O was 9.4 +/- 0.4 mm, whereas mean predicted P(bm), had the segments been fixed at 21 cmH(2)O, was 14.1 +/- 0.5 mm (P < 0.0001). This indicates that P(bm) is not a constant when isolated airway segments without smooth muscle tone are fixed distended to 21 cmH(2)O. The implication of these results is that the increase in smooth muscle mass in asthma may have been overestimated in some previous studies. Therefore, further studies are required to examine the potential artifact using whole lungs with and without abolition of airway smooth muscle tone and/or inflation.

  13. Influence of a reconstituted basement membrane and its components on casein gene expression and secretion in mouse mammary epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, M.L.; Aggeler, J.; Farson, D.A.; Hatier, C.; Hassell, J.; Bissell, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    When primary mouse mammary epithelial cells are cultured on plastic, they rapidly lose their ability to synthesize and secrete most milk proteins even in the presence of lactogenic hormones, whereas cells cultured on release type I collagen gels show greatly enhanced mRNA levels and secretion rates of β-casein and of some other milk proteins. The authors show here that culture on a reconstituted basement membrane from Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm tumor (EHS) allows > 90% of cells to produce high levels of β-casein. By comparison, 30-40% of cells on released type 1 gels and only 2-10% of cells on plastic express β-casein after 6 days in culture. Because only 40% of cells from late pregnant gland produced β-casein before culture, the EHS matrix can both induce and maintain an increased level of casein gene expression. Individual basal lamina components were also evaluated. Type IV collagen and fibronectin had little effect on morphology and β-casein mRNA levels. In contrast, both laminin and heparan sulfate proteoglycan increased β-casein mRNA levels. Profound morphological differences were evident between cells cultured on plastic and on EHS matrix, the latter cells forming ducts, ductules, and lumina and resembling secretory alveoli. These results emphasize the vital role of the extracellular matrix in receiving and integrating structural and functional signals that can direct specific gene expression in differentiated tissues

  14. Basement membrane reconstruction in human skin equivalents is regulated by fibroblasts and/or exogenously activated keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ghalbzouri, Abdoelwaheb; Jonkman, Marcel F; Dijkman, Remco; Ponec, Maria

    2005-01-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the role fibroblasts play in the formation of the basement membrane (BM) in human skin equivalents. For this purpose, keratinocytes were seeded on top of fibroblast-free or fibroblast-populated collagen matrix or de-epidermized dermis and cultured in the absence of serum and exogenous growth factors. The expression of various BM components was analyzed on the protein and mRNA level. Irrespective of the presence or absence of fibroblasts, keratin 14, hemidesmosomal proteins plectin, BP230 and BP180, and integrins alpha1beta1, alpha2beta1, alpha3beta1, and alpha6beta4 were expressed but laminin 1 was absent. Only in the presence of fibroblasts or of various growth factors, laminin 5 and laminin 10/11, nidogen, uncein, type IV and type VII collagen were decorating the dermal/epidermal junction. These findings indicate that the attachment of basal keratinocytes to the dermal matrix is most likely mediated by integrins alpha1beta1 and alpha2beta1, and not by laminins that bind to integrin alpha6beta4 and that the epithelial-mesenchymal cross-talk plays an important role in synthesis and deposition of various BM components.

  15. Abnormalities in the basement membrane structure promote basal keratinocytes in the epidermis of hypertrophic scars to adopt a proliferative phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shaowei; Sun, Yexiao; Geng, Zhijun; Ma, Kui; Sun, Xiaoyan; Fu, Xiaobing

    2016-05-01

    The majority of studies on scar formation have mainly focused on the dermis and little is known of the involvement of the epidermis. Previous research has demonstrated that the scar tissue-derived keratinocytes are different from normal cells at both the genetic and cell biological levels; however, the mechanisms responsible for the fundamental abnormalities in keratinocytes during scar development remain elusive. For this purpose, in this study, we used normal, wound edge and hypertrophic scar tissue to examine the morphological changes which occur during epidermal regeneration as part of the wound healing process and found that the histological structure of hypertrophic scar tissues differed from that of normal skin, with a significant increase in epidermal thickness. Notably, staining of the basement membrane (BM) appeared to be absent in the scar tissues. Moreover, immunofluorescence staining for cytokeratin (CK)10, CK14, CK5, CK19 and integrin-β1 indicated the differential expression of cell markers in the epidermal keratinocytes among the normal, wound edge and hypertrophic scar tissues, which corresponded with the altered BM structures. By using a panel of proteins associated with BM components, we validated our hypothesis that the BM plays a significant role in regulating the cell fate decision of epidermal keratinocytes during skin wound healing. Alterations in the structure of the BM promote basal keratinocytes to adopt a proliferative phenotype both in vivo and in vitro.

  16. Skin Basement Membrane: The Foundation of Epidermal Integrity—BM Functions and Diverse Roles of Bridging Molecules Nidogen and Perlecan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Breitkreutz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The epidermis functions in skin as first defense line or barrier against environmental impacts, resting on extracellular matrix (ECM of the dermis underneath. Both compartments are connected by the basement membrane (BM, composed of a set of distinct glycoproteins and proteoglycans. Herein we are reviewing molecular aspects of BM structure, composition, and function regarding not only (i the dermoepidermal interface but also (ii the resident microvasculature, primarily focusing on the per se nonscaffold forming components perlecan and nidogen-1 and nidogen-2. Depletion or functional deficiencies of any BM component are lethal at some stage of development or around birth, though BM defects vary between organs and tissues. Lethality problems were overcome by developmental stage- and skin-specific gene targeting or by cell grafting and organotypic (3D cocultures of normal or defective cells, which allows recapitulating BM formation de novo. Thus, evidence is accumulating that BM assembly and turnover rely on mechanical properties and composition of the adjacent ECM and the dynamics of molecular assembly, including further “minor” local components, nidogens largely functioning as catalysts or molecular adaptors and perlecan as bridging stabilizer. Collectively, orchestration of BM assembly, remodeling, and the role of individual players herein are determined by the developmental, tissue-specific, or functional context.

  17. Ten cases of severe oral lichen planus showing granular C3 deposition in oral mucosal basement membrane zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Takashi; Fukuda, Aoi; Himejima, Akio; Morita, Shosuke; Tsuruta, Daisuke; Koga, Hiroshi; Krol, Rafal P; Ishii, Norito

    2015-01-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) may show depositions of immunoglobulins and complement components in oral mucosal basement membrane zone (BMZ) in direct immunofluorescence, although these finding are not frequently seen. We collected and examined ten cases of severe OLP showing granular C3 deposition in BMZ. In addition to clinical, histopathological and direct immunofluorescence assessments, we performed various immune-serological tests, including indirect immunofluorescence of normal human skin and 1M NaCl-split skin, immunoblotting of normal human epidermal and dermal extracts, recombinant proteins of BP180 NC16a and C-terminal domains, concentrated culture supernatant of HaCaT cells and purified human laminin-332, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for BP230 and BP180. Direct immunofluorescence showed C3 deposition in BMZ exclusively of granular pattern in 7 cases and of both granular and linear patterns in 3 cases. The 10 cases showed no positive reactivity for either IgG or IgA antibodies in any immuno-serological tests. Detailed analyses of clinical, histopathological and immunological findings revealed striking female prevalence, although other parameters were in general characteristic of OLP. Granular C3 deposition in oral BMZ may be one of the characteristic features of severe OLP, although mechanisms for C3 deposition and its pathogenic role in OLP are currently unknown.

  18. PF-1355, a mechanism-based myeloperoxidase inhibitor, prevents immune complex vasculitis and anti-glomerular basement membrane glomerulonephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; Warner, Roscoe; Ruggeri, Roger; Su, Chunyan; Cortes, Christian; Skoura, Athanasia; Ward, Jessica; Ahn, Kay; Kalgutkar, Amit; Sun, Dexue; Maurer, Tristan S; Bonin, Paul D; Okerberg, Carlin; Bobrowski, Walter; Kawabe, Thomas; Zhang, Yanwei; Coskran, Timothy; Bell, Sammy; Kapoor, Bhupesh; Johnson, Kent; Buckbinder, Leonard

    2015-05-01

    Small vessel vasculitis is a life-threatening condition and patients typically present with renal and pulmonary injury. Disease pathogenesis is associated with neutrophil accumulation, activation, and oxidative damage, the latter being driven in large part by myeloperoxidase (MPO), which generates hypochlorous acid among other oxidants. MPO has been associated with vasculitis, disseminated vascular inflammation typically involving pulmonary and renal microvasculature and often resulting in critical consequences. MPO contributes to vascular injury by 1) catabolizing nitric oxide, impairing vasomotor function; 2) causing oxidative damage to lipoproteins and endothelial cells, leading to atherosclerosis; and 3) stimulating formation of neutrophil extracellular traps, resulting in vessel occlusion and thrombosis. Here we report a selective 2-thiouracil mechanism-based MPO inhibitor (PF-1355 [2-(6-(2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-4-oxo-2-thioxo-3,4-dihydropyrimidin-1(2H)-yl)acetamide) and demonstrate that MPO is a critical mediator of vasculitis in mouse disease models. A pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic response model of PF-1355 exposure in relation with MPO activity was derived from mouse peritonitis. The contribution of MPO activity to vasculitis was then examined in an immune complex model of pulmonary disease. Oral administration of PF-1355 reduced plasma MPO activity, vascular edema, neutrophil recruitment, and elevated circulating cytokines. In a model of anti-glomerular basement membrane disease, formerly known as Goodpasture disease, albuminuria and chronic renal dysfunction were completely suppressed by PF-1355 treatment. This study shows that MPO activity is critical in driving immune complex vasculitis and provides confidence in testing the hypothesis that MPO inhibition will provide benefit in treating human vasculitic diseases. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  19. Fibrillar, fibril-associated and basement membrane collagens of the arterial wall: architecture, elasticity and remodeling under stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osidak, M S; Osidak, E O; Akhmanova, M A; Domogatsky, S P; Domogatskaya, A S

    2015-01-01

    The ability of a human artery to pass through 150 million liters of blood sustaining 2 billion pulsations of blood pressure with minor deterioration depends on unique construction of the arterial wall. Viscoelastic properties of this construction enable to re-seal the occuring damages apparently without direct immediate participance of the constituent cells. Collagen structures are considered to be the elements that determine the mechanoelastic properties of the wall in parallel with elastin responsible for elasticity and resilience. Collagen scaffold architecture is the function-dependent dynamic arrangement of a dozen different collagen types composing three distinct interacting forms inside the extracellular matrix of the wall. Tightly packed molecules of collagen types I, III, V provide high tensile strength along collagen fibrils but toughness of the collagen scaffold as a whole depends on molecular bonds between distinct fibrils. Apart of other macromolecules in the extracellular matrix (ECM), collagen-specific interlinks involve microfilaments of collagen type VI, meshwork-organized collagen type VIII, and FACIT collagen type XIV. Basement membrane collagen types IV, XV, XVIII and cell-associated collagen XIII enable transmission of mechanical signals between cells and whole artery matrix. Collagen scaffold undergoes continuous remodeling by decomposition promoted with MMPs and reconstitution from newly produced collagen molecules. Pulsatile stress-strain load modulates both collagen synthesis and MMP-dependent collagen degradation. In this way the ECM structure becomes adoptive to mechanical challenges. The mechanoelastic properties of the arterial wall are changed in atherosclerosis concomitantly with collagen turnover both type-specific and dependent on the structure. Improving the feedback could be another approach to restore sufficient blood circulation.

  20. Quantitative Proteome Analysis Reveals Increased Content of Basement Membrane Proteins in Arteries from Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and Lower Levels among Metformin Users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørdam Preil, Simone; Kristensen, Lars P; Beck, Hans C

    2015-01-01

    hypothesized that metformin intake influences the protein composition. METHODS AND RESULTS: -We analyzed non-atherosclerotic repair arteries gathered at coronary by-pass operations from 30 patients with type 2 diabetes, as well as from 30 age- and gender-matched non-diabetic individuals. Quantitative proteome......BACKGROUND: -The increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in type 2 diabetes has been extensively documented, but the origins of the association remain largely unknown. We sought to determine changes in protein expressions in arterial tissue from patients with type 2 diabetes and moreover...... analysis was done by iTRAQ-labelling and LC-MS/MS analysis on individual arterial samples. The amounts of the basement membrane (BM) components, alpha-1- and alpha-2- type IV collagen, gamma-1- and beta-2-laminin were significantly increased in patients with diabetes. Moreover, the expressions of basement...

  1. Podocytes regulate the glomerular basement membrane protein nephronectin by means of miR-378a-3p in glomerular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Deile, Janina; Dannenberg, Jan; Schroder, Patricia; Lin, Meei-Hua; Miner, Jeffrey H; Chen, Rongjun; Bräsen, Jan-Hinrich; Thum, Thomas; Nyström, Jenny; Staggs, Lynne Beverly; Haller, Hermann; Fiedler, Jan; Lorenzen, Johan M; Schiffer, Mario

    2017-10-01

    The pathophysiology of many proteinuric kidney diseases is poorly understood, and microRNAs (miRs) regulation of these diseases has been largely unexplored. Here, we tested whether miR-378a-3p is a novel regulator of glomerular diseases. MiR-378a-3p has two predicted targets relevant to glomerular function, the glomerular basement membrane matrix component, nephronectin (NPNT), and vascular endothelial growth factor VEGF-A. In zebrafish (Danio rerio), miR-378a-3p mimic injection or npnt knockdown by a morpholino oligomer caused an identical phenotype consisting of edema, proteinuria, podocyte effacement, and widening of the glomerular basement membrane in the lamina rara interna. Zebrafish vegf-A protein could not rescue this phenotype. However, mouse Npnt constructs containing a mutated 3'UTR region prevented the phenotype caused by miR-378a-3p mimic injection. Overexpression of miR-378a-3p in mice confirmed glomerular dysfunction in a mammalian model. Biopsies from patients with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and membranous nephropathy had increased miR-378a-3p expression and reduced glomerular levels of NPNT. Thus, miR-378a-3p-mediated suppression of the glomerular matrix protein NPNT is a novel mechanism for proteinuria development in active glomerular diseases. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Normal and tumor-derived myoepithelial cells differ in their ability to interact with luminal breast epithelial cells for polarity and basement membrane deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudjonsson, Thorarinn; Ronnov-Jessen, Lone; Villadsen, Rene; Rank, Fritz; Bissell, Mina J.; Petersen, Ole William

    2001-10-04

    The signals that determine the correct polarity of breast epithelial structures in vivo are not understood. We have shown previously that luminal epithelial cells can be polarized when cultured within a reconstituted basement membrane gel. We reasoned that such cues in vivo may be given by myoepithelial cells. Accordingly, we used an assay where luminal epithelial cells are incorrectly polarized to test this hypothesis. We show that culturing human primary luminal epithelial cells within collagen-I gels leads to formation of structures with no lumina and with reverse polarity as judged by dual stainings for sialomucin, epithelial specific antigen or occludin. No basement membrane is deposited, and {beta}4-integrin staining is negative. Addition of purified human myoepithelial cells isolated from normal glands corrects the inverse polarity, and leads to formation of double-layered acini with central lumina. Among the laminins present in the human breast basement membrane (laminin-1, -5 and -10/11), laminin-1 was unique in its ability to substitute for myoepithelial cells in polarity reversal. Myoepithelial cells were purified also from four different breast cancer sources including a biphasic cell line. Three out of four samples either totally lacked the ability to interact with luminal epithelial cells, or conveyed only correction of polarity in a fraction of acini. This behavior was directly related to the ability of the tumor myoepithelial cells to produce {alpha}-1 chain of laminin. In vivo, breast carcinomas were either negative for laminin-1 (7/12 biopsies) or showed a focal, fragmented deposition of a less intensely stained basement membrane (5/12 biopsies). Dual staining with myoepithelial markers revealed that tumorassociated myoepithelial cells were either negative or weakly positive for expression of laminin-1, establishing a strong correlation between loss of laminin-1 and breast cancer. We conclude that the double-layered breast acinus may be

  3. Collagen metabolism and basement membrane formation in cultures of mouse mammary epithelial cells: Induction of assembly on fibrillar type I collagen substrata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, G.; van der Schueren, B.; van den Berghe, H.; Nusgens, B.; Van Cauwenberge, D.; Lapiere, C.

    1987-01-01

    Collagen metabolism was compared in cultures of mouse mammary epithelial cells maintained on plastic or fibrillar type I collagen gel substrata. The accumulation of dialysable and non-dialysable [ 3 H]hydroxyproline and the identification of the collagens produced suggest no difference between substrata in the allover rates of collagen synthesis and degradation. The proportion of the [ 3 H]collagen which accumulates in the monolayers of cultures on collagen, however, markedly exceeds that of cultures on plastic. Cultures on collagen deposit a sheet-like layer of extracellular matrix materials on the surface of the collagen fibers. Transformed cells on collagen produce and accumulate more [ 3 H]collage, yet are less effective in basement membrane formation than normal cells, indicting that the accumulation of collagen alone and the effect of interstitial collagen thereupon do not suffice. Thus, exogenous fibrillar collagen appears to enhance, but is not sufficient for proper assembly of collagenous basement membrane components near the basal epithelial cell surface

  4. Proteolytic processing of lysyl oxidase-like-2 in the extracellular matrix is required for crosslinking of basement membrane collagen IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Jiménez, Alberto J; Basak, Trayambak; Vanacore, Roberto M

    2017-10-13

    Lysyl oxidase-like-2 (LOXL2) is an enzyme secreted into the extracellular matrix that crosslinks collagens by mediating oxidative deamination of lysine residues. Our previous work demonstrated that this enzyme crosslinks the 7S domain, a structural domain that stabilizes collagen IV scaffolds in the basement membrane. Despite its relevant role in extracellular matrix biosynthesis, little is known about the structural requirements of LOXL2 that enable collagen IV crosslinking. In this study, we demonstrate that LOXL2 is processed extracellularly by serine proteases, generating a 65-kDa form lacking the first two scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domains. Site-specific mutagenesis to prevent proteolytic processing generated a full-length enzyme that is active in vitro toward a soluble substrate, but fails to crosslink insoluble collagen IV within the extracellular matrix. In contrast, the processed form of LOXL2 binds to collagen IV and crosslinks the 7S domain. Together, our data demonstrate that proteolytic processing is an important event that allows LOXL2-mediated crosslinking of basement membrane collagen IV. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. The central role of vascular extracellular matrix and basement membrane remodeling in metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes: the matrix preloaded

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyagi Suresh C

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The vascular endothelial basement membrane and extra cellular matrix is a compilation of different macromolecules organized by physical entanglements, opposing ionic charges, chemical covalent bonding, and cross-linking into a biomechanically active polymer. These matrices provide a gel-like form and scaffolding structure with regional tensile strength provided by collagens, elasticity by elastins, adhesiveness by structural glycoproteins, compressibility by proteoglycans – hyaluronans, and communicability by a family of integrins, which exchanges information between cells and between cells and the extracellular matrix of vascular tissues. Each component of the extracellular matrix and specifically the capillary basement membrane possesses unique structural properties and interactions with one another, which determine the separate and combined roles in the multiple diabetic complications or diabetic opathies. Metabolic syndrome, prediabetes, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and their parallel companion (atheroscleropathy are associated with multiple metabolic toxicities and chronic injurious stimuli. The adaptable quality of a matrix or form genetically preloaded with the necessary information to communicate and respond to an ever-changing environment, which supports the interstitium, capillary and arterial vessel wall is individually examined.

  6. Glucuronylated core 1 glycans are required for precise localization of neuromuscular junctions and normal formation of basement membranes on Drosophila muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Kazuyoshi; Akimoto, Yoshihiro; Kondo, Shu; Ichimiya, Tomomi; Aoki, Kazuhiro; Tiemeyer, Michael; Nishihara, Shoko

    2018-04-15

    T antigen (Galβ1-3GalNAcα1-Ser/Thr) is an evolutionary-conserved mucin-type core 1 glycan structure in animals synthesized by core 1 β1,3-galactosyltransferase 1 (C1GalT1). Previous studies showed that T antigen produced by Drosophila C1GalT1 (dC1GalT1) was expressed in various tissues and dC1GalT1 loss in larvae led to various defects, including decreased number of circulating hemocytes, hyper-differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells in lymph glands, malformation of the central nervous system, mislocalization of neuromuscular junction (NMJ) boutons, and ultrastructural abnormalities in NMJs and muscle cells. Although glucuronylated T antigen (GlcAβ1-3Galβ1-3GalNAcα1-Ser/Thr) has been identified in Drosophila, the physiological function of this structure has not yet been clarified. In this study, for the first time, we unraveled biological roles of glucuronylated T antigen. Our data show that in Drosophila, glucuronylation of T antigen is predominantly carried out by Drosophila β1,3-glucuronyltransferase-P (dGlcAT-P). We created dGlcAT-P null mutants and found that mutant larvae showed lower expression of glucuronylated T antigen on the muscles and at NMJs. Furthermore, mislocalization of NMJ boutons and a partial loss of the basement membrane components collagen IV (Col IV) and nidogen (Ndg) at the muscle 6/7 boundary were observed. Those two phenotypes were correlated and identical to previously described phenotypes in dC1GalT1 mutant larvae. In addition, dGlcAT-P null mutants exhibited fewer NMJ branches on muscles 6/7. Moreover, ultrastructural analysis revealed that basement membranes that lacked Col IV and Ndg were significantly deformed. We also found that the loss of dGlcAT-P expression caused ultrastructural defects in NMJ boutons. Finally, we showed a genetic interaction between dGlcAT-P and dC1GalT1. Therefore, these results demonstrate that glucuronylated core 1 glycans synthesized by dGlcAT-P are key modulators of NMJ bouton localization

  7. Age-related collagen turnover of the interstitial matrix and basement membrane: Implications of age- and sex-dependent remodeling of the extracellular matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, Stephanie N.; Willumsen, Nicholas; Armbrecht, Gabriele

    2018-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) plays a vital role in maintaining normal tissue function. Collagens are major components of the ECM and there is a tight equilibrium between degradation and formation of these proteins ensuring tissue health and homeostasis. As a consequence of tissue turnover, small...... collagen fragments are released into the circulation, which act as important biomarkers in the study of certain tissue-related remodeling factors in health and disease. The aim of this study was to establish an age-related collagen turnover profile of the main collagens of the interstitial matrix (type I...... an increased turnover. In summary, collagen turnover is affected by age and sex with the interstitial matrix and the basement membrane being differently regulated. The observed changes needs to be accounted for when measuring ECM related biomarkers in clinical studies....

  8. Age-related collagen turnover of the interstitial matrix and basement membrane: Implications of age- and sex-dependent remodeling of the extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehlet, Stephanie N; Willumsen, Nicholas; Armbrecht, Gabriele; Dietzel, Roswitha; Brix, Susanne; Henriksen, Kim; Karsdal, Morten A

    2018-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) plays a vital role in maintaining normal tissue function. Collagens are major components of the ECM and there is a tight equilibrium between degradation and formation of these proteins ensuring tissue health and homeostasis. As a consequence of tissue turnover, small collagen fragments are released into the circulation, which act as important biomarkers in the study of certain tissue-related remodeling factors in health and disease. The aim of this study was to establish an age-related collagen turnover profile of the main collagens of the interstitial matrix (type I and III collagen) and basement membrane (type IV collagen) in healthy men and women. By using well-characterized competitive ELISA-assays, we assessed specific fragments of degraded (C1M, C3M, C4M) and formed (PINP, Pro-C3, P4NP7S) type I, III and IV collagen in serum from 617 healthy men and women ranging in ages from 22 to 86. Subjects were divided into 5-year age groups according to their sex and age. Groups were compared using Kruskal-Wallis adjusted for Dunn's multiple comparisons test and Mann-Whitney t-test. Age-specific changes in collagen turnover was most profound for type I collagen. PINP levels decreased in men with advancing age, whereas in women, the level decreased in early adulthood followed by an increase around the age of menopause (age 40-60). Sex-specific changes in type I, III and IV collagen turnover was present at the age around menopause (age 40-60) with women having an increased turnover. In summary, collagen turnover is affected by age and sex with the interstitial matrix and the basement membrane being differently regulated. The observed changes needs to be accounted for when measuring ECM related biomarkers in clinical studies.

  9. A large-sized bubbling appearance of the glomerular basement membrane in a patient with pulmonary limited AL amyloidosis and a past history of lupus nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suga, Norihiro; Miura, Naoto; Uemura, Yuko; Nakamura, Toshinobu; Morita, Hiroyuki; Banno, Shogo; Imai, Hirokazu

    2011-12-01

    We report an unusual pathological finding, a large-sized bubbling appearance of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM), in a patient with pulmonary limited AL amyloidosis and a past history of lupus nephritis. The first renal biopsy specimen from 10 years ago, when systemic lupus erythematosus was diagnosed, demonstrated mild mesangial proliferation and subepithelial deposits (WHO classification: III + V). Light microscopy of the current biopsy using periodic acid methenamine silver (PAMS) stain demonstrated a large-sized bubbling appearance of the GBM; however, very weak immunoglobulin and complement deposition was observed in immunofluorescence studies. Routine electron microscopy demonstrated partial subendothelial expansion with electron-lucent materials, but no electron-dense deposits or amyloid fibrils. Electron microscopy with PAMS stain revealed electron-lucent endothelial scalloping, including some cellular components and microspheres in the GBM; however, it is not clear if these materials are derived from endothelial cells. One possibility is that these unique findings represent a recovery phase of lupus membranous nephritis; another is that these findings correspond to a new disease entity.

  10. Crucial Role of Mesangial Cell-derived Connective Tissue Growth Factor in a Mouse Model of Anti-Glomerular Basement Membrane Glomerulonephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Naohiro; Mori, Kiyoshi; Kasahara, Masato; Ishii, Akira; Koga, Kenichi; Ohno, Shoko; Mori, Keita P; Kato, Yukiko; Osaki, Keisuke; Kuwabara, Takashige; Kojima, Katsutoshi; Taura, Daisuke; Sone, Masakatsu; Matsusaka, Taiji; Nakao, Kazuwa; Mukoyama, Masashi; Yanagita, Motoko; Yokoi, Hideki

    2017-02-13

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) coordinates the signaling of growth factors and promotes fibrosis. Neonatal death of systemic CTGF knockout (KO) mice has hampered analysis of CTGF in adult renal diseases. We established 3 types of CTGF conditional KO (cKO) mice to investigate a role and source of CTGF in anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) glomerulonephritis. Tamoxifen-inducible systemic CTGF (Rosa-CTGF) cKO mice exhibited reduced proteinuria with ameliorated crescent formation and mesangial expansion in anti-GBM nephritis after induction. Although CTGF is expressed by podocytes at basal levels, podocyte-specific CTGF (pod-CTGF) cKO mice showed no improvement in renal injury. In contrast, PDGFRα promoter-driven CTGF (Pdgfra-CTGF) cKO mice, which predominantly lack CTGF expression by mesangial cells, exhibited reduced proteinuria with ameliorated histological changes. Glomerular macrophage accumulation, expression of Adgre1 and Ccl2, and ratio of M1/M2 macrophages were all reduced both in Rosa-CTGF cKO and Pdgfra-CTGF cKO mice, but not in pod-CTGF cKO mice. TGF-β1-stimulated Ccl2 upregulation in mesangial cells and macrophage adhesion to activated mesangial cells were decreased by reduction of CTGF. These results reveal a novel mechanism of macrophage migration into glomeruli with nephritis mediated by CTGF derived from mesangial cells, implicating the therapeutic potential of CTGF inhibition in glomerulonephritis.

  11. H-ras oncogene-transformed human bronchial epithelial cells (TBE-1) secrete a single metalloprotease capable of degrading basement membrane collagen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collier, I.E.; Wilhelm, S.M.; Eisen, A.Z.

    1988-01-01

    H-ras transformed human bronchial epithelial cells (TBE-1) secrete a single major extracellular matrix metalloprotease which is not found in the normal parental cells. The enzyme is secreted in a latent form which can be activated to catalyze the cleavage of the basement membrane macromolecule type IV collagen. The substrates in their order of preference are: gelatin, type IV collagen, type V collagen, fibronectin, and type VII collagen; but the enzyme does not cleave the interstitial collagens or laminin. This protease is identical to gelatinase isolated from normal human skin explants, normal human skin fibroblasts, and SV40-transformed human lung fibroblasts. Based on this ability to initiate the degradation of type IV collagen in a pepsin-resistant portion of the molecule, it will be referred to as type IV collagenase. This enzyme is most likely the human analog of type IV collagenase detected in several rodent tumors. Type IV collagenase consists of three domains. Type IV collagenase represents the third member of a newly recognized gene family coding for secreted extracellular matrix metalloproteases, which includes interstitial fibroblast collagenase and stromelysin

  12. A two-dimensional model of the colonic crypt accounting for the role of the basement membrane and pericryptal fibroblast sheath.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara-Jane Dunn

    Full Text Available The role of the basement membrane is vital in maintaining the integrity and structure of an epithelial layer, acting as both a mechanical support and forming the physical interface between epithelial cells and the surrounding connective tissue. The function of this membrane is explored here in the context of the epithelial monolayer that lines the colonic crypt, test-tube shaped invaginations that punctuate the lining of the intestine and coordinate a regular turnover of cells to replenish the epithelial layer every few days. To investigate the consequence of genetic mutations that perturb the system dynamics and can lead to colorectal cancer, it must be possible to track the emerging tissue level changes that arise in the crypt. To that end, a theoretical crypt model with a realistic, deformable geometry is required. A new discrete crypt model is presented, which focuses on the interaction between cell- and tissue-level behaviour, while incorporating key subcellular components. The model contains a novel description of the role of the surrounding tissue and musculature, based upon experimental observations of the tissue structure of the crypt, which are also reported. A two-dimensional (2D cross-sectional geometry is considered, and the shape of the crypt is allowed to evolve and deform. Simulation results reveal how the shape of the crypt may contribute mechanically to the asymmetric division events typically associated with the stem cells at the base. The model predicts that epithelial cell migration may arise due to feedback between cell loss at the crypt collar and density-dependent cell division, an hypothesis which can be investigated in a wet lab. This work forms the basis for investigation of the deformation of the crypt structure that can occur due to proliferation of cells exhibiting mutant phenotypes, experiments that would not be possible in vivo or in vitro.

  13. Comparing The Efficacy of Hematoxylin and Eosin, Periodic Acid Schiff and Fluorescent Periodic Acid Schiff-Acriflavine Techniques for Demonstration of Basement Membrane in Oral Lichen Planus: A Histochemical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujar, Ashwini; Pereira, Treville; Tamgadge, Avinash; Bhalerao, Sudhir; Tamgadge, Sandhya

    2015-01-01

    Basement membrane (BM) is a thick sheet of extracellular matrix molecules, upon which epithelial cells attach. Various immunohistochemical studies in the past have been carried out but these advanced staining techniques are expensive and not feasible in routine laboratories. Although hematoxylin and eosin (H-E) is very popular among pathologists for looking at biopsies, the method has some limitations. This is where special stains come handy. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate and compare the efficacy of H-E, periodic acid Schiff (PAS) and fluorescent periodic acid-acriflavine staining techniques for the basement membrane and to establish a histochemical stain which could be cost effective, less time consuming, and unambiguous for observation of the basement membrane zone. A total number of 40 paraffin-embedded tissue sections of known basement membrane containing tissues including 10 - Normal oral mucosa (NOM) and 30 - oral lichen planus (OLP) were considered in the study. Four-micron-thick sections of each block were cut and stained with H-E stain, PAS and fluorescent periodic acid-acriflavine stain. Sections were evaluated by three oral pathologists independently for continuity, contrast and pattern. Though all the three stains showed favorable features at different levels, acriflavine stain was better than the other stains in demonstrating BM continuity, contrast and also the pattern followed by PAS stain. Acriflavine stain was the better in demonstrating a fibrillar pattern of a BM. Acriflavine stains a BM distinctly and is less time consuming and easy to carry out using readily available dyes as compared to other stains. The continuity and contrast along with the homogenous pattern and the afibrillar pattern of the BM was better demonstrated by acriflavine followed by the PAS stain.

  14. Comparing the efficacy of hematoxylin and eosin, periodic acid schiff and fluorescent periodic acid schiff-acriflavine techniques for demonstration of basement membrane in oral lichen planus: A histochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwini Pujar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Basement membrane (BM is a thick sheet of extracellular matrix molecules, upon which epithelial cells attach. Various immunohistochemical studies in the past have been carried out but these advanced staining techniques are expensive and not feasible in routine laboratories. Although hematoxylin and eosin (H-E is very popular among pathologists for looking at biopsies, the method has some limitations. This is where special stains come handy. Aims and Objectives: The aim of the present study was to demonstrate and compare the efficacy of H-E, periodic acid Schiff (PAS and fluorescent periodic acid-acriflavine staining techniques for the basement membrane and to establish a histochemical stain which could be cost effective, less time consuming, and unambiguous for observation of the basement membrane zone. Materials and Methods: A total number of 40 paraffin-embedded tissue sections of known basement membrane containing tissues including 10 - Normal oral mucosa (NOM and 30 - oral lichen planus (OLP were considered in the study. Four-micron-thick sections of each block were cut and stained with H-E stain, PAS and fluorescent periodic acid-acriflavine stain. Sections were evaluated by three oral pathologists independently for continuity, contrast and pattern. Results: Though all the three stains showed favorable features at different levels, acriflavine stain was better than the other stains in demonstrating BM continuity, contrast and also the pattern followed by PAS stain. Acriflavine stain was the better in demonstrating a fibrillar pattern of a BM. Acriflavine stains a BM distinctly and is less time consuming and easy to carry out using readily available dyes as compared to other stains. Conclusion: The continuity and contrast along with the homogenous pattern and the afibrillar pattern of the BM was better demonstrated by acriflavine followed by the PAS stain.

  15. Lipid Binding of the Amphipathic Helix Serving as Membrane Anchor of Pestivirus Glycoprotein Erns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberle, Daniel; Oetter, Kay-Marcus; Meyers, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    Pestiviruses express a peculiar protein named Erns representing envelope glycoprotein and RNase, which is important for control of the innate immune response and persistent infection. The latter functions are connected with secretion of a certain amount of Erns from the infected cell. Retention/secretion of Erns is most likely controlled by its unusual membrane anchor, a long amphipathic helix attached in plane to the membrane. Here we present results of experiments conducted with a lipid vesicle sedimentation assay able to separate lipid-bound from unbound protein dissolved in the water phase. Using this technique we show that a protein composed of tag sequences and the carboxyterminal 65 residues of Erns binds specifically to membrane vesicles with a clear preference for compositions containing negatively charged lipids. Mutations disturbing the helical folding and/or amphipathic character of the anchor as well as diverse truncations and exchange of amino acids important for intracellular retention of Erns had no or only small effects on the proteins membrane binding. This result contrasts the dramatically increased secretion rates observed for Erns proteins with equivalent mutations within cells. Accordingly, the ratio of secreted versus cell retained Erns is not determined by the lipid affinity of the membrane anchor.

  16. Lipid Binding of the Amphipathic Helix Serving as Membrane Anchor of Pestivirus Glycoprotein Erns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Aberle

    Full Text Available Pestiviruses express a peculiar protein named Erns representing envelope glycoprotein and RNase, which is important for control of the innate immune response and persistent infection. The latter functions are connected with secretion of a certain amount of Erns from the infected cell. Retention/secretion of Erns is most likely controlled by its unusual membrane anchor, a long amphipathic helix attached in plane to the membrane. Here we present results of experiments conducted with a lipid vesicle sedimentation assay able to separate lipid-bound from unbound protein dissolved in the water phase. Using this technique we show that a protein composed of tag sequences and the carboxyterminal 65 residues of Erns binds specifically to membrane vesicles with a clear preference for compositions containing negatively charged lipids. Mutations disturbing the helical folding and/or amphipathic character of the anchor as well as diverse truncations and exchange of amino acids important for intracellular retention of Erns had no or only small effects on the proteins membrane binding. This result contrasts the dramatically increased secretion rates observed for Erns proteins with equivalent mutations within cells. Accordingly, the ratio of secreted versus cell retained Erns is not determined by the lipid affinity of the membrane anchor.

  17. Poliomyelitis in MuLV-infected ICR-SCID mice after injection of basement membrane matrix contaminated with lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson Scholz, Jodi A; Garg, Rohit; Compton, Susan R; Allore, Heather G; Zeiss, Caroline J; Uchio, Edward M

    2011-10-01

    The arterivirus lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV) causes life-long viremia in mice. Although LDV infection generally does not cause disease, infected mice that are homozygous for the Fv1(n) allele are prone to develop poliomyelitis when immunosuppressed, a condition known as age-dependent poliomyelitis. The development of age-dependent poliomyelitis requires coinfection with endogenous murine leukemia virus. Even though LDV is a common contaminant of transplantable tumors, clinical signs of poliomyelitis after inadvertent exposure to LDV have not been described in recent literature. In addition, LDV-induced poliomyelitis has not been reported in SCID or ICR mice. Here we describe the occurrence of poliomyelitis in ICR-SCID mice resulting from injection of LDV-contaminated basement membrane matrix. After exposure to LDV, a subset of mice presented with clinical signs including paresis, which was associated with atrophy of the hindlimb musculature, and tachypnea; in addition, some mice died suddenly with or without premonitory signs. Mice presenting within the first 6 mo after infection had regions of spongiosis, neuronal necrosis and astrocytosis of the ventral spinal cord, and less commonly, brainstem. Axonal degeneration of ventral roots prevailed in more chronically infected mice. LDV was identified by RT-PCR in 12 of 15 mice with typical neuropathology; positive antiLDV immunolabeling was identified in all PCR-positive animals (n = 7) tested. Three of 8 mice with neuropathology but no clinical signs were LDV negative by RT-PCR. RT-PCR yielded murine leukemia virus in spinal cords of all mice tested, regardless of clinical presentation or neuropathology.

  18. Detection of gelatinolytic activity in developing basement membranes of the mouse embryo head by combining sensitive in situ zymography with immunolabeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkantidis, Nikolaos; Katsaros, Christos; Chiquet, Matthias

    2012-10-01

    Genetic evidence indicates that the major gelatinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 are involved in mammalian craniofacial development. Since these matrix metalloproteinases are secreted as proenzymes that require activation, their tissue distribution does not necessarily reflect the sites of enzymatic activity. Information regarding the spatial and temporal expression of gelatinolytic activity in the head of the mammalian embryo is sparse. Sensitive in situ zymography with dye-quenched gelatin (DQ-gelatin) has been introduced recently; gelatinolytic activity results in a local increase in fluorescence. Using frontal sections of wild-type mouse embryo heads from embryonic day 14.5-15.5, we optimized and validated a simple double-labeling in situ technique for combining DQ-gelatin zymography with immunofluorescence staining. MMP inhibitors were tested to confirm the specificity of the reaction in situ, and results were compared to standard SDS-gel zymography of tissue extracts. Double-labeling was used to show the spatial relationship in situ between gelatinolytic activity and immunostaining for gelatinases MMP-2 and MMP-9, collagenase 3 (MMP-13) and MT1-MMP (MMP-14), a major activator of pro-gelatinases. Strong gelatinolytic activity, which partially overlapped with MMP proteins, was confirmed for Meckel's cartilage and developing mandibular bone. In addition, we combined in situ zymography with immunostaining for extracellular matrix proteins that are potential gelatinase substrates. Interestingly, gelatinolytic activity colocalized precisely with laminin-positive basement membranes at specific sites around growing epithelia in the developing mouse head, such as the ducts of salivary glands or the epithelial fold between tongue and lower jaw region. Thus, this sensitive method allows to associate, with high spatial resolution, gelatinolytic activity with epithelial morphogenesis in the embryo.

  19. Anti-nucleosome antibodies complexed to nucleosomal antigens show anti-DNA reactivity and bind to rat glomerular basement membrane in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramers, C; Hylkema, M N; van Bruggen, M C; van de Lagemaat, R; Dijkman, H B; Assmann, K J; Smeenk, R J; Berden, J H

    1994-01-01

    Histones can mediate the binding of DNA and anti-DNA to the glomerular basement membrane (GBM). In ELISA histone/DNA/anti-DNA complexes are able to bind to heparan sulfate (HS), an intrinsic constituent of the GBM. We questioned whether histone containing immune complexes are able to bind to the GBM, and if so, whether the ligand in the GBM is HS. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) complexed to nucleosomal antigens and noncomplexed mAbs were isolated from culture supernatants of four IgG anti-nuclear mAbs. All noncomplexed mAbs showed strong anti-nucleosome reactivity in ELISA. One of them showed in addition anti-DNA reactivity in noncomplexed form. The other three mAbs only showed anti-DNA reactivity when they were complexed to nucleosomal antigens. After renal perfusion a fine granular binding of complexed mAbs to the glomerular capillary wall and activation of complement was observed in immunofluorescence, whereas noncomplexed mAbs did not bind. Immuno-electron microscopy showed binding of complexes to the whole width of the GBM. When HS in the GBM was removed by renal heparinase perfusion the binding of complexed mAb decreased, but did not disappear completely. We conclude that anti-nucleosome mAbs, which do not bind DNA, become DNA reactive once complexed to nucleosomal antigens. These complexed mAbs can bind to the GBM. The binding ligand in the GBM is partly, but not solely, HS. Binding to the GBM of immune complexes containing nucleosomal material might be an important event in the pathogenesis of lupus nephritis. Images PMID:8040312

  20. Targeted Expression of Stromelysin-1 in Mammary Gland Provides Evidence for a Role of Proteinases in Branching Morphogenesis and the Requirement for an Intact Basement Membrane for Tissue-specific Gene Expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sympson, Carolyn J; Talhouk, Rabih S; Alexander, Caroline M; Chin, Jennie R; Cliff, Shirley M; Bissell, Mina J; Werb, Zena

    1994-05-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is an important regulator of the differentiated phenotype of mammary epithelial cells in culture. Despite the fact that ECM-degrading enzymes have been implicated in morphogenesis and tissue remodeling, there is little evidence for a direct role for such regulation in vivo. We generated transgenic mice that express autoactivated isoforms of the matrix metalloproteinase stromelysin-1, under the control of the whey acidic protein gene promoter, to examine the effect of inappropriate expression of this enzyme. Stromelysin-1 is implicated as the primary player in the loss of basement membrane and loss of function in the mammary gland during involution. The transgene was expressed at low levels in mammary glands of virgin female mice, leading to an unexpected phenotype: The primary ducts had supernumerary branches and showed precocious development of alveoli that expressed beta-casein at levels similar to that of an early- to mid-pregnant gland. Lactating glands showed high levels of transgene expression, with accumulation at the basement membrane, and a decrease in laminin and collagen IV, resulting in a loss of basement membrane integrity; this was accompanied by a dramatic alteration of alveolar morphology, with decreased size and shrunken lumina containing little beta-casein. During pregnancy, expression of endogenous whey acidic protein and beta-casein was reduced in transgenic glands, confirming the observed dependence of milk protein transcription of ECM in mammary epithelial cells in culture. These data provide direct evidence that stromelysin-1 activity can be morphogenic for mammary epithelial cells, inducing hyperproliferation and differentiation in virgin animals, and that its lytic activity can, indeed, disrupt membrane integrity and reduce mammary-specific function. We conclude that the balance of ECM-degrading enzymes with their inhibitors, and the associated regulation of ECM structure, is crucial for tissue-specific gene

  1. Divergent mechanisms underlie Smad4-mediated positive regulation of the three genes encoding the basement membrane component laminin-332 (laminin-5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zboralski, Dirk; Böckmann, Miriam; Zapatka, Marc; Hoppe, Sabine; Schöneck, Anna; Hahn, Stephan A; Schmiegel, Wolff; Schwarte-Waldhoff, Irmgard

    2008-01-01

    Functional inactivation of the tumor suppressor Smad4 in colorectal and pancreatic carcinogenesis occurs coincident with the transition to invasive growth. Breaking the basement membrane (BM) barrier, a prerequisite for invasive growth, can be due to tumor induced proteolytic tissue remodeling or to reduced synthesis of BM molecules by incipient tumor cells. Laminin-332 (laminin-5), a heterotrimeric BM component composed of α3-, β3- and γ2-chains, has recently been identified as a target structure of Smad4 and represents the first example for expression control of an essential BM component by a tumor and invasion suppressor. Biochemically Smad4 is a transmitter of signals of the TGFβ superfamily of cytokines. We have reported previously, that Smad4 functions as a positive transcriptional regulator of constitutive and of TGFβ-induced transcription of all three genes encoding Laminin-332, LAMA3, LAMB3 and LAMC2. Promoter-reporter constructs harboring 4 kb upstream regions, each of the three genes encoding Laminin-322 as well as deletion and mutations constructs were established. Promoter activities and TGFβ induction were assayed through transient transfections in Smad4-negative human cancer cells and their stable Smad4-positive derivatives. Functionally relevant binding sites were subsequently confirmed through chromatin immunoprecipitation. Herein, we report that Smad4 mediates transcriptional regulation through three different mechanisms, namely through Smad4 binding to a functional SBE site exclusively in the LAMA3 promoter, Smad4 binding to AP1 (and Sp1) sites presumably via interaction with AP1 family components and lastly a Smad4 impact on transcription of AP1 factors. Whereas Smad4 is essential for positive regulation of all three genes, the molecular mechanisms are significantly divergent between the LAMA3 promoter as compared to the LAMB3 and LAMC2 promoters. We hypothesize that this divergence in modular regulation of the three promoters may lay the

  2. Circulating Vascular Basement Membrane Fragments are Associated with the Diameter of the Abdominal Aorta and Their Expression Pattern is Altered in AAA Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holsti, Mari; Wanhainen, Anders; Lundin, Christina; Björck, Martin; Tegler, Gustaf; Svensson, Johan; Sund, Malin

    2018-04-12

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is characterised by enhanced proteolytic activity, and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodelling in the vascular wall. Type IV and XVIII collagen/endostatin are structural proteins in vascular basement membrane (VBM), a specialised ECM structure. Here the association between plasma levels of these collagens with the aortic diameter and expansion rate is studied, and their expression in aortic tissue characterised. This was a retrospective population based cohort study. Type IV and XVIII collagen/endostatin were analysed in plasma by ELISA assay in 615 men, divided into three groups based on the aortic diameter: 1) normal aorta ≤ 25 mm, 2) sub-aneurysmal aorta (SAA) 26-29 mm, and 3) AAA ≥ 30 mm. Follow up data were available for 159 men. The association between collagen levels and aortic diameter at baseline, and with the expansion rate at follow up were analysed in ordinal logistic regression and linear regression models, controlling for common confounding factors. Tissue expression of the collagens was analysed in normal aorta (n = 6) and AAA (n = 6) by immunofluorescence. Plasma levels of type XVIII collagen/endostatin (136 ng/mL [SD 29] in individuals with a normal aorta diameter, 154 ng/ml [SD 45] in SAA, and 162 ng/ml [SD 46] in AAA; p = .001) and type IV collagen (105 ng/mL [SD 42] normal aorta, 124 ng/ml [SD 46] SAA, and 127 ng/ml [SD 47] AAA; p = .037) were associated with a larger aortic diameter. A significant association was found between the baseline levels of type XVIII/endostatin and the aortic expansion rate (p = .035), but in the multivariable model, only the initial aortic diameter remained significantly associated with expansion (p = .005). Altered expression patterns of both collagens were observed in AAA tissue. Plasma levels of circulating type IV and XVIII collagen/endostatin increase with AAA diameter. The expression pattern of VBM proteins is altered in the aneurysm wall. Copyright

  3. Glutathione S-transferase Mu 2-transduced mesenchymal stem cells ameliorated anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody-induced glomerulonephritis by inhibiting oxidation and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yajuan; Yan, Mei; Yang, Jichen; Raman, Indu; Du, Yong; Min, Soyoun; Fang, Xiangdong; Mohan, Chandra; Li, Quan-Zhen

    2014-01-30

    Oxidative stress is implicated in tissue inflammation, and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of immune-mediated nephritis. Using the anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody-induced glomerulonephritis (anti-GBM-GN) mouse model, we found that increased expression of glutathione S-transferase Mu 2 (GSTM2) was related to reduced renal damage caused by anti-GBM antibodies. Furthermore, mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapy has shed light on the treatment of immune-mediated kidney diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate if MSCs could be utilized as vehicles to deliver the GSTM2 gene product into the kidney and to evaluate its potential therapeutic effect on anti-GBM-GN. The human GSTM2 gene (hGSTM2) was transduced into mouse bone marrow-derived MSCs via a lentivirus vector to create a stable cell line (hGSTM2-MSC). The cultured hGSTM2-MSCs were treated with 0.5 mM H2O2, and apoptotic cells were measured by terminal dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay. The 129/svj mice, which were challenged with anti-GBM antibodies, were injected with 10⁶ hGSTM2-MSCs via the tail vein. Expression of hGSTM2 and inflammatory cytokines in the kidney was assayed by quantitative PCR and western blotting. Renal function of mice was evaluated by monitoring proteinuria and levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and renal pathological changes were analyzed by histochemistry. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed to measure inflammatory cell infiltration and renal cell apoptosis. MSCs transduced with hGSTM2 exhibited similar growth and differentiation properties to MSCs. hGSTM2-MSCs persistently expressed hGSTM2 and resisted H2O2-induced apoptosis. Upon injection into 129/svj mice, hGSTM2-MSCs migrated to the kidney and expressed hGSTM2. The anti-GBM-GN mice treated with hGSTM2-MSCs exhibited reduced proteinuria and BUN (58% and 59% reduction, respectively) and ameliorated renal pathological damage, compared with control mice. Mice injected with hGSTM2-MSCs showed

  4. Insights into early extracellular matrix evolution: spongin short chain collagen-related proteins are homologous to basement membrane type IV collagens and form a novel family widely distributed in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aouacheria, Abdel; Geourjon, Christophe; Aghajari, Nushin; Navratil, Vincent; Deléage, Gilbert; Lethias, Claire; Exposito, Jean-Yves

    2006-12-01

    Collagens are thought to represent one of the most important molecular innovations in the metazoan line. Basement membrane type IV collagen is present in all Eumetazoa and was found in Homoscleromorpha, a sponge group with a well-organized epithelium, which may represent the first stage of tissue differentiation during animal evolution. In contrast, spongin seems to be a demosponge-specific collagenous protein, which can totally substitute an inorganic skeleton, such as in the well-known bath sponge. In the freshwater sponge Ephydatia mülleri, we previously characterized a family of short-chain collagens that are likely to be main components of spongins. Using a combination of sequence- and structure-based methods, we present evidence of remote homology between the carboxyl-terminal noncollagenous NC1 domain of spongin short-chain collagens and type IV collagen. Unexpectedly, spongin short-chain collagen-related proteins were retrieved in nonsponge animals, suggesting that a family related to spongin constitutes an evolutionary sister to the type IV collagen family. Formation of the ancestral NC1 domain and divergence of the spongin short-chain collagen-related and type IV collagen families may have occurred before the parazoan-eumetazoan split, the earliest divergence among extant animal phyla. Molecular phylogenetics based on NC1 domain sequences suggest distinct evolutionary histories for spongin short-chain collagen-related and type IV collagen families that include spongin short-chain collagen-related gene loss in the ancestors of Ecdyzosoa and of vertebrates. The fact that a majority of invertebrates encodes spongin short-chain collagen-related proteins raises the important question to the possible function of its members. Considering the importance of collagens for animal structure and substratum attachment, both families may have played crucial roles in animal diversification.

  5. Still more complexity in mammalian basement membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erickson, A C; Couchman, J R

    2000-01-01

    laminins, entactin-1/nidogen-1, Type IV collagen, and proteoglycans. However, within the past few years this complexity has increased as new components are described. The entactin/nidogen (E/N) family has expanded with the recent description of a new isoform, E/N-2/osteonidogen. Agrin and Type XVIII...... to be regulated through multiple, mostly domain-specific mechanisms. Understanding the functions of individual BM components and their assembly into macromolecular complexes is a considerable challenge that may increase as further BM and cell surface ligands are discovered for these proteins....

  6. Measure Guideline: Basement Insulation Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, R.; Mantha, P.; Puttagunta, S.

    2012-10-01

    This guideline is intended to describe good practices for insulating basements in new and existing homes, and is intended to be a practical resources for building contractors, designers, and also to homeowners.

  7. Viruses in the Oceanic Basement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigro, Olivia D; Jungbluth, Sean P; Lin, Huei-Ting; Hsieh, Chih-Chiang; Miranda, Jaclyn A; Schvarcz, Christopher R; Rappé, Michael S; Steward, Grieg F

    2017-03-07

    Microbial life has been detected well into the igneous crust of the seafloor (i.e., the oceanic basement), but there have been no reports confirming the presence of viruses in this habitat. To detect and characterize an ocean basement virome, geothermally heated fluid samples (ca. 60 to 65°C) were collected from 117 to 292 m deep into the ocean basement using seafloor observatories installed in two boreholes (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program [IODP] U1362A and U1362B) drilled in the eastern sediment-covered flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Concentrations of virus-like particles in the fluid samples were on the order of 0.2 × 10 5 to 2 × 10 5  ml -1 ( n = 8), higher than prokaryote-like cells in the same samples by a factor of 9 on average (range, 1.5 to 27). Electron microscopy revealed diverse viral morphotypes similar to those of viruses known to infect bacteria and thermophilic archaea. An analysis of virus-like sequences in basement microbial metagenomes suggests that those from archaeon-infecting viruses were the most common (63 to 80%). Complete genomes of a putative archaeon-infecting virus and a prophage within an archaeal scaffold were identified among the assembled sequences, and sequence analysis suggests that they represent lineages divergent from known thermophilic viruses. Of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-containing scaffolds in the metagenomes for which a taxonomy could be inferred (163 out of 737), 51 to 55% appeared to be archaeal and 45 to 49% appeared to be bacterial. These results imply that the warmed, highly altered fluids in deeply buried ocean basement harbor a distinct assemblage of novel viruses, including many that infect archaea, and that these viruses are active participants in the ecology of the basement microbiome. IMPORTANCE The hydrothermally active ocean basement is voluminous and likely provided conditions critical to the origins of life, but the microbiology of this vast habitat is not

  8. Viruses in the Oceanic Basement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia D. Nigro

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbial life has been detected well into the igneous crust of the seafloor (i.e., the oceanic basement, but there have been no reports confirming the presence of viruses in this habitat. To detect and characterize an ocean basement virome, geothermally heated fluid samples (ca. 60 to 65°C were collected from 117 to 292 m deep into the ocean basement using seafloor observatories installed in two boreholes (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program [IODP] U1362A and U1362B drilled in the eastern sediment-covered flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Concentrations of virus-like particles in the fluid samples were on the order of 0.2 × 105 to 2 × 105 ml−1 (n = 8, higher than prokaryote-like cells in the same samples by a factor of 9 on average (range, 1.5 to 27. Electron microscopy revealed diverse viral morphotypes similar to those of viruses known to infect bacteria and thermophilic archaea. An analysis of virus-like sequences in basement microbial metagenomes suggests that those from archaeon-infecting viruses were the most common (63 to 80%. Complete genomes of a putative archaeon-infecting virus and a prophage within an archaeal scaffold were identified among the assembled sequences, and sequence analysis suggests that they represent lineages divergent from known thermophilic viruses. Of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR-containing scaffolds in the metagenomes for which a taxonomy could be inferred (163 out of 737, 51 to 55% appeared to be archaeal and 45 to 49% appeared to be bacterial. These results imply that the warmed, highly altered fluids in deeply buried ocean basement harbor a distinct assemblage of novel viruses, including many that infect archaea, and that these viruses are active participants in the ecology of the basement microbiome.

  9. development in a basement terrain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2004-05-17

    May 17, 2004 ... especially as a reconnaissance tool (de Jong et al., 1981; de. Rooy et al., 1986; ... ful naval radio transmitters in the very low frequency range. (15-25kHz). ... involved partial curve matching and computer iteration tech- niques. .... result predicted depth to fresh basement bedrock to be 46m whilst drilling ...

  10. Uranium deposits in the metamorphic basement of the Rouergue massif. Genesis and extension of related albitization processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, J.M.

    1982-02-01

    Albitization processes in the Rouergue metamorphic basement, probably Permian aged is evidenced. Late development of uranium orebodies occured within albitized zones. The detection of the latter serves as a highly valuable indirect guide for prospecting this type of deposits in a metamorphic basement [fr

  11. Membrane-bound IL-12 and IL-23 serve as potent mucosal adjuvants when co-presented on whole inactivated influenza vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Tila; Heffron, Connie L; High, Kevin P; Roberts, Paul C

    2014-05-03

    Potent and safe adjuvants are needed to improve the efficacy of parenteral and mucosal vaccines. Cytokines, chemokines and growth factors have all proven to be effective immunomodulatory adjuvants when administered with a variety of antigens. We have previously evaluated the efficacy of membrane-anchored interleukins (IL) such as IL-2 and IL-4 co-presented as Cytokine-bearing Influenza Vaccines (CYT-IVACs) using a mouse model of influenza challenge. Here, we describe studies evaluating the parenteral and mucosal adjuvanticity of membrane-bound IL-12 and IL-23 CYT-IVACs in young adult mice. Mucosal immunization using IL-12 and IL-23 bearing whole influenza virus vaccine (WIV) was more effective at eliciting virus-specific nasal IgA and reducing viral lung burden following challenge compared to control WIV vaccinated animals. Both IL-12 and IL-23 bearing WIV elicited the highest anti-viral IgA levels in serum and nasal washes. This study highlights for the first time the mucosal adjuvant potential of IL-12 and IL-23 CYT-IVAC formulations in eliciting mucosal immune responses and reducing viral lung burden. The co-presentation of immunomodulators in direct context with viral antigen in whole inactivated viral vaccines may provide a means to significantly lower the dose of vaccine required for protection.

  12. Mapping magnetic lineaments and subsurface basement beneath ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    65

    studied the basement structures beneath parts of the Lower Benue Trough (LBT). Anudu et .... order vertical derivatives can be calculated respectively using the relations below: 145. ( ) ... minerals as in the case of the FVD-RTP-TMI (Figure 6).

  13. The Type VI Secretion TssEFGK-VgrG Phage-Like Baseplate Is Recruited to the TssJLM Membrane Complex via Multiple Contacts and Serves As Assembly Platform for Tail Tube/Sheath Polymerization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick R Brunet

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Type VI secretion system (T6SS is a widespread weapon dedicated to the delivery of toxin proteins into eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. The 13 T6SS subunits assemble a cytoplasmic contractile structure anchored to the cell envelope by a membrane-spanning complex. This structure is evolutionarily, structurally and functionally related to the tail of contractile bacteriophages. In bacteriophages, the tail assembles onto a protein complex, referred to as the baseplate, that not only serves as a platform during assembly of the tube and sheath, but also triggers the contraction of the sheath. Although progress has been made in understanding T6SS assembly and function, the composition of the T6SS baseplate remains mostly unknown. Here, we report that six T6SS proteins-TssA, TssE, TssF, TssG, TssK and VgrG-are required for proper assembly of the T6SS tail tube, and a complex between VgrG, TssE,-F and-G could be isolated. In addition, we demonstrate that TssF and TssG share limited sequence homologies with known phage components, and we report the interaction network between these subunits and other baseplate and tail components. In agreement with the baseplate being the assembly platform for the tail, fluorescence microscopy analyses of functional GFP-TssF and TssK-GFP fusion proteins show that these proteins assemble stable and static clusters on which the sheath polymerizes. Finally, we show that recruitment of the baseplate to the apparatus requires initial positioning of the membrane complex and contacts between TssG and the inner membrane TssM protein.

  14. Optically Highlighting Basement Membrane Components in C. elegans

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Authors: Elliott Hagedorn & David Sherwood ### Abstract Green fluorescent protein (GFP) and other genetically encoded fluorescent proteins provide a means to study gene expression pattern and protein localization in living tissues. Recently discovered GFP-like fluorophores and engineered variants have further expanded the fluorescent protein toolkit for in vivo imaging. Here we describe a technique using transgenic C. elegans that contain laminin or type IV collagen fused to the green...

  15. Libraries serving dialogue

    CERN Document Server

    Dupont, Odile

    2014-01-01

    This book based on experiences of libraries serving interreligious dialogue, presents themes like library tools serving dialogue between cultures, collections dialoguing, children and young adults dialoguing beyond borders, story telling as dialog, librarians serving interreligious dialogue.

  16. Technology of serving

    OpenAIRE

    Taskov, Nako

    2013-01-01

    The book “Technology of serving” was prepared according to the curriculum and it is intended for students at the faculty of tourism and business logistics in republic of Macedonia In its contents on the subject of Technology of serving it includes the following - the rooms for serving, the types of catering objects in which food and beverages are served, professional serving staff, equipment and inventory for serving, card selection services in serving .,getting to know drin...

  17. Anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) disease accompanied by vasculitis that was not positive for antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies to myeloperoxidase and proteinase 3: a report of two cases and the incidence of anti-GBM disease at one institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakabayashi, Kimimasa; Fujioka, Yasunori; Arimura, Yoshihiro; Fukuoka, Toshihito; Marumo, Tomohumi; Umino, Michiru; Kamiya, Yasushi; Okai, Takahiro; Tsurumaki, Shigeru; Nagasawa, Toshihiko; Yamada, Akira

    2011-08-01

    Anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) disease is thought to be distinct from vasculitis. In contrast, there have been several papers suggesting the presence of angiitis in cases that were positive for anti-GBM antibody (Ab), as well as for either myeloperoxidase (MPO)- or proteinase 3 (PR3)-anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) (Group I). We experienced four patients who had anti-GBM Abs, but not MPO- and PR3-ANCA (Group II), and two of these patients were found to have vasculitis. Therefore, we performed an in-depth study on these two patients. The patients with anti-GBM disease were isolated from 578 cases whose renal tissues were examined, and they were categorized into two groups. We have already published the data about Group I. We then proceeded to study two vasculitic patients in Group II clinically, pathologically, and serologically. The anti-GBM Ab and ANCA levels were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Renal specimens were studied by routine staining as well as immunohistochemical investigations of CD31 and type IV collagen. The total number of patients with anti-GBM disease was 7 (7/578 = 1.2%), with 3 patients belonging to Group I and 4 patients belonging to Group II. Two patients in Group II were diagnosed to have vasculitis, but the remaining 2 patients did not. One vasculitic patient was complicated by pulmonary hemorrhage, while the other vasculitic patient displayed peripheral neuropathy as well as a small cavity lesion in the lung. The latter patient was found to be positive for perinuclear (p)-ANCA, but not for any other ANCA subsets. The renal pathology in the two vasculitic patients showed crescentic glomerulonephritis (CSGN) and immunoglobulin (Ig) G linear deposits along the glomerular capillary loops. The former patient showed fibrinoid angiitis in an afferent arteriole as well as peritubular capillaritis. The latter patient demonstrated peritubular capillaritis. These peritubular capillaritides were diagnosed by

  18. Structural and Geophysical Characterization of Oklahoma Basement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, C.; Johnston, C. S.; Carpenter, B. M.; Reches, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Oklahoma has experienced a large increase in seismicity since 2009 that has been attributed to wastewater injection. Most earthquakes, including four M5+ earthquakes, nucleated at depths > 4 km, well within the pre-Cambrian crystalline basement, even though wastewater injection occurred almost exclusively in the sedimentary sequence above. To better understand the structural characteristics of the rhyolite and granite that makeup the midcontinent basement, we analyzed a 150 m long core recovered from a basement borehole (Shads 4) in Rogers County, NE Oklahoma. The analysis of the fracture network in the rhyolite core included measurements of fracture inclination, aperture, and density, the examination fracture surface features and fill minerology, as well as x-ray diffraction analysis of secondary mineralization. We also analyzed the highly fractured and faulted segments of the core with a portable gamma-ray detector, magnetometer, and rebound hammer. The preliminary analysis of the fractures within the rhyolite core showed: (1) Fracture density increasing with depth by a factor of 10, from 4 fractures/10m in the upper core segment to 40 fracture/10m at 150 m deeper. (2) The fractures are primarily sub-vertical, inclined 10-20° from the axis of the vertical core. (3) The secondary mineralization is dominated by calcite and epidote. (4) Fracture aperture ranges from 0.35 to 2.35mm based on the thickness of secondary filling. (5) About 8% of the examined fractures display slickenside striations. (6) Increases of elasticity (by rebound hammer) and gamma-ray emissions are systematically correlated with a decrease in magnetic susceptibility in core segments of high fracture density and/or faulting; this observation suggests diagenetic fracture re-mineralization.

  19. Reliability of residential basements as blast shelters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longinow, A.; Mohammadi, J.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes an analysis method for predicting the probability of failure of a wood-framed basement when subjected to a static, uniformly distributed load. The analysis considers the primary failure modes of each framing member and determines the probability of failure for each mode acting alone. The failure probability of the system as a whole is then bounded. The upper bound is determined on the assumption that the failure modes are independent, while the lower bound is determined on the assumption that the failure modes are perfectly correlated. The analysis is described with reference to an example problem

  20. Magnetotelluric inversion for depth-to-basement estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Hongzhu; Zhdanov, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The magnetotelluric (MT) method can be effectively applied for depth-to-basement estimation, because there exists a strong contrast in resistivity between a conductive sedimentary basin and a resistive crystalline basement. Conventional inversions of MT data are usually aimed at determining...... the volumetric distribution of the conductivity within the inversion domain. By the nature of the MT method, the recovered distribution of the subsurface conductivity is typically diffusive, which makes it difficult to select the sediment-basement interface. This paper develops a novel approach to 3D MT...... inversion for the depth-to-basement estimate. The key to this approach is selection of the model parameterization with the depth to basement being the major unknown parameter. In order to estimate the depth to the basement, the inversion algorithm recovers both the thickness and the conductivities...

  1. Geochemistry of the Puna Austral and Cordillera Oriental basement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becchio, Raul; Lucassen, Friedrich; Franz, Gerhard; Kasemann, Simone

    1998-01-01

    Major and trace elements, rare earths, and 143 Nd/ 147 Nd and, 147 Sm/ 144 Nd isotope ratios have been determined in the Puna Austral and Cordillera Oriental basement. The basement is formed by high temperature amphibolite facies rocks ranulites (750-550 degrees C) and green schists. They are represented by schists, paragneiss, orthogneiss, migmatites, few metabasites, marbles and chalcosilicatic banks. Hypotheses on the formation and evolution of the basement are presented

  2. A Helpful Serving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockower, David

    2006-01-01

    This article briefly describes how a fifth-grade class collaborated with a downtown diner for several months and then actually ran the restaurant for four hours. Through the Chatters Cafe, a local high school cafe that serves as a culinary arts training ground for high school students, fifth graders had the opportunity to prepare and serve dinner…

  3. Depth-To-Basement Mapping Using Fractal Technique: Application ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and can thus be obtained at source level. Application to aeromagnetic data from the Chad basin north eastern Nigeria produced a basement relief which range from depths of 2.47 km to 5.40 km with an average of 3.92 +- 0.66 km. Keywords: Fractal, depth, basement, spectra, aeromagnetic. Nigerian Journal of Physics Vol ...

  4. NATURAL BASEMENT VENTILATION AS A RADON MITIGATION TECHNIQUE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report documents a study of natural basement ventilation in two research houses during both the summer cooling season and the winter heating season. NOTE: Natural basement ventilation has always been recommended as a way to reduce radon levels in houses. However, its efficacy...

  5. Investigation of the subsurface features of the basement complex of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    3D seismic reflection survey was recently carried out within the Zaria area of the basement complex of northern Nigeria, in order to investigate the complexity of the subsurface features within the basement. The geology of the survey area was characterized by gneisses and low grade meta-sedimentary rocks that form the ...

  6. Potential Development of Hydrocarbon in Basement Reservoirs In Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sunarjanto

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v8i3.165Basement rocks, in particular igneous and metamorphic rocks are known to have porosity and permeability which should not be ignored. Primary porosity of basement rocks occurs as the result of rock formation. The porosity increases by the presence of cracks occurring as the result of tectonic processes (secondary porosity. Various efforts have been carried out to explore hydrocarbon in basement rocks. Some oil and gas fields proved that the basement rocks are as reservoirs which so far have provided oil and gas in significant amount. A review using previous research data, new data, and observation of igneous rocks in some fields has been done to see the development of exploration and basement reservoirs in Indonesia. A review on terminology of basement rock up till the identification of oil and gas exploration in basement rocks need to be based on the latest technology. An environmental approach is suggested to be applied as an alternative in analyzing the policy on oil and gas exploration development, especially in basement reservoirs.

  7. Deforming Etna's Basement: Implications for Edifice stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Richard; Benson, Philip; Vinciguerra, Sergio

    2013-04-01

    At over 3 kilometers in height, Mt. Etna (Italy) is the largest volcano of continental Europe. The volcano formed on top of the alpine fold and thrust belt, with basaltic outflows lying unconformably on top of an alternation between sandstones, limestones and clays. Presently Etna's eastern flank is moving with speeds up to 2cm/yr to the east [Tibaldi and Groppelli, 2002]. It is the sequence of layers below the volcano that is thought to provide a complex, structurally controlled, mechanism to the volcano deformation as a whole. This is due to the interplay of gravitational forces, volcanic pressurization, and regional tectonics, which combine to play a complex role that remains poorly understood, especially when the physical and mechanical properties of the rocks are considered. In this study, we concentrate on the rock mechanical component, and in particular the formation known as Comiso Limestone. This limestone forms of one of the key lithologies of Etna's basement. The formation has been suggested to be affected by thermal weakening [Heap et al., 2013]. Previous work on Comiso Limestone suggests brittle behavior for the range of temperatures (up to 760 ˚C) and a significant reduction in strength with higher temperatures. [Mollo et al., 2011]. Chiodini et al [2011], speculate carbonate assimilation. This implies that the Carbondioxide created by decarbonatization, is able to escape. Using an internally heated "Paterson" type pressure vessel, we recreated conditions at 2-4 km depth (50-100 MPa) and using an anomalously high geotherm, as expected in volcanic settings (ranging from room to 600 ˚C). With the addition of confining pressure, we show a brittle to ductile transition occurs at a relatively low temperature of 300 ˚C. A significant decrease in strength occurs when the rock is exposed to temperatures exceeding 400 ˚C. In addition, we observe a significant difference in mechanical behavior between vented and unvented situations when decarbonatization is

  8. Sodium fire in the ILONA basement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemm, H.

    1993-05-01

    The report describes the reasons, the course, the fire fighting measures and the consequences of the sodium fire, which damaged severely the 5 MW sodium test facility ILONA in Bergisch-Gladbach, Germany, in 1990. The accident occurred in the process of transferring Na from one tank containing 0.5 m''3 Na into another one with 6 m''3 Na, which were connected via sodium and gas exchange pipes. The 6 m''3 tank was also fitted with a dipping-pipe for the later purpose of filling or evacuation. The pipe was closed by a plug. The two tanks were flooded with argon. The leakage with consequent Na fire started during the preheating process of the 6 m''3 tank, and later investigations showed that Na had leaked from the dipping-pipe after a too high pressure built-up. Whether that happened because of the failure of a pressure compensation valve or because of a blockage of the pipe connecting the two tanks, could not be clarified after the accident because of the damages caused by the fire. The later analysis showed that about 4500 kg out of the originally 5820 kg had leaked from the tank during a time of about 5 hours. A total of 1344 kg Na were deposited as combustion product aerosols (carbonate and bi-carbonate) in the building and about 930 kg Na were released from the building to the atmosphere. On the basis of the temperature difference between 400 deg C in the basement and 20 deg C at the outlet and a height difference of 30 m, the gas stream was estimated to 4 m''3 per sec. The aerosol clouds left the building via the natural draught stack. They were quickly transformed into carbonate and bi-carbonate, which do not represent a risk for the people, the animals or the vegetation in the surroundings

  9. Survey of Jaemtland county (basement rock part). Geologic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antal, I.; Bergman, S.; Freden, C.; Gierup, J.; Stoelen, L.K.; Thunholm, B.; Stephens, M.

    1999-06-01

    A broad survey of the geologic conditions in Jaemtland county is presented, with the aim to give background for the location of a repository for spent fuels. The study is restricted to the basement rock part of the county

  10. Survey of Dalarna county (basement rock part). Geologic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gierup, J.; Kuebler, L.; Linden, A.; Ripa, M.; Stoelen, L.K.; Thunholm, B.; Stephens, M.

    1999-06-01

    A broad survey of the geologic conditions in Dalarna county is presented, with the aim to give background for the location of a repository for spent fuels. The study is restricted to the basement rock part of the county

  11. Survey of Scania county (basement rock part). Geologic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gierup, J.; Kuebler, L.; Pamnert, M.; Persson, Magnus; Thunholm, B.; Wahlgren, C.H.; Wikman, H.; Stephens, M.

    1999-06-01

    A broad survey of the geologic conditions in Scania county is presented, with the aim to give background for the location of a repository for spent fuels. The study is restricted to the basement rock part of the county

  12. Basement domain map of the conterminous United States and Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Karen; Box, Stephen E.; Holm-Denoma, Christopher S.; San Juan, Carma A.; Blakely, Richard J.; Saltus, Richard W.; Anderson, Eric D.; DeWitt, Ed

    2015-01-01

    The basement-domain map is a compilation of basement domains in the conterminous United States and Alaska designed to be used at 1:5,000,000-scale, particularly as a base layer for national-scale mineral resource assessments. Seventy-seven basement domains are represented as eighty-three polygons on the map. The domains are based on interpretations of basement composition, origin, and architecture and developed from a variety of sources. Analysis of previously published basement, lithotectonic, and terrane maps as well as models of planetary development were used to formulate the concept of basement and the methodology of defining domains that spanned the ages of Archean to present but formed through different processes. The preliminary compilations for the study areas utilized these maps, national-scale gravity and aeromagnetic data, published and limited new age and isotopic data, limited new field investigations, and conventional geologic maps. Citation of the relevant source data for compilations and the source and types of original interpretation, as derived from different types of data, are provided in supporting descriptive text and tables.

  13. Why do they serve?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincent, Stéphanie; Glad, Ane

    2016-01-01

    that after the mission, peace-keepers are generally more disappointed than peace-enforcers. Our results also show that self-benefit motives are important for younger soldiers with only a high school education, and that this group usually serves as peace-enforcers during their gap year....... the survey both before and after deployment. Soldiers are deployed to different missions under the same circumstances. To conceptualize motives among soldiers, we use factor analysis and find three factors: challenge, self-benefit, and fidelity. Challenge represents an occupational orientation; fidelity...

  14. Drama is Served

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svømmekjær, Heidi Frank

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on how the theme of food is used for making social, gender, and other distinctions in the weekly Danish radio series The Hansen Family (The Danish Broadcasting Corporation, 1929-49) and in relation to other radio programmes from the 1930s and 1940s. These distinctions serve t...... with the wife. To Mrs. Hansen, it is the fruit of hard labour rather than a meal to be enjoyed. On a more general level, food is a limited resource, which often causes social tensions to burst onto the surface of human interaction....

  15. Frictional Behavior of Altered Basement Approaching the Nankai Trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffer, D. M.; Ikari, M.; Rooney, T. O.; Marone, C.

    2017-12-01

    The frictional behavior of basement rocks plays an important role in subduction zone faulting and seismicity. This includes earthquakes seaward of the trench, large megathrust earthquakes where seamounts are subducting, or where the plate interface steps down to basement. In exhumed subduction zone rocks such as the Shimanto complex in Japan, slivers of basalt are entrained in mélange which is evidence of basement involvement in the fault system. Scientific drilling during the Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment (NanTroSEIZE) recovered basement rock from two reference sites (C0011 and C0012) located seaward of the trench offshore the Kii Peninsula during Integrated Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expeditions 322 and 333. The basement rocks are pillow basalts that appear to be heterogeneously altered, resulting in contrasting dense blue material and more vesicular gray material. Major element geochemistry shows differences in silica, calcium oxides and loss-on-ignition between the two types of samples. Minor element geochemistry reveals significant differences in vanadium, chromium, and barium. X-ray diffraction on a bulk sample powder representing an average composition shows a phyllosilicate content of 20%, most of which is expandable clays. We performed laboratory friction experiments in a biaxial testing apparatus as either intact sample blocks, or as gouge powders. We combine these experiments with measurements of Pennsylvania slate for comparison, including a mixed-lithology intact block experiment. Intact Nankai basement blocks exhibit a coefficient of sliding friction of 0.73; for Nankai basement powder, slate powder, slate blocks and slate-on-basement blocks the coefficient of sliding friction ranges from 0.44 to 0.57. At slip rates ranging from 3x10-8 to 3x10-4 m/s we observe predominantly velocity-strengthening frictional behavior, indicating a tendency for stable slip. At rates of < 1x10-6 m/s some velocity-weakening was observed, specifically in

  16. Predicting Volleyball Serve-Reception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulo, Ana; Zaal, Frank T J M; Fonseca, Sofia; Araujo, Duarte

    2016-01-01

    Serve and serve-reception performance have predicted success in volleyball. Given the impact of serve-reception on the game, we aimed at understanding what it is in the serve and receiver's actions that determines the selection of the type of pass used in serve-reception and its efficacy. Four

  17. Discussion on the basement topography and its relation with the uranium mineralization in Xiangshan basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long Qihua; Liu Qingcheng

    2002-01-01

    The depth of the basement and the relation between the basement relief shape and uranium mineralization are discussed by forward and inverse computation for large-scale gravity data in Xiangshan basin. The difference of basement topography result in the inhomogeneous distribution of uranium mineralization. The margin of the basement upheaval section and the variation place of basement topography are the favorable place for uranium mineralization. It's helpful to prospect deep and blind uranium deposit in Xiangshan basin

  18. Magnetic Basement Depth Inversion in the Space Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Tiago Mane; Barbosa, Valéria Cristina F.; Silva, João Batista C.

    2008-10-01

    We present a total-field anomaly inversion method to determine both the basement relief and the magnetization direction (inclination and declination) of a 2D sedimentary basin presuming negligible sediment magnetization. Our method assumes that the magnetic intensity contrast is constant and known. We use a nonspectral approach based on approximating the vertical cross section of the sedimentary basin by a polygon, whose uppermost vertices are forced to coincide with the basin outcrop, which are presumably known. For fixed values of the x coordinates our method estimates the z coordinates of the unknown polygon vertices. To obtain the magnetization direction we assume that besides the total-field anomaly, information about the basement’s outcrops at the basin borders and the basement depths at a few points is available. To obtain stable depth-to-basement estimates we impose overall smoothness and positivity constraints on the parameter estimates. Tests on synthetic data showed that the simultaneous estimation of the irregular basement relief and the magnetization direction yields good estimates for the relief despite the mild instability in the magnetization direction. The inversion of aeromagnetic data from the onshore Almada Basin, Brazil, revealed a shallow, eastward-dipping basement basin.

  19. Basement depressurization using dwelling mechanical exhaust ventilation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collignan, B.; O'Kelly, P.; Pilch, E.

    2004-01-01

    The mechanical ventilation exhaust system is commonly used in France to generate air renewal into building and especially into dwelling. It consists of a permanent mechanical air extraction from technical rooms (kitchen, bathrooms and toilets) using a unique fan connected to exhaust ducts. Natural air inlets in living room and bed rooms ensure an air flow from living spaces towards technical rooms. To fight against radon into building, the most recognised efficient technique is the Soil Depressurization System (S.D.S.) consisting in depressurizing the house basement. The aim of this study is to test the ability of the dwelling mechanical ventilation system to depressurize the basement in conjunction with air renewal of a house. For that purpose, a S.D.S. has been installed in an experimental house at CSTB during its construction. At first, tests undertaken with a variable velocity fan connected to the S.D.S. have characterised the permeability of the basement. It is shown that basement can be depressurized adequately with a relatively low air flow rate. At a second stage, S.D.S. has been connected to the exhaust ventilation fan used for the mechanical ventilation of the house. Results obtained show the ability of such ventilation system to generate sufficient depressurization in the basement and to ensure simultaneously adequate air change rate in the dwelling. (author)

  20. Examination of the Basement of Historic Buildings in Investment Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulybin Aleksey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The process and methodology of the survey of basements rarely mentioned in the various construction rules and regulations. Basically describes the procedure of conducting a detailed survey of some of the individual elements. These surveys are fundamental in nature, include a large number of estimates and require significant financial and time costs. Usually the purpose of these surveys is to check the state of the building as a whole, it’s safe operation or before starting of reconstruction. In the process of selecting areas of investment activity such large-scale survey is not possible. Needed a quick and inexpensive method intended for decision about investment in a particular object. At the same time, the survey should cover all the elements of the basement significantly affect the cost of reconstruction of the basement associated with his penetration. The article presents the general conception of conducting a rapid survey. The described methods and technologies applicable to the examination for the purpose of making decisions about investments in reconstruction of a basement level rooms. The composition of the works and their sequence. A comparison of the advantages and disadvantages of different methods. The practical examples. Scheme of conducting a rapid survey of the basement. The article analyzes the materials used in the construction of historic buildings in St. Petersburg.

  1. Basement configuration of KG offshore basin from magnetic anomalies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of charnockites of neighbouring EGMB and onshore K–G basin areas indicates that EGMB geology. (charnockites ... Marine magnetic anomalies; offshore K–G basin; magnetic basement; extension of EGMB geology; continent– oceanic boundary. ..... of India; J. Australian Petroleum Exploration Association. 14 29–41.

  2. Where are uranium and thorium stored in the Archean basement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwinner, R

    1949-01-01

    The author advances a theory which makes it possible to predict where prospecting for new deposits of uranium and thorium should prove successful. According to this theory, such deposits occur chiefly where the equatorial and the meridional branches of the oldest primitive rock systems cross one another. An outline of the earth's Archean basement is included.

  3. Magnetic basement in the central Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, K.V.L.N.S.; Ramana, M.V.; Ramprasad, T.; Desa, M.; Subrahmanyam, V.; Krishna, K.S.; Rao, M.M.M.

    Analyses of about 6000 km of processed magnetic data in the central Bay of Bengal using Analytical Signal Processing and Werner Deconvolution techniques revealed that the depth to top of the magnetic basement varies between 5 and 12 km from the sea...

  4. Aeromagnetic imaging of the basement morphology in part of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aeromagnetic imaging of the basement morphology in part of the middle Benue trough, Nigeria. GC Onyedim, MO Awoyemi, EA Ariyibi, JB Arubayi. Abstract. No Abstract. Journal of Mining and Geology Vol. 42 (2) 2006: pp. 157-163. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ...

  5. lithologic characterisation of the basement aquifers of awe and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal

    resistivity exceeded 3000 ohm-m, then the bedrock is fresh and prospect for water is low (Olayinka and. Olorunfemi, 1992; Olorunfemi and Olorunniwo, 1990). Groundwater zones are found in the weathered and fractured zones in basement areas. In Ibarapa area of SW, Nigeria the associated fractured bedrock aquifers.

  6. Effects of ionizing radiation on glycerolated amniotic membranes as a substract for cultured human epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paggiaro, Andre Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    The amniotic membrane (AM) is a biomaterial with biological properties that are beneficial to tissue repair. It has been used as a temporary coverage to threat burns and chronic wounds. Recently, it has been served as a substrate for keratinocytes culture to construct a living skin equivalent. However, MA is a biological material, and its transplantation could cause infectious disease for receptors. So, it must be preserved and sterilized before clinical use. The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiation effects on glycerol-preserved MA, considering its compatibility to support human keratinocytes culture. Four MA were stored in high concentrations of glycerol (> 85%) and half of them were radio sterilized with a dose of 25 kGy. Then, we established two groups: nonirradiated MA (MA-ni) and irradiated MA (MA-i). Both groups was deepithelialized by a standardized protocol and was investigated morphologically, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural. Subsequently human keratinocytes were cultivated immersed and in air-liquid interface on denuded surface of MA-i and MA-ni. The results were compared at 14 and 21 days of culture by light and electron microscopy. After epithelial denudation, analyses demonstrated the continuity of the basement membrane in MA-ni group, whereas in the irradiated group, there was no indication of the basement membrane’s presence on the surface of MA. The cell cultures showed that in the non-irradiated group, there was growth of a multi-layered and differentiated epithelium, with a stratum corneum’s formation in air-liquid interface. In the irradiated group, the epithelium had only two or three layer, little cell differentiation, with the same results immersed or air-liquid interface system. Glycerol-preserved MA was biocompatible with the growth of a cultivated epithelium, showing its potential as a skin substitute. Irradiation at 25 kGy cause structural damage to the tissue, making changes in basement membrane, that facilitates

  7. Ultrastructural immunocytochemical localization of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan in Bruch's membrane of the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, W L; Essner, E; McCarthy, K J

    1992-01-01

    Two monoclonal antibodies (Mab 4D5 and 2D6) raised against the core protein of a basement membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan from Reichert's membrane of the rat, were used for ultrastructural immunoperoxidase localization of this protein in Bruch's membrane of the rat. Immunoreactivity...

  8. Geologic setting of the St. Catherine basement rocks, Sinai, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel Maksoud, M. A. [محمد علي عبدالمقصود; Khalek, M. L. Abdel; Oweiss, K. A.

    1993-01-01

    St. Catherine area, some 900 km in size, is dominated by basement rocks Encompassing old continental gneisses, metasediments, greenstone belt, calc-alkaline granites (G-II-granites), rift-related volcanics (RV), and anorogenic within plate granites (G-III-granites). The greenstone belt is composed of subduction-related volcanics (SV) intercalated with metasediments. These volcanics split into older group (moderately metamorphosed) and younger group (slightly metamorphosed). The calc-alkaline ...

  9. Analisis Risiko pada Proyek Pembangunan Parkir Basement Jalan Sulawesi Denpasar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Muka

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Construction of Basement Parking Sulawesi Road Denpasar is a government attempt to tackle congestion and parking problems in the city of Denpasar. This activity is highly correlated with the location of Badung Market. This study aims to identify risks arising, assess the level of acceptance of risk analysis, risk mitigation and ownership of dominant risk. The results showed 25 risks identified. Of the risks identified are 24 risk dominant with 5 risk category is unacceptable occurrence of accidents in the project, the landslide during basement excavation, the lack of security fence project that can cause accidents especially hazard fell during basement excavation, the damage caused by natural disasters and the workers were not using safety equipment. Additionally identified 19 risk category is undesirable, one acceptable risk category. Dominant risk is unacceptable risks do 11 mitigation measures such as building damage due to natural disasters (force majeure, which is also a risk with follow-up by reducing the risk that anticipated early preparing for disasters and transfer risk to another party by insuring the work to others. Ownership is the most dominant risk of the contractor. The parties should consider the risks unacceptable category and also should pay attention to the risks classified as undesirable.

  10. NRPC ServCat priorities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — This document lists the Natural Resource Program Center’s priority ServCat documents. It is recommended that these documents- which include annual narrative reports,...

  11. Geoelectrical characterisation of basement aquifers: the case of Iberekodo, southwestern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizebeokhai, Ahzegbobor P.; Oyeyemi, Kehinde D.

    2018-03-01

    Basement aquifers, which occur within the weathered and fractured zones of crystalline bedrocks, are important groundwater resources in tropical and subtropical regions. The development of basement aquifers is complex owing to their high spatial variability. Geophysical techniques are used to obtain information about the hydrologic characteristics of the weathered and fractured zones of the crystalline basement rocks, which relates to the occurrence of groundwater in the zones. The spatial distributions of these hydrologic characteristics are then used to map the spatial variability of the basement aquifers. Thus, knowledge of the spatial variability of basement aquifers is useful in siting wells and boreholes for optimal and perennial yield. Geoelectrical resistivity is one of the most widely used geophysical methods for assessing the spatial variability of the weathered and fractured zones in groundwater exploration efforts in basement complex terrains. The presented study focuses on combining vertical electrical sounding with two-dimensional (2D) geoelectrical resistivity imaging to characterise the weathered and fractured zones in a crystalline basement complex terrain in southwestern Nigeria. The basement aquifer was delineated, and the nature, extent and spatial variability of the delineated basement aquifer were assessed based on the spatial variability of the weathered and fractured zones. The study shows that a multiple-gradient array for 2D resistivity imaging is sensitive to vertical and near-surface stratigraphic features, which have hydrological implications. The integration of resistivity sounding with 2D geoelectrical resistivity imaging is efficient and enhances near-surface characterisation in basement complex terrain.

  12. A fall-out shelter or basement structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blatchford, J.M.A.

    1982-01-01

    A strong structure of precast concrete for use as a fallout shelter, tank, basement structure, blast-proof garage is described. It consists of several upright, concrete wall elements, including L-shaped sections, and at least one concrete roof element. The concrete elements are preferably encased in, and may also be supported on, a concrete surround which is formed in situ and which may be secured to the elements by projecting links. The structure may be assembled as an underground or above-ground building. This invention provides a strong structure of quite large span which is relatively simple in construction and can be rapidly assembled. (U.K.)

  13. The cataclasis in the crystalline basement of Northern Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, J.

    1987-01-01

    In the crystalline basement of Northern Switzerland two main phases of cataclastic deformation can be distinguished: a 'cataclasis 1' in a higher temperature hydrothermal regime, as a consequence of tectonic and magmatic-hydrothermal events in Upper Carboniferous time and a lower temperature 'cataclasis 2', which can be related to Permian tectonics at the northern margin of the Paleozoic Konstanz-Frick trough. These cataclases are interpreted as a result of longlasting and complex tectonic processes at shallow crustal levels. (author) 30 refs., 4 figs

  14. Basement configuration of KG offshore basin from magnetic anomalies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Subrahmanyam, V.; Swamy, K.V.; Raj, N.

    to Dept. of Science & Technology, New Delhi for granting the Junior Research Fel- lowship through Inspire Programme. This is NIO (CSIR) contribution no. 7132. References Aftalion M, Bowes D R, Dash B and Dempster T J 1988 Late proterozoic charnockites... anomaly map in figure 1. Keywords. Marine magnetic anomalies; offshore K–G basin; magnetic basement; extension of EGMB geology; continent– oceanic boundary. J. Earth Syst. Sci. 125, No. 3, April 2016, pp. 663–668 c© Indian Academy of Sciences 663 664 V...

  15. Air exchange rates and migration of VOCs in basements and residences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, L; Batterman, S; Godwin, C; Rowe, Z; Chin, J-Y

    2015-12-01

    Basements can influence indoor air quality by affecting air exchange rates (AERs) and by the presence of emission sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and other pollutants. We characterized VOC levels, AERs, and interzonal flows between basements and occupied spaces in 74 residences in Detroit, Michigan. Flows were measured using a steady-state multitracer system, and 7-day VOC measurements were collected using passive samplers in both living areas and basements. A walk-through survey/inspection was conducted in each residence. AERs in residences and basements averaged 0.51 and 1.52/h, respectively, and had strong and opposite seasonal trends, for example, AERs were highest in residences during the summer, and highest in basements during the winter. Airflows from basements to occupied spaces also varied seasonally. VOC concentration distributions were right-skewed, for example, 90th percentile benzene, toluene, naphthalene, and limonene concentrations were 4.0, 19.1, 20.3, and 51.0 μg/m(3), respectively; maximum concentrations were 54, 888, 1117, and 134 μg/m(3). Identified VOC sources in basements included solvents, household cleaners, air fresheners, smoking, and gasoline-powered equipment. The number and type of potential VOC sources found in basements are significant and problematic, and may warrant advisories regarding the storage and use of potentially strong VOCs sources in basements. Few IAQ studies have examined basements. A sizable volume of air can flow between the basement and living area, and AERs in these two zones can differ considerably. In many residences, the basement contains significant emission sources and contributes a large fraction of VOC concentrations found in the living area. Exposures can be lowered by removing VOC sources from the basement; other exposure management options, such as local ventilation or isolation, are unlikely to be practical. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Retinal Damage Induced by Internal Limiting Membrane Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Gelman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The internal limiting membrane (ILM, the basement membrane of the Müller cells, serves as the interface between the vitreous body and the retinal nerve fiber layer. It has a fundamental role in the development, structure, and function of the retina, although it also is a pathologic component in the various vitreoretinal disorders, most notably in macular holes. It was not until understanding of the evolution of idiopathic macular holes and the advent of idiopathic macular hole surgery that the idea of adjuvant ILM peeling in the treatment of tractional maculopathies was explored. Today intentional ILM peeling is a commonly applied surgical technique among vitreoretinal surgeons as it has been found to increase the rate of successful macular hole closure and improve surgical outcomes in other vitreoretinal diseases. Though ILM peeling has refined surgery for tractional maculopathies, like all surgical procedures it is not immune to perioperative risk. The essential role of the ILM to the integrity of the retina and risk of trauma to retinal tissue spurs suspicion with regard to its routine removal. Several authors have investigated the retinal damage induced by ILM peeling and these complications have been manifested across many different diagnostic studies.

  17. Military Cultural Competency: Understanding How to Serve Those Who Serve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonura, Kimberlee Bethany; Lovald, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this essay is to define and describe the different constituents of the military population, and present the challenges this demographic faces when pursuing higher education. The essay also discusses key aspects higher education professionals must understand in order to better serve military populations, such as federal regulations and…

  18. Radionuclide distribution in TMI-2 reactor building basement liquids and solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horan, J.T.; McIsaac, C.V.; Keefer, D.G.

    1984-01-01

    As a result of the TMI-2 accident, approximately 2.46 x 10 6 L of contaminated water were released to the Reactor Building basement. The principal fission product release pathway from the damaged core was through the reactor coolant system (RCS) to the pressurizer, through the pressure-operated relief valve (PORV) on the pressurizer to the Reactor Coolant Drain Tank (RCDT), and then through the RCDT rupture disk to the Reactor Building basement. Since August 1979, a number of efforts have been made to determine the location, quantity, and composition of fission products released to the Reactor Building basement. These efforts have included sampling of the basement water and solids, the basement sump pump recirculation line, the RCDT, and visual surveys using a closed circuit television (CCTV) system. The analysis of basement samples has provided data on the physical and radioisotopic characteristics of the liquids and solids. This paper describes the sample collection techniques and discusses radiochemical analyses results

  19. Radon mitigation experience in houses with basements and adjoining crawl spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messing, M.; Henschel, D.B.

    1990-01-01

    Active soil depressurization systems were installed in four basement houses with adjoining crawl spaces in Maryland. In addition, existing soil depressurization systems were modified in two additional basement-plus-crawl-space houses. These six houses were selected to include both good and poor communication beneath the basement slab, and different degrees of importance of the crawl space as a source of the indoor radon. The radon reduction effectiveness was compared for: depressurization only under the basement slab; depressurization only under a polyethylene liner over the unpaved crawl-space floor; and simultaneous depressurization under both the basement slab and the crawl-space liner. The objective of this paper is to identify under what conditions treatment of the basement alone might provide sufficient radon reductions in houses of this substructure, and what incremental benefits might be achieved by also treating the crawl space

  20. Structural analysis of a fractured basement reservoir, central Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeningen, Resi; Rice, Hugh; Schneider, Dave; Grasemann, Bernhard; Decker, Kurt

    2013-04-01

    The Pan-African Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS), within which Yemen lies, formed as a result of Neoproterozoic collisional events between c. 870-550 Ma. Several subsequent phases of extension occurred, from the Mesozoic (due to the breakup of Gondwana) to the Recent (forming the Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea). These resulted in the formation of numerous horst- and-graben structures and the development of fractured basement reservoirs in the southeast part of the ANS. Two drill cores from the Mesozoic Marib-Shabwa Basin, central Yemen, penetrated the upper part of the Pan-African basement. The cores show both a lithological and structural inhomogeneity, with variations in extension-related deformation structures such as dilatational breccias, open fractures and closed veins. At least three deformation events have been recognized: D1) Ductile to brittle NW-SE directed faulting during cooling of a granitic pluton. U-Pb zircon ages revealed an upper age limit for granite emplacement at 627±3.5 Ma. As these structures show evidence for ductile deformation, this event must have occurred during the Ediacaran, shortly after intrusion, since Rb/Sr and (U-Th)/He analyses show that subsequent re-heating of the basement did not take place. D2) The development of shallow dipping, NNE-SSW striking extensional faults that formed during the Upper Jurassic, simultaneously with the formation of the Marib-Shabwa Basin. These fractures are regularly cross-cut by D3. D3) Steeply dipping NNE-SSW to ENE-WSW veins that are consistent with the orientation of the opening of the Gulf of Aden. These faults are the youngest structures recognized. The formation of ductile to brittle faults in the granite (D1) resulted in a hydrothermally altered zone ca. 30 cm wide replacing (mainly) plagioclase with predominantly chlorite, as well as kaolinite and heavy element minerals such as pyrite. The alteration- induced porosity has an average value of 20%, indicating that the altered zone is potentially a

  1. Stress rotation along pre-Cenozoic basement structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, K.; Heidbach, O.; Henk, A.

    2017-12-01

    The in-situ stress state of the Earth's crust is under investigation since decades for both, scientific and economic purposes. Several methods have been established to indicate the contemporary orientation of the maximum compressive horizontal stress (SHmax). It is assumed that the same forces that drive plate motion are the first order stress sources and one could presume that SHmax is always parallel to plate motion, which is the case for some regions. However, deviations from this general trend occur in many regions. Therefore, second and third order sources of stress have been identified that potentially cause regional and local stress rotation with respect to the long wave-length trend imposed by plate tectonic forces. One group of such subordinate stress sources are lateral heterogeneities based on structures, petrothermal or petrophysical properties. The World Stress Map (WSM) project compiles systematically data records of the present day SHmax orientation. The increasing amount of stress orientation data allows to investigate areas with consistent stress rotation, divergent to the regional stress pattern. In our work we analyse the stress pattern variability and its causes beneath Germany. In the Molasse Basin in the Alpine foreland the SHmax orientation is perpendicular to the Alpine front as a consequence of gravitational potential energy of the orogen. SHmax is oriented in N-S direction in the central Alpine foreland and within the North German Basin. Between both, within the Mid-German Crystalline High, SHmax is divergent oriented in SE-NW direction. Neither gravitational potential energy nor petrothermal effects can be indicated as stress source. But when comparing the stress pattern with the Variscan basement structures it is obvious that SHmax is perpendicular oriented to this Palaeozoic basement structures. Therefore, petrophysical heterogeneities can be expected as reason for the observed stress rotation. Two assumptions can be made for the Mid

  2. Lack of endothelial nitric oxide synthase aggravates murine accelerated anti-glomerular basement membrane glomerulonephritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeringa, P; van Goor, H; Itoh-Lindstrom, Y; Maeda, N; Falk, RJ; Assmann, KJM; Kallenberg, CGM; Jennette, JC

    Nitric oxide (NO) radicals generated by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) are involved in the regulation of vascular tone. In addition, NO radicals derived from eNOS inhibit platelet aggregation and leukocyte adhesion to the endothelium and, thus, may have anti-inflammatory effects. To study

  3. Matrigel Basement Membrane Matrix influences expression of microRNAs in cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, Karina J.; Tsykin, Anna; Giles, Keith M.; Sladic, Rosemary T.; Epis, Michael R.; Ganss, Ruth; Goodall, Gregory J.; Leedman, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Matrigel alters cancer cell line miRNA expression relative to culture on plastic. ► Many identified Matrigel-regulated miRNAs are implicated in cancer. ► miR-1290, -210, -32 and -29b represent a Matrigel-induced miRNA signature. ► miR-32 down-regulates Integrin alpha 5 (ITGA5) mRNA. -- Abstract: Matrigel is a medium rich in extracellular matrix (ECM) components used for three-dimensional cell culture and is known to alter cellular phenotypes and gene expression. microRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression and have roles in cancer. While miRNA profiles of numerous cell lines cultured on plastic have been reported, the influence of Matrigel-based culture on cancer cell miRNA expression is largely unknown. This study investigated the influence of Matrigel on the expression of miRNAs that might facilitate ECM-associated cancer cell growth. We performed miRNA profiling by microarray using two colon cancer cell lines (SW480 and SW620), identifying significant differential expression of miRNAs between cells cultured in Matrigel and on plastic. Many of these miRNAs have previously been implicated in cancer-related processes. A common Matrigel-induced miRNA signature comprised of up-regulated miR-1290 and miR-210 and down-regulated miR-29b and miR-32 was identified using RT-qPCR across five epithelial cancer cell lines (SW480, SW620, HT-29, A549 and MDA-MB-231). Experimental modulation of these miRNAs altered expression of their known target mRNAs involved in cell adhesion, proliferation and invasion, in colon cancer cell lines. Furthermore, ITGA5 was identified as a novel putative target of miR-32 that may facilitate cancer cell interactions with the ECM. We propose that culture of cancer cell lines in Matrigel more accurately recapitulates miRNA expression and function in cancer than culture on plastic and thus is a valuable approach to the in vitro study of miRNAs.

  4. Effect of antibody charge and concentration on deposition of antibody to glomerular basement membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madaio, M.P.; Salant, D.J.; Adler, S.; Darby, C.; Couser, W.G.

    1984-01-01

    Fixed anionic sites within the glomerular capillary wall influence the permeation of serum proteins, the localization of various antigens, and the deposition of antibody in the subepithelial space. In anti-GBM nephritis antibody deposition occurs very rapidly to antigenic sites located relatively proximal in the glomerular capillary wall. The authors examined the influence of the glomerular charge barrier on anti-GBM antibody deposition by comparing the rate of deposition of antibodies with cationic and anionic isoelectric points. Purified sheep anti-rat GBM IgG was isolated from acid eluates of kidneys obtained 24 hr after rats were injected with sheep antiserum to rat GBM. Anti-GBM IgG was separated into cationic (pI 6.4-8.5) and anionic (pI 4.2-6.8) fractions, which were radiolabelled with 131 I and 125 I, respectively, shown to have equal antibody contents measured by in vitro binding to normal glomeruli, mixed in equal amounts, and injected in incremental doses to ten rats. At 1 hr the glomerular antibody binding of each fraction was directly related to the blood level (r . 0.95, r . 0.97) and delivery of antibody (r . 0.98, r . 0.98). Glomerular binding of cationic antibody was four times greater than anionic antibody over the entire range of deliveries studied (P less than 0.001). The authors conclude that glomerular deposition of anti-GBM antibody is directly related to blood concentration and delivery of antibody. Furthermore, the deposition of cationic antibodies to GBM antigens was significantly greater than the deposition of anionic antibodies

  5. Histopathological and ultrastructural analysis of vestibular endorgans in Meniere's disease reveals basement membrane pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCall Andrew A

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We report the systematic analysis of the ultrastructural and cytological histopathology of vestibular endorgans acquired from labyrinthectomy in Meniere's disease. Methods 17 subjects with intractable Meniere's disease and ipsilateral non-serviceable hearing presenting to the Neurotology Clinic from 1997 to 2006 who chose ablative labyrinthectomy (average age = 62 years; range 29–83 years participated. The average duration of symptoms prior to surgery was 7 years (range 1–20 years. Results Nearly all vestibular endorgans demonstrated varying degrees of degeneration. A monolayer of epithelial cells occurred significantly more frequently in the horizontal cristae (12/13 = 92% (p Conclusion Systematic histopathological analysis of the vestibular endorgans from Meniere's disease demonstrated neuroepithelial degeneration which was highly correlated with an associated BM thickening. Other findings included hair cell and supporting cell microvessicles, increased intercellular clear spaces in the stroma, and endothelial cell vacuolization and stromal perivascular BM thickening.

  6. Basement membrane components secreted by mouse yolk sac carcinoma cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damjanov, A; Wewer, U M; Tuma, B

    1990-01-01

    Three new cell lines (NE, ME, LRD) were cloned from mouse-embryo-derived teratocarcinomas and characterized on the basis of developmental, ultrastructural, and cytochemical criteria as nullipotent embryonal carcinoma (EC), pure parietal yolk sac (PYS) carcinoma and mixed parieto-visceral yolk sac...

  7. Formation evaluation of fractured basement, Cambay Basin, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Saurabh Datta; Farooqui, M Y; Chatterjee, Rima

    2012-01-01

    Unconventional reservoirs such as fractured basalts, shale gas and tight sand are currently playing an important role in producing a significant amount of hydrocarbon. The Deccan Trap basaltic rocks form the basement of the Cambay Basin, India, and hold commercially producible hydrocarbon. In this study two wells drilled through fractured basalts are chosen for evaluating the lithology, porosity and oil saturation of the reservoir sections. Well logs, such as gamma ray, high resolution resistivity, litho density, compensated neutron and elemental capture spectroscopy, have been used in cross-plotting techniques for lithology and mineral identification. Formation micro imagery log data have been analysed to quantify the fractures and porosity in the fractured reservoirs for a well in the south Ahmedabad block of the Cambay Basin. The results of the analysis of two wells are presented and discussed and they are found to be in good agreement with geological and production data. (paper)

  8. FROM BASEMENTS AND FOUNDATIONS TO LEADING MODERN SCIENTIFIC SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEDIN V. L.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. Everything starts with the bases, both in philosophy and construction sense, Basements and Foundations Department was an essential part for the formation of Dnipropetrovsk Civil Engineering Institute. For its 85 years of existence, it was a reflection of development of the native institute later academy and the construction industry also in the whole. Thanks to a classical base and 40 years traditions of the scientific school, the department staff always did scientific basis and took part in the development of the state construction norms documents. Today, the department develops with considering the requirements of the International Society of Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering (ISSMGE, the science combining the engineering geology, studying the soil, soil mechanics, creating the model, designing of the foundation and subsurface structure with the use of the modern program complex, production technology works for foundation, monitoring of these works and the safety of the surrounding construction.

  9. ENFORCEMENT OF FINANCIAL BASEMENTS AS A FACTOR OF TERRITORIES DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.N. Sidorova

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Article contains description of structure of regional finance resources, discloses the sources of financing, describes the role of budgeting. Problems and possible ways of solution of inter-budget relationships optimisation are described with the purpose of increasing of financial prosperity of territories. Overall role of optimisation as one of the most important factors of strengthening of financial basement of territories is described along with the necessity of considering the budget process as stimulated factor for regional economic systems development. Suggestions on substitution of cost method of budget resources management by the model of outcomes management and further development of mechanisms of territorial bodies interaction with economic entities on the base of state-private partnership were proposed.

  10. Age of Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc basement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizuka, Osamu; Hickey-Vargas, Rosemary; Arculus, Richard J.; Yogodzinski, Gene M.; Savov, Ivan P.; Kusano, Yuki; McCarthy, Anders; Brandl, Philipp A.; Sudo, Masafumi

    2018-01-01

    Documenting the early tectonic and magmatic evolution of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) arc system in the Western Pacific is critical for understanding the process and cause of subduction initiation along the current convergent margin between the Pacific and Philippine Sea plates. Forearc igneous sections provide firm evidence for seafloor spreading at the time of subduction initiation (52 Ma) and production of "forearc basalt". Ocean floor drilling (International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 351) recovered basement-forming, low-Ti tholeiitic basalt crust formed shortly after subduction initiation but distal from the convergent margin (nominally reararc) of the future IBM arc (Amami Sankaku Basin: ASB). Radiometric dating of this basement gives an age range (49.3-46.8 Ma with a weighted average of 48.7 Ma) that overlaps that of basalt in the present-day IBM forearc, but up to 3.3 m.y. younger than the onset of forearc basalt activity. Similarity in age range and geochemical character between the reararc and forearc basalts implies that the ocean crust newly formed by seafloor spreading during subduction initiation extends from fore- to reararc of the present-day IBM arc. Given the age difference between the oldest forearc basalt and the ASB crust, asymmetric spreading caused by ridge migration might have taken place. This scenario for the formation of the ASB implies that the Mesozoic remnant arc terrane of the Daito Ridges comprised the overriding plate at subduction initiation. The juxtaposition of a relatively buoyant remnant arc terrane adjacent to an oceanic plate was more favourable for subduction initiation than would have been the case if both downgoing and overriding plates had been oceanic.

  11. Membrane dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin

    2015-01-01

    Current topics include membrane-protein interactions with regard to membrane deformation or curvature sensing by BAR domains. Also, we study the dynamics of membrane tubes of both cells and simple model membrane tubes. Finally, we study membrane phase behavior which has important implications...... for the lateral organization of membranes as wells as for physical properties like bending, permeability and elasticity...

  12. Grenville age of basement rocks in Cape May NJ well: New evidence for Laurentian crust in U.S. Atlantic Coastal Plain basement Chesapeake terrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, R.E.; Maguire, T.J.; Feigenson, M.D.; Patino, L.C.; Volkert, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    The Chesapeake terrane of the U.S. mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain basement is bounded on the northwest by the Salisbury positive gravity and magnetic anomaly and extends to the southeast as far as the Atlantic coast. It underlies the Coastal Plain of Virginia, Maryland, Delaware and southern New Jersey. Rubidium/Strontium dating of the Chesapeake terrane basement yields an age of 1.025 ?? 0.036 Ga. This age is typical of Grenville province rocks of the Middle to Late Proterozoic Laurentian continent. The basement lithologies are similar to some exposed Grenville-age rocks of the Appalachians. The TiO2 and Zr/P2O5 composition of the metagabbro from the Chesapeake terrane basement is overlapped by those of the Proterozoic mafic dikes in the New Jersey Highlands. These new findings support the interpretation that Laurentian basement extends southeast as far as the continental shelf in the U.S. mid-Atlantic region. The subcrop of Laurentian crust under the mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain implies unroofing by erosion of the younger Carolina (Avalon) supracrustal terrane. Dextral-transpression fault duplexes may have caused excessive uplift in the Salisbury Embayment area during the Alleghanian orogeny. This extra uplift in the Salisbury area may have caused the subsequent greater subsidence of the Coastal Plain basement in the embayment.

  13. Ultrathin Ceramic Membranes as Scaffolds for Functional Cell Coculture Models on a Biomimetic Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jud, Corinne; Ahmed, Sher; Müller, Loretta; Kinnear, Calum; Vanhecke, Dimitri; Umehara, Yuki; Frey, Sabine; Liley, Martha; Angeloni, Silvia; Petri-Fink, Alke; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Epithelial tissue serves as an interface between biological compartments. Many in vitro epithelial cell models have been developed as an alternative to animal experiments to answer a range of research questions. These in vitro models are grown on permeable two-chamber systems; however, commercially available, polymer-based cell culture inserts are around 10 μm thick. Since the basement membrane found in biological systems is usually less than 1 μm thick, the 10-fold thickness of cell culture inserts is a major limitation in the establishment of realistic models. In this work, an alternative insert, accommodating an ultrathin ceramic membrane with a thickness of only 500 nm (i.e., the Silicon nitride Microporous Permeable Insert [SIMPLI]-well), was produced and used to refine an established human alveolar barrier coculture model by both replacing the conventional inserts with the SIMPLI-well and completing it with endothelial cells. The structural–functional relationship of the model was evaluated, including the translocation of gold nanoparticles across the barrier, revealing a higher translocation if compared to corresponding polyethylene terephthalate (PET) membranes. This study demonstrates the power of the SIMPLI-well system as a scaffold for epithelial tissue cell models on a truly biomimetic scale, allowing construction of more functionally accurate models of human biological barriers. PMID:26713225

  14. Geology of the Pan-African basement Complex in Ube-Wulko area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Ube-Wulko area of southeast Akwanga falls within the Pan-African remobilized Basement Complex of northcentral Nigeria. It consists of intensely multi-deformed high grade polymetamorphic basement rocks, predominantly composed of migmatitic gneisses and schists and subordinate quartzites, marbles, and ...

  15. Basement radon entry and stack driven moisture infiltration reduced by active soil depressurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.R. Boardman; Samuel V. Glass

    2015-01-01

    This case study presents measurements of radon and moisture infiltration from soil gases into the basement of an unoccupied research house in Madison, Wisconsin, over two full years. The basement floor and exterior walls were constructed with preservative-treated lumber and plywood. In addition to continuous radon monitoring, measurements included building air...

  16. Basement Surface Faulting and Topography for Savannah River Site and Vicinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cumbest, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    This report integrates the data from more than 60 basement borings and over 100 miles of seismic reflection profiling acquired on the Savannah River Site to map the topography of the basement (unweathered rock) surface and faulting recorded on this surface

  17. Food and drink serving contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselinović Janko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Food and drink catering service is almost as old as the civilization itself. Even though this vocation is a part of the catering activity, Serbian law does not foresee this contract section as personalized. Key legal sources for this kind of contract are business customs. Food and drink serving contract is a mixed-type contract and its legal nature is very interesting due to its complexity. Specific for this contract is the fact that it is not an ordinary service, but also an activity which requires a degree of culinary skills, knowledge of customs of other nations, as well as other skills. The very category of a good professional in business economy / hospitality industry is very dynamic, as it needs to be evaluated according to all given circumstances, which may be rather unpredictable. By considering the legal nature, but also the rights and obligations of the contracting parties, we tried to point to the questions that require a special attention. Legal sources that indirectly refer to food and drink serving contracts were taken into account. Apart from the Law on Obligatory Relations, we also considered here the Law on Tourism also pointing to the comparative law and jurisprudence.

  18. Thematic mapping of basement-related cross-strike structural discontinuities and their relationship to potential oil-bearing structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iranpanah, A. (Dept. of Geology, Univ. of Pittsburg at Bradford, Bradford, PA (US))

    1989-10-01

    This paper reports how a digitally enhanced Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper mosaic (TM) data, a hand-held color space photograph from one of the early NASA satellite missions (Gemini), and field data were used to delineate three major basement-structural discontinuities (CSDs) with the Zagros Basin of southwestern Iran. Three major subparallel CSDs are, from north to south, Kazerun-Qatar (N05{sup {degrees}W} trend), Razak (N17{degrees}E trend), and Oman (N18{degrees}E). These subparallel CSDs subdivide the Zagros Basin into northern, central, and southern sub-basins. The Razak and Oman CSD enclose a relatively nonproductive area, separating the southern Zagros sub-basin from more productive regions to the northwest and the nonproductive Makran Ranges to the southeast where chromite and iron deposits are common. These findings suggest that CSD may serve as an exploration guide for hydrocarbons and economic mineral deposits, and as a model for developing the tectonic framework of sedimentary basins. The results of this investigation also prove that lineament analysis is a potentially effective method for interpreting the basement-related CSD within a basin setting.

  19. Movement of fossil pore fluids in granite basement, Illinois

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couture, R.A.; Seitz, M.G.

    1986-01-01

    The compositions of pore fluids in granite cores from the Precambrian basement in northern Illinois were determined. The estimated chloride concentration in the aqueous phase increases from near zero at the upper contact with sandstone to 2.7 M at 624 m below the contact. Traces of aliphatic oil are present in the overlying sandstone and the upper 516 m of granite, and oil occupies most of the pore space in one sample of unaltered granite 176 m below the contact. The oil has a Δ 13 C of -25%, about the same as average petroleum. The high concentrations of salt more than 500 m below the contact imply that little or no fresh water has reached these levels of the granite by flow. Lower concentrations near the contact are consistent with replacement of brine in the sandstone by fresh water at least 11 m.y. ago and subsequent upward diffusion of salt from the granite. Geologic data suggest that the time of replacement was about 130 Ma. The purpose of the investigation is to study the record of movement of intergranular fluids within a granite pluton. The composition and movement of ground waters can determine the extent that hazardous or radioactive wastes disposed in igneous rock will remain isolated

  20. Basement geology of Taranaki and Wanganui basins, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortimer, N.; Tulloch, A.J.; Ireland, T.R.

    1997-01-01

    We present a revised interpretation of the basement geology beneath Late Cretaceous to Cenozoic Taranaki and Wanganui basins of central New Zealand, based on new petrographic, geochemical, and geochronological data from 30 oil exploration wells. Recently published structural and magnetic interpretations of the area assist in the interpolation and extrapolation of geological boundaries. Torlesse and Waipapa terranes have been identified in Wanganui Basin, and Murihiku Terrane in eastern Taranaki Basin, but Maitai and Brook Street terrane rocks have not been recognised. Separation Point Suite, Karamea Suite, and Median Tectonic Zone igneous rocks are all identified on the basis of characteristic petrography, geochemistry, and/or age. SHRIMP U-Pb zircon measurements on igneous samples from western Taranaki wells do not give precise ages but do provide useful constraints: Motueka-1 granite is latest Devonian - earliest Carboniferous; Tangaroa-1 and Toropuihi-1 are Carboniferous; and Surville-1 is Cretaceous (cf. Separation Point Suite). Our interpretation of sub-basin geology is compatible with previously observed onland relationships in the North and South Islands. (author). 47 refs., 6 figs

  1. Experiments on pollutant transport from soil into residential basements by pressure-driven airflow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazaroff, W.W.; Lewis, S.R.; Doyle, S.M.; Moed, B.A.; Nero, A.V.

    1987-01-01

    At two residences in Portland, OR, they have investigated (1) the coupling between residential basements and the air in nearby soil and (2) the influence of basement depressurization on the migration of air in soil. With the basements depressurized 25-50 Pa relative to outdoor air, underpressures as great as 20-40% of those in the basement were observed at sampling points in the soil. Sulfur hexafluoride was injected into the soil near the houses and its concentration monitored in soil air and in the house over time, both with and without basement depressurization. Depressurization was seen to have a substantial effect on the migration of the tracer within the soil. For basement depressurizations of 25-50 Pa, effective transport velocities through the soil and into the houses were observed to exceed 1 m h -1 . Airborne 222 Rn concentration was monitored in the basement of one house during the 6-day investigation and was seen to increase substantially on each of the seven occasions that the house was depressurized. The techniques employed are applicable to the study of problems of excessive radon entry into buildings and the migration of toxic vapors from waste dumps and landfills

  2. 3D depth-to-basement and density contrast estimates using gravity and borehole data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, V. C.; Martins, C. M.; Silva, J. B.

    2009-05-01

    We present a gravity inversion method for simultaneously estimating the 3D basement relief of a sedimentary basin and the parameters defining the parabolic decay of the density contrast with depth in a sedimentary pack assuming the prior knowledge about the basement depth at a few points. The sedimentary pack is approximated by a grid of 3D vertical prisms juxtaposed in both horizontal directions, x and y, of a right-handed coordinate system. The prisms' thicknesses represent the depths to the basement and are the parameters to be estimated from the gravity data. To produce stable depth-to-basement estimates we impose smoothness on the basement depths through minimization of the spatial derivatives of the parameters in the x and y directions. To estimate the parameters defining the parabolic decay of the density contrast with depth we mapped a functional containing prior information about the basement depths at a few points. We apply our method to synthetic data from a simulated complex 3D basement relief with two sedimentary sections having distinct parabolic laws describing the density contrast variation with depth. Our method retrieves the true parameters of the parabolic law of density contrast decay with depth and produces good estimates of the basement relief if the number and the distribution of boreholes are sufficient. We also applied our method to real gravity data from the onshore and part of the shallow offshore Almada Basin, on Brazil's northeastern coast. The estimated 3D Almada's basement shows geologic structures that cannot be easily inferred just from the inspection of the gravity anomaly. The estimated Almada relief presents steep borders evidencing the presence of gravity faults. Also, we note the existence of three terraces separating two local subbasins. These geologic features are consistent with Almada's geodynamic origin (the Mesozoic breakup of Gondwana and the opening of the South Atlantic Ocean) and they are important in understanding

  3. Depth of magnetic basement in Iran based on fractal spectral analysis of aeromagnetic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teknik, Vahid; Ghods, Abdolreza

    2017-06-01

    To estimate the shape of sedimentary basins, a critical parameter in hydrocarbon exploration, we calculated the depth of magnetic basement by applying a fractal spectral method to the aeromagnetic map of Iran. The depth of magnetic basement is a close proxy for the shape of sedimentary basins provided that igneous basement is strongly magnetized relative to the overlying sediments and there is no interbedding magnetic layer in the sediments. The shape of the power spectrum of magnetic anomalies is sensitive to the depth of magnetic basement, the thickness of the magnetic layer, the fractal parameter of magnetization and the size of the window used for the calculation of the power spectrum. Using a suite of synthetic tests, we have shown that the estimation of the depth of magnetic basement of up to 20 km is not very sensitive to the often unknown fractal parameter and thus the spectral method is a reliable tool to calculate the depth of magnetic basement. The depth of magnetic basement is in the range of 7-16 km in the Zagros, east Alborz, Tabas, Jazmurian and Makran regions, showing a close correlation with depths estimated from the maximum thickness of stratigraphic columns. We have also found new sedimentary basins in Bostan Abad, Bijar and south of Orumiyeh Lake. The significant depth of the magnetic basement in the Makran, Jazmurain depression, southeast Caspian Sea, Tabas, Great Kavir, south of Orumiyeh Lake, Bostan Abad and Bijar sedimentary basins makes them future prospects for hydrocarbon explorations. The depth of magnetic basement is strongly reduced over the Neyriz and Kermanshah Ophiolites, but it does not show any meaningful correlation with other outcrops of ophiolitic rocks in Iran.

  4. Serving the world's poor, profitably.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prahalad, C K; Hammond, Allen

    2002-09-01

    By stimulating commerce and development at the bottom of the economic pyramid, multi-nationals could radically improve the lives of billions of people and help create a more stable, less dangerous world. Achieving this goal does not require MNCs to spearhead global social-development initiatives for charitable purposes. They need only act in their own self-interest. How? The authors lay out the business case for entering the world's poorest markets. Fully 65% of the world's population earns less than $2,000 per year--that's 4 billion people. But despite the vastness of this market, it remains largely untapped. The reluctance to invest is easy to understand, but it is, by and large, based on outdated assumptions of the developing world. While individual incomes may be low, the aggregate buying power of poor communities is actually quite large, representing a substantial market in many countries for what some might consider luxury goods like satellite television and phone services. Prices, and margins, are often much higher in poor neighborhoods than in their middle-class counterparts. And new technologies are already steadily reducing the effects of corruption, illiteracy, inadequate infrastructure, and other such barriers. Because these markets are in the earliest stages of economic development, revenue growth for multi-nationals entering them can be extremely rapid. MNCs can also lower costs, not only through low-cost labor but by transferring operating efficiencies and innovations developed to serve their existing operations. Certainly, succeeding in such markets requires MNCs to think creatively. The biggest change, though, has to come from executives: Unless business leaders confront their own preconceptions--particularly about the value of high-volume, low-margin businesses--companies are unlikely to master the challenges or reap the rewards of these developing markets.

  5. Fault distribution in the Precambrian basement of South Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielsen, Roy H.; Nystuen, Johan Petter; Olesen, Odleiv

    2018-03-01

    Mapping of the structural pattern by remote sensing methods (Landsat, SPOT, aerial photography, potential field data) and field study of selected structural elements shows that the cratonic basement of South Norway is strongly affected by a regular lineament pattern that encompasses fault swarms of different orientation, age, style, attitude and frequency. Albeit counting numerous fault and fracture populations, the faults are not evenly distributed and N-S to NNE-SSW/NNW-SSE and NE-SE/ENE-WSW-systems are spatially dominant. N-S to NNW-SSE structures can be traced underneath the Caledonian nappes to the Western Gneiss Region in western and central South Norway, emphasizing their ancient roots. Dyke swarms of different ages are found within most of these zones. Also, the Østfold, Oslo-Trondheim and the Mandal-Molde lineament zones coincide with trends of Sveconorwegian post-collision granites. We conclude that the N-S-trend includes the most ancient structural elements, and that the trend can be traced back to the Proterozoic (Svecofennian and Sveconorwegian) orogenic events. Some of the faults may have been active in Neoproterozoic times as marginal faults of rift basins at the western margin of Baltica. Remnants of such fault activity have survived in the cores of many of the faults belonging to this system. The ancient systems of lineaments were passively overridden by the Caledonian fold-and-thrust system and remained mostly, but note entirely inactive throughout the Sub-Cambrian peneplanation and the Caledonian orogenic collapse in the Silurian-Devonian. The system was reactivated in extension from Carboniferous times, particularly in the Permian with the formation of the Oslo Rift and parts of it remain active to the Present, albeit by decreasing extension and fault activity.

  6. Characteristics of the crystalline basement beneath the Ordos Basin: Constraint from aeromagnetic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhentao Wang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aeromagnetic anomaly zonation of the Ordos Basin and adjacent areas was obtained by processing high-precision and large-scale aeromagnetic anomalies with an approach of reduction to the pole upward continuation. Comparative study on aeromagnetic and seismic tomography suggests that aeromagnetic anomalies in this area are influenced by both the magnetic property of the rock and the burial depth of the Precambrian crystalline basement. Basement depth might be the fundamental control factor for aeromagnetic anomalies because the positive and negative anomalies on the reduction to the pole-upward-continuation anomaly maps roughly coincide with the uplifts and depressions of the crystalline basement in the basin. The results, together with the latest understanding of basement faults, SHRIMP U-Pb zircon dating of metamorphic rock and granite, drilling data, detrital zircon ages, and gravity data interpretation, suggest that the Ordos block is not an entirety of Archean.

  7. Contribution To The Geology Of Basement Rocks In The South Western Desert Of Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadek, M.F.; Khyamy, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    Three major Precambrian basement inliers are exposed in the South Western Desert of Egypt between Long. 29 degree E and the River Nile within the Uweinat-Bir Safsaf-Aswan E-W uplift system. These are Bir Safsaf, Gabal EI-Asr and Gabal Umm Shaghir areas. Smaller outcrops include Gabal EI-Gara El-Hamra and Gabal El-Gara EI-Soda, Gabal Siri, GabaI EI-Fantas and Aswan-Kalabsha area as well as the scattered outcrops around Darb El-Arbain road. Band ratios 5/7, 5/1, 4 of Landsat TM images were applied to delineate the borders, the lithologic units and structural features of low relief basement outcrops within the surrounding flat lying sedimentary rocks and sand plains. These basement rocks comprise ortho gneisses (assumed by many authors as related to old continent pre Pan-African rocks), G 1 tonalite-granodiorite, and G2 monzogranite-alkali feldspar granite intruded by variable dykes. The boundaries between the basement exposures and the sedimentary rocks are marked by nonconformity surfaces or sets of faults. Both basement and sedimentary rocks are intruded by Mesozoic syenite-G3 granites, rhyolite, trachytic plugs and Upper Cretaceous to Tertiary basalts. The basement exposures are structurally controlled by major E- W fault systems. Their vertical uplifting is overprinted by folding the overlying sedimentary rocks. This study revealed that, the different basement exposures in the SE of the Western Desert of Egypt are similar in appearance and field relations to the Pan-African basement rocks extending towards the east of the River Nile and exposed everywhere in the Eastern Desert of Egypt

  8. Reactor-building-basement radionuclide and source distribution studies. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, T.E.; Horan, J.T.; Worku, G.

    1983-06-01

    The Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) Reactor Building basement has been sampled several times since August 1979. This report compiles the analytical results and sample history for the liquid and solid samples obtained to date. In addition, basement radiation levels were also obtained using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). The data obtained will provide information to support ongoing mass balance and source term studies and will aid in characterizing the 282-ft elevation for decontamination planning and dose reduction

  9. Membrane fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin

    2015-01-01

    At Stanford University, Boxer lab, I worked on membrane fusion of small unilamellar lipid vesicles to flat membranes tethered to glass surfaces. This geometry closely resembles biological systems in which liposomes fuse to plasma membranes. The fusion mechanism was studied using DNA zippering...... between complementary strands linked to the two apposing membranes closely mimicking the zippering mechanism of SNARE fusion complexes....

  10. Catalytic nanoporous membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellin, Michael J; Hryn, John N; Elam, Jeffrey W

    2013-08-27

    A nanoporous catalytic membrane which displays several unique features Including pores which can go through the entire thickness of the membrane. The membrane has a higher catalytic and product selectivity than conventional catalysts. Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes serve as the catalyst substrate. This substrate is then subjected to Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), which allows the controlled narrowing of the pores from 40 nm to 10 nm in the substrate by deposition of a preparatory material. Subsequent deposition of a catalytic layer on the inner surfaces of the pores reduces pore sizes to less than 10 nm and allows for a higher degree of reaction selectivity. The small pore sizes allow control over which molecules enter the pores, and the flow-through feature can allow for partial oxidation of reactant species as opposed to complete oxidation. A nanoporous separation membrane, produced by ALD is also provided for use in gaseous and liquid separations. The membrane has a high flow rate of material with 100% selectivity. Also provided is a method for producing a catalytic membrane having flow-through pores and discreet catalytic clusters adhering to the inside surfaces of the pores.

  11. Effects of ionizing radiation on glycerolated amniotic membranes as a substract for cultured human epithelium; Efeitos da radiacao ionizante em membranas amnioticas gliceroladas empregadas como substrato ao cultivo de epitelio humano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paggiaro, Andre Oliveira

    2011-07-01

    The amniotic membrane (AM) is a biomaterial with biological properties that are beneficial to tissue repair. It has been used as a temporary coverage to threat burns and chronic wounds. Recently, it has been served as a substrate for keratinocytes culture to construct a living skin equivalent. However, MA is a biological material, and its transplantation could cause infectious disease for receptors. So, it must be preserved and sterilized before clinical use. The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiation effects on glycerol-preserved MA, considering its compatibility to support human keratinocytes culture. Four MA were stored in high concentrations of glycerol (> 85%) and half of them were radio sterilized with a dose of 25 kGy. Then, we established two groups: nonirradiated MA (MA-ni) and irradiated MA (MA-i). Both groups was deepithelialized by a standardized protocol and was investigated morphologically, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural. Subsequently human keratinocytes were cultivated immersed and in air-liquid interface on denuded surface of MA-i and MA-ni. The results were compared at 14 and 21 days of culture by light and electron microscopy. After epithelial denudation, analyses demonstrated the continuity of the basement membrane in MA-ni group, whereas in the irradiated group, there was no indication of the basement membrane’s presence on the surface of MA. The cell cultures showed that in the non-irradiated group, there was growth of a multi-layered and differentiated epithelium, with a stratum corneum’s formation in air-liquid interface. In the irradiated group, the epithelium had only two or three layer, little cell differentiation, with the same results immersed or air-liquid interface system. Glycerol-preserved MA was biocompatible with the growth of a cultivated epithelium, showing its potential as a skin substitute. Irradiation at 25 kGy cause structural damage to the tissue, making changes in basement membrane, that facilitates

  12. The metamorphic basement of the Cordillera Frontal of Mendoza: New geochronologic and isotopic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basei, Miguel; Ramos, Victor A.; Vujovich, Graciela I.; Poma, Stella

    1998-01-01

    The metamorphic rocks of the Cordillera Frontal exposed in the Cordon del Portillo, Mendoza were examined by Rb/Sr geochronology and Nd/Sm isotopic analysis. The Rb/Sr data defined a Devonian age for the last metamorphic episode, similar to the previous K/Ar and Ar/Ar ages obtained in this region and western Precordillera. The isotopic analysis identified three sets of model ages: 1.- The oldest corresponds to a set of meta sedimentary rocks with a model age of 1,400 to 1,700 Ma; 2.- A monzogranodiorite with a model age of 1,000 Ma; and 3.- Metabasites with model ages between 577 and 330 Ma. These rocks are interpreted as 1.- A typical Grenvillian derived basement; 2.- Late Paleozoic granitoids derived from a different Proterozoic basement; and 3.- Some Eopaleozoic metabasites tectonically inter fingered with the Grenvillian basement. These new data are coherent with the existence of a Laurentia derived terrane, Chilenia, that was separated by oceanic rocks from the basement of Pre cordillera during Eopaleozoic times. This last basement known as the Cuyania terrane, was also derived from Laurentia. (author)

  13. Dissolution of biogenic ooze over basement edifices in the equatorial Pacific with implications for hydrothermal ventilation of the oceanic crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekins, B.A.; Spivack, A.J.; Davis, E.E.; Mayer, L.A.

    2007-01-01

    Recent observations indicate that curious closed depressions in carbonate sediments overlying basement edifices are widespread in the equatorial Pacific. A possible mechanism for their creation is dissolution by fluids exiting basement vents from off-axis hydrothermal flow. Quantitative analysis based on the retrograde solubility of calcium carbonate and cooling of basement fluids during ascent provides an estimate for the dissolution capacity of the venting fluids. Comparison of the dissolution capacity and fluid flux with typical equatorial Pacific carbonate mass accumulation rates shows that this mechanism is feasible. By maintaining sediment-free basement outcrops, the process may promote widespread circulation of relatively unaltered seawater in the basement in an area where average sediment thicknesses are 300-500 m. The enhanced ventilation can explain several previously puzzling observations in this region, including anomalously low heat flux, relatively unaltered seawater in the basement, and aerobic and nitrate-reducing microbial activity at the base of the sediments. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America.

  14. Membranous nephropathy (bubbling appearance and spike formation) without immunoglobulin deposition in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Naoto; Mori, Yuki; Yoshino, Masabumi; Suga, Norihiro; Kitagawa, Wataru; Yamada, Harutaka; Nishikawa, Kazuhiro; Imai, Hirokazu

    2008-12-01

    A 53-year-old Japanese man with systemic lupus erythematosus developed proteinuria and hematuria after a urinary stone episode. A light microscopic study of a kidney biopsy specimen demonstrated a bubbling appearance and spike formation of the basement membrane. Immunofluorescent studies revealed that there were no significant depositions of immunoglobulins, such as IgG (-), IgA (-), IgM (+/-), kappa light chain (+/-), lambda light chain (+/-), or C3 (-) in the glomerular capillary wall, though C1q was present as one-plus positive staining in mesangial areas. Electron microscopic studies showed that the thickness of the basement membrane varied from thin to thick without electron dense deposits, and that the cellular components of the podocyte were irregularly present in the basement membrane. Urinary protein decreased after the usage of prednisolone and mizoribine; however, proteinuria aggravated after an episode of urinary stone during the same treatment.

  15. Membrane Biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Ashrafuzzaman, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Physics, mathematics and chemistry all play a vital role in understanding the true nature and functioning of biological membranes, key elements of living processes. Besides simple spectroscopic observations and electrical measurements of membranes we address in this book the phenomena of coexistence and independent existence of different membrane components using various theoretical approaches. This treatment will be helpful for readers who want to understand biological processes by applying both simple observations and fundamental scientific analysis. It provides a deep understanding of the causes and effects of processes inside membranes, and will thus eventually open new doors for high-level pharmaceutical approaches towards fighting membrane- and cell-related diseases.

  16. Use of natural basement ventilation to control radon in single family dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavallo, A.; Gadsby, K.; Reddy, T.A.

    1992-01-01

    Natural basement ventilation has always been recommended as a means of reducing radon levels in houses. However, its efficacy has never been documented. In these experiments, natural ventilation has for the first time been studied systematically in two research houses during both the summer cooling season and the winter heating season. Ventilation rates, environmental and house operating parameters, as well as radon levels, have been monitored. It can be definitely concluded from radon entry rate calculations that natural ventilation can reduce radon levels in two ways. The first is by simple dilution. The second is by reducing basement depressurization and thus the amount of radon-contaminated soil gas drawn into the structure. Therefore, basement ventilation can be an effective mitigation strategy under some circumstances. It might be especially useful in houses with low radon concentrations (of the order of 370 Bq m -1 ) or those with low levels and which cannot be mitigated cost-effectively with conventional technology. (Author)

  17. Fracture Analysis of basement rock: A case example of the Eastern Part of the Peninsular Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamsuddin, A; Ghosh, D

    2015-01-01

    In general, reservoir rocks can be defined into carbonates, tight elastics and basement rocks. Basement rocks came to be highlighted as their characteristics are quite complicated and remained as a significant challenge in exploration and production area. Motivation of this research is to solve the problem in some area in the Malay Basin which consist fractured basement reservoirs. Thus, in order to increase understanding about their characteristic, a study was conducted in the Eastern part of the Peninsular Malaysia. The study includes the main rock types that resemble the offshore rocks and analysis on the factors that give some effect on fracture characteristic that influence fracture systems and fracture networks. This study will allow better fracture prediction which will be beneficial for future hydrocarbon prediction in this region

  18. Minority Serving Institutions Reporting System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The database will be used to track SSA's contributions to Minority Serving Institutions such as Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU), Tribal Colleges...

  19. Hydrogeologic controls on induced seismicity in crystalline basement rocks due to fluid injection into basal reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yipeng; Person, Mark; Rupp, John; Ellett, Kevin; Celia, Michael A; Gable, Carl W; Bowen, Brenda; Evans, James; Bandilla, Karl; Mozley, Peter; Dewers, Thomas; Elliot, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    A series of Mb 3.8-5.5 induced seismic events in the midcontinent region, United States, resulted from injection of fluid either into a basal sedimentary reservoir with no underlying confining unit or directly into the underlying crystalline basement complex. The earthquakes probably occurred along faults that were likely critically stressed within the crystalline basement. These faults were located at a considerable distance (up to 10 km) from the injection wells and head increases at the hypocenters were likely relatively small (∼70-150 m). We present a suite of simulations that use a simple hydrogeologic-geomechanical model to assess what hydrogeologic conditions promote or deter induced seismic events within the crystalline basement across the midcontinent. The presence of a confining unit beneath the injection reservoir horizon had the single largest effect in preventing induced seismicity within the underlying crystalline basement. For a crystalline basement having a permeability of 2 × 10(-17)  m(2) and specific storage coefficient of 10(-7) /m, injection at a rate of 5455 m(3) /d into the basal aquifer with no underlying basal seal over 10 years resulted in probable brittle failure to depths of about 0.6 km below the injection reservoir. Including a permeable (kz  = 10(-13)  m(2) ) Precambrian normal fault, located 20 m from the injection well, increased the depth of the failure region below the reservoir to 3 km. For a large permeability contrast between a Precambrian thrust fault (10(-12)  m(2) ) and the surrounding crystalline basement (10(-18)  m(2) ), the failure region can extend laterally 10 km away from the injection well. © 2013, National Ground Water Association.

  20. Reactivated basement structures in the central Savannah River area and their relationship to coastal plain deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cumbest, R.J.; Price, V.; Temples, T.J.; Fallaw, W.C.; Snipes, D.S.

    1993-01-01

    Structural surface mapping and geophysical studies have identified several faults in the crystalline basement and overlying Coastal Plain sedimentary sequences in the central Savannah River area. Major subsurface basement shear zones occur parallel to and near Upper Three Runs Creek and Tinker Creek and are associated with linear aeromagnetic anomalies. Reflection seismic imaging of the basement shows a band of southeast dipping events parallel to Upper Three Runs Creek. Drill core from basement contain phyllonites, mylonites, fault breccia and pseudotachylite. The magnetic anomalies also mark the boundary separating greenschist facies metavolcanic rocks from amphibolite facies felsic gneiss, schist, and amphibolite. These features are similar to those that characterize other Paleozoic faults of the Eastern Piedmont Fault system. Reflection seismic imaging shows the sub-Cretaceous unconformity as well defined and easily identified event as well as easily traced laterally extensive events in Coastal Plain sequences. The unconformity and sedimentary sequences are faulted or deformed in several locations which also coincide with changes in dip of the unconformity. In the vicinity of Upper Three Runs Creek the unconformity shows a broad warping across which the elevation drops to the southeast and sedimentary sequences show a marked rate of thickening southeast. This indicates deformation of the basement exerted a control on deposition of the Coastal Plain sediments with down to the southeast movement. The basement shear zones are closely associated with the Dunbarton basin and are probable reactivated Paleozoic structures associated with extensional basin development as commonly seen associated with extensional basins on the east coast of North America

  1. Modeling radon entry into houses with basements: Model description and verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revzan, K.L.; Fisk, W.J.; Gadgil, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    We model radon entry into basements using a previously developed three-dimensional steady-state finite difference model that has been modified in the following ways: first, cylindrical coordinates are used to take advantage of the symmetry of the problem in the horizontal plant; second, the configuration of the basement has been made more realistic by incorporating the concrete footer; third, a quadratic relationship between the pressure and flow in the L-shaped gap between slab, footer, and wall has been employed; fourth, the natural convection of the soil gas which follows from the heating of the basement in winter has been taken into account. The temperature field in the soil is determined from the equation of energy conservation, using the basement, surface, and deep-soil temperatures as boundary conditions. The pressure field is determined from Darcy's law and the equation of mass conservation (continuity), assuming that there is no flow across any boundary except the soil surface (atmospheric pressure) and the opening in the basement shell (fixed pressure). After the pressure and temperatures field have been obtained the velocity field is found from Darcy's law. Finally, the radon concentration field is found from the equation of mass-transport. The convective radon entry rate through the opening or openings is then calculated. In this paper we describe the modified model, compare the predicted radon entry rates with and without the consideration of thermal convection, and compare the predicted rates with determined from data from 7 houses in the Spokane River valley of Washington and Idaho. Although the predicted rate is much lower than the mean of the rates determined from measurements, errors in the measurement of soil permeability and variations in the permeability of the area immediately under the basement slab, which has a significant influence on the pressure field, can account for the range of entry rates inferred from the data. 25 refs., 8 figs

  2. 3D collagen fibrillar microstructure guides pancreatic cancer cell phenotype and serves as a critical design parameter for phenotypic models of EMT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T J Puls

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer, one of the deadliest cancers, is characterized by high rates of metastasis and intense desmoplasia, both of which are associated with changes in fibrillar type I collagen composition and microstructure. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT, a critical step of metastasis, also involves a change in extracellular matrix (ECM context as cells detach from basement membrane (BM and engage interstitial matrix (IM. The objective of this work was to develop and apply an in-vitro three-dimensional (3D tumor-ECM model to define how ECM composition and biophysical properties modulate pancreatic cancer EMT. Three established pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC lines were embedded within 3D matrices prepared with type I collagen Oligomer (IM at various fibril densities to control matrix stiffness or Oligomer and Matrigel combined at various ratios while maintaining constant matrix stiffness. Evaluation of cell morphology and protein expression at both the cellular- and population-levels revealed a spectrum of matrix-driven EMT phenotypes that were dependent on ECM composition and architecture as well as initial PDAC phenotype. In general, exposure to fibrillar IM was sufficient to drive EMT, with cells displaying spindle-shaped morphology and mesenchymal markers, and non-fibrillar BM promoted more epithelial behavior. When cultured within low density Oligomer, only a subpopulation of epithelial BxPC-3 cells displayed EMT while mesenchymal MiaPaCa-2 cells displayed more uniform spindle-shaped morphologies and mesenchymal marker expression. Interestingly, as IM fibril density increased, associated changes in spatial constraints and matrix stiffness resulted in all PDAC lines growing as tight clusters; however mesenchymal marker expression was maintained. Collectively, the comparison of these results to other in-vitro tumor models highlights the role of IM fibril microstructure in guiding EMT heterogeneity and showcases the potential

  3. Membrane modules for building ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kistler, K.R.; Cussler, E.L.

    2002-01-01

    Hollow fibre and flat sheet membranes with an interfacially polymerized coating of polyamide have a permeance for water vapour of about 0.16 m sec{sup -1}. These membranes can serve as a basis for building ventilation which provides fresh air while recovering about 70% of the specific heat and 60% of the latent heat. Because these membranes are selective for water vapour, the air is exhausted with internal pollutants like carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, and radon. The expense of the ventilator should be recovered in reduced heating costs in about three years. (Author)

  4. Indoors and health: results of a systematic literature review assessing the potential health effects of living in basements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzoiuso, Angelo Giosué; Gola, Marco; Rebecchi, Andrea; Riccò, Matteo; Capolongo, Stefano; Buffoli, Maddalena; Tirani, Marcello; Odone, Anna; Signorelli, Carlo

    2017-10-23

    A new law approved in March 2017 in the Lombardy Region makes it possible to live in basements. Basements are defined as buildings partly below curb level but with at least one-half of its height above the curb. Basements' features and structural characteristics might pose risks to human health. In this paper we adopt a multidisciplinary approach to assess the potential health effects of living in basements. In particular, we define a conceptual framework to describe basements' structural characteristics which are risk factors, as well as the mechanisms through which they impact on human health. We also conduct a systematic review on the scientific databases PubMed,Embase, DOAJ, Proquest and EBSCO to retrieve, pool and critically analyze all available research that quantified the risk of living in basements for different health outcomes. Available evidence suggests living in basements increases the risk of respiratory diseases (asthma and allergic disorders); more heterogeneous data are available for cancers and cardiovascular diseases. As more quantitative data need to be prospectively retrieved to assess and monitor the risk of living in basements for human health, clear minimum requirements for light, air, sanitation and egress are to be defined by technical experts and enforced by policy makers.

  5. Possible options for reducing occupational dose from the TMI-2 basement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munson, L.F.; Harty, R.

    1985-11-01

    The major sources of exposure in the basement include the enclosed stairwell/elevator shaft structure, water and sludge in the elevator shaft, cast concrete walls, concrete floor slab, water and sludge on the floor, and activity in the paint and loose surface contamination. The sources were identified using data obtained by the utility from water processing, water and solid samples, remote video inspections and radiation monitoring with a robot, and strings of thermoluminescent dosimeters lowered from upper elevations. The area dose rates in the basement range from approximately 4 R/hr (in the NE quadrant) to over 1100 R/hr (near the enclosed stairwell/elevator shaft structure). It is estimated that the basement contains between 11,000 and 21,000 curies of 137 Cs. Specific decontamination and cleanup techniques are discussed. These techniques include flushing with water, high-pressure water blasting, leaching, scabbling and chemical cleaning. The applicability of these techniques to the major sources of radiation are discussed, and possible approaches and work sequences for basement cleanup are given

  6. Evaluation of the layering of rock strata and basement rock depth of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The layering of rock strata and depth to the basement rocks of a Federal University Teaching Hospital premises in Northern Nigeria was investigated in this study with the aim of providing 2D geo-electrical resistivity images of the subsurface for geotechnical development using a modern and state-of-the-art field instrument, ...

  7. Basement to surface expressions and critical factors in the genesis of unconformity-related deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Two subprojects: 1) Basement to surface expressions of deep mineralization and refinement of critical factors leading to the genesis of unconformity-related uranium deposits; and 2) Recognition of uranium ore system alteration signatures in complex terranes: IOCG vs albite-hosted uranium vs volcanic-hosted uranium.

  8. Forms of iron in soils on basement complex rocks of Kaduna state in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The forms of iron extracted by different methods were studied in soils developed on four basement complex rocks within Northern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria namely: migmatite gneisses, older granite, quartzites and mica schists. The study shows that forms of iron generally decreased in the order of total elemental iron ...

  9. Improved Access To Aging Ocean Basement Biosphere For Microbial Geochemical Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowen, J. P.; Glazer, B.; Rappe, M.; Kenig, F.; Fisher, A.; Copson, D.; Harris, D.; Jolly, J.; Nuzzio, D.

    2005-12-01

    CORK observatories affixed to Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) boreholes offer an unprecedented opportunity to study biogeochemical properties and microbial diversity in circulating fluids from sediment-buried ocean basement. Preliminary 16S rRNA gene sequence data from 65 degrees C fluids escaping from the top of the over-pressured ODP borehole 1026B, on the flanks of the Juan de Fuca Ridge indicated the presence of diverse Bacteria and Archaea, including gene clones with varying degrees of relatedness to known dissimilatory nitrate reducers (with ammonia production), thermophilic sulfate reducers, and thermophilic fermentative heterotrophs, consistent with fluid chemistry measurements. However, questions remain regarding microbial community structure, key metabolic pathways and rates, and redox chemistry of the basement fluids, along with concerns for contamination issues. We describe ongoing developments intended to address key in situ analytical and sampling challenges including: 1) The new generation CORKs' dedicated microbiological/geochemical fluid delivery system specifically designed to minimize chemical contamination and surface biofouling; and 2) Development of a seafloor instrument sled for coupling to the CORK's bio-fluid delivery system for acquisition of real-time, in situ electrochemical (voltammetry) redox chemistry data on basement fluids, in addition to in situ particle filtration of basement fluids for molecular genetics, culturing and biogeochemical studies. Results of the first deployment of this instrument sled to new CORK observatory 1301A in Cascadia Basin, on the flanks of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, will be described.

  10. Regional trends in radiogenic heat generation in the Precambrian basement of the Western Canadian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, F. W.; Majorowicz, J. A.

    Radiogenic heat generation values for 381 basement samples from 229 sites in the western Canadian basin exhibit a lognormal frequency distribution. The mean value = 2.06 (S.D. = 1.22) µWm-3 is larger than the radiogenic heat generation values reported for the shield in the Superior (ca. 1.2 µWm-3, Jessop and Lewis, 1978) and Churchill (ca. 0.7 µWm-3, Drury, 1985) provinces. When equal Log A contour intervals are used to map the basement heat generation, three large zones of relatively high heat generation are found. One coincides with the Peace River Arch basement structure and one with the Athabasca axis (Darnley, 1981). There is no apparent indication of increased heat flow through the Paleozoic formations associated with these two zones. The third zone, in southwestern Saskatchewan, coincides with a high heat flow zone in the Swift Current area. The lack of correlation between heat flow and heat generation in Alberta may be due to the disturbance to the heat flow in the Paleozoic formations by water motion, or may indicate that the heat is from uranium, thorium and potassium isotope enrichment near the basement surface rather than enrichment throughout the entire upper crust.

  11. "We Dominate the Basement!": How Asian American Girls Construct a Borderland Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokunaga, Tomoko

    2016-01-01

    This article, based on two years of ethnographic fieldwork, explores the ways in which eight Asian American immigrant high school girls construct a borderland community, which they call the "Basement Group," after the place where they gather at school. While the girls struggle with displacement in the borderlands, including isolation in…

  12. Natural-basement ventilation as a radon-mitigation technique. Final report Jun 89-Feb 91

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavallo, A.; Gadsby, K.; Reddy, T.A.

    1992-04-01

    The report documents a study of natural basement ventilation in two research houses during both the summer cooling season and the winter heating season. (NOTE: Natural basement ventilation has always been recommended as a way to reduce radon levels in houses. However, its efficacy has never been documented. It has generally been assumed to be a very inefficient mitigation strategy since it was believed that dilution was the mechanism by which radon levels were reduced.) Ventilation rates, environmental and house operating parameters, and radon levels have been monitored; it can be concluded that natural ventilation can reduce radon levels two ways: (1) by simple dilution, and (2) although less obvious, by providing a pressure break that reduces basement depressurization and thus the amount of radon-contaminated soil gas drawn into the house. Thus, basement ventilation can be a much more effective mitigation strategy than was previously believed. It might be especially useful in houses with low radon concentrations (of the order of 10 pCi/L) or those with low levels that cannot be mitigated cost-effectively with conventional technology

  13. KUALITAS UDARA DALAM RUANG DI DAERAH PARKIR BASEMENT DAN PARKIR UPPERGROUND (STUDI KASUS DI SUPERMARKET SEMARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryono S Huboyo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ever increasing building growth in urban areas is limited by land availability. Lack of space in this area lead to build high rise building rather landed building. In this type of building, parking area is built in the basement and or upperground inside the building. Within this enclosed space, indoor air quality might a problem. This study focus to compare emerged pollutants between basement parking area and upperground parking area in supermarket building. The dust sampler, the impinger and the CO monitor were used to measure TSP, NO2 and CO concentrations respectively in these areas during supermarket operations. In the basement area, in particular, the TSP concentrations tend to exceeds 300 µg/m3 mainly at weekend period. While for NO2 and CO concentrations still meet the air quality standard. Based on these findings it seems the main source of pollutants was derived from dust resuspension. Thus, the mitigation measures to reduce this dust resuspension should be emphasized in order to prevent air quality deterioration in the basement parking area.

  14. Impact of climate changes during the last 5 million years on groundwater in basement aquifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilina, Luc; Vergnaud-Ayraud, Virginie; Les Landes, Antoine Armandine; Pauwels, Hélène; Davy, Philippe; Pételet-Giraud, Emmanuelle; Labasque, Thierry; Roques, Clément; Chatton, Eliot; Bour, Olivier; Ben Maamar, Sarah; Dufresne, Alexis; Khaska, Mahmoud; Le Gal La Salle, Corinne; Barbecot, Florent

    2015-09-22

    Climate change is thought to have major effects on groundwater resources. There is however a limited knowledge of the impacts of past climate changes such as warm or glacial periods on groundwater although marine or glacial fluids may have circulated in basements during these periods. Geochemical investigations of groundwater at shallow depth (80-400 m) in the Armorican basement (western France) revealed three major phases of evolution: (1) Mio-Pliocene transgressions led to marine water introduction in the whole rock porosity through density and then diffusion processes, (2) intensive and rapid recharge after the glacial maximum down to several hundred meters depths, (3) a present-day regime of groundwater circulation limited to shallow depth. This work identifies important constraints regarding the mechanisms responsible for both marine and glacial fluid migrations and their preservation within a basement. It defines the first clear time scales of these processes and thus provides a unique case for understanding the effects of climate changes on hydrogeology in basements. It reveals that glacial water is supplied in significant amounts to deep aquifers even in permafrosted zones. It also emphasizes the vulnerability of modern groundwater hydrosystems to climate change as groundwater active aquifers is restricted to shallow depths.

  15. Mechanics of Lipid Bilayer Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Thomas R.

    All cells have membranes. The plasma membrane encapsulates the cell's interior, acting as a barrier against the outside world. In cells with nuclei (eukaryotic cells), membranes also form internal compartments (organelles) which carry out specialized tasks, such as protein modification and sorting in the case of the Golgi apparatus, and ATP production in the case of mitochondria. The main components of membranes are lipids and proteins. The proteins can be channels, carriers, receptors, catalysts, signaling molecules, or structural elements, and typically contribute a substantial fraction of the total membrane dry weight. The equilibrium properties of pure lipid membranes are relatively well-understood, and will be the main focus of this article. The framework of elasticity theory and statistical mechanics that we will develop will serve as the foundation for understanding biological phenomena such as the nonequilibrium behavior of membranes laden with ion pumps, the role of membrane elasticity in ion channel gating, and the dynamics of vesicle fission and fusion. Understanding the mechanics of lipid membranes is also important for drug encapsulation and delivery.

  16. Basement characterization and crustal structure beneath the Arabia-Eurasia collision (Iran): A combined gravity and magnetic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Naeim; Ebbing, Jörg

    2018-04-01

    We present a study on the depth to basement and magnetic crustal domains beneath the Iranian Plateau by modeling aeromagnetic and gravity data. First, field processing of the aeromagnetic data was undertaken to estimate the general characteristics of the magnetic basement. Afterwards, inverse modeling of aeromagnetic data was carried out to estimate the depth to basement. The obtained model of basement was refined using combined gravity and magnetic forward modeling. Hereby, we were able to distinguish different magnetic domains in the uppermost crust (10-20 km depths) influencing the medium to long wavelength trends of the magnetic anomalies. Magnetic basement mapping shows that prominent shallow magnetic features are furthermore located in the volcanic areas, e.g. the Urumieh Dokhtar Magmatic Assemblage. The presence of ophiolite outcrops in SE Iran implies that shallow oceanic crust (with high magnetization) is the main source of one of the biggest magnetic anomalies in entire Iran area located north of the Makran.

  17. Hydrogeophysical investigation of groundwater potential and aquifer vulnerability prediction in basement complex terrain - A case study from Akure, Southwestern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinrinade, Opeyemi J.; Adesina, Rasheed B.

    2016-06-01

    This study provides a model for the prediction of groundwater potential and vulnerability of basement aquifers in parts of Akure, Southwestern Nigeria. Hydrogeophysical surveys involving very-low-frequency electromagnetic (VLF-EM) profiling and electrical resistivity (ER) sounding, as well as evaluation of hydraulic gradient using three-point method, were carried out. Ten VLF-EM reconnaissance survey traverses, with lengths ranging from 55 m to 75 m, at 10 m station separation, and 12 vertical electrical sounding (VES) stations were occupied. Two-dimensional map of the filtered real component reveals areas of high conductivity, indicative of linear features that can serve as a reservoir or conduit for fluid flow. Interpretation of the VES results delineates three to four geoelectric units. Two aquifer zones were identified, with resistivity values in the ranges of 20 Ωm to 310 Ωm and 100 Ωm to 3,000 Ω m, respectively. Transverse resistance, longitudinal conductance, coefficient of anisotropy and hydraulic gradient have values ranging from 318.2 Ωm2 to 1,041.8 Ωm2, 0.11 mhos to 0.39 mhos, 1.04 to 1.74 and 0.017 to 0.05, respectively. The results of this study identified two prospective borehole locations and the optimum position to site the proposed septic system, based on the aquifer's protective capacity and groundwater flow properties.

  18. 77 FR 13173 - Best Equipped Best Served

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ... on the best equipped, best performing, best served concept for implementation in the 2012-2014... Advisory Committee (NAC). FAA is seeking stakeholder input on the technical and operational feasibility of...

  19. Asymmetric Effects of Subaerial and Subaqueous Basement Slopes on Self-Similar Morphology of Prograding Deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Steven Yueh Jen; Hsiao, Yung-Tai; Wu, Fu-Chun

    2017-12-01

    Deltas form over basements of various slope configurations. While the morphodynamics of prograding deltas over single-slope basements have been studied previously, our understanding of delta progradation over segmented basements is still limited. Here we use experimental and analytical approaches to investigate the deltaic morphologies developing over two-slope basements with unequal subaerial and subaqueous slopes. For each case considered, the scaled profiles of the evolving delta collapse to a single profile for constant water and sediment influxes, allowing us to use the analytical self-similar profiles to investigate the individual effects of subaerial/subaqueous slopes. Individually varying the subaerial/subaqueous slopes exerts asymmetric effects on the morphologies. Increasing the subaerial slope advances the entire delta; increasing the subaqueous slope advances the upstream boundary of the topset yet causes the downstream boundary to retreat. The delta front exhibits a first-retreat-then-advance migrating trend with increasing subaqueous slope. A decrease in subaerial topset length is always accompanied by an increase in subaqueous volume fraction, no matter which segment is steepened. Applications are presented for estimating shoreline retreat caused by steepening of basement slopes, and estimating subaqueous volume and delta front using the observed topset length. The results may have implications for real-world delta systems subjected to upstream tectonic uplift and/or downstream subsidence. Both scenarios would exhibit reduced topset lengths, which are indicative of the accompanied increases in subaqueous volume and signal tectonic uplift and/or subsidence that are at play. We highlight herein the importance of geometric controls on partitioning of sediment between subaerial and subaqueous delta components.

  20. Fluid flow and permeabilities in basement fault zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollinsworth, Allan; Koehn, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Fault zones are important sites for crustal fluid flow, specifically where they cross-cut low permeability host rocks such as granites and gneisses. Fluids migrating through fault zones can cause rheology changes, mineral precipitation and pore space closure, and may alter the physical and chemical properties of the host rock and deformation products. It is therefore essential to consider the evolution of permeability in fault zones at a range of pressure-temperature conditions to understand fluid migration throughout a fault's history, and how fluid-rock interaction modifies permeability and rheological characteristics. Field localities in the Rwenzori Mountains, western Uganda and the Outer Hebrides, north-west Scotland, have been selected for field work and sample collection. Here Archaean-age TTG gneisses have been faulted within the upper 15km of the crust and have experienced fluid ingress. The Rwenzori Mountains are an anomalously uplifted horst-block located in a transfer zone in the western rift of the East African Rift System. The north-western ridge is characterised by a tectonically simple western flank, where the partially mineralised Bwamba Fault has detached from the Congo craton. Mineralisation is associated with hydrothermal fluids heated by a thermal body beneath the Semliki rift, and has resulted in substantial iron oxide precipitation within porous cataclasites. Non-mineralised faults further north contain foliated gouges and show evidence of leaking fluids. These faults serve as an analogue for faults associated with the Lake Albert oil and gas prospects. The Outer Hebrides Fault Zone (OHFZ) was largely active during the Caledonian Orogeny (ca. 430-400 Ma) at a deeper crustal level than the Ugandan rift faults. Initial dry conditions were followed by fluid ingress during deformation that controlled its rheological behaviour. The transition also altered the existing permeability. The OHFZ is a natural laboratory in which to study brittle fault

  1. Membrane paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.H.; Thorne, K.S.

    1986-01-01

    The membrane paradigm is a modified frozen star approach to modeling black holes, with particles and fields assuming a complex, static, boundary-layer type structure (membrane) near the event horizon. The membrane has no effects on the present or future evolution of particles and fields above itself. The mathematical representation is a combination of a formalism containing terms for the shear and bulk viscosity, surface pressure, momentum, temperature, entropy, etc., of the horizon and the 3+1 formalism. The latter model considers a family of three-dimensional spacelike hypersurfaces in one-dimensional time. The membrane model considers a magnetic field threading the hole and undergoing torque from the hole rotation. The field is cleaned by the horizon and distributed over the horizon so that ohmic dissipation is minimized. The membrane paradigm is invalid inside the horizon, but is useful for theoretically probing the properties of slowly evolving black holes

  2. Membrane processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staszak, Katarzyna

    2017-11-01

    The membrane processes have played important role in the industrial separation process. These technologies can be found in all industrial areas such as food, beverages, metallurgy, pulp and paper, textile, pharmaceutical, automotive, biotechnology and chemical industry, as well as in water treatment for domestic and industrial application. Although these processes are known since twentieth century, there are still many studies that focus on the testing of new membranes' materials and determining of conditions for optimal selectivity, i. e. the optimum transmembrane pressure (TMP) or permeate flux to minimize fouling. Moreover the researchers proposed some calculation methods to predict the membrane processes properties. In this article, the laboratory scale experiments of membrane separation techniques, as well their validation by calculation methods are presented. Because membrane is the "heart" of the process, experimental and computational methods for its characterization are also described.

  3. Molecular dynamics simulation of a phospholipid membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egberts, Egbert; Marrink, Siewert-Jan; Berendsen, Herman J.C.

    We present the results of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of a phospholipid membrane in water, including full atomic detail. The goal of the simulations was twofold: first we wanted to set up a simulation system which is able to reproduce experimental results and can serve as a model membrane in

  4. ServAR: An augmented reality tool to guide the serving of food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollo, Megan E; Bucher, Tamara; Smith, Shamus P; Collins, Clare E

    2017-05-12

    Accurate estimation of food portion size is a difficult task. Visual cues are important mediators of portion size and therefore technology-based aids may assist consumers when serving and estimating food portions. The current study evaluated the usability and impact on estimation error of standard food servings of a novel augmented reality food serving aid, ServAR. Participants were randomised into one of three groups: 1) no information/aid (control); 2) verbal information on standard serving sizes; or 3) ServAR, an aid which overlayed virtual food servings over a plate using a tablet computer. Participants were asked to estimate the standard serving sizes of nine foods (broccoli, carrots, cauliflower, green beans, kidney beans, potato, pasta, rice, and sweetcorn) using validated food replicas. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests compared median served weights of each food to reference standard serving size weights. Percentage error was used to compare the estimation of serving size accuracy between the three groups. All participants also performed a usability test using the ServAR tool to guide the serving of one randomly selected food. Ninety adults (78.9% female; a mean (95%CI) age 25.8 (24.9-26.7) years; BMI 24.2 (23.2-25.2) kg/m 2 ) completed the study. The median servings were significantly different to the reference portions for five foods in the ServAR group, compared to eight foods in the information only group and seven foods for the control group. The cumulative proportion of total estimations per group within ±10%, ±25% and ±50% of the reference portion was greater for those using ServAR (30.7, 65.2 and 90.7%; respectively), compared to the information only group (19.6, 47.4 and 77.4%) and control group (10.0, 33.7 and 68.9%). Participants generally found the ServAR tool easy to use and agreed that it showed potential to support optimal portion size selection. However, some refinements to the ServAR tool are required to improve the user experience. Use of the

  5. Depicted serving size: cereal packaging pictures exaggerate serving sizes and promote overserving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Aner; Niemann, Stina; Wansink, Brian

    2017-02-06

    Extensive work has focused on the effects of nutrition label information on consumer behavior on the one hand, and on the effects of packaging graphics on the other hand. However, little work has examined how serving suggestion depictions - graphics relating to serving size - influence the quantity consumers serve themselves. The current work examines the prevalence of exaggerated serving size depictions on product packaging (study 1) and its effects on food serving in the context of cereal (study 2). Study 1 was an observational field survey of cereal packaging. Study 2 was a mixed experimental cross-sectional design conducted at a U.S. university, with 51 student participants. Study 1 coded 158 US breakfast cereals and compared the serving sizes depicted on the front of the box with the suggested serving size stated on the nutrition facts panel. Study 2 measured the amount of cereal poured from exaggerated or accurate serving size depictions. Study 1 compared average servings via t-tests. Study 2 used a mixed model with cereal type as the repeated measure and a compound symmetry covariance matrix. Study 1 demonstrated that portion size depictions on the front of 158 cereal boxes were 65.84% larger (221 vs. 134 calories) than the recommended portions on nutrition facts panels of those cereals. Study 2 showed that boxes that depicted exaggerated serving sizes led people to pour 20% more cereal compared to pouring from modified boxes that depicted a single-size portion of cereal matching suggested serving size. This was 45% over the suggested serving size. Biases in depicted serving size depicted on cereal packaging are prevalent in the marketplace. Such biases may lead to overserving, which may consequently lead to overeating. Companies should depict the recommended serving sizes, or otherwise indicate that the depicted portion represents an exaggerated serving size.

  6. Depicted serving size: cereal packaging pictures exaggerate serving sizes and promote overserving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aner Tal

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive work has focused on the effects of nutrition label information on consumer behavior on the one hand, and on the effects of packaging graphics on the other hand. However, little work has examined how serving suggestion depictions - graphics relating to serving size - influence the quantity consumers serve themselves. The current work examines the prevalence of exaggerated serving size depictions on product packaging (study 1 and its effects on food serving in the context of cereal (study 2. Methods Study 1 was an observational field survey of cereal packaging. Study 2 was a mixed experimental cross-sectional design conducted at a U.S. university, with 51 student participants. Study 1 coded 158 US breakfast cereals and compared the serving sizes depicted on the front of the box with the suggested serving size stated on the nutrition facts panel. Study 2 measured the amount of cereal poured from exaggerated or accurate serving size depictions. Study 1 compared average servings via t-tests. Study 2 used a mixed model with cereal type as the repeated measure and a compound symmetry covariance matrix. Results Study 1 demonstrated that portion size depictions on the front of 158 cereal boxes were 64.7% larger (221 vs. 134 calories than the recommended portions on nutrition facts panels of those cereals. Study 2 showed that boxes that depicted exaggerated serving sizes led people to pour 17.8% more cereal compared to pouring from modified boxes that depicted a single-size portion of cereal matching suggested serving size. This was 42% over the suggested serving size. Conclusions Biases in depicted serving size depicted on cereal packaging are prevalent in the marketplace. Such biases may lead to overserving, which may consequently lead to overeating. Companies should depict the recommended serving sizes, or otherwise indicate that the depicted portion represents an exaggerated serving size.

  7. A notational analysis of elite tennis serve and serve-return strategies on slow surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillet, Eric; Leroy, David; Thouvarecq, Régis; Stein, Jean-François

    2009-03-01

    A notational analysis of singles events at the French Open Grand Slam tournament was undertaken in 2005 and 2006 to characterize the game patterns and strategies of serve and serve-return and to determine their influence on the point issue on a clay court surface. One hundred sixteen men's singles matches were video analyzed. The flat serve (57.6%), particularly down the "T" location (50.3%), allowed servers to win significantly more points than the topspin (24.1%) and slice serves (18.3%). When the topspin was the first serve strategy, servers kept a high percentage of points won from the serve (52.4%). This strategy was essentially used on the second serve (91.6%) by playing the "T" location in the deuce court and the wide zone in the advantage court. Returns to the central zone allowed receivers to win more points (73.3% on first serve and 65.9% on second serve) than plays to external locations. The results highlight the high impact of the first shots of all opponents on the rally. Even on clay, the slowest court surface, serves and serve-returns remain the strokes that most influence the match results in modern tennis games.

  8. Percolation of diagenetic fluids in the Archaean basement of the Franceville basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouélé, Idalina Moubiya; Dudoignon, Patrick; Albani, Abderrazak El; Cuney, Michel; Boiron, Marie-Christine; Gauthier-Lafaye, François

    2014-01-01

    The Palaeoproterozoic Franceville basin, Gabon, is mainly known for its high-grade uranium deposits, which are the only ones known to act as natural nuclear fission reactors. Previous work in the Kiéné region investigated the nature of the fluids responsible for these natural nuclear reactors. The present work focuses on the top of the Archaean granitic basement, specifically, to identify and date the successive alteration events that affected this basement just below the unconformity separating it from the Palaeoproterozoic basin. Core from four drill holes crosscutting the basin-basement unconformity have been studied. Dating is based on U-Pb isotopic analyses performed on monazite. The origin of fluids is discussed from the study of fluid inclusion planes (FIP) in quartz from basement granitoids. From the deepest part of the drill holes to the unconformable boundary with the basin, propylitic alteration assemblages are progressively replaced by illite and locally by a phengite + Fe chlorite ± Fe oxide assemblage. Illitic alteration is particularly strong along the sediment-granitoid contact and is associated with quartz dissolution. It was followed by calcite and anhydrite precipitation as fracture fillings. U-Pb isotopic dating outlines three successive events: a 3.0-2.9-Ga primary magmatic event, a 2.6-Ga propylitic alteration and a late 1.9-Ga diagenetic event. Fluid inclusion microthermometry suggests the circulation of three types of fluids: (1) a Na-Ca-rich diagenetic brine, (2) a moderately saline (diagenetic + meteoric) fluid, and (3) a low-salinity fluid of probable meteoric origin. These fluids are similar to those previously identified within the overlying sedimentary rocks of the Franceville basin. Overall, the data collected in this study show that the Proterozoic-Archaean unconformity has operated as a major flow corridor for fluids circulation, around 1.9 Ga. highly saline diagenetic brines; hydrocarbon-rich fluids derived from organic matter

  9. Numerical analysis of temperature distribution due to basement radiogenic heat production, St. Lawrence Lowlands, eastern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hejuan; Giroux, Bernard; Harris, Lyal B.; Mansour, John

    2017-04-01

    Although eastern Canada is considered as having a low potential for high-temperature geothermal resources, the possibility for additional localized radioactive heat sources in Mesoproterozoic Grenvillian basement to parts of the Palaeozoic St. Lawrence Lowlands in Quebec, Canada, suggests that this potential should be reassessed. However, such a task remains hard to achieve due to scarcity of heat flow data and ambiguity about the nature of the basement. To get an appraisal, the impact of radiogenic heat production for different Grenville Province crystalline basement units on temperature distribution at depth was simulated using the Underworld Geothermal numerical modelling code. The region south of Trois-Rivières was selected as representative for the St. Lawrence Lowlands. An existing 3D geological model based on well log data, seismic profiles and surface geology was used to build a catalogue of plausible thermal models. Statistical analyses of radiogenic element (U, Th, K) concentrations from neighbouring outcropping Grenville domains indicate that the radiogenic heat production of rocks in the modelled region is in the range of 0.34-3.24 μW/m3, with variations in the range of 0.94-5.83 μW/m3 for the Portneuf-Mauricie (PM) Domain, 0.02-4.13 μW/m3 for the Shawinigan Domain (Morin Terrane), and 0.34-1.96 μW/m3 for the Parc des Laurentides (PDL) Domain. Various scenarios considering basement characteristics similar to the PM domain, Morin Terrane and PDL Domain were modelled. The results show that the temperature difference between the scenarios can be as much as 12 °C at a depth of 5 km. The results also show that the temperature distribution is strongly affected by both the concentration of radiogenic elements and the thermal conductivity of the basement rocks. The thermal conductivity in the basement affects the trend of temperature change between two different geological units, and the spatial extent of thermal anomalies. The validity of the results was

  10. Primordial membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanczyc, Martin M; Monnard, Pierre-Alain

    2017-01-01

    Cellular membranes, which are self-assembled bilayer structures mainly composed of lipids, proteins and conjugated polysaccharides, are the defining feature of cell physiology. It is likely that the complexity of contemporary cells was preceded by simpler chemical systems or protocells during...... the various evolutionary stages that led from inanimate to living matter. It is also likely that primitive membranes played a similar role in protocell 'physiology'. The composition of such ancestral membranes has been proposed as mixtures of single hydrocarbon chain amphiphiles, which are simpler versions...

  11. Bioelectrochemistry II membrane phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Blank, M

    1987-01-01

    This book contains the lectures of the second course devoted to bioelectro­ chemistry, held within the framework of the International School of Biophysics. In this course another very large field of bioelectrochemistry, i. e. the field of Membrane Phenomena, was considered, which itself consists of several different, but yet related subfields. Here again, it can be easily stated that it is impossible to give a complete and detailed picture of all membrane phenomena of biological interest in a short course of about one and half week. Therefore the same philosophy, as the one of the first course, was followed, to select a series of lectures at postgraduate level, giving a synthesis of several membrane phenomena chosen among the most'important ones. These lectures should show the large variety of membrane-regulated events occurring in living bodies, and serve as sound interdisciplinary basis to start a special­ ized study of biological phenomena, for which the investigation using the dual approach, physico-che...

  12. Membrane microparticles and diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Z-H; Ji, C-L; Li, H; Qiu, G-X; Gao, C-J; Weng, X-S

    2013-09-01

    Membrane microparticles (MPs) are plasma membrane-derived vesicles shed by various types of activated or apoptotic cells including platelets, monocytes, endothelial cells, red blood cells, and granulocytes. MPs are being increasingly recognized as important regulators of cell-to-cell interactions. Recent evidences suggest they may play important functions not only in homeostasis but also in the pathogenesis of a number of diseases such as vascular diseases, cancer, infectious diseases and diabetes mellitus. Accordingly, inhibiting the production of MPs may serve as a novel therapeutic strategy for these diseases. Here we review recent advances on the mechanism underlying the generation of MPs and the role of MPs in vascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, inflammation, and pathogen infection.

  13. Membranous nephropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skin-lightening creams Systemic lupus erythematosus , rheumatoid arthritis, Graves disease, and other autoimmune disorders The disorder occurs at ... diagnosis. The following tests can help determine the cause of membranous nephropathy: Antinuclear antibodies test Anti-double- ...

  14. Time variation of 222Rn concentration and gamma level in a half-basement room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iimoto, Takeshi; Eguchi, Hoshio; Kosako, Toshiso; Sugiura, Nobuyuki

    1998-01-01

    Correlation between 222 Rn (radon) concentration and gamma level in a half-basement has been discussed. In order to decrease the background count of a whole-body counter (WBC), a ventilation blower of 72 m 2 h -1 was installed. The device succeeded in a big reduction of radon concentration in the half-basement and then the background of WBC (NaI(Tl)) decreased to the 76.5% of the saturated value. Through a radon saturation test the exhalation rate of radon from concrete wall was estimated as 2.1 Bqm -2 h -1 by a simple model calculation. In addition, through a ventilation test, the procedure was analyzed by another simple model. (author)

  15. Characterization of 222Rn entry into a basement structure surrounded by low permeability soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    An experimental facility has been developed to monitor the entry rate and concentration of 222 Rn in two basement type structures surrounded by soil having a permeability on the order of 1- -12 m 2 . A data acquisition system recorded environmental conditions outside and inside the structures, including basement air exchange rates, every 15 min. Indoor 222 Rn concentrations ranged from 400 to 1400 Bq m -3 . The observed 222 Rn entry rate is highly variable and has two primary components; a constant input rate caused by diffusion of 222 Rn through the concrete walls and floor, and a variable rate that depends upon indoor-soil pressure differentials of only a few pascals. Pressure differentials are dependent upon wind speed and wind direction. Stack effect was not significant. During a two week period, with relatively calm winds, diffusion through the concrete walls and floor plus the floor-wall joint accounted for more than 80% of the total 222 Rn entry

  16. Soil inertia and shallow basement envelope impact on cellar internal temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naima Sakami

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with a three dimensional numerical study of heat transfer by conduction between the soil and the shallow basement in the city of Marrakech (Morocco. The heat transfer equation is solved by the finite difference method using the implicit alternative direction (ADI. The internal temperature of the cellar is computed by using energy balance equation in the cellar. The objective of this work is to evaluate the effects of the nature of the soil, the nature of the walls, the thickness of the walls of the cellar and the distance L far from the cellar on the internal temperature and the heat exchanged between the soil and the shallow basement

  17. Geology and petrography of basement in south extreme in Sierra Grande de San Luis, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morosini, A.; Ortiz Suarez, A.

    2007-01-01

    In the south of the Sierra de San Luis is recognized a basement composed by La Escalerilla and Los Puquios granites, accompanied by schist, mylonite s and mafic-ultramafic rocks. The schists, La Escalerilla granite and the mafic -ultramafic rocks are affected by a regional metamorphism in anphibolites facies, the two first present a N-S foliation di ping to east. The mylonite s correspond to a second event of deformation, distributed in thin belts of NNE-SSO direction and inclination to east, developed in green schist to anphibolites facies. Los Puquios granite represents the more young of the basement rocks and the intrusion was associated with a shear zone. Los Puquios granite forms dikes and small plutons cutting La Escalerilla granite and micas chits in high cortical levels

  18. How Finland Serves Gifted and Talented Pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirri, Kirsi; Kuusisto, Elina

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the ways gifted and talented pupils are served in Finland. The trend toward individualism and freedom of choice as well as national policy affecting gifted education are discussed. Empirical research on Finnish teachers' attitudes toward gifted education with respect to the national…

  19. Radon transport into a detached one-story house with a basement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ottavio, T.W.; Dietz, R.N.; Nazaroff, W.W.; California Institute of Technology

    1986-01-01

    The interpretation of the data presented in a paper published in 1985 on radon transport into a detached one-story house with a basement is extended by developing an improved model that can be used to predict radon concentration in this house. In particular, emphasis was placed on a more complete set of replotted sump activity data. In the author's reply, this development is welcomed but two concerns regarding the conclusions one might infer from the analysis are discussed. (UK)

  20. Geological Structure of the Basement of Western and Eastern Parts of the West-Siberian Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Kirill S.; Erokhin, Yuriy V.; Ponomarev, Vladimir S.; Pogromskaya, Olga E.; Berzin, Stepan V.

    2016-01-01

    The U-Pb dating (SHRIMP-II on zircon) was obtained for the first time from the basement of the West Siberian Plain in the Western half of the region. It is established that a large part of the protolith of the metamorphic depth in the Shaim-Kuznetsov meganticlinorium contained sedimentary late- and middle-Devonian rocks (395-358 million years).…

  1. Robust High Performance Aquaporin based Biomimetic Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helix Nielsen, Claus; Zhao, Yichun; Qiu, C.

    2013-01-01

    on top of a support membrane. Control membranes, either without aquaporins or with the inactive AqpZ R189A mutant aquaporin served as controls. The separation performance of the membranes was evaluated by cross-flow forward osmosis (FO) and reverse osmosis (RO) tests. In RO the ABM achieved a water......Aquaporins are water channel proteins with high water permeability and solute rejection, which makes them promising for preparing high-performance biomimetic membranes. Despite the growing interest in aquaporin-based biomimetic membranes (ABMs), it is challenging to produce robust and defect...... permeability of ~ 4 L/(m2 h bar) with a NaCl rejection > 97% at an applied hydraulic pressure of 5 bar. The water permeability was ~40% higher compared to a commercial brackish water RO membrane (BW30) and an order of magnitude higher compared to a seawater RO membrane (SW30HR). In FO, the ABMs had > 90...

  2. Gravitational sliding of the Mt. Etna massif along a sloping basement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, John B.; van Wyk de Vries, Benjamin; Pitty, Andy; Sargent, Phil; Wooller, Luke

    2018-04-01

    Geological field evidence and laboratory modelling indicate that volcanoes constructed on slopes slide downhill. If this happens on an active volcano, then the movement will distort deformation data and thus potentially compromise interpretation. Our recent GPS measurements demonstrate that the entire edifice of Mt. Etna is sliding to the ESE, the overall direction of slope of its complex, rough sedimentary basement. We report methods of discriminating the sliding vector from other deformation processes and of measuring its velocity, which averaged 14 mm year-1 during four intervals between 2001 and 2012. Though sliding of one sector of a volcano due to flank instability is widespread and well-known, this is the first time basement sliding of an entire active volcano has been directly observed. This is important because the geological record shows that such sliding volcanoes are prone to devastating sector collapse on the downslope side, and whole volcano migration should be taken into account when assessing future collapse hazard. It is also important in eruption forecasting, as the sliding vector needs to be allowed for when interpreting deformation events that take place above the sliding basement within the superstructure of the active volcano, as might occur with dyke intrusion or inflation/deflation episodes.

  3. Basement tectonics and flexural subsidence along western continental margin of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.K. Pandey

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Paleocene-recent post-rift subsidence history recorded in the Mumbai Offshore Basin off western continental margin of India is examined. Results obtained through 2-D flexural backstripping modelling of new seismic data reveal considerable thermo-tectonic subsidence over last ca. 56 Myr. Reverse post-rift subsidence modelling with variable β stretching factor predicts residual topography of ca. 2000 m to the west of Shelf Margin Basin and fails to restore late Paleocene horizon and the underlying igneous basement to the sea level. This potentially implies that: (1 either the igneous basement formed during the late Cretaceous was emplaced under open marine environs; or (2 a laterally varying cumulative subsidence occurred within Mumbai Offshore Basin (MOB during ca. 68 to ca. 56 Ma. Pre-depositional topographic variations at ca. 56 Ma across the basin could be attributed to the extensional processes such as varied lower crustal underplating along Western Continental Margin of India (WCMI. Investigations about basement tectonics after unroofing of sediments since late Paleocene from this region support a transitional and heavily stretched nature of crust with high to very high β factors. Computations of past sediment accumulation rates show that the basin sedimentation peaked during late Miocene concurrently with uplift of Himalayan–Tibetan Plateau and intensification of Indian monsoon system. Results from basin subsidence modelling presented here may have significant implications for further studies attempting to explore tectono–climatic interactions in Asia.

  4. The Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase p38 alpha Regulates Tubular Damage in Murine Anti-Glomerular Basement Membrane Nephritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller, Ralf; Daniel, Christoph; Hugo, Christian; Amann, Kerstin; Mielenz, Dirk; Endlich, Karlhans; Braun, Tobias; van der Veen, Betty; Heeringa, Peter; Schett, Georg; Zwerina, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is thought to play a central role in acute and chronic inflammatory responses. Whether p38MAPK plays a pathogenic role in crescentic GN (GN) and which of its four isoforms is preferentially involved in kidney inflammation is not definitely known. We thus

  5. AGE-modified basement membrane cooperates with Endo180 to promote epithelial cell invasiveness and decrease prostate cancer survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez-Teja, Mercedes; Gronau, Julian H; Breit, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Biomechanical strain imposed by age-related thickening of the basal lamina and augmented tissue stiffness in the prostate gland coincides with increased cancer risk. Here we hypothesized that the structural alterations in the basal lamina associated with age can induce mechanotransduction pathways...... in prostate epithelial cells (PECs) to promote invasiveness and cancer progression. To demonstrate this, we developed a 3D model of PEC acini in which thickening and stiffening of basal lamina matrix was induced by advanced glycation end-product (AGE)-dependent non-enzymatic crosslinking of its major......(Δ) (Ex2-6/) (Δ) (Ex2-6) mice, with constitutively exposed CTLD2 and decreased survival of men with early (non-invasive) prostate cancer with high epithelial Endo180 expression and levels of AGE. These findings indicate that AGE-dependent modification of the basal lamina induces invasive behaviour...

  6. Heparan sulfate-chondroitin sulfate hybrid proteoglycan of the cell surface and basement membrane of mouse mammary epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, G.; Van den Berghe, H.

    1985-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate represents approximately 15% of the 35 SO 4 -labeled glycosaminoglycans carried by the proteoglycans of the cell surface and of the basolateral secretions of normal mouse mammary epithelial cells in culture. Evidence is provided that these chondroitin sulfate-carrying proteoglycans are hybrid proteoglycans, carrying both chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate chains. Complete N-desulfation but limited O-desulfation, by treatment with dimethyl sulfoxide, of the proteoglycans decreased the anionic charge of the chondroitin sulfate-carrying proteoglycans to a greater extent than it decreased the charge of their constituent chondroitin sulfate chains. Partial depolymerization of the heparan sulfate residues of the proteoglycans with nitrous acid or with heparin lyase also reduced the effective molecular radius of the chondroitin sulfate-carrying proteoglycans. The effect of heparin lyase on the chondroitin sulfate-carrying proteoglycans was prevented by treating the proteoglycan fractions with dimethyl sulfoxide, while the effect of nitrous acid on the dimethyl sulfoxide-treated proteoglycans was prevented by acetylation. This occurrence of heparan sulfate-chondroitin sulfate hybrid proteoglycans suggests that the substitution of core proteins by heparan sulfate or chondroitin sulfate chains may not solely be determined by the specific routing of these proteins through distinct chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate synthesizing mechanisms. Moreover, regional and temporal changes in pericellular glycosaminoglycan compositions might be due to variable postsynthetic modification of a single gene product

  7. Geology of the plutonic basement rocks of Stewart Island, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allibone, A.H.; Tulloch, A.J.

    2004-01-01

    Exposures of basement rocks on Stewart Island provide a c. 70 km long by 50 km wide map of part of the Median Batholith that spans the margin of the Western Province. Because of their distance from the present plate boundary, these rocks are relatively unaffected by Cenozoic tectonism, allowing examination of unmodified Carboniferous-Cretaceous relationships within the Median Batholith. Thirty individual plutons (>c.20 km 2 ) have been mapped along with numerous relatively small intrusions ( 2 ). The large plutons form 85-90% of the Median Batholith on Stewart Island while the many smaller intrusions comprise 10-15%, mostly in the north. Lithologies include: biotite ± minor hornblende granodiorite, granite and leucogranite with accessory titanite - magmatic epidote and allanite (c. 50%); biotite ± muscovite ± garnet granite with S-type affinities (c. 10%); alkaline quartz monzonite, granite, and alkali feldspar granite with rare aegirine and blue-green amphibole (c. 3%); quartz monzodiorite and diorite with hornblende > biotite (c. 23%); gabbro and anorthosite (c. 12%) and ultramafic rocks (c. 2%). U-Pb zircon and monazite dating indicates that c. 12% of these plutonic rocks were emplaced during the Carboniferous between 345 and 290 Ma, c. 20% in the Early-Middle Jurassic at c. 170-165 Ma, c. 30% in the latest Jurassic to earliest Cretaceous between 152 and 128 Ma, and c. 38% in the Early Cretaceous between 128 and 100 Ma. The distribution of Pegasus Group schists and peraluminous granitoid rocks indicates that the northern limit of extensive early Paleozoic Western Province basement is located either within the Gutter Shear Zone or at the Escarpment Fault, 10-15 km south of the Freshwater Fault System previously thought to mark this boundary. Carboniferous and Middle Jurassic magmatism extended plutonic basement northwards as far as the Freshwater Fault System, while further magmatism during the latest Jurassic and earliest Cretaceous produced the basement

  8. Observations of hydrotectonic stress/strain events at a basement high at the Nicoya outer rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryon, M. D.; Brown, K. M.

    2005-12-01

    There is substantial and growing evidence from heat flow and coring investigations that the oceanic plate off Costa Rica is highly hydrologically active and that this activity is responsible for one of the most anomalously cold thermal environments encountered in the oceanic environment. Recent work by Fisher, et al. has identified limited regions above certain topographic highs with extremely high heat flows. Pore water profiles from cores above these thinly sedimented basement highs suggest upward flow on the order of ~1 cm/yr. These highs may be the principal regions of out-flow from the basement in this region and, thus, can potentially be used to constrain the general level of hydrologic activity. The nine Chemical and Aqueous Transport (CAT) meters we deployed at one of the highest heatflow sites provide a temporal record of both in-flow and out-flow of aqueous fluids at rates as low as 0.1 mm/yr. Our objective was to provide a direct measurement of long term flow rates to address the following questions: (1) What are the characteristic fluid fluxes at basement highs of the low heat flow region of the northern Costa Rican incoming plate, and (2) is this flow temporally variable? The results of the instrument deployments agree quite closely in general with the coring results in that the background rates are on the order of 1 cm/yr or less. There is, however, considerable detail in the temporal records which suggest small scale tectonic stress transients causing temporary increases in flow rate. While this is certainly not an area of major tectonic activity, the site is located at the top of the outer rise where one would expect bending-related stress and fault reactivation to occur. The CAT meters are capable of detecting minute strain events in the underlying sediments and therefore may be detecting small localized strain events. Two periods of increased flow lasting a few weeks each occur during the 5 month deployment and are indicated on all of the

  9. Geochemical variability of the Yucatan basement: Constraints from crystalline clasts in Chicxulub impactites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettrup, B.; Deutsch, A.

    2003-07-01

    The 65 Ma old Chicxulub impact structure with a diameter of about 180 km is again in the focus of the geosciences because of the recently commenced drilling of the scientific well Yaxcopoil- 1. Chicxulub is buried beneath thick post-impact sediments, yet samples of basement lithologies in the drill cores provide a unique insight into age and composition of the crust beneath Yucatan. This study presents major element, Sr, and Nd isotope data for Chicxulub impact melt lithologies and clasts of basement lithologies in impact breccias from the PEMEX drill cores C-1 and Y-6, as well as data for ejecta material from the K/T boundaries at La Lajilla, Mexico, and Furlo, Italy. The impact melt lithologies have an andesitic composition with significantly varying contents of Al, Ca, and alkali elements. Their present day 87Sr/86Sr ratios cluster at about 0.7085, and 143Nd/144Nd ratios range from 0.5123 to 0.5125. Compared to the melt lithologies that stayed inside the crater, data for ejecta material show larger variations. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios range from 0.7081 for chloritized spherules from La Lajilla to 0.7151 for sanidine spherules from Furlo. The 143Nd/144Nd ratio is 0.5126 for La Lajilla and 0.5120 for the Furlo spherules. In an tCHUR(Nd)-tUR(Sr) diagram, the melt lithologies plot in a field delimited by Cretaceous platform sediments, various felsic lithic clasts and a newly found mafic fragment from a suevite. Granite, gneiss, and amphibolite have been identified among the fragments from crystalline basement gneiss. Their 87Sr/86Sr ratios range from 0.7084 to 0.7141, and their 143Nd/144Nd ratios range from 0.5121 to 0.5126. The TNdDM model ages vary from 0.7 to 1.4 Ga, pointing to different source terranes for these rocks. This leads us to believe that the geological evolution and the lithological composition of the Yucatàn basement is probably more complex than generally assumed, and Gondwanan as well as Laurentian crust may be present in the Yucatàn basement.

  10. Basement control in the development of the early cretaceous West and Central African rift system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurin, Jean-Christophe; Guiraud, René

    1993-12-01

    The structural framework of the Precambrian basement of the West and Central African Rift System (WCARS) is described in order to examine the role of ancient structures in the development of this Early Cretaceous rift system. Basement structures are represented in the region by large Pan-African mobile belts (built at ca. 600 Ma) surrounding the > 2 Ga West African, Congo and Sao Francisco cratons. Except for the small Gao trough (eastern Mali) located near the contact nappe of the Pan-African Iforas suture zone along the edge of the West African craton, the entire WCARS is located within the internal domains of the Pan-African mobile belts. Within these domains, two main structural features occur as the main basement control of the WCARS: (1) an extensive network of near vertical shear zones which trend north-south through the Congo, Brazil, Nigeria, Niger and Algeria, and roughly east-west through northeastern Brazil and Central Africa. The shear zones correspond to intra-continental strike-slip faults which accompanied the oblique collision between the West African, Congo, and Sao Francisco cratons during the Late Proterozoic; (2) a steep metamorphic NW-SE-trending belt which corresponds to a pre-Pan-African (ca. 730 Ma) ophiolitic suture zone along the eastern edge of the Trans-Saharian mobile belt. The post-Pan-African magmatic and tectonic evolution of the basement is also described in order to examine the state of the lithosphere prior to the break-up which occurred in the earliest Cretaceous. After the Pan-African thermo-tectonic event, the basement of the WCARS experienced a long period of intra-plate magmatic activity. This widespread magmatism in part relates to the activity of intra-plate hotspots which have controlled relative uplift, subsidence and occasionally block faulting. During the Paleozoic and the early Mesozoic, this tectonic activity was restricted to west of the Hoggar, west of Aïr and northern Cameroon. During the Late Jurassic

  11. Serving the fuel cycle: preparing tomorrow's packagings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roland, V.

    2001-01-01

    The main fleet of transport packagings serving today the fuel cycle was born more than 20 years ago. Or was it they? The present paper will show that serving the fuel cycle by preparing tomorrow's logistics is actually an on-going process, rather than a rupture. We shall review the great packagings of the fuel cycle: In the front end, the major actors are the UF 4 , UF 6 , enriched UF 6 , UO 2 powders, fresh fuel packagings. In the back end of the fuel cycle, we find the dry transport casks of the TN-12, TN-17, TN-13, family and also the Excellox wet flasks. In the waste management, a whole fleet of containers, culminating in the TN Gemini, are available or being created. (author)

  12. DO ACCOUNTING AND FINANCE TOOLS SERVE GOVERNANCE?

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Ariff; J. Ratnatunga

    2008-01-01

    A brief review of recent literature on corporate governance is provided, which is then concluded with a proposed corporate governance framework as a starting point for further development. We propose that it is stakeholder concentration that determines the quality of corporate governance. Next objective of this paper is the more ambitious one of addressing the role of accounting and finance disciplines to serve corporate governance. We test empirically if the use of some accounting and financ...

  13. Serving Diverse Knowledge Systems in Academia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William F. Birdsall

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Libraries and academic disciplines are experiencing a major transformation to the digital era. A challenge for libraries is to adapt and coordinate their transformation with differing rates and types of changes in teaching, research, and scholarly communication among the disciplines they serve. This paper argues libraries need to acknowledge the diversity of knowledge systems and adopt a strategy that requires collaboration between libraries and multiple communities of knowing in the development and provision of heterogeneous services.

  14. Membrane lipidome of an epithelial cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sampaio, Julio L; Gerl, Mathias J; Klose, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Tissue differentiation is an important process that involves major cellular membrane remodeling. We used Madin-Darby canine kidney cells as a model for epithelium formation and investigated the remodeling of the total cell membrane lipidome during the transition from a nonpolarized morphology...... to an epithelial morphology and vice versa. To achieve this, we developed a shotgun-based lipidomics workflow that enabled the absolute quantification of mammalian membrane lipidomes with minimal sample processing from low sample amounts. Epithelial morphogenesis was accompanied by a major shift from sphingomyelin...... to generate an apical membrane domain that serves as a protective barrier for the epithelial sheet....

  15. Proteomics and the dynamic plasma membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sprenger, Richard R; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    2010-01-01

    plasma membrane is of particular interest, by not only serving as a barrier between the "cell interior" and the external environment, but moreover by organizing and clustering essential components to enable dynamic responses to internal and external stimuli. Defining and characterizing the dynamic plasma...... the challenges in functional proteomic studies of the plasma membrane. We review the recent progress in MS-based plasma membrane proteomics by presenting key examples from eukaryotic systems, including mammals, yeast and plants. We highlight the importance of enrichment and quantification technologies required...... for detailed functional and comparative analysis of the dynamic plasma membrane proteome....

  16. Research brief : Serving Bowl Selection Biases the Amount of Food Served

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleef, van E.; Shimizu, M.; Wansink, B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine how common serving bowls containing food for multiple persons influence serving behavior and consumption and whether they do so independently of satiation and food evaluation. Methods: In this between-subjects experiment, 68 participants were randomly assigned to either a

  17. Toss differences between the slice serve and the kick serve in tennis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Carboch

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pre-contact information of servers' motion is important for receiving players in tennis. Objective: The aim of this study is to examine whether serving players use the same ball toss for kick serve (KS and slice serve (SS at two different directions of serves, from the receiver's view. Methods: 10 male right-handed professional tennis players with an average ATP ranking of 533 were videotaped from the receiver's view using a high-speed video camera (200 Hz. Firstly, they served SS and then KS from deuce court. After reaching 3 successful SS and 3 KS to the correct location, the same procedure followed from the ad court. Kinematic analysis was used to obtain the point of ball release, vertical toss peak and racquet-ball contact. Results: Even though the release point was found nearly in the same location, the vertical toss peak of KS was horizontally to the right compared to SS and the point of racquet ball-contact of KS was even more to the right by approximately 30 cm from the receiver's view. Similar findings were obtained from deuce court and ad court. Conclusions: We found differences in the ball toss execution between KS and SS. The serve toss can provide useful information for receiving players. Serving players should use the same toss for each type of serve to hide their intention.

  18. Membrane's Eleven: heavy-atom derivatives of membrane-protein crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morth, Jens Preben; Sørensen, Thomas Lykke-Møller; Nissen, Poul

    2006-01-01

    A database has been assembled of heavy-atom derivatives used in the structure determination of membrane proteins. The database can serve as a guide to the design of experiments in the search for heavy-atom derivatives of new membrane-protein crystals. The database pinpoints organomercurials...

  19. The Effect of Mechanical Characteristics of Basal Decollement and Basement Structures on Deformation of the Zagros Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Bahroudi, Abbas

    2003-01-01

    Two fundamental structural elements, basement architecture and basal decollement, play a significant role in the evolution of a tectonically active region. Using different approaches (field data, literature review and analogue models) this thesis demonstrates that these two elements affected the deformation style in the Zagros fold-thrust belt during Mesozoic extensional and Cenozoic contractional episodes. Reassessment of available data suggests a new configuration for the basement to Zagro...

  20. Axionic membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurilia, A.; Spallucci, E.

    1992-01-01

    A metal ring removed from a soap-water solution encloses a film of soap which can be mathematically described as a minimal surface having the ring as its only boundary. This is known to everybody. In this letter we suggest a relativistic extension of the above fluidodynamic system where the soap film is replaced by a Kalb-Ramand gauge potential B μν (x) and the ring by a closed string. The interaction between the B μν field and the string current excites a new configuration of the system consisting of a relativistic membrane bounded by the string. We call such a classical solution of the equation of motion an axionic membrane. As a dynamical system, the axionic membrane admits a Hamilton-Jacobi formulation which is an extension of the HJ theory of electromagnetic strings. (orig.)

  1. Testing of indoor radon-reduction techniques in basement houses having adjoining wings. Final report, August 1988-September 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messing, M.

    1990-11-01

    The report gives results of tests of indoor radon reduction techniques in 12 existing Maryland houses, with the objective of determining when basement houses with adjoining wings require active soil depressurization (ASD) treatment of both wings, and when treatment of the basement alone is sufficient. In five basement houses with adjoining slabs on grade, ASD treatment of both wings provided an incremental additional radon reduction of 0 to 5.2 pCi/L, compared to ASD treatment of either one of the slabs alone. However, basement-only treatment reduced radon to <4 pCi/L in all five houses. In six basement houses having adjoining crawl spaces, ASD treatment of both wings (including sub-liner depressurization of the crawl space) provided little additional reduction compared to basement-only treatment, when sub-slab communication was good. When communication was not good, treatment of both wings was required to achieve <4 pCi/L. Tests of one fully slab-on-grade house showed that, when there is good aggregate under the slab, a one-pipe sub-slab depressurization system can achieve <1-2 pCi/L, even when there are forced-air supply ducts under the slab

  2. Metamaterial membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restrepo-Flórez, Juan Manuel; Maldovan, Martin

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a new class of metamaterial device to achieve separation of compounds by using coordinate transformations and metamaterial theory. By rationally designing the spatial anisotropy for mass diffusion, we simultaneously concentrate different compounds in different spatial locations, leading to separation of mixtures across a metamaterial membrane. The separation of mixtures into their constituent compounds is critically important in biophysics, biomedical, and chemical applications. We present a practical case where a mixture of oxygen and nitrogen diffusing through a polymeric planar matrix is separated. This work opens doors to new paradigms in membrane separations via coordinate transformations and metamaterials by introducing novel properties and unconventional mass diffusion phenomena. (paper)

  3. Composite Membrane with Underwater-Oleophobic Surface for Anti-Oil-Fouling Membrane Distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhangxin; Hou, Deyin; Lin, Shihong

    2016-04-05

    In this study, we fabricated a composite membrane for membrane distillation (MD) by modifying a commercial hydrophobic polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane with a nanocomposite coating comprising silica nanoparticles, chitosan hydrogel and fluoro-polymer. The composite membrane exhibits asymmetric wettability, with the modified surface being in-air hydrophilic and underwater oleophobic, and the unmodified surface remaining hydrophobic. By comparing the performance of the composite membrane and the pristine PVDF membrane in direct contact MD experiments using a saline emulsion with 1000 ppm crude oil (in water), we showed that the fabricated composite membrane was significantly more resistant to oil fouling compared to the pristine hydrophobic PVDF membrane. Force spectroscopy was conducted for the interaction between an oil droplet and the membrane surface using a force tensiometer. The difference between the composite membrane and the pristine PVDF membrane in their interaction with an oil droplet served to explain the difference in the fouling propensities between these two membranes observed in MD experiments. The results from this study suggest that underwater oleophobic coating can effectively mitigate oil fouling in MD operations, and that the fabricated composite membrane with asymmetric wettability can enable MD to desalinate hypersaline wastewater with high concentrations of hydrophobic contaminants.

  4. Chelating polymeric membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor; Villalobos Vazquez de la Parra, Luis Francisco; Hilke, Roland

    2015-01-01

    microporous chelating polymeric membrane. Embodiments include, but are not limited to, microporous chelating polymeric membranes, device comprising the membranes, and methods of using and making the same.

  5. Acquaintance molestation and youth-serving organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanning, Kenneth V; Dietz, Park

    2014-10-01

    This article is based not only on the research literature but also on the extensive field experience of the authors in consulting with investigators, attorneys, and organizations on the prevention, investigation, prosecution, and civil litigation of molestation of children within or in connection with youth-serving organizations. Acquaintance molesters have often pursued careers or sought out paid or volunteer work with organizations through which they can meet children. To address the problem of such offenders, it is necessary for youth-serving organizations to recognize the diversity of sexual activity, the phenomena of "nice-guy" offenders and compliant child victims, and the grooming/seduction process, each of which is reviewed here. The four most important protection practices for organizations are screening; management, and supervision; response to suspicions, allegations, and complaints; and prevention and awareness programs. The authors recommend general approaches to each of these and describe the reasons many organizations resist implementing available preventive measures. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Virtual Globes: Serving Science and Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Qureshi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Virtual Globes reached the mass market in 2005. They created multi-million dollar businesses in a very short time by providing novel ways to explore data geographically. We use the term “Virtual Globes” as the common denominator for technologies offering capabilities to annotate, edit and publish geographic information to a world-wide audience and to visualize information provided by the public and private sectors, as well as by citizens who volunteer new data. Unfortunately, but not surprising for a new trend or paradigm, overlapping terms such as “Virtual Globes”, “Digital Earth”, “Geospatial Web”, “Geoportal” or software specific terms are used heterogeneously. We analyze the terminologies and trends in scientific publications and ask whether these developments serve science and society. While usage can be answered quantitatively, the authors reason from the literature studied that these developments serve to educate the masses and may help to democratize geographic information by extending the producer base. We believe that we can contribute to a better distinction between software centered terms and the generic concept as such. The power of the visual, coupled with the potential of spatial analysis and modeling for public and private purposes raises new issues of reliability, standards, privacy and best practice. This is increasingly addressed in scientific literature but the required body of knowledge is still in its infancy.

  7. Thermochronology and geochemistry of the Pan-African basement below the Sab'atayn Basin, Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeningen, Resi; Rice, A. Hugh N.; Schneider, David A.; Grasemann, Bernhard

    2015-02-01

    Three important lithologies occur in two drill wells from the Pan-African basement underlying the Mesozoic Sab'atayn Basin, in a previously undocumented area of the Pan-African, 83 and 90 km NE of known exposures in Yemen. Cores from well 1 include amphibolite, with basaltic to andesitic compositions, affected by crustal contamination during emplacement into a thickened crust. Deeper in the well, an unfoliated dark red monzogranite has a U-Pb zircon age of 628.8 ± 3.1 Ma and a Rb-Sr biotite cooling age of 591.6 ± 5.8 Ma (∼300 °C). Regional constraints suggest emplacement in a transitional tectonic setting with compressional terrane amalgamation followed by extensional collapse. Sm-Nd isotope analysis yields a TDM model age of 1.24 Ga with negative εNd values, suggesting the monzogranite is part of the Al Bayda island arc terrane. Cores from well 2 contains a weakly deformed, massive (unbedded) medium grey meta-arkose exhibiting essentially no geochemical signature of weathering and with an almost pure dacitic composition. This rock may have been directly derived from an (extrusive) granitoid that was emplaced prior to, or during terrane amalgamation. A (U-Th-Sm)/He zircon age of 156 ± 14 Ma constrains the time of basement cooling to ∼180 °C, synchronous with basin formation. These lithologies provide new insights in the development of the Pan-African basement of Yemen, extending our knowledge of the nearby surface geology to the subsurface.

  8. Uplift, Emergence, and Subsidence of the Gorda Escarpment Basement Ridge Offshore Cape Mendocino, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Susan M.; Tréhu, Anne M.

    2017-12-01

    The Gorda Escarpment is a topographic step that characterizes the south side of the Mendocino Transform Fault east of 126oW and forms the northern edge of the Vizcaino Block. Seismic reflection data suggest that the basement beneath the northern edge of the Vizcaino is composed of east-west trending slivers of oceanic crust that form a 15 km wide band of buried ridges we call the Gorda Escarpment Basement Ridge (GEBR) to distinguish it from the northwest-trending basement structure that characterizes most of the Vizcaino Block. The history of uplift and subsidence of the GEBR is reconstructed by combining the seismic reflection profiles with age and lithological constraints from ODP Site 1022, gravity cores, and grab samples from the northern face of the Escarpment recovered using a remotely operated vehicle. Uplift of the GEBR began prior to 6 Ma, and it was above sea level 3.7-2.5 Ma. GEBR uplift and emergence coincided with sediment deposition on the southern flank of the GEBR that we interpret as indicative of strong upwelling and turbulence in the lee of a shallow ridge and island chain. A bright reflection, interpreted to be a sill, is observed south of the shallowest part of the GEBR. We speculate that this sill may reflect a larger, hidden intrusion at depth and that thermal expansion of the crust combined with tectonic forces to drive enhanced uplift of this segment of the plate boundary. The GEBR has been subsiding since 2.7 Ma, and its shallowest point is now 1,400 m below sea level.

  9. Polymetamorphic evolution of the granulite-facies Paleoproterozoic basement of the Kabul Block, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, Stephen; Faryad, Shah Wali; Mosazai, Amir Mohammad

    2015-08-01

    The Kabul Block is an elongate crustal fragment which cuts across the Afghan Central Blocks, adjoining the Indian and Eurasian continents. Bounded by major strike slip faults and ophiolitic material thrust onto either side, the block contains a strongly metamorphosed basement consisting of some of the only quantifiably Proterozoic rocks south of the Herat-Panjshir Suture Zone. The basement rocks crop-out extensively in the vicinity of Kabul City and consist predominantly of migmatites, gneisses, schists and small amounts of higher-grade granulite-facies rocks. Granulite-facies assemblages were identified in felsic and mafic siliceous rocks as well as impure carbonates. Granulite-facies conditions are recorded by the presence of orthopyroxene overgrowing biotite in felsic rocks; by orthopyroxene overgrowing amphibole in mafic rocks and by the presence of olivine and clinohumite in the marbles. The granulite-facies assemblages are overprinted by a younger amphibolite-facies event that is characterized by the growth of garnet at the expense of the granulite-facies phases. Pressure-temperature (P-T) conditions for the granulite-facies event of around 850 °C and up to 7 kbar were calculated through conventional thermobarometry and phase equilibria modeling. The younger, amphibolite-facies event shows moderately higher pressures of up to 8.5 kbar at around 600 °C. This metamorphism likely corresponds to the dominant metamorphic event within the basement of the Kabul Block. The results of this work are combined with the litho-stratigraphic relations and recent geochronological dating to analyze envisaged Paleoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic metamorphic events in the Kabul Block.

  10. Dwellings with cellars and basements. A BRE guide to radon remedial measures in existing dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scivyer, C.R.; Jaggs, M.P.R.

    1998-01-01

    This guide is one of a series giving practical advice on methods of reducing radon levels in existing dwellings. It is intended to help surveyors, builders and householders who are trying to reduce indoor radon levels in houses with cellars or basements. The guide is based on a large body of remedial work carried out to advice given by BRE, and on discussions with others working in the field. The measures it describes are applicable, in principle, to all dwellings and other buildings of a similar scale and construction which have cellars or basements. Contact details of other organisations referred to are listed at the back of this guide. Basements and cellars are relatively uncommon in the United Kingdom, but where they do occur they are likely to be major contributors to the radon problem within a building. Experience shows that most houses with high indoor radon levels can be remedied through the use of straightforward building works. These can be carried out by a builder or householder competent in DIY. The cost should not be excessive. Before reading this guide, for background information on radon, consult Radon: a householder's guide and Radon: a guide to reducing levels M your home, obtainable from local Environmental Health Officers or from the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions. The Government recommends that, if the average radon concentration in a dwelling exceeds 200 Bq/m 3 (the 'action' level), measures should be taken to reduce it. This guide assumes that radon measurements have been made in the building and that the annual average indoor radon level was shown to exceed the action level

  11. Lead isotopic study of aplites from the Precambrian basement rocks near Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oversby, V.M.

    1975-01-01

    Pb isotopic compositions for three total-rock samples of aplite and their constituent K-feldspars from the Nigerian basement assemblage near Ibadan show lead homogenization during the Pan-African thermo-tectonic event. A secondary isochron formed by the K-feldspars data points is used to calculate a primary age of about 2750 m.y. for the aplites. The aplites do not register any Pb isotopic effect from the intrusion of granite gneiss in the area at 2330m.y. (Auth.)

  12. The First Evidence of the Precambrian Basement in the Fore Range Zone of the Great Caucasus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latyshev, A.; Kamzolkin, V.; Vidjapin, Y.; Somin, M.; Ivanov, S.

    2017-12-01

    Within the Great Caucasus fold-thrust belt, the Fore Range zone has the most complicated structure, and the highest degree of metamorphism was found there. This zone consists of several salients with the different composition and the structural and metamorphic evolution. The largest Blyb salient includes the metamorphic basement covered by the pack of thrusts. According to the recent isotopic data the upper levels of the Blyb metamorphic complex (BMC) are supposed to be Middle-Paleozoic (Somin, 2011). We studied zircons from the granitic intrusions located in the metamorphic rocks of the BMC. The U-Pb dating (SHRIMP II, VSEGEI, Russia) of zircons from the large Balkan metadiorite massif yielded the ages of 549±7,4, 574,1±6,7, and 567,9±6,9 Ma. All studied zircons show the high Th/U ratios and likely have the magmatic origin. This data is the first confirmation of the presence of the Precambrian basement and Vendian magmatic activity in the Fore Range zone. Zircons from the Unnamed granodiorite massif from the south of the Blyb salient yielded the age of 319±3.8 Ma (the Early Carboniferous). This fact taken together with the low grade of metamorphism in this intrusion reveals the Late Paleozoic magmatic event in the Fore Range zone. We also suggest that the Precambrian basement of the BMC, including the Balkan intrusion, is covered by so-called Armovsky nappe. This is confirmed by the field data, Middle-Paleozoic U-Pb ages and the higher degree of metamorphism of the Armovsky gneisses and schists. Thus, the BMC is not uniform but includes the blocks of the different age and metamorphic grades. Finally, we measured the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) of the Balkan metadiorites. The axes of AMS ellipsoid fix the conditions of the north-east compression, as well as the strain field reconstructed from the macrostructures orientation, which corresponds to the thrusts propagation. Therefore, the emplacement of the Balkan massif happened before the thrust

  13. Punta del este terrane: meso proterozoic basement and neo proterozoic cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preciozzi, F.; Sanchez Bettucci, L.; Basei, M.; Peel, E.; Oyhantcabal, P.; Cordani, U.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Eastern basement of Uruguay consists of Meso and Neoproterozoic rocks. Mesoproterozoic basement had been deformed by pre-Brasiliano and Brasiliano events. Regional variations in this basement and in the Neoproterozoic cover show equivalent deformation styles and intensities. Models proposed for tectonic evolution have been scarce and confusing. Specially, the ones that concern the moment of collision and/or juxtaposition of blocks. The Punta del Este Terrane (PET) is composed of gneisses and migmatites formed between 1000 Ma to 900 Ma (Preciozzi et al., 2001). These rocks had been strongly reworked during Brasiliano and Rio Doce orogenesis (ca. 900-500 Ma). This crustal segment represents a high grade metamorphic terrane, which is correlated to some gneissic complexes southwest of Africa. Particularly, it is correlated to Kibaran-Namaqua Belt in Namibia. U-Pb ages between 1000 Ma and 900 Ma, obtained in zircons from tonalitic granitoids, are interpreted as indicative of their crystallization (Fig. 1). Besides, anatectic fluids related to migmatites leucosomes yielded ages of ca. 520 to 540 Ma. This denotes that superimposed metamorphic conditions during Brasiliano orogenesis reached, at least, lower amphibolite facies. PET basement gneisses present Sm-Nd model ages (TDM) between 2.4 to 1.8 Ga, showing long crustal residence, corroborated by the very negative εNd values of –1.3 and –14.3. During Brazilian orogenesy they were affected by deformation processes and anatexis. Metasedimentary PET cover occurs near La Paloma and Rocha towns. It is represented by a siliciclastic metasedimentary succession corresponding to the Rocha formation. In La Pedrera town recognized three sedimentary facies were (1-3): (1) sandstones and pelites; (2) green pelites; and (3) rhytmites. The transition from facies (1) to facies (3) shows the passage from fluvial environment with tidal influence to tidal flat with predominance of sub tidal deposits (Pazos and S

  14. Shock pressure estimation in basement rocks of the Chicxulub impact crater using cathodoluminescence spectroscopy of quartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomioka, N.; Tani, R.; Kayama, M.; Chang, Y.; Nishido, H.; Kaushik, D.; Rae, A.; Ferrière, L.; Gulick, S. P. S.; Morgan, J. V.

    2017-12-01

    The Chicxulub impact structure, located in the northern Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, was drilled by the joint IODP-ICDP Expedition 364 in April-May 2016. This expedition is the first attempt to obtain materials from the topographic peak ring within the crater previously identified by seismic imaging. A continuous core was successfully recovered from the peak ring at depths between 505.7 and 1334.7 mbsf. Uplifted, fractured, and shocked granitic basement rocks forming the peak ring were found below, in the impact breccia and impact melt rock unit (747.0-1334.7 mbsf; Morgan et al. 2016). In order to constrain impact crater formation, we investigated shock pressure distribution in the peak-ring basement rocks. Thin sections of the granitic rocks were prepared at intervals of 60 m. All the samples contains shocked minerals, with quartz grains frequently showing planar deformation features (PDFs). We determined shock pressures based on the cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy of quartz. The strong advantage of the CL method is its applicability to shock pressure estimation for individual grains for both quartz and diaplectic SiO2 glass with high-spatial resolution ( 1 μm) (Chang et al. 2016). CL spectra of quartz shows a blue emission band caused by shock-induced defect centers, where its intensity increases with shock pressure. A total of 108 quartz grains in ten thin sections were analyzed using a scanning electron microscope with a CL spectrometer attached (an acceleration voltage of 15 kV and a beam current of 2 nA were used). Natural quartz single crystals, which were experimentally shocked at 0-30 GPa, were used for pressure calibration. CL spectra of all the quartz grains in the basement rocks showed broad blue emission band at the wavelength range of 300-500 nm and estimated shock pressures were in the range of 15-20 GPa. The result is consistent with values obtained from PDFs analysis in quartz using the universal stage (Ferrière et al. 2017; Rae et al. 2017

  15. Detailed petrographic-structural study of an outcrop of Crystalline Basement of Montevideo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascale, A.; Oyhantçabal, P.

    2010-01-01

    Preliminary data analysis of detailed outcrop Punta Virgilo, located on the S E coast of the department of Montevideo are presented. The investigated outcrop includes gneisses, amphibolite s and several generations of pegmatite and aplite dikes of Paleoproterozoic metamorphic basement, plus a set of dikes emplaced lamprófido exhumed once the area. Petrographic and microstructural studies of metamorphic units allowed to determine the conditions of metamorphism and deformation temperature between 520-720 ° C and pressure between 2 and 6 kbar (depth of 10 to 23 km)

  16. Basement inheritance and salt tectonics in the SE Barents Sea: Insights from new potential field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernigon, L.; Broenner, M.; Dumais, M. A.; Gradmann, S.; Grønlie, A.; Nasuti, A.; Roberts, D.

    2017-12-01

    The tectonic evolution of the former `grey zone' between Russia and Norway has so far remained poorly constrained due to a lack of geophysical data. In 2014, we carried out a new aeromagnetic survey (BASAR-14) in the southern part of the new Norwegian offshore territory. Caledonian and Timanian structures, highlighted by the new potential field data, dominate the basement patterns and have exerted a strong influence on the structure and development of the overlying basins and basement highs. Clearly associated with NW-SE-oriented Timanian trends, the Tiddlybanken Basin represents an atypical sag basin that developed at the southern edge of the Fedynsky High. Regional extension and rapid sedimentation initiated the salt tectonics in the Barents Sea in the Early Triassic. Some of the pillows became diapiric during the Early Triassic and rejuvenated during subsequent Jurassic-Tertiary episodes of regional extension and/or compression. At present, quite a few large diapiric salt domes along the Nordkapp and Tiddlybanken basins are relatively shallow, locally reaching the seabed and thus show a clear bathymetric and magnetic signature. Quantitative modelling along 2D seismic transects was also carried out to constrain the structural and basement composition of the study area. The predominant NE-SW Mesozoic trend of the Nordkapp Basin represents a major crustal hinge zone between the Finnmark Platform, poorly affected by major crustal deformation, and the Bjarmeland Platform where Late Palaeozoic rifting controlled the widespread accumulation of salt deposits in Late Carboniferous-Early Permian time. The entire structure and segmentation of the Nordkapp Basin have been influenced by the inherited basement configuration highlighted by the new aeromagnetic data. Both the Nordkapp and the Tiddlybanken basins appear to lie at the edge of a peculiar thick and rigid crustal feature that coincides with a highly magnetic region. The abrupt termination of the eastern Nordkapp

  17. Utilities' ''obligation to serve'' under deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, C.B.

    1997-01-01

    The utility no longer has protected status, and the traditional franchise concept is under attack. Exclusive rights once conveyed to the utilities are being denied and not just in the area of gas sales. Exclusive rights once conveyed to utilities will be denied in more areas. State by state, the utilities' franchise is being examined to see which, if any, of its provisions are necessary in a deregulated environment. Can the free market provide everything that's been provided for many years under monopolistic arrangements? Some of the most critical and difficult of these provisions concern the obligation to serve, which utilities, in most states, have assumed as part of their franchise agreement. Regulators, courts, utilities, marketers and others are busy sorting through these issues, but resolution could take years. The paper discusses deregulation, universal service fee, representation without taxation, suppliers and marketer restrictions

  18. Proposal of a Mediterranean Diet Serving Score.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Monteagudo

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have demonstrated a relationship between Mediterranean Diet (MD adherence and the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and diabetes, etc. The study aim was to validate a novel instrument to measure MD adherence based on the consumption of food servings and food groups, and apply it in a female population from southern Spain and determining influential factors.The study included 1,155 women aged 12-83 yrs, classified as adolescents, adults, and over-60-yr-olds. All completed a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. The Mediterranean Dietary Serving Score (MDSS is based on the latest update of the Mediterranean Diet Pyramid, using the recommended consumption frequency of foods and food groups; the MDSS ranges from 0 to 24. The discriminative power or correct subject classification capacity of the MDSS was analyzed with the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve, using the MDS as reference method. Predictive factors for higher MDSS adherence were determined with a logistic regression model, adjusting for age. According to ROC curve analysis, MDSS evidenced a significant discriminative capacity between adherents and non-adherents to the MD pattern (optimal cutoff point=13.50; sensitivity=74%; specificity=48%. The mean MDSS was 12.45 (2.69 and was significantly higher with older age (p<0.001. Logistic regression analysis showed highest MD adherence by over 60-year-olds with low BMI and no habit of eating between meals.The MDSS is an updated, easy, valid, and accurate instrument to assess MD adherence based on the consumption of foods and food groups per meal, day, and week. It may be useful in future nutritional education programs to prevent the early onset of chronic non-transmittable diseases in younger populations.

  19. Membrane technology revolutionizes water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilderer, P A; Paris, S

    2007-01-01

    Membranes play a crucial role in living cells, plants and animals. They not only serve as barriers between the inside and outside world of cells and organs. More importantly, they are means of selective transport of materials and host for biochemical conversion. Natural membrane systems have demonstrated efficiency and reliability for millions of years and it is remarkable that most of these systems are small, efficient and highly reliable even under rapidly changing ambient conditions. Thus, it appears to be advisable for technology developers to keep a close eye on Mother Nature. By doing so it is most likely that ideas for novel technical solutions are born. Following the concept of natural systems it is hypothesized that the Millennium Development Goals can be best met when counting on small water and wastewater treatment systems. The core of such systems could be membranes in which chemical reactions are integrated allowing recovery and direct utilization of valuable substances.

  20. Basement structure of the United Arab Emirates derived from an analysis of regional gravity and aeromagnetic database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M. Y.; Fairhead, J. D.; Green, C. M.; Noufal, A.

    2017-08-01

    Gravity and aeromagnetic data covering the whole territory of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) have been used to evaluate both shallow and deep geological structures, in particular the depth to basement since it is not imaged by seismic data anywhere within the UAE. Thus, the aim has been to map the basement so that its structure can help to assess its control on the distribution of hydrocarbons within the UAE. Power spectrum analysis reveals gravity and magnetic signatures to have some similarities, in having two main density/susceptibility interfaces widely separated in depth such that regional-residual anomaly separation could effectively be undertaken. The upper density/susceptibility interface occurs at a depth of about 1.0 km while the deeper interface varies in depth throughout the UAE. For gravity, this deeper interface is assumed to be due to the combined effect of lateral changes in density structures within the sediments and in depth of basement while for magnetics it is assumed the sediments have negligible susceptibility and the anomalies unrelated to the volcanic/magmatic bodies result from only changes in depth to basement. The power spectrum analysis over the suspect volcanic/magmatic bodies indicates they occur at 5 km depth. The finite tilt-depth and finite local wavenumber methods were used to estimate depth to source and only depths that agree to within 10% of each other were used to generate the depth to basement map. This depth to basement map, to the west of the UAE-Oman Mountains, varies in depth from 5 km to in excess of 15 km depth and is able to structurally account for the location of the shear structures, seen in the residual magnetic data, and the location of the volcanic/magmatic centres relative to a set of elongate N-S to NE-SW trending basement highs. The majority of oilfields in the UAE are located within these basement highs. Therefore, the hydrocarbon distribution in the UAE basin appears to be controlled by the location of the

  1. Nanggulan Formation and Its Problem As a Basement in Kulonprogo Basin, Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hill Gendoet Hartono

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.4.2.71-80Nanggulan Formation consists of the oldest clastic rock sequence exposed in Kulonprogo area, Yogyakarta. This paper discusses the position of Nanggulan Formation as a basement. The method used in this research is surface and subsurface investigations based on gravity surveys. The rock assemblage is exposed and distributed partly in the east flank of Kulonprogo Mountains with weak undulated morphology. The rock sequence is composed of sand to clay grain sizes such as sandstone, quartz sandstone, calcareous sandstone, claystone, fossiliferous claystone, calcareous claystone, siltstone, and coal seam intercalations. The total thickness of the sequence is less than 200 m. Based on the fossil and palynology investigations, previous investigators concluded the age of the rock was Eocene to Middle Miocene. The geological structures developed in the rocks are the lithological stratification, fractures, folding, and faulting. The subsurface interpretation based on gravity data revealed the rock was located under the andesite breccias with 2.44 g/cc density. The density of the rock sequence was 2.63 g/cc. The gravity interpretation shows a strong indication that Nanggulan Formation underlies the andesitic breccias presumably associated with Old Andesite Formation exposed in Kulonprogo Mountains. The limited distribution, the thickness, and the closed environmental deposition of Nanggulan Formation found in the present investigation raised problems on the position of the formation as the basement of Old Andesite Formation occurring in the Kulonprogo Mountain.

  2. Multiscale analysis of potential fields by a ridge consistency criterion: the reconstruction of the Bishop basement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedi, M.; Florio, G.; Cascone, L.

    2012-01-01

    We use a multiscale approach as a semi-automated interpreting tool of potential fields. The depth to the source and the structural index are estimated in two steps: first the depth to the source, as the intersection of the field ridges (lines built joining the extrema of the field at various altitudes) and secondly, the structural index by the scale function. We introduce a new criterion, called 'ridge consistency' in this strategy. The criterion is based on the principle that the structural index estimations on all the ridges converging towards the same source should be consistent. If these estimates are significantly different, field differentiation is used to lessen the interference effects from nearby sources or regional fields, to obtain a consistent set of estimates. In our multiscale framework, vertical differentiation is naturally joint to the low-pass filtering properties of the upward continuation, so is a stable process. Before applying our criterion, we studied carefully the errors on upward continuation caused by the finite size of the survey area. To this end, we analysed the complex magnetic synthetic case, known as Bishop model, and evaluated the best extrapolation algorithm and the optimal width of the area extension, needed to obtain accurate upward continuation. Afterwards, we applied the method to the depth estimation of the whole Bishop basement bathymetry. The result is a good reconstruction of the complex basement and of the shape properties of the source at the estimated points.

  3. Metasomatic tourmalinite formation along basement-cover decollements, Orobic Alps, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, J.F.; Passchier, C.W.; Zhang, J.S.

    1996-01-01

    Cryptocrystalline tourmalinites that occur discontinuously for ???30 km along basement-cover de??collements of the Orohic Alps (Italy) formed by the metasomatism of aluminous cataclasites derived from Permian conglomerates and/or feldspathic sandstones. Using Al as an immobile element monitor, calculations show that the majority of tourmalinites in the region formed through the addition of moderate to significant amounts of B, Mg, Na, Sr, and Be, and the loss of moderate to significant Mn, Ca, K, P, Rb, Ba, and Cr; minor Si, Ti, V, light REE, and Eu also were lost. Data tor relatively immobile Al, Zr, Th, Sc, Nb, and heavy REE indicate that, on average, these tourmalinites formed through ???12% net mass loss assuming an original conglomerate protolith, or through ???7% net mass loss assuming a sandstone protolith. The B and other introduced constituents in the tourmalinites were deposited by hydrothermal fluids focused along and near basement-cover de??collements. These fluids, believed to be associated with late Hercynian felsic magmatism, probably are related to fluids that formed the tourmaline-rich U-Mo-Zn deposits at the nearby Novazza mine and the U-Zn deposits at the nearby Val Vedello mine.

  4. Preliminary isotopic data from some amphibolites of the metamorphic basement of the Colombian Central Cordillera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa M, Ana Maria; Martens K, Uwe; Ordonez C, Oswaldo; Pimentel, Marcio M; Restrepo A, Jorge Julian

    2001-01-01

    Various amphibolite bodies are exposed in the Antioquia Department, Colombia, mainly around the cities of Medellin and El Retiro. Two types of amphibolites occur in the study area; the first one is considered as part of an ophiolite complex and the second one correspond to amphibolites associated to metasediments from the basement of the Colombian Central Cordillera. The present work refers to these last ones. The relationships between amphibolite bodies and other lythological units are the following ones: Intercalation of amphibolites layers with metasediments in the unit migmatites and granulites of El Retiro. The Medellin amphibolites are conformably overlaid by the paragneisses of Las Penas. The granodiorite body represented by the Antioquian Batolith is intrusive in the metamorphic rocks and the Medellin Dunites unit is in thrust fault contact with Medellin amphibolites. These amphibolites have been studied by Botero (1963), Gonzalez (1976 and 1980), Restrepo and Toussaint (1984), Ardila (1986), Restrepo (1986), Rendon (1999) and, Correa and Martens (2000). Available radiometric ages on the amphibolites come from former works by Restrepo y Toussaint (1978), Restrepo et al. (1991) that presented K-Ar ages in amphiboles and a Rb-Sr isochron which yielded a Cretaceous age that they interpreted as a metamorphic age. This work presents new evidences, obtained from field work, petrography, rock geochemistry and specially the first isotopic data on these amphibolites from the Central Cordillera Metamorphic Basement (au)

  5. Raetrad model extensions for radon entry into multi-level buildings with basements or crawl spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, K K; Rogers, V C; Rogers, V; Holt, R B

    1997-10-01

    The RAETRAD model was generalized to characterize radon generation and movement from soils and building materials into multi-level buildings with basements or crawl spaces. With the generalization, the model retains its original simplicity and ease of use. The model calculates radon entry rates that are consistent with measurements published for basement test structures at Colorado State University, confirming approximately equal contributions from diffusion and pressure-driven air flow at indoor-outdoor air pressure differences of deltaP(i-o) = -3.5 Pa. About one-fourth of the diffusive radon entry comes from concrete slabs and three-fourths comes from the surrounding soils. Calculated radon entry rates with and without a barrier over floor-wall shrinkage cracks generally agree with Colorado State University measurements when a sustained pressure of deltaP(i-o) = -2 Pa is used to represent calm wind (<1 m s(-1)) conditions. Calculated radon distributions in a 2-level house also are consistent with published measurements and equations.

  6. A method for evaluating basement exhumation histories from closure age distributions of detrital minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovera, Oscar M.; Grove, Marty; Kimbrough, David L.; Abbott, Patrick L.

    1999-01-01

    We have developed a two-dimensional, thermokinetic model that predicts the closure age distributions of detrital minerals from pervasively intruded and differentially exhumed basement. Using this model, we outline a method to determine the denudation history of orogenic regions on the basis of closure age distributions in synorogenic to postorogenic forearc strata. At relatively high mean denudation rates of 0.5 km m.y.-1 sustained over millions of years, magmatic heating events have minimal influence upon the age distributions of detrital minerals such as K-feldspar that are moderately retentive of radiogenic Ar. At lower rates, however, the effects of batholith emplacement may be substantial. We have applied the approach to detrital K-feldspars from forearc strata derived from the deeply denuded Peninsular Ranges batholith (PRB). Agreement of the denudation history deduced from the detrital K-feldspar data with thermochronologic constraints from exposed PRB basement lead us to conclude that exhumation histories of magmatic arcs should be decipherable solely from closure age distributions of detrital minerals whose depositional age is known. (c) 1999 American Geophysical Union

  7. Ballistic impact response of lipid membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yao; Meng, Zhaoxu; Qin, Xin; Keten, Sinan

    2018-03-08

    Therapeutic agent loaded micro and nanoscale particles as high-velocity projectiles can penetrate cells and tissues, thereby serving as gene and drug delivery vehicles for direct and rapid internalization. Despite recent progress in developing micro/nanoscale ballistic tools, the underlying biophysics of how fast projectiles deform and penetrate cell membranes is still poorly understood. To understand the rate and size-dependent penetration processes, we present coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations of the ballistic impact of spherical projectiles on lipid membranes. Our simulations reveal that upon impact, the projectile can pursue one of three distinct pathways. At low velocities below the critical penetration velocity, projectiles rebound off the surface. At intermediate velocities, penetration occurs after the projectile deforms the membrane into a tubular thread. At very high velocities, rapid penetration occurs through localized membrane deformation without tubulation. Membrane tension, projectile velocity and size govern which phenomenon occurs, owing to their positive correlation with the reaction force generated between the projectile and the membrane during impact. Two critical membrane tension values dictate the boundaries among the three pathways for a given system, due to the rate dependence of the stress generated in the membrane. Our findings provide broad physical insights into the ballistic impact response of soft viscous membranes and guide design strategies for drug delivery through lipid membranes using micro/nanoscale ballistic tools.

  8. Tectonic inheritage from adjacent basement, north of the Campos Basin; Heranca tectonica no embasamento adjacente no norte da Bacia de Campos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferroni, Felipe R. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil); Castro, Joel C. de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas. Dept. de Geologia Aplicada; Souza, Iata A. de; Castro, Joel C. de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas

    2008-07-01

    The evolution of the Atlantic Brazilian basins is a target of researches since the firth discovery of oil deposits. With the advance of the geophysical methods the understanding of the structures in depth became possible. The objective of this paper is to determine if the adjacent basement in the north of Campos Basin has significant influence in the identification of areas that can contain hydrocarbons. Therefore, lineaments had been extracted with SRTM images of continental basement and the main alignment was correlated with gravimetric anomalies map and seismic data. Eight levels on seismic data had been interpreted (basement, top rift, shallow water Albian, Albian, mid-Oligocene and mid-Miocene). In all levels were identified a fault normal system, which cut sediments since basement until the Recent. The main direction of the basement is NE-SW, and the alignments formed for basin basement faults coincide with this direction, what indicates that the system is active and also genetically related. (author)

  9. Dynamics of uranium ore formation in the basement and frame of the Streltsovskaya Caldera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, V.; Schukin, S.

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of geological-geophysical, paleo-geodynamics, mineralogical, geochemical, isotope, geochronological, and thermo-baro-geochemical data allow us to offer a model of uranium ore formation dynamics in the basement and frame of the Streltsovskaya Caldera connected to activity of the fluid-conducting fault zones network with the aim to identify prospective areas The most ancient fluid-conducting structures are inter-block NE-SW, NNE-submeridional, NW-SE and, probably, WNW-sub-latitudinal faults. The oldest NE-SW faults and schistosity zones were formed during Proterozoic tectonic cycle (TC) with reactivation in T3-J2 time due to global reorganization of stress field and reactivation of tectonic movements. The NNE-submeridional and NW-SE faults were extended with increased fluid permeability during Caledonian and Variscan TCs. They also were reactivated in the process of Late Mesozoic tectonic and magmatic activation (TMA). Thus already at early stages of geotectonic evolution within the intersection of NE-SW (N-Urulyunguyevskiy fault) and NNE-submeridional (Chindachinskaya zone) faults the areas of increased fluid and magmatic activity were formed. The dynamics of fault formation in the basement and frame of the Streltsovskaya caldera and its volcano-sedimentary cover differs. In the basement and granite framework NE-SW, NNEsubmeridional and NW-SE faults are interblock structures of the I rank. Their intersection formed areas of long-term circulation of hydrothermal solutions and telescopic appearance of multi-age metasomatites that created conditions for localizing of vein-stockwork mineralization. In volcanosedimentary cover the NE-SW and NNE-submeridional faults should be considered as interblock structures of the I rank where intersections provided inflow of ore-bearing solutions and their redistribution within the cover. Here the main ore distributing role belongs to NW-SE shears. They are intrablock II rank structures which were formed due to dextral

  10. Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-mediated laminin proteolysis generates a pro-angiogenic peptide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Conway, R. E.; Rojas, C.; Alt, J.; Nováková, Zora; Richardson, S. M.; Rodrick, T. C.; Fuentes, J. L.; Richardson, N. H.; Attalla, J.; Stewart, S.; Fahmy, B.; Bařinka, Cyril; Ghosh, M.; Shapiro, L. H.; Slusher, B. S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 4 (2016), s. 487-500 ISSN 0969-6970 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP301/12/1513; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:86652036 Keywords : TUMOR-ASSOCIATED NEOVASCULATURE * BASEMENT-MEMBRANE * DISTINCT ANTITUMOR PROPERTIES Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 5.253, year: 2016

  11. Oxytocin promotes group-serving dishonesty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalvi, Shaul; De Dreu, Carsten K W

    2014-04-15

    To protect and promote the well-being of others, humans may bend the truth and behave unethically. Here we link such tendencies to oxytocin, a neuropeptide known to promote affiliation and cooperation with others. Using a simple coin-toss prediction task in which participants could dishonestly report their performance levels to benefit their group's outcome, we tested the prediction that oxytocin increases group-serving dishonesty. A double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment allowing individuals to lie privately and anonymously to benefit themselves and fellow group members showed that healthy males (n = 60) receiving intranasal oxytocin, rather than placebo, lied more to benefit their group, and did so faster, yet did not necessarily do so because they expected reciprocal dishonesty from fellow group members. Treatment effects emerged when lying had financial consequences and money could be gained; when losses were at stake, individuals in placebo and oxytocin conditions lied to similar degrees. In a control condition (n = 60) in which dishonesty only benefited participants themselves, but not fellow group members, oxytocin did not influence lying. Together, these findings fit a functional perspective on morality revealing dishonesty to be plastic and rooted in evolved neurobiological circuitries, and align with work showing that oxytocin shifts the decision-maker's focus from self to group interests. These findings highlight the role of bonding and cooperation in shaping dishonesty, providing insight into when and why collaboration turns into corruption.

  12. Serving Data to the GLAST Users Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, Thomas E.

    2007-01-01

    The scientific community will access the public GLAST data through the website of the GLAST Science Support Center (GSSC). For most data products the GSSC website will link to the NASA High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center's (HEASARC) Browse interface, which will actually serve the data. For example, data from the GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM) from a given burst will be packaged together and accessible through Browse. However, the photon and event data produced by the Large Area Telescope (LAT), GLAST's primary instrument, will be distributed through a custom GSSC interface. These data will be collected over the LAT's large field-of-view, usually while the LAT is scanning the sky, and thus photons from a particular direction cannot be attributed to a single 'observation' in the traditional sense. Users will request all photons detected from a region on the sky over a specified time and energy range. Through its website the GSSC will also provide long and short term science timelines, spacecraft position and attitude histories, exposure maps and other scientific data products. The different data products provided by the GSSC will be described

  13. Preparation of Ready to Serve Grape Juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mya Mya Than, Daw; Molly Ahad, Daw; Khin Khin Lay, Daw

    1997-10-01

    Studies were carried out at the Food Technology Research Department of Myanma Scientific and Technological Research Department to prepare ready to serve grape juice from ripe fruits of the red varieties of grapes. The sugar content of grapes varied from (10) to (14) % depending on the season. To get a maximum content of (16) % sugar in the juice, (2) to (6) % sugar was added. The yields of the seasonal grape juice varied from (62.5) to (72.2) % by weight. The tannin content was (0.36) % by volume in the fresh juice. It was decreased to (0.03) % by volume after the cold storage at (10)C for (10 to 15) days. The pH of the original fruit juice was (3.2). The best juice was obtain when the pH of the juice was(4.0). To obtain the higher yield of the juice, desirable bright colour and rapid clarification, (0.01) %. Pectinex enzyme was added. In this investigation grape juice was preserved with (0.1) % sodium benzoate. Storage studies, which also included microbiological aspects indicated that the pasteurized grape juice bottle can be stored at room temperature for minimum (6) months without any deterioration in quality

  14. A proposal: LEIR to serve biomedicine

    CERN Document Server

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    LEIR is the CERN facility that produces high-density ion beams for the LHC and for the SPS fixed target experiments. Since its operational schedule is not fully booked, LEIR could, in principle, be exploited even further. A brainstorming meeting recently took place at CERN to evaluate the possibility of modifying LEIR to serve the biomedical community. Discussions are in progress.   The Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR). LEIR is a small synchrotron with a circumference of about 78 m. It currently receives particles from Linac 3 and prepares beams for the SPS and the LHC. “In order for LEIR to be able to provide ion beams with appropriate energies for studies of interest for biomedical applications, a new ejection system with new beam lines needs to be designed,” explains Christian Carli, from the Beams Department. “In addition, Linac 3 could be upgraded to include a second ion source and a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) optimized for ions of interest for bi...

  15. Geochemical interpretation of the Precambrian basement and overlying Cambrian sandstone on Bornholm, Denmark: Implications for the weathering history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Lingli; Friis, Henrik; Yang, Tian

    2017-01-01

    show a depletion of major elements in the following order: Na N Ca N Mg N Si; Al and Ti are immobile and stay constant; K shows sample dependent enrichment or depletion; Fe is slightly enriched. The Cambrian sandstone overlying the basement in the Borggård borehole, assigned to the Gadeby Member...... but lost most of the plagioclase. The LSF has a comparable weathering history (CIA = 63–73), but the plagioclase is better preserved (PIA = 65–78). The significant variation of weathering rates of plagioclase and K-feldspar in the basement granite and the provenance of sandstone from the Borggård borehole...... are likely due to the different permeability developed within the internal crystal structures, a Ca- rich plagioclase original composition of the plagioclase, and the occurrence of weathering in a very humid climate. K metasomatism occurred in the basement granite and sandstone in both the Borggård and the G...

  16. Nature of the Yucatan Block Basement as Derived From Study of Granitic Clasts in the Impact Breccias of Chicxulub Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Sanchez, P.; Rebolledo-Vieyra, M.; Perez-Cruz, L.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.

    2008-05-01

    The tectonic and petrologic nature of the basement of the Yucatan Block is studied from analyses of basement clasts present in the impact suevitic breccias of Chicxulub crater. The impact breccias have been sampled as part of the drilling projects conducted in the Yucatan peninsula by Petroleos Mexicanos, the National University of Mexico and the Chicxulub Scientific Drilling Project. Samples analyzed come mainly from the Yaxcopoil-1, Tekax, and Santa Elena boreholes, and partly from Pemex boreholes. In this study we concentrate on clasts of the granites, granodiorites and quartzmonzonites in the impact breccias. We report major and trace element geochemical and petrological data, which are compared with data from the granitic and volcanic rocks from the Maya Mountains in Belize and from the Swannee terrane in Florida. Basement granitic clasts analyzed present intermediate to acidic sub-alkaline compositions. Plots of major oxides (e.g., Al2O3, Fe2O3, TiO2 and CaO) and trace elements (e.g., Th, Y, Hf, Nb and Zr) versus silica allow separation of samples into two major groups, which can be compared to units in the Maya Mountains and in Florida basement. The impact suevitic breccia samples have been affected by alteration likely related to the hydrothermal processes associated with the crater melt sheet. Cloritization, seritization and fenitization alterations are recognized, due to the long term hydrothermalism. Krogh et al. (1993) reported U-Pb dates on zircons from the suevitic breccias, which gave dates of 545 +/- 5 Ma and 418 +/- 6 Ma, which were interpreted in terms of the deep granitic metamorphic Yucatan basement. The younger date correlates with the age for the Osceola Granite and the St. Lucie metamorphic complex of the Swannee terrane in the Florida peninsula. The intrusive rocks in the Yucatan basement may be related to approx. 418 Ma ago collisional event in the Late Silurian.

  17. Serving some and serving all: how providers navigate the challenges of providing racially targeted health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Amy

    2017-10-01

    Racially targeted healthcare provides racial minorities with culturally and linguistically appropriate health services. This mandate, however, can conflict with the professional obligation of healthcare providers to serve patients based on their health needs. The dilemma between serving a particular population and serving all is heightened when the patients seeking care are racially diverse. This study examines how providers in a multi-racial context decide whom to include or exclude from health programs. This study draws on 12 months of ethnographic fieldwork at an Asian-specific HIV organization. Fieldwork included participant observation of HIV support groups, community outreach programs, and substance abuse recovery groups, as well as interviews with providers and clients. Providers managed the dilemma in different ways. While some programs in the organization focused on an Asian clientele, others de-emphasized race and served a predominantly Latino and African American clientele. Organizational structures shaped whether services were delivered according to racial categories. When funders examined client documents, providers prioritized finding Asian clients so that their documents reflected program goals to serve the Asian population. In contrast, when funders used qualitative methods, providers could construct an image of a program that targets Asians during evaluations while they included other racial minorities in their everyday practice. Program services were organized more broadly by health needs. Even within racially targeted programs, the meaning of race fluctuates and is contested. Patients' health needs cross cut racial boundaries, and in some circumstances, the boundaries of inclusion can expand beyond specific racial categories to include racial minorities and underserved populations more generally.

  18. Nature of the basement of the East Anatolian plateau: Implications for the lithospheric foundering processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topuz, G.; Candan, O.; Zack, T.; Yılmaz, A.

    2017-12-01

    The East Anatolian Plateau (Turkey) is characterized by (1) an extensive volcanic-sedimentary cover of Neogene to Quaternary age, (2) crustal thicknesses of 42-50 km, and (3) an extremely thinned lithospheric mantle. Its basement beneath the young cover is thought to consist of oceanic accretionary complexes of Late Cretaceous to Oligocene age. The attenuated state of the lithospheric mantle and the causes of the young volcanism are accounted for by slab steepening and subsequent break-off. We present field geological, petrological and geochronological data on three basement inliers (Taşlıçay, Akdağ and Ilıca) in the region. These areas are made up of amphibolite- to granulite-facies rocks, comprising marble, amphibolite, metapelite, quartzite and metagranite. The granulite-facies domain is equilibrated at 0.7 GPa and 800 ˚C at 83 ± 2 Ma (2σ). The metamorphic rocks are intruded by subduction-related coeval gabbroic, quartz monzonitic to tonalitic rocks. Both the metamorphic rocks and the intrusions are tectonically overlain by ophiolitic rocks. All these crystalline rocks are unconformably overlain by lower Maastrichtien clastic rocks and reefal limestone, suggesting that the exhumation at the earth's surface and juxtaposition with ophiolitic rocks occurred by early Maastrichtien. U-Pb dating on igneous zircon from metagranite yielded a protolith age of 445 ± 10 Ma (2σ). The detrital zircons from a metaquartzite point to Neoproterozoic to Early Paleozoic provenance. All these data favor a more or less continuous continental substrate to the allochthonous ophiolitic rocks beneath the young volcanic-sedimentary cover. The metamorphism and coeval magmatism can be regarded as the middle- to lower-crustal root of the Late Cretaceous magmatic arc that developed due to northward subduction along the Bitlis-Zagros suture. The presence of a continental basement beneath the young cover requires that the loss of the lithospheric mantle from beneath the East

  19. Multilayer Nanoporous Graphene Membranes for Water Desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Tanugi, David; Lin, Li-Chiang; Grossman, Jeffrey C

    2016-02-10

    While single-layer nanoporous graphene (NPG) has shown promise as a reverse osmosis (RO) desalination membrane, multilayer graphene membranes can be synthesized more economically than the single-layer material. In this work, we build upon the knowledge gained to date toward single-layer graphene to explore how multilayer NPG might serve as a RO membrane in water desalination using classical molecular dynamic simulations. We show that, while multilayer NPG exhibits similarly promising desalination properties to single-layer membranes, their separation performance can be designed by manipulating various configurational variables in the multilayer case. This work establishes an atomic-level understanding of the effects of additional NPG layers, layer separation, and pore alignment on desalination performance, providing useful guidelines for the design of multilayer NPG membranes.

  20. Chronological study of the pre-jurassic basement rocks of southern Patagonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pankhurst, R.J; Rapela, C.W; Loske, W.P; Fanning, C.M

    2001-01-01

    Southern Patagonia east of the Andes was the site of extensive rhyolite volcanism during the Jurassic rifting of Gondwana and subsequent shallow marine basin formation during the Cretaceous. Thus exposures of pre-Jurassic basement are extremely sparse. Nevertheless, extraction of the maximum amount of information from these scattered outcrops of granite and metamorphic rocks is crucial to assessment of the Palaeozoic and earliest Mesozoic history and crustal structure of the Pacific margin of the supercontinent. In particular, the identification and possible correlation of early terrane accretion on this margin depends on comparison of pre-Jurassic igneous and metamorphic events with adjacent areas. This is a preliminary report on work now in progress to this end (au)

  1. Some results from the demonstration of indoor radon reduction measures in block basement houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henschel, D.B.; Scott, A.G.

    1989-01-01

    Active soil ventilation techniques have been tested in 26 block-wall basement houses in eastern Pennsylvania with significantly elevated indoor radon concentrations, generally above 740 Bq/m 3 , and the results indicate that radon levels can be reduced substantially often below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guideline of 148 Bq/m 3 , if effective suction can be drawn on the soil underneath the concrete slabs of these houses. Such effective suction appears achievable when either: (1) the house has a complete loop of drain tile around its footings for water drainage purposes, and suction is drawn on that loop; or (2) a sufficient number of suction pipes can be inserted at the proper locations into the crushed rock or the soil underneath the slab

  2. Effects of Water and Low-Medium Temperature on Limestone from Mt Etna basement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagna, Angela; Ougier-Simonin, Audrey; Benson, Philip; Browning, John; Fazio, Marco; Walker, Richard; Vinciguerra, Sergio

    2017-04-01

    Mount Etna volcano, Sicily, sits atop a structurally complex sedimentary basement continuously subjected to tectonic deformation. The flyschoid formations belonging to the Appenninic-Maghrebian Chain (AMC) and making up the accretionary wedge of a regional fold-and-thrust belt lie above carbonate Hyblean Plateau (HP) sequences, belonging to the African plate. Carbonate rocks represent a major component of the sedimentary basement: they are spread throughout the AMC as continuous strata and discontinuous lenses, and are the main constituent (e.g., Comiso Limestone) of the HP foreland. Etna is an active volcanic environment, characterized by complex stress field distributions, magmatic and non-magmatic fluid circulation, and elevated temperature gradients; the edifice has been constructed at various rates and with variable distribution of effusive products. These intrinsic and extrinsic parameters are known to impact the rheological behaviour of rocks. Previous triaxial deformation studies on carbonates (Tavel Limestone, Solnhofen Limestone and Comiso Limestone) have shown the importance of temperature, and the presence of water as pore fluid, on the mechanical strength and failure mode of the rocks. However, to our knowledge, no previous studies have considered the distal heating effect of intrusions on the carbonate mechanical strength from the basement. Here we investigate the behaviour under varying P-T conditions at constant strain rate (10-5 s-1) on both dry and water saturated samples of Comiso Limestone, a low-porosity (10.2% average) carbonate rock belonging to the HP. We ran separate conventional triaxial experiments at various confining effective pressure from 0 up to 50 MPa at room temperature (20°C), in both dry and drained water-saturated conditions, using natural samples, and thermally-treated samples (150°C, 300°C, and 450°C). Acoustic Emissions and P-wave velocities were recorded during the experiments. Sample failure covers the brittle and

  3. Recent understanding of the Svalbard basement in the light of new radiometric age determinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Y.

    1992-01-01

    Several tectonothermal events in the pre-Carboniferous basement of Svalbard during Caledonian and Proterozoic times have been dated recently by radiometric age determinations. Three or four stages have been recognized in the Caledonian period; a post-orogentic graben formation during the Devonian, a late Caledonian event in the Middle Silurian, an earely Caledonian event in the Middle Ordovician and possibly an earliest event in the Middle to Late Cambrian. The Grenvillian event, 950-1270 Ma, has been well established by both radiometric ages and unconformities in Nordaustlandet and southwestern Spitsbergen. Sveco-Karelian ages, 1670-1750 Ma, also have been obtained from Ny Friesland, northerneastern Spitsbergen. Two even older ages (zircon U-Pb) upper intercept ages), 2.1 and 3.2 Ga, may suggest the presence of still older crust in Svalbard and adjacent areas. 40 refs., 2 figs

  4. Determination of the factors that control migration and entry of radon into basements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borak, T.B.; Gadd, M.S.; Ward, D.C.; Barry, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    'Full Text:' Elevated concentrations of radon gas indoors are the result or a complicated combination of factors. This report describes results from a facility designed to test and verify theories of radon migration into underground structures. The buildings resemble miniature basements using conventional construction methods, hut eliminate other confounding factors introduced by the activities of occupants. Sensors accumulate data on soil properties such as temperature, moisture, pressure differentials, and permeability, as well as outdoor meteorological conditions and indoor environment. Results indicate that indoor radon concentrations do not correlate with changes in the adjacent soil gas concentration or the rate that radon enters the structure. When no attempt is made to control the indoor environment, periods of highest indoor concentration occur when the rate of entry is low. Methods to identify the driving mechanisms and implication for mitigation and control will he described. (author)

  5. Membranous glomerulopathy with spherules: an uncommon variant with obscure pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalewska, Jolanta; Smith, Kelly D; Hudkins, Kelly L; Chang, Anthony; Fogo, Agnes B; Houghton, Donald; Leslie, Deena; Aitchison, John; Nicosia, Roberto F; Alpers, Charles E

    2006-06-01

    Occasional case reports of membranous glomerulopathy described unique subepithelial accumulations of an unusual type of immune deposit composed of spherular structures. The identity of such structures as nuclear pores has been suggested, but not established. We identified a cohort of patients (n = 14, including 1 patient with disease recurrence in an allograft) who presented with nephrotic syndrome and had renal biopsy specimens with light and immunofluorescence microscopic findings characteristic of membranous glomerulopathy. These patients were distinguished by ultrastructural studies that showed glomerular capillary wall accumulations of subepithelial immune deposits composed of uniform spherular structures, while lacking the typical granular electron-dense deposits seen in membranous glomerulopathy. The molecular identity of these spherular structures as nuclear pores was tested by using immunofluorescence microscopy and immunohistochemistry with mouse monoclonal antinuclear pore antibodies (Covance, Princeton, NJ) and anti-Nuclear Pore-O-Linked Glycoprotein (Affinity BioReagents Inc, Golden, CO) antibodies. Measurement of spherular structures by using high-magnification electron microscopy showed an average diameter of 84.5 nm, which correlated well with accepted diameters of nuclear pores (80 to 120 nm). Immunofluorescence microscopy and immunoperoxidase staining with both antibodies showed characteristic beaded staining of nuclear membranes of multiple cell types within normal control kidney, but no staining of immune-type deposits within glomerular basement membranes. These cases form a rare, but distinctive, morphological subclass of membranous glomerulopathy. The antigenic specificity of immune deposits in these cases remains elusive.

  6. Basement-involved faults and deep structures in the West Philippine Basin: constrains from gravity field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Jiang, Suhua; Li, Sanzhong; Zhang, Huixuan; Lei, Jianping; Gao, Song; Zhao, Feiyu

    2017-06-01

    To reveal the basement-involved faults and deep structures of the West Philippine Basin (WPB), the gravitational responses caused by these faults are observed and analyzed based on the latest spherical gravity model: WGM2012 Model. By mapping the free-air and Bouguer gravity anomalies, several main faults and some other linear structures are located and observed in the WPB. Then, by conducting a 2D discrete multi-scale wavelet decomposition, the Bouguer anomalies are decomposed into the first- to eighth-order detail and approximation fields (the first- to eighth-order Details and Approximations). The first- to third-order Details reflect detailed and localized geological information of the crust at different depths, and of which the higher-order reflects gravity field of the deeper depth. The first- to fourth-order Approximations represent the regional gravity fields at different depths of the crust, respectively. The fourth-order Approximation represents the regional gravity fluctuation caused by the density inhomogeneity of Moho interface. Therefore, taking the fourth-order Approximation as input, and adopting Parker-Oldenburg interactive inversion, We calculated the depth of Moho interface in the WPB. Results show that the Moho interface depth in the WPB ranges approximately from 8 to 12 km, indicating that there is typical oceanic crust in the basin. In the Urdaneta Plateau and the Benham Rise, the Moho interface depths are about 14 and 16 km, respectively, which provides a piece of evidence to support that the Banham Rise could be a transitional crust caused by a large igneous province. The second-order vertical derivative and the horizontal derivatives in direction 0° and 90° are computed based on the data of the third-order Detail, and most of the basement-involved faults and structures in the WPB, such as the Central Basin Fault Zone, the Gagua Ridge, the Luzon-Okinawa Fault Zone, and the Mindanao Fault Zone are interpreted by the gravity derivatives.

  7. Applications of aeromagnetic data to detect the Basement Tectonics of Eastern Yemen region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S. Abu El-Ata

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to throw light on the tectonic implications concerned with the distribution of the sedimentary sequence belts and the related basement complex zones, as well as to differentiate between the causative sources (contacts, dykes and faults of Eastern Yemen region. The total intensity aeromagnetic map of the study area was first corrected by the application of the Reduction To the magnetic pole (for low latitude areas. The visual inspection of the RTP magnetic map defines a rapid change in the subsurface geologic conditions in the form of lithologic characters and tectonic inferences. On the other hand, this map showed different anomalies of varying frequencies and amplitudes that revealed various causative sources, as well as varying compositions and depths. At the interpretation stage, various techniques and software tools are available for extracting the geologic information from the data concerned. The magnetic fields of shallow sources can be separated from those of deeper causatives, using two processes known as power spectrum transformation and matched band pass filtering. Three methods for locating magnetic sources (Magnitude of Horizontal Gradients (HGM, the analytical signals (AS and the local wavenumbers (LW in three dimensions and identifying the properties of their sources indicated that, the area was affected by some intrusions at various depths in sill or dyke forms, almost oriented in the NW–SE, NE–SW, E–W and N–S trends. Tectonically, the area is highly affected by the tectonics related to the Arabian Sea, Gulf of Aden and Red Sea. It is affecting both the basement and sedimentary rocks, dividing the study area into several faulted blocks.

  8. Structural Controls on Groundwater Flow in Basement Terrains: Geophysical, Remote Sensing, and Field Investigations in Sinai

    KAUST Repository

    Mohamed, Lamees

    2015-07-09

    An integrated [very low frequency (VLF) electromagnetic, magnetic, remote sensing, field, and geographic information system (GIS)] study was conducted over the basement complex in southern Sinai (Feiran watershed) for a better understanding of the structural controls on the groundwater flow. The increase in satellite-based radar backscattering values following a large precipitation event (34 mm on 17–18 January 2010) was used to identify water-bearing features, here interpreted as preferred pathways for surface water infiltration. Findings include: (1) spatial analysis in a GIS environment revealed that the distribution of the water-bearing features (conductive features) corresponds to that of fractures, faults, shear zones, dike swarms, and wadi networks; (2) using VLF (43 profiles), magnetic (7 profiles) techniques, and field observations, the majority (85 %) of the investigated conductive features were determined to be preferred pathways for groundwater flow; (3) northwest–southeast- to north–south-trending conductive features that intersect the groundwater flow (southeast to northwest) at low angles capture groundwater flow, whereas northeast–southwest to east–west features that intersect the flow at high angles impound groundwater upstream and could provide potential productive well locations; and (4) similar findings are observed in central Sinai: east–west-trending dextral shear zones (Themed and Sinai Hinge Belt) impede south to north groundwater flow as evidenced by the significant drop in hydraulic head (from 467 to 248 m above mean sea level) across shear zones and by reorientation of regional flow (south–north to southwest–northeast). The adopted integrated methodologies could be readily applied to similar highly fractured basement arid terrains elsewhere. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht

  9. Image-based modelling of lateral magma flow: the Basement Sill, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petford, Nick; Mirhadizadeh, Seyed

    2017-05-01

    The McMurdo Dry Valleys magmatic system, Antarctica, provides a world-class example of pervasive lateral magma flow on a continental scale. The lowermost intrusion (Basement Sill) offers detailed sections through the now frozen particle microstructure of a congested magma slurry. We simulated the flow regime in two and three dimensions using numerical models built on a finite-element mesh derived from field data. The model captures the flow behaviour of the Basement Sill magma over a viscosity range of 1-10 4  Pa s where the higher end (greater than or equal to 10 2  Pa s) corresponds to a magmatic slurry with crystal fractions varying between 30 and 70%. A novel feature of the model is the discovery of transient, low viscosity (less than or equal to 50 Pa s) high Reynolds number eddies formed along undulating contacts at the floor and roof of the intrusion. Numerical tracing of particle orbits implies crystals trapped in eddies segregate according to their mass density. Recovered shear strain rates (10 -3 -10 -5  s -1 ) at viscosities equating to high particle concentrations (around more than 40%) in the Sill interior point to shear-thinning as an explanation for some types of magmatic layering there. Model transport rates for the Sill magmas imply a maximum emplacement time of ca 10 5 years, consistent with geochemical evidence for long-range lateral flow. It is a theoretically possibility that fast-flowing magma on a continental scale will be susceptible to planetary-scale rotational forces.

  10. Robotic membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between digital and analogue is often constructed as one of opposition. The perception that the world is permeated with underlying patterns of data, describing events and matter alike, suggests that information can be understood apart from the substance to which it is associated......, and that its encoded logic can be constructed and reconfigured as an isolated entity. This disembodiment of information from materiality implies that an event like a thunderstorm, or a material like a body, can be described equally by data, in other words it can be read or written. The following prototypes......, Vivisection and Strange Metabolisms, were developed at the Centre for Information Technology and Architecture (CITA) at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts in Copenhagen as a means of engaging intangible digital data with tactile physical material. As robotic membranes, they are a dual examination...

  11. Basement of Structure, Main Power and Design Parameters of Mechanism of Removing Sections of Mechanized Sets of Knife Plane Installation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sysoev, N. I.; Turuk, Yu V.; Kolesnichenko, I. Y.; Lugantsev, B. B.

    2017-10-01

    The reasons for the failure of the pitch stability of the knife-plane installation due to the action of extreme effort in the plane of the seam from the conveyor side on the mechanism of removing sections of mechanized sets are shown. The technique for determining this effort is presented. The constructions of the adaptive mechanisms of the removing sections of mechanized sets with the basements of catamaran type, in the constrictions of which elastic elements (rods) are used, are considered. The constructions of the mechanism of removing a section of the mechanized set with the basement of catamaran type in which the stock of the hydraulic jack is connected with the band loop through the movable rods intermediate basement with a link are worked out. The intermediate basement unloads the stock of the hydraulic jack of the moving installation from the side curving efforts, caused by the action of lateral forces in the plane of the seam on the conveyor side. It increases the reliability and efficiency of work of the knife plane mechanized complex.

  12. Inversion of gravity data in the Big Bear Lake Area to recover depth to basement using Cauchy-type integrals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Hongzhu; Zhdanov, Michael

    2014-01-01

    One of the important applications of the gravity method is evaluation of the depth to the basement, which is characterized by a significant density contrast with the sedimental layeres. We have introduced recently a new method of modeling and inversion of potential field data generated by a densi...

  13. NEW DATA ON AGE AND NATURE OF CARBONIZATION WITHIN SOUTHERN FLANK OF THE BAIKAL LEDGE OF THE SIBERIAN CRATON BASEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Danilova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Baikal ledge rock formations in the Siberian craton structure are included in the Akitkan mobile belt which is considered as the Late Paleoproterozoic independent island arc system moved up to the ancient basement during the terrains amalgamation 1.91–2.00 Ga ago (Fig. 1 [Rosen, 2003; Gladkochub et al., 2009; Didenko et al., 2013].

  14. Geochronology of the basement rocks, Amazonas Territory, Venezuela and the tectonic evolution of the western Guiana Shield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudette, H E; Olszewski, Jr, W J

    1985-01-01

    The Amazonas Territory of Venezuela is a large area of Precambrian basement rocks overlain in some locales by the supracrustal sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the Roraima Formation. The basement rocks are medium to high grade gneisses with both igneous and sedimentary protoliths, plutonic rocks ranging in composition from granite to tonalite, and meta-volcanic rocks. Rb-Sr whole rock, and U-Pb isotopic analyses of zircons indicate a period of medium to high grade metamorphism and intrusion from 1860 to 1760 Ma. Post-tectonic plutonic activity continued to 1550 Ma. The volcanic rocks of the Roraima Formation in Venezuela give an age of 1746 Ma comparable to volcanic rocks of the Roraima Formation in other parts of the Guiana Shield. The ages and distribution of the basement rocks suggest the presence of a tectonic zone, approximately coincident with the Venezuelan-Colombian border, representing an active orogenic boundary between distinct tectonic provinces. The rocks to the northeast of this zone are part of the Trans-Amazonian of the Guiana Shield, while to the southwest and in adjacent Brazil and Colombia, new younger continental crust has been developed and cratonized. We suggest a model of collision and subduction followed by a chan0140n tectonic style to extensional-vertical to produce the basement rocks of the western Guiana Shield in the Amazonas Territory. (Auth.). 20 refs.; 13 figs.; 2 tabs.

  15. Assessing the geo-electric characteristics of Basement Complex rocks and its implication for groundwater prospecting in Ilorin Metropolis, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Ifabiyi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In Basement Complex rocks where rainfall is seasonal, water provision in dry season depends on regolith aquifer. For effective exploitation of groundwater resources, it is reasonable that geophysical investigation be conducted before development of well. In many instances, geophysical surveys may be expensive or nonexistent. Hence, there is a need for spatial analysis which might advise water engineers within such environments. Vertical Electrical Soundings (VES data of 53 locations conducted with ABEM SAS-1000 terrameter using Schlumberger electrode configuration were obtained from the hydrogeology Department of Kwara state Ministry of Water Resources and Lower Niger River Basin and Rural Development Authority, Ilorin. VES locational coordinates were recorded using handheld GPS device. Sound curves were evaluated by partial curve matching approach and computer iteration using WinResist. The results depict six geo-electric regional successions, namely: top soil, lateritic clay, weathered basement, fairly-hard basement, thin fractured and hard basement. The geo-electric succession identified was plotted in Surfer 12 environment, using kriging interpolation method to show spatial distribution pattern of this zone. The spatial pattern is expected to give an insight to the nature of spatial variability of geo-electric layers and assist drillers as well as water resources policy makers in their operations.

  16. Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic seafloor and oceanic basement roughness: Spreading rate, crustal age and sediment thickness correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Robert T.; Pockalny, Robert A.

    1994-05-01

    Single-channel seismic data from the South Australian Basin and Argentine Basin, and bathymetry data from the flanks of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, East Pacific Rise and Southwest Indian Ridge are analysed to determine the root-mean-square (RMS) roughness of the seafloor and oceanic basement created at seafloor spreading rates ranging from 3 to 80 km/Ma (half-rate). For these data, crustal ages range from near zero to 85 Ma and sediment thicknesses range from near zero to over 2 km. Our results are consistent with a negative correlation of basement roughness and spreading rate where roughness decreases dramatically through the slow-spreading regime (oceanic basement roughness and spreading rate appears to have existed since the late Cretaceous for slow and intermediate spreading rates, suggesting that the fundamental processes creating abyssal hill topography may have remained the same for this time period. Basement roughness does not appear to decrease (smooth) with increasing crustal age, and therefore off-ridge degradation of abyssal hill topography by mass wasting is not detected by our data. Seismic data reveal that sediment thickness increases with increasing crustal age in the South Australian Basin and Argentine Basin, but not monotonically and with significant regional variation. We show that minor accumulations of sediment can affect roughness significantly. Average sediment accumulations of less that 50 m (for our 100 km long sample seismic profiles and half-spreading rates ocean ridges.

  17. Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration Membranes for Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article provides a concise and abbreviated summary of AWWA Manual of Practice M53, Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration Membranes for Drinking Water, to serve as a quick point of reference. For convenience, the article’s organization matches that of M53, as follows: • wate...

  18. Hydrogeophysical investigation of groundwater potential and aquifer vulnerability prediction in basement complex terrain – A case study from Akure, Southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinrinade Opeyemi J.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study provides a model for the prediction of groundwater potential and vulnerability of basement aquifers in parts of Akure, Southwestern Nigeria. Hydrogeophysical surveys involving very-low-frequency electromagnetic (VLF-EM profiling and electrical resistivity (ER sounding, as well as evaluation of hydraulic gradient using three-point method, were carried out. Ten VLF-EM reconnaissance survey traverses, with lengths ranging from 55 m to 75 m, at 10 m station separation, and 12 vertical electrical sounding (VES stations were occupied. Two-dimensional map of the filtered real component reveals areas of high conductivity, indicative of linear features that can serve as a reservoir or conduit for fluid flow. Interpretation of the VES results delineates three to four geoelectric units. Two aquifer zones were identified, with resistivity values in the ranges of 20 Ωm to 310 Ωm and 100 Ωm to 3,000 Ω m, respectively. Transverse resistance, longitudinal conductance, coefficient of anisotropy and hydraulic gradient have values ranging from 318.2 Ωm2 to 1,041.8 Ωm2, 0.11 mhos to 0.39 mhos, 1.04 to 1.74 and 0.017 to 0.05, respectively. The results of this study identified two prospective borehole locations and the optimum position to site the proposed septic system, based on the aquifer’s protective capacity and groundwater flow properties.

  19. The significance of strike-slip faulting in the basement of the Zagros fold and thrust belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hessami, K.; Koyi, H.A.; Talbot, C.J. [Uppsala University (Sweden). Institute of Earth Sciences

    2000-01-01

    Lateral offsets in the pattern of seismicity along the Zagros fold and thrust belt indicate that transverse faults segmenting the Arabian basement are active deep-seated strike-slip faults. The dominant NW-SE trending features of the belt have undergone repeated horizontal displacements along these transverse faults. These reactivated basement faults, which are inherited from the Pan-African construction phase, controlled both deposition of the Phanerozoic cover before Tertiary-Recent deformation of the Zagros and probably the entrapment of hydrocarbons on the NE margin of Arabia and in the Zagros area. We have used observations of faulting recognized on Landsat satellite images, in conjunction with the spatial distribution of earthquakes and their focal mechanism solutions, to infer a tectonic model for the Zagros basement. Deformation in the NW Zagros appears to be concentrated on basement thrusts and a few widely-spaced north-south trending strike-slip faults which separate major structural segments. In the SE Zagros, two main structural domains can be distinguished. A domain of NNW-trending right-lateral faults in the northern part of the SE Zagros implies that fault-bounded blocks are likely to have rotated anticlockwise about vertical axes relative to both Arabia and Central Iran. In contrast, the predominance of NNE-trending left-lateral faults in the southern part of the SE Zagros implies that fault-bounded blocks may have rotated clockwise about vertical axes. We propose a tectonic model in which crustal blocks bounded by strike-slip faults in a zone of simple shear rotate about vertical axes relative to both Arabia and Central Iran. The presence of domains of strike-slip and thrust faulting in the Zagros basement suggest that some of the convergence between Arabia and Central Iran is accommodated by rotation and possible lateral movement of crust along the belt by strike-slip faults, as well as by obvious crustal shortening and thickening along thrust

  20. Heterogeneity of groundwater storage properties in the critical zone of Irish metamorphic basement from geophysical surveys and petrographic analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comte, Jean-Christophe; Cassidy, Rachel; Caulfield, John; Nitsche, Janka; Ofterdinger, Ulrich; Wilson, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    Weathered/fractured bedrock aquifers contain groundwater resources that are crucial in hard rock basement regions for rural water supply and maintaining river flow and ecosystem resilience. Groundwater storage in metamorphic rocks is subject to high spatial variations due to the large degree of heterogeneity in fracture occurrence and weathering patterns. Point measurements such as borehole testing are, in most cases, insufficient to characterise and quantify those storage variations because borehole sampling density is usually much lower than the scale of heterogeneities. A suite of geophysical and petrographic investigations was implemented in the weathered/fractured micaschist basement of Donegal, NW Ireland. Electrical Resistivity Tomography provided a high resolution 2D distribution of subsurface resistivities. Resistivity variations were transferred into storage properties (i.e. porosities) in the saturated critical zone of the aquifer through application of a petrophysical model derived from Archie's Law. The petrophysical model was calibrated using complementary borehole gamma logging and clay petrographic analysis at multi-depth well clusters distributed along a hillslope transect at the site. The resulting distribution of porosities shows large spatial variations along the studied transect. With depth, porosities rapidly decrease from about a few % in the uppermost, highly weathered basement to less than 0.5% in the deep unweathered basement, which is encountered at depths of between 10 and 50m below the ground surface. Along the hillslope, porosities decrease with distance from the river in the valley floor, ranging between 5% at the river to less than 1% at the top of the hill. Local traces of regional fault zones that intersect the transect are responsible for local increases in porosity in relation to deeper fracturing and weathering. Such degrees of spatial variation in porosity are expected to have a major impact on the modality of the response of

  1. Mesitylene-Cored Glucoside Amphiphiles (MGAs) for Membrane Protein Studies: Importance of Alkyl Chain Density in Detergent Efficacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cho, Kyung Ho; Ribeiro, Orquidea; Du, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Detergents serve as useful tools for membrane protein structural and functional studies. Their amphipathic nature allows detergents to associate with the hydrophobic regions of membrane proteins whilst maintaining the proteins in aqueous solution. However, widely used conventional detergents...

  2. 28 CFR 522.14 - Inmates serving civil contempt commitments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inmates serving civil contempt... ADMISSION, CLASSIFICATION, AND TRANSFER ADMISSION TO INSTITUTION Civil Contempt of Court Commitments § 522.14 Inmates serving civil contempt commitments. We treat inmates serving civil contempt commitments in...

  3. 27 CFR 31.42 - Restaurants serving liquors with meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Restaurants serving... Part Certain Organizations, Agencies, and Persons § 31.42 Restaurants serving liquors with meals. Proprietors of restaurants and other persons who serve liquors with meals to paying customers, even if no...

  4. Recent advances on polymeric membranes for membrane reactors

    KAUST Repository

    Buonomenna, M. G.; Choi, Seung Hak

    2012-01-01

    . The successful use of membranes in membrane reactors is primary the result of two developments concerning: (i) membrane materials and (ii) membrane structures. The selection of a suited material and preparation technique depends on the application the membrane

  5. 2.9-1.9 Ga paleoalterations of Archean granitic basement of the Franceville basin (Gabon)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouélé, Idalina Moubiya; Dudoignon, Patrick; El Albani, Abderrazak; Meunier, Alain; Boulvais, Philippe; Gauthier-Lafaye, François; Paquette, Jean-Louis; Martin, Hervé; Cuney, Michel

    2014-09-01

    The Archean granitoids in the Kiéné area, Gabon, are overlained by the Paleoproterozoic sediments of the Franceville basin (2.1 Ga). The basin is known for its high-grade uranium deposits among which some have been forming natural nuclear fission reactors. Most of the studies were dedicated to the FA-FB Paleoproterozoic sediments hosting these uranium deposits. Little is known on the Archean basement itself and specifically on the hydrous alteration events it experienced before and after the sediment deposition. The present work is focused on their petrographical, mineralogical and geochemical characterization. Dating the successive alteration events has been attempted on altered monazite crystals. Rocks in different alteration states have been sampled from eight drill cores crosscutting the Archean - Paleoproterozoic unconformity. The Archean granitoids observed in the deepest levels exhibit typical petrographical features of a propylitic alteration while they are intensely illitized up to the unconformity. The propylitic alteration is mainly pervasive but the original texture of the granitoïds is conserved in spite of the formation of new minerals: Mg-chlorite, allanite and epidote forming a typical paragenesis. The illitic alteration is much more invasive near the unconformity. The illitization process leads to the replacement of feldspars and the corrosion of quartz crysals by an illitic matrix while the ferromagnesian minerals are pseudomorphosed by a Fe-chlorite + phengite + hematite assemblage. The final fluid-rock interaction step is marked by fissural deposits of calcite and anhydrite. The δ13C isotopic data show that the fissural carbonates precipitated from diagenetic fluids enriched carbon products deriving from the maturation of organic matter. The U-Pb isotopic analyzes performed on monazite crystals have dated three distinct events: 3.0-2.9 Ga (magmatic), 2.6 Ga (propylitic alteration) and 1.9 Ga (diagenetic illitization). The calculation of

  6. Barents Sea Paleozoic basement and basin configurations: Crustal structure from deep seismic and potential field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarseth, Iselin; Mjelde, Rolf; Breivik, Asbjørn Johan; Huismans, Ritske; Faleide, Jan Inge

    2016-04-01

    The Barents Sea is underlain by at least two different basement domains; the Caledonian in the west and the Timanian in the east. The transition between these two domains is not well constrained and contrasting interpretations have been published recently. Interpretations of new high-quality magnetic data covering most of the SW Barents Sea has challenged the Late Paleozoic basin configurations in the western and central Barents Sea as outlined in previous studies. Two regional ocean bottom seismic (OBS) profiles were acquired in 2014. This new dataset crosses the two major directions of Caledonian deformation proposed by different authors: N-S direction and SW-NE direction. Of particular importance are the high velocity anomalies related to Caledonian eclogites, revealing the location of Caledonian suture zones in the northern Barents Sea. One of the main objectives with this project is to locate the main Caledonian suture in the western Barents Sea, as well as the possible Barentsia-Baltica suture postulated further eastwards. The collapse of the Caledonian mountain range predominantly along these suture zones is expected to be tightly linked to the deposition of large thicknesses of Devonian erosional products, and later rifting is expected to be influenced by inheritance of Caledonian trends. The P-wave travel-time modelling is done by use of a combined ray-tracing and inversion scheme, and gravity- and magnetic modelling will be used to augment the seismic model. The preliminary results indicate high P-wave velocities (mostly over 4 km/s) close to the seafloor as well as high velocity (around 6 km/s) zones at shallow depths which are interpreted as volcanic sills. The crustal transects reveal areas of complex geology and velocity inversions. A low seismic impedance contrast between the sedimentary section and top crystalline basement makes identification of this interface uncertain. Depth to Moho mostly lies around 30 km, except in an area of rapid change in

  7. Eocene extensional exhumation of basement and arc rocks along southwesternmost Peru, Central Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noury, Mélanie; Bernet, Matthias; Sempéré, Thierry

    2014-05-01

    The overthickened crust of the current Central Andes is commonly viewed as the result of tectonic shortening. However, in the present-day terrestrial forearc and arc of southwesternmost Peru, crustal thickness increases from 30 km along the coastline to >60 km below the active arc, whereas the upper crust exhibits little to no evidence of crustal shortening and, in constrast, many extensional features. How (and when) crustal overthickness was acquired in this region is thus little understood. Because crustal overthickening often results in extensional collapse and/or significant erosion, here we address this issue through a regional-scale study of exhumation using fission-track thermochronology. The limited fission-track data previously available in the area suggested that exhumation began during the Mesozoic. In this study, we present new apatite and zircon fission-track data obtained along the current terrestrial forearc of southwesternmost Peru. This relatively restricted area presents the interest of providing extensive outcrops of Precambrian to Ordovician basement and Early Jurassic to Late Cretaceous arc plutons. In order to compare the chronology of exhumation of these units, we performed extensive sampling for fission-track dating, as well as structural mapping. Our results indicate that the basement rocks and Jurassic plutons that crop out in the Arequipa region, where the crust is now >50 km-thick, experienced a rapid cooling through the 240-110°C temperature range between ~65 and ~35 Ma. This period of rapid exhumation coincided in time with the accumulation of terrestrial forearc deposits (the Lower Moquegua Group), that exhibit many syn-sedimentary extensional features and are bounded by conspicuous normal faults, specifically along the region where intense activity of the main arc between ~90 and ~60 Ma had led to voluminous magma emplacement. This close succession of (1) intense magmatic activity and (2) regional-scale exhumation associated with

  8. Geochemical interpretation of the Precambrian basement and overlying Cambrian sandstone on Bornholm, Denmark: Implications for the weathering history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lingli; Friis, Henrik; Yang, Tian; Nielsen, Arne Thorshøj

    2017-08-01

    A geochemical study of the Precambrian basement granites from the Borggård borehole on Bornholm, Denmark, suggests that the granites were moderately weathered (Chemical Index of Alteration-CIA = 66-71) during subaerial exposure in a humid climate. The microcline is well preserved, whereas plagioclase was thoroughly altered to clay minerals (Plagioclase Index of Alteration-PIA = 93-99) which is likely due to its original Ca-rich composition. The primary Fe-Ti accessory minerals were oxidized to hematite and anatase. Evidence from REE distribution patterns and immobile element ratios, e.g. Zr/Hf and Nb/Ta, between the weathered basement granite from the Borggård borehole and regional granitoids on Bornholm, constrains the Svaneke Granite as the original basement lithology. A tau (τ) mass transport model (assuming immobile Ti) was applied to quantify the mass transfer during weathering of the basement granite. The results show a depletion of major elements in the following order: Na > Ca > Mg > Si; Al and Ti are immobile and stay constant; K shows sample dependent enrichment or depletion; Fe is slightly enriched. The Cambrian sandstone overlying the basement in the Borggård borehole, assigned to the Gadeby Member of the Nexø Formation, is feldspathic litharenite-litharenite in composition. Provenance indicators including (Gd/Yb)N, Zr/Hf and Nb/Ta ratios and petrological features indicate that source material was derived from both weathered and fresh basement granite of intermediate composition. The Gadeby Member equivalents in Germany, the basal lower Cambrian Adlergrund Konglomerat Member (AKM) in the offshore G-14 well north of Rügen, and the approximately coeval Lubmin Sandstein Formation (LSF) from the Loissin-1 borehole, mainland Germany, must have been sourced from a basement with compositions comparable to the intermediate group of the regional granitoids on Bornholm. The source materials for the AKM (CIA = 71-72, PIA = 94-96), the Gadeby Member in the

  9. Variations in serving sizes of Australian snack foods and confectionery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Wendy L; Kury, Alexandra; Wellard, Lyndal; Hughes, Clare; Dunford, Elizabeth; Chapman, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the serving size and energy content per serving of Australian packaged snack foods and confectionery products. Nutrition Information Panel data for 23 sub-categories of packaged snack foods (n = 3481) were extracted from The George Institute for Global Health's 2013 branded food composition database. Variations in serving size and energy content per serving were examined. Energy contents per serving were compared to recommendations in the Australian Dietary Guidelines. Serving sizes varied within and between snack food categories. Mean energy content per serving varied from 320 kJ to 899 kJ. More energy per serving than the recommended 600 kJ was displayed by 22% (n = 539) of snack foods classified in the Australian Dietary Guidelines as discretionary foods. The recommendation for energy content per serving was exceeded in 60% (n = 635) of snack foods from the Five Food Groups. Only 37% (n = 377) of confectionery products displayed the industry-agreed serving size of 25 g. Energy content per serving of many packaged snack foods do not align with the Australian Dietary Guidelines and the industry agreed serving size has not been taken up widely within the confectionery category. Given the inconsistencies in serving sizes, featuring serving size in front-of-pack information may hinder the objective of a clear and simple nutrition message. Messaging to help consumers make healthier choices should consider the variation in serving sizes on packaged snack foods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Self-Serving Bias or Simply Serving the Self? Evidence for a Dimensional Approach to Narcissism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamborski, Michael; Brown, Ryan P; Chowning, Karolyn

    2012-06-01

    Previous research has suggested that narcissism can be conceptualized as a multidimensional construct consisting of the related, but unique, dimensions of grandiosity and entitlement. The current studies examined the divergent associations of grandiosity and entitlement with respect to different types of self-serving strategies. In Study 1, we found that narcissistic grandiosity, but not entitlement, was positively associated with a self-enhancing strategy of unrealistic optimism. This association was not mediated by self-esteem. In Study 2, narcissistic entitlement, but not grandiosity, was predictive of unethical decision-making, an interpersonal self-promotional strategy that advances the self at the expense of others. Together, both studies support a model of narcissism consisting of a relatively intrapersonal dimension of grandiosity and a relatively interpersonal dimension of entitlement.

  11. Guided bone regeneration in rat mandibular defects using resorbable poly(trimethylene carbonate) barrier membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, A. C.; Huddleston Slater, J. J. R.; Gielkens, P. F. M.; de Jong, J. R.; Grijpma, D. W.; Bos, R. R. M.

    The present study evaluates a new synthetic degradable barrier membrane based on poly(trimethylene carbonate) (PTMC) for use in guided bone regeneration. A collagen membrane and an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (e-PTFE) membrane served as reference materials. In 192 male Sprague-Dawley rats, a

  12. Guided bone regeneration in rat mandibular defects using resorbable poly(trimethylene carbonate) barrier membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, A.C.; Huddelston Slater, J.J.R.; Gielkens, P.F.M.; de Jong, J.R.; Grijpma, Dirk W.; Bos, R.R.M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study evaluates a new synthetic degradable barrier membrane based on poly(trimethylene carbonate) (PTMC) for use in guided bone regeneration. A collagen membrane and an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (e-PTFE) membrane served as reference materials. In 192 male Sprague–Dawley rats, a

  13. Magnetically controlled permeability membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Kosel, Jurgen

    2013-10-31

    A bioactive material delivery system can include a thermoresponsive polymer membrane and nanowires distributed within the thermoresponsive polymer membrane. Magnetic activation of a thermoresponsive polymer membrane can take place via altering the magnetization or dimensions of nanowires dispersed or ordered within the membrane matrix.

  14. Magnetically controlled permeability membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Kosel, Jü rgen; Khashab, Niveen M.; Zaher, Amir

    2013-01-01

    A bioactive material delivery system can include a thermoresponsive polymer membrane and nanowires distributed within the thermoresponsive polymer membrane. Magnetic activation of a thermoresponsive polymer membrane can take place via altering the magnetization or dimensions of nanowires dispersed or ordered within the membrane matrix.

  15. Limited and selective transfer of plasma membrane glycoproteins to membrane of secondary lysosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haylett, T.; Thilo, L.

    1986-01-01

    Radioactive galactose, covalently bound to cell surface glycoconjugates on mouse macrophage cells, P388D 1 , was used as a membrane marker to study the composition, and the kinetics of exchange, of plasma membrane-derived constituents in the membrane of secondary lysosomes. Secondary lysosomes were separated from endosomes and plasma membrane by self-forming Percoll density gradients. Horseradish peroxidase, taken up by fluid-phase pinocytosis, served as a vesicle contents marker to monitor transfer of endosomal contents into secondary lysosomes. Concurrently, the fraction of plasma membrane-derived label of secondary lysosomes increased by first order kinetics from 4 PAGE, labeled molecules of M/sub r/ 160-190 kD were depleted and of the M/sub r/ 100-120 kD were enriched in lysosome membrane compared with the relative composition of label on the cell surface. No corresponding selectivity was observed for the degradation of label, with all M/sub r/ classes being affected to the same relative extent. The results indicate that endocytosis-derived transfer of plasma membrane constitutents to secondary lysosomes is a limited and selective process, and that only ∼1% of internalized membrane is recycled via a membrane pool of secondary lysosomes

  16. The Effect of Finite Thickness Extent on Estimating Depth to Basement from Aeromagnetic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, R. J.; Salem, A.; Green, C. M.; Fairhead, D.; Ravat, D.

    2014-12-01

    Depth to basement estimation methods using various components of the spectral content of magnetic anomalies are in common use by geophysicists. Examples of these are the Tilt-Depth and SPI methods. These methods use simple models having the base of the magnetic body at infinity. Recent publications have shown that this 'infinite depth' assumption causes underestimation of the depth to the top of sources, especially in areas where the bottom of the magnetic layer is shallow, as would occur in high heat-flow regions. This error has been demonstrated in both model studies and using real data with seismic or well control. To overcome the limitation of infinite depth this contribution presents the mathematics for a finite depth contact body in the Tilt depth and SPI methods and applies it to the central Red Sea where the Curie isotherm and Moho are shallow. The difference in the depth estimation between the infinite and finite contacts is such a case is significant and can exceed 200%.

  17. Imaging Quaternary glacial deposits and basement topography using the transient electromagnetic method for modeling aquifer environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simard, Patrick Tremblay; Chesnaux, Romain; Rouleau, Alain; Daigneault, Réal; Cousineau, Pierre A.; Roy, Denis W.; Lambert, Mélanie; Poirier, Brigitte; Poignant-Molina, Léo

    2015-08-01

    Aquifer formations along the northern shore of the Saint-Lawrence River in Quebec (Canada) mainly consist of glacial and coastal deposits of variable thickness overlying Precambrian bedrock. These deposits are important because they provide the main water supply for many communities. As part of a continuing project aimed at developing an inventory of the groundwater resources in the Charlevoix and Haute-Côte-Nord (CHCN) regions of the province of Quebec in Canada, the central loop transient electromagnetic (TEM) method was used to map the principal hydrogeological environments in these regions. One-dimensional smooth inversion models of the TEM soundings have been used to construct two-dimensional electrical resistivity sections, which provided images for hydrogeological validation. Electrical contour lines of aquifer environments were compared against available well logs and Quaternary surface maps in order to interpret TEM soundings. A calibration table was achieved to represent common deposits and basements. The calibration table was then exported throughout the CHCN region. This paper presents three case studies; one in the Forestville site, another in the Les Escoumins site and the other in the Saint-Urbain site. These sites were selected as targets for geophysical surveys because of the general lack of local direct hydrogeological data related to them.

  18. Trace elements geochemistry of fractured basement aquifer in southern Malawi: A case of Blantyre rural

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapoma, Harold Wilson Tumwitike; Xie, Xianjun; Nyirenda, Mathews Tananga; Zhang, Liping; Kaonga, Chikumbusko Chiziwa; Mbewe, Rex

    2017-07-01

    In this study, twenty one (21) trace elements in the basement complex groundwater of Blantyre district, Malawi were analyzed. The majority of the analyzed trace elements in the water were within the standards set by World Health Organization (WHO) and Malawi Standards Board (MSB). But, iron (Fe) (BH16 and 21), manganese (Mn) (BH01) and selenium (Se) (BH02, 13, 18, 19 and 20) were higher than the WHO and MSB standards. Factor analysis (FA) revealed up to five significant factors which accounted for 87.4% of the variance. Factor 1, 2 and 3 suggest evaporite dissolution and silicate weathering processes while the fourth factor may explain carbonate dissolution and pH influence on trace element geochemistry of the studied groundwater samples. According to PHREEQC computed saturation indices, dissolution, precipitation and rock-water-interaction control the levels of trace elements in this aquifer. Elevated concentrations of Fe, Mn and Se in certain boreholes are due to the geology of the aquifer and probable redox status of groundwater. From PHREEQC speciation results, variations in trace element species were observed. Based on this study, boreholes need constant monitoring and assessment for human consumption to avoid health related issues.

  19. Heat flow in Indian Gondwana basins and heat production of their basement rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, G.V.; Rao, R.U.M.

    1983-01-01

    Temperatures have been measured in eight boreholes (ranging from 260 to 800 m in depth) in five Gondwana basins of the Damodar and Son valleys. With the aid of about 250 thermal conductivity determinations on core samples from these holes, heat flow has been evaluated. Measurements of radioactive heat generation have been made on samples of Precambrian gneisses constituting the basement for the Sonhat (Son valley) and Chintalapudi (Godavari valley) basins. Heat-flow values from all of the Damodar valley basins are within the narrow range of 69-79 mW/m exp(2). The value from the Sonhat basin (107 mW/m exp(2)) is significantly higher. The generally high heat flows observed in Gondwana basins of India cannot be attributed to the known tectonism or igneous activity associated with these basins. The plots of heat flow vs. heat generation for three Gondwana basins (Jharia, Sonhat and Chintalapudi) are on the same line as those of three regions in the exposed Precambrian crystalline terrains in the northern part of the Indian shield. This indicates that the crust under exposed regions of the Precambrian crystalline rocks as well as the Gondwana basins, form an integral unit as far as the present-day geothermal character is concerned. (5 figs., 14 refs., 4 tables).

  20. Heat flow in Indian Gondwana basins and heat production of their basement rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, G. V.; Rao, R. U. M.

    1983-01-01

    Temperatures have been measured in eight boreholes (ranging from 260 to 800 m in depth) in five Gondwana basins of the Damodar and Son valleys. With the aid of about 250 thermal conductivity determinations on core samples from these holes, heat flow has been evaluated. Measurements of radioactive heat generation have been made on samples of Precambrian gneisses constituting the basement for the Sonhat (Son valley) and Chintalapudi (Godavari valley) basins. Heat-flow values from all of the Damodar valley basins are within the narrow range of 69-79 mW/m 2. The value from the Sonhat basin (107 mW/m 2) is significantly higher. The generally high heat flows observed in Gondwana basins of India cannot be attributed to the known tectonism or igneous activity associated with these basins. The plots of heat flow vs. heat generation for three Gondwana basins (Jharia, Sonhat and Chintalapudi) are on the same line as those of three regions in the exposed Precambrian crystalline terrains in the northern part of the Indian shield. This indicates that the crust under exposed regions of the Precambrian crystalline rocks as well as the Gondwana basins, form an integral unit as far as the present-day geothermal character is concerned.

  1. The basement control on Xiazhuang uranium ore field in south sector of Wuyi tumescence and relevant geological problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Dazhong; Xue Zhenhua

    1994-01-01

    Based on the two rift-trench tectonic framework in Wuyi as well as its adjacent areas proposed previously, this study takes Yingtan-Nancheng-Anyuan-Heyuan tenacity fracture belt as the geological boundary between two types of uranium deposits (granite and volcanic rock). It is noted that the distinct function of Caledonian movement in this area is the formation of the linear migmatization and granitization on the basis of rift and tumescence basement. Simultaneously, according to the new discovery of hypometamorphic rock and large scaled ductile mylonitized zone in Xiazhuang uranium ore field and its adjacent area, it is concluded that the Xiazhuang uranium ore field is the result of multiple tectonism and magmatic activations on the Caledonian hot dome on the basis of ancient basement. Because the uranium mineralization is present in two kinds of rocks (ductile and brittle), it is suggested that the types of mineralization in Xiazhuang can be considered in order to guide the further prospecting

  2. Modeling and Inversion of Magnetic Anomalies Caused by Sediment–Basement Interface Using Three-Dimensional Cauchy-Type Integrals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Hongzhu; Zhdanov, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This letter introduces a new method for the modeling and inversion of magnetic anomalies caused by crystalline basements. The method is based on the 3-D Cauchy-type integral representation of the magnetic field. Traditional methods use volume integrals over the domains occupied by anomalous...... is particularly significant in solving problems of the modeling and inversion of magnetic data for the depth to the basement. In this letter, a novel method is proposed, which only requires discretizing the magnetic contrast surface for modeling and inversion. We demonstrate the method using several synthetic...... susceptibility and on the prismatic representation of the volumes with an anomalous susceptibility distribution. Such discretization is computationally expensive, particularly in 3-D cases. The technique of Cauchy-type integrals makes it possible to represent the magnetic field as surface integrals, which...

  3. Fault-Slip Data Analysis and Cover Versus Basement Fracture Patterns - Implications for Subsurface Technical Processes in Thuringia, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasch, N.; Kley, J.; Navabpour, P.; Siegburg, M.; Malz, A.

    2014-12-01

    Recent investigations in Thuringia, Central Germany, focus on the potential for carbon sequestration, groundwater supply and geothermal energy. We report on the results of an integrated fault-slip data analysis to characterize the geometries and kinematics of systematic fractures in contrasting basement and cover rock lithologies. The lithostratigraphy of the area comprises locally exposed crystalline rocks and intermittently overlying Permian volcanic and clastic sedimentary rocks, together referred to as basement. A Late Permian sequence of evaporites, carbonates and shale constitutes the transition to the continuous sedimentary cover of Triassic age. Major NW-SE-striking fault zones and minor NNE-SSW-striking faults affect this stratigraphic succession. These characteristic narrow deforming areas ( 15 km) non-deforming areas suggesting localized zones of mechanical weakness, which can be confirmed by the frequent reactivation of single fault strands. Along the major fault zones, the basement and cover contain dominant inclined to sub-vertical NW-SE-striking fractures. These fractures indicate successive normal, dextral strike-slip and reverse senses of slip, evidencing events of NNE-SSW extension and contraction. Another system of mostly sub-vertical NNW-SSE- and NE-SW-striking conjugate strike-slip faults mainly developed within the cover implies NNE-SSW contraction and WNW-ESE extension. Earthquake focal mechanisms and in-situ stress measurements reveal a NW-SE trend for the modern SHmax. Nevertheless, fractures and fault-slip indicators are rare in the non-deforming areas, which characterizes Thuringia as a dual domain of (1) large unfractured areas and (2) narrow zones of high potential for technical applications. Our data therefore provide a basis for estimation of slip and dilation tendency of the contrasting fractures in the basement and cover under the present-day stress field, which must be taken into account for different subsurface technical

  4. Uranium deposits in the Beaverlodge area, northern Saskatchewan: their relationship to the Martin Group (Proterozoic) and the underlying basement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazimhaka, P.K.; Hendry, H.E.

    1989-01-01

    The rocks of the Martin Group crop out in an area 60 km by 50 km north of Lake Athabasca near Uranium City, northern Saskatchewan. This area has numerous uranium showings within a few kilometres of the unconformity below the Martin Group. Mineralization occurs in fault zones, in basement rocks and in sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the Martin Group. Martin Group sediments accumulated in alluvial fans, braided streams, and ephemeral lakes. The thickest sequence (8 km to 10 km) is preserved in the Beaverlodge area, near Uranium City. The style of sedimentation changed through time as the basin evolved from deposition of conglomeratic detritus along fault scarps to the accumulation of silt in ephemeral lakes. The uneven nature of the sub-Martin unconformity surface, the lithotype of the lowermost conglomerates and breccias (Beaverlodge Formation), and the shape of the basin fill indicate deposition in fault-controlled basins. The earliest economic uranium mineralization in the rocks of the Martin Group was epigenetic. The mineralization was coeval with that in basement rocks. Economic mineralization in basement rocks and in the lowermost formation of the Martin Group is close to the unconformity. Epigenetic uranium mineralization thus appears to have resulted from processes that were related, in time and space, to either the formation of the unconformity or the deposition of the Martin Group or both. (author). 29 refs, 5 figs

  5. A study of the influence of a gravel subslab layer on radon entry rate using two basement structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, A.L.; Sextro, R.G.; Fisk, W.J.; Garbesi, K.; Wooley, J.; Wollenberg, H.A.

    1993-01-01

    In buildings with elevated radon concentrations, the dominant transport mechanism of radon is advective flow of soil gas into the building substructure. However, the building-soil system is often complex, making detailed studies of the radon source term difficult. In order to examine radon entry into buildings, the authors have constructed two room-size, precisely-fabricated basement structures at a site with relatively homogeneous, moderately permeable soil. The basements are identical except that one lies directly on native soil whereas the other lies on a high permeability aggregate layer. The soil pressure field and radon entry rate have been measured for different basement pressures and environmental conditions. The subslab gravel layer greatly enhances the advective entry of radon into the structure; when the structures are depressurized, the radon entry rate into the structure with the subslab gravel layer is more than a factor of 3 times the radon entry rate into the other structure for the same depressurization. The gravel subslab layer also spreads the pressure field around the structure, extending the field of influence of the structure and the region from which it draws radon

  6. Structural elements and incremental strain history of the basement rocks of Um Had area, central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akawy, Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    The Um Had area, central Eastern Desert, Egypt shows a regional stretching in the NW-SE and a contraction in the NE-SW direction. Major NW-SE folds, small recumbent folds, and local thrusts and reverse faults were recognized. Complicated relation between folds and boudinage was identified. This stretching amount ranges from 1.282 to 1.309. Earlier coaxial and later non-coaxial strains were inferred. The change from axial to non-coaxial stress regime was gradual and the latter was associated with minor clockwise and anticlockwise rotation of structural elements. During the non-coaxial strain, strain fringes were formed as a consequence of the high circulation of fluids in low temperature and high pressure conditions. Superimposed strain fringes indicating right- and left-lateral senses of movement were recognized. At least three generations of fringes were recognized, implying three stages of non-coaxial stretching. Each generation has about 15 increments which show irregular strain gradient and intensity over the different increments. Eastwards, the strain increments became mature and westwards, the finite strain increases. The strongest finite strain was found in a narrow belt delimiting the basement rocks on the west and underlying the Phanerozoic sediments. Chocolate-tablet structure was recorded and indicates later multidirectional tension. Not all Nubia Sandstone exposures are overlying the basement rocks and some are separated by NW-SE normal faults. Major NW-SE normal faults are cutting basement rocks of different ages. (author)

  7. A study of the influence of a gravel subslab layer on radon entry rate using two basement structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, A.L.; Sextro, R.G.; Fisk, W.J.; Garbesi, K.; Wooley, J.; Wollenberg, H.A.

    1993-01-01

    In buildings with elevated radon concentrations, the dominant transport mechanism of radon is advective flow of soil gas into the building substructure. However, the building-soil system is often complex, making detailed studies of the radon source term difficult. In order-to examine radon entry into buildings, we have constructed two room-size, precisely-fabricated basement structures at a site with relatively homogeneous, moderately permeable soil. The basements are identical except that one lies directly on native soil whereas the other lies on a high permeability aggregate layer. The soil pressure field and radon entry rate have been measured for different basement pressures and environmental conditions. The subslab gravel layer greatly enhances the advective entry of radon into the structure; when the structures are depressurized, the radon entry rate into the structure with the subslab gravel layer is more than a factor of 3 times the radon entry rate into the other structure for the same depressurization. The gravel subslab layer also spreads the pressure field around the structure, extending the field of influence of the structure and the region from which it draws radon. (orig.). (7 refs., 3 figs.)

  8. Petrophysics Features of the Hydrocarbon Reservoirs in the Precambrian Crystalline Basement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikova, Irina

    2014-05-01

    A prerequisite for determining the distribution patterns of reservoir zones on the section of crystalline basement (CB) is the solution of a number of problems connected with the study of the nature and structure of empty spaces of reservoirs with crystalline basement (CB) and the impact of petrological, and tectonic factors and the intensity of the secondary transformation of rocks. We decided to choose the Novoelhovskaya well # 20009 as an object of our research because of the following factors. Firstly, the depth of the drilling of the Precambrian crystalline rocks was 4077 m ( advance heading - 5881 m) and it is a maximum for the Volga-Urals region. Secondly, petrographic cut of the well is made on core and waste water, and the latter was sampled regularly and studied macroscopically. Thirdly, a wide range of geophysical studies were performed for this well, which allowed to identify promising areas of collector with high probability. Fourth, along with geological and technical studies that were carried out continuously (including washing and bore hole redressing periods), the studies of the gaseous component of deep samples of clay wash were also carried out, which indirectly helped us estimate reservoir properties and fluid saturation permeable zones. As a result of comprehensive analysis of the stone material and the results of the geophysical studies we could confidently distinguish 5 with strata different composition and structure in the cut of the well. The dominating role in each of them is performed by rocks belonging to one of the structural-material complexes of Archean, and local variations in composition and properties are caused by later processes of granitization on different stages and high temperature diaphthoresis imposed on them. Total capacity of reservoir zones identified according to geophysical studies reached 1034.2 m, which corresponds to 25.8% of the total capacity of 5 rock masses. However, the distribution of reservoirs within the cut

  9. Rift architecture and evolution: The Sirt Basin, Libya: The influence of basement fabrics and oblique tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdunaser, K. M.; McCaffrey, K. J. W.

    2014-12-01

    The Cretaceous-Tertiary northwest-trending Sirt Basin system, Libya, is a rift/sag basin formed on Pan-African to Paleozoic-aged basement of North Africa. In this study, we investigate the rift-basin architecture and tectonic framework of the western Sirt Basin. Using remote sensed data, supported by borehole data from about 300 deep wells and surface geologic maps, we constructed geological cross sections and surface geology maps. Indication of the relative timing of structures and movement along faults has been determined where possible. Direction statistics for all the interpreted linear features acquired in the study area were calculated and given as a total distribution and then the totals are broken down by the major basin elements of the area. Hundreds of lineaments were recognized. Their lengths, range between a hundred meters up to hundreds of kilometers and the longest of the dominant trends are between N35W-N55W and between N55E-N65E which coincides with Sirt Basin structures. The produced rose diagrams reveal that the majority of the surface linear features in the region have four preferred orientations: N40-50W in the Zallah Trough, N45-55W in the Dur al Abd Trough, N35-55W in the Az Zahrah-Al Hufrah Platform, and in contrast in the Waddan Uplift a N55-65E trend. We recognize six lithostratigraphic sequences (phases) in the area's stratigraphic framework. A Pre-graben (Pre-rift) initiation stage involved the Pre-Cretaceous sediments formed before the main Sirt Basin subsidence. Then followed a Cretaceous to Eocene graben-fill stage that can divided into four structurally-active and structurally-inactive periods, and finally a terminal continental siliciclastics-rich package representing the post-rift stage of the development in post-Eocene time. In general five major fault systems dissect and divide the study area into geomorphological elevated blocks and depressions. Most of the oil fields present in the study area are associated with structural hinge

  10. Precambrian evolution of the Salalah Crystalline Basement from structural analysis and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Doukhi, Hanadi Abulateef

    The Salalah Crystalline Basement (SCB) is the largest Precambrian exposure in Oman located on the southern margin of the Arabian Plate at the Arabian Sea shore. This work used remote sensing, detailed structural analysis and the analysis of ten samples using 40Ar/39Ar age dating to establish the Precambrian evolution of the SCB by focusing on its central and southwestern parts. This work found that the SCB evolved through four deformational events that shaped its final architecture: (1) Folding and thrusting event that resulted in the emplacement of the Sadh complex atop the Juffa complex. This event resulted in the formation of possibly N-verging nappe structure; (2) Regional folding event around SE- and SW-plunging axes that deformed the regional fabric developed during the N-verging nappe structure and produced map-scale SE- and SW-plunging antiforms shaping the complexes into a semi-dome structure; (3) Strike-slip shearing event that produced a conjugate set of NE-trending sinistral and NW-trending dextral strike-slip shear zones; and (4) Localized SE-directed gravitational collapse manifested by top-to-the-southeast kinematic indicators. Deformation within the SCB might have ceased by 752.2+/-2.7 Ma as indicated by an age given by an undeformed granite. The thermochron of samples collected throughout the SCB complexes shows a single cooling event that occurred between about 800 and 760 Ma. This cooling event could be accomplished by crustal exhumation resulting in regional collapse following the prolonged period of the contractional deformation of the SCB. This makes the SCB a possible metamorphic core complex.

  11. Propagation characteristics of bedrock waves traveling from pre-Tertiary basement to engineering bedrock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, S.

    2007-11-01

    This study uses borehole array recordings to measure the propagation characteristics of bedrock waves traveling from pre-Tertiary basement (seismic bedrock) to engineering bedrock with an S-wave velocity of approximately 0.5-0.8 km/s. To avoid the destructive interference of surface-reflected down-going waves and incidence waves in seismic and engineering bedrock, borehole data recorded at sufficient depth levels are used in this study. This is the most important aspect of the fundamental basis of this study. The propagation characteristics, i.e., the transfer function, of bedrock motions for S-waves are well represented by a Butterworth-type low-pass filter model with a high corner frequency in excess of 15 Hz and a low decay rate of -3 power of frequency. The use of such a filter model is based on the concise representation of the transfer function from an engineering viewpoint. Simple one-dimensional ray theory with a plane wave approximation explains the characteristics of the model filter at low frequencies of less than approximately 5 Hz; however, one-dimensional ray theory with a plane wave approximation at high frequencies in excess of 5 Hz requires the unusual frequency characteristics of Q_S-1(f), which increases with increasing frequency, to explain the frequency characteristics of the model filter. These facts imply that the filter gain can be determined using the impedance ratio of seismic bedrock to engineering bedrock and the attenuation characteristics of the intervening media at low frequencies less than 5 Hz. However, the cutoff frequency and decay rate of the filter must be determined from observational data.

  12. Chemistry of reference waters of the crystalline basement of Northern Switzerland for safety assessment studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, F.J. Jr.; Scholtis, A.

    1993-08-01

    The chemistry of groundwater in formations being considered as host rocks for nuclear waste repositories must be known to assess the performance of those repositories, and as media for laboratory experiments. Two potential repository siting areas in the crystalline basement of northern Switzerland are being assessed. This report gives the chemistry of water in both areas for reference use in this assessment. The western area is in the region defined by the Kaisten, Leuggern, Boettstein, and Zurzach boreholes. The western reference water is based on samples from the Leuggern, Boettstein, and Zurzach boreholes. Kaisten water is of higher salinity (1.3 g/l). The concentration ranges of the reference water include Kaisten values, however. High quality samples and analyses, particularly from long term sampling at Zurzach and Leuggern, define the concentration ranges of many trace elements. The definition of this water assumes saturation with respect to calcite, baryte, fluorites, chalcedony, and kaolinite. The reference pe is based on the assumption that dissolved iron concentrations are controlled by the solubility of the mineral goethite, and is consistent with other redox indicators such as the measured Pt-electrode potential and the ratio of dissolved As(V) to As(III). The eastern area is characterized by the Siblingen boreholes. The eastern reference water is a Na-HCO 3 -SO 4 -(Cl) type with a total dissolved solids content of about 0.5 g/l. Only three samples taken during borehole drilling are available to define this water, so it can be specified in less detail and with less precision than the western water. Its definition assumes saturation with respect to calcite, baryte, and fluorites. The samples permit only a broad definition of its oxidation potential and content of redox-sensitive metals such as Fe, As, Mn, and U. Trace element data for the most part are lacking. (author) figs., tabs., 28 refs

  13. Modeling Groundwater Flow System of a Drainage Basin in the Basement Complex Environment of Southwestern Nigera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinwumiju, Akinola S.; Olorunfemi, Martins O.

    2018-05-01

    This study attempted to model the groundwater flow system of a drainage basin within the Basement Complex environment of Southwestern Nigeria. Four groundwater models were derived from Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) Data, remotely sensed data, geological information (hydrolineaments and lithology) and borehole data. Subsequently, two sub-surface (local and regional) flow systems were delineated in the study area. While the local flow system is controlled by surface topography, the regional flow system is controlled by the networks of intermediate and deep seated faults/fractures. The local flow system is characterized by convergence, divergence, inflow and outflow in places, while the regional flow system is dominated by NNE-SSW and W-E flow directions. Minor flow directions include NNW-SSE and E-W with possible linkages to the main flow-paths. The NNE-SSW regional flow system is a double open ended flow system with possible linkage to the Niger Trough. The W-E regional flow system is a single open ended system that originates within the study area (with possible linkage to the NNE-SSW regional flow system) and extends to Ikogosi in the adjoining drainage basin. Thus, the groundwater drainage basin of the study area is much larger and extensive than its surface drainage basin. The all year round flowing (perennial) rivers are linked to groundwater outcrops from faults/fractures and contact zones. Consequently, larger percentage of annual rainwater usually leaves the basin in form of runoff and base flow. Therefore, the basin is categorized as a donor basin but with suspected subsurface water input at its northeastern axis.

  14. Basement Structure and Styles of Active Tectonic Deformation in Central Interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, N.; Hanks, C.

    2017-12-01

    Central Interior Alaska is one of the most seismically active regions in North America, exhibiting a high concentration of intraplate earthquakes approximately 700 km away from the southern Alaska subduction zone. Based on increasing seismological evidence, intraplate seismicity in the region does not appear to be uniformly distributed, but concentrated in several discrete seismic zones, including the Nenana basin and the adjacent Tanana basin. Recent seismological and neotectonics data further suggests that these seismic zones operate within a field of predominantly pure shear driven primarily by north-south crustal shortening. Although the location and magnitude of the seismic activity in both basins are well defined by a network of seismic stations in the region, the tectonic controls on intraplate earthquakes and the heterogeneous nature of Alaska's continental interior remain poorly understood. We investigated the current crustal architecture and styles of tectonic deformation of the Nenana and Tanana basins using existing geological, geophysical and geochronological datasets. The results of our study demonstrate that the basements of the basins show strong crustal heterogeneity. The Tanana basin is a relatively shallow (up to 2 km) asymmetrical foreland basin with its southern, deeper side controlled by the northern foothills of the central Alaska Range. Northeast-trending strike-slip faults within the Tanana basin are interpreted as a zone of clockwise crustal block rotation. The Nenana basin has a fundamentally different geometry; it is a deep (up to 8 km), narrow transtensional pull-apart basin that is deforming along the left-lateral Minto Fault. This study identifies two distinct modes of tectonic deformation in central Interior Alaska at present, and provides a basis for modeling the interplay between intraplate stress fields and major structural features that potentially influence the generation of intraplate earthquakes in the region.

  15. Three-dimensional Monte Carlo calculations of the neutron and γ-ray fluences in the TFTR diagnostic basement and comparisons with measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liew, S.L.; Ku, L.P.; Kolibal, J.G.

    1985-10-01

    Realistic calculations of the neutron and γ-ray fluences in the TFTR diagnostic basement have been carried out with three-dimensional Monte Carlo models. Comparisons with measurements show that the results are well within the experimental uncertainties

  16. Effect of basement structure and salt tectonics on deformation styles along strike: An example from the Kuqa fold-thrust belt, West China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neng, Yuan; Xie, Huiwen; Yin, Hongwei; Li, Yong; Wang, Wei

    2018-04-01

    The Kuqa fold-thrust belt (KFTB) has a complex thrust-system geometry and comprises basement-involved thrusts, décollement thrusts, triangle zones, strike-slip faults, transpressional faults, and pop-up structures. These structures, combined with the effects of Paleogene salt tectonics and Paleozoic basement uplift form a complex structural zone trending E-W. Interpretation and comprehensive analysis of recent high-quality seismic data, field observations, boreholes, and gravity data covering the KFTB has been performed to understand the characteristics and mechanisms of the deformation styles along strike. Regional sections, fold-thrust system maps of the surface and the sub-salt layer, salt and basement structure distribution maps have been created, and a comprehensive analysis of thrust systems performed. The results indicate that the thrust-fold system in Paleogene salt range can be divided into five segments from east to west: the Kela-3, Keshen, Dabei, Bozi, and Awate segments. In the easternmost and westernmost parts of the Paleogene salt range, strike-slip faulting and basement-involved thrusting are the dominant deformation styles, as basement uplift and the limits of the Cenozoic evaporite deposit are the main controls on deformation. Salt-core detachment fold-thrust systems coincide with areas of salt tectonics, and pop-up, imbricate, and duplex structures are associated with the main thrust faults in the sub-salt layer. Distribution maps of thrust systems, basement structures, and salt tectonics show that Paleozoic basement uplift controlled the Paleozoic foreland basin morphology and the distribution of Cenozoic salt in the KFTB, and thus had a strong influence on the segmented structural deformation and evolution of the fold-thrust belt. Three types of transfer zone are identified, based on the characteristics of the salt layer and basement uplift, and the effects of these zones on the fault systems are evaluated. Basement uplift and the boundary of

  17. Coordination and variability in the elite female tennis serve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, David; Elliott, Bruce Clifford; Lay, Brendan; Reid, Machar

    2015-01-01

    Enhancing the understanding of coordination and variability in the tennis serve may be of interest to coaches as they work with players to improve performance. The current study examined coordinated joint rotations and variability in the lower limbs, trunk, serving arm and ball location in the elite female tennis serve. Pre-pubescent, pubescent and adult players performed maximal effort flat serves while a 22-camera 500 Hz motion analysis system captured three-dimensional body kinematics. Coordinated joint rotations in the lower limbs and trunk appeared most consistent at the time players left the ground, suggesting that they coordinate the proximal elements of the kinematic chain to ensure that they leave the ground at a consistent time, in a consistent posture. Variability in the two degrees of freedom at the elbow became significantly greater closer to impact in adults, possibly illustrating the mechanical adjustments (compensation) these players employed to manage the changing impact location from serve to serve. Despite the variable ball toss, the temporal composition of the serve was highly consistent and supports previous assertions that players use the location of the ball to regulate their movement. Future work should consider these associations in other populations, while coaches may use the current findings to improve female serve performance.

  18. The National Insurance Academy: Serving India's Insurance Professionals and Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sane, Bhagyashree

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses how a special library can meet the needs of a specific industry. The author focuses on India's National Insurance Academy (NIA) Library, which serves the insurance industry of India and some neighboring countries. It is where the author serves as the chief librarian.

  19. 75 FR 58283 - National Hispanic-Serving Institutions Week, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... National Hispanic-Serving Institutions Week, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A... compete and thrive. Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs) are key members of our higher education system... prosperous tomorrow for our Nation. NOW, THEREFORE, I, BARACK OBAMA, President of the United States of...

  20. 45 CFR 2554.21 - How are papers served?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How are papers served? 2554.21 Section 2554.21... SERVICE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Hearing Provisions § 2554.21 How are papers served... pleading and paper filed in the proceeding shall contain a caption setting forth the title of the action...

  1. Assessing the Implications of Allowing Transgender Personnel to Serve Openly

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Openly? There are 18 countries that allow transgender personnel to serve openly in their mili- taries: Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bolivia , Canada...clinical and cultural competence for the proper care of transgender patients. Surgical procedures quite similar to those used for gender transition...tries that allow transgender personnel to serve openly in their militaries: Austra- lia, Austria, Belgium, Bolivia , Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark

  2. 20 CFR 639.8 - How is the notice served?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How is the notice served? 639.8 Section 639.8 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR WORKER ADJUSTMENT AND RETRAINING NOTIFICATION § 639.8 How is the notice served? Any reasonable method of delivery to the parties...

  3. Portion and Serving Sizes of Commonly Consumed Foods, in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Portion sizes were determined from weight equivalents of each food type consumed, average portion sizes for each food type were determined using the statistical ... Serving sizes determined: a serving of the various foods as expressed in household measures include; 1.3 slices of bread, 13.5 tablespoons of Ewedu soup, ...

  4. Leader self-definition and leader self-serving behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rus, Diana; van Knippenberg, Daan; Wisse, Barbara

    The present research investigated the relationship between leader self-definition processes and leader self-serving behaviors. We hypothesized that self-definition as a leader interacts with social reference information (descriptive and injunctive) in predicting leader self-serving actions Six

  5. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T [Huntington Beach, CA; Sahimi, Muhammad [Altadena, CA; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak [Richmond, CA; Harale, Aadesh [Los Angeles, CA; Park, Byoung-Gi [Yeosu, KR; Liu, Paul K. T. [Lafayette Hill, PA

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  6. Premature rupture of membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000512.htm Premature rupture of membranes To use the sharing features on this page, ... water that surrounds your baby in the womb. Membranes or layers of tissue hold in this fluid. ...

  7. Oxygen transport membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel composite oxygen transport membrane as well as its preparation and uses thereof.......The present invention relates to a novel composite oxygen transport membrane as well as its preparation and uses thereof....

  8. Membrane with integrated spacer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balster, J.H.; Stamatialis, Dimitrios; Wessling, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Many membrane processes are severely influenced by concentration polarisation. Turbulence promoting spacers placed in between the membranes can reduce the diffusional resistance of concentration polarisation by inducing additional mixing. Electrodialysis (ED) used for desalination suffers from

  9. Single proteins that serve linked functions in intracellular and extracellular microenvironments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radisky, Derek C.; Stallings-Mann, Melody; Hirai, Yohei; Bissell, Mina J.

    2009-06-03

    Maintenance of organ homeostasis and control of appropriate response to environmental alterations requires intimate coordination of cellular function and tissue organization. An important component of this coordination may be provided by proteins that can serve distinct, but linked, functions on both sides of the plasma membrane. Here we present a novel hypothesis in which non-classical secretion can provide a mechanism through which single proteins can integrate complex tissue functions. Single genes can exert a complex, dynamic influence through a number of different processes that act to multiply the function of the gene product(s). Alternative splicing can create many different transcripts that encode proteins of diverse, even antagonistic, function from a single gene. Posttranslational modifications can alter the stability, activity, localization, and even basic function of proteins. A protein can exist in different subcellular localizations. More recently, it has become clear that single proteins can function both inside and outside the cell. These proteins often lack defined secretory signal sequences, and transit the plasma membrane by mechanisms separate from the classical ER/Golgi secretory process. When examples of such proteins are examined individually, the multifunctionality and lack of a signal sequence are puzzling - why should a protein with a well known function in one context function in such a distinct fashion in another? We propose that one reason for a single protein to perform intracellular and extracellular roles is to coordinate organization and maintenance of a global tissue function. Here, we describe in detail three specific examples of proteins that act in this fashion, outlining their specific functions in the extracellular space and in the intracellular space, and we discuss how these functions may be linked. We present epimorphin/syntaxin-2, which may coordinate morphogenesis of secretory organs (as epimorphin) with control of

  10. Gel layer formation on membranes in Membrane Bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Brink, P.F.H.

    2014-01-01

    The widespread application of membrane bioreactors (MBRs) for municipal wastewater treatment is hampered by membrane fouling. Fouling increases energy demand, reduces process performance and creates the need for more frequent (chemical) membrane cleaning or replacement. Membrane fouling in MBRs is

  11. Smart membranes for monitoring membrane based desalination processes

    KAUST Repository

    Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem; Karam, Ayman M.

    2017-01-01

    Various examples are related to smart membranes for monitoring membrane based process such as, e.g., membrane distillation processes. In one example, a membrane, includes a porous surface and a plurality of sensors (e.g., temperature, flow and

  12. Identification of Zones and Areal Extent of Weathered Crystalline Basement in the Archean-Lower Proterozoic Crust of the South Tatar Arch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.B. Amelchenko

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on the data of geophysical surveys and deep drilling the depth to the crystalline basement and its weathered upper layer at the eastern flank of the South Tartar Arch varies from 1650 to 2500 m. Against the ongoing depletion of hydrocarbon reserves in the Paleozoic reservoirs of the region the basement becomes a promising exploration target. However the study of its architecture, composition and areal extent is largely hindered by so far very limited coring in this interval. In previous research correlation of core data and wireline logs was used for petrophysical characterization and identification of zones in a vertical profile of the upper weathered layer of the basement in the deep parametric test wells 50 Novournyak and 2000 Tyimazy with most complete core recovery. These characterization criteria have been utilized for analysis of 750 deep wells drilled in Bashkortostan within the South Tatar Arch which is bounded in the south by the Serafimovsko-Baltaevskiy Graben. In 340 wells based on wireline and production logs the upper weathered layer of the basement revealed certain distinct features of vertical zonation. The analysis resulted in thickness maps for Zone B and combined thickness maps for Zones B + C where the weathered basement is characterized by two morphological types – linear-areal and linear-fractured. The findings support the initial assumption that the obtained petrophysical characteristics may be applied to identify the weathered crystalline basement in wells with no core.

  13. Lipophilic drug transfer between liposomal and biological membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahr, Alfred; van Hoogevest, Peter; Kuntsche, Judith

    2006-01-01

    This review presents the current knowledge on the interaction of lipophilic, poorly water soluble drugs with liposomal and biological membranes. The center of attention will be on drugs having the potential to dissolve in a lipid membrane without perturbing them too much. The degree of interaction...... is described as solubility of a drug in phospholipid membranes and the kinetics of transfer of a lipophilic drug between membranes. Finally, the consequences of these two factors on the design of lipid-based carriers for oral, as well as parenteral use, for lipophilic drugs and lead selection of oral...... lipophilic drugs is described. Since liposomes serve as model-membranes for natural membranes, the assessment of lipid solubility and transfer kinetics of lipophilic drug using liposome formulations may additionally have predictive value for bioavailability and biodistribution and the pharmacokinetics...

  14. Membranous glomerulonephritis in a child asymptomatic for hepatitis B virus. Concomitant seropositivity for HBsAG and anti-HBs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, H Z; Ainsworth, S K; DeBeukelaer, M; Brissie, R M; Hennigar, G R

    1981-04-01

    The presence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in association with immunoglobulins and complement components within the glomerular basement membranes of adults having chronic active hepatitis has been well documented. In addition, investigators in Poland have demonstrated HBsAg immune complexes in glomeruli of children who did not have clinical evidence of hepatitis. More recently, a single case of childhood membranous glomerulonephritis in an asymptomatic carrier of hepatitis B virus was cited by observers in Canada. Reported here is the deposition of HBsAg immune complexes in the glomerular basement membranes of a 13-year-old black boy who had membranous glomerulopathy but not clinical evidence of hepatitis. This may be the first reported case in the United States of HbsAg-associated membranous glomerulonephritis in a child asymptomatic for hepatitis B virus, and only the second such case in North America. However, unlike previous studies of childhood glomerulopathy in association with hepatitis B virus, this patient is seropositive for both HBsAg and anti-HBs (antibody for hepatitis B surface antigen). Similar "rare" serologic findings were found for the patient's eldest male sib.

  15. Model cell membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Günther-Pomorski, Thomas; Nylander, Tommy; Cardenas Gomez, Marite

    2014-01-01

    The high complexity of biological membranes has motivated the development and application of a wide range of model membrane systems to study biochemical and biophysical aspects of membranes in situ under well defined conditions. The aim is to provide fundamental understanding of processes control...

  16. Idiopathic epiretinal membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bu, Shao-Chong; Kuijer, Roelof; Li, Xiao-Rong; Hooymans, Johanna M M; Los, Leonoor I

    2014-01-01

    Background: Idiopathic epiretinal membrane (iERM) is a fibrocellular membrane that proliferates on the inner surface of the retina at the macular area. Membrane contraction is an important sight-threatening event and is due to fibrotic remodeling. Methods: Analysis of the current literature

  17. Meniscus Membranes For Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Robert C.; Jorgensen, Betty; Pesiri, David R.

    2005-09-20

    Gas separation membranes, especially meniscus-shaped membranes for gas separations are disclosed together with the use of such meniscus-shaped membranes for applications such as thermal gas valves, pre-concentration of a gas stream, and selective pre-screening of a gas stream. In addition, a rapid screening system for simultaneously screening polymer materials for effectiveness in gas separation is provided.

  18. Meniscus membranes for separations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Robert C [Irvine, CA; Jorgensen, Betty [Jemez Springs, NM; Pesiri, David R [Aliso Viejo, CA

    2004-01-27

    Gas separation membranes, especially meniscus-shaped membranes for gas separations are disclosed together with the use of such meniscus-shaped membranes for applications such as thermal gas valves, pre-concentration of a gas stream, and selective pre-screening of a gas stream. In addition, a rapid screening system for simultaneously screening polymer materials for effectiveness in gas separation is provided.

  19. Durability of PEM Fuel Cell Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xinyu; Reifsnider, Ken

    Durability is still a critical limiting factor for the commercialization of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells, a leading energy conversion technology for powering future hydrogen fueled automobiles, backup power systems (e.g., for base transceiver station of cellular networks), portable electronic devices, etc. Ionic conducting polymer (ionomer) electrolyte membranes are the critical enabling materials for the PEM fuel cells. They are also widely used as the central functional elements in hydrogen generation (e.g., electrolyzers), membrane cell for chlor-alkali production, etc. A perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) polymer with the trade name Nafion® developed by DuPont™ is the most widely used PEM in chlor-alkali cells and PEM fuel cells. Similar PFSA membranes have been developed by Dow Chemical, Asahi Glass, and lately Solvay Solexis. Frequently, such membranes serve the dual function of reactant separation and selective ionic conduction between two otherwise separate compartments. For some applications, the compromise of the "separation" function via the degradation and mechanical failure of the electrolyte membrane can be the life-limiting factor; this is particularly the case for PEM in hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells.

  20. Revisiting Seafloor-Spreading in the Red Sea: Basement Nature, Transforms and Ocean-Continent Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapponnier, P.; Dyment, J.; Zinger, M. A.; Franken, D.; Afifi, A. M.; Wyllie, A.; Ali, H. G.; Hanbal, I.

    2013-12-01

    A new marine geophysical survey on the Saudi Arabian side of the Red Sea confirms early inferences that ~ 2/3 of the eastern Red Sea is floored by oceanic crust. Most seismic profiles south of 24°N show a strongly reflective, landward-deepening volcanic basement up to ~ 100 km east of the axial ridge, beneath thick evaporitic deposits. This position of the Ocean-Continent Boundary (OCB) is consistent with gravity measurements. The low amplitudes and long wavelengths of magnetic anomalies older than Chrons 1-3 can be accounted for by low-pass filtering due to thick sediments. Seafloor-spreading throughout the Red Sea started around 15 Ma, as in the western Gulf of Aden. Its onset was coeval with the activation of the Aqaba/Levant transform and short-cutting of the Gulf of Suez. The main difference between the southern and northern Red Sea lies not in the nature of the crust but in the direction and modulus of the plate motion rate. The ~ 30° counterclockwise strike change and halving of the spreading rate (~ 16 to ~ 8 mm/yr) between the Hermil (17°N) and Suez triple junctions results in a shift from slow (≈ North Atlantic) to highly oblique, ultra-slow (≈ Southwest Indian) ridge type. The obliquity of spreading in the central and northern basins is taken up by transform discontinuities that stop ~ 40 km short of the coastline, at the OCB. Three large transform fault systems (Jeddah, Zabargad, El Akhawein) nucleated as continental transfer faults reactivating NNE-trending Proterozoic shear zones. The former two systems divide the Red Sea into three main basins. Between ~15 and ~5 Ma, for about 10 million years, thick evaporites were deposited directly on top of oceanic crust in deep water, as the depositional environment, modulated by climate, became restricted by the Suez and Afar/Bab-el-Mandeb volcano-tectonic 'flood-gates.' The presence of these thick deposits (up to ~ 8 km) suffices to account for the difference between the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden

  1. Detrital K-feldspar thermochronology of the Nanaimo Group: Characterization of Basement and Extraregional Basin Contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isava, V.; Grove, M.; Mahoney, J. B.; Kimbrough, D. L.

    2016-12-01

    The Late Cretaceous-Early Paleogene Nanaimo Group covers the contact between Triassic basement Wrangellia terrane and the Jurassic-Cretaceous Coast Plutonic Complex (CPC) in southern British Columbia. Prior detrital zircon U-Pb and Hf studies indicate a change in sediment source for the Nanaimo basin, from the primitive CPC in Santonian-Early Campanian time to an isotopically evolved continental extraregional source during the late Campanian/Maastrictian. Two notably different areas have been proposed as potential source regions: (1) the Idaho/Boulder batholith and Belt Supergroup, and (2) the Mojave/Salinia segment of structurally disrupted late Cretaceous southern California margin. Single crystal 40Ar/39Ar laser fusion of ca. 100-200 grains apiece from seven detrital K-feldspar samples from Santonian-Maastrichtian strata of the northern Nanaimo Group constrain the history of the sediments' source regions. The two oldest samples, from the K-feldspar poor Comox and Extension Fms., display a monotonic increasing distribution of cooling ages 80-125 Ma that reflects shallow erosion of the CPC. In contrast, Late Campanian strata of the Cedar District and De Courcy Fms. exhibit a more pronounced cluster of cooling ages 80-95 Ma as well as a greater proportion of Jurassic ages that represent progressively deeper erosion of the CPC. Evidence for an extraregional sediment source appears abruptly in the Geoffrey Fm. by 72 Ma, matching the time of local-to-extraregional shift indicated in detrital zircon U-Pb studies. Over 90% of the detrital K-feldspars from these arkosic sandstones yield cooling ages of 70-80 Ma, with sparse older ages associated with the CPC. Samples from the successively younger Spray and Gabriola Fms. also yield >90% K-feldspar ages younger than 80 Ma and exhibit age maxima of 68 Ma and 65 Ma, respectively. These results are distinct from detrital zircon U-Pb and K-feldspar 40Ar/39Ar ages of the southern Sierra Nevada, Mojave/Salina, and northern

  2. Active basement uplift as seen with cosmogenic lenses: the Sierra Pie de Palo case (Western Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siame, L. L.; Sébrier, M.; Costa, C. H.; Ahumada, E. A.; Bellier, O.

    2013-12-01

    The Andean foreland of western Argentina (28°S-33°S) corresponds to retroarc deformations associated with the ongoing flat subduction of the Nazca plate beneath the South American lithosphere, and associated with high levels of seismic activity and crustal active faulting. To improve earthquake source identification and characterization in the San Juan region, data from seismology, structural geology and quantitative geomorphology can be integrated and combined to provide a seismotectonic model. In this model, the Andean back-arc of western Argentina has to be regarded as an obliquely converging foreland where Plio-Quaternary deformations are partitioned between strike-slip and thrust motions that are localized on the E-verging, thin-skinned Argentine Precordillera, and the W-verging thick-skinned Sierras Pampeanas, respectively. In this domain, the Sierra Pie de Palo is a key structure playing a major role in the partitioning of the Plio-Quaternary deformations. Located in the westernmost Sierras Pampeanas, the Sierra Pie de Palo forms a NNE striking, 80 km-long and 35-40 km-wide, ellipsoid range that reaches elevation as high as 3162 m. This mountain range is an actively growing basement fold associated with a high level of seismic activity (e.g., the November 23, 1977, Caucete, Mw 7.4 earthquake). To evaluate the degree of tectonic activity around the Sierra Pie de Palo, we combined a detailed morphometric analysis of the topography together with in situ-produced cosmogenic 10Be concentrations measured in (1) bedrock outcrops corresponding to the exhumed erosional regional surface, (2) surface boulders abandoned on alluvial fans deformed by active faults, and (3) in fluvial sediments sampled at the outlets of selected watersheds that drains out from the Sierra Pie de Palo. All together, our results allows: (1) assessing quantitative constraints on the rate of tectonic and denudation processes that are responsible for the active growth and erosion of the Sierra

  3. Pan-African deformations in the basement of the Negele area, southern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yihunie, Tadesse

    2002-03-01

    Polydeformed and metamorphosed Neoproterozoic rocks of the East African Orogen in the Negele area constituted three lithostructurally distinct and thrust-bounded terranes. These are, from west to east, the Kenticha, Alghe and Bulbul terranes. The Kenticha and Bulbul terranes are metavolcano-sedimentary and ultramafic sequences, representing parts of the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS), which are welded to the central Alghe gneissic terrane of the Mozambique Belt affinity along N-S-trending sheared thrust contacts. Structural data suggest that the Negele basement had evolved through three phases of deformation. During D1 (folding) deformation, north-south upright and inclined folds with north-trending axes were developed. East and west-verging thrusts, right-lateral shearing along the north-oriented Kenticha and Bulbul thrust contacts and related structural elements were developed during D2 (thrusting) deformation. The pervasive D1 event is interpreted to have occurred at 620-610 Ma and the D2 event ended prior to 554 Ma. Right-lateral strike-slips along thrust contacts are interpreted to have been initiated during late D2. During D3, left-lateral strike-slip along the Wadera Shear Zone and respective strike-slip movements along conjugate set of shear zones were developed in the Alghe terrane, and are interpreted to have occurred later than 557 Ma. The structural data suggest that eastward thrusting of the Kenticha and westward tectonic transport of the Bulbul sequences over the Alghe gneissic terrane of the Mozambique Belt, during D2, were accompanied by right-lateral strike-slip displacements along thrust contacts. Right-lateral strike-slip movements along the Kenticha thrust contact, further suggest northward movement of the Kenticha sequence during the Pan-African orogeny in the Neoproterozoic. Left-lateral strike-slip along the orogen-parallel NNE-SSW Wadera Shear Zone and strike-slip movements along a conjugate set of shear zones completed final terrane

  4. Separation membrane development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M.W. [Savannah River Technology Center, Aiken, SC (United States)

    1998-08-01

    A ceramic membrane has been developed to separate hydrogen from other gases. The method used is a sol-gel process. A thin layer of dense ceramic material is coated on a coarse ceramic filter substrate. The pore size distribution in the thin layer is controlled by a densification of the coating materials by heat treatment. The membrane has been tested by permeation measurement of the hydrogen and other gases. Selectivity of the membrane has been achieved to separate hydrogen from carbon monoxide. The permeation rate of hydrogen through the ceramic membrane was about 20 times larger than Pd-Ag membrane.

  5. Geochemical, microtextural and petrological studies of the Samba prospect in the Zambian Copperbelt basement: a metamorphosed Palaeoproterozoic porphyry Cu deposit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Master, Sharad; Mirrander Ndhlovu, N.

    2015-04-01

    Ever since Wakefield (1978, IMM Trans., B87, 43-52) described a porphyry-type meta-morphosed Cu prospect, the ca 50 Mt, 0.5% Cu Samba deposit (12.717°S, 27.833°E), hosted by porphyry-associated quartz-sericite-biotite schists in northern Zambia, there has been controversy about its origin and significance. This is because it is situated in the basement to the world's largest stratabound sediment-hosted copper province, the Central African Copperbelt, which is hosted by rocks of the Neoproterozoic Katanga Supergroup. Mineralization in the pre-Katangan basement has long played a prominent role in ore genetic models, with some authors suggesting that basement Cu mineralization may have been recycled into the Katangan basin through erosion and redeposition, while others have suggested that the circulation of fluids through Cu-rich basement may have leached out the metals which are found concentrated in the Katangan orebodies. On the basis of ca 490-460 Ma Ar-Ar ages, Hitzman et al. (2012, Sillitoe Vol., SEG Spec. Publ., 16, 487-514) suggested that Samba represents late-stage impregnation of copper mineralization into the basement, and that it was one of the youngest copper deposits known in the Central African Copperbelt. If the Samba deposit really is that young, then it would have post-dated regional deformation and metamorphism (560-510 Ma), and it ought to be undeformed and unmetamorphosed. The Samba mineralization consists of chalcopyrite and bornite, occurring as disseminations, stringers and veinlets, found in a zone >1 km along strike, in steeply-dipping lenses up to 10m thick and >150m deep. Our new major and trace element XRF geochemical data (14 samples) show that the host rocks are mainly calc-alkaline metadacites. Cu is correlated with Ag (Cu/Ag ~10,000:1) with no Au or Mo. Our study focused on the microtextures and petrology of the Samba ores. We confirm that there is alteration of similar style to that accompanying classical porphyry Cu mineralization

  6. Microporous silica membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boffa, Vittorio; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2012-01-01

    Hydrothermal stability is a crucial factor for the application of microporous silica-based membranes in industrial processes. Indeed, it is well established that steam exposure may cause densification and defect formation in microporous silica membranes, which are detrimental to both membrane...... permeability and selectivity. Numerous previous studies show that microporous transition metal doped-silica membranes are hydrothermally more stable than pure silica membranes, but less permeable. Here we present a quantitative study on the impact of type and concentration of transition metal ions...... on the microporous structure, stability and permeability of amorphous silica-based membranes, providing information on how to design chemical compositions and synthetic paths for the fabrication of silica-based membranes with a well accessible and highly stabile microporous structure....

  7. Clustering on Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannes, Ludger; Pezeshkian, Weria; Ipsen, John H

    2018-01-01

    Clustering of extracellular ligands and proteins on the plasma membrane is required to perform specific cellular functions, such as signaling and endocytosis. Attractive forces that originate in perturbations of the membrane's physical properties contribute to this clustering, in addition to direct...... protein-protein interactions. However, these membrane-mediated forces have not all been equally considered, despite their importance. In this review, we describe how line tension, lipid depletion, and membrane curvature contribute to membrane-mediated clustering. Additional attractive forces that arise...... from protein-induced perturbation of a membrane's fluctuations are also described. This review aims to provide a survey of the current understanding of membrane-mediated clustering and how this supports precise biological functions....

  8. Biomimetic polymeric membranes for water treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habel, Joachim Erich Otto

    This project is about the interplay of the three major components of aquaporin based biomimetic polymeric membranes (ABPMs): Aquaporins (AQPs), amphiphilic block copolymers, serving as a vesicular matrix for the hydrophobic AQP exterior (proteopolymersomes) and a polymeric membrane as embedment....... The interplay of proteopolymersomes and polymeric mesh support (in this case polyethersulfone, PES) was examined via integration of proteopolymersomes in an active layer (AL) formed by interfacial polymerisation between a linker molecule in aqueous phase and another in organic phase on top of the PES....... The resulting thin-film composite (TFC) membrane was analyzed via cross-flow forward osmosis (FO), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), as well as in the non-supported form over FTIR and a specialized microfluidic visualization approach. Where no clear dierences...

  9. Adaptive transition rates in excitable membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimon Marom

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation of activity in excitable membranes occurs over a wide range of timescales. Standard computational approaches handle this wide temporal range in terms of multiple states and related reaction rates emanating from the complexity of ionic channels. The study described here takes a different (perhaps complementary approach, by interpreting ion channel kinetics in terms of population dynamics. I show that adaptation in excitable membranes is reducible to a simple Logistic-like equation in which the essential non-linearity is replaced by a feedback loop between the history of activation and an adaptive transition rate that is sensitive to a single dimension of the space of inactive states. This physiologically measurable dimension contributes to the stability of the system and serves as a powerful modulator of input-output relations that depends on the patterns of prior activity; an intrinsic scale free mechanism for cellular adaptation that emerges from the microscopic biophysical properties of ion channels of excitable membranes.

  10. How mainstream economics serves the rich, obscures reality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    12Economics of the 1%: How mainstream economics serves the rich, ... revealing analysis of economic inequality contrasts with the silence of mainstream ... been the coordinating editor of the Journal of Australian Political Economy for the last ...

  11. Environmental Finance Center Serving EPA's Region 8 States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Rural Water Association, headquartered in Duncan Oklahoma, has been selected through a competitive grants process to establish a regional Environmental Finance Center (EFC) serving EPA Region 8 states.

  12. Application of dynamic membranes in anaerobic membranes in anaerobic membrane bioreactor systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erşahin, M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) physically ensure biomass retention by the application of a membrane filtration process. With growing application experiences from aerobic membrane bioreactors (MBRs), the combination of membrane and anaerobic processes has received much attention and become

  13. 13 CFR 142.20 - How are papers served?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How are papers served? 142.20... ACT REGULATIONS Hearing Provisions § 142.20 How are papers served? Except for service of a complaint or a notice of hearing under §§ 142.11 and 142.14(b) respectively, service of papers must be made as...

  14. Economic importance and growth rate of broiler chickens served ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    weight gain were N307.13 and N87.50 /kg for the birds served 120 ml FPLE/litre of water compared to control (N208.17 and N96.52/kg), respectively. An average NP of N273.56 was made for the broiler chickens served 30-120 ml FPLE/l of water with reference to control (N208.17), which was a difference of N64.39 per bird.

  15. HIGH SERVE - service for nuclear technology. Buyers' guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The Deutsches Atomforum e.V. (German Atomic Forum) has organised a specialist conference with the title 'HIGH SERVE - service for nuclear technology' for October 1986. In parallel with the conference, an exhibition will make it possible for interested firms to present their service and product ranges. The experience gained in the preparation of this exhibition has been used to produce the 'HIGH SERVE - buyers guide'. The intention is to make the market more comprehensible. (orig./HP) [de

  16. Thick-skinned tectonics in a Late Cretaceous-Neogene intracontinental belt (High Atlas Mountains, Morocco): The flat-ramp fault control on basement shortening and cover folding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekkak, A.; Ouanaimi, H.; Michard, A.; Soulaimani, A.; Ettachfini, E. M.; Berrada, I.; El Arabi, H.; Lagnaoui, A.; Saddiqi, O.

    2018-04-01

    Most of the structural studies of the intracontinental High Atlas belt of Morocco have dealt with the central part of the belt, whose basement does not crop out. Here we study the Alpine deformation of the North Subatlas Zone, which is the part of the Western High Atlas (WHA) Paleozoic Massif that involves both Paleozoic basement units and remnants of their Mesozoic-Cenozoic cover formations. Our aim is to better constrain the geometry and kinematics of the basement faults during the Alpine shortening. Based on detail mapping, satellite imagery and field observations, we describe an array of sub-equatorial, transverse and oblique faults between the WHA Axial Zone and the Haouz Neogene basin. They define a mosaic of basement blocks pushed upon one another and upon the Haouz basement along the North Atlas Fault (NAF). The Axial Zone makes up the hanging-wall of the Adassil-Medinet Fault (AMF) south of this mosaic. The faults generally presents flat-ramp-flat geometry linked to the activation of multiple décollement levels, either within the basement where its foliation is subhorizontal or within favourable cover formations (Jurassic evaporites, Lower Cretaceous silty red beds, Upper Cretaceous evaporitic marls, Neogene basal argillites). The occurrence of the North Atlas detachment (NAD) allowed folded pop-up units to develop in front of the propagating NAF. Shortening began as early as the Campanian-Maastrichtian along the AMF. The direction of the maximum horizontal stress rotated from NNE-SSW to NNW-SSE from the Maastrichtian-Paleocene to the Neogene. The amount of shortening reaches 20% in the Azegour transect. This compares with the shortening amount published for the central-eastern High Atlas, suggesting that similar structures characterize the Paleozoic basement all along the belt. The WHA thick-skinned tectonics evokes that of the frontal Sevier belt and of the external Western Alps, although with a much minor pre-inversion burial.

  17. Risk of a large amount of high-radioactive contaminated water leaking into the reactor building basement of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebisawa, Toru; Sawai, Masako

    2013-01-01

    In November 2012 about one and half year after the accident at units 1, 2 and 3 of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station, some 405 m 3 /day cooling water was being injected into the melt damaged core and leaked as highly-radioactive contaminated water from damaged lower part of containment into the basement of turbine hall. To treat a large amount of contaminated water in the basement, waste processing plant to remove cesium was installed in June 2011 with desalination plant, which produced clean water for circulating coolant system of damaged nuclear fuel while the rest went to storage. Radioactivity of contaminated water in the basement accumulated at initial almost 80 days of the accident was evaluated about 20% for Cs-137 of core inventory of units 1, 2 and 3 and 2.3% for Sr-90 of core inventory of units 2 and 3. Sr-90 from unit 1 was not released into the basement and almost remained at suppression chamber. By November 2012, Cs-137 released into the basement was evaluated to total about 40% of core inventory and stored contaminated water amounted to about 360 kilotons, while Cs-137 released into the atmosphere was estimated about 3.6% of core inventory with its one third contributed for land contamination. Sr-90 released into the basement was estimated as 6.3% or 4.4% of core inventory based on Sr-90 measured activity of treated water in December or September 2011 with stored contaminated water of 300 kilotons. Cs-137 and Sr-90 contaminated water kept continuously releasing into the basement as long as melt damaged core existed and cooling water washed out Cs-137 and Sr-90 attached on containment walls. Safe store of released radioactivity was highly important and acquired important data was recommended to publish for check and review. (T. Tanaka)

  18. Relationship of Basal laminar deposit and membranous debris to the clinical presentation of early age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarks, Shirley; Cherepanoff, Svetlana; Killingsworth, Murray; Sarks, John

    2007-03-01

    To correlate basal laminar deposit (BLamD) and membranous debris, including basal linear deposit (BLinD), with the evolution of early age-related macular degeneration (AMD). A clinicopathologic collection of 132 eyes with a continuous layer of BLamD was reviewed. The thickness and type of BLamD and the sites of membranous debris deposition were correlated with the clinical progression of the disease. Two types of BLamD, termed early and late, were identified based on light microscopic appearance by using the picro-Mallory stain. The progressive accumulation of late type BLamD correlated well with increasing BLamD thickness, advancing RPE degeneration, poorer vision, increasing age, and clinically evident pigment changes. Membranous debris initially accumulated diffusely as BLinD, most eyes with BLinD and early BLamD remaining funduscopically normal. However, membranous debris also formed focal collections as basal mounds internal to the RPE basement membrane and as soft drusen external to the basement membrane. Eyes in which membranous debris remained confined to basal mounds belonged to older patients with poorer vision, whereas patients with soft drusen were younger and had better vision. The presence of BLinD and early BLamD define threshold AMD, which manifests clinically as a normal fundus. Although late BLamD correlates most closely with clinical pigment abnormalities, it is the quantity and sites of membranous debris accumulation that appear to determine whether the disease develops pigment changes only or follows the alternative pathway of soft drusen formation with its attendant greater risk of choroidal neovascularization (CNV).

  19. Probing lipid membrane electrostatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi

    The electrostatic properties of lipid bilayer membranes play a significant role in many biological processes. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is highly sensitive to membrane surface potential in electrolyte solutions. With fully characterized probe tips, AFM can perform quantitative electrostatic analysis of lipid membranes. Electrostatic interactions between Silicon nitride probes and supported zwitterionic dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) bilayer with a variable fraction of anionic dioleoylphosphatidylserine (DOPS) were measured by AFM. Classical Gouy-Chapman theory was used to model the membrane electrostatics. The nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann equation was numerically solved with finite element method to provide the potential distribution around the AFM tips. Theoretical tip-sample electrostatic interactions were calculated with the surface integral of both Maxwell and osmotic stress tensors on tip surface. The measured forces were interpreted with theoretical forces and the resulting surface charge densities of the membrane surfaces were in quantitative agreement with the Gouy-Chapman-Stern model of membrane charge regulation. It was demonstrated that the AFM can quantitatively detect membrane surface potential at a separation of several screening lengths, and that the AFM probe only perturbs the membrane surface potential by external field created by the internai membrane dipole moment. The analysis yields a dipole moment of 1.5 Debye per lipid with a dipole potential of +275 mV for supported DOPC membranes. This new ability to quantitatively measure the membrane dipole density in a noninvasive manner will be useful in identifying the biological effects of the dipole potential. Finally, heterogeneous model membranes were studied with fluid electric force microscopy (FEFM). Electrostatic mapping was demonstrated with 50 nm resolution. The capabilities of quantitative electrostatic measurement and lateral charge density mapping make AFM a unique and powerful

  20. Emulsification using microporous membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran T. Vladisavljević

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Membrane emulsification is a process of injecting a pure dispersed phase or pre-emulsion through a microporous membrane into the continuous phase. As a result of the immiscibility of the two phases, droplets of the dispersed phase are formed at the outlets of membrane pores. The droplets formed in the process are removed from the membrane surface by applying cross-flow or stirring of the continuous phase or using a dynamic (rotating or vibrating membrane. The most commonly used membrane for emulsification is the Shirasu Porous Glass (SPG membrane, fabricated through spinodal decomposition in a melt consisting of Japanese volcanic ash (Shirasu, boric acid and calcium carbonate. Microsieve membranes are increasingly popular as an alternative to highly tortuous glass and ceramic membranes. Microsieves are usually fabricated from nickel by photolithography and electroplating or they can be manufactured from silicon nitride via Reactive Ion Etching (RIE. An advantage of microsieves compared to the SPG membrane is in much higher transmembrane fluxes and higher tolerance to fouling by the emulsion ingredients due to the existence of short, straight through pores. Unlike conventional emulsification devices such as high-pressure valve homogenisers and rotor-stator devices, membrane emulsification devices permit a precise control over the mean pore size over a wide range and during the process insignificant amount of energy is dissipated as heat. The drop size is primarily determined by the pore size, but it depends also on other parameters, such as membrane wettability, emulsion formulation, shear stress on the membrane surface, transmembrane pressure, etc.

  1. The origin of Karaj dam basement sill marginal reversal by Soret fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghdour-Mashhour, Reza; Esmaeily, Dariush

    2010-05-01

    The Karaj dam basement sill (KDBS), located North West of Tehran, northern Iran, is one of the several E-W-trending plutons in the Albourz Mountains. The KDBS consists of a layered series between upper and lower chilled margins. The rocks of the chilled margins are gabbroic in composition and porphyritic, with euhedral to subhedral plagioclase and clinopyroxene megacrysts up to 5 mm long. The rocks become coarse-grained toward the center of the sill and show a gradual transition from porphyritic to equigranular texture. Field and petrographic observations reveal a reverse trend in marginal units crystallization from the eutectic point to the main magma composition; i.e., the olivine-bearing gabbro (porphyritic chilled margin), which has a eutectic composition, crystallized prior to the marginal gabbros, which have a cotectic or near-cotectic composition, as plagioclase laths in the gabbroic unit are embedded in large crystals of clinopyroxene and this phenomenon is believed to result from the cotectic crystallization of plagioclase and clinopyroxene. Four major mechanisms are proposed and discussed in order to find the exact mechanism responsible for marginal reversal formation as following: 1) Crystal settling is a gravity-dependent mechanism and phenocrysts must have settled to form a layer at the bottom of the sill, showing sharp upper boundary which is not observable in KDBS. Besides, the reverse fractionation of inwardly-dipping sequence of mentioned sill occurs in layers with primary dips up to 55°. Consequently capability of marginal reversals to develop along steeply inclined chamber margins, by this mechanism is implausible. 2) Multiple injections of successive magma pulses fails to explain the origin of marginal reversal since the transition along the entire length of marginal reversal is gradual also there is no compositional break or chilled contact between two mentioned units of KDBS margin (Olivine-gabbro and marginal gabbro). 3) The idea of

  2. Red blood cells serve as intravascular carriers of myeloperoxidase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adam, M.; Gajdová, Silvie; Kolářová, Hana; Kubala, Lukáš; Lau, D.; Geisler, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 74, SEP (2014), s. 353-363 ISSN 0022-2828 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GCP305/12/J038 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : Myeloperoxidase * Erythrocyte * Cell membranes Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.655, year: 2014

  3. Surface analogue outcrops of deep fractured basement reservoirs in extensional geological settings. Examples within active rift system (Uganda) and proximal passive margin (Morocco).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Bastien; Géraud, Yves; Diraison, Marc

    2014-05-01

    The important role of extensive brittle faults and related structures in the development of reservoirs has already been demonstrated, notably in initially low-porosity rocks such as basement rocks. Large varieties of deep-seated resources (e.g. water, hydrocarbons, geothermal energy) are recognized in fractured basement reservoirs. Brittle faults and fracture networks can develop sufficient volumes to allow storage and transfer of large amounts of fluids. Development of hydraulic model with dual-porosity implies the structural and petrophysical characterization of the basement. Drain porosity is located within the larger fault zones, which are the main fluid transfer channels. The storage porosity corresponds both to the matrix porosity and to the volume produced by the different fractures networks (e.g. tectonic, primary), which affect the whole reservoir rocks. Multi-scale genetic and geometric relationships between these deformation features support different orders of structural domains in a reservoir, from several tens of kilometers to few tens of meters. In subsurface, 3D seismic data in basement can be sufficient to characterize the largest first order of structural domains and bounding fault zones (thickness, main orientation, internal architecture, …). However, lower order structural blocks and fracture networks are harder to define. The only available data are 1D borehole electric imaging and are used to characterize the lowest order. Analog outcrop studies of basement rocks fill up this resolution gap and help the understanding of brittle deformation, definition of reservoir geometries and acquirement of reservoir properties. These geological outcrop studies give information about structural blocks of second and third order, getting close to the field scale. This allows to understand relationships between brittle structures geometry and factors controlling their development, such as the structural inheritance or the lithology (e.g. schistosity, primary

  4. Ion-conducting membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masel, Richard I.; Sajjad, Syed Dawar; Gao, Yan; Liu, Zengcai; Chen, Qingmei

    2017-12-26

    An anion-conducting polymeric membrane comprises a terpolymer of styrene, vinylbenzyl-R.sub.s and vinylbenzyl-R.sub.x. R.sub.s is a positively charged cyclic amine group. R.sub.x is at least one constituent selected from the group consisting Cl, OH and a reaction product between an OH or Cl and a species other than a simple amine or a cyclic amine. The total weight of the vinylbenzyl-R.sub.x groups is greater than 0.3% of the total weight of the membrane. In a preferred embodiment, the membrane is a Helper Membrane that increases the faradaic efficiency of an electrochemical cell into which the membrane is incorporated, and also allows product formation at lower voltages than in cells without the Helper Membrane.

  5. Gas separation with membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, G.; Michele, H.; Werner, U.

    1982-01-01

    Gas separation with membranes has already been tested in numerous fields of application, e.g. uranium enrichment of H 2 separation. In many of these processes the mass transfer units, so-called permeators, have to be connected in tandem in order to achieve high concentrations. A most economical operating method provides for each case an optimization of the cascades with regard to the membrane materials, construction and design of module. By utilization of the concentration gradient along the membrane a new process development has been accomplished - the continuously operating membrane rectification unit. Investment and operating costs can be reduced considerably for a number of separating processes by combining a membrane rectification unit with a conventional recycling cascade. However, the new procedure requires that the specifications for the module construction, flow design, and membrane properties be reconsidered. (orig.) [de

  6. Radio-iodination of plasma membranes of toad bladder epithelium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, H J; Edelman, I S [California Univ., San Francisco (USA). Cardiovascular Research Inst.; California Univ., San Francisco (USA). Dept. of Medicine; California Univ., San Francisco (USA). Dept. of Biochemistry and Biophysics)

    1979-01-01

    The present report describes high yield enzymatic radio-iodination of the apical and basal-lateral plasma membranes of toad bladder epithelium with /sup 125/I-Na, by a procedure that does not breach the functional integrity of the epithelium, as assessed by the basal and vasopressin-sensitive short-circuit current (SCC). Iodination of basal-lateral plasma membranes, at a yield comparable to that obtained with apical labelling, was attained after about 30 min of exposure of the intact bladder to the labelling solutions. Approximately 25% of the basal-lateral labeling was lost when the epithelial cells were harvested after collagenase treatment, implying that some iodination of the basement membrane had taken place. Less than 10% of iodination of the apical or basal-lateral surfaces was accounted for by lipid-labeling. Analysis of the labeled apical and basal-lateral species by enzymatic digestion and thin layer chromatography disclosed that virtually all the radioactivity was present as mono-iodotyrosine (MIT). (orig./AJ).

  7. Unintended pregnancies among women serving in the Israeli military.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottenstreich, Misgav; Loitner, Limor; Dar, Shir; Kedem, Ron; Smorgick, Noam; Vaknin, Zvi

    2017-07-01

    The objective was to identify the prevalence of and variables associated with unintended pregnancy among young, unmarried women serving in the Israeli military. We performed a retrospective cohort study of unmarried women drafted by the Israeli military between 2013 and 2015 at the age of 18 years. We used multivariable logistic regression to examine associations between unintended pregnancy and women's education, IQ, immigration status, country of origin, neighborhood socioeconomic status and history of psychiatric illness. Most women (n=127,262) did not become pregnant while serving in the Israeli military. Unintended pregnancy was reported by 2365, with an additional 6 women reporting pregnancy resulting from sexual assault and 5 an intended pregnancy. Annual rates of unintended pregnancy among young women serving in the Israeli military declined from 1.69% in 2013 to 1.56% in 2014 and 1.33% in 2015. In multivariable models, unintended pregnancy was more common among women soldiers who had not graduated from high school (adjusted relative risk [RR], 5.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.69-6.04) and those who were first-generation immigrants (adjusted RR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.90-2.35). Unintended pregnancy is rare among women serving into the Israeli military. Increasing contraceptive use among women who have not graduated from high school may further reduce rates of unintended pregnancy among women serving in the Israeli military. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of a Prolonged Tennis Match Play on Serve Biomechanics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Martin

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to quantify kinematic, kinetic and performance changes that occur in the serve throughout a prolonged tennis match play. Serves of eight male advanced tennis players were recorded with a motion capture system before, at mid-match, and after a 3-hour tennis match. Before and after each match, electromyographic data of 8 upper limb muscles obtained during isometric maximal voluntary contraction were compared to determine the presence of muscular fatigue. Vertical ground reaction forces, rating of perceived exertion, ball speed, and ball impact height were measured. Kinematic and upper limb kinetic variables were computed. The results show decrease in mean power frequency values for several upper limb muscles that is an indicator of local muscular fatigue. Decreases in serve ball speed, ball impact height, maximal angular velocities and an increase in rating of perceived exertion were also observed between the beginning and the end of the match. With fatigue, the majority of the upper limb joint kinetics decreases at the end of the match. No change in timing of maximal angular velocities was observed between the beginning and the end of the match. A prolonged tennis match play may induce fatigue in upper limb muscles, which decrease performance and cause changes in serve maximal angular velocities and joint kinetics. The consistency in timing of maximal angular velocities suggests that advanced tennis players are able to maintain the temporal pattern of their serve technique, in spite of the muscular fatigue development.

  9. The role of basement inheritance faults in the recent fracture system of the inner shelf around Alboran Island, Western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestro-González, A.; Bárcenas, P.; Vázquez, J. T.; Díaz-Del-Río, V.

    2008-02-01

    Fractures associated with volcanic rock outcrops on the inner shelf of Alboran Island, Western Mediterranean, were mapped on the basis of a side-scan sonar mosaic. Absolute maximum fracture orientation frequency is NW SE to NNW SSE, with several sub-maxima oriented NNE SSW, NE SW and ENE WSW. The origin of the main fracture systems in Neogene and Quaternary rocks of the Alboran Basin (south Spain) appears to be controlled by older structures, namely NE SW and WNW ESE to NW SE faults which cross-cut the basement. These faults, pre-Tortonian in origin, have been reactivated since the early Neogene in the form of strike-slip and extensional movements linked to the recent stress field in this area. Fracture analysis of volcanic outcrops on the inner continental shelf of Alboran Island suggests that the shelf has been deformed into a narrow shear zone limited by two NE SW-trending, sub-parallel high-angle faults, the main orientation and density of which have been influenced by previous WNW ESE to NW SE basement fractures.

  10. Successive hydrothermal events as indicated by oxygen isotope composition and petrography of greywacke basement rocks, Kawerau geothermal field, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Absar, A.; Blattner, P.

    1985-01-01

    Fifteen drillholes at the Kawerau geothermal field penetrated a sequence of Quaternary volcanic rocks overlying Mesozoic greywackes and argillites in the depth range of 650 to 1220 m below sea level. Maximum temperature in the basement is 250 to 303 deg. C. Twelve greywacke cores were modally analysed in order to determine their intensity of alteration, which in turn was compared with their oxygen isotope composition. It is concluded that Kawerau geothermal field has experienced at least three hydrothermal regimes. The earliest was characterised by fluids with low m CO 2 and δ 18 O, as indicated by the wairakite-prehnite mineral assemblage in greywacke depleted by 5 ppm. This regime was followed by a period of hydraulic fracturing the formation of a mineral assemblage with abundant calcite indicative of fluids with high dissolved CO 2 . Precipitation of minerals during these two early successive hydrothermal regimes resulted in sealing of fractures in the southern part of the field. These two mineral assemblages are indicated to have formed prior to faulting. The latest mineral assemblage comprising quartz-calcite-adularia-calc silicates on the other hand, is related to a series of NE trending faults which enabled geothermal fluids to move northeastward after circulation was precluded in the southern part. This suggests that future exploration for production from the greywacke basement should be in the north where mineralogy and δ 18 O composition of calcite indicate that much better permeability occurs

  11. Rb-Sr and K-Ar isotopic evidence for neoproterozoic (Pan-African) granulite metamorphism from the basement of Mumbai offshore basin, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathore, S.S.; Vijan, A.R.; Singh, M.P.; Misra, K.N.; Prabhu, B.N.

    2000-01-01

    Precambrian basement from well HBM-1 in the Heera oil field of Mumbai offshore basin has been dated by Rb-Sr and K-Ar methods. Five granulitic basement samples from three conventional drill cores have yielded Rb-Sr isochron age of 502±25 Ma with an initial Sr ratio of 0.70855±0.00013. This age has been interpreted as the time of granulite facies metamorphism of the basement rocks in the region. Two whole rock samples from the basement of this well have yielded mutually concordant K-Ar ages of 505±16 Ma and 507±17 Ma. The K-Ar ages are significantly similar to Rb-Sr age obtained from this well, suggesting complete isotopic reequilibration around 500 Ma ago. The time of secondary thermal heating around 500 Ma ago in the basement of Heera field coincides with the widespread neoproterozoic (Pan-African) thermo-tectonic event extending from the Arabian Peninsula and eastern Africa covering Madagascar, southern India. Sri Lanka and East Antarctica. This study widens the limit of the Pan-African zone, which hitherto was thought to be confined to the western part (presently southern part) of the Indian subcontinent, towards further east. (author)

  12. Provenance of Austroalpine basement metasediments: tightening up Early Palaeozoic connections between peri-Gondwanan domains of central Europe and Northern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegesmund, S.; Oriolo, S.; Heinrichs, T.; Basei, M. A. S.; Nolte, N.; Hüttenrauch, F.; Schulz, B.

    2018-03-01

    New U-Pb and Lu-Hf detrital zircon data together with whole-rock geochemical and Sm-Nd data were obtained for paragneisses of the Austroalpine basement south of the Tauern Window. Geochemically immature metasediments of the Northern-Defereggen-Petzeck (Ötztal-Bundschuh nappe system) and Defereggen (Drauzug-Gurktal nappe system) groups contain zircon age populations which indicate derivation mainly from Pan-African orogens. Younger, generally mature metasediments of the Gailtal Metamorphic Basement (Drauzug-Gurktal nappe system), Thurntaler Phyllite Group (Drauzug-Gurktal nappe system) and Val Visdende Formation (South Alpine Basement) were possibly derived from more distant sources. Their significantly larger abundances of pre-Pan-African zircons record a more advanced stage of downwearing of the Pan-African belts and erosion of older basement when the Austroalpine terrane was part of the Early Palaeozoic Northern Gondwana passive margin. Most zircon age spectra are dominated by Ediacaran sources, with lesser Cryogenian, Tonian and Stenian contributions and subordinate Paleoproterozoic and Neoarchean ages. These age patterns are similar to those recorded by Cambro-Ordovician sedimentary sequences in northeastern Africa between Libya and Jordan, and in some pre-Variscan basement inliers of Europe (e.g. Dinarides-Hellenides, Alboran microplate). Therefore, the most likely sources seem to be in the northeastern Saharan Metacraton and the Northern Arabian-Nubian Shield (Sinai), further supported by whole-rock Sm-Nd and zircon Lu-Hf data.

  13. Chelating polymeric membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor

    2015-01-22

    The present application offers a solution to the current problems associated with recovery and recycling of precious metals from scrap material, discard articles, and other items comprising one or more precious metals. The solution is premised on a microporous chelating polymeric membrane. Embodiments include, but are not limited to, microporous chelating polymeric membranes, device comprising the membranes, and methods of using and making the same.

  14. Structural Aspects of Bacterial Outer Membrane Protein Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calmettes, Charles; Judd, Andrew; Moraes, Trevor F

    2015-01-01

    The outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria is predominantly populated by β-Barrel proteins and lipid anchored proteins that serve a variety of biological functions. The proper folding and assembly of these proteins is essential for bacterial viability and often plays a critical role in virulence and pathogenesis. The β-barrel assembly machinery (Bam) complex is responsible for the proper assembly of β-barrels into the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, whereas the localization of lipoproteins (Lol) system is required for proper targeting of lipoproteins to the outer membrane.

  15. Gas separation membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, William J.

    1979-01-01

    A dry, fabric supported, polymeric gas separation membrane, such as cellulose acetate, is prepared by casting a solution of the polymer onto a shrinkable fabric preferably formed of synthetic polymers such as polyester or polyamide filaments before washing, stretching or calendering (so called griege goods). The supported membrane is then subjected to gelling, annealing, and drying by solvent exchange. During the processing steps, both the fabric support and the membrane shrink a preselected, controlled amount which prevents curling, wrinkling or cracking of the membrane in flat form or when spirally wound into a gas separation element.

  16. Anion exchange membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkade, John G; Wadhwa, Kuldeep; Kong, Xueqian; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus

    2013-05-07

    An anion exchange membrane and fuel cell incorporating the anion exchange membrane are detailed in which proazaphosphatrane and azaphosphatrane cations are covalently bonded to a sulfonated fluoropolymer support along with anionic counterions. A positive charge is dispersed in the aforementioned cations which are buried in the support to reduce the cation-anion interactions and increase the mobility of hydroxide ions, for example, across the membrane. The anion exchange membrane has the ability to operate at high temperatures and in highly alkaline environments with high conductivity and low resistance.

  17. Photoresponsive nanostructured membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Madhavan, Poornima

    2016-07-26

    The perspective of adding stimuli-response to isoporous membranes stimulates the development of separation devices with pores, which would open or close under control of environment chemical composition, temperature or exposure to light. Changes in pH and temperature have been previously investigated. In this work, we demonstrate for the first time the preparation of photoresponsive isoporous membranes, applying self-assembly non-solvent induced phase separation to a new light responsive block copolymer. First, we optimized the membrane formation by using poly(styrene-b-anthracene methyl methacrylate-b-methylmethacrylate) (PS-b-PAnMMA-b-PMMA) copolymer, identifying the most suitable solvent, copolymer block length, and other parameters. The obtained final triblock copolymer membrane morphologies were characterized using atomic force and electron microscopy. The microscopic analysis reveals that the PS-b-PAnMMA-b-PMMA copolymer can form both lamellar and ordered hexagonal nanoporous structures on the membrane top layer in appropriate solvent compositions. The nanostructured membrane emits fluorescence due to the presence of the anthracene mid-block. On irradiation of light the PS-b-PAnMMA-b-PMMA copolymer membranes has an additional stimuli response. The anthracene group undergoes conformational changes by forming [4 + 4] cycloadducts and this alters the membrane\\'s water flux and solute retention. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  18. The Accounting Profession: Serving the Public Interest or Capital Interest?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary A Kaidonis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available As an integral facet of society, the accounting profession has a role in the State and thecorporate sector, and is also expected to serve the public interest. The capacity for theAustralian accounting profession to serve the public interest is considered in the context oflegislation and the accounting standard setting process. Specific reference is made to theCLERP Act 1999 and ASIC Act 2001. It is argued that the combined effect of these Acts is tolegislate bias so that accounting standards privilege the specific needs of holders of capital,that is capital interest. The assumption that capital markets are surrogate for the publicinterest is contested. Accordingly, if the accounting profession follows national objectives tosupport capital markets, it may undermine its role in serving society.

  19. Steam reforming of heptane in a fluidized bed membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakib, Mohammad A.; Grace, John R.; Lim, C. Jim; Elnashaie, Said S. E. H.

    n-Heptane served as a model compound to study steam reforming of naphtha as an alternative feedstock to natural gas for production of pure hydrogen in a fluidized bed membrane reactor. Selective removal of hydrogen using Pd 77Ag 23 membrane panels shifted the equilibrium-limited reactions to greater conversion of the hydrocarbons and lower yields of methane, an intermediate product. Experiments were conducted with no membranes, with one membrane panel, and with six panels along the height of the reactor to understand the performance improvement due to hydrogen removal in a reactor where catalyst particles were fluidized. Results indicate that a fluidized bed membrane reactor (FBMR) can provide a compact reformer for pure hydrogen production from a liquid hydrocarbon feedstock at moderate temperatures (475-550 °C). Under the experimental conditions investigated, the maximum achieved yield of pure hydrogen was 14.7 moles of pure hydrogen per mole of heptane fed.

  20. Uncapacitated facility location problem with self-serving demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Monabbati

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In classical uncapacitated facility location problems (UFLP the goal is to satisfy requirements of some demand points by setting up some servers, among potential facility locations, such that the total cost including service costs and fixed costs are minimized. In this paper a generalization of UFLP is considered in which some demand points, called self-serving, could be served exclusively by a new server at that point. Numerical experiments show that near optimal solutions are achieved by the proposed method.

  1. Membrane topology of hedgehog acyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matevossian, Armine; Resh, Marilyn D

    2015-01-23

    Hedgehog acyltransferase (Hhat) is a multipass transmembrane enzyme that mediates the covalent attachment of the 16-carbon fatty acid palmitate to the N-terminal cysteine of Sonic Hedgehog (Shh). Palmitoylation of Shh by Hhat is critical for short and long range signaling. Knowledge of the topological organization of Hhat transmembrane helices would enhance our understanding of Hhat-mediated Shh palmitoylation. Bioinformatics analysis of transmembrane domains within human Hhat using 10 different algorithms resulted in highly consistent predictions in the C-terminal, but not in the N-terminal, region of Hhat. To empirically determine the topology of Hhat, we designed and exploited Hhat constructs containing either terminal or 12 different internal epitope tags. We used selective permeabilization coupled with immunofluorescence as well as a protease protection assay to demonstrate that Hhat contains 10 transmembrane domains and 2 re-entrant loops. The invariant His and highly conserved Asp residues within the membrane-bound O-acyltransferase (MBOAT) homology domain are segregated on opposite sides of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. The localization of His-379 on the lumenal membrane surface is consistent with a role for this invariant residue in catalysis. Analysis of the activity and stability of the Hhat constructs revealed that the C-terminal MBOAT domain is especially sensitive to manipulation. Moreover, there was remarkable similarity in the overall topological organization of Hhat and ghrelin O-acyltransferase, another MBOAT family member. Knowledge of the topological organization of Hhat could serve as an important tool for further design of selective Hhat inhibitors. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Opposite regulation of type II and III receptors for immunoglobulin G in mouse glomerular mesangial cells and in the induction of anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) nephritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radeke, HH; Janssen-Graalfs, [No Value; Sowa, EN; Chouchakova, N; Skokowa, J; Loscher, F; Schmidt, RE; Heeringa, P; Gessner, JE

    2002-01-01

    We examined the capacity of mouse glomerular mesangial cells (MC) to express and function through two different low affinity FcgammaRs, the activating FcgammaRIII and the inhibitory FcgammaRII. Immunohistochemistry identified FcgammaRII as the prominent FcgammaR in the kidney, and low levels of

  3. Membrane fusion and exocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, R; Südhof, T C

    1999-01-01

    Membrane fusion involves the merger of two phospholipid bilayers in an aqueous environment. In artificial lipid bilayers, fusion proceeds by means of defined transition states, including hourglass-shaped intermediates in which the proximal leaflets of the fusing membranes are merged whereas the distal leaflets are separate (fusion stalk), followed by the reversible opening of small aqueous fusion pores. Fusion of biological membranes requires the action of specific fusion proteins. Best understood are the viral fusion proteins that are responsible for merging the viral with the host cell membrane during infection. These proteins undergo spontaneous and dramatic conformational changes upon activation. In the case of the paradigmatic fusion proteins of the influenza virus and of the human immunodeficiency virus, an amphiphilic fusion peptide is inserted into the target membrane. The protein then reorients itself, thus forcing the fusing membranes together and inducing lipid mixing. Fusion of intracellular membranes in eukaryotic cells involves several protein families including SNAREs, Rab proteins, and Sec1/Munc-18 related proteins (SM-proteins). SNAREs form a novel superfamily of small and mostly membrane-anchored proteins that share a common motif of about 60 amino acids (SNARE motif). SNAREs reversibly assemble into tightly packed helical bundles, the core complexes. Assembly is thought to pull the fusing membranes closely together, thus inducing fusion. SM-proteins comprise a family of soluble proteins that bind to certain types of SNAREs and prevent the formation of core complexes. Rab proteins are GTPases that undergo highly regulated GTP-GDP cycles. In their GTP form, they interact with specific proteins, the effector proteins. Recent evidence suggests that Rab proteins function in the initial membrane contact connecting the fusing membranes but are not involved in the fusion reaction itself.

  4. HeatBar Final Report 2010, Basement Heat Generation and Heat Flow in the western Barents Sea - importance for hydrocarbon systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascal, Christophe; Balling, Niels; Barrere, Cecile; Davidsen, Boerre; Ebbing, Joerg; Elvebakk, Harald; Mesli, Melani; Roberts, David; Slagstad, Trond; Willemoes-Wissing, Bjoern

    2011-01-01

    The HeatBar project aimed to determine the relative proportion of heat originating in the basement of the western Barents Sea and, as such, followed the methodologies and scientific approach developed in the course of the 2005-2008 Kontiki Project. We proposed to shed new lights on the thermal state of the basins of the western Barents Sea by (1) determining the heat flow and the relative content in heat-producing elements of the basement onshore northern Norway, (2) building 3D structural models of the basement offshore based on extensive geophysical information and (3) building 3D thermal models of the basins offshore. The present report summarizes the work accomplished in the framework of the project since 2006.(Au)

  5. Application of Cauchy-type integrals in developing effective methods for depth-to-basement inversion of gravity and gravity gradiometry data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Hongzhu; Zhdanov, Michael

    2015-01-01

    to be discretized for the calculation of gravity field. This was especially significant in the modeling and inversion of gravity data for determining the depth to the basement. Another important result was developing a novel method of inversion of gravity data to recover the depth to basement, based on the 3D...... Cauchy-type integral representation. Our numerical studies determined that the new method is much faster than conventional volume discretization method to compute the gravity response. Our synthetic model studies also showed that the developed inversion algorithm based on Cauchy-type integral is capable......One of the most important applications of gravity surveys in regional geophysical studies is determining the depth to basement. Conventional methods of solving this problem are based on the spectrum and/or Euler deconvolution analysis of the gravity field and on parameterization of the earth...

  6. Rb/Sr and U/Pb isotopic ages in basement rocks of Mina Gonzalito and Arroyo Salado, Atlantic North-Patagonian Massif, Rio Negro, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varela, Ricardo; Sato, Ana M.; Cingolani, Carlos A.; Basei, Miguel A.S.; Siga, Oswaldo; Sato, Kei

    1998-01-01

    Isotopic ages from metamorphic and plutonic rocks of the Atlantic area of North Patagonian basement indicate that the main crustal tectonic events occurred during the late Proterozoic to early Paleozoic times. Rb/Sr and U/Pb data in the 550-470 Ma interval suggest an old tecto-thermal activity during the upper Brazilian Cycle (Rio Doce Orogeny). At regional scale, the comparable Neo proterozoic basement of Ventania and sedimentary for eland cover of Tandilia continues to the Northeast, in the Dom Feliciano Belt. A possible correlation of the North Patagonian basement with igneous-metamorphic relics of Central Argentina (Pampean Ranges of San Luis-Cordoba and at La Pampa province) is also indicated. (author)

  7. Caregivers' attitudes regarding portion size served to Head Start children

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to identify caregivers' attitudes regarding amounts and types of foods served to Head Start preschoolers using qualitative methods. Researchers conducted 8 focus groups (4 African American; 4 Hispanic) with 33 African American and 29 Hispanic Head Start caregivers. Mode...

  8. Serving online customers lessons for libraries from the business world

    CERN Document Server

    Barclay, Donald A

    2014-01-01

    To compete in the digital age, libraries must provide outstanding customer service to their virtual users. Serving Online Customers: Lessons for Libraries from the Business World is a practical guide to help libraries adopt and adapt the best practices of e-business for their own online operations.

  9. 32 CFR 516.13 - Assistance in serving process overseas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Assistance in serving process overseas. 516.13 Section 516.13 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL... to or accompanying U.S. Forces in Korea, contact Staff Judge Advocate, US Forces Korea (Seoul...

  10. UPPER EXTREMITY KINEMATICS OF FLAT SERVE IN TENNIS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brian McAllister

    kinematics on the ball velocity at the impact phase of a tennis flat serve. 15 elite male tennis players were recruited to participate in this study (mean age 18.4±3.3 .... For field calibration, a Direct Linear Transformation technique, developed by ...

  11. Labor Market Returns for Graduates of Hispanic-Serving Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Toby J.; Flores, Stella M.; Ryan, Christopher J., Jr.

    2018-01-01

    Latinos have become the largest minority group in American postsecondary education, a majority of whom attend two- or four-year Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs). However, little is known about labor market outcomes as result of attending these institutions. Using a unique student-level administrative database in Texas, and accounting for…

  12. Autonomy and Accountability in Schools Serving Disadvantaged Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Esther Dominique

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Increased school autonomy and accountability have been a common denominator of national reforms in otherwise heterogeneous governance systems in Europe and the USA. The paper argues that because schools serving disadvantaged communities (SSDCs) often have lower average performance, they are more often sanctioned or under closer scrutiny,…

  13. Competence in Serving Children: Credentials Protectionism and Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koocher, Gerald P.

    Professional competency in psychologists wishing to treat children and families is an area of considerable concern and disagreement. Three types of practitioners comprise the bulk of the problem: clinical psychologists, who lack specific child-oriented training; developmental psychologists, who wish to serve children but lack traditional clinical…

  14. Lodge Programs Serving Family Functions for People with Psychiatric Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onaga, Esther E.; McKinney, Kathleen G.; Pfaff, Judy

    2000-01-01

    Interviews were conducted with people affiliated with lodges, a community program for people with psychiatric disabilities, about their perceptions of promising practices. Responses validated the notion that the lodge serves many of the functions of a family. Provides excerpts from interviews to supplement this theme. Discusses implications for…

  15. Using Title XX to Serve Children and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twiname, John D.; And Others

    With the passage in early 1975 of the social service amendments to the Social Security Act, referred to as Title XX, a major new opportunity to serve children and youth has emerged. Seizing the opportunity will be largely dependent on the well-prepared presentation of a case for the needs of young people by dedicated advocates in every state.…

  16. 34 CFR 686.42 - Discharge of agreement to serve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discharge of agreement to serve. 686.42 Section 686.42 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TEACHER EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR COLLEGE AND HIGHER EDUCATION (TEACH...

  17. 34 CFR 686.12 - Agreement to serve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Agreement to serve. 686.12 Section 686.12 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TEACHER EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR COLLEGE AND HIGHER EDUCATION (TEACH) GRANT PROGRAM...

  18. Educators as Serving Leaders in the Classroom and on Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Counterintuitively, the more one develops as a leader, the less of a leader one becomes. What do great leaders do? Great leaders are ambitious first and foremost for the cause, the mission, the work--not themselves. Educators as "serving leaders" sense that every action they take, together with every decision that they make, either…

  19. 7 CFR 1230.53 - Nominee's agreement to serve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... any relationship with the Council or a State association or any organization that has a contract with the Board and thereafter disclose, at any time while serving on the Board, any relationship with any...

  20. 7 CFR 1150.134 - Nominee's agreement to serve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... agreement to: (a) Serve on the Board if appointed; (b) Disclose any relationship with any organization that operates a qualified State or regional program or has a contractual relationship with the Board; and (c...